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Sample records for maximum plutonium deposition

  1. Plutonium in uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, D.; Fabryka-Martin, J.; Aguilar, R.; Attrep, M. Jr.; Roensch, F.

    1992-01-01

    Plutonium-239 (t 1/2 , 24,100 yr) is one of the most persistent radioactive constituents of high-level wastes from nuclear fission power reactors. Effective containment of such a long-lived constituent will rely heavily upon its containment by the geologic environment of a repository. Uranium ore deposits offer a means to evaluate the geochemical properties of plutonium under natural conditions. In this paper, analyses of natural plutonium in several ores are compared to calculated plutonium production rates in order to evaluate the degree of retention of plutonium by the ore. The authors find that current methods for estimating production rates are neither sufficiently accurate nor precise to provide unambiguous measures of plutonium retention. However, alternative methods for evaluating plutonium mobility are being investigated, including its measurement in natural ground waters. Preliminary results are reported and establish the foundation for a comprehensive characterization of plutonium geochemistry in other natural environments

  2. Plutonium deposits in lung tissues of Filipinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.S.; Palad, L.J.H.; Ignacio, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    This initial report on the plutonium concentration in lungs of Filipino adults is based on four samples. The data obtained suggest that the average of concentration in lungs of Filipinos is similar to that observed in other countries. This could be attributed to fallout resulting from nuclear test explosions conducted by neighboring countries. The result of this study will be useful in initiating the establishment of plutonium burden of Filipinos. (ELC). 2 tabs

  3. Search for plutonium salt deposits in the plutonium extraction batteries of the Marcoule plant (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzigues, H.; Reneaud, J.M.

    1963-01-01

    This report describes a method and a special apparatus making it possible to detach the insoluble plutonium salt deposits in the extraction chain of an irradiated fuel treatment plant. The process chosen allows the detection, in the extraction batteries or in the highly active chemical engineering equipment, of plutonium quantities of a few grains. After four years operation it has been impossible to detect measurable quantities of plutonium in any part of the extraction chain. The results have been confirmed by visual examinations carried out with a specially constructed endoscope. (authors) [fr

  4. Recent trends of plutonium deposition observed in Japan: comparison with naturallithogenic radionuclides, thorium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, K.; Igarashi, Y.; Aoyama, M.

    2005-01-01

    Plutonium in monthly deposition samples from 2000 to end of 2003 collected to Tsukuba (the Meteorological Research Institute), Japan is reported, together with monthly thorium deposition. The annual deposition of 239,240 Pri during the past 18 years. ranged from 1.7 to 7.8 mBq m -2 y -1 shows no systematic inter-annual variation. However, a maximum annual 239,240 Pu deposition (7.8 mBq m -2 y -1 ) was observed in 2002. On the other hand, monthly 239,240 Pu depositions show a typical seasonal variation with a maximum in spring season (March to April), which corresponds to the seasonal cycle of generation of dust storms in the East Asian arid area. Thorium, which is a typical lithogenic radionuclide, reflects soil-derived particles in the atmospheric dust. The monthly Th deposition showed a typical seasonal trend with a maximum in spring and minimum in summer. The 230 Th/ 232 Th activity ratios in the deposition samples significantly differed from that in surface soils collected in Tsukuba area, which means that a significant part of thorium in deposition samples is not derived from suspension of local soil particles. The result reveals that the resent 239,240 Pu deposition observed in Japan are attributed to resuspension of deposited plutonium; resuspended plutonium originates from the East Asian continent desert and arid areas. These findings suggest that a significant amount of soil dust observed in Tsukuba is attributable to the long-range transport of continental dust from the East Asian arid areas. Plutonium in deposition samples as does thorium would become a proxy of the environmental change in the Asian continent.

  5. Disturbance of deposition and removal of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Satoshi

    1992-01-01

    The chelation therapy using DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) and a new drug, CBMIDA [catechol 3, 6-bis (methyleiminodiacetic acid)] showing more effectiveness on removal of plutonium and lower toxicity than DTPA, is available for occupational exposure but is difficult for public exposure, because there are many reluctant problems on their toxicities, administration routes and times, physical conditions of victims etc. We demonstrated that active amino acid calcium (AAACa), a natural product which mixed oyster shell electrolysate and amino acids of seaweeds, could remove plutonium from bone and liver in rats. The removing methods of radionuclides using the bioavailability of AAACa will be utilized for public exposures and resolve the reluctant problems accompanied with a chelation therapy for occupational exposure. (author)

  6. Bayesian maximum posterior probability method for interpreting plutonium urinalysis data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.; Inkret, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    A new internal dosimetry code for interpreting urinalysis data in terms of radionuclide intakes is described for the case of plutonium. The mathematical method is to maximise the Bayesian posterior probability using an entropy function as the prior probability distribution. A software package (MEMSYS) developed for image reconstruction is used. Some advantages of the new code are that it ensures positive calculated dose, it smooths out fluctuating data, and it provides an estimate of the propagated uncertainty in the calculated doses. (author)

  7. Preparation of drop deposited plutonium sources on porcelain support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, M.; Delle Site, A.; Deron, S.; Raab, W.; Swietly, H.

    1984-01-01

    Plutonium alpha spectrometry is of interest in safeguards verification, particular for the characterization of test materials for calorimetric assay of plutonium products and for the assay of spent fuel solutions by isotope dilution alpha spectrometry. Such measurements require 0.1-0.3% precision and accuracy in 238 Pu isotopic assay. The present paper reports experience with an alpha spectrometry procedure intended for routine measurements. Sources of excellent quality are prepared very simply and rapidly by drop deposition on porcelain supports. The method of preparation is described which readily produces sources with resolutions of 16 keV (fwhm). The effect of various measurement parameters, tail correction, 241 Am separation and in-growth, are presented. Results are compared with those of mass spectrometry. The relative bias between the 238 Pu/ 239 Pu isotopic ratio measured by the two techniques is of the order of +- 0.5%, with a standard deviation of 1.0%. The performance of alpha spectrometry is at present limited by the quality of the 241 Am separation. (orig.)

  8. Comparison of simulated to actual plutonium deposition at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.C.; Garrett, A.J.; Gay, D.D.; Murphy, C.E.; Pinder, J.E. III.

    1982-01-01

    Minute amounts of plutonium are released from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) separations facilities and deposited in the surrounding environs. Long-term deposition measurements show that contributions to offsite environmental plutonium by the SRP are negligible compared to fallout from weapons tests. The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) recently developed a deposition model and compared its predictions to the observed plutonium deposition pattern. The model reproduced the observed range of deposition rates when full and truncated lognormal distributions of particle sizes were used to represent the emissions. Model predictions of total deposition out to 30 km were low by about a factor of two relative to estimates based on integrations of the empirical deposition curves. More measurements are planned, which should reduce uncertainties about model assumptions and the observed deposition rates

  9. Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1989-03-01

    This report contains with regard to 'plutonium' statements on chemistry, occurrence and reactions in the environment, handling procedures in the nuclear fuel cycle, radiation protection methods, biokinetics, toxicology and medical treatment to make available reliable data for the public discussion on plutonium especially its use in nuclear power plants and its radiological assessment. (orig.) [de

  10. Deposition and retention of plutonium in the United States general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInroy, J.F.; Boyd, H.A.; Eutsler, B.C.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1959, a Los Alamos National Laboratory study has analyzed over 5000 tissues from 1100 individuals of the nonoccupationally exposed general population for fallout plutonium. These data have been useful in determining the tissue distributions and the annual baseline levels of environmental plutonium in the United States population. The effects of age, sex, date of death, cause of death and geographic location of resididence on the observed plutonium deposition have been evaluated. Because of the difference in biological turnover times of plutonium in the various organs of the body and the changing concentrations of plutonium in the atmosphere, the plutonium concentration ratios between tissues have changed as a function of time. However, our data indicate that over the past 10 years, the highest concentrations in the general population are found in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes and the liver and the lowest concentrations are in the spleen, gonads and kidney. The median body burdens of plutonium in the US population are estimated to have reached 12 pCi during the 1960's and have declined to about 2 pCi in 1977. Large errors in estimated skeletal burdens of plutonium may exist because of small specimen sample sizes and a lack of knowledge concerning the relative distribution of plutonium among the various bones of the human body

  11. Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Discovery of the neutron made it easy to create elements which do not exist in nature. One of these is plutonium, and its isotope with mass number 239 has nuclear properties which make it both a good fuel for nuclear power reactors and a good explosive for nuclear weapons. Since it was discovered during a war the latter characteristic was put to use, but it is now evident that use of plutonium in a particular kind of nuclear reactor, the fast breeder reactor, will allow the world's resources of uranium to last for millennia as a major source of energy. Plutonium is very radiotoxic, resembling radium in this respect. Therefore the widespread introduction of fast breeder reactors to meet energy demands can be contemplated only after assurances on two points; that adequate control of the radiological hazard resulting from the handling of very large amounts of plutonium can be guaranteed, and that diversion of plutonium to illicit use can be prevented. The problems exist to a lesser degree already, since all types of nuclear reactor produce some plutonium. Some plutonium has already been dispersed in the environment, the bulk of it from atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. (author)

  12. 50 CFR 259.34 - Minimum and maximum deposits; maximum time to deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... B objective. A time longer than 10 years, either by original scheduling or by subsequent extension... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND...) Minimum annual deposit. The minimum annual (based on each party's taxable year) deposit required by the...

  13. Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miner, William N

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet discusses plutonium from discovery to its production, separation, properties, fabrication, handling, and uses, including use as a reactor fuel and use in isotope power generators and neutron sources.

  14. Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Plutonium, which was obtained and identified for the first time in 1941 by chemist Glenn Seaborg - through neutron irradiation of uranium 238 - is closely related to the history of nuclear energy. From the very beginning, because of the high radiotoxicity of plutonium, a tremendous amount of research work has been devoted to the study of the biological effects and the consequences on the environment. It can be said that plutonium is presently one of the elements, whose nuclear and physico-chemical characteristics are the best known. The first part of this issue is a survey of the knowledge acquired on the subject, which emphasizes the sanitary effects and transfer into the environment. Then the properties of plutonium related to energy generation are dealt with. Fissionable, like uranium 235, plutonium has proved a high-performance nuclear fuel. Originally used in breeder reactors, it is now being more and more widely recycled in light water reactors, in MOX fuel. Reprocessing, recycling and manufacturing of these new types of fuel, bound of become more and more widespread, are now part of a self-consistent series of operations, whose technical, economical, industrial and strategical aspects are reviewed. (author)

  15. Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Christiansen, K.; Wollesen, M.

    1979-01-01

    As emotions and fear of plutonium are neither useful for the non-professionals nor for the political decision makers and the advantages and disadvantages of plutonium can only put against each other under difficulties, the paper wants to present the most essential scientific data of plutonium in a generally understandable way. Each of the individual sections is concluded and they try to give an answer to the most discussed questions. In order to make understanding easier, the scientific facts are only brought at points where it cannot be done without for the correctness of the presentation. Many details were left out knowingly. On the other hand, important details are dealt with several times if it seems necessary for making the presentation correct. The graphical presentations and the figures in many cases contain more than said in the text. They give the interested reader hints to scientific-technical coherences. The total material is to enable the reader to form his own opinion on plutonium problems which are being discussed in public. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Search for plutonium salt deposits in the plutonium extraction batteries of the Marcoule plant (1963); Recherche de depots de sels de plutonium dans les batteries d'extraction du plutonium de l'usine de Marcoule (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzigues, H; Reneaud, J M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    This report describes a method and a special apparatus making it possible to detach the insoluble plutonium salt deposits in the extraction chain of an irradiated fuel treatment plant. The process chosen allows the detection, in the extraction batteries or in the highly active chemical engineering equipment, of plutonium quantities of a few grains. After four years operation it has been impossible to detect measurable quantities of plutonium in any part of the extraction chain. The results have been confirmed by visual examinations carried out with a specially constructed endoscope. (authors) [French] Ce rapport decrit une methode et un montage special permettant de detacher les accumulations de sels de plutonium insolubles dans les chaines d'extraction d'une usine de traitement de combustible irradie. Le procede retenu permet de reperer, dans des batteries d'extraction ou dans l'appareillage de genie chimique fortement actif, des masses de plutonium de quelques grammes. Apres quatre annees de fonctionnement, il n'a pas ete possible de deceler des quantites ponderables de plutonium en aucun endroit de la chaine d'extraction. Ces resultats ont ete confirmes par les examens visuels effectues a l'aide d'un endoscope concu specialement pour cet usage. (auteurs)

  17. Considerations in the assessment of plutonium deposition in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.; Umbarger, J.; McInroy, J.; Healy, J.

    1975-01-01

    Data from human cases of plutonium inhalation are used to illustrate several important problems in the current methods of estimating plutonium body burdens. Individuals exposed to 238 PuO 2 particles in a highly insoluble matrix showed an unusually slow rising urinary excretion curve over 300 to 400 days. In vivo chest counts during the first 6 months estimated lung burdens to be 10 to 30 nCi, but urinary excretion methods calculate residual systematic body burdens of 50 to 100 nCi at 1200 days after exposure. Current assumptions used in the in vivo calibration do not consider possible lung distribution of particulates soon after exposure that could alter the interpretation significantly. Tissue analysis of a lung from another case after recent inhalation exposure shows a significantly lesser concentration of plutonium in the subpleural region--the principal region of plutonium measurement by in vivo chest counting--as compared to distributions found years after exposure. Tissue analyses indicate that urinary excretion estimates of body burden over the long term tend to err on the high side up to a factor of 5 or more. This procedure serves well for the purpose of protection of workers, but high estimates can lead to unnecessary job reassignments for the individual worker and can cause misleading conclusions when such data is used uncritically for reference in health effects studies. Additional research is needed to improve urinary excretion data analysis to reflect newer information derived from tissue data and to seek further understanding of the sources of variation in in vivo counting technology so it can be used with greater confidence

  18. Plutonium transport to and deposition and immobility in Irish Sea intertidal sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aston, S R; Stanners, D A [Lancaster Univ. (UK)

    1981-02-12

    The results are presented of an investigation of plutonium in intertidal sediments of the Irish Sea, contaminated with radioactive wastes from the Windscale reprocessing facility. The deposition characteristics and lack of vertical migration of /sup 238/Pu and /sup 239/ and /sup 240/Pu are discussed.

  19. Age difference in deposition of plutonium in organs of rats and the estimation of distribution in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Satoshi; Iida, Haruzo [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Differences in plutonium distribution in various organs, particularly the bones, of rats injected at different ages were examined in order to aid in estimating plutonium distribution in humans. Comparisons were made between rats and humans based on the bone histomorphometric and mineral density data. Male and female rats of three ages (3, 12, and 24 months old), respectively, received an injection of plutonium nitrate by two dose modalities; a fixed amount of plutonium without regard to age, sex, or body weight; per g of body weight. The rats were killed 2 weeks after the injection of plutonium. The amounts of plutonium deposited in the organs varied without regard to the body or organ weight; those in the skeleton increased from 3 to 12 months, reaching a peak at 12 months, but then decreased, along with the age-related changes in the bone surface, volume, and mineral density. Those in the liver, spleen and kidney decreased despite the body weight gain with age in both sexes. Age-related differences in the deposition of plutonium in humans were estimated based on the bone data characteristics obtained from the histomorphometry and bone mineral density for corresponding of ages between rats and humans. The results indicate that age is the most important factor in estimating the distribution of plutonium deposition in the early period after plutonium exposure, and that body or organ weight is not always a useful indicator, particularly in the aged. (author)

  20. PUDEQ: a computer code for calculating dose equivalent from internal deposition of plutonium at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.R.; Heid, K.R.

    1975-10-01

    Presented here are the procedures and mathematical models used in developing PUDEQ, a computer program for computing the dose equivalent to body organs from intake of Pu. The program was designed specifically to use the data recorded on the Hanford Internal Exposure (HIE) System magnetic tape as input. Insofar as was possible, the recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Dose from Plutonium and other Transuranics was followed. Some deviations were made where errors, omissions, or inconsistencies were found, after consultation with members of the Committee. In the current version of the program only Pu and its immediate important daughters are considered. The program could, however, be expanded to include other transuranic nuclides. At present, only a few depositions of transuranic nuclides other than plutonium are recorded out of about 450 individuals involved in a total of over 700 plutonium intakes

  1. Experimental studies to validate model calculations and maximum solubility limits for Plutonium and Americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This report focuses on studies of KIT-INE to derive a significantly improved description of the chemical behaviour of Americium and Plutonium in saline NaCl, MgCl 2 and CaCl 2 brine systems. The studies are based on new experimental data and aim at deriving reliable Am and Pu solubility limits for the investigated systems as well as deriving comprehensive thermodynamic model descriptions. Both aspects are of high relevance in the context of potential source term estimations for Americium and Plutonium in aqueous brine systems and related scenarios. Americium and Plutonium are long-lived alpha emitting radionuclides which due to their high radiotoxicity need to be accounted for in a reliable and traceable way. The hydrolysis of trivalent actinides and the effect of highly alkaline pH conditions on the solubility of trivalent actinides in calcium chloride rich brine solutions were investigated and a thermodynamic model derived. The solubility of Plutonium in saline brine systems was studied under reducing and non-reducing conditions and is described within a new thermodynamic model. The influence of dissolved carbonate on Americium and Plutonium solubility in MgCl 2 solutions was investigated and quantitative information on Am and Pu solubility limits in these systems derived. Thermodynamic constants and model parameter derived in this work are implemented in the Thermodynamic Reference Database THEREDA owned by BfS. According to the quality assurance approach in THEREDA, is was necessary to publish parts of this work in peer-reviewed scientific journals. The publications are focused on solubility experiments, spectroscopy of aquatic and solid species and thermodynamic data. (Neck et al., Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. 81, (2009), pp. 1555-1568., Altmaier et al., Radiochimica Acta, 97, (2009), pp. 187-192., Altmaier et al., Actinide Research Quarterly, No 2., (2011), pp. 29-32.).

  2. Transport and deposition of plutonium-contaminated sediments by fluvial processes, Los Alamos Canyon, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, W.L.

    1996-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1952 the development of nuclear weapons at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, resulted in the disposal of plutonium into the alluvium of nearby Acid and (to a lesser degree) DP Canyons. The purpose of this paper is to explore the connection between the disposal sites and the main river, a 20 km link formed by the fluvial system of Acid, Pueblo, DP, and Los Alamos Canyons. Empirical data from 15 yr of annual sediment sampling throughout the canyon system has produced 458 observations of plutonium concentration in fluvial sediments. These data show that, overall, mean plutonium concentrations in fluvial sediment decline from 10,000 fCi/g near the disposal area to 100 fCi/g at the confluence of the canyon system and the Rio Grande. Simulations using a computer model for water, sediment, and plutonium routing in the canyon system show that discharges as large as the 25 yr event would fail to develop enough transport capacity to completely remove the contaminated sediments from Pueblo Canyon. Lesser flows would move some materials to the Rio Grande by remobilization of stored sediments. The simulations also show that the deposits and their contaminants have a predictable geography because they occur where stream power is low, hydraulic resistance is high, and the geologic and/or geomorphic conditions provide enough space for storage. 38 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  3. Investigation of plutonium (4) hydroxoformates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andryushin, V.G.; Belov, V.A.; Galaktionov, S.V.; Kozhevnikov, P.B.; Matyukha, V.A.; Shmidt, V.S.

    1982-01-01

    Deposition processes of plutonium (4) hydroxoformates in the system Pu(NO 3 ) 4 -HNO 3 -HCoOH-N6 4 OH-H 2 O have been studied in pH range 0.2-10.7 at total plutonium concentration in the system 100 g/l. It is shown that under the conditions plutonium (4) hydrolysis takes place with the formation of hydroxoformates. A local maximum of plutonium (4) hydroxoformate solubility in the range pH=3.8-4.8, which is evidently conditioned by the formation of soluble formate complex of plutonium in the region, is pointed out. The basic plutonium (4) formates of the composition PuOsub(x)(OH)sub(y)(COOH)sub(4-2x-y)xnHsub(2)O, where 1,3 >=x >= 0.7, 1.7 >= y >= 1.0 and n=1.5-7.0, are singled out, their thermal stability being studied. Density of the crystals and plutonium dioxide, formed during their thermal decomposition, is measured. It is established that for plutonium (4) hydroxoformates common regularities of the influence of salt composition (OH - -, CHOO - - and H 2 O-group numbers in the mulecule) on position of temperature decomposition effects and on the density of compounds, which have been previously found during the study of thorium and plutonium hydroxosalts are observed. It is shown that the density of plutonium dioxide decreases with the increase of hydration and hydrolysis degree of the initial plutonium hydroxoformate

  4. Deposition of plutonium in the lung of a worker following an accidental inhalation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, H.B.; Robinson, B.

    The deposition of PuO 2 in the lungs of an occupationally exposed worker is characterized by assay for plutonium in excreta samples and from in vivo measurements of 241 Am in the thoracic region. Chelation therapy by intravenous injection of 1 gm Ca-DTPA was initially performed shortly after the incident and repeated using 0.5 gm of the chelate four additional times in subsequent days post intake. Analysis of the air sampler filter retrieved from the site of the exposure identified the isotopic composition and particle size of the plutonium material inhaled by the worker. Chelation with Ca-DTPA did not significantly reduce the magnitude of the lung or systemic deposition as determined from assay of plutonium in urine samples collected from the worker. In vivo measurements for 241 Am verify the retention of the inhaled material in the lung and also indicate the ingrowth of an amount of 241 Am as a daughter product of the 241 Pu initially inhaled

  5. Determination of the shape of a plutonium deposit from a leaking crucible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solbrig, C.W.; Clarksean, R.

    1993-01-01

    An analytical model was developed which predicts that the leak rate (or drip rate) of molten plutonium onto a substrate must be low in order for plutonium to solidify into a problematical hemispherical shape. The heat transfer to the substrate is the significant factor in how quickly the fuel solidifies. Analysis and experiment show that for a given substrate, the deposit center height is independent of the leakrate. A good conductor, such as copper on the bottom of a fuel casting furnace, will conduct heat away quickly and tend to cause the fuel to form into a hemisphere. A good insulator on the other hand, will keepthe metal molten to allow it to spreads out and solidify as a flat disk. Higher substrate temperatures inhibit the undesirable hemispherical shape. Experiments conducted were in good agreement with the an analytical model

  6. Experimental studies to validate model calculations and maximum solubility limits for Plutonium and Americium; Experimentelle Arbeiten zur Absicherung von Modellrechnungen und Maximalkonzentrationen fuer Plutonium und Americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-02-16

    This report focuses on studies of KIT-INE to derive a significantly improved description of the chemical behaviour of Americium and Plutonium in saline NaCl, MgCl{sub 2} and CaCl{sub 2} brine systems. The studies are based on new experimental data and aim at deriving reliable Am and Pu solubility limits for the investigated systems as well as deriving comprehensive thermodynamic model descriptions. Both aspects are of high relevance in the context of potential source term estimations for Americium and Plutonium in aqueous brine systems and related scenarios. Americium and Plutonium are long-lived alpha emitting radionuclides which due to their high radiotoxicity need to be accounted for in a reliable and traceable way. The hydrolysis of trivalent actinides and the effect of highly alkaline pH conditions on the solubility of trivalent actinides in calcium chloride rich brine solutions were investigated and a thermodynamic model derived. The solubility of Plutonium in saline brine systems was studied under reducing and non-reducing conditions and is described within a new thermodynamic model. The influence of dissolved carbonate on Americium and Plutonium solubility in MgCl{sub 2} solutions was investigated and quantitative information on Am and Pu solubility limits in these systems derived. Thermodynamic constants and model parameter derived in this work are implemented in the Thermodynamic Reference Database THEREDA owned by BfS. According to the quality assurance approach in THEREDA, is was necessary to publish parts of this work in peer-reviewed scientific journals. The publications are focused on solubility experiments, spectroscopy of aquatic and solid species and thermodynamic data. (Neck et al., Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. 81, (2009), pp. 1555-1568., Altmaier et al., Radiochimica Acta, 97, (2009), pp. 187-192., Altmaier et al., Actinide Research Quarterly, No 2., (2011), pp. 29-32.).

  7. Deposition of plutonium isotopes and Cs-137 in sediments of the Ob delta from the beginning of the nuclear age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panteleyev, G.P.; Livingston, H.D.; Sayles, F.L.; Medkova, O.N.

    1995-01-01

    As an approach to an assessment of the transport of artificial radionuclides through the Ob river system towards the arctic Ocean, results are presented from the analyses of a series of sediment cores collected in the Ob delta and estuary in 1994. These cores, collected in areas of sediment accumulation, contain the depositional history at the Ob mouth of substances associated with sediment particles from the whole river system watershed. Several approaches to dating these sediments permitted the development of a chronology for the deposition of plutonium isotopes and Cs-137, following their first introduction to the environment a half century ago. Some preliminary results for I-129 are also presented. 6 figs

  8. Simultaneous radiochemical determination of plutonium, strontium, uranium, and iron nuclides and application to atmospheric deposition and aerosol samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz)

    1990-11-01

    A procedure for the sequential radiochemical determination of plutonium, strontium, uranium and iron nuclides is described. The separation is carried out on a single anion exchange column. Pu(IV), U(VI) and Fe(III) are fixed on Bio Rad AG 1-X4 from 9 mol/l HCl, while the sample effluent is used for the determination of radiostrontium. Fe and U are eluted separately with 7 mol/l HNO{sub 3}, and Pu(III) is eluted with 1.2 mol/l HCl containing hydrogen peroxide. Subsequently, Pu and U are electrolysed and counted by alpha spectrometry. Radiostrontium is purified by the nitrate method and counted in a low level beta proportional counter. Fe is purified by extraction and cation exchange and {sup 55}Fe is counted by X-ray spectrometry with a Si(Li) detector. The sample preparation and the application of the procedure to large samples, namely aerosols from 10{sup 5} m{sup 3} of air, and monthly deposition samples from 0.6 m{sup 2} sampling area (10-100 l) are described. Chemical yields are for Pu 70 {plus minus} 20, for Sr 80 {plus minus} 15, for U 80-90, and for Fe 75 {plus minus} 10%. As an example, the maximum airborne radionuclide concentrations determined with that procedure in fortnightly collected samples at Neuherberg after the Chernobyl accident were: {sup 239+240}Pu, 2.58; {sup 238}Pu, 1.40; {sup 238}U, 0.65; {sup 234}U, 0.67; {sup 90}Sr, 7600; and {sup 55}Fe, 990 {mu}Bqm{sup -3}. With appropriate changes in sample preparation, the procedure is applicable to other kinds of samples. (orig.).

  9. Simultaneous radiochemical determination of plutonium, strontium, uranium, and iron nuclides and application to atmospheric deposition and aerosol samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1990-01-01

    A procedure for the sequential radiochemical determination of plutonium, strontium, uranium and iron nuclides is described. The separation is carried out on a single anion exchange column. Pu(IV), U(VI) and Fe(III) are fixed on Bio Rad AG 1-X4 from 9 mol/l HCl, while the sample effluent is used for the determination of radiostrontium. Fe and U are eluted separately with 7 mol/l HNO 3 , and Pu(III) is eluted with 1.2 mol/l HCl containing hydrogen peroxide. Subsequently, Pu and U are electrolysed and counted by alpha spectrometry. Radiostrontium is purified by the nitrate method and counted in a low level beta proportional counter. Fe is purified by extraction and cation exchange and 55 Fe is counted by X-ray spectrometry with a Si(Li) detector. The sample preparation and the application of the procedure to large samples, namely aerosols from 10 5 m 3 of air, and monthly deposition samples from 0.6 m 2 sampling area (10-100 l) are described. Chemical yields are for Pu 70 ± 20, for Sr 80 ± 15, for U 80-90, and for Fe 75 ± 10%. As an example, the maximum airborne radionuclide concentrations determined with that procedure in fortnightly collected samples at Neuherberg after the Chernobyl accident were: 239+240 Pu, 2.58; 238 Pu, 1.40; 238 U, 0.65; 234 U, 0.67; 90 Sr, 7600; and 55 Fe, 990 μBqm -3 . With appropriate changes in sample preparation, the procedure is applicable to other kinds of samples. (orig.)

  10. Test Plan to Determine the Maximum Surface Temperatures for a Plutonium Storage Cubicle with Horizontal 3013 Canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEARD, F.J.

    2000-01-01

    A simulated full-scale plutonium storage cubicle with 22 horizontally positioned and heated 3013 canisters is proposed to confirm the effectiveness of natural circulation. Temperature and airflow measurements will be made for different heat generation and cubicle door configurations. Comparisons will be made to computer based thermal Hydraulic models

  11. Stop plutonium; Stop plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This press document aims to inform the public on the hazards bound to the plutonium exploitation in France and especially the plutonium transport. The first part is a technical presentation of the plutonium and the MOX (Mixed Oxide Fuel). The second part presents the installation of the plutonium industry in France. The third part is devoted to the plutonium convoys safety. The highlight is done on the problem of the leak of ''secret'' of such transports. (A.L.B.)

  12. The use of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.

    1980-01-01

    The use of plutonium as a vital energy source producing maximum economic benefit with minimum proliferation risks is discussed. Having considered the production of plutonium, several possible plutonium fuel cycle options are identified and the economic value to be attached to plutonium for each examined. It is shown how the use of plutonium in fast reactors gives an opportunity for a non-proliferation policy not available when plutonium is used only in thermal reactors. From the technical considerations reviewed concerning plutonium and fast reactors it is shown that an economic regime involving international trade in spent thermal reactor fuel is possible which benefits equally those countries with fast reactors and those without and also assists in avoiding the proliferation of nuclear weapons. (U.K.)

  13. Atmospheric deposition, resuspension and root uptake of plutonium in corn and other grain-producing agroecosystems near a nuclear fuel facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinder, J.E. III; McLeod, K.W.; Adriano, D.C.; Corey, J.C.; Boni, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    Plutonium released to the environment may contribute to dose to humans through inhalation or ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. Plutonium contamination of agricultural plants may result from interception and retention of atmospheric deposition, resuspension of Pu-bearing soil particles to plant surfaces, and root uptake and translocation to grain. Plutonium on vegetation surfaces may be transferred to grain surfaces during mechanical harvesting. Data obtained from corn grown near the US Department of Energy's H-Area nuclear fuel chemical separations facility on the Savannah River Site was used to estimated parameters of a simple model of Pu transport in agroecosystems. The parameter estimates for corn were compared to those previously obtained for wheat and soybeans. Despite some differences in parameter estimates among crops, the relative importances of atmospheric deposition, resuspension and root uptake were similar among crops. For even small deposition rates, the relative importances of processes for Pu contamination of corn grain should be: transfer of atmospheric deposition from vegetation surfaces to grain surfaces during combining > resuspension of soil to grain surfaces > root uptake. Approximately 3.9 x 10 -5 of a year's atmospheric deposition is transferred to grain. Approximately 6.2 x 10 -9 of the Pu inventory in the soil is resuspended to corn grain, and a further 7.3 x 10 -10 of the soil inventory is absorbed by roots and translocated to grains

  14. Aerial deposition of plutonium in mixed forest stands from nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriano, D.C.; Pinder, J.E. III

    1977-01-01

    Concentrations of 238 Pu and 239 , 240 Pu were determined in bark, organic matter, and soil samples collected in the summer of 1975 from pine (Pinus taeda) and hardwood (Quercus falcata; Carya tormentosa) stands near a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at the U.S. Energy Res. and Dev. Admin.'s Savannah River Plant near Aiken, S.C. The results indicated that tree crowns intercepted fallout Pu (Pu-bearing particles) and produced higher Pu concentrations in the organic matter and soil under tree crowns. Higher 239 , 240 Pu concentrations were found under pines than under hardwoods. Plutonium concentrations in the O1 (litter, A 00 ) and O2 (organic matter, A 0 ) layers were higher than those in mineral soil, but most of the Pu was contained in the mineral soil. Higher contents of 239 , 240 Pu were observed near the tree stems than in locations outside of the tree crowns. In pines these values were 163 and 80 nCi 239 , 240 Pu/m 2 , and in hardwoods, 122 and 80 nCi 239 , 240 Pu/m 2 , for the respective locations, from the litter to the 15-cm depth. The proportion of 238 Pu contained in foliage, litter, and organic matter was greater than for 239 , 240 Pu. However, the latter radionuclides had a greater proportion contained in the mineral soil. This observation is consistent with the more recent releases containing a higher percentage of 238 Pu from reprocessing operation. Plutonium concentrations in the 5 to 15 cm depth indicated limited Pu mobility in soil, but 238 , 240 Pu concentrations at this depth were higher near tree stems, suggesting greater mobility perhaps as a result of stem flow

  15. Post-depositional reactivity of the plutonium in different sediment facies from the English channel - an experimental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouzy, A.; Boust, D.; Klein, A.

    2004-01-01

    The plutonium discharged into sea (in particular resulting from the activity of the reprocessing plants of nuclear fuels) presents a great affinity for the sedimentary particles. In the English Channel, the weakness of the plutonium concentrations met in the natural environment makes very difficult a direct study of the diagenetic phenomena which influences on the behavior of this radionuclide after its incorporation to the sedimentary column. On the scale of the all English Channel, the stock of plutonium immobilized in the sediments is significant (some TBq), this fact justifies the study of its becoming. With this intention, we constructed a set of experiments on series marine sediments with various sedimentological facies, which have been spiked with plutonium. After a one-month incubation period, various parameters describing the behavior of plutonium were given: (1) distribution of plutonium between the particulate phases and the pore waters; (2) quantification of plutonium associated with reactive sulphides; (3) distribution of plutonium between the particles and the seawater during a sediment resuspension episode. (author)

  16. Plutonium-236 traces determination in plutonium-238 by α spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acena, M.L.; Pottier, R.; Berger, R.

    1969-01-01

    Two methods are described in this report for the determination of plutonium-236 traces in plutonium-238 by a spectrometry using semi-conductor detectors. The first method involves a direct comparison of the areas under the peaks of the α spectra of plutonium-236 and plutonium-238. The electrolytic preparation of the sources is carried out after preliminary purification of the plutonium. The second method makes it possible to determine the 236 Pu/ 238 Pu ratio by comparing the areas of the α peaks of uranium-232 and uranium-234, which are the decay products of the two plutonium isotopes respectively. The uranium in the source, also deposited by electrolysis, is separated from a 1 mg amount of plutonium either by a T.L.A. extraction, or by the use of ion-exchange resins. The report ends with a discussion of the results obtained with plutonium of two different origins. (authors) [fr

  17. Plutonium isotopes in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.

    1977-12-01

    Determination of plutonium and americium by ion exchange and alpha-spectrometry. Deposition of global fall-out and accumulated area-content of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Pu, 242 Pu and 241 Am in central Sweden (62.3 deg N, 12.4 deg E), by using the lichen species Cladonia alpestris as bioindicator. Retention and distribution of plutonium in carpets of lichen and soil. Transfer of plutonium from lichen to reindeer and man. Absorbed dose in reindeer and man from plutonium. Basic studies of plutonium and americium in the western Mediterranean surface waters, with emphases on particulate form of the transuranics. (author)

  18. Inhalation toxicology of industrial plutonium and uranium oxide aerosols II. Deposition, retention and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, J.A.; Eidson, A.F.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Mo, T.

    1978-01-01

    A series of studies has been initiated in which powdered fuel materials obtained at industrial sites have been aerosolized in the dry state for the inhalation exposure of Fischer-344 rats, Beagle dogs and Cynomolgus monkeys to evaluate the potential biological hazard of such accidents. The materials chosen for study were 750 deg. C heat-treated mixed PuO 2 and UO 2 obtained from a ball milling process and 1750 deg. C heat-treated (U,Pu)O 1.97 powder obtained from the centerless grinding of fuel pellets. Care was taken to insure that the regenerated aerosols used in animal inhalation exposures had similar particle size and size distribution characteristics to those measured during glove box sampling at the industrial plant. The deposition, retention, distribution and excretion of these materials are being studied, using serial sacrifice of animals at times from 4 hours to several years after inhalation exposure. Periodic excreta samples are collected on all animals. Biological samples are analyzed to yield data on Pu, Am and U content. Data from animals sacrificed up to one year will be presented. The retention of 239 Pu and 241 Am in the lung and their subsequent clearance and translocation to other tissues such as liver, skeleton and tracheobronchial lymph nodes will be discussed in relation to the influence of species and of the physical chemical properties of the exposure aerosol. (author)

  19. Influence of initial lung deposit on pulmonary clearance after plutonium oxide inhalation in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Meeren, A.; Grillon, G.; Tourdes, F.; Rateau, S.; Le Gall, B.; Griffiths, N.

    2007-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages are a key element in the clearance of inhaled particles after phagocytosis, and thus participate actively in lung dose distribution and in the risk of tumour formation. We studied the influence of initial lung deposit (ILD) on lung clearance and distribution of activity from 3 d to 3 months after inhalation of two forms of PuO 2 (97% 239 Pu and 70% 239 Pu) in rats. ILDs ranging from 2.1 to 17 kBq were used. The total activity measured using X-ray spectrometry 3 months post-inhalation, relative to the ILD, showed a similar decrease in all groups, with the remaining activity representing ∼30% of the ILD. The total activity recovered in bronchoalveolar lavages represented ∼60% of the total lung activity. This ratio remained stable over time for the lowest ILD tested but decreased for higher ILD. In addition, the percentage of macrophages associated with particles decreased faster with time in rats with the highest ILD. Under our experimental conditions, there were no marked differences in lung clearance between groups. However, the distribution of the activity seems to vary with the time post-exposure between low and high ILD. (authors)

  20. Plutonium fires; Incendies de plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestre, E.

    1959-06-23

    The author reports an information survey on accidents which occurred when handling plutonium. He first addresses accidents reported in documents. He indicates the circumstances and consequences of these accidents (explosion in glove boxes, fires of plutonium chips, plutonium fire followed by filter destruction, explosion during plutonium chip dissolution followed by chip fire). He describes hazards associated with plutonium fires: atmosphere and surface contamination, criticality. The author gives some advices to avoid plutonium fires. These advices concern electric installations, the use of flammable solvents, general cautions associated with plutonium handling, venting and filtration. He finally describes how to fight plutonium fires, and measures to be taken after the fire (staff contamination control, atmosphere control)

  1. Stop plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    This press document aims to inform the public on the hazards bound to the plutonium exploitation in France and especially the plutonium transport. The first part is a technical presentation of the plutonium and the MOX (Mixed Oxide Fuel). The second part presents the installation of the plutonium industry in France. The third part is devoted to the plutonium convoys safety. The highlight is done on the problem of the leak of ''secret'' of such transports. (A.L.B.)

  2. Measurement of radiocaesium, radiostrontium, and plutonium in whole diets, following deposition of radioactivity in the UK originating from the Chernobyl power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondon, K.J.; Walters, B.

    1990-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination of whole diets as a result of the Chernobyl accident has been measured following the collection of individual diets from adults and children during 1 week in June 1986. The study was conducted in three different parts of the UK, to represent rural areas of both high and low deposition of Chernobyl fallout, and an urban area where the food supply was likely to be derived from a more diverse range of sources. The overall caesium-137 plus caesium-134 concentrations in the diets was less than 5 Bq kg-1 fresh weight, and ranged from less than 0.8 Bq kg-1 to 22 Bq kg-1, the highest levels being found in diets from the high deposition area. The isotopic ratios confirmed contamination to have been predominantly of Chernobyl origin. These levels of radiocaesium would have given rise to an average committed effective dose equivalent to age 70 of less than 0.4 microSv, with a range of less than 0.05 microSv to 1.9 microSv, from intakes in the study week. The opportunity was also taken to analyse the samples for weapons fallout contamination, that is, strontium-89/strontium-90 and plutonium-239/plutonium-240. No diet contained strontium above the reporting level of 0.2 Bq kg-1 but 18% of the diets contained plutonium above the limits of detection (0.1 mBq kg-1), the highest of these being 12 mBq kg-1, found in a diet from one of the low deposition areas

  3. Consideration of the effect of lymph-node deposition upon the measurement of plutonium and americium in the lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, R.B.; Lagerquist, C.R.

    1975-01-01

    Measurement of an inhaled radionuclide by external photon counting includes quantities which may be contained in lymph nodes, as well as quantities in the lungs. An overestimate of the lung burden can result, if a portion of the radionuclide were present in the lymph nodes. This problem is analyzed with respect to the measurement of inhaled plutonium containing plutonium-241 and americium-241, when americium-241 has been used as a tracer for the plutonium. Equations are derived which yield the amounts of americium and of plutonium in the lungs and in the lymph nodes as a function of time after exposure and for various translocation and retention parameters. Count histories (count profiles) of actual exposure cases are compared with calculated count profiles in order to gain insight into possible values of the translocation and retention parameters. Comparison is also made with calculated count profiles using values of translocation and retention parameters recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for use with the Task Group Lung Model. The magnitude of the possible overestimate (error factor) was calculated for combinations o []parameters which yielded matches to the observed count histories. (auth)

  4. Plutonium-aerosol emission rates and human pulmonary deposition calculations for Nuclear Site 201, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinn, J.H.; Homan, D.N.

    1982-01-01

    This study determined the plutonium-aerosol fluxes from the soil to quantify (1) the extent of potential human exposure by deep-lung retention of alpha-emitting particles; (2) the source term should there be any significant, long-term, transport of plutonium aerosols; and (3) the resuspension factor and rate so that, for the first time at any nuclear site, one may calculate how long it will take for wind erosion to carry away a significant amount of the contaminated soil. High-volume air samplers and cascade impactors were used to characterize the plutonium aerosols. Meteorological flux-profile methods were used to calculate dust and plutonium aerosol emission rates. A floorless wind tunnel (10-m long) was used to examine resuspension under steady-state, high wind speed. The resuspension factor was two orders of magnitude lower than the other comparable sites at NTS and elsewhere, and the average resuspension rate of 5.3 x 10 -8 /d was also very low, so that the half-time for resuspension by wind erosion was about 36,000 y

  5. Long-term behaviour of plutonium in air and deposition and the role of resuspension in a semi-rural environment in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R. [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany)

    1997-03-05

    Despite a long while since the last surface nuclear weapons test (China, 1980), and since the Chernobyl accident (1986), very small concentrations of plutonium in air and deposition are still observable. The present paper reports and discusses results from our sampling site at Munich-Neuherberg from 1970 to the end of 1991, emphasizing the period since 1985. The methods of sample collection, preparation and radiochemical plutonium analysis are indicated in brief. To obtain Pu values above the detection limit, after 1985 our regular monthly samples were combined to yearly ones, except during the Chernobyl period. The annual mean values of {sup 239+240}Pu air concentration (e.g. 6-2 nBq m{sup -3} between 1987 and 1991) and annual sums of total deposition (e.g. 9-2 mBq m{sup -2} between 1987 and 1991) are reported as well as the Pu specific activities in the top soil layers (0-1, 1-2, 2-5 cm) in 1987 and 1993. The temporal variation of these quantities and the role of resuspension in interpreting the presently observed Pu concentrations are discussed. A practically constant resuspension factor K, 1.20{+-}0.05{center_dot}10{sup -9} m{sup -1}, is obtained for {sup 239+240}Pu from 1989 through 1991, provided the decrease of Pu in the top 0-1 cm soil layer is taken into account.

  6. Long-term behaviour of plutonium in air and deposition and the role of resuspension in a semi-rural environment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1997-01-01

    Despite a long while since the last surface nuclear weapons test (China, 1980), and since the Chernobyl accident (1986), very small concentrations of plutonium in air and deposition are still observable. The present paper reports and discusses results from our sampling site at Munich-Neuherberg from 1970 to the end of 1991, emphasizing the period since 1985. The methods of sample collection, preparation and radiochemical plutonium analysis are indicated in brief. To obtain Pu values above the detection limit, after 1985 our regular monthly samples were combined to yearly ones, except during the Chernobyl period. The annual mean values of 239+240 Pu air concentration (e.g. 6-2 nBq m -3 between 1987 and 1991) and annual sums of total deposition (e.g. 9-2 mBq m -2 between 1987 and 1991) are reported as well as the Pu specific activities in the top soil layers (0-1, 1-2, 2-5 cm) in 1987 and 1993. The temporal variation of these quantities and the role of resuspension in interpreting the presently observed Pu concentrations are discussed. A practically constant resuspension factor K, 1.20±0.05·10 -9 m -1 , is obtained for 239+240 Pu from 1989 through 1991, provided the decrease of Pu in the top 0-1 cm soil layer is taken into account

  7. Plutonium controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated

  8. Plutonium controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated. (ACR)

  9. Using Biomolecules to Separate Plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolski, Jarrod

    Used nuclear fuel has traditionally been treated through chemical separations of the radionuclides for recycle or disposal. This research considers a biological approach to such separations based on a series of complex and interdependent interactions that occur naturally in the human body with plutonium. These biological interactions are mediated by the proteins serum transferrin and the transferrin receptor. Transferrin to plutonium in vivo and can deposit plutonium into cells after interacting with the transferrin receptor protein at the cell surface. Using cerium as a non-radioactive surrogate for plutonium, it was found that cerium(IV) required multiple synergistic anions to bind in the N-lobe of the bilobal transferrin protein, creating a conformation of the cerium-loaded protein that would be unable to interact with the transferrin receptor protein to achieve a separation. The behavior of cerium binding to transferrin has contributed to understanding how plutonium(IV)-transferrin interacts in vivo and in biological separations.

  10. Reasons why Plutonium 242 is the best fission chamber deposit to monitor the fast component of a high neutron flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filliatre, P.; Oriol, L.; Jammes, C.; Vermeeren, L.

    2008-01-01

    The FNDS project aims at developing fission chambers to measure on-line the fast component of a high neutron flux (∼10 14 ncm -2 s -1 or more) with a significant thermal component. We identify with simulations the deposits of fission chambers that are best suited to this goal. We address the question of the evolution of the deposit by radiative capture and decay. A deposit of 242 Pu appears as the best choice, with a high initial sensitivity to fast neutrons only slowly degrading under irradiation. The effect of unavoidable impurities was assessed: small concentrations of 241 Pu and 239 Pu can be tolerated

  11. Plutonium controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gofman, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    If the world chooses to seek a solution to the energy dilemma through nuclear energy, the element plutonium will become an article of commerce to be handled in quantities of thousands of tonnes annually. Plutonium is a uniquely potent inhalation carcinogen, the potential induction of lung cancer dwarfing other possible toxic effects. For reasons to be presented here, it is the author's opinion that plutonium's carcinogenicity has been very seriously underestimated. If one couples the corrected carcinogenicity with the probable degree of industrial containment of the plutonium, it appears that the commercialization of a plutonium-based energy economy is not an acceptable option for society. Sagan's statement that ''the experience of 30 years supports the contention that plutonium can be used safely'' is manifestly indefensible. No meaningful epidemiological study of plutonium-exposed workers for that 30-year period has ever been done. Since thousands of those possibly exposed have left the industry and are not even available to follow-up, it is doubtful that any meaningful study of ''the experience of 30 years'' will ever be accomplished

  12. Reasons why Plutonium 242 is the best fission chamber deposit to monitor the fast component of a high neutron flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filliatre, P. [CEA, DEN, SPEx/LDCI, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Laboratoire Commun d' Instrumentation CEA-SCK-CEN (France)], E-mail: philippe.filliatre@cea.fr; Oriol, L.; Jammes, C. [CEA, DEN, SPEx/LDCI, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Laboratoire Commun d' Instrumentation CEA-SCK-CEN (France); Vermeeren, L. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Laboratoire Commun d' Instrumentation CEA-SCK-CEN (France)

    2008-08-11

    The FNDS project aims at developing fission chambers to measure on-line the fast component of a high neutron flux ({approx}10{sup 14}ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1} or more) with a significant thermal component. We identify with simulations the deposits of fission chambers that are best suited to this goal. We address the question of the evolution of the deposit by radiative capture and decay. A deposit of {sup 242}Pu appears as the best choice, with a high initial sensitivity to fast neutrons only slowly degrading under irradiation. The effect of unavoidable impurities was assessed: small concentrations of {sup 241}Pu and {sup 239}Pu can be tolerated.

  13. Plutonium solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puigdomnech, I.; Bruno, J.

    1991-02-01

    Thermochemical data has been selected for plutonium oxide, hydroxide, carbonate and phosphate equilibria. Equilibrium constants have been evaluated in the temperature range 0 to 300 degrees C at a pressure of 1 bar to T≤100 degrees C and at the steam saturated pressure at higher temperatures. Measured solubilities of plutonium that are reported in the literature for laboratory experiments have been collected. Solubility data on oxides, hydroxides, carbonates and phosphates have been selected. No solubility data were found at temperatures higher than 60 degrees C. The literature solubility data have been compared with plutonium solubilities calculated with the EQ3/6 geochemical modelling programs, using the selected thermodynamic data for plutonium. (authors)

  14. Environmental consequences of postulate plutonium releases from Atomics International's Nuclear Materials Development Facility (NMDF), Santa Susana, California, as a result of severe natural phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, J.D.; Watson, E.C.

    1982-02-01

    Potential environmental consequences in terms of radiation dose to people are presented for postulated plutonium releases caused by severe natural phenomena at the Atomics International's Nuclear Materials Development Facility (NMDF), in the Santa Susana site, California. The severe natural phenomena considered are earthquakes, tornadoes, and high straight-line winds. Plutonium deposition values are given for significant locations around the site. All important potential exposure pathways are examined. The most likely 50-year committed dose equivalents are given for the maximum-exposed individual and the population within a 50-mile radius of the plant. The maximum plutonium deposition values likely to occur offsite are also given. The most likely calculated 50-year collective committed dose equivalents are all much lower than the collective dose equivalent expected from 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation and medical x-rays. The most likely maximum residual plutonium contamination estimated to be deposited offsite following the earthquake, and the 150-mph and 170-mph tornadoes are above the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) proposed guideline for plutonium in the general environment of 0.2 μCi/m 2 . The deposition values following the 110-mph and the 130-mph tornadoes are below the EPA proposed guideline

  15. Nondestructive assay of plutonium residue in horizontal storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.

    1985-01-01

    Aqueous plutonium recovery and purification processes often involve the temporary storage of plutonium solutions in holding tanks. Because plutonium is known to precipitate from aqueous solutions under certain conditions, there is a continuing need to assay emptied tanks for plutonium residue. A portable gamma spectrometer system, specifically designed for this purpose, provides rapid assay of such plutonium residues in horizontal storage tanks. A means is thus available for the nondestructive analysis of these tanks on a regular schedule to ensure that significant deposits of plutonium are not allowed to accumulate. 5 figs

  16. Erosional losses of fallout plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, G.R.; Hakonson, T.E.

    1987-01-01

    Plutonium from fallout after atmospheric explosion of nuclear weapons in the 1950's and 1960s is being redistributed over the landscape by soil erosion and carried on sediment by streams to oceans. Erosion rates computed with the Universal Soil Loss Equation for more than 200,000 sample points on nonfederal land across the US were used to estimate plutonium removal rates by soil erosion. On the average, only about 4% of the eroded sediment reaches the outlet of a major river. The remaining sediment is deposited en route, and because deposition is a selective process, the sediment is enriched in fine particles having the highest concentration of plutonium because of the element's strong association with clay and silt-sized sediment. Estimated enrichment ratios, sediment delivery ratios, and erosion rates were used to estimate annual delivery of fallout plutonium. These estimates ranged from 0.002% of the initial fallout plutonium inventory for the Savannah River basin to 0.01% for the Columbia River basin, to 0.02% for the Hudson and Rio Grande River basins, to 0.08% for the Mississippi River basin. If the deposition of plutonium had been uniformly 1 mCi/km 2 , the estimated plutonium activity on suspended sediment would range from about 7 fCi/g of sediment of the Savannah River basin, to 9 fCi/g for the Mississippi River basin, to 12 fCi/g for the Hudson River basin, to 14 fCi/g for the Columbia and Rio Grande River basins. 45 references, 2 figures, 17 tables

  17. CONVERSION OF PLUTONIUM TRIFLUORIDE TO PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, S.; Davidson, N.R.

    1957-09-10

    A large proportion of the trifluoride of plutonium can be converted, in the absence of hydrogen fluoride, to the tetrafiuoride of plutonium. This is done by heating plutonium trifluoride with oxygen at temperatures between 250 and 900 deg C. The trifiuoride of plutonium reacts with oxygen to form plutonium tetrafluoride and plutonium oxide, in a ratio of about 3 to 1. In the presence of moisture, plutonium tetrafluoride tends to hydrolyze at elevated temperatures and therefore it is desirable to have the process take place under anhydrous conditions.

  18. Plutonium (Pu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This pedagogical document presents the properties and uses of plutonium: where does it come from, the history of its discovery, its uses and energy content, its recycling and reuse in MOX fuels, its half-life, toxicity and presence in the environment. (J.S.)

  19. A 32-year medical follow-up of Manhattan project plutonium workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.; Hempelmann, L.H.; Lawrence, J.N.P.; Moss, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty-six male subjects who worked with plutonium during World War 2 under extraordinarily crude conditions have been followed medically for a period of 32 yr. Inhalation was the primary mode of plutonium exposure. Current estimates of the systematic plutonium depositions in these individuals range from 7 to 230 nCi. Eleven individuals have dispositions greater than 40 nCi, the current maximum permissible body burden for workers. Two individuals in the group have died: one due to myocardial infarction and the other due to injuries sustained in an automobile-pedestrian accident. This mortality rate is about 50% of expected deaths based on United States white male rates. All 24 living subjects were re-examined in the period of 1975-78. No cases of cancer were diagnosed in the group except for two skin cancers that have no history or basis that relate them to plutonium exposure. The diseases and physical changes noted in the group are characteristic of a male population in their 50s and 60s. This study yields no evidence suggesting that adverse health effects have resulted from the 32 yr of exposure to the internally deposited plutonium. (author)

  20. Experimental study of contamination by a mixture resulting from the combustion of sodium in the presence of plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metivier, H.; Masse, R.; Nenot, J.C.; Nolibe, D.; Lafuma, J.

    1976-01-01

    The introduction into industry of breeder reactors using liquid sodium as the coolant gives rise to fresh radiotoxicological problems; the most likely chemical form in which the plutonium and sodium mixture may be found after a possible accident is a soluble oxide of plutonium(VI) or plutonium(VII). The biological behaviour of such mixtures was analysed in rats and monkeys following parenteral administration. In the case of rats distribution in the organs was analysed from 30 minutes to 30 days following intramuscular contamination. In the monkeys the authors only analysed distribution in the organs after one month. The biological behaviour of the mixture is marked by very high plutonium solubility. The maximum burden in the organs attains roughly 20% of the quantity deposited both in monkeys and rats. The spread of the plutonium proceeds gradually from the day of administration; it indicates that a soluble form of plutonium is present for a long time. Also observed is an increasing osteotropic tendency in the diffusible form. The liver fraction is rapidly removed, if it is assumed that faecal excretion represents biliary excretion. In the experimental conditions selected, the spread of a liquid aerosol of the solution is rapid and constitutes about 10% of the quantity deposited in the airways at the end of inhalation. Treatment with DTPA makes it possible to reduce the body burden, but less efficiently than after contamination by Pu(IV). (author)

  1. Learning more about plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document offers chemical, metallurgical and economical information on the plutonium, a hard white radioelement. It deals also on the plutonium formation in the earth, the plutonium use in the nuclear industry, the plutonium in the environment and the plutonium toxicity. (A.L.B.)

  2. Plutonium in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium in nature comes from natural sources and anthropogenic ones. Plutonium at the earth surface comes principally from anthropogenic sources. It is easily detectable in environment. The plutonium behaviour in environment is complex. It seems necessary for the future to reduce releases in environment, to improve predictive models of plutonium behaviour in geosphere, to precise biological impact of anthropogenic plutonium releases

  3. Monitoring the risks of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holliday, B.

    1978-01-01

    The difficulties in monitoring the environment in work areas where plutonium is handled are identified and both continuous and personal air sampling techniques considered. Methods of estimating the amounts of plutonium retained in the body are: (1) Direct external counting over the chest of the 'soft' low energy X-rays and gamma rays emitted by the plutonium deposited in the lungs. (2) Measuring plutonium excreted in urine. (3) Analysing faeces soon after a suspected contamination. Limitation of these techniques are discussed and it is shown that estimating the amount of plutonium in the body, or a specific organ, is extremely difficult, both because of the lack of sensitivity of the measuring techniques (especially chest scanning) and because of the problems in interpreting data, stemming from a lack of knowledge of crucial characteristics of the inhaled plutonium (such as particle size and solubility). Nevertheless it is felt that the judicious integration of all the options creates a level of certainty that no individual technique can possibly inspire. (U.K.)

  4. The plutonium ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    'Nuclear Power Issues and Choices' is the title of a recent report which has been performed by a study group sponsored by the Ford Foundation and administered by the MITRE Corporation. The main concern of this study is to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Since the reprocessing of spent fuel elements yields among others plutonium of bomb quality, the report of the Ford Foundation comes to the conclusion that the USA should defer the closing of the fuel cycle, defer the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, deposit the spent fuel elemenets as a whole, and defer the breeder which can not run without fuel reprocessing. The German attitude however is that we can not relinquish on reprocessing and recycling of nuclear fuel because we are lacking such rich resources of coal, oil and uranium as the USA have. Furthermore, the deposition of spent fuel elements may be more dangerous than the deposition of the radioactive waste from reprocessing plants. (orig.) [de

  5. Plutonium uniqueness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    A standard is suggested against which the putative uniqueness of plutonium may be tested. It is common folklore that plutonium is unique among the chemical elements because its four common oxidation states can coexist in the same solution. Whether this putative uniqueness appears only during transit to equilibrium, or only at equilibrium, or all of the time, is not generally made clear. But while the folklore may contain some truth, it cannot be put to test until some measure of 'uniqueness' is agreed upon so that quantitative comparisons are possible. One way of measuring uniqueness is as the magnitude of the product of the mole fractions of the element at equilibrium. A 'coexistence index' is defined and discussed. (author)

  6. Plutonium story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1981-09-01

    The first nuclear synthesis and identification (i.e., the discovery) of the synthetic transuranium element plutonium (isotope 238 Pu) and the demonstration of its fissionability with slow neutrons (isotope 239 Pu) took place at the University of California, Berkeley, through the use of the 60-inch and 37-inch cyclotrons, in late 1940 and early 1941. This led to the development of industrial scale methods in secret work centered at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory and the application of these methods to industrial scale production, at manufacturing plants in Tennessee and Washington, during the World War II years 1942 to 1945. The chemical properties of plutonium, needed to devise the procedures for its industrial scale production, were studied by tracer and ultramicrochemical methods during this period on an extraordinarily urgent basis. This work, and subsequent investigations on a worldwide basis, have made the properties of plutonium very well known. Its well studied electronic structure and chemical properties give it a very interesting position in the actinide series of inner transition elements

  7. The distribution of plutonium-241 in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, N.D.

    1977-01-01

    Plutonium-241 citrate solution at pH 6.5 was injected intravenously or intraperitoneally into hamsters and rats at a dose of 50 MBq kg -1 (1.35 mCi kg -1 ). The animals were killed 1 day or 1 week later, and tissues were removed for autoradiography and radiochemical analysis. Plutonium-241 was distributed in rats in the same way as plutonium-239, and is a suitable isotope for high-resolution tissue-section autoradiography. Plutonium deposits in cells consisted of a nuclear and a cytoplasmic component. In the hamster kidney cells, the amount associated with the nucleus was about 55 per cent of the total cellular plutonium at 24 hours after injection. Six days later, it was only about 30 per cent. Plutonium deposits were also characterized in hepatocytes, in the interstitial cells of the testes, in the cells of ovarian follicles, in chondrocytes and in bone cells, including osteoblasts and osteocytes. In bone there appeared to be both an extracellular and intracellular deposit. No evidence was found of substantial incorporation of plutonium into the mineral phase of bone. (author)

  8. Plutonium use in foreign countries (03)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otagaki, Takao

    2004-03-01

    European countries and Japan had been implementing the strategy of spent fuel reprocessing in order to use nuclear material to the maximum. Plutonium recovered from reprocessing, however, must be recycle on light water reactors (LWRs) because of considerable delay of fast reactor development. In Europe, much of experiences of plutonium recycling have been accumulated until now. Thus, the status of plutonium recycling up to the end of 2003 in France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland and other countries were studied based on the following scope. (1) Basic policy and present status of plutonium recycling in primary countries of France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland, and Sweden which plans to recycle a part of plutonium: Backend policy and the status of spent fuel management were studied, then integrated analysis and evaluation of the position of plutonium recycling in backend and the status of plutonium recycling development were performed. (2) Plan and experience of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication and reprocessing of spent fuels: The data and information on plan and experience of MOX fuel fabrication and reprocessing in foreign countries were collected. (3) Plutonium inventories: The data and information of plutonium inventories of foreign countries were collected. (author)

  9. Plutonium use in foreign countries (01)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otagaki, Takao

    2002-03-01

    European countries and Japan had been implementing the strategy of spent fuel reprocessing in order to use nuclear material to the maximum. Plutonium recovered from reprocessing, however, must be recycle on light water reactors (LWRs) because of considerable delay of fast reactor development. In Europe, much of experience of plutonium recycling have been accumulated until now. Thus, the status of plutonium recycling up to the end of 2001 in France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland and other countries were studied based on the following scope. (1) Basic policy and present status of plutonium recycling in primary countries of France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland, and Sweden which recently appears the move of recycling a part of plutonium. Backend policy and the status of spent fuel management were studied, then integrated analysis and evaluation of the position of plutonium recycling in backend and the status of plutonium recycling development were performed. (2) Plan and experience of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication and reprocessing of spent fuels. The data and information on plan and experience of MOX fuel fabrication and reprocessing in foreign countries were collected. (3) Plutonium inventories. The data and information on plutonium inventories of foreign countries were collected. (author)

  10. Plutonium use in foreign countries (99)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otagaki, Takao

    2000-03-01

    European countries and Japan had been implementing the strategy of spent fuel reprocessing in order to use nuclear material to the maximum. Plutonium recovered from reprocessing, however, must be recycle on light water reactors (LWRs) because of considerable delay of fast reactor development. In Europe, much of experience of plutonium recycling have been accumulated until now. Thus, the status of plutonium recycling up to the end of 1999 in France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland and other countries were studied based on the following scope. (1) Basic policy and present status of plutonium recycling in primary countries of France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland, and Sweden which recently appears the move to recycling a part of plutonium backend policy and the status of spent fuel management were studied, then integrated analysis and evaluation of the position of plutonium recycling in backend and the status of plutonium recycling development were performed. (2) Plan and experience of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication and reprocessing of spent fuels. The data and information on plan and experience of MOX fuel fabrication and reprocessing in foreign countries were collected. (3) Plutonium inventories. The data and information on plutonium inventories of foreign counties were collected. (author)

  11. Plutonium use in foreign countries (02)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otagaki, Takao

    2003-02-01

    European countries and Japan had been implementing the strategy of spent fuel reprocessing in order to use nuclear material to the maximum. Plutonium recovered from reprocessing, however, must be recycle on light water reactors (LWRs) because of considerable delay of fast reactor development. In Europe, much of experience of plutonium recycling have been accumulated until now. Thus, the status of plutonium recycling up to the end of 2002 in France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland and other countries were studied based on the following scope. (1) Basic policy and present status of plutonium recycling in primary countries of France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland, and Sweden which recently appears the move of recycling a part of plutonium. Backend policy and the status of spent fuel management were studied, then integrated analysis and evaluation of the position of plutonium recycling in backend and the status of plutonium recycling development were performed. (2) Plan and experience of Mixed Oside (MOX) fuel fabrication and reprocessing of spent fuels. The data and information on plan and experience of MOX fuel fabrication and reprocessing in foreign countries were collected. (3) Plutonium inventories. The data and information on plutonium inventories of foreign countries were collected. (author)

  12. Plutonium use in foreign countries. (04)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otagaki, Takao

    2005-03-01

    European countries and Japan had been implementing the strategy of spent fuel reprocessing in order to use nuclear material to the maximum. Plutonium recovered from reprocessing, however, must be recycle on light water reactors (LWRs) because of considerable delay of fast reactor development. In Europe, much of experience of plutonium recycling have been accumulated until now. Thus, the status of plutonium recycling up to the end of 2004 in France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland and other countries were studied based on the following scope. (1) Basic policy and present status of plutonium recycling in primary countries of France, Germany, the U.K., Belgium, Switzerland, and Sweden which plans to recycle a limited amount of plutonium: Backend policy and the status of spent fuel management were studied, then integrated analysis and evaluation of the position of plutonium recycling in backend and the status of plutonium recycling development were performed. (2) Plan and experience of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication and reprocessing of spent fuels: The data and information on plan and experience of MOX fuel fabrication and reprocessing in foreign countries were collected. (3) Plutonium inventories: The data and information on plutonium inventories of foreign countries were collected. (author)

  13. Origin and depositional environment of fine-grained sediments since the last glacial maximum in the southeastern Yellow Sea: evidence from rare earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, In Kwon; Choi, Man Sik; Lee, Gwang Soo; Chang, Tae Soo

    2015-12-01

    Despite the well-reconstructed seismic stratigraphy of the Holocene mud deposit in the southeastern Yellow Sea, known as the Heuksan mud belt (HMB), the provenances of these sediments and their depositional environments are unclear, especially for the fine-grained sediments. According to seismic data (extracted from another article in this special issue), the HMB comprises several sedimentary units deposited since the last glacial maximum. Based on analytical results on rare earth elements, fine-grained sediments in all sedimentary units can be interpreted as mixtures of sediments discharged from Chinese and Korean rivers. The proportions of fine-grained sediments from Chinese rivers (74.5 to 80.0%) were constant and higher than those from Korean rivers in all units. This fact demonstrates that all units have the same fine-grained sediment provenance: units III-b and III-a, located in the middle and northern parts of the HMB and directly deposited from Chinese rivers during the sea-level lowstand, could be the sediment source for units II-b and II-a. Unit I, while ambiguous, is of mixed origin combining reworked sediments from nearby mud deposits and Changjiang River-borne material with those of the Keum River. The results of this study indicate that at least 18.6% of bulk sediments in the HMB clearly originate from Chinese rivers, despite its location close to the southwestern coast of Korea.

  14. Comparing modeled and observed changes in mineral dust transport and deposition to Antarctica between the Last Glacial Maximum and current climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albani, Samuel [University of Siena, Graduate School in Polar Sciences, Siena (Italy); University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Environmental Sciences, Milano (Italy); Cornell University, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Ithaca, NY (United States); Mahowald, Natalie M. [Cornell University, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Ithaca, NY (United States); Delmonte, Barbara; Maggi, Valter [University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Environmental Sciences, Milano (Italy); Winckler, Gisela [Columbia University, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States); Columbia University, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Mineral dust aerosols represent an active component of the Earth's climate system, by interacting with radiation directly, and by modifying clouds and biogeochemistry. Mineral dust from polar ice cores over the last million years can be used as paleoclimate proxy, and provide unique information about climate variability, as changes in dust deposition at the core sites can be due to changes in sources, transport and/or deposition locally. Here we present results from a study based on climate model simulations using the Community Climate System Model. The focus of this work is to analyze simulated differences in the dust concentration, size distribution and sources in current climate conditions and during the Last Glacial Maximum at specific ice core locations in Antarctica, and compare with available paleodata. Model results suggest that South America is the most important source for dust deposited in Antarctica in current climate, but Australia is also a major contributor and there is spatial variability in the relative importance of the major dust sources. During the Last Glacial Maximum the dominant source in the model was South America, because of the increased activity of glaciogenic dust sources in Southern Patagonia-Tierra del Fuego and the Southernmost Pampas regions, as well as an increase in transport efficiency southward. Dust emitted from the Southern Hemisphere dust source areas usually follow zonal patterns, but southward flow towards Antarctica is located in specific areas characterized by southward displacement of air masses. Observations and model results consistently suggest a spatially variable shift in dust particle sizes. This is due to a combination of relatively reduced en route wet removal favouring a generalized shift towards smaller particles, and on the other hand to an enhanced relative contribution of dry coarse particle deposition in the Last Glacial Maximum. (orig.)

  15. PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, W.L.; Moore, R.H.

    1961-01-17

    A process is given for producing plutonium metal by the reduction of plutonium chloride, dissolved in alkali metal chloride plus or minus aluminum chloride, with magnesium or a magnesium-aluminum alloy at between 700 and 800 deg C and separating the plutonium or plutonium-aluminum alloy formed from the salt.

  16. Measurement of the {sup 240}Pu concentration of a plutonium sample by the spontaneous fission method (1960); Mesure de la teneur d'un plutonium en {sup 240}Pu par la methode des fissions spontanees (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caizergues, R; Clouet d' Orval, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    It is very important to know the plutonium-240 content of the plutonium formed in piles. The method of measurement described here consists in counting the number of spontaneous fissions produced in a known quantity of plutonium. This measurement is carried out in a multiple-plate ionisation chamber, the plutonium being deposited on the plates. The disintegration constant of plutonium-240 by spontaneous fission being known the plutonium-240 content in the sample can be calculated. (author) [French] La connaissance de la teneur en plutonium-240 du plutonium forme dans les piles est une question importante. La methode de mesure presentee ici consiste a compter le nombre de fissions spontanees issues d'une quantite connue de plutonium. Cette mesure est effectuee dans une chambre d'ionisation a plateaux multiples sur lesquels est depose le plutonium. La connaissance de la constante de desintegration du plutonium-240 par fissions spontanees permet de calculer la teneur en plutonium-240. (auteur)

  17. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, A.G.; Smith, F.

    1959-08-25

    A method is described for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products by treating a nitrate solution of fission products, uranium, and hexavalent plutonium with a relatively water-insoluble fluoride to adsorb fission products on the fluoride, treating the residual solution with a reducing agent for plutonium to reduce its valence to four and less, treating the reduced plutonium solution with a relatively insoluble fluoride to adsorb the plutonium on the fluoride, removing the solution, and subsequently treating the fluoride with its adsorbed plutonium with a concentrated aqueous solution of at least one of a group consisting of aluminum nitrate, ferric nitrate, and manganous nitrate to remove the plutonium from the fluoride.

  18. Decontaminaion of metals containing plutonium and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.; Gerding, T.J.; Steindler, M.J.

    1979-06-01

    Melt-slagging (melt-refining) techniques were evaluated as a decontamination and consolidation step for metals contaminated with oxides of plutonium and americium. Experiments were performed in which mild steel, stainless steel, and nickel contaminated with oxides of plutonium and americium were melted in the presence of silicate slags of various compositions. The metal products were low in contamination, with the plutonium and americium strongly fractionated to the slags. Partition coefficients (plutonium in slag/plutonium in steel) of 7 x 10 6 were measured with boro-silicate slag and of 3 x 10 6 with calcium, magnesium silicate slag. Decontamination of metals containing as much as 14,000 ppM plutonium appears to be as efficient as for metals with plutonium levels of 400 ppM. Staged extraction, that is, a remelting of processed metal with clean slag, results in further decontamination of the metal. The second extraction is effective with either resistance-furnace melting or electric-arc melting. Slag adhering to the metal ingots and in defects within the ingots is in the important contributors to plutonium retained in processed metals. If these sources of plutonium are controlled, the melt-refining process can be used on a large scale to convert highly contaminated metals to homogeneous and compact forms with very low concentrations of plutonium and americium. A conceptual design of a melt-refining process to decontaminate plutonium- and americium-contaminated metals is described. The process includes single-stage refining of contaminated metals to produce a metal product which would have less than 10 nCi/g of TRU-element contamination. Two plant sizes were considered. The smaller conceptual plant processes 77 kg of metal per 8-h period and may be portable.The larger one processes 140 kg of metal per 8-h period, is stationary, and may be near te maximum size that is practical for a metal decontamination process

  19. Long time contamination from plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, M.; Patzeltova, N.; Ragan, P.; Matel, L.

    1995-01-01

    Plutonium isotopes in the organism of the patient (who had participated in the liquidation works after the Chernobyl accident; for three month he had stayed in the epicenter, where he acted as a chauffeur driving a radioactive material to the place of destination) from urine were determined. For determination of the concentration of Pu-239, Pu-240 in urine a modified radiochemical method was used. After mineralization the sample was separated as an anion-nitrate complex with contact by the anion form of the resin in the column. The resin was washed by 8 M HNO 3 , the 8 M HCl with 0.3 M HNO 3 for removing the other radionuclides. The solution 0.36 M HCl with 0.01 M HF was used for the elution of plutonium. Using the lanthanum fluoride technique the sample was filtrated through a membrane filter. The plutonium was detected in the dry sample. The Pu-239 tracer was used for the evaluation of the plutonium separation efficiency. The alpha spectrometric measurements were carried out with a large area silicon detector. The samples were measured and evaluated in the energy region 4.98-5.18 MeV. The detection limit of alpha spectrometry measurements has been 0.01 Bq dm -3 . The concentration of plutonium in the 24-hour urine was determined three times in the quarter year intervals. The results are: 54 mBq, 63.2 mBq, 53 mBq, with average 56,7 mBq. From the results of the analyses of plutonium depositions calculated according to ICRP 54 the intake of this radionuclide for the patient was 56.7 kBq. To estimate a committed effective dose (50 years) from the intake of plutonium was used a conversion factor 6.8.10 -5 Sv.Bq -1 (class W). So the expressed committed effective dose received from the plutonium intake is 3.8 Sv. This number is relatively high and all the effective dose will be higher, because the patient was exposed to the other radionuclides too. For example the determination of the rate radionuclides Am-241/Pu-239,Pu-240 was 32-36 % in the fallout after the Chernobyl

  20. Plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerich, Marc; Frot, Patricia; Gambini, Denis-Jean; Gauron, Christine; Moureaux, Patrick; Herbelet, Gilbert; Lahaye, Thierry; Pihet, Pascal; Rannou, Alain

    2014-06-01

    This sheet belongs to a collection which relates to the use of radionuclides essentially in unsealed sources. Its goal is to gather on a single document the most relevant information as well as the best prevention practices to be implemented. These sheets are made for the persons in charge of radiation protection: users, radioprotection-skill persons, labor physicians. Each sheet treats of: 1 - the radio-physical and biological properties; 2 - the main uses; 3 - the dosimetric parameters; 4 - the measurement; 5 - the protection means; 6 - the areas delimitation and monitoring; 7 - the personnel classification, training and monitoring; 8 - the effluents and wastes; 9 - the authorization and declaration administrative procedures; 10 - the transport; and 11 - the right conduct to adopt in case of incident or accident. This sheet deals specifically with Plutonium-239

  1. Work at Aldermaston on plutonium binding with biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popplewell, D.S.

    1976-01-01

    Over a number of years, the Chemistry Division of AWRE, Aldermaston, studied the nature of plutonium in various biological systems. The object of the work was to identify those natural products of the body which play a part in the transport and deposition of accidental intakes of plutonium. These results should be of value in formulating more effective therapeutic measures for plutonium removal from the body. The paper reviews the work at AWRE on the interaction of plutonium with serum and rat liver. Experiments on the uptake of plutonium into cell cultures are described. The aim of these experiments was to see whether a model system could be set up for testing the efficacy by which chelating agents could remove plutonium from within cells. A simple hypothesis is presented for the mode of transport of plutonium within animals. (author)

  2. The plutonium fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.; Ang, K.P.

    1975-01-01

    The quantities of plutonium and other fuel actinides have been calculated for equilibrium fuel cycles for 1000-MW water reactors fueled with slightly enriched uranium, water reactors fueled with plutonium and natural uranium, fast-breder reactors, gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium and highly enriched uranium, and gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium, plutonium and recycled uranium. The radioactivity quantities of plutonium, americium and curium processed yearly in these fuel cycles are greatest for the water reactors fueled with natural uranium and recycled plutonium. The total amount of actinides processed is calculated for the predicted future growth of the U.S. nuclear power industry. For the same total installed nuclear power capacity, the introduction of the plutonium breeder has little effect upon the total amount of plutonium in this century. The estimated amount of plutonium in the low-level process wastes in the plutonium fuel cycles is comparable to the amount of plutonium in the high-level fission product wastes. The amount of plutonium processed in the nuclear fuel cycles can be considerably reduced by using gas-cooled reactors to consume plutonium produced in uranium-fueled water reactors. These, and other reactors dedicated for plutonium utilization, could be co-located with facilities for fuel reprocessing ad fuel fabrication to eliminate the off-site transport of separated plutonium. (author)

  3. Metal Deposition Along the Peru Margin Since the Last Glacial Maximum: Evidence For Regime Change at \\sim 6ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, J.; Cleaveland, L.; Herbert, T.; Altabet, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Peru Margin upwelling zone plays a key role in regulating marine biogeochemical cycles, particularly the fate of nitrate. High biological productivity and low oxygen waters fed into the oxygen minimum zone result in intense denitrification in the modern system, the consequences of which are global in nature. It has been very difficult, however, to study the paleoclimatic history of this region because of the poor preservation of carbonate in Peru Margin sediments. Here we present records of trace metal accumulation from two cores located in the heart of the suboxic zone off the central Peru coast. Chronology comes from multiple AMS 14C dates on the alkenone fraction of the sediment, as well as correlation using major features of the \\delta 15N record in each core. ODP Site 1228 provides a high resolution, continuous sediment record from the Recent to about 14ka, while gravity core W7706-41k extends the record to the Last Glacial Maximum. Both cores were sampled at a 100 yr resolution, then analyzed for % N, \\delta 15N, alkenones, and trace metal concentration. Analysis of redox-sensitive metals (Mo and V) alongside metals associated with changes in productivity (Ni and Zn) provides perspective on the evolution of the upwelling system and distinguishes the two major factors controlling the intensity of the oxygen minimum zone. The trace metal record exhibits a notable increase in the intensity and variability of low oxygen waters and productivity beginning around 6ka and extending to the present. Within this most recent 6ka interval, the data suggest fluctuations in oxygenation and productivity occur on 1000 yr timescales. Our core records, therefore, suggest that the Peru Margin upwelling system strengthened significantly during the mid to late Holocene.

  4. Long time contamination from plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fueloep, M; Patzeltova, N; Ragan, P [Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia); Matel, L [Comenius Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Department of Nuclear Chemistry

    1996-12-31

    Plutonium isotopes in the organism of the patient (who had participated in the liquidation works after the Chernobyl accident; for three month he had stayed in the epicenter, where he acted as a chauffeur driving a radioactive material to the place of destination) from urine were determined. For determination of the concentration of Pu-239, Pu-240 in urine a modified radiochemical method was used. After mineralization the sample was separated as an anion-nitrate complex with contact by the anion form of the resin in the column. The resin was washed by 8 M HNO{sub 3}, the 8 M HCl with 0.3 M HNO{sub 3} for removing the other radionuclides. The solution 0.36 M HCl with 0.01 M HF was used for the elution of plutonium. Using the lanthanum fluoride technique the sample was filtrated through a membrane filter. The plutonium was detected in the dry sample. The Pu-239 tracer was used for the evaluation of the plutonium separation efficiency. The alpha spectrometric measurements were carried out with a large area silicon detector. The samples were measured and evaluated in the energy region 4.98-5.18 MeV. The detection limit of alpha spectrometry measurements has been 0.01 Bq dm{sup -3}. The concentration of plutonium in the 24-hour urine was determined three times in the quarter year intervals. The results are: 54 mBq, 63.2 mBq, 53 mBq, with average 56,7 mBq. From the results of the analyses of plutonium depositions calculated according to ICRP 54 the intake of this radionuclide for the patient was 56.7 kBq. To estimate a committed effective dose (50 years) from the intake of plutonium was used a conversion factor 6.8.10{sup -5} Sv.Bq{sup -1} (class W). So the expressed committed effective dose received from the plutonium intake is 3.8 Sv. This number is relatively high and all the effective dose will be higher, because the patient was exposed to the other radionuclides too. (Abstract Truncated)

  5. The toxicity of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsden, D.; Johns, T.F.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to recent publications concerned with the radiotoxicity of inhaled insoluble Pu compounds. The publications are a paper by Thorne and Vennart (Nature 263:555 (1976)), a report entitled 'The Toxicity of Plutonium', (London (HMSO), 1975), and the 'Sixth Report of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution', (Cmnd. 6618, London (HMSO), 1976). Thorne and Vennart concluded that the previously accepted value for the maximum permissible annual intake (MPAI) of such compounds may be too high by a factor of about five, and a similar conclusion was reached in the other two publications. It is thought by the present authors that the methods which have been used to suggest new values for the MPAI are unduly pessimistic for high-fired PuO 2 ; calculations have been based on the lung model of ICRP Publication 19 'The Metabolism of Compounds of Plutonium and the Other Actinides', (International Commission of Radiological Protection, 1972). This involves concluding that the risks to bone and liver are comparable to those for lung. This is discussed and it is thought that the previously established idea that the lung is the critical organ remains substantially correct for the case of high-fired PuO 2 . (U.K.)

  6. Plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traube, K.

    1984-01-01

    The author expresses his opinion on the situation, describes the energy-economic setting, indicates the alternatives: fuel reprocessing or immediate long-term storage, and investigates the prospects for economic utilization of the breeder reactors. All the facts suggest that the breeder reactor will never be able to stand economic competition with light-water reactors. However, there is no way to prove the future. It is naive to think that every doubt could and must be removed before stopping the development of breeder reactors - and thus also the reprocessing of the fuel of light-water reactors. On the basis of the current state of knowledge an unbiased cost-benefit-analysis can only lead to the recommendation to stop construction immediately. But can 'experts', who for years or even decades have called for and supported the development of breeder reactors be expected to make an unbiased analysis. Klaus Traube strikes the balance of the state Germany's nuclear economy is in: although there is no chance of definitively abandoning that energy-political cul-de-sac, no new adventures must be embarked upon. Responsible handling of currently used nuclear technology means to give up breeder technology and waive plutonium economy. It is no supreme technology with the aid of which structural unemployment or any other economic problem could be solved. (orig.) [de

  7. Plutonium Finishing Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Plutonium Finishing Plant, also known as PFP, represented the end of the line (the final procedure) associated with plutonium production at Hanford.PFP was also...

  8. Plutonium biokinetics in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popplewell, D.; Ham, G.; McCarthy, W.; Lands, C.

    1994-01-01

    By using an 'unusual' isotope it is possible to carry out experiments with plutonium in volunteers at minimal radiation dose levels. Measurements have been made of the gut transfer factor and the urinary excretion of plutonium after intravenous injection. (author)

  9. Plutonium metal burning facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausburg, D.E.; Leebl, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    A glove-box facility was designed to convert plutonium skull metal or unburned oxide to an oxide acceptable for plutonium recovery and purification. A discussion of the operation, safety aspects, and electrical schematics are included

  10. Plutonium Training Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatsky, Galya Ivanovna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wolkov, Benjamin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-26

    This report was created to examine the current state of plutonium training in the United States and to discover ways in which to ensure that the next generation of plutonium workers are fully qualified.

  11. Optimization and plutonium equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    The sequential simplex method has been used to estimate the extent of disproportionation of tetravalent plutonium in dilute acid. A method for simulating potentiometric titrations is proposed, and this method suggests that the stoichiometric end point and the inflection point may not always correspond in the potentiometric titration of plutonium. A possible characteristic equation for the nitrite-plutonium reaction is illustrated, and the method of proportional equations is extended to the iron-plutonium reaction

  12. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800 degree C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800 degrees C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density

  13. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques with liquid photographic emulsion and cellulose nitrate track-etch film are being used to investigate the spatial distribution of inhaled plutonium in the lungs of beagle dogs exposed to cigarette smoke or to the plutonium aerosol only. More plutonium than expected was detected on the inner surfaces of bronchi, and particles were observed beneath the bronchial mucosa. 2 figures, 2 tables

  14. Optimizing Plutonium stock management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niquil, Y.; Guillot, J.

    1997-01-01

    Plutonium from spent fuel reprocessing is reused in new MOX assemblies. Since plutonium isotopic composition deteriorates with time, it is necessary to optimize plutonium stock management over a long period, to guarantee safe procurement, and contribute to a nuclear fuel cycle policy at the lowest cost. This optimization is provided by the prototype software POMAR

  15. Treatment of plutonium contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.

    1983-01-01

    Three kinds of plutonium contaminations were considered: skin contamination; contaminated wounds; contamination by inhalation. The treatment of these contaminations was studied for insoluble (oxide and metal forms) and soluble plutonium (complexes). The use of DTPA and therapeutic problems encountered with stable plutonium complexes were analyzed. The new possibilities of internal decontamination using Puchel and LICAM were evaluated [fr

  16. Plutonium, nuclear fuel; Le plutonium, combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grison, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay

    1960-07-01

    A review of the physical properties of metallic plutonium, its preparation, and the alloys which it forms with the main nuclear metals. Appreciation of its future as a nuclear fuel. (author) [French] Apercu sur les proprietes physiques du plutonium metallique, sa preparation, ses alliages avec les principaux metaux nucleaires. Consideration sur son avenir en tant que combustible nucleaire. (auteur)

  17. Plutonium economy. Plutonium-Wirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traube, K

    1984-01-01

    The author expresses his opinion on the situation, describes the energy-economic setting, indicates the alternatives: fuel reprocessing or immediate long-term storage, and investigates the prospects for economic utilization of the breeder reactors. All the facts suggest that the breeder reactor will never be able to stand economic competition with light-water reactors. However, there is no way to prove the future. It is naive to think that every doubt could and must be removed before stopping the development of breeder reactors - and thus also the reprocessing of the fuel of light-water reactors. On the basis of the current state of knowledge an unbiased cost-benefit-analysis can only lead to the recommendation to stop construction immediately. But can 'experts', who for years or even decades have called for and supported the development of breeder reactors be expected to make an unbiased analysis. Klaus Traube strikes the balance of the state Germany's nuclear economy is in: although there is no chance of definitively abandoning that energy-political cul-de-sac, no new adventures must be embarked upon. Responsible handling of currently used nuclear technology means to give up breeder technology and waive plutonium economy. It is no supreme technology with the aid of which structural unemployment or any other economic problem could be solved.

  18. The plutonium society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mez, L.; Richter, M.

    1981-01-01

    The lectures of an institute are reported on, which took place between 25th and 27th January 1980 in Berlin. The subsequent public panel discussion with representations from the political parties is then documentated in a few press-reports. The themes of the 8 lectures are: views and facts on plutonium, plutonium as an energy resource, military aspects of the production of plutonium, economic aspects of the plutonium economy, the position of the trade unions on the industrial reconversion, the alleged inevitability of a plutonium society and the socio-political alternatives and perspectives of nuclear waste disposal. (UA) [de

  19. Technique of preparation of plutonium screens for soft x ray spectrography (1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bersuder, L. de

    1963-01-01

    The present work concerns the preparation of thin layers of pure plutonium (thickness 100 to 10000 A) by thermal vacuum evaporation. The protection of the plutonium against oxidation is obtained by vacuum deposition of aluminium layers under. and above the plutonium layer. The purity of the layers is checked by electron and X ray diffraction which has shown that very thin films of plutonium condense in β form instead of α. (author) [fr

  20. Hazards of plutonium with special reference to the skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiers, F.W.; Vaughan, J.

    1976-01-01

    In the past attempts have been made to deduce plutonium toxicity in man from studies based on animal experimentation. An alternative method is to use the comparative dosimetry of plutonium and radium in man, with results broadly in agreement with maximum levels set by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  1. Design-Only Conceptual Design Report: Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiSabatino, A.; Loftus, D.

    1999-01-01

    This design-only conceptual design report was prepared to support a funding request by the Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition for engineering and design of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will be used to immobilize up to 50 tonnes of surplus plutonium. The siting for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant will be determined pursuant to the site-specific Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement in a Plutonium Deposition Record of Decision in early 1999. This document reflects a new facility using the preferred technology (ceramic immobilization using the can-in-canister approach) and the preferred site (at Savannah River). The Plutonium Immobilization Plant accepts plutonium from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into mineral-like forms that are subsequently encapsulated within a large canister of high-level waste glass. The final immobilized product must make the plutonium as inherently unattractive and inaccessible for use in nuclear weapons as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors and must be suitable for geologic disposal. Plutonium immobilization at the Savannah River Site uses: (1) A new building, the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will convert non-pit surplus plutonium to an oxide form suitable for the immobilization process, immobilize plutonium in a titanate-based ceramic form, place cans of the plutonium-ceramic forms into magazines, and load the magazines into a canister; (2) The existing Defense Waste Processing Facility for the pouring of high-level waste glass into the canisters; and (3) The Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility to receive and store feed materials. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant uses existing Savannah River Site infra-structure for analytical laboratory services, waste handling, fire protection, training, and other support utilities and services. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant

  2. Plutonium in nature; Le plutonium dans la nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madic, C.

    1994-12-31

    Plutonium in nature comes from natural sources and anthropogenic ones. Plutonium at the earth surface comes principally from anthropogenic sources. It is easily detectable in environment. The plutonium behaviour in environment is complex. It seems necessary for the future to reduce releases in environment, to improve predictive models of plutonium behaviour in geosphere, to precise biological impact of anthropogenic plutonium releases.

  3. Properties of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Jin Su; Yoon, Hwan Ki; Min, Kyung Sik; Kim, Hyun Tae; Ahn, Jong Sung; Kwag, Eon Ho; Ryu, Keon Joong

    1996-03-01

    Plutonium has unique chemical and physical properties. Its uniqueness in use has led to rare publications, in Korea. This report covers physical aspects of phase change of metal plutonium, mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, etc, chemical aspects of corrosion, oxidation, how to produce plutonium from spent fuels by describing various chemical treatment methods, which are currently used and were used in the past. It also contains characteristics of the purex reprocessing process which is the most widely used nowadays. And show processes to purify and metalize from recovered plutonium solution. Detection and analysis methods are introduced with key pints for handling, critical safety, toxicity, and effects on peoples. This report gives not only a general idea on what plutonium is, rather than deep technical description, but also basic knowledge on plutonium production and safeguards diversion from the view point of nonproliferation. 18 refs. (Author) .new

  4. Civil plutonium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicard, B.; Zaetta, A.

    2004-01-01

    During 1960 and 1970 the researches on the plutonium recycling in fast neutrons reactors were stimulated by the fear of uranium reserves diminishing. At the beginning of 1980, the plutonium mono-recycling for water cooled reactors is implementing. After 1990 the public opinion concerning the radioactive wastes management and the consequences of the disarmament agreements between Russia and United States, modified the context. This paper presents the today situation and technology associated to the different options and strategical solutions of the plutonium management: the plutonium use in the world, the neutronic characteristics, the plutonium effect on the reactors characteristics, the MOX behavior in the reactors, the MOX fabrication and treatment, the possible improvements to the plutonium use, the concepts performance in a nuclear park. (A.L.B.)

  5. Properties of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Jin Su; Yoon, Hwan Ki; Min, Kyung Sik; Kim, Hyun Tae; Ahn, Jong Sung; Kwag, Eon Ho; Ryu, Keon Joong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-01

    Plutonium has unique chemical and physical properties. Its uniqueness in use has led to rare publications, in Korea. This report covers physical aspects of phase change of metal plutonium, mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, etc, chemical aspects of corrosion, oxidation, how to produce plutonium from spent fuels by describing various chemical treatment methods, which are currently used and were used in the past. It also contains characteristics of the purex reprocessing process which is the most widely used nowadays. And show processes to purify and metalize from recovered plutonium solution. Detection and analysis methods are introduced with key pints for handling, critical safety, toxicity, and effects on peoples. This report gives not only a general idea on what plutonium is, rather than deep technical description, but also basic knowledge on plutonium production and safeguards diversion from the view point of nonproliferation. 18 refs. (Author) .new.

  6. World status report: plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dircks, W.

    1992-01-01

    In a recent speech in Japan, the Deputy Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) said that the economic case for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel had been severely eroded. An edited version of the speech is given. The changed prospects for nuclear energy is given as the reason why the demand for plutonium has declined sharply. The oil crisis of the 1970s reduced the demand for electric power and the economic justification for the use of recycled plutonium. The stockpile of isolated plutonium is growing rapidly giving rise to worries about its security. From this point of view, isolated plutonium is best kept in reactor fuel not separated out. In this connection the IAEA has offered to help in the storage of plutonium so that vigorous safety and security requirements are met. In Japan there is a debate about the plutonium which is dependent on the future of the fast breeder reactor programme. (UK)

  7. Progress on plutonium stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurt, D.

    1996-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has safety oversight responsibility for most of the facilities where unstable forms of plutonium are being processed and packaged for interim storage. The Board has issued recommendations on plutonium stabilization and has has a considerable influence on DOE's stabilization schedules and priorities. The Board has not made any recommendations on long-term plutonium disposition, although it may get more involved in the future if DOE develops plans to use defense nuclear facilities for disposition activities

  8. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  9. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to obtain experimental data that are directly applicable to resolving the question of whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to potential health effects of inhaled plutonium. Because cigarette smokers constitute a large fraction of the population, a synergistic effect of plutonium and cigarette smoke might influence estimates of the health risk for plutonium and other transuranics released to the environment

  10. Probing phonons in plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Joe; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Occelli, F.; Schwartz, A.; Chiang, T.C.; Wall, M.; Boro, C.; Xu, Ruqing

    2010-01-01

    ) capability on ID28. The complete PDCs for an fcc Pu-0.6 wt% Ga alloy are plotted in Figure 2, and represent the first full set of phonon dispersions ever determined for any Pu-bearing materials. The solid curves (red) are calculated using a standard Born-von Karman (B-vK) force constant model. An adequate fit to the experimental data is obtained if interactions up to the fourth-nearest neighbours are included. The dashed curves (blue) are recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) results by Dai et al. The elastic moduli calculated from the slopes of the experimental phonon dispersion curves near the Λ point are: C 11 = 35.3 ± 1.4 GPa, C 12 = 25.5 ± 1.5 GPa and C 44 = 30.53 ± 1.1 GPa. These values are in excellent agreement with those of the only other measurement on a similar alloy (1 wt % Ga) using ultrasonic techniques as well as with those recently calculated from a combined DMFT and linear response theory for pure (delta)-Pu. Several unusual features, including a large elastic anisotropy, a small shear elastic modulus C(prime), a Kohn-like anomaly in the T 1 [011] branch, and a pronounced softening of the [111] transverse modes are found. These features can be related to the phase transitions of plutonium and to strong coupling between the lattice structure and the 5f valence instabilities. The HRIXS results also provide a critical test for theoretical treatments of highly correlated 5f electron systems as exemplified by recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) calculations for (delta)-plutonium. The experimental-theoretical agreements shown in Figure 2 in terms of a low shear elastic modulus C(prime), a Kohn-like anomaly in the T 1 [011] branch, and a large softening of the T[111] modes give credence to the DMFT approach for the theoretical treatment of 5f electron systems of which (delta)-Pu is a classic example. However, quantitative differences remain. These are the position of the Kohn anomaly along the T 1 [011] branch, the energy maximum of the T[111] mode s

  11. Perspective on plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is intended as a brief overview on the element plutonium. Plutonium is the first primarily man-made element to play a significant role not only in technological development, but also in the economic growth of many countries. The importance of plutonium centers around its enormous energy making it ideal for wide-scale use in reactors, while the nuclear industry continues to work toward improving safety and efficiency of plutonium as a reactor fuel politicians and the public still debate over the safety and benefits of nuclear power. (30 refs.)

  12. Direct separation of plutonium by thermochromatography from environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacker, L.; Kraehenbuehl, U.

    2002-01-01

    A thermochromatographic separation was performed on plutonium from environmental soil samples. This procedure was investigated with the goal to measure low concentrations of plutonium by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The soil sample was chlorinated by thionylchloride as reactive gas at a temperature of 1400 K. The volatile chlorides were separated chromatographically and deposited in a temperature gradient tube filled with quartz grains. Results about the deposition behaviour of the elements were obtained. Two different formalisms based on the thermodynamic functions are used to describe the experimental data. One formula is used to describe the deposition behaviour of microscopic amounts of plutonium (adsorption), the other formula for macroamounts of the main matrix elements (desublimation). The calculated values are in a reasonable agreement with the experimental data. A determination of plutonium content was successfully made for a referenced sea sediment (IAEA-135) after the thermochromatographic sample preparation for ICP-MS. (orig.)

  13. External radiation exposure and radiotoxicity considerations in plutonium/uranium mixed-oxide fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.A.; Crosby, E.H.

    1974-01-01

    Nuclear-reactor-produced plutonium emits significant electromagnetic and neutron radiations. In addition, because of its high specific alpha activity and its tendency to deposit in the lung and the soft tissues of the bone, plutonium presents a significant radiotoxicity hazard. Shielding, containment, and dosimetry techniques practiced at the Nuclear Materials and Equipment Corporation (NUMEC) have resulted in exemplary annual safety report statistics relevant to non-remote-handling plutonium operations. Whereas a few employees exceeded the NUMEC external exposure action level, no employee exceeded the Regulatory maximum permissible external exposure. In addition, a few employees were observed to have a lung burden in excess of the minimum sensitivity of an in vivo counting system, and one employee was observed by in vivo counting to have a lung burden in excess of the maximum permissible for a brief period. No employee was observed to have a body burden as indicated by a positive quarterly urinalysis result. Further, there were no serious incidents at the facility requiring immediate Regulatory notification, and there were no moderate incidents at the facility requiring 24-h Regulatory notification. However, there were a few reportable incidents at the facility requiring 30-day Regulatory notification, and there were a few minor incidents at the facility requiring the preparation of a NUMEC Incident Report. Details of this safety record are presented along with the health physics techniques that have contributed to the results

  14. The application of Caesium-137 and Plutonium-239+240 measurements to investigate floodplain deposition in a semi-arid, low-fallout environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, K. J.; Croke, J. C.; Timmers, H.; Owens, P. N.

    2009-04-01

    Floodplains comprise geomorphologically important sources and sinks for sediments and associated pollutants, yet the sedimentology of large dryland floodplains is not well understood. Processes occurring on such floodplains are often difficult to observe, and techniques used to investigate smaller perennial floodplains are often not practical in these environments. This study assesses the utility of Cs-137 inventory and depth-profile techniques for determining relative amounts of floodplain sedimentation in the Fitzroy River, north-eastern Australia; a 143 000 km2 semi-arid river system. Caesium-137 inventories were calculated for floodplain and reference location bulk soil cores collected from four sites. Depth profiles of Cs-137 concentration from each floodplain site and a reference location were recorded. The areal density of Cs-137 at reference locations ranged from 13-978 Bq m-2 (0-1367 Bq m-2 at the 95% confidence interval), and the mean value ± 2(standard error of the mean) was 436±264 Bq m-2, similar to published data from other southern hemisphere locations. Floodplain inventories ranged from 68-1142 Bq m-2 (0-1692 Bq m-2 at the 95% confidence interval), essentially falling within the range of reference inventory values, thus preventing calculation of erosion or deposition. Depth-profiles of Cs-137 concentration indicate erosion at one site and over 66 cm of deposition at another since 1954. Analysis of 239+240Pu concentrations in a depositional core substantiated the interpretation made from Cs-137 data, and depict a more tightly constrained peak in concentration. Average annual deposition rates range from 0-15 mm. The similarity between floodplain and reference bulk inventories does not necessarily indicate a lack of erosion or deposition, due to low Cs-137 fallout in the region and associated high measurement uncertainties, and a likely influence of gully and bank eroded sediments with no or limited adsorbed Cs-137. In this low-fallout environment

  15. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to determine whether cigarette smoking increases the probability of plutonium-induced lung cancer. Initial experiments, designed to characterize the effect of chronic cigarette smoke exposure on pulmonary clearance of plutonium aerosols, are described

  16. Plutonium valence state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1974-01-01

    A calculational method for ascertaining equilibrium valence state distributions of plutonium in acid solutions as a function of the plutonium oxidation number and the solution acidity is illustrated with an example. The method may be more practical for manual use than methods based upon polynomial equations. (T.G.)

  17. Pathology associated with inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.; Weller, R.E.; Ragan, H.A.; Stevens, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The pathology associated with the inhalation of plutonium was studied in beagle dogs given a single exposure to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 , 238 PuO 2 , or 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . The temporal-spatial relationships between plutonium deposition and the development of lesions in dogs were evaluated up to 11 years, 8 years, or 5 years, respectively, after exposures, resulting in initial lung burdens ranging from ∼2 to ∼5500 nCi. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels produced a spectrum of progressively more severe morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis to fibrosis. Lung tumors occurred at exposure levels that did not result in early death from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. Bronchiolar-alveolar carcinomas, papillary adenocarcinomas, epidermoid carcinomas, and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinomas were observed. Sclerosing tracheobronchial lymphadenitis, radiation osteodystrophy, osteosarcoma, and hepatic adenomatous hyperplasia were the principal extrapulmonary lesions resulting from translocation of plutonium. 15 refs., 2 tabs

  18. What we have learned about plutonium from human data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.

    1975-01-01

    Human data of plutonium deposition, internal distribution, and excretion have been obtained by observations after accidental occupational exposures, long-term follow-up studies on plutonium workers, and autopsy tissue analyses. No significant harmful effects have been noted in humans, although a small foreign-body type nodule around dermal implantations of plutonium has been described in eight persons. Methods used to estimate body burdens by urinary excretion values appear to be conservative generally compared to autopsy tissue burdens. Variations in autopsy tissue distribution appear to be related to the conditions of the plutonium exposure including mode of exposure, particle size, chemical composition, solubility in serum or tissue fluids, and time after exposure for internal redistribution. An important conclusion of this human data survey is the recognition of the inestimable value to be gained by continued careful studies on the life history of workers with higher plutonium exposures. (author)

  19. The toxicity of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouse, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    Shipments of plutonium occasionally pass around the Cape coastal waters on its way to Japan from Europe. This invariably leads to a great deal of speculation of the dangers involved and of the extreme toxicity of plutonium, with the media and environmental groups claiming that (a) plutonium is the most toxic substance known to man, and that (b) a few kilograms of plutonium ground finely and dispersed in the atmosphere could kill every human being on earth. Comparisons with other poisons are drawn, e.g. common inorganic chemicals and biological agents. The original scare around the extraordinary toxicity of Pu seems to have started in 1974 with the claims of Tamplin and Cochran's hot particle theory about plutonium lodging in the sensitive portions of the lungs in small concentrated aggregates where they are much more effective in producing cancers. This theory, however, is regarded as thoroughly discredited by the experts in the field of radiotoxicity. 8 refs

  20. Plutonium storage criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, D. [Scientech, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States); Ascanio, X. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  1. Plutonium roundtable discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penneman, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The roundtable discussion began with remarks by the chairman who pointed out the complicated nature of plutonium chemistry. Judging from the papers presented at this symposium, he noticed a pattern which indicated to him the result of diminished funding for investigation of basic plutonium chemistry and funding focused on certain problem areas. Dr. G.L. silver pointed to plutonium chemists' erroneous use of a simplified summary equation involving the disproportionation of Pu(EV) and their each of appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his charges, Dr. J.T. Bell spoke in defense of the chemists. This discussion was followed by W.W. Schulz's comments on the need for experimental work to determine solubility data for plutonium in its various oxidation states under geologic repository conditions. Discussion then turned to plutonium pyrachemical process with Dana C. Christensen as the main speaker. This paper presents edited versions of participants' written version

  2. Plutonium storage phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szempruch, R.

    1995-12-01

    Plutonium has been produced, handled, and stored at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities since the 1940s. Many changes have occurred during the last 40 years in the sources, production demands, and end uses of plutonium. These have resulted in corresponding changes in the isotopic composition as well as the chemical and physical forms of the processed and stored plutonium. Thousands of ordinary food pack tin cans have been used successfully for many years to handle and store plutonium. Other containers have been used with equal success. This paper addressees the exceptions to this satisfactory experience. To aid in understanding the challenges of handling plutonium for storage or immobilization the lessons learned from past storage experience and the necessary countermeasures to improve storage performance are discussed

  3. Cancer hazard from inhaled plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gofman, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    The best estimate of the lung cancer potential in humans for inhaled insoluble compounds of plutonium (such as PuO 2 particles) has been grossly underestimated by such authoritative bodies as the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the British Medical Research Council. Calculations are presented of lung cancer induction by 239 Pu as insoluble particles and for deposited reactor-grade Pu. The reason for the gross underestimate of the carcinogenic effects of Pu by ICRP or the British Medical Research Council (BMRC) is their use of a totally unrealistic idealized model for the clearance of deposited Pu from the lungs and bronchi plus their non-recognition of the bronchi as the true site for most human lung cancers. The erroneous model used by such organizations also fails totally to take into account the effect of cigarette-smoking upon the physiological function of human lungs. Plutonium nuclides, such as 239 Pu, or other alpha particle-emitting nuclides, in an insoluble form represent an inhalation cancer hazard in a class some 100,000 times more potent than the potent chemical carcinogens, weight for weight. The already-existing lung cancer data for beagle dogs inhaling insoluble PuO 2 particles is clearly in order of magnitude agreement with calculations for humans

  4. Measurements of plutonium in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alberti, F; Risposi, L [Instituto di Fisica Applicata, University of Milan, Milan (Italy)

    1996-01-01

    Within the activities connected with the start up of the PETRA Laboratory (Processo per l'Estrazione di Terre Rare ed Attinidi, i.e. process for extraction of rare earths and actinides), the Radiation Protection Unit of the J.R.C.-Ispra has carried out a well planned set of experimental measurements aimed at evaluating the zero point of the isotopes of plutonium in environmental samples by alfa spectrometry. After the International Moratorium in 1963, no release of plutonium has occurred in the environment apart from the burn up of SNAP 9A satellite in April 1964. Since then the plutonium concentration in air and in fallout samples has been continuously decreasing requiring, therefore, optimization of both instrumentation and experimental measurement procedures in order to obtain better sensibilities. In this work, the experimental methodology followed at the J.R.C.-Ispra for measurements of plutonium concentration in air, deposition and soil is described and the plutonium behaviour in these samples is reported and discussed starting from 1961.

  5. Measurements of plutonium in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alberti, F.; Risposi, L.

    1996-01-01

    Within the activities connected with the start up of the PETRA Laboratory (Processo per l'Estrazione di Terre Rare ed Attinidi, i.e. process for extraction of rare earths and actinides), the Radiation Protection Unit of the J.R.C.-Ispra has carried out a well planned set of experimental measurements aimed at evaluating the zero point of the isotopes of plutonium in environmental samples by alfa spectrometry. After the International Moratorium in 1963, no release of plutonium has occurred in the environment apart from the burn up of SNAP 9A satellite in April 1964. Since then the plutonium concentration in air and in fallout samples has been continuously decreasing requiring, therefore, optimization of both instrumentation and experimental measurement procedures in order to obtain better sensibilities. In this work, the experimental methodology followed at the J.R.C.-Ispra for measurements of plutonium concentration in air, deposition and soil is described and the plutonium behaviour in these samples is reported and discussed starting from 1961

  6. Multiple recycling of plutonium in advanced PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloosterman, J.L.

    1998-04-01

    The influence of the moderator-to-fuel ratio in MOX fueled PWRs on the moderator void coefficient, the fuel temperature coefficient, the moderator temperature coefficient, the boron reactivity worth, the critical boron concentration, the mean neutron generation time and the effective delayed neutron fraction has been assessed. Increasing the moderator-to-fuel ratio to values larger than three, gives a moderator void coefficient sufficiently large to recycle the plutonium at least four times. Scenario studies show that four times recycling of plutonium in PWRs reduces the plutonium mass produced with a factor of three compared with a reference once-through reactor park, but that the americium and curium production triple. If the minor actinides and the remaining plutonium after four times recycling are disposed of, the reduction of the radiotoxicity reaches only a factor of two. This factor increases to five at the maximum when the plutonium is further recycled. Recycling of americium and curium is needed to further reduce the radiotoxicity of the spent fuel. 4 refs

  7. Toxicology of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1974-01-01

    Data are reviewed from studies on the toxicity of Pu in experimental animals. Of the several plutonium isotopes, only 238 Pu and 239 Pu have been studied well. Sufficient results have been obtained to show that the behavior of 238 Pu in biological systems and the resulting biological effects cannot be precisely predicted from studies of 239 Pu. This probably applies also to other radiologically important plutonium isotopes which have half-lives ranging from 45 days to 10 7 years and decay by β-emission, electron capture, and spontaneous fission, as well as by emission of α-particles. All the biological effects of plutonium described in this review are attributed to alpha-particle radiation emitted by the plutonium. However, since plutonium is a chemically active heavy metal, one cannot ignore the possibility of chemical toxicity of the low-specific-activity isotopes, 239 Pu, 242 Pu, and 244 Pu. The preponderance of our knowledge of plutonium toxicology has come from short-term studies of relatively high dosage levels in several animal species. The consequences of high-level internal exposures can be predicted with confidence in experimental animals and probably also in man. However, considering the care with which plutonium is handled in the nuclear industry, a high-level contamination event is unlikely. Considerably less is known about the long-term effects of low levels of contamination. (250 references) (U.S.)

  8. Plutonium recovery from spent reactor fuel by uranium displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, J.P.

    1992-03-17

    A process is described for separating uranium values and transuranic values from fission products containing rare earth values when the values are contained together in a molten chloride salt electrolyte. A molten chloride salt electrolyte with a first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is contacted with both a solid cathode and an anode having values of uranium and fission products including plutonium. A voltage is applied across the anode and cathode electrolytically to transfer uranium and plutonium from the anode to the electrolyte while uranium values in the electrolyte electrolytically deposit as uranium metal on the solid cathode in an amount equal to the uranium and plutonium transferred from the anode causing the electrolyte to have a second ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride. Then the solid cathode with the uranium metal deposited thereon is removed and molten cadmium having uranium dissolved therein is brought into contact with the electrolyte resulting in chemical transfer of plutonium values from the electrolyte to the molten cadmium and transfer of uranium values from the molten cadmium to the electrolyte until the first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is reestablished.

  9. Plutonium recovery from spent reactor fuel by uranium displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    A process is described for separating uranium values and transuranic values from fission products containing rare earth values when the values are contained together in a molten chloride salt electrolyte. A molten chloride salt electrolyte with a first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is contacted with both a solid cathode and an anode having values of uranium and fission products including plutonium. A voltage is applied across the anode and cathode electrolytically to transfer uranium and plutonium from the anode to the electrolyte while uranium values in the electrolyte electrolytically deposit as uranium metal on the solid cathode in an amount equal to the uranium and plutonium transferred from the anode causing the electrolyte to have a second ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride. Then the solid cathode with the uranium metal deposited thereon is removed and molten cadmium having uranium dissolved therein is brought into contact with the electrolyte resulting in chemical transfer of plutonium values from the electrolyte to the molten cadmium and transfer of uranium values from the molten cadmium to the electrolyte until the first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is reestablished

  10. The determination of plutonium isotopes in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siripirom, Lopchai.

    1983-01-01

    The concentration of plutonium in environmental samples such as soil, water, and surface air in the middle part of Thailand were studied. The surface air were collected only at the fifth floor of the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP). Plutonium-242 was used as a tracer. Soil and air samples were dissolved by pyrosulphate fusion, and plutonium was co-precipitated with barium sulfate. Then dissolved the precipitate in perchloric acid. Plutonium was extracted out by using solvent bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP). Plutonium in water samples were coprecipitated with iron (III) hydroxide and were dissolved in 8 M. nitric acid. Then the plutonium was separated out by using anion exchange resin, Dowex 1x4. After the solvent extraction or the anion exchange, plutonium was coprecipitated with cerous hydroxide. The activities of plutonium were measured by a surface barrier detector for about 24 hours. Lower limit of detection for 1,440 minutes is 0.012 pCi. These studies showed that only plutonium-239, 240 was observed. The range of activities of plutonium-239, 240 in soil were 0.002-0.157 pCi/g (dry), in water were 0.1-81 f Ci/l, and in air were 7-330 a Ci/m 3 . However, the plutonium concentrations in these studies are far below the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for general population which is equal to 3x10 8 f Ci/l of water and 5x10 6 a Ci/m 3 of air

  11. The plutonium danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiter, W. de

    1983-01-01

    Nobody can ignore the fact that plutonium is potentially very dangerous and the greatest danger concerning it lies in the spreading of nuclear weapons via nuclear energy programmes. The following seven different attitudes towards this problem are presented and discussed: 1) There is no connection between peaceful and military applications; 2) The problem cannot be prevented; 3) A technical solution must be found; 4) plutonium must be totally inaccessible to countries involved in acquiring nuclear weapons; 5) The use of plutonium for energy production should only occur in one multinational centre; 6) Dogmas in the nuclear industry must be enfeebled; 7) All developments in this area should stop. (C.F.)

  12. Automation of plutonium spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.J.; Boisde, G.; Goujon de Beauvivier, M.; Chevalier, G.; Isaac, M.

    1980-01-01

    Instrumentation was designed and constructed for automatic control of plutonium by molecular absorption spectrophotometry, on behalf of the reprocessing facilities, to meet two objectives: on-line measurement, of the valency state of plutonium, on by-pass, with the measured concentration covering the process concentration range up to a few mg.l -1 ; laboratory measurement of plutonium adjusted to valency VI, with operation carried out using a preparative system meeting the required containment specifications. For this two objectives, the photometer, optical cell connections are made by optical fibers resistant to β, γ radiation. Except this characteristic the devices are different according to the quality required for result [fr

  13. Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan describes the Department of Energy's response to the vulnerabilities identified in the Plutonium Working Group Report which are a result of the cessation of nuclear weapons production. The responses contained in this document are only part of an overall, coordinated approach designed to enable the Department to accelerate conversion of all nuclear materials, including plutonium, to forms suitable for safe, interim storage. The overall actions being taken are discussed in detail in the Department's Implementation Plan in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1. This is included as Attachment B

  14. Plutonium Plant, Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, J.S.; Agarwal, K.

    2017-01-01

    The journey of Indian nuclear fuel reprocessing started with the commissioning of Plutonium Plant (PP) at Trombay on 22"n"d January, 1965 with an aim to reprocess the spent fuel from research reactor CIRUS. The basic process chosen for the plant was Plutonium Uranium Reduction EXtraction (PUREX) process. In seventies, the plant was subjected to major design modifications and replacement of hardware, which later met the additional demand from research reactor DHRUVA. The augmented plutonium plant has been operating since 1983. Experience gained from this plant was very much helpful to design future reprocessing plant in the country

  15. Progress on plutonium stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurt, D. [Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has safety oversight responsibility for most of the facilities where unstable forms of plutonium are being processed and packaged for interim storage. The Board has issued recommendations on plutonium stabilization and has has a considerable influence on DOE`s stabilization schedules and priorities. The Board has not made any recommendations on long-term plutonium disposition, although it may get more involved in the future if DOE develops plans to use defense nuclear facilities for disposition activities.

  16. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to obtain experimental data that are directly applicable to resolving the question of whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to potential health effects of inhaled plutonium. Progress was made on two fronts during the past year. The autoradiographic technique developed from detection of plutonium on the interior surface of pulmonary airways (Annual Report, 1978) has been adapted to routine use in examining tracheas and bronchi of rats. Also, dogs exposed to cigarette smoke for over a year after inhalation of plutonium were killed and necropsied

  17. Recommended plutonium release fractions from postulated fires. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogan, V.; Schumacher, P.M.

    1993-12-01

    This report was written at the request of EG ampersand G Rocky Flats, Inc. in support of joint emergency planning for the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) by EG ampersand G and the State of Colorado. The intent of the report is to provide the State of Colorado with an independent assessment of any respirable plutonium releases that might occur in the event of a severe fire at the plant. Fire releases of plutonium are of interest because they have been used by EG ampersand G to determine the RFP emergency planning zones. These zones are based on the maximum credible accident (MCA) described in the RFP Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) of 1980, that MCA is assumed to be a large airplane crashing into a RFP plutonium building.The objective of this report was first, to perform a worldwide literature review of relevant release experiments from 1960 to the present and to summarize those findings, and second, to provide recommendations for application of the experimental data to fire release analyses at Rocky Flats. The latter step requires translation between experimental and expected RFP accident parameters, or ''scaling.'' The parameters of particular concern are: quantities of material, environmental parameters such as the intensity of a fire, and the physico-chemical forms of the plutonium. The latter include plutonium metal, bulk plutonium oxide powder, combustible and noncombustible wastes contaminated with plutonium oxide powder, and residues from plutonium extraction processes

  18. Plutonium spectrophotometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, A.; Cassaniti, P.; Orosco, E.H.

    1990-01-01

    Plutonium ions in solution have absorption spectra so different that it is possible to use them for analytical purposes. Detailed studies have been performed in nitric solutions. Some very convenient methods for the determination of plutonium and its oxidation states, especially the ratios Pu(III):Pu(IV) and Pu(IV):Pu(VI) in a mixture of both, have been developed. These methods are described in this paper, including: a) Absorption spectra for plutonium (III), (IV), (VI) and mixtures. b) Relative extinction coefficients for the above mentioned species. c) Dependences of the relative extinction coefficients on the nitric acid concentration and the plutonium VI deviation from the Beer-Lambert law. The developed methods are simple and rapid and then, suitable in process control. Accuracy is improved when relative absorbance measurements are performed or controlled the variables which have effect on the spectra and extinction coefficients. (Author) [es

  19. French plutonium management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greneche, D.

    2002-01-01

    The French plutonium management program is summarized in this paper. The program considers nuclear generation as a major component of national electric power supply and includes the reprocessing of the spent fuel. (author)

  20. Learning more about plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This digest brochure explains what plutonium is, where it comes from, how it is used, its recycling into Mox fuel, its half life, historical discovery, its presence in the environment, toxicity and radioactivity. (J.S.)

  1. Plutonium safe handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tvehlov, Yu.

    2000-01-01

    The abstract, prepared on the basis of materials of the IAEA new leadership on the plutonium safe handling and its storage (the publication no. 9 in the Safety Reports Series), aimed at presenting internationally acknowledged criteria on the radiation danger evaluation and summarizing the experience in the safe management of great quantities of plutonium, accumulated in the nuclear states, is presented. The data on the weapon-class and civil plutonium, the degree of its danger, the measures for provision of its safety, including the data on accident radiation consequences with the fission number 10 18 , are presented. The recommendations, making it possible to eliminate the super- criticality danger, as well as ignition and explosion, to maintain the tightness of the facility, aimed at excluding the radioactive contamination and the possibility of internal irradiation, to provide for the plutonium security, physical protection and to reduce irradiation are given [ru

  2. Determination of plutonium in pure plutonium nitrate solutions - Gravimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a precise and accurate gravimetric method for determining the concentration of plutonium in pure plutonium nitrate solutions and reference solutions, containing between 100 and 300 g of plutonium per litre, in a nitric acid medium. The weighed portion of the plutonium nitrate is treated with sulfuric acid and evaporated to dryness. The plutonium sulfate is decomposed and formed to oxide by heating in air. The oxide is ignited in air at 1200 to 1250 deg. C and weighed as stoichiometric plutonium dioxide, which is stable and non-hygroscopic

  3. Plutonium in coniferous forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.; Kostiainen, E.

    2002-01-01

    Our aim was to study the uptake of plutonium by trees, undervegetation and some wild foods. The ratio of 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu in soil samples was determined for comparisons of the fallout origin. In twelve years the Chernobyl derived plutonium has not reached the mineral soil. This refers to a very slow downward migration in podsolic soil. The study confirmed also the low Pu uptake by vegetation and an insignificant contribution to human doses through wild foods. (au)

  4. The calculation of annual limits of intake for plutonium-239 in man using a bone model which allows for plutonium burial and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, N.D.; Hunt, B.W.

    1979-01-01

    Values of the annual limit intake (ALI) for plutonium-239 in man have been calculated using committed dose equivalent limits as recommended by ICRP in Publication 26. The calculations were made using a multicompartment bone model which allows for plutonium burial and recycling in the skeleton. In one skeletal compartment, the growing surfaces of cortical bone, it is assumed that plutonium deposits are retained and are not subject to resorption or recycling. In the trabecular bone compartment plutonium is taken to be resorbed with either subsequent redeposition onto bone surfaces or retention in the bone marrow. ALIs for plutonium-239 have been calculated assuming a range of rates of bone accretion (0 to 32 μm yr -1 ), different amounts of plutonium retained in the marrow (0 to 60%) and a 20%, 45% or 70% deposition of plutonium in the skeleton from the blood. The calculations made using this bone model suggest that 750 Bq (20 nCi) is an appropriate ALI for the inhalation of class W and class Y plutonium compounds and that 830 kBq and 5 MBq (23 μCi and 136 μCi) are the appropriate ALIs for the ingestion of soluble and insoluble forms of plutonium respectively. (author)

  5. The calculation of annual limits of intake for plutonium-239 in man using a bone model which allows for plutonium burial and recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, N D; Hunt, B W

    1979-05-01

    Values of the annual limit of intake (ALI) for plutonium-239 in man have been calculated using committed dose equivalent limits as recommended by ICRP in Publication 26. The calculations were made using a multicompartment bone model which allows for plutonium burial and recycling in the skeleton. In one skeletal compartment, the growing surfaces of cortical bone, it is assumed that plutonium deposits are retained and are not subject to resorption or recycling. In the trabecular bone compartment plutonium is taken to be resorbed with either subsequent redeposition onto bone surfaces or retention in the bone marrow. ALIs for plutonium-239 have been calculated assuming a range of rates of bone accretion (0-32 micron yr-1), different amounts of plutonium retained in the marrow (0-60%) and a 20%, 45% or 70% deposition of plutonium in the skeleton from the blood. The calculations made using this bone model suggest that 750 Bq (20 nCi) is an appropriate ALI for the inhalation of class W and class Y plutonium compounds and that 830 kBq and 5 MBq (23 muCi and 136 muCi) are the appropriate ALIs for the ingestion of soluble and insoluble forms of plutonium respectively.

  6. Conversion of metal plutonium to plutonium dioxide by pyrochemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panov, A.V.; Subbotin, V.G. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, ALL-Russian Science and Research Institute of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation); Mashirev, V.P. [ALL-Russian Science and Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    Report contains experimental results on metal plutonium of weapon origin samples conversion to plutonium dioxide by pyrochemical method. Circuits of processes are described. Their advantages and shortcomings are shown. Parameters of plutonium dioxide powders (phase and fraction compositions, poured density) manufactured by pyrochemical method in RFNC-VNIITF are shown as well. (authors)

  7. Nuclear fuel: modelling the advanced plutonium assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaoua, Th.; Lenain, R.

    2004-01-01

    The benefits of modeling in the nuclear sector are illustrated by the example of the design study for a new plutonium fuel assembly, APA, capable of ensuring maximum consumption of this fuel in pressurized-water reactors. Beyond the physical design of the assembly and its integration into the reactor, this serves for the working out of a complete materials flow and assists in modeling production from the entire inventory of nuclear power stations. (authors)

  8. Nuclear fuel: modelling the advanced plutonium assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N'kaoua, Th.; Lenain, R.

    2002-01-01

    The benefits of modeling in the nuclear sector are illustrated by the example of the design study for a new plutonium fuel assembly, APA, capable of ensuring maximum consumption of this fuel in pressurized-water reactors. Beyond the physical design of the assembly and its integration into the reactor, this serves for the working out of a complete materials flow and assists in modeling production from the entire inventory of nuclear power stations. (authors)

  9. Sandy aeolian deposits and environments and their relation to climate during the Last Glacial Maximum and Lateglacial in northwest and central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasse, C.

    2002-01-01

    Periglacial aeolian sand sheets and dunes of the last glacial cover extensive areas of northwest and central Europe. Four sedimentary facies have been described that could be related to fluvio-aeolian and cryogenic processes, moisture content of the depositional surface and surface morphology.

  10. METHOD OF PRODUCING PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley, W.B.; Smith, R.C.

    1959-12-15

    A process is presented for preparing plutonium tetrafluoride from plutonium(IV) oxalate. The oxalate is dried and decomposed at about 300 deg C to the dioxide, mixed with ammonium bifluoride, and the mixture is heated to between 50 and 150 deg C whereby ammonium plutonium fluoride is formed. The ammonium plutonium fluoride is then heated to about 300 deg C for volatilization of ammonium fluoride. Both heating steps are preferably carried out in an inert atmosphere.

  11. Plutonium contents of field crops in the southeastern US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriano, D.C.; Corey, J.C.; Dahlman, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    Agricultural crops were grown at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Plant (SRP) and at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on soils at field sites containing plutonium concentrations above background levels from nuclear weapon tests. Major US grain crops were grown adjacent to a reprocessing facility at SRP, which releases low chronic levels of plutonium through an emission stack. Major vegetable crops were grown at the ORNL White Oak Creek floodplain, which received plutonium effluent wastes in 1944 from the Manhattan Project weapon development. In general, the concentration ratios of vegetative parts of crops at SRP were approximately one order of magnitude higher than those at ORNL, which indicates the influence of aerial deposition of plutonium at the SRP site

  12. Beiological behaviour of plutonium 239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.

    1976-01-01

    Plutonium is scarcely incorporated from the environment into the food chain because of its unability to penetrate biological membranes. Workers can be contaminated through inhalation or deposition in wounds. Pu present in the pulmonary alveoles or incorporated in wounds is redistributed in the organism either through cellular transport resulting in an important accumulation in the lymphatic ganglia either by blood transport as dissolved Pu bound to proteins. This mechanism results in a progressive accumulation of the radioelement in liver and bone. It is estimated that about 40% of the Pu present in the blood is deposited in the liver from which one half is eliminated every ten years. 50% is deposited in bone from which the elimination takes much longer and 10% is eliminated with the urines. Intravenous injection of DIPA is very useful for Pu elimination immediately after contamination. For elimination of pulmonary Pu the technique of ''pulmonary washing'' is suggested. This method reduces the pulmonary contamination in laboratory aniamls by a factor 10. (author)

  13. How much plutonium does North Korea really have?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    In a previous study, as part of the Global Nuclear Material Control Model effort, the author estimated the maximum quantity of plutonium that could be produced in thermal research reactors in the potential nuclear weapon states (including North Korea), based on their declared power level. D. Albright has estimated the amount of plutonium the North Koreans may have produced since 1986 in the 5-megawatt-electric power reactor at Yongbon. Albright provided an upper-bound estimate of 53 kilograms of weapon-grade plutonium produced cumulatively if the gas-graphite (magnox) reactor had achieved a load factor of 0.80. This cumulative estimate of 53 kilograms ignores the potential plutonium production in the 8-megawatt-thermal research reactor, IRT-DPRK. To better quantify the cumulative North Korean production, the author conducted a study to estimate the amount of plutonium that could have been produced in the IRT-DPRK research reactor operating at the declared power level during the entire period it has operated, including a period it was not safeguarded. The author estimates that, at most, an additional 6 to 33 kilograms of plutonium could have been produced cumulatively in the research reactor operating at the declared power level during the entire period it has operated, including a 12-year period it was not safeguarded, resulting in a total of 13 to 47 kilograms of plutonium possibly produced in both the research and power reactors

  14. Aqueous Solution Chemistry of Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, David L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-28

    Things I have learned working with plutonium: Chemistry of plutonium is complex; Redox equilibria make Pu solution chemistry particularly challenging in the absence of complexing ligands; Understanding this behavior is key to successful Pu chemistry experiments; There is no suitable chemical analog for plutonium.

  15. Physics of plutonium recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The commercial recycling of plutonium as PuO 2 /UO 2 mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel is an established practice in pressurised water reactors (PWRs) in several countries, the main motivation being the consumption of plutonium arising from spent fuel reprocessing. Although the same motivating factors apply in the case of boiling water reactors (BWRs), they have lagged behind PWRs for various reasons, and MOX utilisation in BWRs has been implemented in only a few reactors to date. One of the reasons is that the nuclear design of BWR MOX assemblies (or bundles) is more complex than that of PWR assemblies. Recognizing the need and the timeliness to address this issue at the international level, the OECD/NEA Working Party on the Physics of Plutonium Fuels and Innovative Fuel Cycles (WPPR) conducted a physics code benchmark test for a BWR assembly. This volume reports on the benchmark results and conclusions that can be drawn from it. (authors)

  16. Plutonium microstructures. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, E.M.; Bergin, J.B.

    1981-09-01

    This report is the first of three parts in which Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory metallographers exhibit a consolidated set of illustrations of inclusions that are seen in plutonium metal as a consequence of inherent and tramp impurities, alloy additions, and thermal or mechanical treatments. This part includes illustrations of nonmetallic and intermetallic inclusions characteristic of major impurity elements as an aid to identifying unknowns. It also describes historical aspects of the increased purity of laboratory plutonium samples, and it gives the composition of the etchant solutions and describes the etching procedure used in the preparation of each illustrated sample. 25 figures

  17. Potentiometric titration of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    In the potentiometric titration of plutonium(III), it has been customary to take the equivalence point as the inflection point on a plot of potential vs. volume of titrant. It have not been, however, demonstrated, that the stoichiometric end point corresponds to the inflection point. Suggestions are made according to which these points may not correspond in the potentiometric titration of plutonium(III), as these titrations are ordinarily concluded in a period of time which is short compared to the time required for valence state rearrangement through disproportionation. (T.G.)

  18. Precipitation of plutonium (III) oxalate and calcination to plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, A.; Orosco, E.H.; Cassaniti, P.; Greco, L.; Adelfang, P.

    1989-01-01

    The plutonium based fuel fabrication requires the conversion of the plutonium nitrate solution from nuclear fuel reprocessing into pure PuO2. The conversion method based on the precipitation of plutonium (III) oxalate and subsequent calcination has been studied in detail. In this procedure, plutonium (III) oxalate is precipitated, at room temperature, by the slow addition of 1M oxalic acid to the feed solution, containing from 5-100 g/l of plutonium in 1M nitric acid. Before precipitation, the plutonium is adjusted to trivalent state by addition of 1M ascorbic acid in the presence of an oxidation inhibitor such as hydrazine. Finally, the precipitate is calcinated at 700 deg C to obtain PuO2. A flowsheet is proposed in this paper including: a) A study about the conditions to adjust the plutonium valence. b) Solubility data of plutonium (III) oxalate and measurements of plutonium losses to the filtrate and wash solution. c) Characterization of the obtained products. Plutonium (III) oxalate has several potential advantages over similar conversion processes. These include: 1) Formation of small particle sizes powder with good pellets fabrication characteristics. 2) The process is rather insensitive to most process variables, except nitric acid concentration. 3) Ambient temperature operations. 4) The losses of plutonium to the filtrate are less than in other conversion processes. (Author) [es

  19. Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations measured from the 125-meter Hanford Meteorological Tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations and fluxes were measured at six heights from 1.9 to 122 m on the Hanford meteorological tower. The data show that plutonium-239 was transported on nonrespirable and small particles at all heights. Airborne americium-241 concentrations on small particles were maximum at the 91 m height

  20. International plutonium policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    As any other fissile material, the plutonium raises several utilization problems, particularly as far as diversion by sub-national groups or proliferation are concerned. The purpose of this paper is to show that these problems can be given reasonable solutions avoiding over penalties on energy production

  1. Plutonium safety training course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, H.J.

    1976-03-01

    This course seeks to achieve two objectives: to provide initial safety training for people just beginning work with plutonium, and to serve as a review and reference source for those already engaged in such work. Numerous references have been included to provide information sources for those wishing to pursue certain topics more fully. The first part of the course content deals with the general safety approach used in dealing with hazardous materials. Following is a discussion of the four properties of plutonium that lead to potential hazards: radioactivity, toxicity, nuclear properties, and spontaneous ignition. Next, the various hazards arising from these properties are treated. The relative hazards of both internal and external radiation sources are discussed, as well as the specific hazards when plutonium is the source. Similarly, the general hazards involved in a criticality, fire, or explosion are treated. Comments are made concerning the specific hazards when plutonium is involved. A brief summary comparison between the hazards of the transplutonium nuclides relative to 239 Pu follows. The final portion deals with control procedures with respect to contamination, internal and external exposure, nuclear safety, and fire protection. The philosophy and approach to emergency planning are also discussed

  2. Atomic spectrum of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaise, J.; Fred, M.; Gutmacher, R.G.

    1984-08-01

    This report contains plutonium wavelengths, energy level classifications, and other spectroscopic data accumulated over the past twenty years at Laboratoire Aime Cotton (LAC) Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The primary purpose was term analysis: deriving the energy levels in terms of quantum numbers and electron configurations, and evaluating the Slater-Condon and other parameters from the levels

  3. Plutonium: An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condit, R.H.

    1993-10-01

    This report is a summary of the history and properties of plutonium. It presents information on the atoms, comparing chemical and nuclear properties. It looks at the history of the atom, including its discovery and production methods. It summarizes the metallurgy and chemistry of the element. It also describes means of detecting and measuring the presence and quantity of the element

  4. Plutonium Disposition by Immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, T.; DiSabatino, A.; Mitchell, M.

    2000-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Immobilization Project is to develop, construct, and operate facilities that will immobilize between 17 to 50 tonnes (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons-usable plutonium materials in waste forms that meet the ''spent fuel'' standard and are acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. Using the ceramic can-in-canister technology selected for immobilization, surplus plutonium materials will be chemically combined into ceramic forms which will be encapsulated within large canisters of high level waste (HLW) glass. Deployment of the immobilization capability should occur by 2008 and be completed within 10 years. In support of this goal, the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) is conducting development and testing (D and T) activities at four DOE laboratories under the technical leadership of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Savannah River Site has been selected as the site for the planned Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). The D and T effort, now in its third year, will establish the technical bases for the design, construction, and operation of the U. S. capability to immobilize surplus plutonium in a suitable and cost-effective manner. Based on the D and T effort and on the development of a conceptual design of the PIP, automation is expected to play a key role in the design and operation of the Immobilization Plant. Automation and remote handling are needed to achieve required dose reduction and to enhance operational efficiency

  5. Plutonium cores of zenith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, F R; Cameron, I R; Drageset, A; Freemantle, R G; Wilson, D J

    1965-03-15

    The report describes a series of experiments carried out with plutonium fuel in the heated zero power reactor ZENITH, with the aim of testing current theoretical methods, with particular reference to excess reactivity, temperature coefficients, differential spectrum and reaction rate distributions. Two cores of widely different fissile/moderator atom ratios were loaded in order to test the theory under significantly varied spectrum conditions.

  6. Plutonium and textbooks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    2008-01-01

    Chemical equilibrium is not characterized by equilibrium constants alone. At least one conservation principle is necessary. Textbook descriptions of plutonium chemistry that are based on two-reaction-product disproportionation equations, or do not recognize the conservation principles, are incomplete and potentially misleading. (author)

  7. Japan's plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    Japan's plutonium economy is based on the most efficient use of nuclear energy, as envisioned under the Atoms for Peace program of the 1950s and 1960s. The nuclear pioneers assumed that all nations would want to take full advantage of atomic energy, recycling waste into new fuel to derive as much energy as possible from this resource

  8. Transport of plutonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    This leaflet discusses the subject under the headings: why do we need plutonium; why must we transport it; what action is carried out; how is it moved; what are the risks. The transport of the material in specially designed containers, from Dounreay in Caithness by road and sea to Sellafield in Cumbria, is described. (U.K.)

  9. Probability of production of mobile plutonium in environments of soil and sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahara, Y.; Kudo, A.

    1998-01-01

    Mobile plutonium was found in the bottom sediment in the Nishiyama reservoir in Nagasaki after more than 40 years from deposition of local fallout released in the explosion of the A-bomb in 1945. Less than 10% of total deposited plutonium had turned into a mobile form in the bottom environment of the reservoir. The environmental conditions at bottom sediment is expected to be rich organic materials and high bacterial population under anaerobic conditions. Anaerobic bacteria have a high ability to uptake plutonium into cell during their growth. The K d of plutonium to living bacteria is 20 times greater than the dead bacteria under anaerobic conditions. The results of field observations combined with empirical laboratory tests indicate that mobile plutonium in soil and sediment may be affected not only by binding with dissolved natural organic materials but also by the number of living anaerobic bacteria. (orig.)

  10. Clear as Mud: Changes in Paleoshelf Environments and Deposition Rates at Medford, New Jersey during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podrecca, L.; Miller, K. G.; Wright, J. D.; Browning, J. V.; Emge, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene boundary marks a time of swift global climatic change. Constraining the timeframe of this event is a first order question necessary for ascertaining the origin of the event and the potential for its use as an analog for modern climate change. The New Jersey shelf sediments of the Marlboro Formation records this time period with exceptionally thick (5-15m) records of the period of global low carbon isotopic values ("the core") which requires minimum sedimentation rates of 10's cm/kyr. Rhythmic layers have been previously reported from Wilson Lake & Millville, NJ (IODP Leg 174AX). These structures coined "laminae couplets" consist of semi-periodic 1-2mm thick raised laminations separated by matrix of varying width (averaging 1.8cm). These have been dismissed as artifacts of drilling "biscuits". We report here on a series of shallow auger cores drilled on a transect at Medford, NJ, without using drilling fluid. These cores also show a similar set of structures on the 2cm scale verifying that they are primary depositional features. The mm width laminae in the auger core show remarkable swelling within minutes of splitting. XRD, XRF, bulk carbonate geochemistry, and grain size analysis have been determined at regular depth intervals throughout the core. We have analyzed differences in these parameters between the laminae and interbedded matrix material, as well as across the transect as a whole. In general, the Marlboro formation at this updip location consists of micaceous, lignitic, very clayey silt (mean size 6 micrometers) with occasional organic debris indicating proximal deposition from a fluvial system. Paleodepth of 40m and normal marine salinities are estimated using a paleoslope model and the presence of common though not abundant planktonic foraminifera. We discuss a model of deposition for the Marlboro Formation as fluid mud (nearbed suspension flows) associated with the "Appalachian Amazon" alluding toward the finer grained inter

  11. Airborne plutonium transported during southwesterly winds near the Hanford Prosser Barricade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Airborne plutonium could result from resuspension of nuclear-weapons-testing stratospheric fallout deposition. To determine this possible resuspension at the Hanford site, two field experiments between April 12 to june 29, 1976 and August 12, 1976 to January 11, 1977 were conducted near the Prosser Barricade in the Hanford area about 19 to 22 km southeast (140 0 to 160 0 ) of the fuel-processing areas. The primary objective of these experimentss was to determine if stratospheric fallout resuspension was reflected by airborne plutonium concentrations increasing with increasing wind speed. A secondary objective was to confirm the source of the airborne plutonium by determining the plutonium-240 isotopic content or the plutonium-240/plutonium-239-mass ratio. Stratospheric fallout can be identified by the ratio of 240 Pu to other plutonium isotopes in surface soils. Plutonium was transported during southwesterly winds during the two study periods at the Prosser Barricade. Airborne 239 240 Pu concentrations varied as powers of wind speed (U):U -0 2 to U 7 8 . The airborne solids content ranged from 6 x 10 -8 to 1.7 x 10 -6 μCi/g. The 240 Pu isotopic content ranged from 5.6 to 8.1 atom percent and the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu mass ratio ranged from 0.065 to 0.089. The estimated fraction of stratospheric fallout plutonium in these samples was less than 0.24. The remaining airborne plutonium was probably of Hanford origin. Airborne plutonium probably represents resuspension of plutonium from undetermined sites by mechanisms and events not clear at present. An increasing airborne plutonium concentration with increasing wind speed might be expected for an upwind resuspension source(s). However, the geographical source(s) location was not investigated in this study

  12. Use of plutonium for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The panel reviewed available information on various aspects of plutonium utilization, such as physics of plutonium, technology of plutonium fuels in thermal and fast reactors, behaviour of plutonium fuel under reactor irradiation, technological and economic aspects of plutonium fuel cycle. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Estimation of risks to humans following intake of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolphin, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    The lung cancer in humans induced by plutonium intake usually starts in bronchial epithelium. The main types of lung cancer are epidermoid or squamous cell carcinoma, small cell anaplastic carcinoma, carcinoid types and bronchio-loalveolar cell carcinoma. The data on cancer in the patients given intravascular injections of Thorotrast are the only source of data from which risk estimates can be made for liver cancer. In the beagles injected with plutonium citrate, the only type of liver tumors observed in cholangiosarcoma, and if this were the case for humans, then the appropriate risk estimate is 3 times lower in human patients. Bone sarcoma and the cancer of the epithelial surfaces close to bones have been reported extensively in workers and patients exposed to radium-226 and radium-224. In the case of plutonium, it is assumed for the purpose of risk estimates that the cancer of the epithelial surfaces near bones does not occur. Plutonium passes through guts following ingestion or following the clearance of particles initially deposited in respiratory tracts. In the case of all long-lived radionuclides, lower large intestines are the region which receive the greatest dose from the activity passing through guts. It is assumed that plutonium accumulates in bone marrows through the action of macrophages engulfing the plutonium resorbed from bone surfaces. The main uncertainty in estimating the annual limit of intake probably lies in the metabolic and dosimetric models, and to a lesser extent, in the estimate of risk. (Yamashita, S.)

  14. Studies of plutonium in human tracheobronchial lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInroy, J.F.; Stewart, M.W.; Moss, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    Since 1959, tissues from 70 occupationally exposed former employees of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory have been examined following autopsy. Exposure in most cases was to inhaled plutonium oxide aerosols. Chemical analyses of selected tissues were performed to determine the amount of plutonium retained in the body at the time of death. On the basis of the measured tissue concentrations of plutonium, extrapolations of total-body burdens were made. Thirty-three of the measured cases had plutonium depositions in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes ranging from 0.1 to 4000 dpm per gram of tissue (0.05 to 1800 pCi/g). The duration of exposures ranged from 4 to 30 years. Microscopic examination of representative sections of these lymph nodes revealed no abnormalities other than those which were directly attributable to the basic disease that caused the demise of the various persons in this study. The size distribution of plutonium particles in nodes from one individual was determined by exposing tissue sections to nuclear track film. The estimated mass median diameter of the particles was 0.3 μm, and the distribution had a geometric standard deviation of 1.6. It is estimated that 95 percent of the individual particles had corresponding plutonium concentrations between 0.001 and 0.22 pCi

  15. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Nass, R. [Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage.

  16. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J.; Nass, R.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage

  17. Fifty years of plutonium exposure to the Manhattan Project plutonium workers: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelz, G L; Lawrence, J N; Johnson, E R

    1997-10-01

    Twenty-six white male workers who did the original plutonium research and development work at Los Alamos have been examined periodically over the past 50 y to identify possible health effects from internal plutonium depositions. Their effective doses range from 0.1 to 7.2 Sv with a median value of 1.25 Sv. As of the end of 1994, 7 individuals have died compared with an expected 16 deaths based on mortality rates of U.S. white males in the general population. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) is 0.43. When compared with 876 unexposed Los Alamos workers of the same period, the plutonium worker's mortality rate was also not elevated (SMR = 0.77). The 19 living persons have diseases and physical changes characteristic of a male population with a median age of 72 y (range = 69 to 86 y). Eight of the twenty-six workers have been diagnosed as having one or more cancers, which is within the expected range. The underlying cause of death in three of the seven deceased persons was from cancer, namely cancer of prostate, lung, and bone. Mortality from all cancers was not statistically elevated. The effective doses from plutonium to these individuals are compared with current radiation protection guidelines.

  18. Plutonium-related work and cause-specific mortality at the United States Department of Energy Hanford Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Steve; Richardson, David; Wolf, Susanne; Mihlan, Gary

    2004-02-01

    Health effects of working with plutonium remain unclear. Plutonium workers at the United States Department of Energy (US-DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State, USA were evaluated for increased risks of cancer and non-cancer mortality. Periods of employment in jobs with routine or non-routine potential for plutonium exposure were identified for 26,389 workers hired between 1944 and 1978. Life table regression was used to examine associations of length of employment in plutonium jobs with confirmed plutonium deposition and with cause specific mortality through 1994. Incidence of confirmed internal plutonium deposition in all plutonium workers was 15.4 times greater than in other Hanford jobs. Plutonium workers had low death rates compared to other workers, particularly for cancer causes. Mortality for several causes was positively associated with length of employment in routine plutonium jobs, especially for employment at older ages. At ages 50 and above, death rates for non-external causes of death, all cancers, cancers of tissues where plutonium deposits, and lung cancer, increased 2.0 +/- 1.1%, 2.6 +/- 2.0%, 4.9 +/- 3.3%, and 7.1 +/- 3.4% (+/-SE) per year of employment in routine plutonium jobs, respectively. Workers employed in jobs with routine potential for plutonium exposure have low mortality rates compared to other Hanford workers even with adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, and employment factors. This may be due, in part, to medical screening. Associations between duration of employment in jobs with routine potential for plutonium exposure and mortality may indicate occupational exposure effects. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. In this paper the work carried out at Berkeley from the spring of 1942 to the summer of 1945 is described briefly. The aqueous chemistry of plutonium is quite remarkable. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were based on aqueous solutions, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states, while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element are reported

  20. International plutonium policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    The need to distinguish between diversion by sub-national groups and by governments is clearly stated. The paper identifies the international safeguards measures which already exist for the handling of plutonium. It proposes that the implementation of Article XII A5 of the IAEA statute concerning the international storage of plutonium could be an important additional measure. The paper also mentions the concept of using confinement as a complimentary safeguards measure and identifies the PIPEX concept. In addition, greater use is proposed of containment and surveillance procedures. The multiplication of small reprocessing plants spread over many countries is perceived as a proliferation risk. Other means such as co-location of reprocessing and fuel fabrication facilities are relevant to diversion by sub-national groups

  1. Plutonium injection cases: an update to 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, R.E.; Durbin, P.W.

    1978-01-01

    Several hospitalized individuals of relatively short life expectancy were given intravenous injections of plutonium in 1945 to 1947, and excreta were collected and measured for as long as they remained hospitalized. Following the discovery by Durbin that some of these individuals were still living, she and, subsequently, the Center for Human Radiobiology at the Argonne National Laboratory made an effort to trace all of these unique cases. This search resulted in a published report which documented the doses of plutonium administered, the survival of the recipients, the causes of death, and the doses accumulated by liver and bone in each case. The calculated average organ doses accumulated by the members of this group to death or to 31 July 1977 are tabulated. The causes of death, contributory causes, and durations of illnesses, as determined from death certificates are also tabulated. As far as we can determine, the internally deposited plutonium was not responsible for or related to the death of any of these cases

  2. Guide to good practices at plutonium facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, L.G.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Carter, L.A.; Endres, G.W.R.; Glenn, R.D.; Jech, J.J.; Selby, J.M.; Smith, R.C.; Waite, D.A.; Walsh, W.P.

    1977-09-01

    This manual establishes guidelines and principles for use in setting up a sound radiation protection program for work with plutonium. The guidance presented is based on the experiences of Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) contractors and those portions of private industry concerned with the operation of plutonium facilities, specifically with the fabrication of mixed oxide reactor fuel. The manual is directed primarily to those facilities which have as their sole purpose the handling of large quantities of plutonium for military or industrial uses. It is not intended for use by facilities engaged in reactor or chemical separation operations nor for partial or occasional use by analytical laboratories; while these facilities would find the manual beneficial, it would be incomplete for their needs. The manual addresses good practices that should be observed by management, staff and designers, since the benefits of a good radiation protection program are the result of their joint efforts. Methods for the diagnostic evaluation of internally deposited Pu are included

  3. Strategies for the plutonium utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, D.M.; Lima, J.O.V.; Sakamoto, L.H.

    1981-11-01

    A review of the activities involving plutonium (its recycle, utilization and technological status and perspectives) is done. These informations are useful for an economic viability study for the plutonium utilization in thermal reactors (recycling) and in fast breeders reactor (FBR), trying to collect the major number of informations about these subjects. The initial phase describes the present status and projections of plutonium accumulation and requirements. Then, the technological process are described and some strategies are analyzed. (E.G.) [pt

  4. Plutonium in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, A.

    2001-01-01

    The first volume of the new series, Radioactivity in the Environment, focuses on the environmental occurrence, the speciation, the behaviour, the fate, the applications and the health consequences of that much-feared and much-publicised element, plutonium. Featuring a collection of selected, peer-reviewed, up-to-date papers by leading researchers in the field, this work provides a state-of-the-art description of plutonium in the environment. This title helps to explain where present frontiers are drawn in our continuing efforts to understand the science of environmental plutonium and will help to place widespread concerns into perspective. As a whole this new book series on environmental radioactivity addresses, at academic research level, the key aspects of this socially important and complex interdisciplinary subject. Presented objectively and with the ultimate authority gained from the many contributions by the world's leading experts, the negative and positive consequences of having a radioactive world around us will be documented and given perspective. refs

  5. F. Biological hazards of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Plutonium is an unavoidable result of present nuclear power programmes. Its predominant isotopes are extremely long-lived and very toxic if absorbed in the body. In view of the increasing potential for plutonium and man to come into contact, the consequences of any plutonium release into the environment should be scientifically examined. This report is an attempt to place in one document a fully referenced account of the on-going work in many areas. There are three sections. Part 1 deals with the amounts of plutonium available in the fuel cycle, its properties and the probability of routine or accidental release. Part 2 examines the ways in which plutonium can reach man, in particular through food chains or inhalation. Part 3 details the biological effects of plutonium once it is absorbed into the body, assesses the amounts likely to be harmful and discusses the adequacy of present standards for plutonium burdens. There are two appendices. The likely differences between Pu-239, the most studied isotope, and other plutonium isotopes or transuranic nuclides are outlined in Appendix A. Appendix B contains a fuller account of the ways in which the fate of ingested or inhaled plutonium have been determined

  6. Plutonium in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, N.V.; Linder, P.W.; Wade, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    The shipping of plutonium from Europe to Japan around the Cape is a contentious issue which has raised public concern that South Africa may be at risk to plutonium exposure should an accident occur. The paper describes the containers in which the plutonium (in the form of plutonium oxide, PuO 2 ) is housed and consequences of the unlikely event of these becoming ruptured. Wind-borne pollution is considered not to be a likely scenario, with the plutonium oxide particles more likely to remain practically insoluble and sediment. Plutonium aqueous and environmental chemistry is briefly discussed. Some computer modelling whereby plutonium oxide is brought into contact with seawater has been performed and the results are presented. The impact on marine organisms is discussed in terms of studies performed at marine dump sites and after the crash of a bomber carrying nuclear warheads in Thule, Greenland in 1968. Various pathways from the sea to land are considered in the light of studies done at Sellafield, a reprocessing plant in the United Kingdom. Some recent debates in the popular scientific press, such as that on the leukemia cluster at Sellafield, are described. Plutonium biochemistry and toxicity are discussed as well as medical histories of workers exposed to plutonium. 35 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  7. Technique of preparation of plutonium screens for soft x ray spectrography (1963); Technique de preparation d'ecrans de plutonium pour la spectrographie de rayons x mous (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bersuder, L de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The present work concerns the preparation of thin layers of pure plutonium (thickness 100 to 10000 A) by thermal vacuum evaporation. The protection of the plutonium against oxidation is obtained by vacuum deposition of aluminium layers under. and above the plutonium layer. The purity of the layers is checked by electron and X ray diffraction which has shown that very thin films of plutonium condense in {beta} form instead of {alpha}. (author) [French] Le present travail concerne la preparation de couches minces (epaisseurs de 100 a 10000 A) de plutonium pur par evaporation thermique sous vide. La protection du plutonium contre l'oxydation par l'air est obtenu grace a des couches d'aluminium deposees sous vide sous et sur la couche de plutonium. La purete des couches est verifiee par diffraction d'electrons et de rayons X ce qui a permis d'observer que les couches tres minces de plutonium se condensent en phase {beta} au lieu de la phase {alpha}. (auteur)

  8. Calibration for plutonium-238 lung counting at Mound Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlinson, F.K.

    1976-01-01

    The lung counting facility at Mound Laboratory was calibrated for making plutonium-238 lung deposition assessments in the fall of 1969. Phoswich detectors have been used since that time; however, the technique of calibration has improved considerably. The current technique of calibrating the lung counter is described as well as the method of error analysis and determination of the minimum detectable activity. A Remab hybrid phantom is used along with an attenuation curve which is derived from plutonium loaded lungs and ground beef absorber measurements. The errors that are included in an analysis as well as those that are excluded are described. The method of calculating the minimum detectable activity is also included

  9. Irradiation of the foetus from maternal intakes of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, N.; Stather, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    A brief review is given of published animal data on the initial uptake of activity by the foetal and maternal tissues following entry of plutonium into body fluids at various stages during gestation, on the extent to which activity deposited in maternal tissues is subsequently translocated to the foetus and on its distribution in the tissues of the developing foetus. The limited data available from these animal studies do not readily allow the development of a comprehensive human foetal metabolic model but they do suggest a method for estimating radiation doses to the foetus from maternal intakes of plutonium. (U.K.)

  10. Fuel supply demand balances for future FBR commercialization: impacts on plutonium pricing and reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, C.; Zebroski, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    Plutonium supply and demand balances for fast breeder reactor (FBR) commercialization post-2000 were computed to determine: (a) the maximum supportable number of FBRs that could be installed based on plutonium availability considerations and (b) the feasibility of a reasonable FBR capacity growth case assuming slow introduction post-2010 and rapid capacity growth post-2035. The purpose of the analysis was to determine the outer limitation on the maximum future FBR introduction, or the bounds of a possible plutonium-limited introduction rate, and to estimate the reasonableness of a more limited capacity growth case

  11. A controlled potential coulometer for the estimation of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponkshe, M.R.; Samuel, J.K.

    1974-01-01

    A transistorized, controlled potential coulometer developed in Radiochemistry Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India), is described. The instrument features maximum possible use of indigenously available circuit components. Experimental results obtained so far indicate that quantitative estimation of plutonium can be done with the unit to an accuracy of +- 0.2%. (author)

  12. Plutonium oxides and uranium and plutonium mixed oxides. Carbon determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Determination of carbon in plutonium oxides and uranium plutonium mixed oxides, suitable for a carbon content between 20 to 3000 ppm. The sample is roasted in oxygen at 1200 0 C, the carbon dioxide produced by combustion is neutralized by barium hydroxide generated automatically by coulometry [fr

  13. Summary of plutonium terrestrial research studies in the vicinity of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corey, J.C.; Boni, A.L.; Andriano, D.C.; Pinder, J.F.; McLeod, K.W.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reports plutonium concentrations of wheat, soybeans, and corn grown (a) on a field adjacent to one of the nuclear reprocessing facilities at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), (b) in a glasshouse, and (c) offsite. The crops on SRP were grown on a field that has been receiving both fallout plutonium and plutonium emitted at low chronic levels from an air exhaust stack since 1955. The crops grown in the glasshouse were raised on soil from the onsite agricultural field. The offsite field has received only fallout plutonium. The crop data indicate that the dose to an individual from ingesting grain grown on the field, although higher than from ingesting grain grown offsite, is still small (the 70-year dose-to-bone from eating 2 X 10 5 g (440 lb) of wheat in a year would be less than one mrem). Crop data from the field and the glasshouse experiment indicate that less than 10% of the total contamination of field-grown crops adjacent to a reprocessing facility was contributed by root uptake, the remainder by deposition on the plant surfaces. The plutonium content of the grain was generally 10 to 100 times less than that of the vegetation, again suggesting that deposition from stack emissions vegetation, again suggesting that deposition from stack emissions on the vegetation increased the plutonium content; whereas the grain, particularly corn and soybeans, was protected by thehusk or pod and contained principally plutonium from the root uptake pathway

  14. High-temperature enthalpies of plutonium monocarbide and plutonium sesquicarbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oetting, F.L.

    1979-01-01

    The high-temperature enthalpies of plutonium monocarbide and plutonium sesquicarbide have been determined with a copper-block calorimeter of the isoperibol type. The experimental enthalpy data, which was measured relative to 298 K, covered the temperature range from 400 to 1500 K. The calculation of the temperature rise of the calorimeter takes into account the added heat evolution from the radioactive decay of the plutonium samples. These enthalpy results, combined with the heat capacity and entropy of the respective carbide at 298 K available from the literature, has made it possible to generate tables of thermodynamic functions for the plutonium carbides. The behavior of the heat capacity of both of the plutonium carbides, i.e., a relatively steep increase in the heat capacity as the temperature increases, may be attributed to a premelting effect with the formation of vacancies within the crystal lattice although a theoretical treatment of this phenomenon is not given

  15. The absorption of plutonium by anion resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, R. W.; Mills, R.

    1961-10-15

    Equilibrium experiments have shown Pu{sup +4} to be absorbed from nitric acid onto an anion resin as a complex anion Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup -2}. The amount of absorption is dependent on the plutonium and nitric acid concentrations in the equilibrium solution with a maximum at 7N to 8N HNO{sub 3}. A low cross-linked resin has a higher capacity and reaches equilibrium more rapidly than the normally supplied resin. Saturation capacity of one per cent cross-linked Nalcite SBR (Dowex 1), 50 -- 100 mesh, is 385 mg Pu/gram dry resin. (author)

  16. Determination of plutonium in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakanoue, Masanobu

    1978-01-01

    Past and present methods of determining the amount of plutonium in the environment are summarized. Determination of the amount of plutonium in uranium ore began in 1941. Plutonium present in polluted environments due to nuclear explosions, nuclear power stations, etc. was measured in soil and sand in Nagasaki in 1951 and in ash in Bikini in 1954. Analytical methods of measuring the least amount of plutonium in the environment were developed twenty years later. Many studies on and reviews of these methods have been reported all over the world, and a standard analytical procedure has been adopted. A basic analytical method of measurement was drafted in Japan in 1976. The yield, treatment of samples, dissolution, separation, control of measurable ray sources determination by α spectrometry, cross-check determination, and treatment of samples containing hardly soluble plutonium were examined. At present, the amount of plutonium can be determined by all of these methods. The presence of plutonium was studied further, and the usefulness of determination of the plutonium isotope ratio is discussed. (Kumagai, S.)

  17. Work surface for soluble plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    2005-01-01

    A three-dimensional work surface for aqueous plutonium is illustrated. It is constructed by means of estimating work as a function of the ambient pH and redox potential in a plutonium solution. The surface is useful for illustrating the chemistry of disproportionation reactions. Work expressions are easier to use than work integrals. (author)

  18. The economics of plutonium recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.A.

    1977-11-01

    The individual cost components and the total fuel cycle costs for natural uranium and uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel cycles for CANDU-PHW reactors are discussed. A calculation is performed to establish the economic conditions under which plutonium recycle would be economically attractive. (auth)

  19. Plutonium, its occurrence in environment and methods of detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petr, I [Ceske Vysoke Uceni Technicke, Prague (Czechoslovakia). Fakulta Jaderna a Fysikalne Inzenyrska

    1977-12-01

    A brief survey is given of the physical properties of plutonium nuclides, their toxicity, values of maximum permissible annual intake, and their occurrence in the environment, and of their determination in water, soil, air and biological objects. The principles are stated of the individual methods of plutonium determination, i.e., the method of radiochemical analysis with subsequent detection or alpha spectrometry, the method of filter sampling of air with subsequent alpha spectrometry, coincidence alpha-beta spectrometry or radiochemical analysis, and the use of X and gamma spectrometry. A comparison of the different methods is presented.

  20. The comparative distribution of thorium and plutonium in human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Narayani P.; Shawki Amin Ibrahim; Cohen, Norman; Wrenn, McDonald E.

    1978-01-01

    Thorium is the most chemically and biologically similar natural element to the manmade element plutonium. Both are actinides, and for both the most stable valency state is +4, and solubility in natural body fluids is low. They are classified together in ICRP Lung Model. The present paper deals with the question of whether or not the analogy between the two actinides in terms of deposition and retention in human tissues is a good one. Preliminary results on the thorium contents ( 228,230 Th and 232 Th) of three sets of human tissues from a western U.S. town containing a uranium tailings pile are compared with the reported values of plutonium content of human tissues from the general populations who are exposed to environmental plutonium from fallout of nuclear detonations. Samples were taken at autopsy where sudden death had occurred. For the three isotopes of thorium, the ratio of the content of each (pCi/organ, normalized by organ weight to ICRP Reference Man) in lung to lymph nodes varies from 2-25 for individuals with a mean of 8; this is similar to that we infer from the literature for 239 , 240 Pu which suggests a ratio of lung to lymph nodes with a mean of approximately 7. However, the relative thorium contents of lung and liver are dissimilar, lung/liver for thorium being 3.5 and for plutonium 0.2 to 0.1. Similarly, the ratios of thorium and plutonium content of liver and bone vary significantly; the ratio for thorium is 0.1 and for plutonium 0.8 to 0.5. The most significant observation at this stage is that the relative accumulation of thorium in human liver is much less than that of plutonium. Some of the plausible reasons will be discussed. (author)

  1. Plutonium Round Robin Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudder, G.B.; Herbillon, G.H.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The goal of nuclear forensics is to develop a preferred approach to illicit trafficking investigations. This approach must be widely understood and acceptable as credible. The principle objectives of the Round Robin Test are to prioritize the forensic techniques and methods, evaluate attribution capabilities, and examine the utility of database. The Plutonium Round Robin has made a tremendous contribution to fulfilling these goals through a collaborative learning experience that resulted from the outstanding efforts of the six participating international laboratories. A prioritize list of techniques and methods has been developed based on this exercise. Future work will focus on a Highly Enriched Round Robin and extent to which the techniques and methods can be generalized. The Plutonium Round Robin demonstrated a rather high level of capability to determine the important characteristics of the materials and processes using analytical methods. When this capability to was combined with the appropriate knowledge and database, it resulted in a demonstrated capability to attribute the source of the materials to a specific nuclear fuel, reactor, and reprocessing facility. A number of shortfalls were also identified in our current capabilities. These included alternative dating techniques. Light Water Reactor discrimination techniques, and the lack of a comprehensive network of data/knowledge bases. The result of the Round Robin will be used to develop guidelines or a 'recommended protocol' to be made available to the interested authorities and countries to use in real cases. The poster will present a summary of the results of the Plutonium Round Robin and describe the plans the subsequent Highly Enriched Uranium Round Robin Test. (author)

  2. Solvent anode for plutonium purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowersox, D.F.; Fife, K.W.; Christensen, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a technique to allow complete oxidation of plutonium from the anode during plutonium electrorefining. This will eliminate the generation of a ''spent'' anode heel which requires further treatment for recovery. Our approach is to employ a solvent metal in the anode to provide a liquid anode pool throughout electrorefining. We use molten salts and metals in ceramic crucibles at 700 0 C. Our goal is to produce plutonium metal at 99.9% purity with oxidation and transfer of more than 98% of the impure plutonium feed metal from the anode into the salt and product phases. We have met these criteria in experiments on the 100 to 1000 g scale. We plan to scale our operations to 4 kg of feed plutonium and to optimize the process parameters

  3. Cycle downstream: the plutonium question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zask, G.; Rome, M.; Delpech, M.

    1998-01-01

    This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 4 june 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the plutonium physics and its utilization as a nuclear fuel. This day tried to bring information to answer the following questions: do people have to keep the plutonium in the UOX fuel or in the MOX fuel in order to use it for future fast reactors? Do people have to continue obstinately the plutonium reprocessing in the MOX for the PWR type reactors? Will it be realized a underground disposal? Can it be technically developed plutonium incinerators and is it economically interesting? The plutonium physics, the experimental programs and the possible solutions are presented. (A.L.B.)

  4. Plutonium storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This Spanish study gives a more detailed analysis of a possible store for plutonium oxide. The capacity of the store is assumed to be 30 t Pu and the minimum storage time 2 years. The study includes a general description of the store and its design philosophy; comments on the quality and properties of the material stored; a detailed criticality study and comments on gas and heat generation and shielding requirements; and a brief cost evaluation. Costs are estimated to be about $110/kg PuO 2 /year

  5. Chromosome aberrations in workers with exposure to α-particle radiation from internal deposits of plutonium: expectations from in vitro studies and comparisons with workers with predominantly external γ-radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curwen, Gillian B.; Tawn, E.J. [The University of Manchester, Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research (CIGMR), School of Population Health, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); Sotnik, Natalia V.; Azizova, Tamara V. [Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI), Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk Region 456780 (Russian Federation); Cadwell, Kevin K. [Medical School, Newcastle University, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Hill, Mark A. [University of Oxford, CRUK/MRC Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, Gray Laboratories, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-15

    mFISH analysis of chromosome aberration profiles of 47 and 144 h lymphocyte cultures following exposure to 193 mGy α-particle radiation confirmed that the frequency of stable aberrant cells and stable cells carrying translocations remains constant through repeated cell divisions. Age-specific rates and in vitro dose-response curves were used to derive expected translocation yields in nine workers from the Mayak nuclear facility in Russia. Five had external exposure to γ-radiation, two of whom also had exposure to neutrons, and four had external exposure to γ-radiation and internal exposure to α-particle radiation from incorporated plutonium. Doubts over the appropriateness of the dose response used to estimate translocations from the neutron component made interpretation difficult in two of the workers with external exposure, but the other three had translocation yields broadly in line with expectations. Three of the four plutonium workers had translocation yields in line with expectations, thus supporting the application of the recently derived in vitro α-particle dose response for translocations in stable cells. Overall this report demonstrates that with adequate reference in vitro dose-response curves, translocation yield has the potential to be a useful tool in the validation of red bone marrow doses resulting from mixed exposure to external and internal radiation. (orig.)

  6. Plutonium isotopes in the surface air in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, K.; Sugimura, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Plutonium isotope concentrations in the surface air at Tsukuba, Japan are reported during the period from 1981 to the end of 1986. The 239,240 Pu concentration in the surface air, which showed a marked seasonal variation with a spring maximum and fall minimum, decreased until the end of 1985 according to the stratospheric residence time of 1.15 years. In May 1986, elevated 239,240 Pu concentrations with high 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu activity ratios were observed. The serial trend of plutonium concentration in the surface air is similar to the concentrations of the Chernobyl-released radionuclides. These findings suggest that a significant part of the plutonium in the surface air in May 1986 was due to the Chernobyl fallout. (author) 15 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  7. Plutonium oxide dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    Several processing options for dissolving plutonium oxide (PuO 2 ) from high-fired materials have been studied. The scoping studies performed on these options were focused on PuO 2 typically generated by burning plutonium metal and PuO 2 produced during incineration of alpha contaminated waste. At least two processing options remain applicable for dissolving high-fired PuO 2 in canyon dissolvers. The options involve solid solution formation of PuO 2 With uranium oxide (UO 2 ) and alloying incinerator ash with aluminum. An oxidative dissolution process involving nitric acid solutions containing a strong oxidizing agent, such as cerium (IV), was neither proven nor rejected. This uncertainty was due to difficulty in regenerating cerium (IV) ions during dissolution. However, recent work on silver-catalyzed dissolution of PuO 2 with persulfate has demonstrated that persulfate ions regenerate silver (II). Use of persulfate to regenerate cerium (IV) or bismuth (V) ions during dissolution of PuO 2 materials may warrant further study

  8. Hazards of plutonium and fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, G.M.

    1978-01-01

    Apart from the possibility that civil plutonium may be diverted to military use the main argument against the introduction of a plutonium economy seems to be the supposedly unmanageable biological risk attached to plutonium itself. The author points out weaknesses in many of the opponents' arguments against the increased use of plutonium and argues that current safety practices are more than adequate in handling plutonium and other radioactive materials

  9. Recovery of plutonium by pyroredox processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeese, J.A.; Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.

    1985-09-01

    Using pyrochemical oxidation and reduction, we have developed a process to recover the plutonium in impure scrap with less than 95% plutonium. This plutonium metal was further purified by pyrochemical electrorefining. During development of the procedures, depleted electrorefining anodes were processed, and over 80% of the plutonium was recovered as high-purity metal in one electrorefining cycle. Over 40 kg of plutonium has been recovered from 55 kg of impure anodes with our procedures. 6 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Recovery of plutonium by pyroredox processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeese, J.A.; Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    Using pyrochemical oxidation and reduction, we have developed a process to recover the plutonium in impure scrap with less than 95% plutonium. This plutonium metal was further purified by pyrochemical electrorefining. During development of the procedures, depleted electrorefining anodes were processed, and over 80% of the plutonium was recovered as high-purity metal in one electrorefining cycle. Over 40 kg of plutonium has been recovered from 55 kg of impure anodes with our procedures. 6 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Concentration and purification of plutonium solutions by means of ion-exchange columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, R W; Aikin, A M

    1953-02-15

    Equilibrium experiments using Dowex 50 ion-exchange resin and nitric acid solutions of Pu{sup 3+}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+} cations have yielded values for the absorption affinities for these ions. Trivalent plutonium was found to be far more strongly absorbed than UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 2+}. Column studies have shown that uranium can be completely separated from plutonium even when the initial concentration of uranium is very much greater than that of the plutonium. A plutonium concentration increase of about fifty-fold can be obtained from solutions about 10{sup -3} M in plutonium and 1.0M in nitric acid. The equation K{sub Pu}{sup 3+} = X{sub R} (1-X{sub S}){sup 3} C{sub S}{sup 2}/X{sub S} (1-X{sub R}){sup 3} C{sub R}{sup 2} for estimating the maximum amount of plutonium taken up by a column of resin of unit volume from a solution of total equivalent concentration, C{sub S} , has been shown to hold for values of C{sub S} up to 3 equivalents per litre. X{sub R}, the equivalent fraction of plutonium on the resin, is the number of equivalents of plutonium absorbed by the resin divided by the total capacity of the column. X{sub S}, the equivalent fraction of plutonium in solution, is the equivalent concentration of plutonium divided by the total equivalent concentration of cations in solution. C{sub R} is the total capacity of the resin in milli-equivalents per gram of dry resin. Recommendations have been made for the application and operation of ion-exchange columns in the Plutonium-Extraction Plant. (author)

  12. A method for the gravimetric determination of plutonium in pure plutonium nitrate concentrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mair, M.A.; Savage, D.J.

    1986-12-01

    Plutonium nitrate solution is treated with sulphuric acid before being heated and finally ignited. The stoichiometric plutonium dioxide so formed is weighed and hence the plutonium content is calculated. (author)

  13. Plutonium contaminated materials research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, S.G.

    1986-01-01

    The paper is a progress report for 1985 from the Plutonium Contaminated Materials Working Party (PCMWP). The PCMWP co-ordinates research and development on a national basis in the areas of management, treatment and immobilisation of plutonium contaminated materials, for the purpose of waste management. The progress report contains a review of the development work carried out in eight areas, including: reduction of arisings, plutonium measurement, sorting and packaging, washing of shredded combustible PCM, decommissioning and non-combustible PCM treatment, PCM immobilisation, treatment of alpha bearing liquid wastes, and engineering objectives. (UK)

  14. Plutonium again (smuggling and movements)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    A link is discounted between nuclear proliferation and the recently discovered smuggled plutonium from the former Soviet Union at Munich airport and other places in Germany. It is argued that governments wishing to obtain nuclear materials to develop a weapons programme would not arrange to have it smuggled in a suitcase. Instead, it is speculated that a link exists between the plutonium smuggling incidents and the desire to promote the production of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. Such incidents, by further raising public anxiety, may be intended to turn public opinion in favour of MOX fuel production as a sensible way of getting rid of surplus plutonium. (UK)

  15. Learning more about plutonium; En savoir plus sur le plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This digest brochure explains what plutonium is, where it comes from, how it is used, its recycling into Mox fuel, its half life, historical discovery, its presence in the environment, toxicity and radioactivity. (J.S.)

  16. Plutonium and the Rio Grande: Environmental change and contamination in the nuclear age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, W.L.

    1994-01-01

    An attempt is made to analyze questions concerning the issue of plutonium in the Rio Grande. The author describes in great detail how he arrived at the conclusions. The objective has been to produce research that is absolutely transparent, so that its results can be fairly evaluated and duplicated by anyone. The results of this work show that plutonium from Los Alamos National Laboratory and atmospheric fallout has been deposited along the Rio Grande in small, though detectable, quantities in certain predictable places

  17. Microdistribution and Long-Term Retention of 239Pu (NO3)4 in the Respiratory Tracts of an Acutely Exposed Plutonium Worker and Experimental Beagle Dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Christopher E.; Wilson, Dulaney A.; Brooks, Antone L.; McCord, Stacey; Dagle, Gerald E.; James, Anthony C.; Tolmachev, Sergei Y.; Thrall, Brian D.; Morgan, William F.

    2012-11-01

    The long-term retention of inhaled soluble forms of plutonium raises concerns as to the potential health effects in persons working in nuclear energy or the nuclear weapons program. The distributions of long-term retained inhaled plutonium-nitrate [239Pu (NO3)4] deposited in the lungs of an accidentally exposed nuclear worker (Human Case 0269) and in the lungs of experimentally exposed beagle dogs with varying initial lung depositions were determined via autoradiographs of selected histological lung, lymph node, trachea, and nasal turbinate tissue sections. These studies showed that both the human and dogs had a non-uniform distribution of plutonium throughout the lung tissue. Fibrotic scar tissue effectively encapsulated a portion of the plutonium and prevented its clearance from the body or translocation to other tissues and diminished dose to organ parenchyma. Alpha radiation activity from deposited plutonium in Human Case 0269 was observed primarily along the sub-pleural regions while no alpha activity was seen in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of this individual. However, relatively high activity levels in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of the beagles indicated the lymphatic system was effective in clearing deposited plutonium from the lung tissues. In both the human case and beagle dogs, the appearance of retained plutonium within the respiratory tract was inconsistent with current biokinetic models of clearance for soluble forms of plutonium. Bound plutonium can have a marked effect on the dose to the lungs and subsequent radiation exposure has the potential increase in cancer risk.

  18. Plutonium solution storage in plastic bottles: Operational experience and safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, W.V.

    1995-01-01

    Computer spread sheet models were developed to gain a better understanding of the factors that lead to pressurization and failure of plastic bottles containing plutonium solutions. These models were developed using data obtained from the literature on gas generation rates for plutonium solutions. Leak rates from sealed plastic bottles were obtained from bottle leak tests conducted at Rocky Flats. Results from these bottle leak tests showed that narrow mouth four liter bottles will seal much better than wide mouth four liter bottles. The gas generation rate and leak rate data were used to develop models for predicting the rate of pressurization and maximum pressures expected in sealed bottles of plutonium solution containing various plutonium and acid concentrations. The computer models were used to develop proposed time limits for storing or transporting plutonium solutions in sealed plastic bottles. For plutonium solutions containing 1.5 g/l plutonium, storage in sealed bottles should not be allowed. However, transportation of higher concentration plutonium solution in sealed bottles is required, and safe transportation times of 1 shift to 6 days are proposed

  19. Plutonium waste container identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmierer, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to define the parameters of a method for identifying plutonium waste containers. This information will form the basis for a permanent committee to develop a complete identification program for use throughout the world. Although a large portion of the information will be on handwritten notebooks and may not be as extensive as is desired, it will all be helpful. The final information will be programmed into computer language and be available to all interested parties as well as a central control committee which will have the expertise to provide each government with advice on the packaging, storage, and measurement of the waste for which it is responsible. As time progresses, this central control committee should develop permanent storage sites and establish a system of records which will last for hundreds of years

  20. Uranium plutonium oxide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, C.M.; Leggett, R.D.; Weber, E.T.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium plutonium oxide is the principal fuel material for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's) throughout the world. Development of this material has been a reasonably straightforward evolution from the UO 2 used routinely in the light water reactor (LWR's); but, because of the lower neutron capture cross sections and much lower coolant pressures in the sodium cooled LMFBR's, the fuel is operated to much higher discharge exposures than that of a LWR. A typical LMFBR fuel assembly is shown. Depending on the required power output and the configuration of the reactor, some 70 to 400 such fuel assemblies are clustered to form the core. There is a wide variation in cross section and length of the assemblies where the increasing size reflects a chronological increase in plant size and power output as well as considerations of decreasing the net fuel cycle cost. Design and performance characteristics are described

  1. Differential spectrophotometric determination of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecat, J.

    1980-01-01

    Differential spectrophotometric method is used for determination of plutonium reduced to oxydation state III+ by ascorbic acid, at 560 nm. Concentration of solutions is 4 g/l and accuracy of the method is better than 0,3% [fr

  2. The first milligrams of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper relates the discovery of the different plutonium chemical extraction processes in their historical context. The first experiments started during the second world war in 1942 with the American ''Metallurgical Laboratory'' project which brought together Arthur Compton, Enrico Fermi and Glenn Seaborg. During the same period, a competitive English-Canadian project, the ''Montreal Project'', was carried out to test different plutonium solvent extraction techniques. The author participated in both projects and joined the CEA in 1946, where he was in charge of the uranium and plutonium chemistry. By the end of 1949, his team could isolate the first milligrams of French plutonium from uranium oxide pellets of the ZOE reactor. In the beginning of 1952 he developed with his team the PUREX process. (J.S.)

  3. Technological alternatives for plutonium transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    This paper considers alternative transport modes (air, sea, road, rail) for moving (1) plutonium from a reprocessing plant to a store or a fuel fabrication facility, and (2) MOX fuel from the latter to a reactor. These transport modes and differing forms of plutonium are considered in terms of: their proliferation resistance and safeguards; environmental and safety aspects; and economic aspects. It is tentatively proposed that the transport of plutonium could continue by air or sea where long distances are involved and by road or rail over shorter distances; this would be acceptable from the non-proliferation, environmental impact and economic aspects - there may be advantages in protection if plutonium is transported in the form of mixed oxide

  4. Plutonium helps probe protein, superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Scientists are finding that plutonium can be a useful research tool that may help them answer important questions in fields as diverse as biochemistry and solid-state physics. This paper reports that U.S. research involving plutonium is confined to the Department of Energy's national laboratories and centers around nuclear weapons technology, waste cleanup and disposal, and health effects. But at Los Alamos National Laboratory, scientists also are using plutonium to probe the biochemical behavior of calmodulin, a key calcium-binding protein that mediates calcium-regulated processes in biological systems. At Argonne National Laboratory, another team is trying to learn how a superconductor's properties are affected by the 5f electrons of an actinide like plutonium

  5. An alternative plutonium disposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueppers, C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a feasibility study on vitrification of plutonium with high active waste concentrate, and fabrication of MOX fuel rods for direct final disposal. These are potential alternatives to the direct use of MOX fuel in a reactor. (author)

  6. Chloride removal from plutonium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, H.P.

    1983-01-01

    SRP is evaluating a program to recover plutonium from a metallic alloy that will contain chloride salt impurities. Removal of chloride to sufficiently low levels to prevent damaging corrosion to canyon equipment is feasible as a head-end step following dissolution. Silver nitrate and mercurous nitrate were each successfully used in laboratory tests to remove chloride from simulated alloy dissolver solution containing plutonium. Levels less than 10 ppM chloride were achieved in the supernates over the precipitated and centrifuged insoluble salts. Also, less than 0.05% loss of plutonium in the +3, +4, or +6 oxidation states was incurred via precipitate carrying. These results provide impetus for further study and development of a plant-scale process to recover plutonium from metal alloy at SRP

  7. Studies on health risks to persons exposed to plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.; Stebbings, J.H. Jr.; Healy, J.W.; Hempelmann, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    Two studies on Los Alamos workers exposed to plutonium have shown no increase in cancers of the lung, bone, and liver, three principal cancers of interest following plutonium deposition. A clinical study of 26 workers exposed 32 years ago shows no cases of cancer other than two skin cancers that were excised successfully. A mortality study of 224 workers, all persons with estimated deposition of 10 nCi or moe in 1974, showed no excess of mortality due to any cause. No bone or liver cancers were present, while one death due to lung cancer was observed as compared to an expected three cases. These negative findings on such small groups are not able to prove or disprove the validity of commonly used risk estimates as recommended in the 1972 BEIR and 1977 UNSCEAR reports, but the data do indicate that much higher risk estimates are not warranted

  8. Studies on health risks to persons exposed to plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelz, G.L.; Stebbings, J.H. Jr.; Healy, J.W.; Hempelmann, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    Two studies on Los Alamos workers exposed to plutonium have shown no increase in cancers of the lung, bone, and liver, three principal cancers of interest following plutonium deposition. A clinical study of 26 workers exposed 32 years ago shows no cases of cancer other than two skin cancers that were excised successfully. A mortality study of 224 workers, all persons with estimated deposition of 10 nCi or moe in 1974, showed no excess of mortality due to any cause. No bone or liver cancers were present, while one death due to lung cancer was observed as compared to an expected three cases. These negative findings on such small groups are not able to prove or disprove the validity of commonly used risk estimates as recommended in the 1972 BEIR and 1977 UNSCEAR reports, but the data do indicate that much higher risk estimates are not warranted.

  9. Removal of plutonium from real time waste using supercritical fluid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujatha, K.; Sivaraman, N.; Kumar, R.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2010-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique was carried out for the recovery of plutonium from cellulose waste matrix using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2 ) modified with suitable ligands such as octylphenyl N,N-diisobutyl carbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (φCMPO), tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), acetyl acetone, trifluoro acetyl acetone and theonyltrifluoroacetyl acetone (TTA). The maximum plutonium recovery was found to be 99.8% when SC-CO 2 modified with CMPO was employed. About 15mg of plutonium was recovered from waste. (author)

  10. Inhaled plutonium oxide in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This project is concerned with long-term experiments to determine the life-span dose-effect relationships of inhaled 239 PuO 2 and 238 PuO 2 in beagles. The data will be used to estimate the health effects of inhaled transuranics. The tissue distribution of plutonium, radiation effects in the lung and hematologic changes in plutonium-exposed beagles with lung tumors were evaluated

  11. Plutonium contamination in italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cave-Bondi, G.; Merli, S.; Rogo, M.; Sgarbazzini, M.; Clemente, G.F.; Mancini, L.; Santori, G.; Tardella, Q.

    1983-01-01

    The literature data concerning the biological and the chemical physical characteristics of plutonium are summarized in the first part of the paper. The experimental results of the plutonium concentration in complete diets, single food items and some human autopsy tissues, regarding the Italian situation, are then presented and discussed. Our experimental data are in good agreement with similar data reported in several studies carried out in some countries of the north emisphere

  12. Plutonium: real and false problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bemden, E. van den

    1981-01-01

    This paper deals with technical and technological state of the possibilities of using plutonium as fuel in the thermal and fast reactors. It also describes the political blockage restraining its use and the reasons for it. The accent is put on some fundamental lacks of international coordination and on some problems of commercial policy, which impede, in a certain way, the industrial use of plutonium as a fuel. (author)

  13. Ingestion Pathway Transfer Factors for Plutonium and Americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-01-01

    Overall transfer factors for major ingestion pathways are derived for plutonium and americium. These transfer factors relate the radionuclide concentration in a given foodstuff to deposition on the soil. Equations describing basic relationships consistent with Regulatory Guide 1.109 are followed. Updated values and coefficients from IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 364 are used when a available. Preference is given to using factors specific to the Savannah River Site

  14. Atomic energy policy of Japan, especially plutonium utilization policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriguchi, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The necessity of plutonium use in Japan is discussed. Basic policy regarding plutonium use and future plutonium utilization programme is described including such an aspect as management of plutonium from dismantled nuclear weapons

  15. Collector for recovering gallium from weapons plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philip, C.V.; Anthony, R.G.; Chokkaram, S.

    1998-09-01

    Currently, the separation of gallium from weapons plutonium involves the use of aqueous processing using either solvent extraction of ion exchange. However, this process generates significant quantities of liquid radioactive wastes. A Thermally Induced Gallium Removal process, or TIGR, developed by researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratories, is a simpler alternative to aqueous processing. This research examined this process, and the behavior of gallium suboxide, a vapor that is swept away by passing hydrogen/argon over gallium trioxide/plutonium oxide heated at 1100 C during the TIGR process. Through experimental procedures, efforts were made to prevent the deposition of corrosive gallium onto furnace and vent surfaces. Experimental procedures included three options for gallium removal and collection: (1) collection of gallium suboxide through use of a cold finger; (2) collection by in situ air oxidation; and (3) collection of gallium on copper. Results conclude all three collection mechanisms are feasible. In addition, gallium trioxide exists in three crystalline forms, and each form was encountered during each experiment, and that each form will have a different reactivity

  16. Purpose and objectives for international plutonium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupp, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    Separated and decontaminated plutonium - out of a reactor, in a bottle, tank or canister represents an easy target for diversion into possible non-peaceful uses. It also presents a situation that is of concern from a terrorist attack standpoint. Because this special nuclear material has such national and international sensitivity, storage for those quantities which are ''in excess'' of those necessary to be used for peaceful purposes is of concern to the Nations of the World. Recognizing these concerns, Article XII.A.5 of the IAEA Statutes was developed (1956) and the introduction to this Sub-article 5 states ''...that with respect to any Agency Project or other arrangements where the Agency is requested by the parties concerned to apply safeguards, the Agency shall have the following rights and responsibilities to the extent relevant to the project or arrangement....'' Article XII.A.5 then continues: ''To approve the means to be used for chemical processing.... to insure that this chemical processing will not lend itself to diversion of materials for military purposes.... to require that special additional materials recovered or produced as by-product be used for peaceful purposes under continuing Agency safeguards, for research or in reactors.... and to require deposit with the Agency of any excess.... over what is needed for the above stated uses in order to prevent stockpiling of these materials, provided that thereafter, at the request of the member or members concerned.... (plutonium) shall be returned promptly.... for use under the same provisions as stated above.''

  17. Plutonium re-cycle in HTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desoisa, J. A.

    1974-03-15

    The study of plutonium cycles in HTRs using reprocessed plutonium from Magnox and AGR fuel cycles has shown that full core plutonium/uranium loadings are in general not feasible, burn-up is limited due the need for lower loadings of plutonium to meet reload core reactivity limits, on-line refueling is not practicable due to the need for higher burnable poison loadings, and low conversion rates in the plutonium-uranium cycles cannot be mitigated by axial loading schemes so that fissile make-up is needed if HTR plutonium recycle is desired.

  18. Relationship between blood flow, bone structure, and 239Pu deposition in the mouse skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, E.R.; Green, D.; Howells, G.R.; Thorne, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    The rate at which blood is supplied to several bones in female CBA mice was calculated from 18 F measurements in bone and blood. Blood flow measurements were compared with plutonium uptake in whole bone and on endosteal and periosteal bone surfaces. The results showed that: the rate at which blood is supplied to bone determines the rate of deposition of plutonium; there is a threshold rate of blood supply below which plutonium is not deposited; and the rate of blood supply determines the density of plutonium deposition on endosteal but not on periosteal bone surfaces. These results are discussed in the light of the current bone blood supply hypotheses. (orig.)

  19. Optimisation of deep burn incineration of reactor waste plutonium in a PBMR DPP-400 core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serfontein, Dawid E.; Mulder, Eben J.; Reitsma, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    In this article an original set of coupled neutronics and thermo-hydraulic simulation results for the VSOP 99/05 diffusion code are presented for advanced fuel cycles for the incineration of weapons-grade plutonium, reactor-grade plutonium and reactor-grade plutonium with its associated Minor Actinides in the 400 MW th Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Demonstration Power Plant. These results are also compared to those of the standard 9.6 wt% enriched 9 g/fuel sphere U/Pu fuel cycle. The weapons-grade and reactor-grade plutonium fuel cycles produced good burn-ups. However, the addition of the Minor Actinides to the reactor-grade plutonium caused a large decrease in the burn-up and thus an unacceptable increase in the heavy metal (HM) content in the spent fuel, which was intended for direct disposal in a deep geological repository, without chemical reprocessing. All the plutonium fuel cycles failed the adopted safety limits used in the PBMR400 in that either the maximum fuel temperature of 1130 °C during normal operation, or the maximum power density of 4.5 kW/sphere was exceeded. All the plutonium fuel cycles also produced positive uniform temperature reactivity coefficients, i.e. the reactivity coefficient where the temperatures of the fuel and the graphite moderator in the fuel spheres were varied together. These unacceptable positive coefficients were experienced at low temperatures, typically below 700 °C. This was due to the influence of the thermal fission cross-section resonances of 239 Pu and 241 Pu. Weapons-grade plutonium produced the worst safety performance. The safety performance of the reactor-grade plutonium also deteriorated when the HM loading was reduced from 3 g/sphere to 2 g or 1 g

  20. Optimisation of deep burn incineration of reactor waste plutonium in a PBMR DPP-400 core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serfontein, Dawid E., E-mail: Dawid.Serfontein@nwu.ac.za [School for Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North West University, PUK-Campus, Private Bag X6001, Internal Post Box 360, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Mulder, Eben J. [School for Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North West University (South Africa); Reitsma, Frederik [Calvera Consultants (South Africa)

    2014-05-01

    In this article an original set of coupled neutronics and thermo-hydraulic simulation results for the VSOP 99/05 diffusion code are presented for advanced fuel cycles for the incineration of weapons-grade plutonium, reactor-grade plutonium and reactor-grade plutonium with its associated Minor Actinides in the 400 MW{sub th} Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Demonstration Power Plant. These results are also compared to those of the standard 9.6 wt% enriched 9 g/fuel sphere U/Pu fuel cycle. The weapons-grade and reactor-grade plutonium fuel cycles produced good burn-ups. However, the addition of the Minor Actinides to the reactor-grade plutonium caused a large decrease in the burn-up and thus an unacceptable increase in the heavy metal (HM) content in the spent fuel, which was intended for direct disposal in a deep geological repository, without chemical reprocessing. All the plutonium fuel cycles failed the adopted safety limits used in the PBMR400 in that either the maximum fuel temperature of 1130 °C during normal operation, or the maximum power density of 4.5 kW/sphere was exceeded. All the plutonium fuel cycles also produced positive uniform temperature reactivity coefficients, i.e. the reactivity coefficient where the temperatures of the fuel and the graphite moderator in the fuel spheres were varied together. These unacceptable positive coefficients were experienced at low temperatures, typically below 700 °C. This was due to the influence of the thermal fission cross-section resonances of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu. Weapons-grade plutonium produced the worst safety performance. The safety performance of the reactor-grade plutonium also deteriorated when the HM loading was reduced from 3 g/sphere to 2 g or 1 g.

  1. Plutonium focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  2. Plutonium solution analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded)

  3. Plutonium oxide shipment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    While following procedures for unloading shipping containers containing plutonium oxide, SRP personnel experienced problems. While using a pipe cutter to cut through the wall of the inner container, the pipe section fell to the floor. Three empty food cans in the bottom of the inner canister also fell to the floor and a puff of smoke was observed. Personnel were evacuated and contamination was detected in the room. As a result of the investigations conducted by Westinghouse and SRP, thermal effects, food can coatings, and fuel volatiles were eliminated as the cause of the problem. Helium used to leak test the RL070 shipping container seals entered the inner canister through two weld defects resulting in a pressurization of the contents. When the end cap was removed, the inner canister vented rapidly, the food cans did not, thus creating a differential pressure across the food cans. This caused the food cans to swell. It was recommended that a dye penetrant test of all inner container welds be added. Additional unloading procedures were also recommended

  4. Plutonium solution analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded).

  5. Plutonium dispositioning in CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boczar, P.G.; Feinroth, H.; Luxat, J.C.

    1995-07-01

    Recently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to evaluate salient technical, strategic, schedule, and cost-related parameters of using CANDU reactors for dispositioning of weapons-grade plutonium in the form of Mixed OXide (MOX) fuel. A study team, consisting of key staff from the CANDU reactor designers and researchers (AECL), operators (Ontario Hydro) and fuel suppliers, analyzed all significant factors involved in such application, with the objective of identifying an arrangement that would permit the burning of MOX in CANDU at the earliest date. One of Ontario Hydro's multi-unit stations, Bruce A nuclear generating station (4x769 MW(e)), was chosen as the reference for the study. The assessment showed that no significant modifications of reactor or process systems are necessary to operate with a full MOX core. Plant modifications would be limited to fuel handling and modifications necessary to accommodate enhanced security and safeguards requirements. No safety limitations were identified

  6. Estimation of environmental transfer of plutonium and the dose to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    The need to examine the behaviour of individual radionuclides in the environment is stressed. Sometimes unique pathways of exposure exist and more specialized methods of dose estimation could be considered. The toxicity of the alpha emitting plutonium isotopes is of concern and their long half-lives lead to persistence in the environment and long-term potential for exposing man. Some formulas are therefore presented for making preliminary estimates of environmental transfer and dose for the radioisotopes of the element plutonium. Exposure of man to plutonium in the environment may occur by inhalation or ingestion - the inhalation and ingestion intake rates for which specific pathways have been considered are listed. The primary pathway to man is the inhalation intake; the most important ingestion intake is the consumption of plant foods due to the greater concentration achieved and the higher consumption rates of these foods. Also discussed is plutonium in the nuclear fuel cycle, the release of plutonium from current nuclear installations, the occurrence of plutonium from weapons fallout, airborne releases of plutonium (concentration in the air, deposition rate, resuspension, transfer to plants - foliar and root uptake - transfer to milk, etc.), liquid release (concentration in water, transfer to drinking water, to fish, to plants by irrigation, to milk, to meat). The importance of the release situation and local environment conditions including land and water utilization, population factors and habits for any further investigation is pointed out

  7. Biological transfer of plutonium via in vivo labeled goat's milk. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, W.W.; Mullen, A.A.; Lloyd, S.R.; Mosley, R.E.

    1976-03-01

    The long physical and biological half-life and high relative toxicity have dictated that considerable effort be devoted to quantifying plutonium transport through the various trophic levels. Despite the fact that biological transport of plutonium has been studied for many years, quantitative values for its transfer to milk, and its subsequent uptake by suckling animals have not been established. Three lactating goats were given intravenous injections of citrate-buffered plutonium nitrate at a rate of 75 microcuries per animal per day for three consecutive days. In all three goats approximately one percent of the total plutonium dose was transferred to the milk by the fifth post-treatment day. Plutonium retained by the tissues was deposited primarily in the liver and bone. In vitro plutonium-labeled milk was also fed to groups of rats and juvenile goats. Tissue concentrations of plutonium from juvenile goats which had received either in vivo or in vitro labeled milk were somewhat variable. Due possibly to this, within group variability and the small number of animals per group (two) there were no clearly discernible differences between treatments. The only comparison point to show a consistent trend was the observation that, as expected, juvenile rats retained more of the ingested dose than the adult animals

  8. Plutonium and other transuranics in small vertebrates: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, W.G.; Moor, K.S.; Naegle, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    The published data relevant to transuranics in small vertebrates inhabiting terrestrial environments is reviewed. Experimental results indicate that atomic size and valence state affect rates of absorption, transportation, and excretion of transuranics in living systems. Whereas there is a marked tendency for transuranics to hydrolyze to insoluble colloidal products at physiological pH, complexing agents and chelation enhance solubility and transportability. The natural modes of uptake of transuranics by vertebrates include absorption from the gut, the intact or damaged skin, and inhalation. Absorption from the gut into the bloodstream is very low. Potential hazards may exist if complexing or chelating agents are present, if absorption is continuous, or if exposure involves young animals. The intact skin provides an effective barrier to absorption of transuranics. Relatively high levels of absorption may occur when transuranics are administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly, particularly with increased acidity and solubility of the compounds. Inhalation is probably the most hazardous natural route of uptake. Insoluble transuranic compounds are retained in the lung and soluble compounds are transported rapidly via the blood to bone, liver, and other organs. Deposition of plutonium in mammalian gonads resulting in a decrease in spermatogenesis, ovarian damage, and reduced fecundity is documented. The current knowledge of the behavior of transuranics in terrestrial environments is limited. Plutonium and americium uptake by small mammals has been documented. Plutonium body burdens were related to depressed leukocyte count on a statistical basis. Reduced rodent populations in areas of high plutonium concentrations illustrate the problems of evaluating uptake by mobile animals

  9. Double shell tanks plutonium inventory assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusler, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides an evaluation that establishes plutonium inventory estimates for all DSTs based on known tank history information, the DST plutonium inventory tracking system, tank characterization measurements, tank transfer records, and estimated average concentration values for the various types of waste. These estimates use data through December 31, 1994, and give plutonium estimates as of January 1, 1995. The plutonium inventory values for the DSTs are given in Section 31. The plutonium inventory estimate is 224 kg for the DSTs and 854 kg for the SSTs for a total of 1078 kg. This value compares favorably with the total plutonium inventory value of 981 kg obtained from the total plutonium production minus plutonium recovery analysis estimates

  10. Oxidation-state maxima in plutonium chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    2013-01-01

    Maxima in the fractions of the trivalent and hexavalent oxidation states of plutonium are inherent in the algebra of its disproportionation reactions. The maxima do not support overall disproportionation equations as satisfactory representations of aqueous plutonium. (author)

  11. Recovery studies for plutonium machining oil coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Baldwin, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    Lathe coolant oil, contaminated with plutonium and having a carbon tetrachloride diluent, is generated in plutonium machining areas at Rocky Flats. A research program was initiated to determine the nature of plutonium in this mixture of oil and carbon tetrachloride. Appropriate methods then could be developed to remove the plutonium and to recycle the oil and carbon tetrachloride. Studies showed that the mixtures of spent oil and carbon tetrachloride contained particulate plutonium and plutonium species that are soluble in water or in oil and carbon tetrachloride. The particulate plutonium was removed by filtration; the nonfilterable plutonium was removed by adsorption on various materials. Laboratory-scale tests indicated the lathe-coolant oil mixture could be separated by distilling the carbon tetrachloride to yield recyclable products

  12. Plutonium and americium separation from salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, P.G.; Miner, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    Salts or materials containing plutonium and americium are dissolved in hydrochloric acid, heated, and contacted with an alkali metal carbonate solution to precipitate plutonium and americium carbonates which are thereafter readily separable from the solution

  13. HB-Line Plutonium Oxide Data Collection Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, R. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions; Varble, J. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions; Jordan, J. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions

    2015-05-26

    HB-Line and H-Canyon will handle and process plutonium material to produce plutonium oxide for feed to the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). However, the plutonium oxide product will not be transferred to the MFFF directly from HB-Line until it is packaged into a qualified DOE-STD-3013-2012 container. In the interim, HB-Line will load plutonium oxide into an inner, filtered can. The inner can will be placed in a filtered bag, which will be loaded into a filtered outer can. The outer can will be loaded into a certified 9975 with getter assembly in compliance with onsite transportation requirement, for subsequent storage and transfer to the K-Area Complex (KAC). After DOE-STD-3013-2012 container packaging capabilities are established, the product will be returned to HB-Line to be packaged into a qualified DOE-STD-3013-2012 container. To support the transfer of plutonium oxide to KAC and then eventually to MFFF, various material and packaging data will have to be collected and retained. In addition, data from initial HB-Line processing operations will be needed to support future DOE-STD-3013-2012 qualification as amended by the HB-Line DOE Standard equivalency. As production increases, the volume of data to collect will increase. The HB-Line data collected will be in the form of paper copies and electronic media. Paper copy data will, at a minimum, consist of facility procedures, nonconformance reports (NCRs), and DCS print outs. Electronic data will be in the form of Adobe portable document formats (PDFs). Collecting all the required data for each plutonium oxide can will be no small effort for HB-Line, and will become more challenging once the maximum annual oxide production throughput is achieved due to the sheer volume of data to be collected. The majority of the data collected will be in the form of facility procedures, DCS print outs, and laboratory results. To facilitate complete collection of this data, a traveler form will be developed which

  14. Plutonium-238 and plutonium-239 metabolism in dairy cows following ingestion of mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzer, R.G.; Mullen, A.A.; Sutton, W.W.; Potter, G.D.; Mosley, R.E.; Efurd, D.W.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1985-01-01

    Dairy cows were given oral dosage of plutonium-238 and plutonium-239 dioxide particles in a study to determine the relative gastrointestinal absorption and tissue distribution of the nuclides. Two cows were given particles in which the two isotopes were homogeneously mixed within the particles. A third cow was given two batches of particles which contained either plutonium-238 or plutonium-239. Results indicate that, when the two isotopes of plutonium are homogeneous within the particles, there is no difference between plutonium-238 and plutonium-239 in the relative gastrointestinal absorption and tissue distribution

  15. Plutonium Disposition Now exclamation point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckner, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    A means for use of existing processing facilities and reactors for plutonium disposition is described which requires a minimum capital investment and allows rapid implementation. The scenario includes interim storage and processing under IAEA control, and fabrication into MOX fuel in existing or planned facilities in Europe for use in operating reactors in the two home countries. Conceptual studies indicate that existing Westinghouse four-loop designs can safety dispose of 0.94 MT of plutonium per calendar year. Thus, it would be possible to consume the expected US excess stockpile of about 50 MT in two to three units of this type, and it is highly likely that a comparable amount of the FSU excess plutonium could be deposed of in a few VVER-1000's. The only major capital project for this mode of plutonium disposition would be the weapons-grade plutonium processing which could be done in a dedicated international facility or using existing facilities in the US and FSU under IAEA control. This option offers the potential for quick implementation at a very low cost to the governments of the two countries

  16. Fuel cycles using adulterated plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooksbank, R.E.; Bigelow, J.E.; Campbell, D.O.; Kitts, F.G.; Lindauer, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Adjustments in the U-Pu fuel cycle necessitated by decisions made to improve the nonproliferation objectives of the US are examined. The uranium-based fuel cycle, using bred plutonium to provide the fissile enrichment, is the fuel system with the highest degree of commercial development at the present time. However, because purified plutonium can be used in weapons, this fuel cycle is potentially vulnerable to diversion of that plutonium. It does appear that there are technologically sound ways in which the plutonium might be adulterated by admixture with 238 U and/or radioisotopes, and maintained in that state throughout the fuel cycle, so that the likelihood of a successful diversion is small. Adulteration of the plutonium in this manner would have relatively little effect on the operations of existing or planned reactors. Studies now in progress should show within a year or two whether the less expensive coprocessing scheme would provide adequate protection (coupled perhaps with elaborate conventional safeguards procedures) or if the more expensive spiked fuel cycle is needed as in the proposed civex pocess. If the latter is the case, it will be further necessary to determine the optimum spiking level, which could vary as much as a factor of a billion. A very basic question hangs on these determinations: What is to be the nature of the recycle fuel fabrication facilities. If the hot, fully remote fuel fabrication is required, then a great deal of further development work will be required to make the full cycle fully commercial

  17. Selecting a plutonium vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouan, A. [Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    1996-05-01

    Vitrification of plutonium is one means of mitigating its potential danger. This option is technically feasible, even if it is not the solution advocated in France. Two situations are possible, depending on whether or not the glass matrix also contains fission products; concentrations of up to 15% should be achievable for plutonium alone, whereas the upper limit is 3% in the presence of fission products. The French continuous vitrification process appears to be particularly suitable for plutonium vitrification: its capacity is compatible with the required throughout, and the compact dimensions of the process equipment prevent a criticality hazard. Preprocessing of plutonium metal, to convert it to PuO{sub 2} or to a nitric acid solution, may prove advantageous or even necessary depending on whether a dry or wet process is adopted. The process may involve a single step (vitrification of Pu or PuO{sub 2} mixed with glass frit) or may include a prior calcination step - notably if the plutonium is to be incorporated into a fission product glass. It is important to weigh the advantages and drawbacks of all the possible options in terms of feasibility, safety and cost-effectiveness.

  18. Plutonium in depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, J.P.; Leon-Vintro, L.; Smith, K.; Mitchell, P.I.; Zunic, Z.S.

    2002-01-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) penetrators used in the recent Balkan conflicts have been found to be contaminated with trace amounts of transuranic materials such as plutonium. This contamination is usually a consequence of DU fabrication being carried out in facilities also using uranium recycled from spent military and civilian nuclear reactor fuel. Specific activities of 239+240 Plutonium generally in the range 1 to 12 Bq/kg have been found to be present in DU penetrators recovered from the attack sites of the 1999 NATO bombardment of Kosovo. A DU penetrator recovered from a May 1999 attack site at Bratoselce in southern Serbia and analysed by University College Dublin was found to contain 43.7 +/- 1.9 Bq/kg of 239+240 Plutonium. This analysis is described. An account is also given of the general population radiation dose implications arising from both the DU itself and from the presence of plutonium in the penetrators. According to current dosimetric models, in all scenarios considered likely ,the dose from the plutonium is estimated to be much smaller than that due to the uranium isotopes present in the penetrators. (author)

  19. A World made of Plutonium?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1976-01-01

    This lecture by Engelbert Broda was written for the 26th Pugwash Conference in Mühlhausen, Germany, 26 – 31 August 1976: Public doubts about nuclear energy are generally directed at the problems of routine emissions of radionuclides, of catastrophic accidents, and of terminal waste disposal. Curiously, the most important problem is not being given sufficient attention: The use of plutonium from civilian reactors fpr weapons production. According to current ideas about a nuclear future, 5000 tons (order of magnitude) of plutonium are to be made annually by year 2000, and about 10 000 tons will all the time be in circulation (transport, reprocessing, reproduction of fuel elements, etc.). It is a misconception that plutonium from power reactors is unsuitable as a nuclear explosive. 5000 tons are enough for several hundred thousand (!) of bombs, Nagasaki type. By the year 2000 maybe 40 – 50 countries will have home-made plutonium. Plutonium production and proliferation are the most serious problems in a nuclear world. (author)

  20. Plutonium determination by isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, M.

    1980-01-01

    The principle is to add to a known amount of the analysed solution a known amount of a spike solution consisting of plutonium 242. The isotopic composition of the resulting mixture is then determined by surface ionization mass spectrometry, and the plutonium concentration in the solution is deduced, from this measurement. For irradiated fuels neutronic studies or for fissile materials balance measurements, requiring the knowledge of the ratio U/Pu or of concentration both uranium and plutonium, it is better to use the double spike isotope dilution method, with a spike solution of known 233 U- 242 Pu ratio. Using this method, the ratio of uranium to plutonium concentration in the irradiated fuel solution can be determined without any accurate measurement of the mixed amounts of sample and spike solutions. For fissile material balance measurements, the uranium concentration is determined by using single isotope dilution, and the plutonium concentration is deduced from the ratio Pu/U and U concentration. The main advantages of isotope dilution are its selectivity, accuracy and very high sensitivity. The recent improvements made to surface ionization mass spectrometers have considerably increased the precision of the measurements; a relative precision of about 0.2% to 0.3% is obtained currently, but it could be reduced to 0.1%, in the future, with a careful control of the experimental procedures. The detection limite is around 0.1 ppb [fr

  1. Production of Plutonium Metal from Aqueous Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, D.A.

    2003-01-16

    The primary separation of plutonium from irradiated uranium by the Purex solvent extraction process at the Savannah River Plant produces a dilute plutonium solution containing residual fission products and uranium. A cation exchange process is used for concentration and further decontamination of the plutonium, as the first step in the final preparation of metal. This paper discusses the production of plutonium metal from the aqueous solutions.

  2. Plutonium Proliferation: The Achilles Heel of Disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leventhal, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Plutonium is a byproduct of nuclear fission, and it is produced at the rate of about 70 metric tons a year in the world's nuclear power reactors. Concerns about civilian plutonium ran high in the 1970s and prompted enactment of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 to give the United States a veto over separating plutonium from U.S.-supplied uranium fuel. Over the years, however, so-called reactor-grade plutonium has become the orphan issue of nuclear non-proliferation, largely as a consequence of pressures from plutonium-separating countries. The demise of the fast breeder reactor and the reluctance of utilities to introduce plutonium fuel in light-water reactors have resulted in large surpluses of civilian, weapons-usable plutonium, which now approach in size the 250 tons of military plutonium in the world. Yet reprocessing of spent fuel for recovery and use of plutonium proceeds apace outside the United States and threatens to overwhelm safeguards and security measures for keeping this material out of the hands of nations and terrorists for weapons. A number of historical and current developments are reviewed to demonstrate that plutonium commerce is undercutting efforts both to stop the spread of nuclear weapons and to work toward eliminating existing nuclear arsenals. These developments include the breakdown of U.S. anti-plutonium policy, the production of nuclear weapons by India with Atoms-for-Peace plutonium, the U.S.-Russian plan to introduce excess military plutonium as fuel in civilian power reactors, the failure to include civilian plutonium and bomb-grade uranium in the proposed Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty, and the perception of emerging proliferation threats as the rationale for development of a ballistic missile defense system. Finally, immobilization of separated plutonium in high-level waste is explored as a proliferation-resistant and disarmament-friendly solution for eliminating excess stocks of civilian and military plutonium.

  3. Electrochemical preparation of uranium and plutonium measuring probes for alpha spectroscopy from organic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruner, W.; Beutmann, A.

    1980-01-01

    A method for preparation of uranium and plutonium measuring probes for α-spectrometry is described. The method is based on electrodeposition from isopropanol and especially from ethanol and methanol solution. It was shown that a definite additions of a little amount of water lead to an increase of the deposition rate. It is possible to reach a 100% deposition in ethanol after an electrolysis time of 3 minutes for uranium and 30 minutes for plutonium with voltages of 150-200 V. (author)

  4. Stability of plutonium contaminated sediments in the Miami--Erie Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, B.M.; Carfagno, D.G.

    1978-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the stability of plutonium-contaminated sediment in the Miami-Erie Canal. Correlations were sought to relate concentrations at air sampling stations to plutonium-238 concentrations in air and stack emissions, wind direction, particulate loading, rainfall, and construction activities. There appears to be some impact on airborne concentrations at air sampling stations 122 and 123 from the contaminated sediment in the canal and ponds area. For purposes of this evaluation, it was assumed that the plutonium-238 found in the air samples came from the contaminated sediment in the canal/ponds area. To complete the evaluation of the inhalation pathway, dose calculations were performed using actual airborne concentrations of plutonium-238 measured at sampler 123. The dose equivalent to an individual in that area was calculated for 1 yr and 70 yr. Dose calculations were also performed on potential uptake of contaminated vegetation from that area for 1 yr and 70 yr. This study indicates that, although the contaminated sediments in the canal and pond area appear to contribute to airborne plutonium-238, the observed maximum monthly concentration of plutonium-238 in air is a small fraction of the DOE Radioactivity Concentration Guide (RCG) and the nine-month average concentration of plutonium-238 in air observed thus far during 1977 is less than 1% of the RCG. Dose equivalents, conservatively calculated from these actual data, are well within existing DOE standards and proposed EPA guidance

  5. Plutonium Oxide Process Capability Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, David E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tingey, Joel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-02-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked to develop a Pilot-scale Plutonium-oxide Processing Unit (P3U) providing a flexible capability to produce 200g (Pu basis) samples of plutonium oxide using different chemical processes for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. Materials produced can also be used as exercise and reference materials.

  6. Civil plutonium amounts in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudet, G.

    1994-01-01

    The experience of plutonium reprocessing in water reactors is positive and today the use of this nuclear fuel is at industrial level. Plutonium quantities in spent fuel go on increasing, plutonium stock coming from reprocessing can be controlled: according to conjuncture, it will evolve by stabilization or decreasing at the beginning of next century

  7. The use of calorimetry for plutonium assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, J.A.

    1982-12-01

    Calorimetry is a technique for measuring the thermal power of heat-producing substances. The technique may be applied to the measurement of plutonium-bearing materials which evolve heat as a result of alpha and beta decay. A calorimetric measurement of the thermal power of a plutonium sample, combined with a knowledge or measurement of the plutonium isotopic mass ratios of the sample provides a convenient and accurate, non-destructive measure of the total plutonium mass of the sample. The present report provides a description, and an assessment of the calorimetry technique applied to the assay of plutonium-bearing materials. Types and characteristics of plutonium calorimeters are considered, as well as calibration and operating procedures. The instrumentation used with plutonium calorimeters is described and the use of computer control for calorimeter automation is discussed. A critical review and assessment of plutonium calorimetry literature since 1970 is presented. Both fuel element and plutonium-bearing material calorimeters are considered. The different types of plutonium calorimeters are evaluated and their relative merits are discussed. A combined calorimeter and gamma-ray measurement assay system is considered. The design principles of plutonium assay calorimeters are considered. An automatic, computer-based calorimeter control system is proposed in conjunction with a general plutonium assay calorimeter design. (author)

  8. Tabulated Neutron Emission Rates for Plutonium Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shores, Erik Frederick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-24

    This work tabulates neutron emission rates for 80 plutonium oxide samples as reported in the literature. Plutonium-­238 and plutonium-­239 oxides are included and such emission rates are useful for scaling tallies from Monte Carlo simulations and estimating dose rates for health physics applications.

  9. Preventing pollution from plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1993-01-01

    The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has adopted the strategic goal of becoming a facility that processes plutonium in a way that produces only environmentally benign waste streams. Pollution prevention through source reduction and environmentally sound recycling are being pursued. General approaches to waste reductions are administrative controls, modification of process technologies, and additional waste polishing. Recycling of waste materials, such as spent acids and salts, are technical possibilities and are being pursued to accomplish additional waste reduction. Liquid waste stream polishing to remove final traces of plutonium and hazardous chemical constituents is accomplished through (a) process modifications, (b) use of alternative chemicals and sorbents for residue removal, (c) acid recycling, and (d) judicious use of a variety of waste polishing technologies. Technologies that show promise in waste minimization and pollution prevention are identified. Working toward this goal of pollution prevention is a worthwhile endeavor, not only for Los Alamos, but for the Nuclear Complex of the future

  10. Technological alternatives for plutonium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    This paper discusses the problems of large long term storage since stores at fabrication plants may depend on the form of plutonium ultimately chosen for transport. The paper's conclusion includes: MOX can be regarded as more proliferation resistant than PUO 2 but no experience of long term storage is available, therefore further R and D is required; co-location of the store with reprocessing plants (and fuel fabrication plant) would appear to have advantages in non-proliferation, safeguards implementation, environmental protection and economic aspects; there are strong non-proliferation and security arguments for not moving plutonium away from the site where it was separated until there is an identifiable and scheduled end use. The design of the store, the form in which plutonium should be stored, particularly as MOX, and the costs and further R and D required are considered. The possible location of stores is also discussed and institutional questions briefly considered

  11. Plutonium and U-233 mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milgram, M.S.

    1983-08-01

    A comparison is made among second generation reactor systems fuelled primarily with fissile plutonium and/or U-233 in uranium or thorium. This material is obtained from irradiated fuel from first generation CANDU reactors fuelled by natural or enriched uranium and thorium. Except for plutonium-thorium reactors, second generation reactors demand similar amounts of reprocessing throughput, but the most efficient plutonium burning systems require a large prior allocation of uranium. Second generation reactors fuelled by U-233 make more efficient use of resources and lead to more flexible fuelling strategies, but require development of first generation once-through thorium cycles and early demonstration of the commercial viability of thorium fuel reprocessing. No early implementation of reprocessing technology is required for these cycles

  12. Political influences in plutonium recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patak, H.N.

    1982-01-01

    The history of plutonium safeguards is one of political error and misunderstandings, as well as a lack of technical knowledge. Although there was widespread support for preventing the proliferation of nuclear explosives, with over 100 nations signing the Nonproliferation Treaty of 1969, India's 1974 nuclear test brought renewed political activity to prevent another such occurrence. Opposition has been directed only at how to pursue this goal, but the status of four major experiments aimed at minimizing weapons proliferation is one of failure, intensified by a weakening of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). If the link between plutonium power and weapons production can be broken through on-site reprocessing, the situation could improve. One course would be for the nuclear power industry to adopt its own system for safe guarding plutonium

  13. Plutonium and latent nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quester, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    A country producing nuclear electric power acquires an ability to produce atomic bombs quite easily and without taking many steps beyond that which would be perfectly normal for civilian purposes. The role of plutonium in the three fold list of the gains that must be sought in arms control formulated by Schelling and Halpevin are discussed. On the first, that we should seek to reduce the likelihood of war, it can be argued that plutonium reduces the likelihood in some cases. The second, that we should seek to reduce the destruction in war, is made worse by plutonium. On the third criterion, that we should seek to reduce the burdens in peacetime of everyone's being prepared for war, the situation is confusing and depends on the prospects for nuclear electrical power. It is concluded that latent capability to produce nuclear weapons may be sufficient without the need for actual detonations and deployment of bombs. (UK)

  14. Plutonium accident resistant container project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.

    1978-09-01

    The PARC (plutonium accident resistant container) project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air-transportable plutonium package (shipping container) for certification by the USNRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission). This PAT-1 (plutonium air transportable) package survives a very severe sequential test program of impact, crush, puncture, slash, burn, and water immersion. There is also an individual hydrostatic pressure test. The package has a payload mass capacity of 2 kg of PuO 2 and a thermal capacity of 25 watts. The design rationale for very high energy absorption (impact, crush, puncture, and slash protection) with residual high-level fire protection, resulted in a reasonably small air-transportable package, advancing the packaging state-of-art. Optimization design iterations were utilized in the areas of impact energy absorption and stress and thermal analysis. Package test results are presented in relation to radioactive materials containment acceptance criteria, shielding and criticality standards

  15. Plutonium accident resistant container project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.

    1978-05-01

    The PARC (plutonium accident resistant container) project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air-transportable plutonium package (shipping container) for certification by the USNRC. This PAT-1 (plutonium air transportable) package survives a very severe sequential test program of impact, crush, puncture, slash, burn, and water immersion. There is also an individual hydrostatic pressure test. The package has a payload mass capacity of 2 kg of PuO2 and a thermal capacity of 25 watts. The design rationale for very high energy absorption (impact, crush, puncture, and slash protection) with residual high-level fire protection, resulted in a reasonalby small air-transportable package, advancing the packaging state-of-art. Optimization design iterations were utilized in the areas of impact energy absorption and stress and thermal analysis. Package test results are presented in relation to radioactive materials containment acceptance criteria, shielding and criticality standards

  16. Shielding calculational system for plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, M.G.; Thomsen, D.H.

    1975-08-01

    A computer calculational system has been developed and assembled specifically for calculating dose rates in AEC plutonium fabrication facilities. The system consists of two computer codes and all nuclear data necessary for calculation of neutron and gamma dose rates from plutonium. The codes include the multigroup version of the Battelle Monte Carlo code for solution of general neutron and gamma shielding problems and the PUSHLD code for solution of shielding problems where low energy gamma and x-rays are important. The nuclear data consists of built in neutron and gamma yields and spectra for various plutonium compounds, an automatic calculation of age effects and all cross-sections commonly used. Experimental correlations have been performed to verify portions of the calculational system. (23 tables, 7 figs, 16 refs) (U.S.)

  17. Preventing pollution from plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1995-01-01

    The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has adopted the strategic goal of becoming a facility that processes plutonium in a way that produces only environmentally benign waste streams. Pollution prevention through source reduction and environmentally sound recycling are being pursued. General approaches to waste reductions are administrative controls, modification of process technologies, and additional waste polishing. Recycling of waste materials, such as spent acids and salts, are technical possibilities and are being pursued to accomplish additional waste reduction. Liquid waste stream polishing to remove final traces of plutonium and hazardous chemical constituents is accomplished through process modifications, use of alternative chemicals and sorbents for residue removal, acid recycling, and judicious use of a variety of waste polishing technologies. Technologies that show promise in waste minimization and pollution prevention are identified. Working toward this goal of pollution prevention is a worthwhile endeavor , not only for Los Alamos, but for the Nuclear Complex of the future. (author) 12 refs.; 2 figs

  18. Safeguarding the Plutonium Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.J.; Lockwood, D.

    2013-01-01

    In developing a Safeguards Approach for a plutonium process facility, two general diversion and misuse scenarios must be addressed: 1) Unreported batches of undeclared nuclear material being processed through the plant and bypassing the accountancy measurement points, and 2) The operator removing plutonium at a rate that cannot be detected with confidence due to measurement uncertainties. This paper will look at the implementation of international safeguards at plutonium fuel cycle facilities in light of past lessons learned and current safeguards approaches. It will then discuss technical areas which are currently being addressed as future tools to improve on the efficiency of safeguards implementation, while maintaining its effectiveness. The discussion of new improvements will include: safeguards by design (SBD), process monitoring (PM), measurement and monitoring equipment, and data management. The paper is illustrated with the implementation of international safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant in Japan and its accountancy structure is detailed. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

  19. Nukem's plutonium hitches a ride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The European repercussions of a scandal involving the illegal movement of plutonium and cobalt 60 in canisters in which it was claimed there was only low-level radioactive waste, from West Germany to the reprocessing centre at Mol, Belgium are considered. Large bribes were paid to employees of the nuclear industry and government inspectors to allow this illicit transport to carry on over a number of years. It is not yet clear where the plutonium came from or where it was going. The suggestion that it may have been sold to Libya or Pakistan for nuclear weapons is very damaging to the nuclear safety argument. Even if the plutonium was being disposed of because it could not be accounted for, the safeguard procedures do not give confidence to the European public more aware of nuclear safety than ever. (UK)

  20. Plutonium-238 Decision Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Mike; Lechel, David J.; Leigh, C.D.

    1999-01-01

    Five transuranic (TRU) waste sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, collectively, have more than 2,100 cubic meters of Plutonium-238 (Pu-238) TRU waste that exceed the wattage restrictions of the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-11). The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being developed by the DOE as a repository for TRU waste. With the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) opening in 1999, these sites are faced with a need to develop waste management practices that will enable the transportation of Pu-238 TRU waste to WIPP for disposal. This paper describes a decision analysis that provided a logical framework for addressing the Pu-238 TRU waste issue. The insights that can be gained by performing a formalized decision analysis are multifold. First and foremost, the very process. of formulating a decision tree forces the decision maker into structured, logical thinking where alternatives can be evaluated one against the other using a uniform set of criteria. In the process of developing the decision tree for transportation of Pu-238 TRU waste, several alternatives were eliminated and the logical order for decision making was discovered. Moreover, the key areas of uncertainty for proposed alternatives were identified and quantified. The decision analysis showed that the DOE can employ a combination approach where they will (1) use headspace gas analyses to show that a fraction of the Pu-238 TRU waste drums are no longer generating hydrogen gas and can be shipped to WIPP ''as-is'', (2) use drums and bags with advanced filter systems to repackage Pu-238 TRU waste drums that are still generating hydrogen, and (3) add hydrogen getter materials to the inner containment vessel of the TRUPACT-11to relieve the build-up of hydrogen gas during transportation of the Pu-238 TRU waste drums

  1. Plutonium in a grassland ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    This study was concerned with plutonium contamination of grassland at the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration Rocky Flats plant northwest of Denver, Colorado. Of interest were: the definition of major plutonium-containing ecosystem compartments; the relative amounts in those compartments; how those values related to studies done in other geogrphical areas; whether or not the predominant isotopes, 238 Pu and 239 Pu, behaved differently; and what mechanisms might have allowed for the observed patterns of contamination. Samples of soil, litter, vegetation, arthropods, and small mammals were collected for plutonium analysis and mass determination from each of two macroplots. Small aliquots (5 g or less) were analyzed by a rapid liquid scintillation technique and by alpha spectrometry. Of the compartments sampled, greater than 99% of the total plutonium was contained in the soil. The concentrations of plutonium in soil were significantly inversely correlated with distance from the contamination source, depth of the sample, and particle size of the sieved soil samples. The soil data suggested that the distribution of contamination largely resulted from physical transport processes. A mechanism of agglomerated submicron plutonium oxide particles and larger (1-500 μm) host soil particles was proposed. Concentrations of Pu in litter and vegetation were inversely correlated to distance from the source and directly correlated to soil concentrations at the same location. Comparatively high concentration ratios of vegetation to soil suggested wind resuspension of contamination as an important transport mechanism. Arthropod and small mammal samples were highly skewed, kurtotic, and quite variable, having coefficients of variation (standard deviation/mean) as high as 600%. Bone Pu concentrations were lower than other tissues. Hide, GI, and lung were generally not higher in Pu than kidney, liver and muscle

  2. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material

  3. Current status of life-span studies with inhaled plutonium in beagles at Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.; Ragan, H.A.; Weller, R.E.; Stevens, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Beagles that inhaled 239 PuO 2 , 238 PuO 2 , or 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in dose-level groups of 20 dogs, with initial lung burdens of ∼2, 15, 70, 300, 1100, or 5500 nCi, are now 11, 9, or 5 years postexposure. Lung tumors, bone tumors, and radiation pneumonitis, the plutonium-exposure-related causes of death observed to date, have occurred in the two, three, and four highest dose-level groups exposed to 238 PuO 2 , 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , and 239 PuO 2 , respectively. No plutonium-exposure-related deaths have thus far been observed in dose-level groups exposed to less than ∼40 times the current maximum permissible lung dose for a plutonium worker. Plutonium-exposure-related effects not directly related to the cause of death include chronic lymphopenia, chronic neutropenia, sclerosis of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, focal radiation pneumonitis, adenomatous hyperplasia in the liver, and dystrophic osteolytic lesions in the skeleton. No plutonium-exposure-related effects have thus far been observed in dose-level groups that received less than ∼15 times the current maximum permissible lung dose for a plutonium worker. 10 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Supporting information for the estimation of plutonium oxide leak rates through very small apertures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwendiman, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Information is presented from which an estimate can be made of the release of plutonium oxide from shipping containers. The leak diameter is estimated from gas leak tests of the container and an estimate is made of gas leak rate as a function of pressure over the time of interest in the accident. These calculations are limited in accuracy because of assumptions regarding leak geometry and the basic formulations of hydrodynamic flow for the assumed conditions. Sonic flow is assumed to be the limiting gas flow rate. Particles leaking from the air space above the powder will be limited by the low availability of particles due to rapid settling, the very limited driving force (pressure buildup) during the first minute, and the deposition in the leak channel. Equations are given to estimate deposition losses. Leaks of particles occurring below the level of the bulk powder will be limited by mechanical interference when leaks are of dimension smaller than particle sizes present. Some limiting cases can be calculated. When the leak dimension is large compared to the particle sizes present, maximum particle releases can be estimated, but will be very conservative

  5. Mortality among plutonium and other workers at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, G.S.; Acquavella, J.F.; Reyes, M.; Tietjen, G.L.; Wiggs, L.d.; Voelz, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed study of mortality and radiation exposure for Rocky Flats workers was reported at the Sixteenth Mid-Year Topical Symposium of the Health Physics Society in January 1983. Significantly fewer deaths were found than were expected due to all causes, all malignant neoplasms, lung cancer, and cancer of the digestive organs. No bone cancers were observed and cancers commonly associated with radiation exposure were not more frequent than expected. Significantly more deaths than expected were observed for two causes, cancer of the prostate and benign and unspecified neoplasms. Further investigation revealed that the deaths from benign and unspecified neoplasms all involved intracranial tumors. A case control study found no association between these brain tumors and exposure to radiation, including plutonium depositions or type of occupation. The excess deaths from intracranial tumors remain unexplained but do not appear to be associated with employment at Rocky Flats. Relative risks among Rocky Flats workers with cumulative plutonium depositions of 2 nCi or more did not indicate a significantly greater risk of death among workers exposed to plutonium than among unexposed workers. Similar results were found for workers with cumulative radiation exposure of at least 1 rem. 2 references, 3 tables

  6. Determination of plutonium-238 in plutonium by alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Jain, H.C.; Mathews, C.K.; Ramaniah, M.V.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of 238 Pu in plutonium samples by alpha spectrometry. Various factors attributing towards the energy degradation, a problem usually encountered in alpha spectrometry, are discussed. A computer programme is given for the evaluation of peak areas when the alpha spectrum is degraded. The results are compared with those obtained by mass spectrometry. (author)

  7. Plutonium Speciation, Solubilization and Migration in Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, M.; Runde, W.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes research completed in the first half of a three-year project. As outlined in the authors' proposal they are focusing on (1) characterizing the plutonium at an actinide contaminated site, RFETS, including determining the origin, dispersion, and speciation of the plutonium, (2) studying environmentally important plutonium complexes, primarily hydroxides and carbonates, and (3) examining the interactions of plutonium species with manganese minerals. In the first year the authors focused on site based studies. This year they continue to characterize samples from the RFETS, study the formation and structural and spectroscopic features of environmentally relevant Pu species, and begin modeling the environmental behavior of plutonium

  8. Plutonium recovery from carbonate wash solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.; Reif, D.J.; Chostner, D.F.; Holcomb, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    540Periodically higher than expected levels of plutonium are found in carbonate solutions used to wash second plutonium cycle solvent. The recent accumulation of plutonium in carbonate wash solutions has led to studies to determine the cause of that plutonium accumulation, to evaluate the quality of all canyon solvents, and to develop additional criteria needed to establish when solvent quality is acceptable. Solvent from three canyon solvent extraction cycles was used to evaluate technology required to measure tributyl phosphate (TBP) degradation products and was used to evaluate solvent quality criteria during the development of plutonium recovery processes. 1 fig

  9. Swiss R and D on uranium-free LWR fuels for plutonium incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanculescu, A.; Chawla, R.; Degueldre, C.; Kasemeyer, U.; Ledergerber, G.; Paratte, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The most efficient way to enhance the plutonium consumption in LWRs is to eliminate plutonium production altogether. This requirement leads to fuel concepts in which the uranium is replaced by an inert matrix. The inert matrix material studied at PSI is zirconium oxide. For reactivity control reasons, adding a burnable poison to this fuel proves to be necessary. The studies performed at PSI have identified erbium oxide as the most suitable candidate for this purpose. With regard to material technology aspects, efforts have concentrated on the evaluation of fabrication feasibility and on the determination of the physicochemical properties of the chosen single phase zirconium/ erbium/plutonium oxide material stabilised as a cubic solution by yttrium. The results to-date, obtained for inert matrix samples containing thorium or cerium as plutonium substitute, confirm the robustness and stability of this material. With regard to reactor physics aspects, our studies indicate the feasibility of uranium-free, plutonium-fuelled cores having operational characteristics quite similar to those of conventional UO 2 -fuelled ones, and much higher plutonium consumption rates, as compared to 100% MOX loadings. The safety features of such cores, based on results obtained from static neutronics calculations, show no cliff edges. However, the need for further detailed transient analyses is clearly recognised. Summarising, PSI's studies indicate the feasibility of a uranium-free plutonium fuel to be considered in 'maximum plutonium consumption LWRs' operating in a 'once-through' mode. With regard to reactor physics, future efforts will concentrate on strengthening the safety case of uranium-free cores, as well as on improving the integral data base for validation of the neutronics calculations. Material technology studies will be continued to investigate the physico-chemical properties of the inert matrix fuel containing plutonium and will focus on the planning and evaluation of

  10. Plutonium concentrations in airborne soil at Rocky Flats and Hanford determined during resuspension experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Plutonium resuspension results are summarized for experiments conducted by the author at Rocky Flats, onsite on the Hanford reservation, and for winds blowing from offsite onto the Hanford reservation near the Prosser barricade boundary. In each case, plutonium resuspension was shown by increased airborne plutonium concentrations as a function of either wind speed or as compared to fallout levels. All measured airborne concentrations were far below maximum permissible concentrations (MPC). Both plutonium and cesium concentrations on airborne soil were normalized by the quantity of airborne soil sampled. Airborne radionuclide concentrations in μCi/g were related to published values for radionuclide concentrations on surface soils. For this ratio of radionuclide concentration per gram on airborne soil divided by that for ground surface soil, there are eight orders of magnitude uncertainty from 10 -4 to 10 4 . This uncertainty in the equality between plutonium concentrations per gram on airborne and surface soils is caused by only a fraction of the collected airborne soil being transported from offsite rather than all being resuspended from each study site and also by the great variabilities in surface contamination. Horizontal plutonium fluxes on airborne nonrespirable soils at all three sites were bracketed within the same four orders of magnitude from 10 -7 to 10 -3 μCi/(m 2 day) for 239 Pu and 10 -8 to 10 -5 μCi/(m 2 day) for 238 Pu. Airborne respirable 239 Pu concentrations increased with wind speed for a southwest wind direction coming from offsite near the Hanford reservation Prosser barricade. Airborne plutonium fluxes on nonrespirable particles had isotopic ratios, 240 Pu/ 239 240 Pu, similar to weapons grade plutonium rather than fallout plutonium

  11. Plutonium concentrations in airborne soil at Rocky Flats and Hanford determined during resuspension experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Plutonium resuspension results are summarized for experiments conducted by the author at Rocky Flats, onsite on the Hanford reservation, and for winds blowing from offsite onto the Hanford reservation near the Prosser barricade boundary. In each case, plutonium resuspension was shown by increased airborne plutonium concentrations as a function of either wind speed or as compared to fallout levels. All measured airborne concentrations were far below maximum permissible concentrations (MPC). Both plutonium and cesium concentrations on airborne soil were normalized by the quantity of airborne soil sampled. Airborne radionuclide concentrations in ..mu..Ci/g were related to published values for radionuclide concentrations on surface soils. For this ratio of radionuclide concentration per gram on airborne soil divided by that for ground surface soil, there are eight orders of magnitude uncertainty from 10/sup -4/ to 10/sup 4/. This uncertainty in the equality between plutonium concentrations per gram on airborne and surface soils is caused by only a fraction of the collected airborne soil being transported from offsite rather than all being resuspended from each study site and also by the great variabilities in surface contamination. Horizontal plutonium fluxes on airborne nonrespirable soils at all three sites were bracketed within the same four orders of magnitude from 10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -3/ ..mu..Ci/(m/sup 2/ day) for /sup 239/Pu and 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -5/ ..mu..Ci/(m/sup 2/ day) for /sup 238/Pu. Airborne respirable /sup 239/Pu concentrations increased with wind speed for a southwest wind direction coming from offsite near the Hanford reservation Prosser barricade. Airborne plutonium fluxes on nonrespirable particles had isotopic ratios, /sup 240/Pu//sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, similar to weapons grade plutonium rather than fallout plutonium.

  12. Effects of inhaled plutonium nitrate on bone and liver in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Weller, R.E.; Watson, C.R.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1994-04-01

    The life-span biological effects of inhaled soluble, alpha-emitting radionuclides deposited in the skeleton and liver were studied in 5 groups of 20 beagles exposed to initial lung depositions ranging from 0.48 to 518 Bq/g of lung. Average plutonium amounts in the lungs decreased to approximately 1% of the final body deposition in dogs surviving 5 years or more; more than 90% of the final depositions accumulated in the liver and skeleton. The liver-to-skeletal ratio of deposited plutonium was 0.83. The incidence of bone tumors, primarily osteogenic sarcomas causing early mortality, at final group average skeletal depositions of 15.8, 2.1, and 0.5 Bq/g was, respectively, 85%, 50%, and 5%; there were no bone tumors in exposure groups with mean average depositions lower than 0.5 Bq/g. Elevated serum liver enzyme levels were observed in exposure groups down to 1.3 Bq/g. The incidence of liver tumors at final group average liver depositions of 6.9, 1.3, 0.2, and 0.1 Bq/g, was, respectively, 25%, 15%, 15%, and 15%; one hepatoma occurred among 40 control dogs. The risk of the liver cancer produced by inhaled plutonium nitrate was difficult to assess due to the competing risks of life shortening from lung and bone tumors

  13. Plutonium inventories for stabilization and stabilized materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.K.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of the breakout session was to identify characteristics of materials containing plutonium, the need to stabilize these materials for storage, and plans to accomplish the stabilization activities. All current stabilization activities are driven by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94-1 (May 26, 1994) and by the recently completed Plutonium ES&H Vulnerability Assessment (DOE-EH-0415). The Implementation Plan for accomplishing stabilization of plutonium-bearing residues in response to the Recommendation and the Assessment was published by DOE on February 28, 1995. This Implementation Plan (IP) commits to stabilizing problem materials within 3 years, and stabilizing all other materials within 8 years. The IP identifies approximately 20 metric tons of plutonium requiring stabilization and/or repackaging. A further breakdown shows this material to consist of 8.5 metric tons of plutonium metal and alloys, 5.5 metric tons of plutonium as oxide, and 6 metric tons of plutonium as residues. Stabilization of the metal and oxide categories containing greater than 50 weight percent plutonium is covered by DOE Standard {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides{close_quotes} December, 1994 (DOE-STD-3013-94). This standard establishes criteria for safe storage of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides for up to 50 years. Each of the DOE sites and contractors with large plutonium inventories has either started or is preparing to start stabilization activities to meet these criteria.

  14. Burning weapons-grade plutonium in reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, D.F.

    1993-06-01

    As a result of massive reductions in deployed nuclear warheads, and their subsequent dismantlement, large quantities of surplus weapons- grade plutonium will be stored until its ultimate disposition is achieved in both the US and Russia. Ultimate disposition has the following minimum requirements: (1) preclude return of plutonium to the US and Russian stockpiles, (2) prevent environmental damage by precluding release of plutonium contamination, and (3) prevent proliferation by precluding plutonium diversion to sub-national groups or nonweapons states. The most efficient and effective way to dispose of surplus weapons-grade plutonium is to fabricate it into fuel and use it for generation of electrical energy in commercial nuclear power plants. Weapons-grade plutonium can be used as fuel in existing commercial nuclear power plants, such as those in the US and Russia. This recovers energy and economic value from weapons-grade plutonium, which otherwise represents a large cost liability to maintain in safeguarded and secure storage. The plutonium remaining in spent MOX fuel is reactor-grade, essentially the same as that being discharged in spent UO 2 fuels. MOX fuels are well developed and are currently used in a number of LWRs in Europe. Plutonium-bearing fuels without uranium (non-fertile fuels) would require some development. However, such non-fertile fuels are attractive from a nonproliferation perspective because they avoid the insitu production of additional plutonium and enhance the annihilation of the plutonium inventory on a once-through fuel cycle

  15. A survey of the Maralinga atomic weapons testing range for residual plutonium contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, W.R.

    1979-06-01

    Residual plutonium levels in soil, flora, fauna and the air of the Maralinga (South Australia) Atomic Weapons Testing Range are presented and discussed. It is shown that only on rare occasions (and possibly never) would the plutonium concentration in air from wind resuspended dust exceed the maximum allowable concentration for continuous exposure of the general public. In the case of artificially resuspended dust, this maximum concentration could be exceeded for short periods, but the accompanying dust level would be such that working conditions would be uncomfortable, if not intolerable. Potential hazards from other possible exposure routes are so low that they are of no consequence

  16. The first weighing of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-09-10

    The following text, transcribed from the remarks of those scientists who gathered at the University of Chicago on September 10, 1967, to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the first weighing of plutonium, tells an important part of the story of this fascinating new element that is destined to play an increasingly significant role in the future of man.

  17. Spectrographic analysis of plutonium (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaud, J.; Chaput, M.; Robichet, J.

    1960-01-01

    Various possibilities for the spectrographic determination of impurities in plutonium are considered. The application of the 'copper spark' method, of sparking on graphite and of fractional distillation in the arc are described and discussed in some detail (apparatus, accessories, results obtained). (author) [fr

  18. The first weighing of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The following text, transcribed from the remarks of those scientists who gathered at the University of Chicago on September 10, 1967, to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the first weighing of plutonium, tells an important part of the story of this fascinating new element that is destined to play an increasingly significant role in the future of man

  19. Safe disposal of surplus plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W. L.; Naz, S.; Lutze, W.; Busch, R.; Prinja, A.; Stoll, W.

    2001-06-01

    About 150 tons of weapons grade and weapons usable plutonium (metal, oxide, and in residues) have been declared surplus in the USA and Russia. Both countries plan to convert the metal and oxide into mixed oxide fuel for nuclear power reactors. Russia has not yet decided what to do with the residues. The US will convert residues into a ceramic, which will then be over-poured with highly radioactive borosilicate glass. The radioactive glass is meant to provide a deterrent to recovery of plutonium, as required by a US standard. Here we show a waste form for plutonium residues, zirconia/boron carbide (ZrO 2/B 4C), with an unprecedented combination of properties: a single, radiation-resistant, and chemically durable phase contains the residues; billion-year-old natural analogs are available; and criticality safety is given under all conceivable disposal conditions. ZrO 2/B 4C can be disposed of directly, without further processing, making it attractive to all countries facing the task of plutonium disposal. The US standard for protection against recovery can be met by disposal of the waste form together with used reactor fuel.

  20. Design of plutonium processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbyshire, W.; Sills, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Five considerations for the design of plutonium processing facilities are identified. These are: Toxicity, Radiation, Criticality, Containment and Remote Operation. They are examined with reference to reprocessing spent nuclear fuel and application is detailed both for liquid and dry processes. (author)

  1. On plutonium, journalism and ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.

    1994-01-01

    This editorial comments on the furore resulting from three lay articles published by E. Welsome in the Albuquerque Tribune for 15 November 1993, concerning the injection of plutonium into humans in the 1940s, and discusses the ethics of administration of radioactive materials with and without informed consent. (Author)

  2. Management of Russian military plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaleski, C.P.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose and discuss a solution which enables storing as quickly as possible all weapons-grade plutonium from Russian military program in a way which would prevent diversion. Two main conditions apply to this solution. First, it should be achieved in a manner acceptable to Russian government, notably by preserving plutonium for possible future energy production, and second, the economics of the total system should be good enough to ensure no charge or limited charge for the storage of plutonium. A proposal is made to store plutonium in a specially designed fast reactor or specially designed reactor core. This solution could be favorable in comparison to other solutions applying the above mentioned goal and conditions. Additionally the proposed solution would have the following side advantages: utilizing available personnel and installations of the Russian nuclear complex; providing possible basis for decommissioning of older and less safe Russian reactors; giving experience of construction and operation of a series of sodium-cooled fast reactors. The major problem however is the need for large capital investment with the risk of getting no adequate return on investment due to difficult political and economic situation in Russia

  3. Sources of plutonium to the great Miami River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelt, G.E.; Kennedy, C.W.; Bobula, C.M. III.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported in the study of 238 Pu, in the Great Miami River watershed the contribution of various sources to the total 238 Pu transported by the river. Periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from Mound Laboratory from 1973 to 1975 have released approximately 20 mCi of 238 Pu each year to the Great Miami River. Changes in the wastewater treatment system in 1976 have reduced the annual discharge to less than 3 mCi/year. However, despite this sevenfold reduction of plutonium in the wastewater discharge, the annual flux of 238 Pu down the river has remained relatively constant and is approximately 10 times greater than can be accounted for by the reported effluent discharges. Therefore, other sources of the 238 Pu in the Great Miami River exist. A second possible source of plutonium is the resuspension of sediments enriched by earlier waste water releases and deposited in the river. However, since there appear to be few areas where large accumulations of sediment could occur, it seems improbable that resuspension of earlier sediment deposits would continue to be a significant contributor to the annual flux of plutonium. A much more likely source is the continuing erosion of soil from a canal and stream system contaminated with approx. 5 Ci of 238 Pu, 7 which connects directly to the river 6.9 km upstream from Franklin. Results from samples analyzed in 1978 show the average concentration of 238 Pu in suspended sediments from the canal to be approximately 10 3 times greater than suspended sediment concentrations in the river and waste water effluent.Thus the main contributor to the total amount of plutonium transported by the Great Miami River appears to be highly enriched sediment from the canal, which is eroded into the river where it is then diluted by uncontaminated sediments

  4. Risk analysis of fatal and incidental lung tumors in wister rats after inhalation of plutonium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, M.; Akahane, K.; Ogiso, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Cancer risk analysis was done in animal studies for inhalation of plutonium dioxide. Female Wister rats were exposed to an aerosol of plutonium with AMAD of 0.4-0.5 μm and followed up until they died. We made some model analyses using their likelihood function. This approach enables us to consider temporal variation in dose-response analysis. Each rat contributes to the total likelihood depending on fatal or incidental tumors. In Weibul model analysis, the logarithm of the hazard function can be linearly modeled with the term of log (dose), log-L model, and additional term of the square of log (dose), log-LQ model. The likelihood ratio statistics gave a significantly better fit of the log-LQ model. However, if data more than 4 Gy were excluded, there was no significant difference between both models. The ratio of hazard function at 1 Gy and 0 Gy, the excess relative risk, showed 30 for total tumors. This result was much different from those in PNL data (Sanders et al.). The difference of pulmonary deposition depending upon particle size would cause different tumor incidence. Our studies indicated significant increase of occurrence of fatal lung cancer at an average dose of 0.5 Gy and thus did not suggest that a life-span effective threshold for death was about 1 Gy to the lung, which is shown in some papers. In contrast PNL, the incidence of adenoma showing the maximum at 0.5 Gy decreased with increasing lung dose from 1.5 Gy or higher, where malignant tumors such as adenocarcinomas increased. This phenomenon was analyzed with carcinogenesis models. (author)

  5. Hematological effects of inhaled plutonium dioxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, R.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Park, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    A life-span study indicated that plutonium activity in the thoracic lymph nodes is a contributor to development of lymphopenia in beagles exposed to 239 PuO 2 . Significant lymphopenia was found in 67 (58%) beagles given a single nose-only exposure to 239 PuO 2 to result in mean initial lung depositions ranging from 0.69 to 213.3 kBq. Lymphoid atrophy and sclerosis of the thoracic lymph nodes and lymphopenia were observed in exposure-level groups with initial lung depositions ≥2.5 kBq. Those dogs with final plutonium concentrations in the thoracic lymph nodes ≥0.4 kBq/g and dose rates ≥0.01 Gy/day developed lymphopenia. Marked differences existed between chronically lymphopenic dogs and intermittently lymphopenic dogs with regard to initial lung deposition, time to lymphopenic events and absolute lymphocyte concentrations. Linear regression analysis revealed moderate correlation between reduction in lymphocyte values and initial lung deposition, in both magnitude and time of appearance after exposure. Cumulative dose and dose rate appeared to act together to produce initial effects on lymphocyte populations, while dose rate alone appeared to be responsible for the maintenance and subsequent cycles of lymphopenia seen over the life span. No primary tumors were associated with the thoracic lymph nodes in this study, although 70% of the lymphopenic dogs developed lung tumors. 28 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  6. Nature`s uncommon elements: Plutonium and technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, D.; Fabryka-Martin, J.; Dixon, P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Chemical Science and Technology Div.; Cramer, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada). Whiteshell Lab.

    1998-01-06

    The authors have taken advantage of the extremely sensitive method of thermal ionization mass spectrometry to measure technetium and plutonium concentrations in sample masses that are smaller by as much as three orders of magnitude than those used in the early research efforts. The work reported in this paper extends the understanding of the geochemistry of plutonium and technetium by developing detailed descriptions of their associations in well characterized geologic samples, and by using modern neutron-transport modeling tools to better interpret the meaning of the results. Analyses were conducted on samples from three uranium ore deposits selected for their contrasting geochemical environments. The Cigar Lake deposit is an unweathered, unaltered primary ore in a reducing environment which is expected to closely approximate a system that is closed with respect to uranium and its products. The Koongarra deposit is a shallow system, both altered and weathered, subject to active ground water flow. Finally, a sample from the Beaverlodge deposit is included because it is a commercially-available uranium ore standard that allows demonstration of the precision of the analytical results.

  7. Effects of plutonium redistribution on lung counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.

    1976-01-01

    Early counts of Pu deposition in lungs will tend to overestimate lung contents since calibrations are performed with a uniform distribution and since a more favorable geometry exists in contaminated subjects because the activity is closer to the periphery of the lungs. Although the concentration into the outer regions of the lungs continues as evidenced by the autopsy studies, the counts performed by L X-rays will probably underestimate the lung content; because, simplistically, the geometry several years after exposure consists of a spherical shell with a point of activity in the center. This point of activity represents concentration in the lymph nodes from which the 60 keV gamma of 241 Am will be counted, but from which few of the L X-rays will be counted (this is an example of interorgan distribution). When a correction is made to the L X-ray intensity, the lymph node contribution will tend to increase the amount subtracted while correcting for 241 Am X-rays. It is doubtful that the relative increase in X-ray intensity by concentration in the pleural and sub-pleural regions will compensate for this effect. This will make the plutonium burden disappear while the 241 Am can still be detected. This effect has been observed in a case where counts with an intraesophageal probe indicated a substantial lymph node burden. In order to improve the accuracy of in vivo plutonium measurements, an improved understanding of pulmonary distribution and of distribution effects on in vivo counting are required

  8. Late excretion of plutonium following acquisition of known amounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.

    1981-01-01

    The urinary and fecal excretion rates of plutonium 10,000 days after intravenous injection of known amounts are compared with the predictions of various models. Both Langham's and Durbin's equations underestimated the urinary excretion by about an order of magnitude; the observed fecal excretion rates were also higher than the predictions. The total excretion rate predicted by the ICRP model was in quite good agreement with the observed rate, but it overestimated it at early times ( 239 Pu of former Manhattan Project plutonium workers, as calculated from the measured urinary excretion an application of Langham's equation. In one of these subjects the urinary excretion rate started to increase at about 6000 days, reached a maximum at about 9500 days, and declined for the next 2700 days

  9. Supported extractant membranes for americium and plutonium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscatello, A.C.; Navratil, J.D.; Killion, M.E.; Price, M.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Solid supported liquid membranes(SLM) are useful in transferring and concentrating americium and plutonium from nitrate solutions. Specifically, DHDECMP(dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate) supported on Accurel or Celgard polypropylene hollow fibers assembled in modular form transfers >95% of the americium and >70% of the plutonium from high nitrate (6.9 M), low acid (0.1 M) feeds into 0.25 M oxalic acid stripping solution. Membranes supporting TBP (tri-n-butylphosphate) also transfer these metal ions. Maximum permeabilities were observed to be 1 x 10 -3 cm sec -1 , similar to the values for other systems. The feed:strip volume ratio shows an inverse relationship to the fraction of metal ion transferred. Cation exchangers may be used to concentrate americium from the strip solution

  10. Long term management of wastes contaminated by plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marque, Y.

    1983-01-01

    For the different categories of wastes, the evolution of the cumulated production until the year 2000 is described by curves and the general situation of production points is presented, all that in France. The storage conditions are specified according to the type of wastes, category A, B, or C; the threshold under which the waste is classified in A category being fixed by the safety authorities at 2.10 4 CMA (maximum permissible concentration), that is to say for plutonium 1Ci/m 3 . The knowledge of waste activity is another basic element of the management of such wastes, the fixing of the threshold, above which wastes contaminated by plutonium have to be stored underground, still keeping to be specified [fr

  11. Uranium, plutonium and co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerbrey, Roland; Joehnk, Peter

    2016-01-01

    To date there is no repository facility for highly radioactive and heat-generating waste in Germany. This politically ''hot'' topic is undeniably a very big, urgent problem in our society. The Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers is dedicated to developing scientific solutions for such issues. It looks back on 20 years of history: In 1995 the loosely organized collective bearing the name ''Working Association of Large-Scale Research Institutes'' (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Grossforschungseinrichtungen) became an association of now 18 research centers. These centers collectively work in a total of six research areas. While the HZDR has only belonged to the largest research association in Germany since 2011, repository research was already on the agenda way back when the Rossendorf research center established itself in 1992 after the fall of the Berlin Wall. A good enough reason to examine the results from about 20 years of repository research in Dresden in more detail. In this issue of ''discovered'' we will take an inside look at radiochemical, radiogeological, and microbiological labs, look over the shoulders of researchers using the ''Rossendorf Beamline'' at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, and descend hundreds of meters into Finnish, Swedish, and Swiss research labs. How do ''uranium, plutonium, and co.'' react with mineral surfaces in environments that are low in oxygen or watery? How do they interact with microorganisms deep underground? And how can host rock or other materials be used as technical barriers to prevent the spread of radioactive substances? In order to answer these and further questions, the researchers of the HZDR use a wide range of spectroscopic methods. They expose test samples to lasers, infrared light, and X-rays or use the fluorescent properties of certain compounds to learn about the behavior of actinides

  12. Uranium, plutonium and co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauerbrey, Roland; Joehnk, Peter (eds.)

    2016-04-15

    To date there is no repository facility for highly radioactive and heat-generating waste in Germany. This politically ''hot'' topic is undeniably a very big, urgent problem in our society. The Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers is dedicated to developing scientific solutions for such issues. It looks back on 20 years of history: In 1995 the loosely organized collective bearing the name ''Working Association of Large-Scale Research Institutes'' (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Grossforschungseinrichtungen) became an association of now 18 research centers. These centers collectively work in a total of six research areas. While the HZDR has only belonged to the largest research association in Germany since 2011, repository research was already on the agenda way back when the Rossendorf research center established itself in 1992 after the fall of the Berlin Wall. A good enough reason to examine the results from about 20 years of repository research in Dresden in more detail. In this issue of ''discovered'' we will take an inside look at radiochemical, radiogeological, and microbiological labs, look over the shoulders of researchers using the ''Rossendorf Beamline'' at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, and descend hundreds of meters into Finnish, Swedish, and Swiss research labs. How do ''uranium, plutonium, and co.'' react with mineral surfaces in environments that are low in oxygen or watery? How do they interact with microorganisms deep underground? And how can host rock or other materials be used as technical barriers to prevent the spread of radioactive substances? In order to answer these and further questions, the researchers of the HZDR use a wide range of spectroscopic methods. They expose test samples to lasers, infrared light, and X-rays or use the fluorescent properties of certain compounds to learn about the behavior of actinides

  13. Physics of Plutonium Recycling in Thermal Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinchin, G.H.

    1967-01-01

    A substantial programme of experimental reactor physics work with plutonium fuels has been carried out in the UK; the purpose of this paper is to review the experimental and theoretical work, with emphasis on plutonium recycling in thermal reactors. Although the main incentive for some of the work may have been to study plutonium build-up in uranium-fuelled reactors, it is nevertheless relevant to plutonium recycling and no distinction is drawn between build-up and enrichment studies. A variety of techniques have been for determining reactivity, neutron spectrum and reaction rates in simple assemblies of plutonium-aluminium fuel with water, graphite and beryllia moderators. These experiments give confidence in the basic data and methods of calculation for near-homogeneous mixtures of plutonium and moderator. In the practical case of plutonium recycling it is necessary to confirm that satisfactory predictions can be made for heterogeneous lattices enriched with plutonium. In this field, experiments have been carried out with plutonium-uranium metal and oxide-cluster fuels in graphite-moderated lattices and in SGHW lattices, and the effects of 240 Pu have been studied by perturbation measurements with single fuel elements. The exponential and critical experiments have used tonne quantities of fuel with plutonium contents ranging from 0.25 to 1.2% and the perturbation experiments have extended both the range of plutonium contents and the range of isotopic compositions of plutonium. In addition to reactivity and reactivity coefficients, such as the temperature coefficients, attention has been concentrated on relative reaction rate distributions which provide evidence for variations of neutron spectrum. .Theoretical comparisons, together with similar comparisons for non-uniform lattices, establish the validity of methods of calculation which have been used to study the feasibility of plutonium recycling in thermal reactors. (author)

  14. Physics of Plutonium Recycling in Thermal Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinchin, G. H. [Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1967-09-15

    A substantial programme of experimental reactor physics work with plutonium fuels has been carried out in the UK; the purpose of this paper is to review the experimental and theoretical work, with emphasis on plutonium recycling in thermal reactors. Although the main incentive for some of the work may have been to study plutonium build-up in uranium-fuelled reactors, it is nevertheless relevant to plutonium recycling and no distinction is drawn between build-up and enrichment studies. A variety of techniques have been for determining reactivity, neutron spectrum and reaction rates in simple assemblies of plutonium-aluminium fuel with water, graphite and beryllia moderators. These experiments give confidence in the basic data and methods of calculation for near-homogeneous mixtures of plutonium and moderator. In the practical case of plutonium recycling it is necessary to confirm that satisfactory predictions can be made for heterogeneous lattices enriched with plutonium. In this field, experiments have been carried out with plutonium-uranium metal and oxide-cluster fuels in graphite-moderated lattices and in SGHW lattices, and the effects of {sup 240}Pu have been studied by perturbation measurements with single fuel elements. The exponential and critical experiments have used tonne quantities of fuel with plutonium contents ranging from 0.25 to 1.2% and the perturbation experiments have extended both the range of plutonium contents and the range of isotopic compositions of plutonium. In addition to reactivity and reactivity coefficients, such as the temperature coefficients, attention has been concentrated on relative reaction rate distributions which provide evidence for variations of neutron spectrum. .Theoretical comparisons, together with similar comparisons for non-uniform lattices, establish the validity of methods of calculation which have been used to study the feasibility of plutonium recycling in thermal reactors. (author)

  15. The radiological hazard of plutonium isotopes and specific plutonium mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heindel, G.; Clow, J.; Inkret, W.; Miller, G.

    1995-11-01

    The US Department of Energy defines the hazard categories of its nuclear facilities based upon the potential for accidents to have significant effects on specific populations and the environment. In this report, the authors consider the time dependence of hazard category 2 (significant on-site effects) for facilities with inventories of plutonium isotopes and specific weapons-grade and heat-source mixtures of plutonium isotopes. The authors also define relative hazard as the reciprocal of the hazard category 2 threshold value and determine its time dependence. The time dependence of both hazard category 2 thresholds and relative hazards are determined and plotted for 10,000 years to provide useful information for planning long-term storage or disposal facilities

  16. Comments on a paper entitled: Toxicity and carcinogenicity of plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocum, W.E.; Pigg, C.J.

    1978-06-01

    Studies on carcinogenic effects of Pu-239 on animals have been reviewed often in the literature. A summary of these studies, which were done primarily with dogs or rats, shows that the inhalation of Pu-239 results in plutonium being retained in highest concentrations in bone, liver, lung, and lymph nodes. This may result in the induction of specific kinds of cancer, primarily lung and bone carcinomas, and to a lesser extent, bile duct tumors. These animal studies have been extremely useful in the analysis of the limited number of studies available on humans exposed to plutonium and in the prediction of plutonium cancer risk to man. One of the most significant and relevant studies on human exposures to Pu-239 is that of the 1944-45 exposure at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Twenty-five men associated with the Manhattan Project were identified as having had significant plutonium exposures; total initial lung burden across the group was approximately 10 μCi. These individuals have been monitored clinically and in laboratory studies for the past 30 years. None of the individuals has shown cancer incidence and none shows medical findings attributable to internally deposited plutonium. There has been no recorded instance of cancer in man resulting from the internal deposition of any plutonium isotope in the more than three decades in which plutonium has been used. This excellent record illustrates the effectiveness of control measures and safety standards imposed on the handling of radioactive materials. These facts lead to a high level of confidence that the transportation of radioactive materials to and around the WIPP would not have a markedly different record

  17. Plutonium vulnerability issues at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldt, E.; Templeton, D.W.; Tholen, E.

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) at the Hanford, Washington Site was operated to produce plutonium (Pu) metal and oxide for national defense purposes. Due to the production requirements and methods utilized to meet national needs and the abrupt shutdown of the plant in the late 1980s, the plant was left in a condition that poses a risk of radiation exposure to plant workers, of accidental radioactive material release to the environment, and of radiation exposure to the public. In early 1994, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to determine the best methods for cleaning out and stabilizing Pu materials in the PFP was started. While the EIS is being prepared, a number of immediate actions have been completed or are underway to significantly reduce the greatest hazards in the PFP. Recently, increased attention his been paid to Pu risks at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities resulting in the Department-wide Plutonium Vulnerability Assessment and a recommendation by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) for DOE to develop integrated plans for managing its nuclear materials

  18. Mortality study of Los Alamos workers with higher exposures to plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Healy, J.W.; McInroy, J.F.; Tietjen, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    A group of white male workers with the highest internal depositions of plutonium at the Los Alamos National Laboratory was selected in 1974 for a study of mortality. This group of 224 persons includes all those with an estimated deposition (in 1974) of 10 nanocuries or more of plutonium, principally 239 Pu but also in some cases 238 Pu. Follow-up of these workers is 100% complete through 1980. Smoking histories were obtained on all persons. Exposure histories for external radiation and plutonium were reviewed for each subject. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated using rates for white males in the United States population, adjusted for age and year of death. SMRs are low for all causes of death (56; 95% CI 40, 75) or for all malignant neoplasms (54; 95% CI 23,106). Cancers of interest for plutonium exposures, including cancers of bone, lung, liver, and bone marrow/lymphatic systems, were infrequent or absent. The absence of a detectable excess of cancer deaths is consistent with the low calculated risk to these workers using current radiation risk coefficients. An alternate theory that suggests much higher risk of lung cancer due to synergistic effects of smoking and inhaled insoluble plutonium particles is not supported by this study

  19. Biokinetic study of plutonium and americium associated to the particulates of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, A.; Aragon, A.; Martinez, J.; Iranzo, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    The object of this study is to determine the biokinetic parameters of different Plutonium isotopes and Americium inhaled in the state in which they are found in the environment as a result of their deposition in the soil, from an aviation accident that generated different plutonium oxides. to achieve this objective, two lines of work planned. One was the determination of the mineralogical composition and associations that plutonium and americium present in that soil 22 years after the nuclear accident. Other studies were directed to determine the biokinetic of the plutonium isotopes and americium (contained in the dust) deposited tracheally and inhaled by laboratory animals (rats) and in vitro experiments by pulmonary leaching simulation. The in vivo tests have been developed in NRPB (U.K.) and the in vitro experiment, geochemical associations studies, assessment of internal doses to humans resulting from intake of plutonium and americium bearing dusts present in the contaminated area and establishment of ALIs for inhalation, were carried out in CIEMAT (Spain). In this work only determinations and experiments carried out by CIEMAT are includes as a part of the EU Project ''INHALATION AND INGESTION OF RADIONUCLIDES'' contract: FI3P-CT920064a. (Author) 10 refs

  20. Potential hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures in legacy plutonium oxide packages at Oak Ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-07

    An approach to estimate the maximum hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures within sealed containers is described and applied to a set of packages containing high-purity plutonium dioxide. The approach uses experimentally determined maximum hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures and scales the experimentally determined pressures to the relevant packaged material properties. The important material properties are the specific wattage and specific surface area (SSA). Important results from the experimental determination of maximum partial pressures are (1) the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is stoichiometric, and (2) the maximum pressures increase with increasing initial rates of production. The material properties that influence the rates are the material specific wattage and the SSA. The unusual properties of these materials, high specific wattage and high SSA, result in higher predicted maximum pressures than typical plutonium dioxide in storage. The pressures are well within the deflagration range for mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen.

  1. Bibliography on plutonium and its compounds; Bibliographie sur le plutonium et ses composes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirian, J; Choquet, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Collection of bibliographical references on plutonium and its principal compounds from 1942 to end of 1957. (author) [French] Compilation de references bibliographiques sur le plutonium et ses principaux composes de 1942 a fin 1957. (auteur)

  2. Historical reconstruction of Plutonium contamination in the Swiss-Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrieli J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plutonium is present in the environment as a consequence of atmospheric nuclear tests carried out in the 1960s, nuclear weapons production and releases by the nuclear industry over the past 50 years. Approximately 6 tons of 239Pu have been released into the environment as a result of 541 atmospheric weapon tests Nuclear Pu fallout has been studied in various environmental archives, such as sediments, soil and herbarium grass. Mid-latitude ice cores have been studied as well, on Mont Blanc, the Western Alps and on Belukha Glacier, Siberian Altai. We present a Pu record obtained by analyzing 52 discrete samples of an alpine firn/ice core from Colle Gnifetti (M. Rosa, 4450 m a.s.l., dating from 1945 to 1991. The 239Pu signal was recorded directly, without preliminary cleaning or preconcentration steps, using an high resolution inductively plasma mass spectrometer equipped with a desolvation system. The 239Pu profile reflects the three main periods of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing: the earliest peak lasted from 1954/55 to 1958 and was caused by the first testing period reaching a maximum in 1958. Despite a temporary halt of testing in 1959/60, the Pu concentration decreased only by half with respect to the 1958 peak due to long atmospheric residence times. In 1961/62 Pu concentrations rapidly increased reaching a maximum in 1963. After the signing of the “Limited Test Ban Treaty” between USA and USSR in 1964, Pu deposition decreased very sharply reaching a minimum in 1967. The third period (1967-1975 is characterized by irregular Pu concentrations with smaller peaks which might be related to the deposition of Saharan dust contaminated by the French nuclear tests of the 1960s.

  3. A literature study of the behaviour of cesium, strontium and plutonium in the soil-plant ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, B.; Strandberg, M.

    1988-07-01

    Literature on the occurrence of radiocesium (primarily 137CS) in the soil-plant system with emphasis on the influence of treatment on its root uptake, was reviewed. The aim was to study root uptake of radiocesium in order to estimate the applicability of suitable counter measures in cases of contamination of arable land with plutonium, radiostrontium and, in particular, radiocesium. To what extent 136CS is available to, and absorbed by, the plant and how it is distributed and absorbed in the soil is described. The physiological uptake of plutonium from soil through roots to plant parts lying above ground constitutes minor health hazards to population from the ingestion of vegetables. Extensive use of root fruits, might indicate that there is a risk present in areas of high plutonium soil concentration, because plutonium is adsorbed to root molecules, especially if soil and peel are not discarded. Another risk lies in the resuspension of plutonium deposited on the soil surface. As mentioned above, the impact of the leakage of plutonium from the Chernobyl accident was negligible in distant areas. The effects in the vicinity of the reactor, might have been important. In small areas with high levels of plutonium contamination removal of the top soil layer will be effective. Because of the high toxity and long half-life of plutonium, the risk involved merely in isolating such an area will be to high, because the plutonium may be further dispersed. In larger areas, deep ploughing to a depth of 30-40 cm or more, if feasible, is a possibility. Local factors have to be considered, e.g. position of bedrock, groundwater, soil parameters etc. Deep ploughing combined with previous dispersion of clay minerals, lime or humus or a combination, might be a solution, and should be followed by limiting crops to those with roots concentrated in the surface layer and with smallest attainable concentration ratios for plutonium. Cereals might fill this demand. 188 refs. (AB)

  4. Multi-generational stewardship of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1997-01-01

    The post-cold war era has greatly enhanced the interest in the long-term stewardship of plutonium. The management of excess plutonium from proposed nuclear weapons dismantlement has been the subject of numerous intellectual discussions during the past several years. In this context, issues relevant to long-term management of all plutonium as a valuable energy resource are also being examined. While there are differing views about the future role of plutonium in the economy, there is a recognition of the environmental and health related problems and proliferation potentials of weapons-grade plutonium. The long-term management of plutonium as an energy resource will require a new strategy to maintain stewardship for many generations to come

  5. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriikku, E.; Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.; Rogers, L.; Fiscus, J.; Dyches, G.

    1998-05-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses five can loading conceptual designs and the lists the advantages and disadvantages for each concept. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas. The can loading welder and cutter are very similar to the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) FB-Line bagless transfer welder and cutter and thus they are a low priority development item

  6. The chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity of plutonium chemistry was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were aqueous solution based, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, it was found that an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element will be reported

  7. Plutonium chemistry of the ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folsom, T.R.

    1972-01-01

    Plutonium is a man-made element whose behavior in the marine environment is inadequately known at present. It has been studied intensively in connection with production of weapons and power sources and has been characterized as an extremely toxic substance. Nevertheless, only a few dozen measurements have been made of concentrations in seawater and in the associated organisms and sediments. The first of these were as recent as 1964. There are reasons to believe its chemical behavior in the ocean is different from what has been observed on land, and that it will be difficult to predict how plutonium will distribute itself in the ocean. The consequences of increased environmental concentrations of Pu are discussed

  8. The first milligrams of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1997-01-01

    A historical review of the development of the very first quantities of plutonium produced during World War II in the United States and in Canada, as remembered by the French nuclear chemist, Mr Goldschmidt, who participated to the various programs which were involved in the development of the atomic bomb, and to the first steps of the French atomic program after the war. Mr Goldschmidt worked especially on organic solvent extraction, with the selection, in 1945, of non volatile tri glycol dichloride, and the development of the Chalk River plant. In 1949, at the Bouchet plant, his team has isolated the first milligrams of French plutonium from uranium oxide; and in 1952, the PUREX process was developed

  9. Biological behaviour of plutonium given as a trilaurylamine complex. Comparison with plutonium-tributylphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolibe, D.; Duserre, C.; Gil, I.; Rateau, G.; Metivier, H.

    1989-01-01

    The biokinetics of plutonium (Pu) were compared in rats after its administration by inhalation or intramuscular injection as Pu-trilaurylamine (Pu-TLA) or Pu-tri-n-butylphosphate (Pu-TBP). To study the mass effect, 238 Pu and 239 Pu were used. Translocation from the lungs and injection site was faster for 238 Pu than 239 Pu, and faster for Pu-TLA than Pu-TBP. The skeleton was always the main organ of deposition of the transferable Pu fraction. At 50 days after inhalation, the skeletal content, in per cent of the body content at death was 10% for 239 Pu-TBP, 54% for 238 Pu-TBP, 24% for 239 Pu-TLA and 62% for 238 Pu-TLA. The amounts in the liver were respectively 2, 6, 3, and 10% of the body content. Thirty days after intramuscular injection of 239 Pu-TLA, more Pu was translocated than after 239 Pu-TBP (26% versus 16%) and the skeletal deposit was 10 times the deposit in the liver. DTPA therapy after inhalation or injection of 238 Pu-TLA reduced the skeletal content by 35-58% with a corresponding increase in urinary excretion. (author)

  10. Holdup measurements of plutonium in glove box exhausts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glick, J.B.; Haas, F.X.; McKamy, J.N.; Garrett, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    A new measurement technique has been developed to quantify plutonium in process glove box exhausts. The technique implemented at Rocky Flats Plant utiltizes a shielded, collimated 0.5in. x 0.5in. bismuth germanate (BGO) gamma-ray detector. Pairs of measurements are made at one foot intervals along the duct. One measurement is made with the detector viewing the bottom of the duct with the detector crystal approximately 2 inches from the duct surface. The second measurement is made on the top of the exhaust pipe with the detector crystal 2 inches from the top of the duct. When the detector is placed in the bottom assay position, the area of the holdup material is assumed to extend beyond the detector field of view. The concentration of plutonium in g/cm 2 is obtained from this bottom measurement. The deposit width is determined from a model developed to relate the deposit width to the ratio of the count rates measured at the two positions, above and below the duct. Once a deposit width has been calculated, it is multiplied by the concentration determined from the bottom measurement to yield a mass- per-unit-length at the duct location. Total plutonium mass is then determined by multiplying the duct length by the average of the mass- per-unit length assays performed along the duct. The applicability of the technique is presented in a comparison of field measurement data to analysis results on material removed from the ducts. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  11. Assessment of plutonium in the Savannah River Site environment. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-12-31

    Plutonium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fifth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. These are living documents, each to be revised and updated on a two-year schedule. This document describes the sources of plutonium in the environment, its release from SRS, environmental transport and ecological concentration of plutonium, and the radiological impact of SRS releases to the environment. Plutonium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite SNAP 9-A, plane crashes involving nuclear weapons, and small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants. Plutonium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors and released in small quantities during the processing of fuel and targets in chemical separations facilities. Approximately 0.6 Ci of plutonium was released into streams and about 12 Ci was released to seepage basins, where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A smaller quantity, about 3.8 Ci, was released to the atmosphere. Virtually all releases have occurred in F- and H-Area separation facilities. Plutonium concentration and transport mechanisms for the atmosphere, surface water, and ground water releases have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases to the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by a total dose of 15 mrem (atmospheric) and 0.18 mrem (liquid), compared with the dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time (1954--1989). Plutonium releases from SRS facilities have resulted in a negligible impact to the environment and the population it supports.

  12. Confinement facilities for handling plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraman, W.J.; McNeese, W.D.; Stafford, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    Plutonium handling on a multigram scale began in 1944. Early criteria, equipment, and techniques for confining contamination have been superseded by more stringent criteria and vastly improved equipment and techniques for in-process contamination control, effluent air cleaning and treatment of liquid wastes. This paper describes the evolution of equipment and practices to minimize exposure of workers and escape of contamination into work areas and into the environment. Early and current contamination controls are compared. (author)

  13. Plutonium decontamination studies using Reverse Osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plock, C.E.; Travis, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Water in batches of 45 gallons each, from a creek crossing the Rocky Flats Plant, was transferred to the Reverse Osmosis (RO) laboratory for experimental testing. The testing involved using RO for plutonium decontamination. For each test, the water was spiked with plutonium, had its pH adjusted, and was then processed by RO. At a water recovery level of 87%, the plutonium decontamination factors ranged from near 100 to 1200, depending on the pH of the processed water

  14. Safe handling of plutonium in research laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The training film illustrates the main basic requirements for the safe handling of small amounts of plutonium. The film is intended not only for people setting up plutonium research laboratories but also for all those who work in existing plutonium research laboratories. It was awarded the first prize in the category ''Protection of Workers'' at the international film festival organized by the 4th World Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) in Paris in April 1977

  15. Addressing mixed waste in plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, D.C.; Sohn, C.L.; Reid, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The overall goal is the minimization of all waste generated in actinide processing facilities. Current emphasis is directed toward reducing and managing mixed waste in plutonium processing facilities. More specifically, the focus is on prioritizing plutonium processing technologies for development that will address major problems in mixed waste management. A five step methodological approach to identify, analyze, solve, and initiate corrective action for mixed waste problems in plutonium processing facilities has been developed

  16. Plutonium recycle. In-core fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, F.; Berthet, A.; Le Bars, M.

    1985-01-01

    Plutonium recycle in France will concern a dozen of PWR 900 MWe controlled in gray mode till 1995. This paper presents the main characteristics of fuel management with plutonium recycle. The organization of management studies will be copied from this developed for classical management studies. Up these studies, a ''feasibility report'' aims at establishing at each stage of the fuel cycle, the impact of the utilization of fuel containing plutonium [fr

  17. Plutonium-induced lymphadenitis in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    Plutonium oxide particles accumulate in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of beagles exposed by inhalation and in the popliteal lymph nodes after subcutaneous injection in the hind paws. The sequence of histopathologic changes after phagocytosis of particles included necrosis, increased numbers of macrophages, and fibroplasia. Scar tissue eventually replaced the normal architecture of the lymph nodes and sequestered the plutonium particles from surrounding parenchyma. Electron microscopy showed that plutonium particles were aggregated in phagolysosomes of macrophages

  18. Safe handling of plutonium in research laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-12-31

    The training film illustrates the main basic requirements for the safe handling of small amounts of plutonium. The film is intended not only for people setting up plutonium research laboratories but also for all those who work in existing plutonium research laboratories. It was awarded the first prize in the category ``Protection of Workers`` at the international film festival organized by the 4th World Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) in Paris in April 1977

  19. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterbentz, J.W.; Olsen, C.S.; Sinha, U.P.

    1993-06-01

    This study is in response to a request by the Reactor Panel Subcommittee of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) to evaluate the feasibility of using plutonium fuels (without uranium) for disposal in existing conventional or advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs and in low temperature/pressure LWR designs that might be developed for plutonium disposal. Three plutonium-based fuel forms (oxides, aluminum metallics, and carbides) are evaluated for neutronic performance, fabrication technology, and material and compatibility issues. For the carbides, only the fabrication technologies are addressed. Viable plutonium oxide fuels for conventional or advanced LWRs include plutonium-zirconium-calcium oxide (PuO 2 -ZrO 2 -CaO) with the addition of thorium oxide (ThO 2 ) or a burnable poison such as erbium oxide (Er 2 O 3 ) or europium oxide (Eu 2 O 3 ) to achieve acceptable neutronic performance. Thorium will breed fissile uranium that may be unacceptable from a proliferation standpoint. Fabrication of uranium and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuels is well established; however, fabrication of plutonium-based oxide fuels will require further development. Viable aluminum-plutonium metallic fuels for a low temperature/pressure LWR include plutonium aluminide in an aluminum matrix (PuAl 4 -Al) with the addition of a burnable poison such as erbium (Er) or europium (Eu). Fabrication of low-enriched plutonium in aluminum-plutonium metallic fuel rods was initially established 30 years ago and will require development to recapture and adapt the technology to meet current environmental and safety regulations. Fabrication of high-enriched uranium plate fuel by the picture-frame process is a well established process, but the use of plutonium would require the process to be upgraded in the United States to conform with current regulations and minimize the waste streams

  20. Plutonium in a grassland ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.

    1976-08-01

    A study was made of plutonium contamination of grassland at the Rocky Flats plant northwest of Denver, Colorado. Of interest were: the definition of major plutonium-containing ecosystem compartments; the relative amounts in those compartments; how those values related to studies done in other geographical areas; whether or not the predominant isotopes, 238 Pu and 239 Pu, behaved differently; and what mechanisms might have allowed for the observed patterns of contamination. Samples of soil, litter, vegetation, arthropods, and small mammals were collected for Pu analysis and mass determination from each of two macroplots. Small aliquots (5 g or less) were analyzed by a rapid liquid scintillation technique and by alpha spectrometry. Of the compartments sampled, greater than 99 percent of the total plutonium was contained in the soil and the concentrations were significantly inversely correlated with distance from the contamination source, depth of the sample, and particle size of the sieved soil samples. The soil data suggested that the distribution of contamination largely resulted from physical transport processes

  1. An Improved Plutonium Trifluoride Precipitation Flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, H.D.

    2001-06-26

    This report discusses results of the plutonium trifluoride two-stage precipitation study. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitation performance. A mathematical model of the precipitation process was developed which is based on the formation of plutonium fluoride complexes. The precipitation model relates all process variables, in a single equation, to a single parameter which can be used to control the performance of the plutonium trifluoride precipitation process. Recommendations have been made which will optimize the FB-Line plutonium trifluoride precipitation process.

  2. Safe handling of plutonium: a panel report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    This guide results from a meeting of a Panel of Experts held by the International Atomic Energy Agency on 8 to 12 November 1971. It is directed to workers in research laboratories handling plutonium in gram amounts. Contents: aspects of the physical and chemical properties of plutonium; metabolic features of plutonium; facility design features for safe handling of plutonium (layout of facility, working zones, decontamination room, etc.); glove boxes; health surveillance (surveillance of environment and supervision of workers); emergencies; organization. Annexes: types of glove boxes; tables; mobile ..cap alpha.. air sampler; aerosol monitor; bio-assay limits of detection; examples of contamination control monitors.

  3. An Improved Plutonium Trifluoride Precipitation Flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, H.D.

    2001-01-01

    This report discusses results of the plutonium trifluoride two-stage precipitation study. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitation performance. A mathematical model of the precipitation process was developed which is based on the formation of plutonium fluoride complexes. The precipitation model relates all process variables, in a single equation, to a single parameter which can be used to control the performance of the plutonium trifluoride precipitation process. Recommendations have been made which will optimize the FB-Line plutonium trifluoride precipitation process

  4. Assay of low-level plutonium effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Hsue, F.; Bowersox, D.F.

    1981-01-01

    In the plutonium recovery section at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, an effluent solution is generated that contains low plutonium concentration and relatively high americium concentration. Nondestructive assay of this solution is demonstrated by measuring the passive L x-rays following alpha decay. Preliminary results indicate that an average deviation of 30% between L x-ray and alpha counting can be achieved for plutonium concentrations above 10 mg/L and Am/Pu ratios of up to 3; for plutonium concentrations less than 10 mg/L, the average deviation is 40%. The sensitivity of the L x-ray assay is approx. 1 mg Pu/L

  5. Effect of change in diet on excretion of plutonium-239 from organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, N.P.

    1987-01-01

    To check supposition on milk effect on plutonium-239 excretion from organism the portable water for rats, contained in individual metabolic cages permitting separate excretion analysis, was replaced by milk. Some days later milk was excluded from diet. 24-hourly rate of radionuclide with feces and urine excretion from organism was determined. On the basis of preliminary data analysis it is supposed that interaction of some milk components with biocomponents of blood and deposition organ tissues violate 239 Pu steady equilibrium distribution in organism, affecting its metabolism through the intermediary of blood system. It results in increased plutonium excretion

  6. Problems and progress in the preparation of sources for the alpha spectrometry of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, M.; Deron, S.; Swietly, H.; Heinonen, O.J.

    1981-01-01

    The interpretation of non-destructive measurements of plutonium materials require more accurate determinations of the isotopic abundance of Pu-238 than conventional chemical assays. The requirements of calorimetry, passive neutron and conventional chemical assays are presented and compared. When Pu-238 is measured by alpha spectrometry, these requirements define how well the plutonium must be separated from americium, and what should be the accuracy of the spectrometry. The latter can strongly depend upon the resolution of the alpha spectrum. The authors describe a procedure to produce sources by drop deposition which ensure a resolution of 17 keV with commercial instrumentation

  7. Approximate maximum parsimony and ancestral maximum likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Noga; Chor, Benny; Pardi, Fabio; Rapoport, Anat

    2010-01-01

    We explore the maximum parsimony (MP) and ancestral maximum likelihood (AML) criteria in phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Both problems are NP-hard, so we seek approximate solutions. We formulate the two problems as Steiner tree problems under appropriate distances. The gist of our approach is the succinct characterization of Steiner trees for a small number of leaves for the two distances. This enables the use of known Steiner tree approximation algorithms. The approach leads to a 16/9 approximation ratio for AML and asymptotically to a 1.55 approximation ratio for MP.

  8. A case of internal contamination with plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, F.; Clemente, G.F.; Strambi, E.; Testa, C.

    1980-01-01

    A case is described of internal contamination caused by the accidental explosion of a glove box, whereby a technician was wounded in his right cheek and inhaled insoluble PuO 2 . Immediate washing of the wound with a DTPA solution and the performance of a small surgical toilet reduced the wound contamination a hundred times. Intravenous injection of DPTA was started and continued for nine days. The ''in vivo'' determination of plutonium and Am-241 lung content was performed immediately after the accident and several other times thereafter. Plutonium was determined periodically in urine and fecal samples for five months. The large Esub(f)/Esub(u) ratio and the steep slope of the Esub(f) curve in the first days indicated that the inhaled material was very insoluble and that the suspended powder particles were large. This conclusion was confirmed by the lung clearance ''in vivo'' during the first few days. The initial lung burden, calculated by the fecal excretion of plutonium in the first five days, was in very good agreement with the direct measurement of the lung content; the residual lung burden and the systemic burden were derived respectively U by the fecal and urinary excretion 100 days after the intake. The committed doses to lungs, bone, liver and kidneys were calculated and were found to be considerably lower than the maximum permissible levels. (H.K.)

  9. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU 366) FY2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolich, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Mizell, Steve [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Campbell, Scott [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Desert Research Institute (DRI) is conducting a field assessment of the potential for contaminated soil transport from the Plutonium Valley Contamination Area (CA) as a result of wind transport and storm runoff in support of National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) efforts to complete regulatory closure of the contamination areas. The DRI work is intended to confirm the likely mechanism(s) of transport and determine the meteorological conditions that might cause movement of contaminated soils. The emphasis of the work is on collecting sediment transported by channelized storm runoff at the Plutonium Valley investigation sites. These data will inform closure plans that are being developed, which will facilitate the appropriate closure design and post-closure monitoring. In 2011, DRI installed two meteorological monitoring stations south (station #1) and north (station #2) of the Plutonium Valley CA and a runoff sediment sampling station within the CA. Temperature, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, precipitation, solar radiation, barometric pressure, soil temperature, and airborne particulate concentration are collected at both meteorological stations. The maximum, minimum, and average or total (as appropriate) for each of these parameters are recorded for each 10-minute interval. The sediment sampling station includes an automatically activated ISCO sampling pump with collection bottles for suspended sediment, which is activated when sufficient flow is present in the channel, and passive traps for bedload material that is transported down the channel during runoff events. This report presents data collected from these stations during fiscal year (FY) 2015.

  10. Seismic safety of the LLL plutonium facility (Building 332)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torkarz, F.J.; Shaw, G.

    1980-01-01

    This report states the basis for the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's assurance to the public that the plutonium operations at the Laboratory pose essentially no risk to anyone's health or safety, either under normal circumstances or in the event of an earthquake or a fire. The report is intended for a general audience, and so for the most part it is not highly technical. It summarizes the steps taken to ensure the seismic safety of the plutonium facility (Bldg. 332). It describes plutonium and its potential hazard and how the facility copes with that hazard. It recounts the geologic investigations and interpretations that led to the design-basis earthquake (DBE) for the Livermore site, and presents a summary analysis of the facility structure in relation to the DBE. An appendix presents a quantitative calculation of the health risk to the public associated with the worst-case hypothetical fire. The document supports the conclusions that the facility will continue to function safely after the maximum earthquake ground motion to which it may be subjected and that there is no evidence of a potential for surface offset under it

  11. Maximum permissible dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This chapter presents a historic overview of the establishment of radiation guidelines by various national and international agencies. The use of maximum permissible dose and maximum permissible body burden limits to derive working standards is discussed

  12. The plutonium challenge for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper author deal with the weapons-usable plutonium and with the possibilities of their managing. Russia has not disclosed the amount of plutonium produced, but various estimates indicate that the production was about 130 tonnes. Production has been curtailed in Russia; three dual-purpose reactors still produce weapons-grade plutonium - two at Tomsk-7 (renamed Seversk) and one at Krasnoyarsk-26 (renamed Zheleznogorsk Mining and Chemical Combine). In a 1994 United States-Russian agreement that has yet to enter into force, Russia agreed to close the remaining operating reactors by the year 2000. Treaties between the United States and Russia have already cut the number of nuclear warheads from more than 10,000 to about 6,000 under START 1, which has been ratified, and to about 3,500 under START 2, which still awaits approval. If Russia and the United States conclude START 3, that number could drop to between 2,000 and 2,500. On September 2, 1998, the Presidents of the United States and Russia signed the 'Joint statement of principles for Management and Disposition of Plutonium, Designated as No Longer Required for Defense Purposes.' In this joint statement the Presidents affirm the intention of each country to remove by stages approximately 50 metric tons of plutonium and to convert the nuclear weapons programs, and to convert this material so that it can never be used in nuclear weapons. These 100 tonne of plutonium must be managed in proper way such that it becomes neither a proliferation for an environmental risk. The United States has proposed that it manage it's 50 tonnes by a dual approach-once through MOX burning of a portion of the plutonium and immobilization in a ceramic matrix followed by en- casement in high level waste glass. Russia has proposed that it manage its full 50 tonnes by burning in a reactor. The MOX program in the United States would bum the cleaner plutonium metal and residues. Weapons components would be converted to plutonium oxide

  13. The influence of thorium on the temperature reactivity coefficient in a 400 MWth pebble bed high temperature plutonium incinerating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, Guy A.; Serfontein, Dawid E.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates advanced fuel cycles containing thorium and reactor grade plutonium (Pu(PWR)) in a 400 MW th Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) Demonstration Power Plant. Results presented were determined from coupled neutronics and thermo-hydraulic simulations of the VSOP 99/05 diffusion codes. In a previous study impressive burn-ups (601 MWd/kg heavy metal (HM)) and thus plutonium destruction rates (69.2 %) were obtained with pure plutonium fuel with mass loadings of 3 g Pu(PWR)/fuel sphere or less. However the safety performance was poor in that the limit on the maximum fuel temperature during equilibrium operation was exceeded and positive Uniform Temperature Reactivity Coefficients (UTCs) were obtained. In the present study fuel cycles containing mixtures of thorium and plutonium achieved negative maximum UTCs. Plutonium only fuel cycles also achieved negative maximum UTCs, provided that much higher mass loadings are used. It is proposed that the lower thermal neutron flux was responsible for this effect. The plutonium only fuel cycle with 12 g Pu(PWR)/fuel sphere also achieved the adopted safety limits for the PBMR DPP-400 in that the maximum fuel temperature and the maximum power density did not exceed 1130°C or 4.5 kW/sphere respectively. This design would thus be licensable and could potentially be economically feasible. However the burn-up was much lower at 181 MWd/kgHM and thus the plutonium destruction fraction was also much lower at 24.5%, which may be sub-optimal with respect to proliferation and waste disposal objectives and therefore further optimisation studies are proposed. (author)

  14. Use of archived tissues for studies of plutonium-induced lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.L.; McDonald, K.E.; Lauhala, K.E.; Frazier, M.E.

    1988-10-01

    Previous lifespan studies in rats exposed to plutonium-239 aerosols indicated that lung tumor incidence might be increased at radiation doses to the lung comparable to doses received by humans from a maximum permissible occupational lung deposition of 0.6 kBq 239 Pu. A total of 3,192 young adults, female, SPF, Wistar rats were used in the initial lifespan study: 2,134 were exposed to 239 PuO 2 at initial lung burdens (ILB) ranging from 0.009 to 6.7 kBq, and 1,058 were sham-exposed controls. Histopathological analyses have been completed on 1707 of the 3,192 rats, including 54 sham-exposed control sand 1153 exposed animals. Cell kinetics, autoradiographic and morphometric techniques are being used to evaluate the spatial-temporal dose-distribution patterns and the cellular events leadings up to lung tumor formation in 140 serially sacrificed female, Wistar rats given a single exposure to 239 PuO 2 (ILB, 3.9 kBq). Protooncogene activation, growth factors and growth factor receptors, DNA cell content (by cell flow cytometry and microspectrophotometry) and cell proliferation (by 3 H-TdR nuclear labeling) are being examined in archival paraffin-block sections. 27 refs., 2 figs

  15. Plutonium in domestic animals and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughtrey, P.J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, C.H.; Kane, P.; Thorne, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter deals with plutonium adsorption, retention and translocation rates in lungs, the gastrointestinal tract, liver and in body tissues of domestic animals and man. Urinary and faecal excretion of plutonium is discussed. Transfer rates to eggs, milk, foetus and newborn are considered. Of all these subjects, data are presented extracted from literature and cast in tables

  16. Two-stage precipitation of plutonium trifluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luerkens, D.W.

    1984-04-01

    Plutonium trifluoride was precipitated using a two-stage precipitation system. A series of precipitation experiments identified the significant process variables affecting precipitate characteristics. A mathematical precipitation model was developed which was based on the formation of plutonium fluoride complexes. The precipitation model relates all process variables, in a single equation, to a single parameter that can be used to control particle characteristics

  17. Plutonium production and utilization forecasts in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haijtink, B.

    1976-01-01

    The planned accelerated growth of nuclear energy generation in the near future will lead to a large production of plutonium in the thermal reactors. Therefore, up to 1985, the major part of the available plutonium will be plutonium recovered from spent uranium-metal, particularly in the United Kingdom and in France. Because of the low demand for fuelling the fast breeder reactors within the near future, a surplus of fissile plutonium will be accumulated in Europe. Even if the planned availability of the oxide reprocessing capacity will be delayed with two or three years, a plutonium surplus will still exist in Europe, e.g.; in 1985: 25-20 tons. On longer term, up to 2000, the plutonium production in thermal reactors will be sufficient to meet the estimated demand for fast breeder reactors at their commercial introduction foreseen for the nineties. That means that all the plutonium surplus needs not to be stocked for use in fast breeder reactors later on but could be recycled in thermal reactors. The magnitude of the available fissionable materials give an idea of the importance to promote, on an industrial scale, the plutonium recycling technology

  18. Plutonium in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.R.; Salter, P.F.

    The geochemistry of fallout plutonium in the sediments of the Gulf of Mexico was studied. A series of sediment cores was collected in a traverse from the deep Gulf of Mexico to the Mississippi Delta. The cores were sliced into 1 cm intervals and analyzed for plutonium. Explanations for the variations in concentration are presented

  19. The transport of civil plutonium by air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents the review entitled ''The Transport of Civil Plutonium by Air'' reported by the Advisory Committee on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials (ACTRAM) 1988. The contents contain chapters on the following topics:- the reasons for air transport, the various regulations, packagings for plutonium transport, testing of the packagings, accidents, the consequences of a release, and emergency arrangements. (U.K.)

  20. Ventilation design for new plutonium recovery facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, A.J.; Amos, C.L.

    1975-01-01

    In 1972 the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) issued revised guidelines on ''Minimum Design Criteria for New Plutonium Facilities.'' With these criteria as guidelines, a new Plutonium Recovery Facility is being designed and constructed at the AEC Rocky Flats Plant. The methods by which the confinement of contamination and air treatment are being handled in this facility are described. (U.S.)

  1. Plutonium mobilization from sedimentary sources to solution in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.

    1979-01-01

    Inventories of plutonium radionuclides greatly in excess of global fallout levels persists in the benthic environments of Bikini and Eniwetok Atolls. It now appears that the atolls have reached a chemical steadystate condition with respect to the partitioning of 239+240 Pu between solution and solid phases of the environment. The mobilized 239+240 Pu has solute-like characteristics, passes rapidly and readily through dialysis membranes, has adsorption characteristics similar to those of fallout plutonium in the open ocean, and exists in solution primarily as some oxidized +5 or +6 chemical species. Water-column profiles of 239+240 Pu taken outside the atolls show a plutonium excess in the deep water mass. This remobilized 239+240 Pu possibly originates from the contaminated sediments previously deposited on the outer slopes of the atolls and surrounding basins

  2. Trace analysis of plutonium in environmental samples by resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdmann, N.; Herrmann, G.; Huber, G.; Koehler, S.; Kratz, J.V.; Mansel, A.; Nunnemann, M.; Passler, G.; Trautmann, N.; Waldek, A.

    1997-01-01

    Trace amounts of plutonium in the environment can be detected by resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS). An atomic beam of plutonium is produced after its chemical separation and deposition on a filament. The atoms are ionized by a three-step excitation using pulsed dye-lasers. The ions are mass-selectively detected in a time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. With this setup a detection limit of 1·10 6 atoms of plutonium has been achieved. Furthermore, the isotopic composition can be determined. Different samples, including soil from the Chernobyl area, IAEA-certified sediments from the Mururoa Atoll and urine, have been investigated. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. Plutonium use - present status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dievoet, J. van; Fossoul, E.; Jonckheere, E.; Bemden, E. van den

    1977-01-01

    Plutonium is being produced in increasing quantities in the so-called proven reactors, which are mostly of the light-water type. Evaluation of this production on a world scale shows that it would be theoretically possible to construct a large number of breeders and thus to make the best use of the intrinsic qualities of plutonium as a fissionable material, while considerably reducing the consumption of uranium. This source of plutonium is nevertheless dependent on an essential stage of the fuel cycle, namely reprocessing of irradiated fuel. The long delays in installing an adequate world reprocessing capacity are substantially weakening the prospects for the introduction of breeders. Furthermore, the critical situation as regards reprocessing may delay the development of complementary reprocessing methods for fuels with a high plutonium content and high burn-up. When it is recalled that fast reactors themselves may suffer some delay in their technological development, if only because of the intention to build power plants of very high unit capacity immediately, it must be concluded that another use will have to be considered for the plutonium available in future -use in thermal reactors, i.e. recycling. The recycling of plutonium is a well-known technique today and the objections which could be raised against it hardly stand up to analysis. Utilization of plutonium offers an appreciable saving in terms of uranium and separative work units, the consumption being of a low order of magnitude in comparison with the total amount of plutonium needed for the eventual fabrication of the first fast reactor cores. It can also be shown that immediate reprocessing of the recycling fuel is not essential for the economics of the concept. Temporary storage of recycled fuel has the advantage of concentrating plutonium in a particularly safe form, namely in irradiated plutonium-bearing fuel assemblies. Lastly, recycling offers such flexibility that it does not in practice represent

  4. Constitutional problems in the handling of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, S. de.

    1989-01-01

    Reprocessing and final storage involve two different systems of nuclear energy utilization: with or without the use of plutonium. There is a choice available between these two systems. The paper discusss the constitutional implications of this choice. The permission of the use of plutonium as nuclear fuel by the Atomic Energy Law is irreconcilable with the Basic Law, i.e. the Constitution. If the corresponding provisions of the Atomic Energy Law are repealed, then only the plutonium-related branch will be revoked and not the legal permission of nuclear energy as a whole. The fact is not ignored that the Atomic Energy law does not permit the construction and operation of a plant or the handling of plutonium if this were to violate a basic right. However, the plutonium-related branch of nculear energy utilization inevitably results in such basic right violations; hence the Atomic Energy law is unconstitutional in this respect. (orig./HSCH) [de

  5. Nuclear legacy. Democracy in a plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, F.

    1997-01-01

    There have already been a few hundred known incidents of nuclear smuggling, mostly of small quantities not close to weapons grade material - but one gram of plutonium is more than sufficient to cause significant harm and to pose a substantial threat. The potential for further thefts is growing as the world produces ever more quantities of plutonium, not only from the dismantling of nuclear weapons but also from the separation out of plutonium from spent uranium nuclear reactor fuel elements. Trying to prevent the theft of gram quantities of plutonium would require levels of protection and surveillance unacceptably high in a democratic society. It is unlikely, therefore, that democracy could survive in a plutonium economy

  6. Disposing of the world's excess plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, J.M.; Bullen, D.B.

    1998-01-01

    The authors undertake three key objectives in addressing the issue of plutonium disposition at the end of the Cold War. First, the authors estimate the total global inventory of plutonium both from weapons dismantlement and civil nuclear power reactors. Second, they review past and current policy toward handling this metal by the US, Russia, and other key countries. Third, they evaluate the feasibility of several options (but especially the vitrification and mixed oxide fuel options announced by the Clinton administration) for disposing of the increasing amounts of plutonium available today. To undertake this analysis, the authors consider both the political and scientific problems confronting policymakers in dealing with this global plutonium issue. Interview data with political and technical officials in Washington and at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna, Austria, and empirical inventory data on plutonium from a variety of sources form the basis of their analysis

  7. Plutonium fallout at Fayetteville, AR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, D.N.; Essien, I.O.; Kuroda, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    It is well established that atmospheric Pu fallout has its origin in the testing of nuclear devices and satellite accidents. Monitoring injections of Pu during the testing of nuclear devices can be useful in characterizing the detonation and subsequently tagging its global fallout. Since Pu uptake pathway into humans is mainly through the respiratory and digestive systems, it is important to know about the behavior of Pu in the atmosphere. Snow and rain samples were collected between Jan 1981 and April 1983, and analyzed for plutonium

  8. Sandia Laboratories plutonium protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, E.A.; Miyoshi, D.S.; Gutierrez, F.D.

    1977-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories is developing an improved plutonium protection system (PPS) to demonstrate new concepts for enhancing special nuclear materials safeguards. PPS concepts include separation of functions, real-time item accountability and improved means for control of materials, activities and personnel access. Physical barriers and a secure communications network are designed into the system to offer greater protection against sabotage, diversion and theft attempts. Prototype systems are being constructed at Hanford, Washington and Albuquerque, New Mexico and will be subjected to a comprehensive testing and evaluation program

  9. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in predicting health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. They have also observed radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer at the three highest dose levels. 1 figure, 3 tables

  10. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in predicting health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. The authors have also observed radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer at the three highest dose levels. 1 figure, 4 tables

  11. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in the prediction of health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; as described in previous Annual Reports, lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. Radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer have been observed at the highest dose levels

  12. Waste forms for plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.G.; O'Holleran, T.P.; Frank, S.M.; Meyer, M.K.; Hanson, M.; Staples, B.A.; Knecht, D.A.; Kong, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    The field of plutonium disposition is varied and of much importance, since the Department of Energy has decided on the hybrid option for disposing of the weapons materials. This consists of either placing the Pu into mixed oxide fuel for reactors or placing the material into a stable waste form such as glass. The waste form used for Pu disposition should exhibit certain qualities: (1) provide for a suitable deterrent to guard against proliferation; (2) be of minimal volume, i.e., maximize the loading; and (3) be reasonably durable under repository-like conditions. This paper will discuss several Pu waste forms that display promising characteristics

  13. The plutonium mountain: preventing diversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohling-Brown, Pamela.

    1997-01-01

    With continued arms-reduction between the USA and the former Soviet Union, surplus nuclear materials, from dismantled weapons, requires handling. A number of risks are identified including occupational safety for workers involved with handling nuclear materials, and environmental protection. Perhaps the most sinister is the extra security needed to ensure that these materials are not diverted to rogue states or terrorist groups, as materials are handled in a larger number of countries. In particular, the author addresses the problem of plutonium reserves, and discusses the role of reprocessing in preventing diversion. (UK)

  14. Distribution of radium and plutonium in human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This review covers studies of the microdistribution of radium and plutonium in human bone, conducted at Argonne with emphasis on the alpha-spectrometric method of measurement. Alpha spectrometry offers high spatial resolution and is well suited to the measurement of radionuclide concentrations near bone surfaces. With these techniques surface deposit thicknesses have been measured to be about 1 μm thick for isotopes of lead, radium and the actinides, and volume deposits of 226 Ra have been found to be quite nonuniform near bone surfaces, leading to endosteal tissue dose rates that are higher than expected under the assumption of uniform volume concentration normally used in radiation protection calculations. With autoradiography, the bony septa of the mastoid air cell system have been found to be depleted in radium relative to the bone tissue surrounding them; this is expected to have a significant influence on the dosimetry of the mastoid epithelia. A combination of autoradiographic and morphometric measurements indicates that specific activities in the axial skeleton are higher than in the appendicular skeleton, primarily because the former has higher bone surface-to-volume ratios and higher bone surface concentrations of plutonium. 19 references, 14 figures, 6 tables

  15. Hold-up monitoring system for plutonium process tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Rongbao; Jin Huimin; Tan Yajun

    1994-01-01

    The development of hold-up monitoring system for plutonium process tanks and a calculation method for α activities deposited in containers and inner walls of pipe are described. The hardware of monitoring system consists of a portable HPGe detector, a φ50 mm x 60 mm NaI(Tl) detector, γ-ray tungsten collimators, ORTEC92X Spectrum Master and an AST-286 computer. The software of system includes Maestro Tm for Window3 and a PHOUP1 hold-up application software for user. The Monte-Carlo simulation calculation supported by MCNP software is performed for the probability calculation of all the unscattering γ-rays reaching to the detection positions from the source terms deposited in the complicated tanks. A measurement mean value for different positions is used to minimize the effect of heterogeneous distribution of source term. The sensitivity is better than 3.7 x 10 6 Bq/kg (steel) for a plutonium simulation source on a 3-8 mm thick steel plate surrounded by 0.8 x 10 -10 C/kg·s γ field from long-life fission products

  16. Plutonium and americium behavior in coral atoll environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.L.; Eagle, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Inventories of 239+240 Pu and 241 Am greatly in excess of global fallout levels persist in the benthic environments of Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. Quantities of 239+240 Pu and lesser amounts of 241 Am are continuously mobilizing from these sedimentary reservoirs. The amount of 239+240 Pu mobilized to solution at any time represents 0.08 to 0.09% of the sediment inventories to a depth of 16 cm. The mobilized 239+240 Pu has solute-like characteristics and different valence states coexist in solution - the largest fraction of the soluble plutonium is in an oxidized form (+V,VI). The adsorption of plutonium to sediments is not completely reversible because of changes that occur in the relative amounts of the mixed oxidation states in solution with time. Further, any characteristics of 239+240 Pu described at one location may not necessarily be relevant in describing its behavior elsewhere following mobilization and migration. The relative amounts of 241 Am to 239+240 Pu in the sedimentary deposits at Enewetak and Bikini may be altered in future years because of mobilization and radiological decay. Mobilization of 239+240 Pu is not a process unique to these atolls, and quantities in solution derived from sedimentary deposits can be found at other global sites. These studies in the equatorial Pacific have significance in assessing the long-term behavior of the transuranics in any marine environment. 22 references, 1 figure, 13 tables

  17. Portable gamma-ray holdup and attributes measurements of high- and variable-burnup plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, T.R.; Russo, P.A.; Miller, M.C.; Menlove, H.O.; Takahashi, S.; Yamamoto, Y.; Aoki, I.

    1991-01-01

    High burnup-plutonium holdup has been assayed quantitatively by low resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The assay was calibrated with four plutonium standards representing a range of fuel burnup and 241 Am content. Selection of a calibration standard based on its qualitative spectral similarity to gamma-ray spectra of the process material is partially responsible for the success of these holdup measurements. The spectral analysis method is based on the determination of net counts in a single spectral region of interest (ROI). However, the low-resolution gamma-ray assay signal for the high-burnup plutonium includes unknown amounts of contamination from 241 Am. For most needs, the range of calibration standards required for this selection procedure is not available. A new low-resolution gamma-ray spectral analysis procedure for assay of 239 Pu has been developed. The procedure uses the calculated isotope activity ratios and the measured net counts in three spectral ROIs to evaluate and remove the 241 Am contamination from the 239 Pu assay signal on a spectrum-by-spectrum basis. The calibration for the new procedure requires only a single plutonium standard. The procedure also provides a measure of the burnup and age attributes of holdup deposits. The new procedure has been demonstrated using portable gamma-ray spectroscopy equipment for a wide range of plutonium standards and has also been applied to the assay of 239 Pu holdup in a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Plutonium in intertidal coastal and estuarine sediments in the Northern Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aston, S.R.; Assinder, D.J.; Kelly, M.

    1985-01-01

    Surface intertidal sediments from 35 sites in the Irish Sea have been analysed for their 238 Pu and sup(239,240)Pu activities, together with an intensive study of plutonium in sediments of the Esk Estuary (NW England). The range of plutonium activities for the whole survey were 0.14-4118 and 1.3-16 026 Bq kg -1 for 238 Pu and sup(239,240)Pu, respectively. The levels of Pu activity, derived from the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing effluents, in sediments are controlled by lithological factors and the influence of transport and post-depositional processes. Grain size distribution is particularly important, the major part of plutonium activity being in the mud fraction of all sediments. The data suggest that over the Irish Sea coastline, dynamic mixing of sediment grains by reworking and resuspension and/or by dispersion in tidal currents are important in determining plutonium distributions. The exponential decrease in sediment plutonium activities away from the Sellafield source is attributed to the progressive mixing with older contaminated and uncontaminated sediments. (author)

  19. Current status of the plutonium hot particle problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1975-01-01

    Information now available on the question of lung irradiation from particulate plutonium is reviewed. Careful consideration of the available data shows that particulate plutonium is not more hazardous than the same amount of plutonium distributed uniformly. The data also suggest that the potential hazard from plutonium increases as the dispersion throughout the lung becomes more uniform

  20. Contamination of living environment and human organism with plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, J.

    1981-01-01

    The applicability of 239 Pu in nuclear power is discussed. The radiotoxic properties of plutonium, its tissue distribution and the effects of internal and external contamination are described. The contamination of the atmosphere, water, and soil with plutonium isotopes is discussed. Dosimetry is described of plutonium in the living and working environments as is plutonium determination in the human organism. (H.S.)

  1. Analysis of plutonium-239 in occupationally exposed personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez M, H.

    2017-10-01

    Apart from radiometric techniques, several mass spectrometry (Ms) techniques can be used to evaluate the incorporation of plutonium-239 in occupationally exposed personnel, among which we can consider mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source (Icp-Ms); mass spectrometry with accelerators (AMS); thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (Sims). In this work we evaluated analytical methods to measure isotopes of plutonium-239 in urine samples from occupationally exposed personnel, using alpha spectroscopy (As), magnetic sector mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source (Icp-SFMS) and AMS. The samples were collected during 24 h were acidified with HNO 3 at 5% in v/v. The processes used in the preparation of the samples were: a) co-precipitation, b) acid digestion, c) radiochemical separation and d) electro deposition. The results obtained in terms of minimum detectable activity of plutonium-239 were 0.1 μBq (∼ 0.4 fg per sample), 5.1 μBq (∼ 2 fg per sample), 30.1 μBq (∼ 13 fg per sample) and 0.1 μBq (∼ 51 fg per sample) for AMS, Aridus-Icp-SFMS, Icp, SFMS and As, respectively. On the other hand, samples previously analyzed by As were re-evaluated by Aridus-Icp-SFMS and AMS. The results show that extraction with 60 ml of 5% HNO 3 at 60 degrees Celsius and for 2.5 h is enough to extract 90% of Pu electrodeposited on the planchette. In conclusion, AMS is an ultra-sensitive technique for determining isotope ratios of Pu, especially when is desired to validate a method to measure plutonium-239. Additionally, Icp-SFMS is a rapid analysis technique and can be used as a screening technique in situations of radiological incidents or accidents with Pu in the occupationally exposed personnel. Regarding alpha spectroscopy has been considered as the technique of excellence in the routine analysis to measure plutonium-239 in occupationally exposed personnel, due to the low cost. Finally, Icp-SFMS and AMS

  2. Modelling the transport of sediments and plutonium from the Mururoa lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajar, R.; Zagar, D.

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with the three-dimensional simulation of resuspension and transport of sediments from the Mururoa lagoon into the Pacific Ocean. These sediments were contaminated mainly by plutonium during French nuclear tests (from 1966 to 1996). Two cases were simulated: 'Normal conditions', taking into account permanent action of trade winds and tides and 'storm conditions', where the effect of a tropical cyclone with maximum wind velocity of 150 km/h and with a frequency of 1 storm per 10 years is simulated. The final results show, that the normal conditions cause an annual outflow of 8 x 10 4 tons of sediment and 8 GBq of plutonium, while one tropical cyclone would cause outflow of 3.9 x 10 6 tons of sediment and about 0.7 TBq of plutonium. (author)

  3. Plutonium use - Present status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dievoet, J. van; Fossoul, E.; Jonckheere, E.; Bemden, E. van den

    1977-01-01

    The use of plutonium in thermal and fast reactors is a demonstrated, if not proven, technology. Moreover, plutonium is being produced in increasing quantities. Evaluation of this production on a world scale shows that it would be theoretically possible to construct numerous breeders and thus to make the best use of plutonium, while considerably reducing uranium consumption. This source of plutonium is nevertheless dependent on the reprocessing of irradiated fuel. Long delays in installing and adequate world reprocessing capacity are weakening the prospects for introducing breeders. Furthermore, the critical situation regarding reprocessing may delay the development of complementary reprocessing methods for fuels with a high plutonium content and high burnup. The recycling of plutonium is now a well-known technique and any objections to it hardly bear analysis. Utilization of plutonium offers an appreciable saving in terms of uranium and separative work units; and it can also be shown that immediate reprocessing of the recycling fuel is not essential for the economics of the concept. Temporary storage of recycled fuel is a particularly safe form of concentrating plutonium, namely in irradiated plutonium-bearing fuel assemblies. Finally, recycling offers such flexibility that it represents no obstacle to fuel management at power plants with light-water reactors. These strategic considerations imply that the technology of using plutonium for fabricating thermal or fast reactor fuels is both technically reliable and economically viable. The methods used in industrial facilities are fully reassuring in this respect. Although various unsolved problems exist, none seems likely to impede current developments, while the industrial experience gained has enabled the economics and reliability of the methods to be improved appreciably. Apart from the techno-economic aspects, the plutonium industry must face extremely important problems in connection with the safety of personnel

  4. Preparation of hexavalent plutonium and its determination in the presence of tetravalent plutonium; Preparation de plutonium hexavalent et dosage en presence de plutonium tetravalent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corpel, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Corpel, J [Institut du Radium, 75 - Paris (France)

    1958-07-01

    In order to study the eventual reduction of plutonium from the VI-valent state to the IV-valent state, in sulphuric medium, under the influence of its own {alpha} radiation or of the {gamma}-rays from a cobalt-60 source, we have developed a method for preparing pure hexavalent plutonium and two methods for determining solutions containing tetravalent and hexavalent plutonium simultaneously. Hexavalent plutonium was prepared by anodic oxidation at a platinum electrode. Study of the oxidation yield as a function of various factors has made it possible to define experimental conditions giving complete oxidation. For concentrations in total plutonium greater than 1.5 x 10{sup -3} M, determination of the two valencies IV and VI was carried out by spectrophotometry at two wavelengths. For lower concentrations, the determination was done by counting, after separation of the tetravalent plutonium in the form of fluoride in the presence of a carrier. (author) [French] Afin d'etudier l'eventuelle reduction du plutonium de l'etat de valence VI a l'etat de valence IV, en milieu sulfurique sous l'influence de son propre rayonnement {alpha} ou des rayons {gamma} d'une source de cobalt-60, nous avons mis au point une methode de preparation de plutonium hexavalent pur et deux methodes de dosage des solutions contenant simultanement du plutonium tetravalent et du plutonium hexavalent. Nous avons prepare le plutonium hexavalent par oxydation anodique au contact d'une electrode de platine. L'etude de rendement de l'oxydation en fonction des divers facteurs nous a permis de definir des conditions experimentales donnant une oxydation complete. Pour des concentrations en plutonium total superieures a 1,5.10{sup -3} M, le dosage des deux valences IV et VI a ete realise par spectrophotometrie a deux longueurs d'onde. Pour des concentrations inferieures, le dosage a ete effectue par comptage apres separation du plutonium tetravalent sous la forme du fluorure en presence d'un entraineur

  5. Plutonium focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) in October 1995. The PFA open-quotes...provides for peer and technical reviews of research and development in plutonium stabilization activities...close quotes In addition, the PFA identifies and develops relevant research and technology. The purpose of this document is to focus attention on the requirements used to develop research and technology for stabilization, storage, and preparation for disposition of nuclear materials. The PFA Technology Summary presents the approach the PFA uses to identify, recommend, and review research. It lists research requirements, research being conducted, and gaps where research is needed. It also summarizes research performed by the PFA in the traditional research summary format. This document encourages researchers and commercial enterprises to do business with PFA by submitting research proposals or open-quotes white papers.close quotes In addition, it suggests ways to increase the likelihood that PFA will recommend proposed research to the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG) of DOE

  6. Automated amperometric plutonium assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    The amperometric titration for plutonium assay has been used in the nuclear industry for over twenty years and has been in routine use at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory since 1976 for the analysis of plutonium oxide and mixed oxide fuel material for the Fast Flux Test Facility. It has proven itself to be an accurate and reliable method. The method may be used as a direct end point titration or an excess of titrant may be added and a back titration performed to aid in determination of the end point. Due to the slowness of the PuVI-FeII reaction it is difficult to recognize when the end point is being approached and is very time consuming if the current is allowed to decay to the residual value after each titrant addition. For this reason the back titration in which the rapid FeII-CrVI reaction occurs is used by most laboratories. The back titration is performed by the addition of excess ferrous solution followed by two measured aliquots of standard dichromate with measurement of cell current after each addition

  7. Ceramification: A plutonium immobilization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rask, W.C. [Dept. of Energy, Golden, CO (United States); Phillips, A.G. [Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes a low temperature technique for stabilizing and immobilizing actinide compounds using a combination process/storage vessel of stainless steel, in which measured amounts of actinide nitrate solutions and actinide oxides (and/or residues) are systematically treated to yield a solid article. The chemical ceramic process is based on a coating technology that produces rare earth oxide coatings for defense applications involving plutonium. The final product of this application is a solid, coherent actinide oxide with process-generated encapsulation that has long-term environmental stability. Actinide compounds can be stabilized as pure materials for ease of re-use or as intimate mixtures with additives such as rare earth oxides to increase their degree of proliferation resistance. Starting materials for the process can include nitrate solutions, powders, aggregates, sludges, incinerator ashes, and others. Agents such as cerium oxide or zirconium oxide may be added as powders or precursors to enhance the properties of the resulting solid product. Additives may be included to produce a final product suitable for use in nuclear fuel pellet production. The process is simple and reduces the time and expense for stabilizing plutonium compounds. It requires a very low equipment expenditure and can be readily implemented into existing gloveboxes. The process is easily conducted with less associated risk than proposed alternative technologies.

  8. Japanese utilities' plutonium utilization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuichiro.

    1996-01-01

    Japan's 10 utility companies are working and will continue to work towards establishing a fully closed nuclear fuel cycle. The key goals of which are: (1) reprocessing spent fuel; (2) recycling recovered uranium and plutonium; and (3) commercializing fast breeder technology by around the year 2030. This course of action by the Japanese electric power industry is in full accordance with Japan's national policy outlined in the government's report ''The Long-Term Program for Research, Development, and Nuclear Energy,'' which was published in June 1994. The Japanese civilian nuclear program is a long-term program that looks into the 21st century and beyond. It is quite true that sustaining the recycling option for energy security and the global environment demands a large investment. For it to be accepted by the public, safety must be the highest priority and will be pursued at a great cost if necessary. In its history, Japan has learned that as technology advances, costs will come down. The Japanese utility industry will continue investment in technology without compromising safety until the recycling option becomes more competitive with other options. This effort will be equally applied to the development of the commercial FBRs. The Japanese utility industry is confident that Japan's stable policy and strong objective to develop competitive and peaceful technology will contribute to the global economy and the environment without increasing the threat of plutonium proliferation

  9. On the substantion of permissible concentrations of plutonium isotopes in the water of fresh water and sea water NPP cooling reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grachev, M.I.; Gusev, D.I.; Stepanova, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    Substantiation of maximum permissible concentration (PC) of plutonium isotopes ( 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu) in fresh and sea water cooling reservoirs of NPP with fast neutron reactors is given. The main criterion when calculating permissible plutonium content in water of surface reservoirs is the requirement not to exceed the established limits for radiation doses to persons resulted from water use. Data on coefficients of plutonium concentration in sea and fresh water hydrobionts are presented as well as on plutonium PC in water of fresh and sea water cooling reservoirs and bottom sediments of sea water cooling reservoirs. It is shown that doses to critical groups of population doesn't exceed potentially hazardous levels due to plutonium intake through food chains. But the calculation being carried out further should be corrected

  10. Laboratory-scale evaluations of alternative plutonium precipitation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martella, L.L.; Saba, M.T.; Campbell, G.K.

    1984-01-01

    Plutonium(III), (IV), and (VI) carbonate; plutonium(III) fluoride; plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate; and plutonium(IV) and (VI) hydroxide precipitation methods were evaluated for conversion of plutonium nitrate anion-exchange eluate to a solid, and compared with the current plutonium peroxide precipitation method used at Rocky Flats. Plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate, plutonium(III) fluoride, and plutonium(IV) hydroxide precipitations were the most effective of the alternative conversion methods tested because of the larger particle-size formation, faster filtration rates, and the low plutonium loss to the filtrate. These were found to be as efficient as, and in some cases more efficient than, the peroxide method. 18 references, 14 figures, 3 tables

  11. Reanalysis of gastrointestinal absorption factors for plutonium and other actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Toohey, R.E.; Moretti, E.S.; Oldham, R.D.; Spaletto, M.I.; Engel, M.C.

    1981-01-01

    This project studies the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium and other actinide elements relevant to nuclear power production, at concentrations at or below their respective maximum permissible concentrations (MPC's) in drinking water, using high specific activity isotopes. The gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium is measured in mice, rats, and dogs exposed to plutonium either via drinking water or by gavage. Plutonium concentrations are determined in liver and eviscerated carcass at 6 days (mice and rats) or 4 weeks (dogs). Administered solutions are 1 x 10 -10 M in Pu (the molar concentration at MPC for 239 Pu) and contain one of several high specific activity isotopes ( 237 Pu, 47-day half-life; 236 Pu, 2.8-year half-life; 238 Pu, 86-year half-life). Fasted mice and rats, administered plutonium solutions that are: (1) low in concentration (10- 10 M); and (2) carefully prepared to assure a given oxidation state and to avoid hydrolysis and polymes, and major policy issues. The first HEED for near-term battery energy storage systems (lead/acid, nickel/zinc, and nickel/iron) astention being paid to potential releases of radionuclides at relatively short times after disposal

  12. Electrochemistry of plutonium in molten halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurry, L.E.; Moy, G.M.M.; Bowersox, D.F.

    1987-01-01

    The electrochemistry of plutonium in molten halides is of technological importance as a method of purification of plutonium. Previous authors have reported that plutonium can be purified by electrorefining impure plutonium in various molten haldies. Work to eluciate the mechanism of the plutonium reduction in molten halides has been limited to a chronopotentiometric study in LiCl-KCl. Potentiometric studies have been carried out to determine the standard reduction potential for the plutonium (III) couple in various molten alkali metal halides. Initial cyclic voltammetric experiments were performed in molten KCL at 1100 K. A silver/silver chloride (10 mole %) in equimolar NaCl-KCl was used as a reference electrode. Working and counter electrodes were tungsten. The cell components and melt were contained in a quartz crucible. Background cyclic voltammograms of the KCl melt at the tungsten electrode showed no evidence of electroactive impurities in the melt. Plutonium was added to the melt as PuCl/sub 3/, which was prepared by chlorination of the oxide. At low concentrations of PuCl/sub 3/ in the melt (0.01-0.03 molar), no reduction wave due to the reduction of Pu(III) was observed in the voltammograms up to the potassium reduction limit of the melt. However on scan reversal after scanning into the potassium reduction limit a new oxidation wave was observed

  13. Analytic determination of plutonium in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballada, J.

    1967-01-01

    The work described in this report was undertaken with a view to determining the plutonium content in the fall-out from nuclear explosions. In the first part are described in turn the importance of the problems due to the plutonium, the physico-chemical properties of the radioelement and the biological dangers which it presents. A detailed and critical analysis is made of the radio-toxicological determination of the plutonium as reported in the literature prior to this report. The second part consists in the presentation of a judicious choice of techniques making it possible to determine plutonium in air, rain-water, soils and ash. After a detailed description of the measurement equipment and the operational techniques which have been developed, a justification of these techniques is given with particular reference to their sensitivity and specificity. After a brief conclusion concerning the preceding chapters, the results are presented. These are then discussed in the ease of each element in which the plutonium has been determined. This discussion is concluded by a consideration of the importance of the occurrence of fall-out plutonium on problems relating to public health. From a consideration of 200 analyses carried out, it is concluded that the contribution of plutonium to the exposure of populations is still very small compared to that of natural radiation and that due to such fission products as strontium 90. The report includes 63 literature references, 26 figures and 11 tables. (author) [fr

  14. Solubility of plutonium dioxide aerosols, in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, G.J.; Kanapilly, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Solubility of plutonium aerosols is an important parameter in establishing risk estimates for industrial workers who might accidentally inhale these materials and in evaluating environmental health impacts associated with Pu. In vitro solubility of industrial plutonium aerosols in a simulated lung fluid is compared to similar studies with ultrafine aerosols from laser ignition of delta phase plutonium metal and laboratory-produced spherical particles of 238 PuO 2 and 239 PuO 2 . Although relatively insoluble, industrial plutonium-mixed oxide aerosols were much more soluble than laboratory-produced plutonium dioxide particles. Chain agglomerate aerosols from laser ignition of metallic Pu indicated in vitro dissolution half-times of 10 and 50 days for activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 0.7 and 2.3 μm, respectively. Plutonium-containing mixed oxide aerosols indicated dissolution half-times of 40 to 500 days for particles formed by industrial powder comminution and blending. Centerless grinding of fuel pellets yielded plutonium-containing aerosols with dissolution half-times of 1200 to 8000 days. All mixed oxide particles were in the size range 1.0 μm to 2.5 μm AMAD

  15. PRISM reactor. An option for plutonium disposition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehlinger, Sebastian; Friess, Friederike; Kuett, Moritz [IANUS, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) is sodium cooled fast reactor model. The energy output depends on the core configuration, however with an energy output of approximately 300 MWe, the PRISM reactor belongs to the class of small modular reactors. Beside using the reactor as a breeder reactor or for the transmutation of nuclear waste, it might also be used as a burner reactor for separated plutonium. This includes for example U.S.-American excess weapon-grade plutonium as well as separated reactor-grade plutonium. Recently, there has been an ongoing discussion in GB to use the PRISM reactor to dispose their excess civilian plutonium. Depending on the task, the core configuration varies slightly. We will present different layouts and the matching MCNP models, these models can then be used to conduct depletion calculations. From these results, analysis of the change in the plutonium isotopics in the spent fuel, the amount of fissioned plutonium, and the possible annual plutonium throughputs is possible.

  16. The Plutonium Temperature Effect Experimental Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeck, Wim; Leclaire, Nicolas; Letang, Eric [IRSN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Girault, Emmanuel; Fouillaud, Patrick [CEA, VALDUC (France)

    2008-07-01

    Various theoretical studies have shown that highly diluted plutonium solutions could have a positive temperature effect but (up to now) no experimental program has confirmed this effect. The main goal of the French Plutonium Temperature Effect Experimental Program (or PU+ in short) is to effectively show that such a positive temperature effect exists for diluted plutonium solutions. The experiments were conducted in the 'Apparatus B' facility at the CEA Valduc research centre in France and involved several sub-critical approach type of experiments using plutonium nitrate solutions with concentrations of 14.3, 15 and 20 g/l at temperatures ranging from 20 to 40 deg. C. A total number of 14 phase I experiments (consisting of independent subcritical approaches) have been performed (5 at 20 g/l, 4 at 15 g/l and 5 at 14.3 g/l) between 2006 and 2007. The impact of the uncertainties on the solution acidity and the plutonium concentration makes it difficult to clearly demonstrate the positive temperature effect, requiring an additional phase II experiment (in which the use of the same plutonium solution was ensured) from 22 to 28 deg. C performed in July 2007. This experiment has shown the existence of a positive temperature effect approx +2 pcm/deg. C (from 22 to 28 deg. C for a plutonium concentration of 14.3 g/l). (authors)

  17. Plutonium speciation affected by environmental bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, M.P.; Icopini, G.A.; Boukhalfa, H.

    2005-01-01

    Plutonium has no known biological utility, yet it has the potential to interact with bacterial cellular and extracellular structures that contain metal-binding groups, to interfere with the uptake and utilization of essential elements, and to alter cell metabolism. These interactions can transform plutonium from its most common forms, solid, mineral-adsorbed, or colloidal Pu(IV), to a variety of biogeochemical species that have much different physico-chemical properties. Organic acids that are extruded products of cell metabolism can solubilize plutonium and then enhance its environmental mobility, or in some cases facilitate plutonium transfer into cells. Phosphate- and carboxylate-rich polymers associated with cell walls can bind plutonium to form mobile biocolloids or Pu-laden biofilm/mineral solids. Bacterial membranes, proteins or redox agents can produce strongly reducing electrochemical zones and generate molecular Pu(III/IV) species or oxide particles. Alternatively, they can oxidize plutonium to form soluble Pu(V) or Pu(VI) complexes. This paper reviews research on plutonium-bacteria interactions and closely related studies on the biotransformation of uranium and other metals. (orig.)

  18. Plutonium peroxide precipitation: review and current research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, P.G.; Miner, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    Increasing the HNO 3 concentration decreases the filtration time but increases the plutonium concentration in the filtrate. A compromise was therefore necessary. If a minimum plutonium concentration is required in the filtrate, the acidity could be lowered to 1.9M with an approximate doubling in the filtration time. The H 2 O 2 concentration has little effect on filtration time. However, the higher the H 2 O 2 concentration, the less plutonium lost to the filtrate. Concentrations higher than the 22 moles/mole Pu recommended (at least up to 30 molar which was the highest investigated) would be beneficial if reagent costs are not excessive and production capacity exists for destroying the excess H 2 O 2 in the filtrate. Although the effect is not large, filtration time is shorter and the plutonium concentration in the filtrate is lower if metallic impurities are present. The slowest rate of H 2 O 2 addition investigated gives a plutonium peroxide precipitate with the fastest filtration time. The rate of addition has very little effect on the plutonium concentration in the filtrate. The temperature has little effect on the filtration time. 14 0 C is recommended since decomposition of H 2 O 2 would be slower at 14 0 C than at 22 0 C (min. Pu content in the filtrate). The effect of digestion time on both the filtration time and the plutonium content in the filtrate is minor, so the shortest digestion time investigated is recommended

  19. Radiological safety aspects of handling plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararajan, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Department of Atomic Energy in its scheme of harnessing the nuclear energy for electrical power generation and strategic applications has given a huge role to utilization of plutonium. In the power production programme, fast reactors with plutonium as fuel are expected to play a major role. This would require establishing fuel reprocessing plants to handle both thermal and fast reactor fuels. So in the nuclear fuel cycle facilities variety of chemical, metallurgical, mechanical operations have to be carried out involving significant inventories of "2"3"9 Pu and associated radionuclides. Plutonium is the most radiotoxic radionuclide and therefore any facility handling it has to be designed and operated with utmost care. Two problems of major concern in the protection of persons working in plutonium handling facilities are the internal exposure to the operating personnel from uptake of plutonium and transplutonic nuclides as they are highly radiotoxic and the radiation exposure of hands and eye lens during fuel fabrication operations especially while handling recycled high burn up plutonium. In view of the fact that annual limit for intake is very small for "2"3"9Pu and its radiation emission characteristics are such that it is a huge challenge for the health physicists to detect Pu in air and in workers. This paper discusses the principles and practices followed in providing radiological surveillance to workers in plutonium handling areas. The challenges in protecting the workers from receiving exposures to hands and eye lens in handling high burn up plutonium are also discussed. The sites having Pu fuel cycle facilities should have trained medical staff to handle cases involving excessive intake of plutonium. (author)

  20. Assesment of Plutonium 238 and Plutonium 239+240 in soils of different agricultural regions of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Martinez, E.A.

    1998-02-01

    In this report an assesment and measurement of PLUTONIUM 238, PLUTONIUM 239, and PLUTONIUM 240 are made. Samples of cultivated soils in 15 provinces of Guatemala were taken. To separate plutonium isotopes a radiochemical method was made using extraction, precipitation and ionic interchange. By electrodeposition the plutonium was measured using an alpha spectroscopy by PIPS method. The radioactivity ranges from 2.84 mBq/Kg to 36.38 mBq/Kg for plutonium 238, and 8.46 mBq/Kg to 26.61 mBq/Kg for plutonium 239+240

  1. The determination of Plutonium content in urine using anion exchange resin method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukh-Syaifudin

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of internal contamination by plutonium is usually determined through urine analysis. The technique involved the co-precipitation of plutonium with rhodizonic acid by the addition of sodium hydroxide, the re-extraction of Pu into concentrated HCl, dissolution of Pu in 8 N HCI + Cl 2 solution, and the purification of plutonium through AGI-X8 anion exchange resin in columns with a diameter of 4 and 7 mm. The eluent was evaporated and the residu was dissolved in 8 N HCI and then deposited directly onto a Lexan slide or electrodeposited onto a stainless steel disc and the alpha emission of Pu was counted by using alpha spectrometry. The results showed that the recoveries of Pu-242 tracer by using column 7 mm and direct deposition and electrodeposition methods were 28.783% and 16.444%, respectively. The recoveries of Pu-242 by using column 4 mm and direct deposition and electrodeposition methods were 64.834% and 55.661%, respectively. From the percentage of recovery, it can be concluded that the direct deposition method was relatively better than the electrodeposition method. The recovery of Pu-242 by using column of 4 mm in diameter was higher than that of column 7 mm

  2. Lung cancers already produced by plutonium inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter presents the basis for the author's estimate that plutonium particulates have already committed approximately 950,000 persons worldwide to a lung-cancer death, and that more will be so committed in the future, even if no more plutonium is dispersed in the environment. The author's calculations are based on fallout data from atmospheric bomb testing, and on two sets of workers exposed to plutonium: one group at the Rocky Flats Plant in Colorado, and the other at the Los Alamos Laboratory who were involved in the Manhattan Project

  3. HENC performance evaluation and plutonium calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Baca, J.; Pecos, J.M.; Davidson, D.R.; McElroy, R.D.; Brochu, D.B.

    1997-10-01

    The authors have designed a high-efficiency neutron counter (HENC) to increase the plutonium content in 200-L waste drums. The counter uses totals neutron counting, coincidence counting, and multiplicity counting to determine the plutonium mass. The HENC was developed as part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between the Department of Energy and Canberra Industries. This report presents the results of the detector modifications, the performance tests, the add-a-source calibration, and the plutonium calibration at Los Alamos National Laboratory (TA-35) in 1996

  4. Pyrochemical recovery of plutonium fluoride reduction slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, D.C.; Rayburn, J.A.

    1983-07-01

    A process was developed for the pyrochemical recovery of plutonium from residues resulting from the PuF 4 reduction process. The process involves crushing the CaF 2 slag and dissolving it at 800 0 C in a CaCl 2 solvent. The plutonium, which exists either as finely divided metal or as incompletely reduced fluoride salt, is reduced to metal and/or allowed to coalesce as a massive button in the bottom of the reaction crucible. The recovery of plutonium in a 1-day cycle averaged 96%; all of the resulting residues were discardable

  5. Continuous precipitation process of plutonium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, P.

    1967-03-01

    This work concerns the continuous precipitation process of plutonium oxalate. Investigations about the solubility of different valence states in nitric-oxalic and in nitric-sulfuric-oxalic medium lead to select the precipitation process of tetravalent plutonium oxalate. Settling velocity and granulometry of tetravalent oxalate plutonium have been studied with variation of several precipitation parameters such as: temperature, acidity, excess of oxalic acid and aging time. Then are given test results of some laboratory continuous apparatus. Conditions of operation with adopted tubular apparatus are defined in conclusion. A flow-sheet is given for a process at industrial scale. (author) [fr

  6. Heavy water critical experiments on plutonium lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyawaki, Yoshio; Shiba, Kiminori

    1975-06-01

    This report is the summary of physics study on plutonium lattice made in Heavy Water Critical Experiment Section of PNC. By using Deuterium Critical Assembly, physics study on plutonium lattice has been carried out since 1972. Experiments on following items were performed in a core having 22.5 cm square lattice pitch. (1) Material buckling (2) Lattice parameters (3) Local power distribution factor (4) Gross flux distribution in two region core (5) Control rod worth. Experimental results were compared with theoretical ones calculated by METHUSELAH II code. It is concluded from this study that calculation by METHUSELAH II code has acceptable accuracy in the prediction on plutonium lattice. (author)

  7. Nondestructive analysis of plutonium contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.E.; Taylor, L.H.

    1977-01-01

    Plutonium contaminated soil is currently being removed from a covered liquid waste disposal trench near the Pu Processing facility on the Hanford Project. This soil with the plutonium is being mined using remote techniques and equipment. The mined soil is being packaged for placement into retrievable storage, pending possible recovery. To meet the requirements of criticality safety and materials accountability, a nondestructive analysis program has been developed to determine the quantity of plutonium in each packing-storage container. This paper describes the total measurement program: equipment systems, calibration techniques, matrix assumption, instrument control program and a review of laboratory operating experience

  8. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Conceptual Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-01-01

    'The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading conceptual design and includes a process block diagram, process description, preliminary equipment specifications, and several can loading issues. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.'

  9. Fluorescent determination of neptunium in plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandruk, V.M.; Babaev, A.S.; Dem'yanova, T.A.; Stepanov, A.V.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new procedure for direct determination of Neptunium in Plutonium using laser induced time resolved fluorescence method. The procedure based on measurement of fluorescence intensity of Neptunium followed its concentration in effective layer of pellet of calcium fluoride. Detection limit of determination of Neptunium is 2 10 -12 g. At the level of Neptunium content in Plutonium more than 5 ppm relative standard deviation is equal 0.08-0.12. For carrying out of single measurement it is necessary neither more nor less 5 mkg Plutonium

  10. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.; Borisov, G.B.

    2000-01-01

    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the 2005 date. This meeting and future work will provide the basis for joint decisions. Supporting R and D projects are being carried out at Russian Institutes that directly support the technical needs of Russian industrial sites to immobilize plutonium-containing materials. Special R and D on plutonium materials is also being carried out to support excess weapons disposition in Russia and the US, including nonproliferation studies of plutonium recovery from immobilization forms and accelerated radiation damage studies of the US-specified plutonium ceramic for immobilizing plutonium. This intriguing and extraordinary cooperation on certain aspects of the weapons plutonium problem is now progressing well and much work with plutonium has been completed in the past two years. Because much excellent and unique scientific and engineering technical work has now been completed in Russia in many aspects of plutonium immobilization, this meeting in St. Petersburg was both timely and necessary to summarize, review, and discuss these efforts among those who performed the actual work. The results of this meeting will help the US and Russia jointly define the future direction of the Russian plutonium immobilization program, and make it an even stronger and more integrated Russian program. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing the work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work with each other; and (2) Publish a meeting summary and a proceedings to compile reports of all the

  11. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Conceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-05-13

    'The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading conceptual design and includes a process block diagram, process description, preliminary equipment specifications, and several can loading issues. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.'

  12. Uranium-plutonium fuel for fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, S.A.; Astafiev, V.A.; Clouchenkov, A.E.; Gustchin, K.I.; Menshikova, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    Technology was established for fabrication of MOX fuel pellets from co-precipitated and mechanically blended mixed oxides. Both processes ensure the homogeneous structure of pellets readily dissolvable in nitric acid upon reprocessing. In order to increase the plutonium charge in a reactor-burner a process was tested for producing MOX fuel with higher content of plutonium and an inert diluent. It was shown that it is feasible to produce fuel having homogeneous structure and the content of plutonium up to 45% mass

  13. Method of stripping plutonium from tributyl phosphate solution which contains dibutyl phosphate-plutonium stable complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochsenfeld, W.; Schmieder, H.

    1976-01-01

    Fast breeder fuel elements which have been highly burnt-up are reprocessed by extracting uranium and plutonium into an organic solution containing tributyl phosphate. The tributyl phosphate degenerates at least partially into dibutyl phosphate and monobutyl phosphate, which form stable complexes with tetravalent plutonium in the organic solution. This tetravalent plutonium is released from its complexed state and stripped into aqueous phase by contacting the organic solution with an aqueous phase containing tetravalent uranium. 6 claims, 1 drawing figure

  14. Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: creation (fuel cycle, Pu formed in thermal reactors); properties; Pu in fast reactors; fast reactor experience; radioactivity; handling; Pu and weapons. (U.K.)

  15. Studies of plutonium and the lymphatic system: six years of progress at Colorado State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebel, J.L.; Bistline, R.W.; Schallberger, J.A.; Dagle, G.E.; Gomez, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    Air-oxidized PuO 2 , high-fired (850 0 C) PuO 2 , Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , PuF 4 , and PuCl 3 , all of which had known amounts of 241 Am, were implanted over the left metacarpus of beagles. The concentration of plutonium and 241 Am in various tissues was measured as a function of time. The effect of diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA) therapy on organ deposition was studied. Significant differences in the translocation dynamics of air-oxidized PuO 2 , high-fired PuO 2 , and Pu(NO 3 ) 4 in the left superficial cervical lymph node (LSCLN) were observed by in vivo measurement and radiochemical analysis. A 3 percent buildup of plutonium was observed 2 weeks after implantation of air-oxidized PuO 2 , with an exponential buildup to 17 percent at 1 year. With Pu(NO 3 ) 4 and high-fired PuO 2 , the activity accumulation built up to a peak of 31 and 20 percent, respectively, at 30 and 60 days after implantation, followed by a gradual regression. At the implant site 1 year postimplant, a 70 percent reduction in activity was observed with Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , a 90 percent reduction with PuO 2 (high-fired), and only a 20 percent reduction with air-oxidized PuO 2 . The effect of larger particle size on the movement of plutonium from a wound site was speculated. Chemical form and physical form appear to change the rate of translocation and relative depositions of plutonium and americium in various organs.Particle size was not found to be an important factor in the total movement of plutonium in afferent and efferent lymph. More plutonium moves in the cellular fraction of afferent and efferent lymph regardless of particle size. The clearance of plutonium particles from the lymph nodes was associated with necrosis of macrophages. The effect of DTPA therapy on plutonium concentration was greater for the nitrate than for the other chemical forms

  16. Maximum Acceleration Recording Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Coarsely digitized maximum levels recorded in blown fuses. Circuit feeds power to accelerometer and makes nonvolatile record of maximum level to which output of accelerometer rises during measurement interval. In comparison with inertia-type single-preset-trip-point mechanical maximum-acceleration-recording devices, circuit weighs less, occupies less space, and records accelerations within narrower bands of uncertainty. In comparison with prior electronic data-acquisition systems designed for same purpose, circuit simpler, less bulky, consumes less power, costs and analysis of data recorded in magnetic or electronic memory devices. Circuit used, for example, to record accelerations to which commodities subjected during transportation on trucks.

  17. Study on plutonium distribution in Palomares ecosystem after an accidental aerosol release of transuranic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco Sanchez, L.

    1990-01-01

    A discharge of plutonium and transuranic elements accidentally ocurred near Palomares (Almeria, Spain) in 1966. After decontamining operations, about 10 g of finely dispersed plutonium remained on the soil and was spreaded on the sorroundings and into Mediterranean sea. An analytical study including a 34 sampling sites of marine sediments, chemical clean-up, analytical methods for isolating plutonium from interfering radionuclides in the alfa-spectra was carried out. The detection limit level reached for the 239 u+ 240 Pu was 10 mBq/Kg one of the lowest cited in the Spanish analytical literature until now. These results were attained following a careful electroplating Pu deposition method developed by our laboratory as result of the high signal/noise rates measured and a 20 KeV resolution. Several analytical assurance quality procedures specially developed for the Palomares ecological system were applied to the results, at the CIEMAT laboratories using reference standard certified samples. The values were unbiased and with no differences statistically significants between them. Interlaboratory comparisons were carried out. After 20 years of plutonium traces environmental transport their concentration were from two at three times the leves of radionuclides in the fallout of the zone studied. The plutonium concentration range in surface sediments was 0.3-5.0 Bq/Kg. The highest values corresponding in the coastal sediments and the lowest in the deep sea. Plutonium concentrations are highly correlated with the sediments structure, grain size composition and distance from the mouth of Almanzora river. The most important contribution at the transport from the land into sea could be the freshet occured at 1973. For this reason the plutonium ecologycal path has been from Palomares sorroundings into the sea. Sites in the Mediterranean sea not affected by plutonium apportation from Almanzora river showed Pu levels approximately the same as the mean value for the whole

  18. What is plutonium stabilization, and what is safe storage of plutonium?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    The end of the cold war has resulted in the shutdown of nuclear weapons production and the start of dismantlement of significant numbers of nuclear weapons. This, in turn, is creating an inventory of plutonium requiring interim and long-term storage. A key question is, ''What is required for safe, multidecade, plutonium storage?'' The requirements for storage, in turn, define what is needed to stabilize the plutonium from its current condition into a form acceptable for interim and long-term storage. Storage requirements determine if research is required to (1) define required technical conditions for interim and long-term storage and (2) develop or improve current stabilization technologies. Storage requirements depend upon technical, policy, and economic factors. The technical issues are complicated by several factors. Plutonium in aerosol form is highly hazardous. Plutonium in water is hazardous. The plutonium inventory is in multiple chemical forms--some of which are chemically reactive. Also, some of the existing storage forms are clearly unsuitable for storage periods over a few years. Gas generation by plutonium compounds complicates storage: (1) all plutonium slowly decays creating gaseous helium and (2) the radiation from plutonium decay can initiate many chemical reactions-some of which generate significant quantities of gases. Gas generation can pressurize sealed storage packages. Last nuclear criticality must be avoided

  19. Animal data on plutonium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    Animal data are necessary in the assessment of plutonium toxicity since it is unlikely that the necessary information on effects from humans will be obtained. Experiments on animals must be designed to provide understanding of the mechanisms at work if the results are to be applied to man since it is a statistical impossibility to design experiments to measure directly the low levels of risk that are of concern. Cancer induction appears to be the risk of greatest concern with the lung and bone apparently the most susceptible organs, depending upon the method of administration. Current limitations on these organs do not appear to have the safety margin formerly believed and there are some uncertainties in the extrapolation from animal data to man. (author)

  20. Deep borehole disposal of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibb, F. G. F.; Taylor, K. J.; Burakov, B. E.

    2008-01-01

    Excess plutonium not destined for burning as MOX or in Generation IV reactors is both a long-term waste management problem and a security threat. Immobilisation in mineral and ceramic-based waste forms for interim safe storage and eventual disposal is a widely proposed first step. The safest and most secure form of geological disposal for Pu yet suggested is in very deep boreholes and we propose here that the key to successful combination of these immobilisation and disposal concepts is the encapsulation of the waste form in small cylinders of recrystallized granite. The underlying science is discussed and the results of high pressure and temperature experiments on zircon, depleted UO 2 and Ce-doped cubic zirconia enclosed in granitic melts are presented. The outcomes of these experiments demonstrate the viability of the proposed solution and that Pu could be successfully isolated from its environment for many millions of years. (authors)

  1. Design criteria for plutonium gloveboxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The standard defines criteria for the design of glovebox systems to be used for the handling of plutonium in any form or isotopic composition or when mixed with other elements or compounds. The glovebox system is a series of physical barriers provided with glove ports and gloves, through which process and maintenance operations may be performed, together with an operating ventilation system. The system minimizes the potential for release of radioactive material to the environment, protects operators from contamination, and mitigates the consequences of abnormal condiations. The standard covers confinement, construction, materials, windows, glove ports, gloves, equipment insertion and removal, lighting, ventilation, fire protection, criticality prevention, services and utilities, radiation shielding, waste systems, monitoring and alarm systems, safeguards, quality assurance, and decommissioning

  2. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50's structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG's charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  3. Maximum Quantum Entropy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Jae-Hoon; Han, Myung Joon

    2018-01-01

    Maximum entropy method for analytic continuation is extended by introducing quantum relative entropy. This new method is formulated in terms of matrix-valued functions and therefore invariant under arbitrary unitary transformation of input matrix. As a result, the continuation of off-diagonal elements becomes straightforward. Without introducing any further ambiguity, the Bayesian probabilistic interpretation is maintained just as in the conventional maximum entropy method. The applications o...

  4. Maximum power demand cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.

    1998-01-01

    The charging for a service is a supplier's remuneration for the expenses incurred in providing it. There are currently two charges for electricity: consumption and maximum demand. While no problem arises about the former, the issue is more complicated for the latter and the analysis in this article tends to show that the annual charge for maximum demand arbitrarily discriminates among consumer groups, to the disadvantage of some [it

  5. Decorporation approach following rat lung contamination with a moderately soluble compound of plutonium using local and systemic Ca-DTPA combined chelation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gremy, Olivier; Bruel, Sylvie; Renault, Daniel; Van der Meeren, Anne; Tsapis, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Decorporation efficacy of prompt pulmonary delivery of DTPA dry powder was assessed following lung contamination with plutonium nitrate and compared to an intravenous injection of DTPA solution and a combined administration of both DTPA compounds. In addition, efficacy of a delayed treatment was assessed. In case of either early or late administration, insufflated DTPA was more efficient than intravenously injected DTPA in reducing the plutonium lung burden due to its high local concentration. Prompt treatment with DTPA powder was also more effective in limiting extrapulmonary deposits by removing the early transportable fraction of plutonium from lungs prior its absorption into blood. Translocation of DTPA from lungs to blood may also contribute to the decrease in extrapulmonary retention, as shown by reduced liver deposit after delayed pulmonary administration of DTPA. Efficacy of DTPA dry powder was further increased by the combined intravenous administration of DTPA solution for reducing extrapulmonary deposits of plutonium and promoting its urinary excretion. According to our results, the most effective treatment protocol for plutonium decorporation was the early pulmonary delivery of DTPA powder supplemented by an intravenous injection of DTPA solution. Following inhalation of plutonium as nitrate chemical form, this combined chelation therapy should provide a more effective method of treatment than conventional intravenous injection alone. At later stages following lung contamination, pulmonary administration of DTPA should also be considered as the treatment of choice for decreasing the lung burden. (authors)

  6. Comparisons between in vivo estimates of systemic Pu deposition and autopsy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schofield, G.B.

    1982-01-01

    In the UK the radiochemical analyses of autopsy specimens have been undertaken following the death of 30 employees during the period 1964 - 1980 whose work has at some time brought them into contact with plutonium. These workers were routinely monitored during their lifetime and estimates made of their total body content of plutonium. Past experience has shown that the urinary plutonium content bears a marked relationship to the bone and liver deposition levels of plutonium but not to the quantities found in the lungs (1). In this paper therefore the comparisons are made between in vivo estimates of bone and liver plutonium deposition and estimates derived from both the wet and ash weights of autopsy specimens. (author)

  7. The use of the average plutonium-content for criticality evaluation of boiling water reactor mixed oxide-fuel transport and storage packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattera, C.

    2003-01-01

    Currently in France, criticality studies in transport configurations for Boiling Water Reactor Mixed Oxide fuel assemblies are based on conservative hypothesis assuming that all rods (Mixed Oxide (Uranium and Plutonium), Uranium Oxide, Uranium and (Gadolinium Oxide rods) are Mixed Oxide rods with the same Plutonium-content, corresponding to the maximum value. In that way, the real heterogeneous mapping of the assembly is masked and covered by an homogenous Plutonium-content assembly, enriched at the maximum value. As this calculation hypothesis is extremely conservative, Cogema Logistics (formerly Transnucleaire) has studied a new calculation method based on the use of the average Plutonium-content in the criticality studies. The use of the average Plutonium-content instead of the real Plutonium-content profiles provides a highest reactivity value that makes it globally conservative. This method can be applied for all Boiling Water Reactor Mixed Oxide complete fuel assemblies of type 8 x 8, 9 x 9 and 10 x 10 which Plutonium-content in mass weight does not exceed 15%; it provides advantages which are discussed in the paper. (author)

  8. On-site monitoring of plutonium workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.A.; Richardson, C.K.; Paulka, S.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: As part of the Maralinga rehabilitation program it is necessary to implement a system of on-site monitoring for the workers in order to ensure that they do not exceed recommended dose limits. The main problem in the rehabilitation work is the inhalation of dusts which contain micron sized plutonium particles. Using the new ICRP lung model and available data derived from measurements on contaminated soils, the intake for a dose of 20 mSv was calculated to be 1200 Bq. Four methods are available for direct measurements on workers; nasal swabs, faecal analysis, urine analysis and lung monitoring. The first two techniques are sensitive but will give varying results depending of the time interval between exposure and sampling. They are also difficult to implement on a routine basis. For the second two techniques, the activity in the lungs and the activity excreted per day in the urine remain relatively constant for several years following an intake, making more accurate dose estimates possible. The ICRP lung model predicts deposition in the lung of the order of 5% of intake and urinary excretion models predict approximately 10 -5 of this will be excreted daily in the urine. Lung monitoring of workers will be performed routinely at Maralinga in a partly enclosed room constructed from 10cm of steel, using two 50 mm diameter germanium detectors shielded with lead collimators. The detectors will measure 241 Am, which has grown in following the decay of 241 Pu, and the minimum detectable activity will be 15 - 20 Bq depending on the chest thickness and chest wall thickness of the individual being measured. Urine will be collected routinely and selected samples will be measured. The minimum detectable activity will be 2001μBq of 239 Pu in a daily urine sample

  9. Plutonium finishing plant dangerous waste training plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ENTROP, G.E.

    1999-01-01

    This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas

  10. Recommendations for plutonium colloid size determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosiewicz, S.T.

    1984-02-01

    This report presents recommendations for plutonium colloid size determination and summarizes a literature review, discussions with other researchers, and comments from equipment manufacturers. Four techniques suitable for plutonium colloid size characterization are filtration and ultrafiltration, gel permeation chromatography, diffusion methods, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (conditionally). Our findings include the following: (1) Filtration and ultrafiltration should be the first methods used for plutonium colloid size determination because they can provide the most rapid results with the least complicated experimental arrangement. (2) After expertise has been obtained with filtering, gel permeation chromatography should be incorporated into the colloid size determination program. (3) Diffusion methods can be used next. (4) High-pressure liquid chromatography will be suitable after appropriate columns are available. A plutonium colloid size characterization program with filtration/ultrafiltration and gel permeation chromatography has been initiated

  11. IMPROVED PROCESS OF PLUTONIUM CARRIER PRECIPITATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, B.F.

    1959-06-30

    This patent relates to an improvement in the bismuth phosphate process for separating and recovering plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium, resulting in improved decontamination even without the use of scavenging precipitates in the by-product precipitation step and subsequently more complete recovery of the plutonium in the product precipitation step. This improvement is achieved by addition of fluomolybdic acid, or a water soluble fluomolybdate, such as the ammonium, sodium, or potassium salt thereof, to the aqueous nitric acid solution containing tetravalent plutonium ions and contaminating fission products, so as to establish a fluomolybdate ion concentration of about 0.05 M. The solution is then treated to form the bismuth phosphate plutonium carrying precipitate.

  12. Calculating the plutonium in spent fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnham, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Many members of the public are concerned about plutonium. They are worried about its environmental, health and proliferation risks. Fundamental to all such considerations are two related questions: how much plutonium do nuclear reactors produce ? and how accurately do the relevant authorities know these production figures ? These two questions have been studied with particular reference to the UK civil Magnox reactors. In 1990 these were still the only UK civil reactors whose spent fuel had been reprocessed to extract plutonium in routine production. It has not been possible to conclude that the relevant government industry and safeguard authorities are aware of how much plutonium these reactors produce and that the figures are known to the highest achievable accuracy. To understand why, this chapter will outline some of the history of the attempts to get answers to these two questions. (author)

  13. Pulmonary carcinogenesis from plutonium-containing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.; Smith, D.M.; Anderson, E.C.

    1980-01-01

    Plutonium administered as an alpha radiation source to the respiratory tracts of Syrian hamsters has resulted in various incidences of neoplasia. Adenomas are the primary lung tumor observed, but adenocarcinomas are also prevalent

  14. Direct reduction of plutonium from dicesium hexachloroplutonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averill, W.A.; Boyd, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant produces dicesium hexachloroplutonate (DCHP) primarily as a reagent in the molten salt extraction of americium from plutonium metal. DCHP is precipitated from aqueous chloride solutions derived from the leaching of process residues with a high degree of selectivity. DCHP is a chloride salt of plutonium, while the traditional aqueous precipitate is a hydrated oxide. Plutonium metal preparation from the oxide involves either the conversion of oxide to a halide followed by metallothermic reduction or direct reduction of the oxide using a flux. Either method generates at least three times as much radioactively contaminated waste as metal produced. Plutonium concentration by DCHP precipitation, however, produces a chloride salt that can be reduced using calcium metal at a temperature of approximately 1000K. In this paper the advantages and limitations of this process are discussed

  15. SEPARATION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM, AND FISSION PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, R.; Lister, M.W.

    1958-12-16

    Uranium and plutonium can be separated from neutron-lrradiated uranium by a process consisting of dissolvlng the lrradiated material in nitric acid, saturating the solution with a nitrate salt such as ammonium nitrate, rendering the solution substantially neutral with a base such as ammonia, adding a reducing agent such as hydroxylamine to change plutonium to the trivalent state, treating the solution with a substantially water immiscible organic solvent such as dibutoxy diethylether to selectively extract the uranium, maklng the residual aqueous solutlon acid with nitric acid, adding an oxidizing agent such as ammonlum bromate to oxidize the plutonium to the hexavalent state, and selectlvely extracting the plutonium by means of an immlscible solvent, such as dibutoxy dlethyletber.

  16. Plutonium Immobilization Bagless Transfer Can Size Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriikku, E.; Stokes, M.; Rogers, L.; Ward, C.

    1998-02-01

    This report identifies and documents the most appropriate bagless transfer can size to support Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading operations. Also, this report considers can diameter, can wall thickness, and can length

  17. The first metallurgical tests on plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grison, E.; Abramson, R.; Anselin, F.; Monti, H.

    1958-01-01

    Metallic plutonium was first prepared in France in January 1956, as soon as we had access to quantities of the order of several grams of plutonium, which had been extracted from the rods of the pile EL2 at Saclay. Since up to the present this reactor, of thermal power 2 000 kW, has been our only source of plutonium, we have so far only worked on experimental quantities sufficient for the basic tests but not for tests on a scale of possible applications. It is this work, carried out during this phase of preliminary research, which is described below. With the starting up of the plutonium extraction plant at Marcoule, where the reactor G1 has been operating at power for more than a year, we shall go on next to a another order of magnitude which will allow the manufacture and experimentation of prototype fuel elements. (author) [fr

  18. Study of plutonium cycle in marine ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino Pareja, J.; Sanchez Cabeza, J. A.; Molero Savall, J.; Masque Barri, P.

    1998-01-01

    The distribution, transport and accumulation mechanisms of transuranics (and other radionuclides) in the marine environment depend on the source term, biogeochemical cycles, transport with the water masses, sedimentation processes and transfer mechanisms in the trophic chain. The biogeochemical behaviour of plutonium, which has been the focus of our work, was studied using the following approaches: determination of the physico-chemical speciation of plutonium in marine waters, vertical flux in the water column, uptake by marine organisms (phytoplankton and zooplankton) and distribution in dements cores. A preliminary model of the accumulation and distribution of plutonium in the first levels of the marine food chain in the Irish Sea has also been formulated. All this information allowed us to obtain an integrated view of the behaviour of plutonium in the marine environment. (Author) 14 refs

  19. Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX Separation Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulenova, Alena; Vandegrift, George F. III; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the project is to examine the chemical speciation of plutonium in UREX+ (uranium/tributylphosphate) extraction processes for advanced fuel technology. Researchers will analyze the change in speciation using existing thermodynamics and kinetic computer codes to examine the speciation of plutonium in aqueous and organic phases. They will examine the different oxidation states of plutonium to find the relative distribution between the aqueous and organic phases under various conditions such as different concentrations of nitric acid, total nitrates, or actinide ions. They will also utilize techniques such as X-ray absorbance spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering for determining plutonium and uranium speciation in all separation stages. The project started in April 2005 and is scheduled for completion in March 2008.

  20. International shipment of plutonium by air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado, J.E.; McGrogan, J.P.

    1995-05-01

    In support of the United States (US) Government's decision to place excess plutonium oxide at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards, the Department of State notified the Congress that a plutonium storage vault at the Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Hanford Site would be added to the eligible facilities list. As part of the preparations to transfer the plutonium oxide under IAEA safeguards, samples of the powder were taken from the inventory to be shipped to the IAEA headquarters in Vienna, Austria, for laboratory analysis. The analysis of these samples was of high priority, and the IAEA requested that the material be shipped by aircraft, the most expeditious method

  1. Waste minimization at a plutonium processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1995-01-01

    As part of Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) mission to reduce the nuclear danger throughout the world, the plutonium processing facility at LANL maintains expertise and skills in nuclear weapons technologies as well as leadership in all peaceful applications of plutonium technologies, including fuel fabrication for terrestrial and space reactors and heat sources and thermoelectric generators for space missions. Another near-term challenge resulted from two safety assessments performed by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board and the U.S. Department of Energy during the past two years. These assessments have necessitated the processing and stabilization of plutonium contained in tons of residues so that they can be stored safely for an indefinite period. This report describes waste streams and approaches to waste reduction of plutonium management

  2. Investigation of plutonium abundance and age analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huailong, Wu; Jian, Gong; Fanhua, Hao [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China). Inst. of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry

    2007-06-15

    Based on spectra analysis software, all of the plutonium material peak counts are analyzed. Relatively efficiency calibration is done by the non-coupling peaks of {sup 239}Pu. By using the known isotopes half life and yield, the coupling peaks counts are allocated by non-coupling peaks, consequently the atom ratios of each isotope are gotten. The formula between atom ratio and abundance or age is deduced by plutonium material isotopes decay characteristic. And so the abundance and age of plutonium material is gotten. After some re- peat measurements for a plutonium equipment are completed, a comparison between our analysis results and PC-FRAM and the owner's reference results are done. (authors)

  3. Plutonium gastrointestinal absorption by adults baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lataillade, G.; Madic, C.; Willemot, J.M.; Germain, P.; Colle, C.; Metivier, H.

    1991-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium was investigated in baboons after ingestion of plutonium solution (oxidation states III; IV; V; VI), and plutonium incorporated in soya bean and winkles. We studied the effects of oxidation state and ingested mass for masses ranging from 0.35 μg to 51.6 x 10 +3 μg (4 x 10 -2 to 7776 μg of plutonium per kg of body weight). No clear increase in plutonium retention was shown for concentrations of plutonium smaller than 1 μg/kg. From 1 μg/kg to 1 mg/kg no effects of mass or oxidation state was observed and the mean fractional retention value was 10 -4 . For ingested masses higher than 1 mg/kg the fractional retention values respectively increased for Pu(V) and Pu(III) to (0.9 + 0.2) x 10 -2 and (7.4 + 4.1) x 10 -4 of the ingested mass. This increase might be due to the weak hydrolysis of these oxidation states which would increase gastrointestinal absorption by decrease of hydroxide formation. The fraction of plutonium retained after ingestion of soya bean was (3.0 + 0.5) x 10 -4 about 3 fold higher than the value for 238 Pu nitrate solution. No clear increase in plutonium retention was shown after ingestion of winkles containing 238 Pu. In conclusion, except for high masses of ingested Pu, the retention of which could reach 1% of the ingested dose, our results show that the gastrointestinal transfer factor of 10 -4 proposed by ICRP for gastrointestinal absorption of soluble form of Pu is acceptable, but 10 -3 would provide better safety margin [fr

  4. United Kingdom experience in plutonium transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    Plutonium has already been transported within the UK over a period of 20 years and to destinations overseas since the early 60's. Experience is recounted with regard to the forms of plutonium transported, regulations, insurance, container design, mode of transport, volume of traffic, physical protection, safety analysis and costs. It is concluded that this traffic could be expanded in the future without danger to the community or the environment

  5. United Kingdom experience in plutonium transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This paper describes the extensive experience of the UKAEA and British Nuclear Fuels Limited in transporting plutonium within the UK over the last 20 years and to destinations overseas since the early 1960s. The aspects covered include: the form of plutonium transported (nitrate, oxide, mixed oxide etc.); UK and international regulations (e.g. covering safety and safeguards matters); insurance; container design; mode of transport; physical protection; and a safety analysis. Costs are estimated to be largely independent of quantity

  6. Future role of plutonium technology in society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, D.C.; Matthews, R.B.; Trapp, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Until the fall of the Berlin Wall, there was a very clear programmatic use of plutonium: supporting the nuclear deterrent. Since the breakup of the Soviet Union, bilateral agreements concerning the cessation of nuclear testing and the dismantlement of large portions of the nuclear weapon stockpiles by the United States and the states of the former Soviet Union have resulted in new requirements concerning the management and disposition of nuclear materials. This report describes current issues pertaining to the requirements for plutonium management

  7. A world of horror full with plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1977-01-01

    This article discusses the possibility of building a nuclear-bomb out of plutonium which has been originated in civil-nuclear power plants and the causes of plutonium on the human-body. In an interview Prof. Broda warns that some countries have already used civil-nuclear-technique in order to produce nuclear-arms and that there are severe risks for the future. (kancsar)

  8. ZPR-9 airborne plutonium monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusch, G.K.; McDowell, W.P.; Knapp, W.G.

    1975-01-01

    An airborne plutonium monitoring system which is installed in the ZPR-9 (Zero Power Reactor No. 9) facility at Argonne National Laboratory is described. The design and operational experience are discussed. This monitoring system utilizes particle size and density discrimination, alpha particle energy discrimination, and a background-subtraction techique operating in cascade to separate airborne-plutonium activity from other, naturally occurring, airborne activity. Relatively high sensitivity and reliability are achieved

  9. Disposition of Uranium -233 (sup 233U) in Plutonium Metal and Oxide at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiboth, Cameron J.; Gibbs, Frank E.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the position that the concentration of Uranium-233 ( 233 U) in plutonium metal and oxide currently stored at the DOE Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is well below the maximum permissible stabilization, packaging, shipping and storage limits. The 233 U stabilization, packaging and storage limit is 0.5 weight percent (wt%), which is also the shipping limit maximum. These two plutonium products (metal and oxide) are scheduled for processing through the Building 371 Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (PuSPS). This justification is supported by written technical reports, personnel interviews, and nuclear material inventories, as compiled in the ''History of Uranium-233 ( 233 U) Processing at the Rocky Flats Plant In Support of the RFETS Acceptable Knowledge Program'' RS-090-056, April 1, 1999. Relevant data from this report is summarized for application to the PuSPS metal and oxide processing campaigns

  10. Plutonium in the desert environment of the Nevada Test Site and the Tonopah Test Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romney, E.M.; Essington, E.H.; Fowler, E.B.; Tamura, T.; Gilbert, R.O.

    1987-01-01

    Several safety shot tests were conducted in the desert environment of the Nevada Test Site and the Tonopah Test Range during the period 1955 to 1963. Follow-up studies were conducted in fallout areas resulting from these tests to investigate the distribution in soils and the availability to animals and plants of plutonium (and americium) after residence times of 10 to 20 years. Soil profile studies disclosed that more than 95% of the plutonium (and americium) dispersed as fallout to the environment had remained in the top 5 cm of soil in undisturbed areas. Significant amounts had been redistributed into blow-sand mounds formed underneath clumps of vegetation. That redistribution should be expected because the contaminant was associated primarily with the coarse silt and fine sand particle size fractions. Resuspension factors were calculated that varied from 9.1 x 10 -11 m -1 to 5.4 x 10 -9 m -1 with geometric mean and arithmetic averages of 2.9 x 10 -10 m -1 and 6.8 x 10 -10 m -1 , respectively; however, the plutonium essentially remained in place when the soil surface was left undisturbed. Vegetation in the fallout areas was contaminated primarily by resuspendable material deposited on the surface of plant foliage; plutonium concentration ratios ranged from 10 -3 to 10 0 . Carcass samples of small vertebrate animals collected from fallout areas contained only trace amounts of plutonium compared to the environmental exposure levels. Furthermore, only trace amounts of plutonium (and americium) were found in muscle and organ tissues of grazing cattle during a 3-year on-site residence experiment. 36 references, 4 figures

  11. Guidelines for international plutonium management: Overview and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryson, M.C.; Fitzgerald, C.P.; Kincaid, C.

    1998-01-01

    In September, 1997, nine of the world's plutonium-using countries agreed to a set of guidelines for international plutonium management, with acceptances to be submitted to the International Atomic Energy Agency on December 1. Following three years of discussion, the guidelines provide a unified package of accepted rules for the storage, handling, and transportation of civil plutonium as well as military plutonium that has been declared as no longer required for defense purposes. New requirements include a formal declaration of national plutonium strategies, which will recognize the environmental, economic, and proliferation concerns and the consequent importance of balancing plutonium supply and demand. Nations will also make annual declaration of their non-military stockpiles of unirradiated plutonium, together with estimates of the plutonium content in spent reactor fuel. These guidelines represent the first formally accepted recognition of the need for plutonium management of this scope and could thus provide a partial basis for future monitoring and policy regimes

  12. Disposal of Surplus Weapons Grade Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsaed, H.; Gottlieb, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is responsible for disposing of inventories of surplus US weapons-usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium as well as providing, technical support for, and ultimate implementation of, efforts to obtain reciprocal disposition of surplus Russian plutonium. On January 4, 2000, the Department of Energy issued a Record of Decision to dispose of up to 50 metric tons of surplus weapons-grade plutonium using two methods. Up to 17 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be immobilized in a ceramic form, placed in cans and embedded in large canisters containing high-level vitrified waste for ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. Approximately 33 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be used to fabricate MOX fuel (mixed oxide fuel, having less than 5% plutonium-239 as the primary fissile material in a uranium-235 carrier matrix). The MOX fuel will be used to produce electricity in existing domestic commercial nuclear reactors. This paper reports the major waste-package-related, long-term disposal impacts of the two waste forms that would be used to accomplish this mission. Particular emphasis is placed on the possibility of criticality. These results are taken from a summary report published earlier this year

  13. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE's independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91

  14. A vision for environmentally conscious plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Eller, P.G.; Christensen, D.C.; Miller, W.L.

    1998-01-01

    Regardless of individual technical and political opinions about the uses of plutonium, it is virtually certain that plutonium processing will continue on a significant global scale for many decades for the purposes of national defense, nuclear power, and remediation. An unavoidable aspect of plutonium processing is that radioactively contaminated gas, liquid, and solid waste streams are generated. These streams need to be handled in a manner that not only is in full compliance with today's laws but also will be considered environmentally and economically responsible now and in the future. In this regard, it is indeed ironic that the multibillion dollar and multidecade radioactive cleanup mortgage that the US Department of Energy (and its Russian counterpart) now owns resulted from waste management practices that were at the time in full legal compliance. It is now abundantly evident that in the long run, these practices have proven to be neither environmentally nor economically sound. Recent dramatic advances in actinide science and technology now make it possible to drastically minimize or even eliminate the problematic waste streams of traditional plutonium processing operations. Advanced technology thereby provides the means to avoid passing on to children and grandchildren significant environmental and economic legacies that traditional processing inevitably produces. The authors describe such a vision for plutonium processing that could be implemented fully within 5 yr at a facility such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA55). As a significant bonus, even on this short timescale, the initial technology investment is handsomely returned in avoided waste management costs

  15. Pulmonary carcinogenesis from plutonium-containing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.; Smith, D.M.; Anderson, E.C.

    1980-01-01

    Induction of lung tumors by various types of radiation is of paramount concern to the nuclear industry. The data presented were obtained by exposing the pulmonary system of Syrian hamsters to particles of zirconium oxide containing various amounts of either plutonium-238 or -239 as the alpha radiation source. These particles were injected intravenously and lodged permanently in the capillary bed of the lung. When less than 20% of the lung tissue was irradiated, simulating the ''hot particle'' mode, tumors were not evident with lung burdens up to 500 nCi plutonium. More diffuse irradiation significantly increased the tumor incidence, with lung burdens of 50 to 150 nCi. When plutonium-laden microspheres were administered intratracheally, tumor production was considerably increased and the addition of 3 mg of iron oxide intratracheally further increased the incidence. Using the zirconium oxide matrix for the carrier of plutonium in aerosol particles produced tumor incidences of up to 50% in Syrian hamsters exposed by inhalation. Initial pulmonary (alveolar) burdens reached 100 nCi of plutonium. Similar inhalation studies using plutonium dioxide alone (no matrix) failed to produce any increase in lung tumorigenesis. The results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms necessary for lung carcinogenesis. (H.K.)

  16. Reclamation of plutonium from pyrochemical processing residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Gray, J.H.; Holcomb, H.P.; Chostner, D.F.

    1987-04-01

    Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), Savannah River Plant (SRP), and Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have jointly developed a process to recover plutonium from molten salt extraction residues. These NaCl, KCL, and MgCl 2 residues, which are generated in the pyrochemical extraction of 241 Am from aged plutonium metal, contain up to 25 wt % dissolved plutonium and up to 2 wt % americium. The overall objective was to develop a process to convert these residues to a pure plutonium metal product and discardable waste. To meet this objective a combination of pyrochemical and aqueous unit operations was used. The first step was to scrub the salt residue with a molten metal (aluminum and magnesium) to form a heterogeneous ''scrub alloy'' containing nominally 25 wt % plutonium. This unit operation, performed at RFP, effectively separated the actinides from the bulk of the chloride salts. After packaging in aluminum cans, the ''scrub alloy'' was then dissolved in a nitric acid - hydrofluoric acid - mercuric nitrate solution at SRP. Residual chloride was separated from the dissolver solution by precipitation with Hg 2 (NO 3 ) 2 followed by centrifuging. Plutonium was then separated from the aluminum, americium and magnesium using the Purex solvent extraction system. The 241 Am was diverted to the waste tank farm, but could be recovered if desired

  17. A vision for environmentally conscious plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Eller, P.G.; Christensen, D.C.; Miller, W.L.

    1998-01-01

    Regardless of individual technical and political opinions about the uses of plutonium, it is virtually certain that plutonium processing will continue on a significant global scale for many decades for the purposes of national defense, nuclear power and remediation. An unavoidable aspect of plutonium processing is that radioactive contaminated gas, liquid, and solid streams are generated. These streams need to be handled in a manner that is not only in full compliance with today's laws,but also will be considered environmentally and economically responsible now and in the future. In this regard, it is indeed ironic that the multibillion dollar and multidecade radioactive cleanup mortgage that the US Department of Energy (and its Russian counterpart) now owns resulted from waste management practices that were at the time in full legal compliance. The theme of this paper is that recent dramatic advances in actinide science and technology now make it possible to drastically minimize or even eliminate the problematic waste streams of traditional plutonium processing operations. Advanced technology thereby provides the means to avoid passing on to our children and grandchildren significant environmental and economic legacies that traditional processing inevitably produces. This paper will describe such a vision for plutonium processing that could be implemented fully within five years at a facility such as the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA55). As a significant bonus, even on this short time scale, the initial technology investment is handsomely returned in avoided waste management costs

  18. Complementary technologies for verification of excess plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, D.G.; Nicholas, N.J.; Ensslin, N.; Fearey, B.L.; Mitchell, D.J.; Marlow, K.W.; Luke, S.J.; Gosnell, T.B.

    1998-01-01

    Three complementary measurement technologies have been identified as candidates for use in the verification of excess plutonium of weapons origin. These technologies: high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, neutron multiplicity counting, and low-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, are mature, robust technologies. The high-resolution gamma-ray system, Pu-600, uses the 630--670 keV region of the emitted gamma-ray spectrum to determine the ratio of 240 Pu to 239 Pu. It is useful in verifying the presence of plutonium and the presence of weapons-grade plutonium. Neutron multiplicity counting is well suited for verifying that the plutonium is of a safeguardable quantity and is weapons-quality material, as opposed to residue or waste. In addition, multiplicity counting can independently verify the presence of plutonium by virtue of a measured neutron self-multiplication and can detect the presence of non-plutonium neutron sources. The low-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopic technique is a template method that can provide continuity of knowledge that an item that enters the a verification regime remains under the regime. In the initial verification of an item, multiple regions of the measured low-resolution spectrum form a unique, gamma-radiation-based template for the item that can be used for comparison in subsequent verifications. In this paper the authors discuss these technologies as they relate to the different attributes that could be used in a verification regime

  19. Radiation damage and annealing in plutonium tetrafluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Kaylyn; Casella, Amanda; Sinkov, Sergey; Sweet, Lucas; McNamara, Bruce; Delegard, Calvin; Jevremovic, Tatjana

    2017-12-01

    A sample of plutonium tetrafluoride that was separated prior to 1966 at the Hanford Site in Washington State was analyzed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2015 and 2016. The plutonium tetrafluoride, as received, was an unusual color and considering the age of the plutonium, there were questions about the condition of the material. These questions had to be answered in order to determine the suitability of the material for future use or long-term storage. Therefore, thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction evaluations were conducted to determine the plutonium's crystal structure, oxide content, and moisture content; these analyses reported that the plutonium was predominately amorphous and tetrafluoride, with an oxide content near ten percent. Freshly fluorinated plutonium tetrafluoride is known to be monoclinic. During the initial thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses, it was discovered that an exothermic event occurred within the material near 414 °C. X-ray diffraction analyses were conducted on the annealed tetrafluoride. The X-ray diffraction analyses indicated that some degree of recrystallization occurred in conjunction with the 414 °C event. The following commentary describes the series of thermogravimetric/differential thermal and X-ray diffraction analyses that were conducted as part of this investigation at PNNL.

  20. Radiation damage and annealing in plutonium tetrafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, Kaylyn; Casella, Amanda; Sinkov, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    A sample of plutonium tetrafluoride that was separated prior to 1966 at the Hanford Site in Washington State was analyzed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2015 and 2016. The plutonium tetrafluoride, as received, was an unusual color and considering the age of the plutonium, there were questions about the condition of the material. These questions had to be answered in order to determine the suitability of the material for future use or long-term storage. Therefore, thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction evaluations were conducted to determine the plutonium's crystal structure, oxide content, and moisture content; these analyses reported that the plutonium was predominately amorphous and tetrafluoride, with an oxide content near ten percent. Freshly fluorinated plutonium tetrafluoride is known to be monoclinic. And during the initial thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses, it was discovered that an exothermic event occurred within the material near 414 °C. X-ray diffraction analyses were conducted on the annealed tetrafluoride. The X-ray diffraction analyses indicated that some degree of recrystallization occurred in conjunction with the 414 °C event. This commentary describes the series of thermogravimetric/differential thermal and X-ray diffraction analyses that were conducted as part of this investigation at PNNL.

  1. Gamma spectrometric methods for measuring plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnink, R.

    1978-01-01

    Nondestructive analyses of plutonium can be made by detecting and measuring the gamma rays emitted by a sample. Although qualitative and semiquantitative assays can be performed with relative ease, only recently have methods been developed, using computer analysis techniques, that provide quantitative results. This paper reviews some new techniques developed for measuring plutonium. The features of plutonium gamma-ray spectra are reviewed and some of the computer methods used for spectrum analysis are discussed. The discussion includes a description of a powerful computer method of unfolding complex peak multiplets that uses the standard linear least-squares techniques of data analysis. This computer method is based on the generation of response profiles for the isotopes composing a plutonium sample and requires a description of the peak positions, relative intensities, and line shapes. The principles that plutonium isotopic measurements are based on are also developed, followed by illustrations of the measurement procedures as applied to the quantitative analysis of plutonium liquid and solid samples

  2. Relationships among plutonium contents of soil, vegetation and animals collected on and adjacent to an integrated nuclear complex in the humid southeastern United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLendon, H.R.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-three representative sampling locations on and adjacent to the Savannah River Plant (SRP) site were selected to obtain information on plutonium movement in the food chain under southeastern US environmental conditions. Soil, a resuspendible fraction of the soil, honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), and camphor weed (Heterotheca subaxillaris) were collected at each location. Grasshoppers and cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) were collected at some locations. The plutonium concentrations in soil at the selected locations ranged from 1.5 to 171fCi/g and alpha percentages of 238 Pu ranged from 2 to 66. The concentration of plutonium in the vegetation and on the leaves ranged from 0.17 to 76.1fCi/g and the alpha percentages of 238 Pu from 3 to 61. The concentration of plutonium in cotton rats and grasshoppers ranged from 0.07 to 3.58fCi/g and the alpha percentages of 238 Pu ranged from 22 to 80. The average ratio of plutonium concentration of vegetation to that of the surrounding soil was 10 -1 ; the corresponding ratio for cotton rats and soil was 10 -2 . These ratios appear to be independent of the plutonium concentration in the soil. Deposition on the surfaces of leaves and stems was the principal mechanism of plutonium contamination of vegetation. Comparisons among the plutonium values of the vegetation, soil and resuspendible fraction suggest the use of a proposed resuspendible measurement technique as a monitoring method to indicate subtle changes in the plutonium concentration of the soil surface that are not detectable by routine soil sampling. Although the 238 Pu data in the various ecosystem components were not conclusive, they do support evidence presented in other studies that there is an apparent increase in the biological availability of 238 Pu relative to that of sup(239,240)Pu in the environment. The plutonium concentrations of all ecosystem components decreased as the distance from the reprocessing plants increased. (author)

  3. Plutonium in the environment - bibliographic study and quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guetat, Ph.; Monfort, M.; Ansoborlo, E.; Bion, L.; Moulin, V.; Reiller, P.; Vercouter, Th.; Boucher, L.; Jourdain, F.; Van Dorpe, F.; Comte, A.; Flury Heard, A.; Fritsch, P.; Menetrier, F.

    2008-01-01

    This document deals with the different isotopes of plutonium. It intends to summarize the main features of plutonium behaviour from sources inside installation to the environment and man, and is expected to report the current knowledge about the different parameters used in the models for environmental and radiological impact assessment. The objective is to gather scientific information useful for deciders in case of accident or for regulation purposes. It gives main information on radiological and chemical characteristics which are necessary to understand transfers between compartments. Then it reports information on normal and accidental historical sources and present releases. The next part deals with transfer parameters in the installations and in environment. Parameters that influence its behaviour are examined, inside installations (physico-chemical forms and events that lead to releases), and outside in the environment for deposition to soils and transfer to plants, and animal products. A full chapter is dedicated to presentation of typical assessments, for each isotope and for mixture, and correspondence between activity, mass and dose reference levels are presented and discussed. Transfer and behaviour in man and effects on health are finally presented. (author)

  4. Expected behavior of plutonium in the IFR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steunenberg, R.K.; Johnson, I.

    1985-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is a metal-fueled, sodium-cooled reactor that will consist initially of a U-Zr alloy core in which the enriched uranium will be replaced gradually by plutonium bred in a uranium blanket. The plutonium is concentrated to the required level by extraction from the molten blanket material with a CaCl 2 -BaCl 2 salt containing MgCl 2 as an oxidant (halide slagging). The CaCl 2 -BaCl 2 salt containing dissolved PuCl 3 and UCl 3 is added to the core process where fission products are removed by electrorefining, using a liquid cadmium anode, a metal cathode, and a LiCl-NaCl-CaCl 2 -BaCl 2 molten salt electrolyte. The product is recovered as a metallic deposit on the cathode. The halide slagging step is operated at about 1250 0 and the electrorefining step at about 450 0 C. These processes are expected to give low fission-product decontamination factors of the order of 100

  5. Civil plutonium held in France in December 31, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-02-01

    Spent fuels comprise about 1% of plutonium which is separated during the reprocessing and recycled to prepare the mixed uranium-plutonium fuel (MOX), which in turn is burnt in PWRs. Plutonium can be in a non-irradiated or separated form, or in an irradiated form when contained in the spent fuel. Each year, in accordance with the 1997 directives relative to the management of plutonium, France has to make a status of its civil plutonium stock and communicate it to the IAEA using a standard model form. This short document summarizes the French plutonium stocks at the end of 1999 and 2000. (J.S.)

  6. Method to manufacture a nuclear fuel from uranium-plutonium monocarbide or uranium-plutonium mononitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauth, A.; Mueller, N.

    1977-01-01

    Pure uranium carbide or nitride is converted with plutonium oxide and carbon (all in powder form) to uranium-plutonium monocarbide or mononitride by cold pressing and sintering at about 1600 0 C. Pure uranium carbide or uranium nitride powder is firstly prepared without extensive safety measures. The pure uranium carbide or nitride powder can also be inactivated by using chemical substances (e.g. stearic acid) and be handled in air. The sinterable uranium carbide or nitride powder (or also granulate) is then introduced into the plutonium line and mixed with a nonstoichiometrically adjusted, prereacted mixture of plutonium oxide and carbon, pressed to pellets and reaction sintered. The surface of the uranium-plutonium carbide (higher metal content) can be nitrated towards the end of the sinter process in a stream of nitrogen. The protective layer stabilizes the carbide against the water and oxygen content in air. (IHOE) [de

  7. Plutonium uptake by plants from soil containing plutonium-238 dioxide particles. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.W.; McFarlane, J.C.

    1977-05-01

    Three plant species--alfalfa, lettuce, and radishes were grown in soils contaminated with plutonium-238 dioxide (238)PuO2 at concentrations of 23, 69, 92, and 342 nanocuries per gram (nCi/g). The length of exposure varied from 60 days for the lettuce and radishes to 358 days for the alfalfa. The magnitude of plutonium incorporation as indicated by the discrimination ratios for these species, after being exposed to the relatively insoluble PuO2, was similar to previously reported data using different chemical forms of plutonium. Evidence indicates that the predominant factor in plutonium uptake by plants may involve the chelation of plutonium contained in the soils by the action of compounds such as citric acid and/or other similar chelating agents released from the plant roots

  8. Cycle downstream: the plutonium question; Aval du cycle la question du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zask, G [Electricite de France, EDF/DAC, 75 - Paris (France); Rome, M [Electricite de France, EDF, Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires, 92 - Courbevoie (France); Delpech, M [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs/SPRC, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others

    1998-06-29

    This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 4 june 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the plutonium physics and its utilization as a nuclear fuel. This day tried to bring information to answer the following questions: do people have to keep the plutonium in the UOX fuel or in the MOX fuel in order to use it for future fast reactors? Do people have to continue obstinately the plutonium reprocessing in the MOX for the PWR type reactors? Will it be realized a underground disposal? Can it be technically developed plutonium incinerators and is it economically interesting? The plutonium physics, the experimental programs and the possible solutions are presented. (A.L.B.)

  9. Gamma ray NDA assay system for total plutonium and isotopics in plutonium product solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowder, L.R.; Hsue, S.T.; Johnson, S.S.; Parker, J.L.; Russo, P.A.; Sprinkle, J.K.; Asakura, Y.; Fukuda, T.; Kondo, I.

    1979-01-01

    A LASL-designed gamma-ray NDA instrument for assay of total plutonium and isotopics of product solutions at Tokai-Mura is currently installed and operating. The instrument is, optimally, a densitometer that uses radioisotopic sources for total plutonium measurements at the K absorption edge. The measured transmissions of additional gamma-ray lines from the same radioisotopic sources are used to correct for self-attenuation of passive gamma rays from plutonium. The corrected passive data give the plutonium isotopic content of freshly separated to moderately aged solutions. This off-line instrument is fully automated under computer control, with the exception of sample positioning, and operates routinely in a mode designed for measurement control. A one-half percent precision in total plutonium concentration is achieved with a 15-minute measurement

  10. Maximum likely scale estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...

  11. Robust Maximum Association Estimators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Alfons (Andreas); C. Croux (Christophe); P. Filzmoser (Peter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe maximum association between two multivariate variables X and Y is defined as the maximal value that a bivariate association measure between one-dimensional projections αX and αY can attain. Taking the Pearson correlation as projection index results in the first canonical correlation

  12. Plutonium in the environment - bibliographic study and quantification; Impacts environnemental et sanitaire des isotopes du plutonium, etude bibliographique et quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guetat, Ph; Monfort, M; Ansoborlo, E [CEA Marcoule, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire, 30 (France); Bion, L; Moulin, V; Reiller, P; Vercouter, Th [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Boucher, L; Jourdain, F; Van Dorpe, F [CEA Cadarache, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Comte, A; Flury Heard, A; Fritsch, P; Menetrier, F [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dir. des Sciences du Vivant, 92 (France)

    2008-07-01

    This document deals with the different isotopes of plutonium. It intends to summarize the main features of plutonium behaviour from sources inside installation to the environment and man, and is expected to report the current knowledge about the different parameters used in the models for environmental and radiological impact assessment. The objective is to gather scientific information useful for deciders in case of accident or for regulation purposes. It gives main information on radiological and chemical characteristics which are necessary to understand transfers between compartments. Then it reports information on normal and accidental historical sources and present releases. The next part deals with transfer parameters in the installations and in environment. Parameters that influence its behaviour are examined, inside installations (physico-chemical forms and events that lead to releases), and outside in the environment for deposition to soils and transfer to plants, and animal products. A full chapter is dedicated to presentation of typical assessments, for each isotope and for mixture, and correspondence between activity, mass and dose reference levels are presented and discussed. Transfer and behaviour in man and effects on health are finally presented. (author)

  13. The handling of plutonium hexafluoride (1962); Manipulation de l'hexafluorure de plutonium (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berard, Ph [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-11-15

    The major problem posed in this work is the instability of plutonium hexafluoride. The influence of various factors on the decomposition of the fluoride has been studied: physical aspect of the walls, nature of the metal and its pretreatment, influence of the temperature. A means of detecting plutonium-239 in a metallic apparatus by {gamma}-ray counting has been developed; the sensitivity is of the order of half a milligram, but the precision is very low (about 50 per cent). Yields of over 95 per cent have been obtained for the transfer of plutonium during the preparation and sublimation of the hexafluoride. This study confirms the possibility of using plutonium hexafluoride for the extraction of plutonium from irradiated fuel elements by a dry method. (author) [French] Le probleme majeur de cette etude a ete l'instabilite de l'hexafluorure de plutonium. Nous avons etudie l'influence de divers facteurs sur la decomposition de l'hexafluorure: aspect physique des parois, nature du metal et de son pretraitement, influence de la temperature. Nous avons mis au point un mode de detection du plutonium-239 dans un appareillage metallique par comptage du rayonnement {gamma}; la sensibilite est de l'ordre du demi-milligramme, mais la precision est tres faible (50 pour cent environ). Nous avons obtenu des rendements depassant 95 pour cent dans le transfert du plutonium au cours de la fabrication et de la sublimation de l'hexafluorure. Cette etude confirme la possibilite d'utiliser l'hexafluorure de plutonium dans l'extraction du plutonium des combustibles irradies par voie seche. (auteur)

  14. Calculation of keff for plutonium in high-level waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, P.R.; Culbreth, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    The proposed national high-level nuclear waste repository will be designed to store approximately 70,000 tons of commercial spent fuel, but other forms of waste will also be considered for ultimate storage at this site. Plutonium in the form of PuO 2 may be added to borosilicate glass for ultimate disposal in the repository. The maximum amount of this fissile that may be added to a glass ''log'' will be limited by its ability to sustain a chain reaction. In this study, the removal of neutron absorbers from a glass log and the subsequent possibility of water infiltration were studied to find corresponding neutron multiplication factors. Weight fractions of 1%, 2%, and 3% PuO 2 were analyzed in the study. The results show the maximum amount of plutonium fissile that may be safely added to a glass log under conditions that lead to leaching of the principal neutron absorbers from the glass

  15. Determination of Plutonium by ICP-MS in environmental samples of Casaccia site: a comparison with Alpha spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzella, M.L.; Gianquillo, G.; Pettirossi, R.

    2002-01-01

    The total inventory of plutonium (Pu) in the word is estimated to be around 20 PBq since 1950. The total fallout is estimated to be in the 1-10 MBq km -2 order of magnitude with a maximum at the latitude 40 o -50 o North

  16. Performance of multiple HEPA filters against plutonium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, M.; Elder, J.C.; Tillery, M.I.; Ettinger, H.J.

    1976-11-01

    Performance of multiple stages of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters has been verified against plutonium aerosols similar in size characteristics to those challenging the air-cleaning systems of plutonium-processing facilities. An experimental program was conducted to test each filter in systems of three HEPA filters operated in series against 238 PuO 2 aerosols as high as 3.3 x 10 10 dis/s . m 3 in activity concentration and ranging from 0.22 μm to 1.6 μm in activity median aerodynamic diameter (amad). Mean penetration (ratio of downstream to upstream concentration) of each of the three filters in series was below 0.0002, but it apparently increased at each successive filter. Penetration vs size measurements showed that maximum penetration of 238 PuO 2 occurred for sizes between 0.4- and 0.7-μm aerodynamic diameter (D/sub ae/). HEPA filter penetration at half of rated flow differed little from full-flow penetration

  17. Plutonium radionuclides in the ground waters at Enewetak Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Marsh, K.; Eagle, R.; Holladay, G.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    In 1974 a groundwater program was initiated at Eniwetok Atoll to study systematically the hydrology and the ground water geochemistry on selected islands of the Atoll. The program provides chemical and radiochemical data for assessment of water quality on those islands designated for rehabilitation. These and other data are used to interpret the mechanisms by which radionuclides are cycled in the soil-groundwater system. Because of the international concern over the long-term buildup, availability, and transport of plutonium in the environment, this program emphasizes analysis of the element. The results of the study show that on all islands sampled, small quantities of plutonium radionuclides have migrated through the soil columns and are redistributed throughout the groundwater reservoirs. The observed maximum surface concentrations are less than 0.02 percent of the maximal recommended concentration for drinking water. Concentrations of 137 Cs are found to correlate with water freshness, but those of 239 , 240 Pu show no such relationship. The mechanisms moving 239 , 240 Pu through the ground water reservoirs are independent of the processes controlling the cycling of 137 Cs and fresh water. A reasonable linear correlation is found between mean surface-water concentrations and soil burdens. This indicates that the quantities of 239 , 240 Pu migrating to the groundwater surface layers are, to a first approximation, independent of the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of the islands. (auth)

  18. Plutonium dioxide dissolution in glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, J.D.; Alexander, D.L.; Li, Hong [and others

    1996-09-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) is charged with providing technical support for evaluation of disposition options for excess fissile materials manufactured for the nation`s defense. One option being considered for the disposition of excess plutonium (Pu) is immobilization by vitrification. The vitrification option entails immobilizing Pu in a host glass and waste package that are criticality-safe (immune to nuclear criticality), proliferation-resistant, and environmentally acceptable for long-term storage or disposal. To prove the technical and economic feasibility of candidate vitrification options it is necessary to demonstrate that PuO{sub 2} feedstock can be dissolved in glass in sufficient quantity. The OFMD immobilization program has set a Pu solubility goal of 10 wt% in glass. The life cycle cost of the vitrification options are strongly influenced by the rate at which PUO{sub 2} dissolves in glass. The total number of process lines needed for vitrification of 50 t of Pu in 10 years is directly dependent upon the time required for Pu dissolution in glass. The objective of this joint Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) - Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) study was to demonstrate a high Pu solubility in glass and to identify on a rough scale the time required for Pu dissolution in the glass. This study was conducted using a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass composition designed at the SRTC for the vitrification of actinides.

  19. Plutonium storage thermal analysis (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensel, S.J.; Lee, S.Y.; Schaade, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Thermal modeling of plutonium metal ingots stored in food pack cans provides information useful for performing stored material safety evaluations. Four storage can geometries were modeled, and several conclusions can be made from the 14 cases analyzed. The ingot temperature increased from 7 degrees F to 12 degrees F (depending on can configuration) per additional watt of power. Including internal convection lowers computed ingot temperatures by 70 degrees F. Accounting for the heat flow through the bottom of the cans to the storage rack lowered computed ingot temperatures by an additional 70 degrees F to 80 degrees F. In the rimmed can systems storing ingots with a power of 10.35 watts, the ingot temperature varies from 190 degrees F to 213 degrees F. Including a plastic bag between the inner and outer can increases the ingot temperature by 15 degrees F. Adding a label to the outer can side reduces the outer can side temperature by 13 degrees F. Changes in ambient temperature affect the outer can temperatures more than the ingot temperature by a factor of 3. Similarly, a 5 degrees F drop in outer can temperature due to increased convection lowered the ingot temperature by only 2 degrees F

  20. Plutonium dioxide dissolution in glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vienna, J.D.; Alexander, D.L.; Li, Hong

    1996-09-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) is charged with providing technical support for evaluation of disposition options for excess fissile materials manufactured for the nation's defense. One option being considered for the disposition of excess plutonium (Pu) is immobilization by vitrification. The vitrification option entails immobilizing Pu in a host glass and waste package that are criticality-safe (immune to nuclear criticality), proliferation-resistant, and environmentally acceptable for long-term storage or disposal. To prove the technical and economic feasibility of candidate vitrification options it is necessary to demonstrate that PuO 2 feedstock can be dissolved in glass in sufficient quantity. The OFMD immobilization program has set a Pu solubility goal of 10 wt% in glass. The life cycle cost of the vitrification options are strongly influenced by the rate at which PUO 2 dissolves in glass. The total number of process lines needed for vitrification of 50 t of Pu in 10 years is directly dependent upon the time required for Pu dissolution in glass. The objective of this joint Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) - Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) study was to demonstrate a high Pu solubility in glass and to identify on a rough scale the time required for Pu dissolution in the glass. This study was conducted using a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass composition designed at the SRTC for the vitrification of actinides

  1. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Buschbom, R.L.; Case, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    Beagle dogs given single exposure to 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs dying due to pulmonary fibrosis-induced insufficiency during the first 3 years after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi. One of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Three additional dogs with body burdens of 0.7 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 4-1/2 years after exposure. None of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu have died during the first two postexposure years. After inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 lymphocytopenia was the earliest observed effect, occuring 0.5 to 2 years after deposition of greater than or equal to 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  2. Biological mechanisms and translocation kinetics of particulate plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruenger, F.W.; Stevens, W.; Atherton, D.R.; Roswell, R.L.; Smith, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The dissolution and elimination of particulate 239 Pu from its initial sites of deposition in phagocytic organs (the liver, spleen, and lung), as well as its translocation and redeposition in soft tissue organs and skeleton have been investigated. Beagles were injected intravenously with particulate Pu and sacrificed sequentially at times ranging from 33 to 830 days after injection. Equations that describe the overall retention of Pu in liver, spleen, lung, and bone were calculated. Plutonium mobilized from these organs either re-entered the blood stream and redeposited in the skeleton and liver parenchyma or was excreted. The protracted translocation of Pu to bone surfaces potentially exposes all cells involved in osteogenesis to continuous α-radiation, a situation that could enhance the hazard of developing osteosarcoma. A kinetic model that describes the translocation of Pu from the phagocytic compartments to blood and its subsequent redistribution to bone, liver, and other organs was formulated

  3. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Buschbom, R.L.; Case, A.C.

    1977-01-01

    Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs that died of pulmonary fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi. One of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Five additional dogs with body burdens of 0.7 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 3 to 5 yr after exposure. None of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu have died during the first 3 postexposure yr. Lymphocytopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 , occurring 0.5 to 2 yr after deposition of greater than or equal to 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  4. Determination and behaviour of plutonium emitted with liquid effluents and exhaust air into the environment of the Nuclear Research Centre Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettelkopf, H.; Pimpl, M.

    1986-01-01

    The plutonium concentrations in the surroundings of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre (KfK) are in the range of variation of the global plutonium contamination caused by fallout of atmospheric nuclear tests. Exclusively in the sediments of the Old River Rhine, which serves as main canal for the liquid effluents, higher plutonium concentrations could be detected. The dose exposure of the population living in the environment of the KfK caused by the measured plutonium concentrations is negligible low. From the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant (WAK) and the facilities needed to decontaminate radioactive wastes 0.48 GBq (13 mCi) plutonium alpha activity has been emitted within 11 years of operation until 1982 - 1/3 with the liquid effluents and 2/3 with the exhaust air. Following the pathway with the exhaust air, plutonium concentrations in the environment of the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant were measured in groundlevel air, in soil, in plants, in food and in animal tissues. Radioecological parameters like dispersion factors, deposition velocities, migration velocities in soil and transfer soil-to-plant were investigated. Following the pathway with the liquid effluents, plutonium concentrations were measured in surface waters, sediments, water plants, plankton and animals. Dilution and sedimentation behaviour were studied as well as the transfer water-to-plant and water-to-animals. (orig.) [de

  5. Plutonium and tracer particle resuspension: an overview of selected Battelle-Northwest experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    Plutonium resuspension at Rocky Flats was determined in July 1973, by measuring airborne plutonium as a function of sampling height and of wind speed. The maximum airborne plutonium-239 concentration was 3700 aCi/m 3 . The maximum plutonium-239 activity per gram of collected airborne soil was 50 pCi/g. Airborne plutonium concentrations were shown to increase as the sixth power of wind speed, but the data were very imprecise. In measurement of fallout resuspension caused by burning vegetation, the 137 Cs concentration in a forest fire smoke plume was 22 times the concentration in ambient air. Resuspension rates for a man walking across a tracer area on an asphalt surface ranged from 1 x 10 -5 to 7 x 10 -4 fraction of tracer resuspended/pass. For vehicular traffic driven on a tracer lane, resuspension rates from the asphalt surface ranged from 10 -4 to 10 -2 fraction resuspended/pass. When the vehicle was driven on the lane adjacent to the tracer lane, resuspension rates were smaller, ranging from 10 -5 to 10 -3 fraction resuspended/pass. Resuspension rates decreased when the tracer had been on the ground for several days. In comparison to the asphalt surface, vehicle-caused tracer resuspension rates from a cheat grass area were lower, ranging from 10 -5 to 10 -4 fraction resuspended/pass. Wind caused tracer resuspension rates were on the order of 10 -11 fraction resuspended/sec for nonrespirable particles. Resuspension rates for respirable particles increased as the 4.8th power of wind speed, ranging from 10 -11 to 10 -7 fraction resuspended/sec. In another study, airborne respirable soil concentrations measured as a function of wind speed increased as the 0.6 to 3.2 power of wind speed

  6. Immobilization of uranium and plutonium into boro-basalt, pyroxene and andradite mineral-like compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyunin, Y.I.; Smelova, T.V.

    2000-01-01

    The immobilization of plutonium-containing wastes with the manufacturing of stable solid compositions is one of the problems that should be solved in the disposal of radioactive wastes. The works on the choice, preparation with the use of the cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) technology, and investigation of materials that are most suitable for immobilizing plutonium-containing wastes of different origin have been carried out at the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM) and the Institute of the Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry (IGEM), Russian Academy of Sciences in the framework of the agreements with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL, USA) on the material and technical support. This paper presents the data on the synthesis of cerium-, uranium-, and plutonium-containing materials based on boro-basalt, pyroxene, and andradite compositions in the muffle furnace and by using the CCIM method. The compositions containing up to 15 - 18 wt % cerium oxide, 8 - 11 wt % uranium oxide, and 4.6 - 5.7 wt % plutonium oxide were obtained in laboratory facilities installed in glove boxes. Comparison studies of the materials synthesized in the muffle furnace and CCIM demonstrate the advantages of using the CCIM method. The distribution of components in the materials synthesized are investigated, and their certain physicochemical properties are determined. (authors)

  7. Digital pile-up rejection for plutonium experiments with solution-grown stilbene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourne, M.M., E-mail: mmbourne@umich.edu; Clarke, S.D., E-mail: clarkesd@umich.edu; Paff, M., E-mail: mpaff@umich.edu; DiFulvio, A., E-mail: difulvio@umich.edu; Norsworthy, M., E-mail: marknors@umich.edu; Pozzi, S.A., E-mail: pozzisa@umich.edu

    2017-01-11

    A solution-grown stilbene detector was used in several experiments with plutonium samples including plutonium oxide, mixed oxide, and plutonium metal samples. Neutrons from different reactions and plutonium isotopes are accompanied by numerous gamma rays especially by the 59-keV gamma ray of {sup 241}Am. Identifying neutrons correctly is important for nuclear nonproliferation applications and makes neutron/gamma discrimination and pile-up rejection necessary. Each experimental dataset is presented with and without pile-up filtering using a previously developed algorithm. The experiments were simulated using MCNPX-PoliMi, a Monte Carlo code designed to accurately model scintillation detector response. Collision output from MCNPX-PoliMi was processed using the specialized MPPost post-processing code to convert neutron energy depositions event-by-event into light pulses. The model was compared to experimental data after pulse-shape discrimination identified waveforms as gamma ray or neutron interactions. We show that the use of the digital pile-up rejection algorithm allows for accurate neutron counting with stilbene to within 2% even when not using lead shielding.

  8. Measurement of photon mass attenuation coefficients of plutonium from 60 to 2615 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rettschlag, M.; Berndt, R.; Mortreau, P.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements have been made to determine plutonium photon mass attenuation coefficients by using a collimated-beam transmission method in the energy range from 60 to 2615 keV. These experimental results were compared with previous experimental and theoretical data. Good agreements are observed in the 240-800 keV energy range, whereas differences up to maximum 10% are observed out of these limits

  9. Effect of compositional variation in plutonium on process shielding design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.H.

    1997-11-01

    Radiation dose rate from plutonium with high 239 Pu content varies with initial nuclidic content, radioactive decay time, and impurity elemental content. The two idealized states of old plutonium and clean plutonium, whose initial compositions are given, provide approximate upper and lower bounds on dose rate variation. Whole-body dose rates were calculated for the two composition states, using unshielded and shielded plutonium spheres of varying density. The dose rates from these variable density spheres are similar to those from expanded plutonium configurations encountered during processing. The dose location of 40 cm from the sphere center is representative of operator standoff for direct handling of plutonium inside a glove box. The results have shielding implications for glove boxes with only structurally inherent shielding, especially for processing of old plutonium in an expanded configuration. Further reduction in total dose rate by using lead to reduce photon dose rate is shown for two density cases representing compact and expanded plutonium configurations

  10. Light water breeder reactor using a uranium-plutonium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radkowsky, A.; Chen, R.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a light water receptor (LWR) for breeding fissile material using a uranium-plutonium cycle. It comprises: a prebreeder section having plutonium fuel containing a Pu-241 component, the prebreeder section being operable to produce enriched plutonium having an increased Pu-241 component; and a breeder section for receiving the enriched plutonium from the prebreeder section, the breeder section being operable for breeding fissile material from the enriched plutonium fuel. This patent describes a method of operating a light water nuclear reactor (LWR) for breeding fissile material using a uranium-plutonium cycle. It comprises: operating the prebreeder to produce enriched plutonium fuel having an increased Pu-241 component; fueling a breeder section with the enriched plutonium fuel to breed the fissile material

  11. Effect of compositional variation in plutonium on process shielding design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.H.

    1997-11-01

    Radiation dose rate from plutonium with high {sup 239}Pu content varies with initial nuclidic content, radioactive decay time, and impurity elemental content. The two idealized states of old plutonium and clean plutonium, whose initial compositions are given, provide approximate upper and lower bounds on dose rate variation. Whole-body dose rates were calculated for the two composition states, using unshielded and shielded plutonium spheres of varying density. The dose rates from these variable density spheres are similar to those from expanded plutonium configurations encountered during processing. The dose location of 40 cm from the sphere center is representative of operator standoff for direct handling of plutonium inside a glove box. The results have shielding implications for glove boxes with only structurally inherent shielding, especially for processing of old plutonium in an expanded configuration. Further reduction in total dose rate by using lead to reduce photon dose rate is shown for two density cases representing compact and expanded plutonium configurations.

  12. Absorption of plutonium in the iron-deficient rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    Iron deficiency did not enhance absorption of plutonium following intragastric gavage of rats. Absorption of plutonium citrate in both control and iron-deficient rats was about 0.03% of the administered dose

  13. Model of plutonium dynamics in a deciduous forest ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Gardner, R.H.; Dahlman, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    A linear compartment model with donor-controlled flows between compartments was designed to describe and simulate the behavior of plutonium ( 239 240 Pu) in a contaminated forest ecosystem at Oak Ridge, TN. At steady states predicted by the model, less than 0.25% of the plutonium in the ecosystem resides in biota. Soil is the major repository of plutonium in the forest, and exchanges of plutonium between soil and litter or soil and tree roots were dominant transfers affecting the ecosystem distribution of plutonium. Variation in predicted steady-state amounts of plutonium in the forest, given variability in the model parameters, indicates that our ability to develop models of plutonium transport in ecosystems should improve with greater precision in data from natural environments and a better understanding of sources of variation in plutonium data

  14. Maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enslin, J.H.R.

    1990-01-01

    A well engineered renewable remote energy system, utilizing the principal of Maximum Power Point Tracking can be m ore cost effective, has a higher reliability and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. This paper reports that a high-efficient power electronic converter, for converting the output voltage of a solar panel, or wind generator, to the required DC battery bus voltage has been realized. The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the input source under varying input and output parameters. Maximum power point tracking for relative small systems is achieved by maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor based algorithm. Through practical field measurements it is shown that a minimum input source saving of 15% on 3-5 kWh/day systems can easily be achieved. A total cost saving of at least 10-15% on the capital cost of these systems are achievable for relative small rating Remote Area Power Supply systems. The advantages at larger temperature variations and larger power rated systems are much higher. Other advantages include optimal sizing and system monitor and control

  15. Plutonium spot of mixed oxide fuel, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yukio; Maruishi, Yoshihiro; Satoh, Masaichi; Aoki, Toshimasa; Muto, Tadashi

    1974-01-01

    In a fast reactor, the specification for the homogeneity of plutonium in plutonium-uranium mixed-oxide fuel is mainly dependent on the nuclear characteristics, whereas in a thermal reactor, on thermal characteristics. This homogeneity is measured by autoradiography as the plutonium spot size of the specimens which are arbitrarily chosen fuel pellets from a lot. Although this is a kind of random sampling, it is difficult to apply this method to conventional digital standards including JIS standards. So a special sampling inspection method was studied. First, it is assumed that the shape of plutonium spots is spherical, the size distribution is logarithmic normal, and the standard deviation is constant. Then, if standard deviation and mean spot size are given, the logarithmic normal distribution is decided unitarily, and further if the total weight of plutonium spots for a lot of pellets is known, the number of the spots (No) which does not conform to the specification can be obtained. Then, the fraction defective is defined as No devided by the number of pellets per lot. As to the lot with such fraction defective, the acceptance coefficient of the lot was obtained through calculation, in which the number of sampling, acceptable diameter limit observed and acceptable conditions were used as parameters. (Tai, I.)

  16. Japan's spent fuel and plutonium management challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuta, Tadahiro; Suzuki, Tatsujiro

    2011-01-01

    Japan's commitment to plutonium recycling has been explicitly stated in its long-term program since 1956. Despite the clear cost disadvantage compared with direct disposal or storage of spent fuel, the Rokkasho reprocessing plant started active testing in 2006. Japan's cumulative consumption of plutonium has been only 5 tons to date and its future consumption rate is still uncertain. But once the Rokkasho reprocessing plant starts its full operation, Japan will separate about 8 tons of plutonium annually. Our analysis shows that, with optimum use of available at-reactor and away-from-reactor storage capacity, there would be no need for reprocessing until the mid-2020s. With an additional 30,000 tons of away-from-reactor (AFR) spent-fuel storage capacity reprocessing could be avoided until 2050. Deferring operation of the Rokkasho plant, at least until the plutonium stockpile had been worked down to the minimum required level, would also minimize international concern about Japan's plutonium stockpile. The authors are happy to acknowledge Frank von Hippel, Harold Feiveson, Jungming Kang, Zia Mian, M.V. Ramana, and other IPFM members, as well as the generous grant from the MacArthur Foundation for helping make this research possible.

  17. Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX+ Separation Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALena Paulenova; George F. Vandegrift, III; Kenneth R. Czerwinski

    2009-10-01

    The project "Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX+ Separation Processes” is led by Dr. Alena Paulenova of Oregon State University under collaboration with Dr. George Vandegrift of ANL and Dr. Ken Czerwinski of the University of Nevada at Las Vegas. The objective of the project is to examine the chemical speciation of plutonium in UREX+ (uranium/tributylphosphate) extraction processes for advanced fuel technology. Researchers will analyze the change in speciation using existing thermodynamics and kinetic computer codes to examine the speciation of plutonium in aqueous and organic phases. They will examine the different oxidation states of plutonium to find the relative distribution between the aqueous and organic phases under various conditions such as different concentrations of nitric acid, total nitrates, or actinide ions. They will also utilize techniques such as X-ray absorbance spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering for determining plutonium and uranium speciation in all separation stages. The project started in April 2005 and is scheduled for completion in March 2008.

  18. Guidelines for the responsible management of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrell, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1994 an informal group of representatives of States party to the NPT has been trying to develop agreed international guidelines for the responsible management of non-military plutonium. This paper gives a brief description of the outcome. Since the results are still subject to decision by Governments, the description must be in general terms only. The paper describes the background to, and genesis of, the discussions and the general approach taken, which was based on commitment to the NPT, national responsibility for the management of nuclear materials and the fuel cycle, upholding of the IAEA's safeguards system, and a focus on civil material. An indication is given of the development of the Group's thinking, especially the decisions that any guidelines must be capable of accommodating surplus military plutonium, as well as civil, and that the main focus should be on measures to increase transparency. The resulting guidelines are described. Their main features are a re-statement of commitments and standards for the management of non-military plutonium with regard to non-proliferation, safety, and other fields, a commitment to the management of such plutonium according to a consistent national strategy, and a commitment to the publication of information on that strategy, and of annual statistics for holdings of plutonium in a consistent format. Other aspects of the guidelines are also explained. Finally, an attempt is made to assess the possible practical effects of the guidelines if adopted by governments. (author)

  19. Computerized plutonium laboratory-stack monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, R.G.; DeVore, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has recently designed and constructed a Plutonium Research and Development Facility to meet design criteria imposed by the United States Energy Research and Development Administration. A primary objective of the design criteria is to assure environmental protection and to reliably monitor plutonium effluent via the ventilation exhaust systems. A state-of-the-art facility exhaust air monitoring system is described which establishes near ideal conditions for evaluating plutonium activity in the stack effluent. Total and static pressure sensing manifolds are incorporated to measure average velocity and integrated total discharge air volume. These data are logged at a computer which receives instrument data through a multiplex scanning system. A multipoint isokinetic sampling assembly with associated instrumentation is described. Continuous air monitors have been designed to sample from the isokinetic sampling assembly and transmit both instantaneous and integrated stack effluent concentration data to the computer and various cathode ray tube displays. The continuous air monitors also serve as room air monitors in the plutonium facility with the primary objective of timely evacuation of personnel if an above tolerance airborne plutonium concentration is detected. Several continuous air monitors are incorporated in the ventilation system to assist in identification of release problem areas

  20. Radiation damage and annealing in plutonium tetrafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, Kaylyn; Casella, Amanda; Sinkov, Sergey; Sweet, Lucas; McNamara, Bruce; Delegard, Calvin; Jevremovic, Tatjana

    2017-12-01

    Plutonium tetrafluoride that was separated prior to 1966 at the Hanford Site in Washington State was analyzed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2015 and 2016. The plutonium tetrafluoride, as received, was an off-normal color and considering the age of the plutonium, there were questions about the condition of the material. These questions had to be answered in order to determine the suitability of the material for future use or long-term storage. Therefore, Thermogravimetric/Differential Thermal Analysis and X-ray Diffraction evaluations were conducted to determine the plutonium’s crystal structure, oxide content, and moisture content; these analyses reported that the plutonium was predominately amorphous and tetrafluoride, with an oxide content near ten percent. Freshly fluorinated plutonium tetrafluoride is known to be monoclinic. During the initial Thermogravimetric/Differential Thermal analyses, it was discovered that an exothermic event occurred within the material near 414°C. X-ray Diffraction analyses were conducted on the annealed tetrafluoride. The X-ray Diffraction analyses indicated that some degree of recrystallization occurred in conjunction with the 414°C event. The following commentary describes the series of Thermogravimetric/Differential Thermal and X-ray Diffraction analyses that were conducted as part of this investigation at PNNL, in collaboration with the University of Utah Nuclear Engineering Program.