Sample records for maximum penetration rate

  1. Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint

    Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J.; Kroposki, B.


    This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.

  2. Correlation Between Cone Penetration Rate And Measured Cone Penetration Parameters In Silty Soils

    Poulsen, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    penetration tests with varying penetration rates conducted at a test site where the subsoil primary consists of sandy silt. It is shown how a reduced penetration rate influences the cone penetration measurements e.g. the cone resistance, pore pressure, and sleeve friction.......This paper shows, how a change in cone penetration rate affects the cone penetration measurements, hence the cone resistance, pore pressure, and sleeve friction in silty soil. The standard rate of penetration is 20 mm/s, and it is generally accepted that undrained penetration occurs in clay while...... drained penetration occurs in sand. When lowering the penetration rate, the soil pore water starts to dissipate and a change in the drainage condition is seen. In intermediate soils such as silty soils, the standard cone penetration rate may result in a drainage condition that could be undrained...

  3. Determining Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration in a Distribution Grid considering Grid Operation Limits

    Kordheili, Reza Ahmadi; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna


    High penetration of photovoltaic panels in distribution grid can bring the grid to its operation limits. The main focus of the paper is to determine maximum photovoltaic penetration level in the grid. Three main criteria were investigated for determining maximum penetration level of PV panels...... for this grid: even distribution of PV panels, aggregation of panels at the beginning of each feeder, and aggregation of panels at the end of each feeder. Load modeling is done using Velander formula. Since PV generation is highest in the summer due to irradiation, a summer day was chosen to determine maximum...

  4. Modelling the existing Irish energy-system to identify future energy costs and the maximum wind penetration feasible

    Connolly, D.; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad;


    energy- system to future energy costs by considering future fuel prices, CO2 prices, and different interest rates. The final investigation identifies the maximum wind penetration feasible on the 2007 Irish energy- system from a technical and economic perspective, as wind is the most promising fluctuating...

  5. The maximum rate of mammal evolution

    Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.


    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.

  6. The maximum rate of mammal evolution

    Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.


    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461

  7. The maximum rate of mammal evolution.

    Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D


    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.

  8. Penetration resistance according to penetration rate, cone base size and different soil conditions

    Daniel Dias Valadão Junior


    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of penetration rate and the size of the cone base on the resistance to penetration under different soil moistures and soil bulk density. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 4x2x2x2 factorial arrangement, with the factors, soil bulk density of 1.0; 1.2; 1.4 and 1.6 Mg m-3, soil moisture at the evaluation of 0.16 and 0.22 kg kg-1, penetration rates of 0.166 and 30 mm s-1 and areas of the cone base of 10.98 and 129.28 mm² resulting in 32 treatments with 8 replicates. To ensure greater uniformity and similarity to field conditions, samples passed through cycles of wetting and drying. Only the interaction of the four factors was not significant. Resistance values varied with the density of the soil, regardless of moisture and penetration rate. Soil penetration resistance was influenced by the size of the cone base, with higher values for the smallest base independent of moisture and soil bulk density. The relationship between resistance to penetration and moisture is not always linear, once it is influenced by soil bulk density. Reduction in the area of the cone leads to an increase in the soil resistance to penetration.

  9. Medicaid Managed Care Penetration Rates and Expansion Enr...

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicaid managed care penetration rates and expansion enrollment by state charts are composed annually by the Data and System Group (DSG) of the Centers for...

  10. New model describing the dynamical behaviour of penetration rates

    Tashiro, Tohru; Minagawa, Hiroe; Chiba, Michiko


    We propose a hierarchical logistic equation as a model to describe the dynamical behaviour of a penetration rate of a prevalent stuff. In this model, a memory, how many people who already possess it a person who does not process it yet met, is considered, which does not exist in the logistic model. As an application, we apply this model to iPod sales data, and find that this model can approximate the data much better than the logistic equation.

  11. Field Test Evaluation of Effect on Cone Resistance Caused by Change in Penetration Rate

    Poulsen, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    This paper presents how a change in cone penetration rate affects the measured cone resistance during cone penetration testing in silty soils. Regardless of soil, type the standard rate of penetration is 20 mm/s and it is generally accepted that undrained penetration occurs in clay while drained...... in the laboratory. A change in the measured cone resistance occurs by lowering the penetration rate. This is caused by the changes in drainage conditions. Compared to the normal penetration rate of 20 mm/s, this paper illustrates that lowering the penetration rate leads to an increase in the cone resistance from 1...

  12. Field Test Evaluation of Effect on Cone Resistance Caused by Change in Penetration Rate

    Poulsen, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    in Dronninglund where the subsoil primary consists of sandy silt. A total of 15 cone penetration tests with penetration rates varying from 60 to 0.5 mm/s and two geotechnical borings were conducted at the test site. Large soil samples were also collected from the test site in order to determine soil properties......This paper presents how a change in cone penetration rate affects the measured cone resistance during cone penetration testing in silty soils. Regardless of soil, type the standard rate of penetration is 20 mm/s and it is generally accepted that undrained penetration occurs in clay while drained...... penetration occurs in sand. In intermediate soils such as silty soils, the standard cone penetration rate may result in drainage conditions varying from undrained to partially or fully drained conditions. Field cone penetrations tests have been conducted with different penetration rates on a test site...

  13. Regression Models and Fuzzy Logic Prediction of TBM Penetration Rate

    Minh, Vu Trieu; Katushin, Dmitri; Antonov, Maksim; Veinthal, Renno


    This paper presents statistical analyses of rock engineering properties and the measured penetration rate of tunnel boring machine (TBM) based on the data of an actual project. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of rock engineering properties including uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), Brazilian tensile strength (BTS), rock brittleness index (BI), the distance between planes of weakness (DPW), and the alpha angle (Alpha) between the tunnel axis and the planes of weakness on the TBM rate of penetration (ROP). Four (4) statistical regression models (two linear and two nonlinear) are built to predict the ROP of TBM. Finally a fuzzy logic model is developed as an alternative method and compared to the four statistical regression models. Results show that the fuzzy logic model provides better estimations and can be applied to predict the TBM performance. The R-squared value (R2) of the fuzzy logic model scores the highest value of 0.714 over the second runner-up of 0.667 from the multiple variables nonlinear regression model.

  14. Optimized support vector regression for drilling rate of penetration estimation

    Bodaghi, Asadollah; Ansari, Hamid Reza; Gholami, Mahsa


    In the petroleum industry, drilling optimization involves the selection of operating conditions for achieving the desired depth with the minimum expenditure while requirements of personal safety, environment protection, adequate information of penetrated formations and productivity are fulfilled. Since drilling optimization is highly dependent on the rate of penetration (ROP), estimation of this parameter is of great importance during well planning. In this research, a novel approach called `optimized support vector regression' is employed for making a formulation between input variables and ROP. Algorithms used for optimizing the support vector regression are the genetic algorithm (GA) and the cuckoo search algorithm (CS). Optimization implementation improved the support vector regression performance by virtue of selecting proper values for its parameters. In order to evaluate the ability of optimization algorithms in enhancing SVR performance, their results were compared to the hybrid of pattern search and grid search (HPG) which is conventionally employed for optimizing SVR. The results demonstrated that the CS algorithm achieved further improvement on prediction accuracy of SVR compared to the GA and HPG as well. Moreover, the predictive model derived from back propagation neural network (BPNN), which is the traditional approach for estimating ROP, is selected for comparisons with CSSVR. The comparative results revealed the superiority of CSSVR. This study inferred that CSSVR is a viable option for precise estimation of ROP.

  15. An investigation of the maximum penetration level of a photovoltaic (PV) system into a traditional distribution grid

    Chalise, Santosh

    Although solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have remained the fastest growing renewable power generating technology, variability as well as uncertainty in the output of PV plants is a significant issue. This rapid increase in PV grid-connected generation presents not only progress in clean energy but also challenges in integration with traditional electric power grids which were designed for transmission and distribution of power from central stations. Unlike conventional electric generators, PV panels do not have rotating parts and thus have no inertia. This potentially causes a problem when the solar irradiance incident upon a PV plant changes suddenly, for example, when scattered clouds pass quickly overhead. The output power of the PV plant may fluctuate nearly as rapidly as the incident irradiance. These rapid power output fluctuations may then cause voltage fluctuations, frequency fluctuations, and power quality issues. These power quality issues are more severe with increasing PV plant power output. This limits the maximum power output allowed from interconnected PV plants. Voltage regulation of a distribution system, a focus of this research, is a prime limiting factor in PV penetration levels. The IEEE 13-node test feeder, modeled and tested in the MATLAB/Simulink environment, was used as an example distribution feeder to analyze the maximum acceptable penetration of a PV plant. The effect of the PV plant's location was investigated, along with the addition of a VAR compensating device (a D-STATCOM in this case). The results were used to develop simple guidelines for determining an initial estimate of the maximum PV penetration level on a distribution feeder. For example, when no compensating devices are added to the system, a higher level of PV penetration is generally achieved by installing the PV plant close to the substation. The opposite is true when a VAR compensator is installed with the PV plant. In these cases, PV penetration levels over 50% may be

  16. Drilling Penetration Rate Estimation using Rock Drillability Characterization Index

    Taheri, Abbas; Qao, Qi; Chanda, Emmanuel


    Rock drilling Penetration Rate (PR) is influenced by many parameters including rock properties, machine parameters of the chosen rig and the working process. Five datasets were utilized to quantitatively assess the effect of various rock properties on PR. The datasets consisted of two sets of diamond and percussive drilling and one set of rotary drilling data. A new rating system called Rock Drillability Characterization index (RDCi) is proposed to predict PR for different drilling methods. This drillability model incorporates the uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock, the P-wave velocity and the density of rock. The RDCi system is further applied to predict PR in the diamond rotary drilling, non-coring rotary drilling and percussive drilling. Strong correlations between PR and RDCi values were observed indicating that the developed drillability rating model is relevant and can be utilized to effectively predict the rock drillability in any operating environment. A practical procedure for predicting PR using the RDCi was established. The drilling engineers can follow this procedure to use RDCi as an effective method to estimate drillability.

  17. Mean square convergence rates for maximum quasi-likelihood estimator

    Arnoud V. den Boer


    Full Text Available In this note we study the behavior of maximum quasilikelihood estimators (MQLEs for a class of statistical models, in which only knowledge about the first two moments of the response variable is assumed. This class includes, but is not restricted to, generalized linear models with general link function. Our main results are related to guarantees on existence, strong consistency and mean square convergence rates of MQLEs. The rates are obtained from first principles and are stronger than known a.s. rates. Our results find important application in sequential decision problems with parametric uncertainty arising in dynamic pricing.

  18. Rate of Penetration Optimization using Moving Horizon Estimation

    Dan Sui


    Full Text Available Increase of drilling safety and reduction of drilling operation costs, especially improvement of drilling efficiency, are two important considerations in the oil and gas industry. The rate of penetration (ROP, alternatively called as drilling speed is a critical drilling parameter to evaluate and improve drilling safety and efficiency. ROP estimation has an important role in drilling optimization as well as interpretation of all stages of the well life cycle. In this paper, we use a moving horizon estimation (MHE method to estimate ROP as well as other drilling parameters. In the MHE formulation the states are estimated by a forward simulation with a pre-estimating observer. Moreover, it considers the constraints of states/outputs in the MHE problem. It is shown that the estimation error is with input-to-state stability. Furthermore, the ROP optimization (to achieve minimum drilling cost/drilling energy concerning with the efficient hole cleaning condition and downhole environmental stability is presented. The performance of the methodology is demonstrated by one case study.

  19. The tropical lapse rate steepened during the Last Glacial Maximum.

    Loomis, Shannon E; Russell, James M; Verschuren, Dirk; Morrill, Carrie; De Cort, Gijs; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Olago, Daniel; Eggermont, Hilde; Street-Perrott, F Alayne; Kelly, Meredith A


    The gradient of air temperature with elevation (the temperature lapse rate) in the tropics is predicted to become less steep during the coming century as surface temperature rises, enhancing the threat of warming in high-mountain environments. However, the sensitivity of the lapse rate to climate change is uncertain because of poor constraints on high-elevation temperature during past climate states. We present a 25,000-year temperature reconstruction from Mount Kenya, East Africa, which demonstrates that cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum was amplified with elevation and hence that the lapse rate was significantly steeper than today. Comparison of our data with paleoclimate simulations indicates that state-of-the-art models underestimate this lapse-rate change. Consequently, future high-elevation tropical warming may be even greater than predicted.

  20. The tropical lapse rate steepened during the Last Glacial Maximum

    Loomis, Shannon E.; Russell, James M.; Verschuren, Dirk; Morrill, Carrie; De Cort, Gijs; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Olago, Daniel; Eggermont, Hilde; Street-Perrott, F. Alayne; Kelly, Meredith A.


    The gradient of air temperature with elevation (the temperature lapse rate) in the tropics is predicted to become less steep during the coming century as surface temperature rises, enhancing the threat of warming in high-mountain environments. However, the sensitivity of the lapse rate to climate change is uncertain because of poor constraints on high-elevation temperature during past climate states. We present a 25,000-year temperature reconstruction from Mount Kenya, East Africa, which demonstrates that cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum was amplified with elevation and hence that the lapse rate was significantly steeper than today. Comparison of our data with paleoclimate simulations indicates that state-of-the-art models underestimate this lapse-rate change. Consequently, future high-elevation tropical warming may be even greater than predicted. PMID:28138544

  1. Maximum orbit plane change with heat-transfer-rate considerations

    Lee, J. Y.; Hull, D. G.


    Two aerodynamic maneuvers are considered for maximizing the plane change of a circular orbit: gliding flight with a maximum thrust segment to regain lost energy (aeroglide) and constant altitude cruise with the thrust being used to cancel the drag and maintain a high energy level (aerocruise). In both cases, the stagnation heating rate is limited. For aeroglide, the controls are the angle of attack, the bank angle, the time at which the burn begins, and the length of the burn. For aerocruise, the maneuver is divided into three segments: descent, cruise, and ascent. During descent the thrust is zero, and the controls are the angle of attack and the bank angle. During cruise, the only control is the assumed-constant angle of attack. During ascent, a maximum thrust segment is used to restore lost energy, and the controls are the angle of attack and bank angle. The optimization problems are solved with a nonlinear programming code known as GRG2. Numerical results for the Maneuverable Re-entry Research Vehicle with a heating-rate limit of 100 Btu/ft(2)-s show that aerocruise gives a maximum plane change of 2 deg, which is only 1 deg larger than that of aeroglide. On the other hand, even though aerocruise requires two thrust levels, the cruise characteristics of constant altitude, velocity, thrust, and angle of attack are easy to control.

  2. Maximum, minimum, and optimal mutation rates in dynamic environments

    Ancliff, Mark; Park, Jeong-Man


    We analyze the dynamics of the parallel mutation-selection quasispecies model with a changing environment. For an environment with the sharp-peak fitness function in which the most fit sequence changes by k spin flips every period T , we find analytical expressions for the minimum and maximum mutation rates for which a quasispecies can survive, valid in the limit of large sequence size. We find an asymptotic solution in which the quasispecies population changes periodically according to the periodic environmental change. In this state we compute the mutation rate that gives the optimal mean fitness over a period. We find that the optimal mutation rate per genome, k/T , is independent of genome size, a relationship which is observed across broad groups of real organisms.

  3. Investigation of Noise Level and Penetration Rate of Pneumatic Drill vis-à-vis Rock Compressive Strength and Abrasivity

    Kivade, S. B.; Murthy, Ch. S. N.; Vardhan, H.


    In this paper, detailed studies were carried out to determine the influence of rock properties on the sound level produced during pneumatic drilling. Further, investigation was also carried out on the effect of thrust, air pressure and compressive strength on penetration rate and the sound level produced. For this purpose, a fabricated pneumatic drill set up available in the institute was used. Rock properties, like compressive strength and abrasivity, of various samples collected from the field were determined in the laboratory. Drilling experiments were carried out on ten different rock samples for varying thrust and air pressure values and the corresponding A-weighted equivalent continuous sound levels were measured. It was observed that, very low thrust results in low penetration rate. Even very high thrust does not produce high penetration rate at higher operating air pressures. With increase in thrust beyond the optimum level, the penetration rate starts decreasing and causes the drill bit to `stall'. Results of the study show that penetration rate and sound level increases with increase in the thrust level. After reaching the maximum, they start decreasing despite the increase of thrust. The main purpose of the study is to develop a general prediction model and to investigate the relationships between sound level produced during drilling and physical properties such as uniaxial compressive strength and abrasivity of sedimentary rocks. The results were evaluated using the multiple regression analysis taking into account the interaction effects of predictor variables.

  4. Predicting the solar maximum with the rising rate

    Du, Z L


    The growth rate of solar activity in the early phase of a solar cycle has been known to be well correlated with the subsequent amplitude (solar maximum). It provides very useful information for a new solar cycle as its variation reflects the temporal evolution of the dynamic process of solar magnetic activities from the initial phase to the peak phase of the cycle. The correlation coefficient between the solar maximum (Rmax) and the rising rate ({\\beta}a) at {\\Delta}m months after the solar minimum (Rmin) is studied and shown to increase as the cycle progresses with an inflection point (r = 0.83) at about {\\Delta}m = 20 months. The prediction error of Rmax based on {\\beta}a is found within estimation at the 90% level of confidence and the relative prediction error will be less than 20% when {\\Delta}m \\geq 20. From the above relationship, the current cycle (24) is preliminarily predicted to peak around October 2013 with a size of Rmax =84 \\pm 33 at the 90% level of confidence.

  5. Measurement and relevance of maximum metabolic rate in fishes.

    Norin, T; Clark, T D


    Maximum (aerobic) metabolic rate (MMR) is defined here as the maximum rate of oxygen consumption (M˙O2max ) that a fish can achieve at a given temperature under any ecologically relevant circumstance. Different techniques exist for eliciting MMR of fishes, of which swim-flume respirometry (critical swimming speed tests and burst-swimming protocols) and exhaustive chases are the most common. Available data suggest that the most suitable method for eliciting MMR varies with species and ecotype, and depends on the propensity of the fish to sustain swimming for extended durations as well as its capacity to simultaneously exercise and digest food. MMR varies substantially (>10 fold) between species with different lifestyles (i.e. interspecific variation), and to a lesser extent (aerobic scope, interest in measuring this trait has spread across disciplines in attempts to predict effects of climate change on fish populations. Here, various techniques used to elicit and measure MMR in different fish species with contrasting lifestyles are outlined and the relevance of MMR to the ecology, fitness and climate change resilience of fishes is discussed.

  6. Field Tests to Investigate the Penetration Rate of Piles Driven by Vibratory Installation

    Zhaohui Qin


    Full Text Available Factors directly affecting the penetration rate of piles installed by vibratory driving technique are summarized and classified into seven aspects which are driving force, resistance, vibratory amplitude, energy consumption, speeding up at the beginning, pile plumbness keeping, and slowing down at the end, from the mechanism and engineering practice of the vibratory pile driving. In order to find out how these factors affect the penetration rate of the pile in three major actors of vibratory pile driving: (i the pile to be driven, (ii the selected driving system, and (iii the imposed soil conditions, field tests on steel sheet piles driven by vibratory driving technique in different soil conditions are conducted. The penetration rates of three different sheet pile types having up to four different lengths installed using two different vibratory driving systems are documented. Piles with different lengths and types driven with or without clutch have different penetration rates. The working parameters of vibratory hammer, such as driving force and vibratory amplitude, have great influences on the penetration rate of the pile, especially at the later stages of the sinking process. Penetration rate of piles driven in different soil conditions is uniform because of the different penetration resistance including shaft friction and toe resistance.

  7. The mechanics of granitoid systems and maximum entropy production rates.

    Hobbs, Bruce E; Ord, Alison


    A model for the formation of granitoid systems is developed involving melt production spatially below a rising isotherm that defines melt initiation. Production of the melt volumes necessary to form granitoid complexes within 10(4)-10(7) years demands control of the isotherm velocity by melt advection. This velocity is one control on the melt flux generated spatially just above the melt isotherm, which is the control valve for the behaviour of the complete granitoid system. Melt transport occurs in conduits initiated as sheets or tubes comprising melt inclusions arising from Gurson-Tvergaard constitutive behaviour. Such conduits appear as leucosomes parallel to lineations and foliations, and ductile and brittle dykes. The melt flux generated at the melt isotherm controls the position of the melt solidus isotherm and hence the physical height of the Transport/Emplacement Zone. A conduit width-selection process, driven by changes in melt viscosity and constitutive behaviour, operates within the Transport Zone to progressively increase the width of apertures upwards. Melt can also be driven horizontally by gradients in topography; these horizontal fluxes can be similar in magnitude to vertical fluxes. Fluxes induced by deformation can compete with both buoyancy and topographic-driven flow over all length scales and results locally in transient 'ponds' of melt. Pluton emplacement is controlled by the transition in constitutive behaviour of the melt/magma from elastic-viscous at high temperatures to elastic-plastic-viscous approaching the melt solidus enabling finite thickness plutons to develop. The system involves coupled feedback processes that grow at the expense of heat supplied to the system and compete with melt advection. The result is that limits are placed on the size and time scale of the system. Optimal characteristics of the system coincide with a state of maximum entropy production rate.

  8. Relationship between Formation Water Rate, Equivalent Penetration Rate and Volume Flow Rate of Air in Air Drilling

    Wang Kexiong; Zhang Laibin; Jiang Hongwei


    Formation water invasion is the most troublesome problem associated with air drilling. However, it is not economical to apply mist drilling when only a small amount of water flows into wellbore from formation during air drilling. Formation water could be circulated out of the wellbore through increasing the gas injection rate. In this paper,the Angel model was modified by introducing Nikurade friction factor for the flow in coarse open holes and translating formation water rate into equivalent penetration rate. Thus the distribution of annular pressure and the relationship between minimum air injection rate and formation water rate were obtained. Real data verification indicated that the modified model is more accurate than the Angel model and can provide useful information for air drilling.

  9. 47 CFR 65.700 - Determining the maximum allowable rate of return.


    ... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Maximum Allowable Rates of Return § 65.700 Determining the maximum allowable rate of return. (a) The maximum allowable rate of return for any exchange carrier's earnings on any access service category shall...

  10. Determination Of The Maximum Explosion Pressure And The Maximum Rate Of Pressure Rise During Explosion Of Wood Dust Clouds

    Kuracina Richard


    Full Text Available The article deals with the measurement of maximum explosion pressure and the maximum rate of exposure pressure rise of wood dust cloud. The measurements were carried out according to STN EN 14034-1+A1:2011 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds. Part 1: Determination of the maximum explosion pressure pmax of dust clouds and the maximum rate of explosion pressure rise according to STN EN 14034-2+A1:2012 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds - Part 2: Determination of the maximum rate of explosion pressure rise (dp/dtmax of dust clouds. The wood dust cloud in the chamber is achieved mechanically. The testing of explosions of wood dust clouds showed that the maximum value of the pressure was reached at the concentrations of 450 g / m3 and its value is 7.95 bar. The fastest increase of pressure was observed at the concentrations of 450 g / m3 and its value was 68 bar / s.

  11. The tropical lapse rate steepened during the Last Glacial Maximum

    Loomis, S.E.; Russell, J.M.; Verschuren, D.; Morrill, C.; De Cort, G.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Olago, D.; Eggermont, H.; Street-Perrott, F.A.; Kelly, M.A.


    The gradient of air temperature with elevation (the temperature lapse rate) in the tropics is predicted to become lesssteep during the coming century as surface temperature rises, enhancing the threat of warming in high-mountainenvironments. However, the sensitivity of the lapse rate to climate

  12. The tropical lapse rate steepened during the Last Glacial Maximum

    Loomis, Shannon E; Russell, James M; Verschuren, Dirk; Morrill, Carrie; De Cort, Gijs; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07401370X; Olago, Daniel; Eggermont, Hilde; Street-Perrott, F Alayne; Kelly, Meredith A

    The gradient of air temperature with elevation (the temperature lapse rate) in the tropics is predicted to become less steep during the coming century as surface temperature rises, enhancing the threat of warming in high-mountain environments. However, the sensitivity of the lapse rate to climate

  13. Improving soil moisture profile reconstruction from ground-penetrating radar data: a maximum likelihood ensemble filter approach

    A. P. Tran


    Full Text Available The vertical profile of shallow unsaturated zone soil moisture plays a key role in many hydro-meteorological and agricultural applications. We propose a closed-loop data assimilation procedure based on the maximum likelihood ensemble filter algorithm to update the vertical soil moisture profile from time-lapse ground-penetrating radar (GPR data. A hydrodynamic model is used to propagate the system state in time and a radar electromagnetic model and petrophysical relationships to link the state variable with the observation data, which enables us to directly assimilate the GPR data. Instead of using the surface soil moisture only, the approach allows to use the information of the whole soil moisture profile for the assimilation. We validated our approach through a synthetic study. We constructed a synthetic soil column with a depth of 80 cm and analyzed the effects of the soil type on the data assimilation by considering 3 soil types, namely, loamy sand, silt and clay. The assimilation of GPR data was performed to solve the problem of unknown initial conditions. The numerical soil moisture profiles generated by the Hydrus-1D model were used by the GPR model to produce the "observed" GPR data. The results show that the soil moisture profile obtained by assimilating the GPR data is much better than that of an open-loop forecast. Compared to the loamy sand and silt, the updated soil moisture profile of the clay soil converges to the true state much more slowly. Decreasing the update interval from 60 down to 10 h only slightly improves the effectiveness of the GPR data assimilation for the loamy sand but significantly for the clay soil. The proposed approach appears to be promising to improve real-time prediction of the soil moisture profiles as well as to provide effective estimates of the unsaturated hydraulic properties at the field scale from time-lapse GPR measurements.

  14. Allometries of Maximum Growth Rate versus Body Mass at Maximum Growth Indicate That Non-Avian Dinosaurs Had Growth Rates Typical of Fast Growing Ectothermic Sauropsids

    Jan Werner; Eva Maria Griebeler


    We tested if growth rates of recent taxa are unequivocally separated between endotherms and ectotherms, and compared these to dinosaurian growth rates. We therefore performed linear regression analyses on the log-transformed maximum growth rate against log-transformed body mass at maximum growth for extant altricial birds, precocial birds, eutherians, marsupials, reptiles, fishes and dinosaurs. Regression models of precocial birds (and fishes) strongly differed from Case's study (1978), which...

  15. A Maximum Information Rate Quaternion Filter for Spacecraft Attitude Estimation

    Reijneveld, J.; Maas, A.; Choukroun, D.; Kuiper, J.M.


    Building on previous works, this paper introduces a novel continuous-time stochastic optimal linear quaternion estimator under the assumptions of rate gyro measurements and of vector observations of the attitude. A quaternion observation model, which observation matrix is rank degenerate, is reduced

  16. 78 FR 13999 - Maximum Interest Rates on Guaranteed Farm Loans


    ... have removed the term. Comment: Don't remove the ``average agricultural loan customer'' definition. The... the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: Go to . Follow the.... Comment: FSA should let the market dictate what interest rate lenders charge guaranteed borrowers, rather...

  17. The impact of HMO penetration on the rate of hospital cost inflation, 1985-1993.

    Gaskin, D J; Hadley, J


    This paper provides evidence that growth in health maintenance organization (HMO) enrollment slows hospital cost inflation. During the period 1985-1993, hospitals in areas with high rates of HMO penetration and growth had a slower rate of growth in expenses (8.3%) than hospitals in low penetration areas (11.2%). From 1992-1993, HMO growth lowered the rate of hospital cost inflation by .34 to 3.40 percentage points, depending on the base-year level and the annual change in HMO penetration. Declines in Medicare Prospective Payment System (PPS) margins also lowered hospital cost inflation; over the time period, annual hospital cost inflation was reduced by .38 percentage points. The estimates imply that the cumulative effect of HMO growth on hospital costs has been a $56.2 billion reduction (in 1993 dollars).

  18. Reliability-based congestion pricing model under endogenous equilibrated market penetration and compliance rate of ATIS

    钟绍鹏; 邓卫


    A reliability-based stochastic system optimum congestion pricing (SSOCP) model with endogenous market penetration and compliance rate in an advanced traveler information systems (ATIS) environment was proposed. All travelers were divided into two classes. The first guided travelers were referred to as the equipped travelers who follow ATIS advice, while the second unguided travelers were referred to as the unequipped travelers and the equipped travelers who do not follow the ATIS advice (also referred to as non-complied travelers). Travelers were assumed to take travel time, congestion pricing, and travel time reliability into account when making travel route choice decisions. In order to arrive at on time, travelers needed to allow for a safety margin to their trip. The market penetration of ATIS was determined by a continuous increasing function of the information benefit, and the ATIS compliance rate of equipped travelers was given as the probability of the actually experienced travel costs of guided travelers less than or equal to those of unguided travelers. The analysis results could enhance our understanding of the effect of travel demand level and travel time reliability confidence level on the ATIS market penetration and compliance rate; and the effect of travel time perception variation of guided and unguided travelers on the mean travel cost savings (MTCS) of the equipped travelers, the ATIS market penetration, compliance rate, and the total network effective travel time (TNETT).

  19. 9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system. 381.68 Section 381.68 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Procedures § 381.68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection...

  20. Allometries of maximum growth rate versus body mass at maximum growth indicate that non-avian dinosaurs had growth rates typical of fast growing ectothermic sauropsids.

    Jan Werner

    Full Text Available We tested if growth rates of recent taxa are unequivocally separated between endotherms and ectotherms, and compared these to dinosaurian growth rates. We therefore performed linear regression analyses on the log-transformed maximum growth rate against log-transformed body mass at maximum growth for extant altricial birds, precocial birds, eutherians, marsupials, reptiles, fishes and dinosaurs. Regression models of precocial birds (and fishes strongly differed from Case's study (1978, which is often used to compare dinosaurian growth rates to those of extant vertebrates. For all taxonomic groups, the slope of 0.75 expected from the Metabolic Theory of Ecology was statistically supported. To compare growth rates between taxonomic groups we therefore used regressions with this fixed slope and group-specific intercepts. On average, maximum growth rates of ectotherms were about 10 (reptiles to 20 (fishes times (in comparison to mammals or even 45 (reptiles to 100 (fishes times (in comparison to birds lower than in endotherms. While on average all taxa were clearly separated from each other, individual growth rates overlapped between several taxa and even between endotherms and ectotherms. Dinosaurs had growth rates intermediate between similar sized/scaled-up reptiles and mammals, but a much lower rate than scaled-up birds. All dinosaurian growth rates were within the range of extant reptiles and mammals, and were lower than those of birds. Under the assumption that growth rate and metabolic rate are indeed linked, our results suggest two alternative interpretations. Compared to other sauropsids, the growth rates of studied dinosaurs clearly indicate that they had an ectothermic rather than an endothermic metabolic rate. Compared to other vertebrate growth rates, the overall high variability in growth rates of extant groups and the high overlap between individual growth rates of endothermic and ectothermic extant species make it impossible to rule

  1. Allometries of maximum growth rate versus body mass at maximum growth indicate that non-avian dinosaurs had growth rates typical of fast growing ectothermic sauropsids.

    Werner, Jan; Griebeler, Eva Maria


    We tested if growth rates of recent taxa are unequivocally separated between endotherms and ectotherms, and compared these to dinosaurian growth rates. We therefore performed linear regression analyses on the log-transformed maximum growth rate against log-transformed body mass at maximum growth for extant altricial birds, precocial birds, eutherians, marsupials, reptiles, fishes and dinosaurs. Regression models of precocial birds (and fishes) strongly differed from Case's study (1978), which is often used to compare dinosaurian growth rates to those of extant vertebrates. For all taxonomic groups, the slope of 0.75 expected from the Metabolic Theory of Ecology was statistically supported. To compare growth rates between taxonomic groups we therefore used regressions with this fixed slope and group-specific intercepts. On average, maximum growth rates of ectotherms were about 10 (reptiles) to 20 (fishes) times (in comparison to mammals) or even 45 (reptiles) to 100 (fishes) times (in comparison to birds) lower than in endotherms. While on average all taxa were clearly separated from each other, individual growth rates overlapped between several taxa and even between endotherms and ectotherms. Dinosaurs had growth rates intermediate between similar sized/scaled-up reptiles and mammals, but a much lower rate than scaled-up birds. All dinosaurian growth rates were within the range of extant reptiles and mammals, and were lower than those of birds. Under the assumption that growth rate and metabolic rate are indeed linked, our results suggest two alternative interpretations. Compared to other sauropsids, the growth rates of studied dinosaurs clearly indicate that they had an ectothermic rather than an endothermic metabolic rate. Compared to other vertebrate growth rates, the overall high variability in growth rates of extant groups and the high overlap between individual growth rates of endothermic and ectothermic extant species make it impossible to rule out either of

  2. Verification of Sulfate Attack Penetration Rates for Saltstone Disposal Unit Modeling

    Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    Recent Special Analysis modeling of Saltstone Disposal Units consider sulfate attack on concrete and utilize degradation rates estimated from Cementitious Barriers Partnership software simulations. This study provides an independent verification of those simulation results using an alternative analysis method and an independent characterization data source. The sulfate penetration depths estimated herein are similar to the best-estimate values in SRNL-STI-2013-00118 Rev. 2 and well below the nominal values subsequently used to define Saltstone Special Analysis base cases.

  3. A new computational algorithm for the calculation of maximum wind energy penetration in autonomous electrical generation systems

    Kaldellis, J.K.; Kavadias, K.A. [Lab of Soft Energy Applications and Environmental Protection, TEI Piraeus, P.O. Box 41046, Athens 12201 (Greece); Filios, A.E. [Fluid Mechanics and Turbomachines Lab., School of Pedagogical and Technological Education, 14121 N. Heraklio Attica (Greece)


    The entirety of Aegean Sea Islands, including Crete, is characterized during the last decade by a considerable annual increase of the electrical power demand exceeding the 5% in annual basis. This continuous amplifying electricity consumption is hardly fulfilled by several outmoded internal combustion engines usually at a very high operational cost. On the other hand most of the islands possess high wind potential that may substantially contribute in order to meet the corresponding load demand. However, in this case some wind energy absorption problems related with the collaboration between wind parks and the local electricity production system cannot be neglected. In this context, the present study is devoted to realistically estimating the maximum wind energy absorption in autonomous electrical island networks. For this purpose a new reliable and integrated numerical algorithm is developed, using the available information of the corresponding electricity generation system, in order to calculate the maximum acceptable wind power contribution in the system, under the normal restrictions that the system manager imposes. The proposed algorithm is successfully compared with existing historical data as well as with the results of a recent investigation based almost exclusively on the existing wind park's energy production. (author)

  4. LASER: A Maximum Likelihood Toolkit for Detecting Temporal Shifts in Diversification Rates From Molecular Phylogenies

    Daniel L. Rabosky


    Full Text Available Rates of species origination and extinction can vary over time during evolutionary radiations, and it is possible to reconstruct the history of diversification using molecular phylogenies of extant taxa only. Maximum likelihood methods provide a useful framework for inferring temporal variation in diversification rates. LASER is a package for the R programming environment that implements maximum likelihood methods based on the birth-death process to test whether diversification rates have changed over time. LASER contrasts the likelihood of phylogenetic data under models where diversification rates have changed over time to alternative models where rates have remained constant over time. Major strengths of the package include the ability to detect temporal increases in diversification rates and the inference of diversification parameters under multiple rate-variable models of diversification. The program and associated documentation are freely available from the R package archive at

  5. Cost-effectiveness comparison between non-penetrating deep sclerectomy and maximum-tolerated medical therapy for glaucoma within the Brazilian National Health System (SUS

    Ricardo Augusto Paletta Guedes


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Non-penetrating deep sclerectomy (NPDS has emerged as a viable option in the surgical management of open-angle glaucoma. Our aim is to assess the cost-effectiveness of NPDS and to compare it to maximum medical treatment in a 5-year follow-up. METHODS: A decision analysis model was built. Surgical (NPDS arm of the decision tree was observational (consecutive retrospective case series and maximum medical treatment arm was hypothetical. Maximum medical therapy was considered a three-drug regimen (association of a fixed combination of timolol/dorzolamide [FCTD] and a prostaglandin analogue [bimatoprost, latanoprost or travoprost]. Cost-effectiveness ratio was defined as direct cost (US dollars for each percentage of intraocular pressure (IOP reduction. Horizon was 5 years and perspective is from the public health care service in Brazil (SUS. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER was calculated. RESULTS: Direct cost for each percentage of IOP reduction in 5 years (cost-effectiveness ratio was US$ 10.19 for NPDS; US$ 37.45 for the association of a FCTD and bimatoprost; US$ 39.33 for FCTD and travoprost; and US$ 41.42 for FCTD and latanoprost. NPDS demonstrated a better cost-effectiveness ratio, compared to maximum medical therapy. The ICER was negative for all medical treatment options; therefore NPDS was dominant. CONCLUSIONS: Despite some limitations, NPDS was both less costly and more effective than maximum medical therapy. From the Brazilian public health perspective, it was the most cost-effective treatment option when compared to maximum medical therapy (FCTD and prostaglandin.

  6. 13 CFR 107.845 - Maximum rate of amortization on Loans and Debt Securities.


    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum rate of amortization on... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Financing of Small Businesses by Licensees Structuring... rate of amortization on Loans and Debt Securities. The principal of any Loan (or the loan portion...

  7. The Scaling of Maximum and Basal Metabolic Rates of Mammals and Birds

    Barbosa, L A; Silva, J K L; Barbosa, Lauro A.; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; Silva, Jafferson K. L. da


    Allometric scaling is one of the most pervasive laws in biology. Its origin, however, is still a matter of dispute. Recent studies have established that maximum metabolic rate scales with an exponent larger than that found for basal metabolism. This unpredicted result sets a challenge that can decide which of the concurrent hypotheses is the correct theory. Here we show that both scaling laws can be deduced from a single network model. Besides the 3/4-law for basal metabolism, the model predicts that maximum metabolic rate scales as $M^{6/7}$, maximum heart rate as $M^{-1/7}$, and muscular capillary density as $M^{-1/7}$, in agreement with data.

  8. Setting maximum emission rates from ozone emitting consumer appliances in the United States and Canada

    Morrison, Glenn; Shaughnessy, Richard; Shu, Shi


    A Monte Carlo analysis of indoor ozone levels in four cities was applied to provide guidance to regulatory agencies on setting maximum ozone emission rates from consumer appliances. Measured distributions of air exchange rates, ozone decay rates and outdoor ozone levels at monitoring stations were combined with a steady-state indoor air quality model resulting in emission rate distributions (mg h -1) as a function of % of building hours protected from exceeding a target maximum indoor concentration of 20 ppb. Whole-year, summer and winter results for Elizabeth, NJ, Houston, TX, Windsor, ON, and Los Angeles, CA exhibited strong regional differences, primarily due to differences in air exchange rates. Infiltration of ambient ozone at higher average air exchange rates significantly reduces allowable emission rates, even though air exchange also dilutes emissions from appliances. For Houston, TX and Windsor, ON, which have lower average residential air exchange rates, emission rates ranged from -1.1 to 2.3 mg h -1 for scenarios that protect 80% or more of building hours from experiencing ozone concentrations greater than 20 ppb in summer. For Los Angeles, CA and Elizabeth, NJ, with higher air exchange rates, only negative emission rates were allowable to provide the same level of protection. For the 80th percentile residence, we estimate that an 8-h average limit concentration of 20 ppb would be exceeded, even in the absence of an indoor ozone source, 40 or more days per year in any of the cities analyzed. The negative emission rates emerging from the analysis suggest that only a zero-emission rate standard is prudent for Los Angeles, Elizabeth, NJ and other regions with higher summertime air exchange rates. For regions such as Houston with lower summertime air exchange rates, the higher emission rates would likely increase occupant exposure to the undesirable products of ozone reactions, thus reinforcing the need for zero-emission rate standard.

  9. 17 CFR 148.7 - Rulemaking on maximum rates for attorney fees.


    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rulemaking on maximum rates for attorney fees. 148.7 Section 148.7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... increase in the cost of living or by special circumstances (such as limited availability of...

  10. The 220-age equation does not predict maximum heart rate in children and adolescents

    Verschuren, Olaf; Maltais, Desiree B.; Takken, Tim

    Our primary purpose was to provide maximum heart rate (HR(max)) values for ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). The secondary purpose was to determine the effects of age, sex, ambulatory ability, height, and weight on HR(max). In 362 ambulatory children and adolescents with CP (213 males

  11. The 220-age equation does not predict maximum heart rate in children and adolescents

    Verschuren, Olaf; Maltais, Desiree B.; Takken, Tim


    Our primary purpose was to provide maximum heart rate (HR(max)) values for ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). The secondary purpose was to determine the effects of age, sex, ambulatory ability, height, and weight on HR(max). In 362 ambulatory children and adolescents with CP (213 males an

  12. Maximum initial growth-rate of strong-shock-driven Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

    Dell, Z. R.; Pandian, A.; Bhowmick, A. K.; Swisher, N. C.; Stanic, M.; Stellingwerf, R. F.; Abarzhi, S. I.


    We focus on the classical problem of the dependence on the initial conditions of the initial growth-rate of strong shock driven Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) by developing a novel empirical model and by employing rigorous theories and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics simulations to describe the simulation data with statistical confidence in a broad parameter regime. For the given values of the shock strength, fluid density ratio, and wavelength of the initial perturbation of the fluid interface, we find the maximum value of the RMI initial growth-rate, the corresponding amplitude scale of the initial perturbation, and the maximum fraction of interfacial energy. This amplitude scale is independent of the shock strength and density ratio and is characteristic quantity of RMI dynamics. We discover the exponential decay of the ratio of the initial and linear growth-rates of RMI with the initial perturbation amplitude that excellently agrees with available data.

  13. Effects of electric field on the maximum electro-spinning rate of silk fibroin solutions.

    Park, Bo Kyung; Um, In Chul


    Owing to the excellent cyto-compatibility of silk fibroin (SF) and the simple fabrication of nano-fibrous webs, electro-spun SF webs have attracted much research attention in numerous biomedical fields. Because the production rate of electro-spun webs is strongly dependent on the electro-spinning rate used, the electro-spinning rate becomes more important. In the present study, to improve the electro-spinning rate of SF solutions, various electric fields were applied during electro-spinning of SF, and its effects on the maximum electro-spinning rate of SF solution as well as diameters and molecular conformations of the electro-spun SF fibers were examined. As the electric field was increased, the maximum electro-spinning rate of the SF solution also increased. The maximum electro-spinning rate of a 13% SF solution could be increased 12×by increasing the electric field from 0.5kV/cm (0.25mL/h) to 2.5kV/cm (3.0mL/h). The dependence of the fiber diameter on the present electric field was not significant when using less-concentrated SF solutions (7-9% SF). On the other hand, at higher SF concentrations the electric field had a greater effect on the resulting fiber diameter. The electric field had a minimal effect of the molecular conformation and crystallinity index of the electro-spun SF webs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Maximum Data Collection Rate Routing Protocol Based on Topology Control for Rechargeable Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Lin, Haifeng; Bai, Di; Gao, Demin; Liu, Yunfei


    In Rechargeable Wireless Sensor Networks (R-WSNs), in order to achieve the maximum data collection rate it is critical that sensors operate in very low duty cycles because of the sporadic availability of energy. A sensor has to stay in a dormant state in most of the time in order to recharge the battery and use the energy prudently. In addition, a sensor cannot always conserve energy if a network is able to harvest excessive energy from the environment due to its limited storage capacity. Therefore, energy exploitation and energy saving have to be traded off depending on distinct application scenarios. Since higher data collection rate or maximum data collection rate is the ultimate objective for sensor deployment, surplus energy of a node can be utilized for strengthening packet delivery efficiency and improving the data generating rate in R-WSNs. In this work, we propose an algorithm based on data aggregation to compute an upper data generation rate by maximizing it as an optimization problem for a network, which is formulated as a linear programming problem. Subsequently, a dual problem by introducing Lagrange multipliers is constructed, and subgradient algorithms are used to solve it in a distributed manner. At the same time, a topology controlling scheme is adopted for improving the network's performance. Through extensive simulation and experiments, we demonstrate that our algorithm is efficient at maximizing the data collection rate in rechargeable wireless sensor networks.

  15. On the rate of convergence of the maximum likelihood estimator of a k-monotone density

    WELLNER; Jon; A


    Bounds for the bracketing entropy of the classes of bounded k-monotone functions on [0,A] are obtained under both the Hellinger distance and the Lp(Q) distance,where 1 p < ∞ and Q is a probability measure on [0,A].The result is then applied to obtain the rate of convergence of the maximum likelihood estimator of a k-monotone density.

  16. On the rate of convergence of the maximum likelihood estimator of a K-monotone density

    GAO FuChang; WELLNER Jon A


    Bounds for the bracketing entropy of the classes of bounded K-monotone functions on [0, A] are obtained under both the Hellinger distance and the LP(Q) distance, where 1 ≤ p < ∞ and Q is a probability measure on [0, A]. The result is then applied to obtain the rate of convergence of the maximum likelihood estimator of a K-monotone density.

  17. An Efficient Approach for Real-Time Prediction of Rate of Penetration in Offshore Drilling

    Xian Shi


    Full Text Available Predicting the rate of penetration (ROP is critical for drilling optimization because maximization of ROP can greatly reduce expensive drilling costs. In this work, the typical extreme learning machine (ELM and an efficient learning model, upper-layer-solution-aware (USA, have been used in ROP prediction. Because formation type, rock mechanical properties, hydraulics, bit type and properties (weight on the bit and rotary speed, and mud properties are the most important parameters that affect ROP, they have been considered to be the input parameters to predict ROP. The prediction model has been constructed using industrial reservoir data sets that are collected from an oil reservoir at the Bohai Bay, China. The prediction accuracy of the model has been evaluated and compared with the commonly used conventional artificial neural network (ANN. The results indicate that ANN, ELM, and USA models are all competent for ROP prediction, while both of the ELM and USA models have the advantage of faster learning speed and better generalization performance. The simulation results have shown a promising prospect for ELM and USA in the field of ROP prediction in new oil and gas exploration in general, as they outperform the ANN model. Meanwhile, this work provides drilling engineers with more choices for ROP prediction according to their computation and accuracy demand.

  18. Effects of hydraulic parameter cleaning variations on rate of penetration of soft formation insert bits

    Doiron, H.H.; Deane, J.D.


    Effects of hydraulic cleaning parameter variations on rate of penetration response of 7 7/8 inch diameter soft formation insert bits have been measured in laboratory drilling tests. Tests were conducted in Mancos Shale rock samples at 700 psi and 4000 psi simulated overbalance pressure conditions using a 9.1 pound per gallon bentonite-barite water base drilling fluid. Bit hydraulic horsepower was varied from 0.72 to 9.5 HHP/in/sup 2/ using two or three nozzles in sizes ranging from 9/32 to 14/32 inches in diameter. Some improvements in ROP at constant bit hydraulic horsepower and impact force levels were obtained with two nozzle configurations vs. three nozzle configurations, but improvements were not consistently out of the range of normal test to test variations. Reduction in drilling costs due to the measured response of ROP to improved hydraulic cleaning is compared to increased operating costs required to provide additional hydraulics. Results indicate that bit hydraulic horsepower levels in excess of popular rules of thumb are cost effective in slow drilling due to high overbalance pressure.

  19. An estimation of the penetration rate of rotary drills using the Specific Rock Mass Drillability index

    Cheniany Alireza; Hasan Khoshrou Seyed; Shahriar Kourosh; Khademi Hamidi Jafar


    The main purpose of the present study was to provide a practical,convenient drillability prediction model based on rock mass characteristics,geological sampling from blast holes,and drill operational factors.Empirical equations that predict drill penetration rate have been developed using statistical analyses of data from the Sarcheshmeh Copper Mine.Seven parameters of the rock or rock mass,including uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) of the rock,Schmidt hammer hard hess vatue,quartz content,fragment size (d80),alteration,and joint dip,are included in the model along with two operational parameters of the rotary drill,bit rotational speed and thrust.These parameters were used to predict values of the newly developed Specific Rock Mass Drillability (SRMD) index.Comparing measured SRMD values to those predicted by the multi-parameter linear,or nonlinear,regression models showed good agreement.The correlation coefficients were 0.82 and 0.81,respectively.

  20. A real-time maximum-likelihood heart-rate estimator for wearable textile sensors.

    Cheng, Mu-Huo; Chen, Li-Chung; Hung, Ying-Che; Yang, Chang Ming


    This paper presents a real-time maximum-likelihood heart-rate estimator for ECG data measured via wearable textile sensors. The ECG signals measured from wearable dry electrodes are notorious for its susceptibility to interference from the respiration or the motion of wearing person such that the signal quality may degrade dramatically. To overcome these obstacles, in the proposed heart-rate estimator we first employ the subspace approach to remove the wandering baseline, then use a simple nonlinear absolute operation to reduce the high-frequency noise contamination, and finally apply the maximum likelihood estimation technique for estimating the interval of R-R peaks. A parameter derived from the byproduct of maximum likelihood estimation is also proposed as an indicator for signal quality. To achieve the goal of real-time, we develop a simple adaptive algorithm from the numerical power method to realize the subspace filter and apply the fast-Fourier transform (FFT) technique for realization of the correlation technique such that the whole estimator can be implemented in an FPGA system. Experiments are performed to demonstrate the viability of the proposed system.

  1. Scaling of heat production by thermogenic flowers: limits to floral size and maximum rate of respiration.

    Seymour, Roger S


    Effect of size of inflorescences, flowers and cones on maximum rate of heat production is analysed allometrically in 23 species of thermogenic plants having diverse structures and ranging between 1.8 and 600 g. Total respiration rate (, micromol s(-1)) varies with spadix mass (M, g) according to in 15 species of Araceae. Thermal conductance (C, mW degrees C(-1)) for spadices scales according to C = 18.5M(0.73). Mass does not significantly affect the difference between floral and air temperature. Aroids with exposed appendices with high surface area have high thermal conductance, consistent with the need to vaporize attractive scents. True flowers have significantly lower heat production and thermal conductance, because closed petals retain heat that benefits resident insects. The florets on aroid spadices, either within a floral chamber or spathe, have intermediate thermal conductance, consistent with mixed roles. Mass-specific rates of respiration are variable between species, but reach 900 nmol s(-1) g(-1) in aroid male florets, exceeding rates of all other plants and even most animals. Maximum mass-specific respiration appears to be limited by oxygen delivery through individual cells. Reducing mass-specific respiration may be one selective influence on the evolution of large size of thermogenic flowers.

  2. In-vitro permeability of the human nail and of a keratin membrane from bovine hooves: prediction of the penetration rate of antimycotics through the nail plate and their efficacy.

    Mertin, D; Lippold, B C


    In contrast to the partition coefficient octanol/water the molecular size of penetrating drugs has a noticeable influence on the permeability of the human nail plate and a keratin membrane from bovine hooves. The relationship between permeability and molecular weight is founded on well-established theories. The correlation between the permeability of the nail plate and that of the hoof membrane allows a prediction of the nail permeability after determination of the drug penetration through the hoof membrane. The maximum flux of ten antimycotics (amorolfine, bifonazole, ciclopirox, clotrimazole, econazole, griseofulvin, ketoconazole, naftifine, nystatin and tolnaftate) through the nail plate was predicted on the basis of their penetration rates through the hoof membrane and their water solubilities. An efficacy coefficient against onychomycoses was calculated from the maximum flux and the minimum inhibitory concentration. Accordingly, amorolfine, ciclopirox, econazole and naftifine are expected to be especially effective against dermatophytes, whereas in the case of an infection with yeasts only, amorolfine and ciclopirox are promising.

  3. Maximum Likelihood based comparison of the specific growth rates for P. aeruginosa and four mutator strains

    Philipsen, Kirsten Riber; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Mandsberg, Lotte Frigaard


    that best describes data is a model taking into account the full covariance structure. An inference study is made in order to determine whether the growth rate of the five bacteria strains is the same. After applying a likelihood-ratio test to models with a full covariance structure, it is concluded...... that the specific growth rate is the same for all bacteria strains. This study highlights the importance of carrying out an explorative examination of residuals in order to make a correct parametrization of a model including the covariance structure. The ML method is shown to be a strong tool as it enables......The specific growth rate for P. aeruginosa and four mutator strains mutT, mutY, mutM and mutY–mutM is estimated by a suggested Maximum Likelihood, ML, method which takes the autocorrelation of the observation into account. For each bacteria strain, six wells of optical density, OD, measurements...

  4. Determination of zero-coupon and spot rates from treasury data by maximum entropy methods

    Gzyl, Henryk; Mayoral, Silvia


    An interesting and important inverse problem in finance consists of the determination of spot rates or prices of the zero coupon bonds, when the only information available consists of the prices of a few coupon bonds. A variety of methods have been proposed to deal with this problem. Here we present variants of a non-parametric method to treat with such problems, which neither imposes an analytic form on the rates or bond prices, nor imposes a model for the (random) evolution of the yields. The procedure consists of transforming the problem of the determination of the prices of the zero coupon bonds into a linear inverse problem with convex constraints, and then applying the method of maximum entropy in the mean. This method is flexible enough to provide a possible solution to a mispricing problem.

  5. Group differences in measures of voice production and revised values of maximum airflow declination rate.

    Perkell, J S; Hillman, R E; Holmberg, E B


    In previous reports, aerodynamic and acoustic measures of voice production were presented for groups of normal male and female speakers [Holmberg et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84, 511-529 (1988); J. Voice 3, 294-305 (1989)] that were used as norms in studies of voice disorders [Hillman et al., J. Speech Hear. Res. 32, 373-392 (1989); J. Voice 4, 52-63 (1990)]. Several of the measures were extracted from glottal airflow waveforms that were derived by inverse filtering a high-time-resolution oral airflow signal. Recently, the methods have been updated and a new study of additional subjects has been conducted. This report presents previous (1988) and current (1993) group mean values of sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, maximum airflow declination rate, ac flow, peak flow, minimum flow, ac-dc ratio, inferred subglottal air pressure, average flow, and glottal resistance. Statistical tests indicate overall group differences and differences for values of several individual parameters between the 1988 and 1993 studies. Some inter-study differences in parameter values may be due to sampling effects and minor methodological differences; however, a comparative test of 1988 and 1993 inverse filtering algorithms shows that some lower 1988 values of maximum flow declination rate were due at least in part to excessive low-pass filtering in the 1988 algorithm. The observed differences should have had a negligible influence on the conclusions of our studies of voice disorders.

  6. The influence of the North-Atlantic Oscillation on Variable Renewable Energy penetration rate in Europe

    Francois, Baptiste


    The on-going transition to low-carbon economy promotes the development of Variable Renewable Energies (VRE) such as wind-power, solar-power and hydro-power. The European Climate Foundation now typically dates for 2050 optimistic scenarios with close to 100 % renewable energy in Europe. When considering 100 % renewable scenarios, backup generation is needed for stabilizing the network when variable renewable energy sources such as wind, solar or run-of-the river hydropower are not sufficient for supplying the load. Several studies show that backup generation needs are reduced by dissipating power densities either in space through grids and time through storage. To our knowledge, most of these published studies were carried out using field measurements collected at meteorological and hydrological stations and over relatively short time period (less than 10 years). By using short period of times, such studies somehow disregarded the space and temporal variability of VRE power generation that could be induced by larger-scale climate variability patterns. This study investigates the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on the VRE penetration for a set of 11 regions in Europe and Tunisia, and over 1980-2012 time period. These regions are located along two climate transects, the first one going from the Northern regions (Norway, Finland) to the Southern ones (Greece, Andalucía, Tunisia) and the second one going from the oceanic climate (West of France, Galicia) to the continental one (Romania, Belorussia). For each of those regions, we combine data from the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (wind speed, solar radiation; Vautard et al., 2014) and the European Climate Assessment & Dataset (temperature, precipitation; Haylock et al,. 2008) for estimating solar-power, wind-power, run-of-the-river hydro-power and the electricity demand over a time period of 33 years. For each region, we analyze seasonal differences in penetration rates of wind-, solar- and

  7. Botanical and agronomic growth of two Panicum maximum cultivars, Mombasa and Tanzania, at varying sowing rates

    Michael D. Hare


    Full Text Available A field trial in northeast Thailand during 2011–2013 compared the establishment and growth of 2 Panicum maximum cultivars, Mombasa and Tanzania, sown at seeding rates of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 kg/ha. In the first 3 months of establishment, higher sowing rates produced significantly more DM than sowing at 2 kg/ha, but thereafter there were no significant differences in total DM production between sowing rates of 2–12 kg/ha. Lower sowing rates produced fewer tillers/m2 than higher sowing rates but these fewer tillers were significantly heavier than the more numerous smaller tillers produced by higher sowing rates. Mombasa produced 23% more DM than Tanzania in successive wet seasons (7,060 vs. 5,712 kg DM/ha from 16 June to 1 November 2011; and 16,433 vs. 13,350 kg DM/ha from 25 April to 24 October 2012. Both cultivars produced similar DM yields in the dry seasons (November–April, averaging 2,000 kg DM/ha in the first dry season and 1,750 kg DM/ha in the second dry season. Mombasa produced taller tillers (104 vs. 82 cm, longer leaves (60 vs. 47 cm, wider leaves (2 vs. 1.8 cm and heavier tillers (1 vs. 0.7 g than Tanzania but fewer tillers/m2 (260 vs. 304. If farmers improve soil preparation and place more emphasis on sowing techniques, there is potential to dramatically reduce seed costs.Keywords: Guinea grass, tillering, forage production, seeding rates, Thailand.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(2246-253

  8. Maximum Rain-Rate Evaluations in Aegean Archipelagos Hellas for Rain Attenuation Modeling at Microwave Frequencies

    Evangelia Karagianni


    Full Text Available By utilizing meteorological data such as relative humidity, temperature, pressure, rain rate and precipitation duration at eight (8 stations in Aegean Archipelagos from six recent years (2007 – 2012, the effect of the weather on Electromagnetic wave propagation is studied. The EM wave propagation characteristics depend on atmospheric refractivity and consequently on Rain-Rate which vary in time and space randomly. Therefore the statistics of radio refractivity, Rain-Rate and related propagation effects are of main interest. This work investigates the maximum value of rain rate in monthly rainfall records, for a 5 min interval comparing it with different values of integration time as well as different percentages of time. The main goal is to determine the attenuation level for microwave links based on local rainfall data for various sites in Greece (L-zone, namely Aegean Archipelagos, with a view on improved accuracy as compared with more generic zone data available. A measurement of rain attenuation for a link in the S-band has been carried out and the data compared with prediction based on the standard ITU-R method.

  9. Inferring kinetic pathways, rates, and force dependence from nonprocessive optical tweezers experiments: a maximum likelihood approach

    Kalafut, Bennett; Visscher, Koen


    Optical tweezers experiments allow us to probe the role of force and mechanical work in a variety of biochemical processes. However, observable states do not usually correspond in a one-to-one fashion with the internal state of an enzyme or enzyme-substrate complex. Different kinetic pathways yield different distributions for the dwells in the observable states. Furthermore, the dwell-time distribution will be dependent upon force, and upon where in the biochemical pathway force acts. I will present a maximum-likelihood method for identifying rate constants and the locations of force-dependent transitions in transcription initiation by T7 RNA Polymerase. This method is generalizable to systems with more complicated kinetic pathways in which there are two observable states (e.g. bound and unbound) and an irreversible final transition.

  10. Asymptotic correctability of Bell-diagonal quantum states and maximum tolerable bit error rates

    Ranade, K S; Ranade, Kedar S.; Alber, Gernot


    The general conditions are discussed which quantum state purification protocols have to fulfill in order to be capable of purifying Bell-diagonal qubit-pair states, provided they consist of steps that map Bell-diagonal states to Bell-diagonal states and they finally apply a suitably chosen Calderbank-Shor-Steane code to the outcome of such steps. As a main result a necessary and a sufficient condition on asymptotic correctability are presented, which relate this problem to the magnitude of a characteristic exponent governing the relation between bit and phase errors under the purification steps. These conditions allow a straightforward determination of maximum tolerable bit error rates of quantum key distribution protocols whose security analysis can be reduced to the purification of Bell-diagonal states.

  11. Phylogenetic prediction of the maximum per capita rate of population growth.

    Fagan, William F; Pearson, Yanthe E; Larsen, Elise A; Lynch, Heather J; Turner, Jessica B; Staver, Hilary; Noble, Andrew E; Bewick, Sharon; Goldberg, Emma E


    The maximum per capita rate of population growth, r, is a central measure of population biology. However, researchers can only directly calculate r when adequate time series, life tables and similar datasets are available. We instead view r as an evolvable, synthetic life-history trait and use comparative phylogenetic approaches to predict r for poorly known species. Combining molecular phylogenies, life-history trait data and stochastic macroevolutionary models, we predicted r for mammals of the Caniformia and Cervidae. Cross-validation analyses demonstrated that, even with sparse life-history data, comparative methods estimated r well and outperformed models based on body mass. Values of r predicted via comparative methods were in strong rank agreement with observed values and reduced mean prediction errors by approximately 68 per cent compared with two null models. We demonstrate the utility of our method by estimating r for 102 extant species in these mammal groups with unknown life-history traits.

  12. Statistical properties of the maximum Lyapunov exponent calculated via the divergence rate method.

    Franchi, Matteo; Ricci, Leonardo


    The embedding of a time series provides a basic tool to analyze dynamical properties of the underlying chaotic system. To this purpose, the choice of the embedding dimension and lag is crucial. Although several methods have been devised to tackle the issue of the optimal setting of these parameters, a conclusive criterion to make the most appropriate choice is still lacking. An accepted procedure to rank different embedding methods relies on the evaluation of the maximum Lyapunov exponent (MLE) out of embedded time series that are generated by chaotic systems with explicit analytic representation. The MLE is evaluated as the local divergence rate of nearby trajectories. Given a system, embedding methods are ranked according to how close such MLE values are to the true MLE. This is provided by the so-called standard method in a way that exploits the mathematical description of the system and does not require embedding. In this paper we study the dependence of the finite-time MLE evaluated via the divergence rate method on the embedding dimension and lag in the case of time series generated by four systems that are widely used as references in the scientific literature. We develop a completely automatic algorithm that provides the divergence rate and its statistical uncertainty. We show that the uncertainty can provide useful information about the optimal choice of the embedding parameters. In addition, our approach allows us to find which systems provide suitable benchmarks for the comparison and ranking of different embedding methods.

  13. Comparison of steady state femoral head penetration rates between two highly cross-linked polyethylenes in total hip arthroplasty.

    Whittaker, John-Paul; Charron, Kory D; McCalden, Richard W; Macdonald, Steven J; Bourne, Robert B


    Given that the manufacture of highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) is not standardized, the behavior of these materials may vary. Our study compares minimum 5-year steady state femoral head penetration rates using the Martell method, in 2 HXPLEs produced by different manufacturers. Patients received a primary hip arthroplasty using an uncemented acetabular component with an HXLPE liner and a 28-mm femoral head. Forty-seven patients in group A received an HXLPE liner (Reflection XLPE, Smith and Nephew Inc, Memphis, Tenn), and 36 patients in group B received a different HXLPE liner (Longevity, Zimmer Inc, Warsaw, Ind). Average follow-up was 6.42 years in group A and 7.64 years in group B. The steady state head penetration rates were not significantly (P > .05) different between the HXPLE groups over the midterm with 0.026 mm/y and 0.025 mm/y in groups A and B, respectively.

  14. Factors Affecting the Rate of Penetration of Large-Scale Electricity Technologies: The Case of Carbon Sequestration

    James R. McFarland; Howard J. Herzog


    This project falls under the Technology Innovation and Diffusion topic of the Integrated Assessment of Climate Change Research Program. The objective was to better understand the critical variables that affect the rate of penetration of large-scale electricity technologies in order to improve their representation in integrated assessment models. We conducted this research in six integrated tasks. In our first two tasks, we identified potential factors that affect penetration rates through discussions with modeling groups and through case studies of historical precedent. In the next three tasks, we investigated in detail three potential sets of critical factors: industrial conditions, resource conditions, and regulatory/environmental considerations. Research to assess the significance and relative importance of these factors involved the development of a microeconomic, system dynamics model of the US electric power sector. Finally, we implemented the penetration rate models in an integrated assessment model. While the focus of this effort is on carbon capture and sequestration technologies, much of the work will be applicable to other large-scale energy conversion technologies.


    Alvah C. Stahlnecker IV


    Full Text Available A percentage of either measured or predicted maximum heart rate is commonly used to prescribe and measure exercise intensity. However, maximum heart rate in athletes may be greater during competition or training than during laboratory exercise testing. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to determine if endurance-trained runners train and compete at or above laboratory measures of 'maximum' heart rate. Maximum heart rates were measured utilising a treadmill graded exercise test (GXT in a laboratory setting using 10 female and 10 male National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA division 2 cross-country and distance event track athletes. Maximum training and competition heart rates were measured during a high-intensity interval training day (TR HR and during competition (COMP HR at an NCAA meet. TR HR (207 ± 5.0 b·min-1; means ± SEM and COMP HR (206 ± 4 b·min-1 were significantly (p < 0.05 higher than maximum heart rates obtained during the GXT (194 ± 2 b·min-1. The heart rate at the ventilatory threshold measured in the laboratory occurred at 83.3 ± 2.5% of the heart rate at VO2 max with no differences between the men and women. However, the heart rate at the ventilatory threshold measured in the laboratory was only 77% of the maximal COMP HR or TR HR. In order to optimize training-induced adaptation, training intensity for NCAA division 2 distance event runners should not be based on laboratory assessment of maximum heart rate, but instead on maximum heart rate obtained either during training or during competition

  16. Why does steady-state magnetic reconnection have a maximum local rate of order 0.1?

    Liu, Yi-Hsin; Guo, F; Daughton, W; Li, H; Cassak, P A; Shay, M A


    Simulations suggest collisionless steady-state magnetic reconnection of Harris-type current sheets proceeds with a rate of order 0.1, independent of dissipation mechanism. We argue this long-standing puzzle is a result of constraints at the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) scale. We perform a scaling analysis of the reconnection rate as a function of the opening angle made by the upstream magnetic fields, finding a maximum reconnection rate close to 0.2. The predictions compare favorably to particle-in-cell simulations of relativistic electron-positron and non-relativistic electron-proton reconnection. The fact that simulated reconnection rates are close to the predicted maximum suggests reconnection proceeds near the most efficient state allowed at the MHD-scale. The rate near the maximum is relatively insensitive to the opening angle, potentially explaining why reconnection has a similar fast rate in differing models.

  17. Effects of diaphragmatic control on the assessment of sniff nasal inspiratory pressure and maximum relaxation rate

    Benício, Kadja; Dias, Fernando A. L.; Gualdi, Lucien P.; Aliverti, Andrea; Resqueti, Vanessa R.; Fregonezi, Guilherme A. F.


    OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of diaphragmatic activation control (diaphC) on Sniff Nasal-Inspiratory Pressure (SNIP) and Maximum Relaxation Rate of inspiratory muscles (MRR) in healthy subjects. METHOD: Twenty subjects (9 male; age: 23 (SD=2.9) years; BMI: 23.8 (SD=3) kg/m2; FEV1/FVC: 0.9 (SD=0.1)] performed 5 sniff maneuvers in two different moments: with or without instruction on diaphC. Before the first maneuver, a brief explanation was given to the subjects on how to perform the sniff test. For sniff test with diaphC, subjects were instructed to perform intense diaphragm activation. The best SNIP and MRR values were used for analysis. MRR was calculated as the ratio of first derivative of pressure over time (dP/dtmax) and were normalized by dividing it by peak pressure (SNIP) from the same maneuver. RESULTS: SNIP values were significantly different in maneuvers with and without diaphC [without diaphC: -100 (SD=27.1) cmH2O/ with diaphC: -72.8 (SD=22.3) cmH2O; p<0.0001], normalized MRR values were not statistically different [without diaphC: -9.7 (SD=2.6); with diaphC: -8.9 (SD=1.5); p=0.19]. Without diaphC, 40% of the sample did not reach the appropriate sniff criteria found in the literature. CONCLUSION: Diaphragmatic control performed during SNIP test influences obtained inspiratory pressure, being lower when diaphC is performed. However, there was no influence on normalized MRR. PMID:26578254

  18. Influence of jet thrust on penetrator penetration when studying the structure of space object blanket

    N. A. Fedorova


    Full Text Available The article presents the calculation-and-theory-based research results to examine the possibility for using the jet thrust impulse to increase a penetration depth of high-velocity penetrator modules. Such devices can be used for studies of Earth surface layer composition, and in the nearest future for other Solar system bodies too. Research equipment (sensors and different instruments is housed inside a metal body of the penetrator with a sharpened nose that decreases drag force in soil. It was assumed, that this penetrator is additionally equipped with the pulse jet engine, which is fired at a certain stage of penetrator motion into target.The penetrator is considered as a rigid body of variable mass, which is subjected to drag force and reactive force applied at the moment the engine fires. A drag force was represented with a binomial empirical law, and penetrator nose part was considered to be conical. The jet thrust force was supposed to be constant during its application time. It was in accordance with assumption that mass flow and flow rate of solid propellant combustion products were constant. The amount of propellant in the penetrator was characterized by Tsiolkovsky number Z, which specifies the ratio between the fuel mass and the penetrator structure mass with no fuel.The system of equations to describe the penetrator dynamics was given in dimensionless form using the values aligned with penetration of an equivalent inert penetrator as the time and penetration depth scales. Penetration dynamics of penetrator represented in this form allowed to eliminate the influence of penetrator initial mass and its cross-section diameter on the solution results. The lack of such dependency is convenient for comparing the calculation results since they hold for penetrators of various initial masses and cross-sections.To calculate the penetration a lunar regolith was taken as a soil material. Calculations were carried out for initial velocities of

  19. Observation on Sperm Penetration Rate of Infertile Men with Varicocele at 1.5 to 2 Years after Varicolectomy

    梁蔚波; 朱伟杰; 苏泽轩


    Objective To observe the sperm penetration rate among treated but "unsuccessful"infertile men with varicoceleMaterial & Methods Twenty nine infertile males with Ⅱ°(n=17) or Ⅲ°(n= 12)varicocele were enrolled into this study. They underwent a varicolectomy, but theirspouses had not achieved a pregnancy after 1.5~ 2 years of treatment. The spermzona-free hamster oocyte penetration assay (SPA) was used to compare the spermpenetration rate (PR) before treatment and 1. 5~2 years after treatment.Results After varicolectomy, enhanced PR were observed in 7 cases of the Ⅱ°groupand in 1 case of the Ⅲ°group. However, the PR values of these 8 cases were stillbelow 20% PR-level.Conclusion Among the treated but "unsuccessful" men, some patients could obtainimprovements on PR after varicolectomy. But PRs of men with Ⅲ°grade varicelewould still remain a low PR-level which indicate varicolectomy is ineffective inincreasing PR among part of sever varicocele patients. SPA is a useful test forevaluating the fertilizing potential of treated infertile males with varicocele.

  20. Utilizing partial least square and support vector machine for TBM penetration rate prediction in hard rock conditions

    高栗; 李夕兵


    Rate of penetration (ROP) of a tunnel boring machine (TBM) in a rock environment is generally a key parameter for the successful accomplishment of a tunneling project. The objectives of this work are to compare the accuracy of prediction models employing partial least squares (PLS) regression and support vector machine (SVM) regression technique for modeling the penetration rate of TBM. To develop the proposed models, the database that is composed of intact rock properties including uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), Brazilian tensile strength (BTS), and peak slope index (PSI), and also rock mass properties including distance between planes of weakness (DPW) and the alpha angle (α) are input as dependent variables and the measured ROP is chosen as an independent variable. Two hundred sets of data are collected from Queens Water Tunnel and Karaj−Tehran water transfer tunnel TBM project. The accuracy of the prediction models is measured by the coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean squares error (RMSE) between predicted and observed yield employing 10-fold cross-validation schemes. The R2 and RMSE of prediction are 0.8183 and 0.1807 for SVMR method, and 0.9999 and 0.0011 for PLS method, respectively. Comparison between the values of statistical parameters reveals the superiority of the PLSR model over SVMR one.

  1. Microbial Penetration through Nutrient-Saturated Berea Sandstone.

    Jenneman, G E; McInerney, M J; Knapp, R M


    Penetration times and penetration rates for a motile Bacillus strain growing in nutrient-saturated Berea sandstone cores were determined. The rate of penetration was essentially independent of permeabilities above 100 mdarcys and rapidly declined for permeabilities below 100 mdarcys. It was found that these penetration rates could be grouped into two statistically distinct classes consisting of rates for permeabilities above 100 mdarcys and rates for those below 100 mdarcys. Instantaneous penetration rates were found to be zero order with respect to core length for cores with permeabilities above 100 mdarcys and first order with respect to core length for cores with permeabilities below 100 mdarcys. The maximum observed penetration rate was 0.47 cm . h, and the slowest was 0.06 cm . h; however, these rates may be underestimates of the true penetration rate, since the observed rates included the time required for growth in the flask as well as the core. The relationship of penetration time to the square of the length of the core suggested that cells penetrated high-permeability cores as a band and low-permeability cores in a diffuse fashion. The motile Enterobacter aerogenes strain penetrated Berea sandstone cores three to eight times faster than did the nonmotile Klebsiella pneumoniae strain when cores of comparable length and permeability were used. A penetration mechanism based entirely on motility predicted penetration times that were in agreement with the observed penetration times for motile strains. The fact that nonmotile strains penetrated the cores suggested that filamentous or unrestricted growth, or both, may also be important.

  2. Optimum poultry litter rates for maximum profit vs. yield in cotton production

    Cotton lint yield responds well to increasing rates of poultry litter fertilization, but little is known of how optimum rates for yield compare with optimum rates for profit. The objectives of this study were to analyze cotton lint yield response to poultry litter application rates, determine and co...

  3. Rate of strong consistency of the maximum quasi-likelihood estimator in quasi-likelihood nonlinear models


    Quasi-likelihood nonlinear models (QLNM) include generalized linear models as a special case.Under some regularity conditions,the rate of the strong consistency of the maximum quasi-likelihood estimation (MQLE) is obtained in QLNM.In an important case,this rate is O(n-1/2(loglogn)1/2),which is just the rate of LIL of partial sums for I.I.d variables,and thus cannot be improved anymore.

  4. On the maximum rate of change in sunspot number growth and the size of the sunspot cycle

    Wilson, Robert M.


    Statistically significant correlations exist between the size (maximum amplitude) of the sunspot cycle and, especially, the maximum value of the rate of rise during the ascending portion of the sunspot cycle, where the rate of rise is computed either as the difference in the month-to-month smoothed sunspot number values or as the 'average rate of growth' in smoothed sunspot number from sunspot minimum. Based on the observed values of these quantities (equal to 10.6 and 4.63, respectively) as of early 1989, it is inferred that cycle 22's maximum amplitude will be about 175 + or - 30 or 185 + or - 10, respectively, where the error bars represent approximately twice the average error found during cycles 10-21 from the two fits.

  5. Utility rates and service policies as potential barriers to the market penetration of decentralized solar technologies

    Feuerstein, R. J.


    At present, economic and institutional concerns dictate that decentralized solar technologies generally require an auxiliary energy source to assure continuous service through periods of adverse weather. Utility rates and service policies regarding auxiliary energy service have a significant impact upon solar system economics, and thus the commercialization of solar energy. The scope of this paper evaluates three basic issues: (1) whether a utility can refuse to provide auxiliary service to solar users, (2) whether a utility can charge higher or lower than traditional rates for auxiliary service, and (3) whether a utility can refuse to purchase excess power generated by small power producers utilizing electricity-producing solar technologies. It appears that a utility cannot refuse to provide auxiliary service to a solar user unless the company can demonstrate that to provide such service, substantial harm would result to its existing customers. Statutes or case decisions also provide that utilities cannot unreasonably discriminate in rates charged to customers for the same service under like conditions. The ability of a utility to provide solar users lower than traditional rates may depend upon the jurisdiction's view of promotional rates. 681 references.

  6. The Optimum Plate to Plate Spacing for Maximum Heat Transfer Rate from a Flat Plate Type Heat Exchanger

    Ambarita, Himsar; Kishinami, Koki; Daimaruya, Mashashi; Tokura, Ikuo; Kawai, Hideki; Suzuki, Jun; Kobiyama, Mashayosi; Ginting, Armansyah

    The present paper is a study on the optimum plate to plate spacing for maximum heat transfer rate from a flat plate type heat exchanger. The heat exchanger consists of a number of parallel flat plates. The working fluids are flowed at the same operational conditions, either fixed pressure head or fixed fan power input. Parallel and counter flow directions of the working fluids were considered. While the volume of the heat exchanger is kept constant, plate number was varied. Hence, the spacing between plates as well as heat transfer rate will vary and there exists a maximum heat transfer rate. The objective of this paper is to seek the optimum plate to plate spacing for maximum heat transfer rate. In order to solve the problem, analytical and numerical solutions have been carried out. In the analytical solution, the correlations of the optimum plate to plate spacing as a function of the non-dimensional parameters were developed. Furthermore, the numerical simulation is carried out to evaluate the correlations. The results show that the optimum plate to plate spacing for a counter flow heat exchanger is smaller than parallel flow ones. On the other hand, the maximum heat transfer rate for a counter flow heat exchanger is bigger than parallel flow ones.

  7. Stable Dispersed MoS2 Nanosheets in Liquid Lubricant with Enhanced Rate of Penetration for Directional Well

    Fuwei Lu


    Full Text Available MoS2 nanosheets of approx. 100 nm were synthesized by a reverse microemulsion route firstly, then were annealed under nitrogen atmosphere, and were finally modified with 1-dodecanethiol. The prepared MoS2 nanosheets were characterized by XRD, TEM, FTIR, and so forth. Experimental results show that MoS2 nanosheets with the typical layer structure can be easily dispersed in oil lubricant for rate of penetration (ROP increasing in directional well. The ROP of directional well with the prepared liquid lubricant was 52.9% higher than that of the similar directional wells at least, and the drilling velocity was increased 20% while the total proportion of lubricant in drilling fluid was 1.5%.

  8. Maximum Acceptable Vibrato Excursion as a Function of Vibrato Rate in Musicians and Non-musicians

    Vatti, Marianna; Santurette, Sébastien; Pontoppidan, Niels H.

    and, in most listeners, exhibited a peak at medium vibrato rates (5–7 Hz). Large across-subject variability was observed, and no significant effect of musical experience was found. Overall, most listeners were not solely sensitive to the vibrato excursion and there was a listener-dependent rate...

  9. Maximum Acceptable Vibrato Excursion as a Function of Vibrato Rate in Musicians and Non-musicians

    Vatti, Marianna; Santurette, Sébastien; Pontoppidan, Niels H.


    and, in most listeners, exhibited a peak at medium vibrato rates (5–7 Hz). Large across-subject variability was observed, and no significant effect of musical experience was found. Overall, most listeners were not solely sensitive to the vibrato excursion and there was a listener-dependent rate...

  10. 7 CFR 1.187 - Rulemaking on maximum rates for attorney fees.


    ... the types of proceedings in which the rate should be used. It also should explain fully the reasons... certain types of proceedings), the Department may adopt regulations providing that attorney fees may be awarded at a rate higher than $125 per hour in some or all of the types of proceedings covered by...

  11. Maximum likelihood methods for investigating reporting rates of rings on hunter-shot birds

    Conroy, M.J.; Morgan, B.J.T.; North, P.M.


    It is well known that hunters do not report 100% of the rings that they find on shot birds. Reward studies can be used to estimate what this reporting rate is, by comparison of recoveries of rings offering a monetary reward, to ordinary rings. A reward study of American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) is used to illustrate the design, and to motivate the development of statistical models for estimation and for testing hypotheses of temporal and geographic variation in reporting rates. The method involves indexing the data (recoveries) and parameters (reporting, harvest, and solicitation rates) by geographic and temporal strata. Estimates are obtained under unconstrained (e.g., allowing temporal variability in reporting rates) and constrained (e.g., constant reporting rates) models, and hypotheses are tested by likelihood ratio. A FORTRAN program, available from the author, is used to perform the computations.

  12. Rate of strong consistency of quasi maximum likelihood estimate in generalized linear models


    [1]McCullagh, P., Nelder, J. A., Generalized Linear Models, New York: Chapman and Hall, 1989.[2]Wedderbum, R. W. M., Quasi-likelihood functions, generalized linear models and Gauss-Newton method,Biometrika, 1974, 61:439-447.[3]Fahrmeir, L., Maximum likelihood estimation in misspecified generalized linear models, Statistics, 1990, 21:487-502.[4]Fahrmeir, L., Kaufmann, H., Consistency and asymptotic normality of the maximum likelihood estimator in generalized linear models, Ann. Statist., 1985, 13: 342-368.[5]Melder, J. A., Pregibon, D., An extended quasi-likelihood function, Biometrika, 1987, 74: 221-232.[6]Bennet, G., Probability inequalities for the sum of independent random variables, JASA, 1962, 57: 33-45.[7]Stout, W. F., Almost Sure Convergence, New York:Academic Press, 1974.[8]Petrov, V, V., Sums of Independent Random Variables, Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1975.

  13. 电压偏差和谐波约束下配网光伏最大渗透率评估%Maximum photovoltaic penetration considering voltage deviation and harmonic constraints

    黄巍; 吴俊勇; 鲁思棋; 郝亮亮


    针对多个三相不平衡配电网络,在不同位置接入分布式光伏,运用OpenDSS软件计算了分布式光伏接入配网后节点电压偏差及谐波电压畸变率。根据ANSI C84.1-2006稳态电压标准以及IEEE519-1992谐波标准对电压偏差和谐波电压畸变率进行约束,得出不同位置下稳态电压偏差和谐波约束下分布式光伏的最大渗透率,同时分析了线路调压器及光伏接入点短路容量与光伏渗透率的关系。研究结果表明,光伏渗透率与具体配电网的拓扑结构和线路参数相关,光伏接入点越靠近馈线首端,渗透率越大。同时考虑电压偏差和谐波约束下光伏渗透率至少能达到20%,并且使线路调压器与其下游接入的光伏发电功率协调配合也可显著提高光伏的渗透率。%This paper interconnects distributed photovoltaic with several PV location scenarios for several unbalanced distribution system, and calculates the steady state voltage and voltage harmonic distortion with power flow program. Various levels of photovoltaic penetration are presented under the voltage constraints in the ANSI C84.1-2006 standard and the voltage harmonic distortion constraints in the IEEE519-1992 standard with several PV location scenarios. And with the simulation results of different output and different location scenarios of PV, the relationship between SVR and short circuit capacity and photovoltaic penetration is analyzed. The result of simulation shows that the penetration of photovoltaic is related with the line parameters of actual system. The closer the location of photovoltaic to the feeder source, the larger the penetration will be. For the cases considering the voltage and harmonic limits simulated, maximum photovoltaic penetration will be at least 20% of peak load, and with the coordination between SVR and the downstream PV system, the penetration of PV will be increased significantly.

  14. Maximum growth rate of Mycobacterium avium in continuous culture or chronically infected BALB/c mice.

    McCarthy, C M; Taylor, M A; Dennis, M W


    Mycobacterium avium is a human pathogen which may cause either chronic or disseminated disease and the organism exhibits a slow rate of growth. This study provides information on the growth rate of the organism in chronically infected mice and its maximal growth rate in vitro. M. avium was grown in continuous culture, limited for nitrogen with 0.5 mM ammonium chloride and dilution rates that ranged from 0.054 to 0.153 h-1. The steady-state concentration of ammonia nitrogen and M. avium cells for each dilution rate were determined. The bacterial saturation constant for growth-limiting ammonia was 0.29 mM (4 micrograms nitrogen/ml) and, from this, the maximal growth rate for M. avium was estimated to be 0.206 h-1 or a doubling time of 3.4 h. BALB/c mice were infected intravenously with 3 x 10(6) colony-forming units and a chronic infection resulted, typical of virulent M. avium strains. During a period of 3 months, the number of mycobacteria remained constant in the lungs, but increased 30-fold and 8,900-fold, respectively, in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. The latter increase appeared to be due to proliferation in situ. The generation time of M. avium in the mesenteric lymph nodes was estimated to be 7 days.

  15. Comparing maximum rate and sustainability of pacing by mechanical vs. electrical stimulation in the Langendorff-perfused rabbit heart.

    Quinn, T Alexander; Kohl, Peter


    Mechanical stimulation (MS) represents a readily available, non-invasive means of pacing the asystolic or bradycardic heart in patients, but benefits of MS at higher heart rates are unclear. Our aim was to assess the maximum rate and sustainability of excitation by MS vs. electrical stimulation (ES) in the isolated heart under normal physiological conditions. Trains of local MS or ES at rates exceeding intrinsic sinus rhythm (overdrive pacing; lowest pacing rates 2.5±0.5 Hz) were applied to the same mid-left ventricular free-wall site on the epicardium of Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts. Stimulation rates were progressively increased, with a recovery period of normal sinus rhythm between each stimulation period. Trains of MS caused repeated focal ventricular excitation from the site of stimulation. The maximum rate at which MS achieved 1:1 capture was lower than during ES (4.2±0.2 vs. 5.9±0.2 Hz, respectively). At all overdrive pacing rates for which repetitive MS was possible, 1:1 capture was reversibly lost after a finite number of cycles, even though same-site capture by ES remained possible. The number of MS cycles until loss of capture decreased with rising stimulation rate. If interspersed with ES, the number of MS to failure of capture was lower than for MS only. In this study, we demonstrate that the maximum pacing rate at which MS can be sustained is lower than that for same-site ES in isolated heart, and that, in contrast to ES, the sustainability of successful 1:1 capture by MS is limited. The mechanism(s) of differences in MS vs. ES pacing ability, potentially important for emergency heart rhythm management, are currently unknown, thus warranting further investigation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  16. Stochastic Rating of Storage Systems in Isolated Networks with Increasing Wave Energy Penetration

    Elisabetta Tedeschi


    Full Text Available The future success of wave energy in the renewable energy mix depends on the technical advancements of the specific components and systems, on the grid access availability and, ultimately, on the economical profitability of the investment. Small and remote islands represent an ideal framework for wave energy exploitation, due both to resource availability and to the current high cost of electricity that mostly relies on diesel generation. Energy storage can be the enabling technology to match the intermittent power generation from waves to the energy needs of the local community. In this paper real data from La Palma, in the Canary Islands, are used as a basis for the considered test case. As a first step the study quantifies the expected power production from Wave Energy Converter (WEC arrays, based on data from the Lifesaver point absorber developed by Fred. Olsen. Then, a stochastic optimization approach is applied to evaluate the convenience of energy storage introduction for reducing the final cost of energy and to define the corresponding optimal rating of the storage devices.

  17. Stream depletion rate for a radial collector well in an unconfined aquifer near a fully penetrating river

    Maroney, Cynthia L.; Rehmann, Chris R.


    The stream depletion rate (SDR) is computed for a radial collector well installed in a semi-infinite, anisotropic, homogeneous, unconfined aquifer near a fully penetrating stream with a streambed with reduced conductivity. For small pumping rates dimensional analysis and other arguments allow the SDR to be expressed as a function of eight parameters that describe the effect of properties of the aquifer and streambed as well as the configuration and placement of the well. The calculations employ some results from Huang et al. (2012, J. Hydrol.), who expressed the SDR as a quintuple integral, but by computing four of the integrals analytically, the present solution requires less computational effort. Analytical calculation shows that the SDR in steady state does not depend on the streambed properties (or any other parameters): Given enough time, the flow through the streambed will equal the pumping rate of the well. Values of SDR are supported by comparing to previous solutions for special cases corresponding to appropriate limiting values of the parameters. Effects of the eight dimensionless parameters are studied systematically: The properties of the streambed, anisotropy of the aquifer, and the position of the well affect the SDR more strongly than the orientation, length, and depth of the laterals.

  18. Maximum Rate of Growth of Enstrophy in Solutions of the Fractional Burgers Equation

    Yun, Dongfang


    This investigation is a part of a research program aiming to characterize the extreme behavior possible in hydrodynamic models by probing the sharpness of estimates on the growth of certain fundamental quantities. We consider here the rate of growth of the classical and fractional enstrophy in the fractional Burgers equation in the subcritical, critical and supercritical regime. First, we obtain estimates on these rates of growth and then show that these estimates are sharp up to numerical prefactors. In particular, we conclude that the power-law dependence of the enstrophy rate of growth on the fractional dissipation exponent has the same global form in the subcritical, critical and parts of the supercritical regime. This is done by numerically solving suitably defined constrained maximization problems and then demonstrating that for different values of the fractional dissipation exponent the obtained maximizers saturate the upper bounds in the estimates as the enstrophy increases. In addition, nontrivial be...

  19. Rate of strong consistency of quasi maximum likelihood estimate in generalized linear models

    YUE Li; CHEN Xiru


    Under the assumption that in the generalized linear model (GLM) the expectation of the response variable has a correct specification and some other smooth conditions,it is shown that with probability one the quasi-likelihood equation for the GLM has a solution when the sample size n is sufficiently large. The rate of this solution tending to the true value is determined. In an important special case, this rate is the same as specified in the LIL for iid partial sums and thus cannot be improved anymore.

  20. Allometric equations for maximum filtration rate in blue mussels Mytilus edulis and importance of condition index

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Pleissner, Daniel


    rate (F, l h-1), W (g), and L (mm) as described by the equations: FW = aWb and FL = cLd, respectively. This is done by using available and new experimental laboratory data on M. edulis obtained by members of the same research team using different methods and controlled diets of cultivated algal cells...

  1. Maximum organic loading rate for the single-stage wet anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    Nagao, Norio; Tajima, Nobuyuki; Kawai, Minako; Niwa, Chiaki; Kurosawa, Norio; Matsuyama, Tatsushi; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Toda, Tatsuki


    Anaerobic digestion of food waste was conducted at high OLR from 3.7 to 12.9 kg-VS m(-3) day(-1) for 225 days. Periods without organic loading were arranged between the each loading period. Stable operation at an OLR of 9.2 kg-VS (15.0 kg-COD) m(-3) day(-1) was achieved with a high VS reduction (91.8%) and high methane yield (455 mL g-VS-1). The cell density increased in the periods without organic loading, and reached to 10.9×10(10) cells mL(-1) on day 187, which was around 15 times higher than that of the seed sludge. There was a significant correlation between OLR and saturated TSS in the sludge (y=17.3e(0.1679×), r(2)=0.996, P<0.05). A theoretical maximum OLR of 10.5 kg-VS (17.0 kg-COD) m(-3) day(-1) was obtained for mesophilic single-stage wet anaerobic digestion that is able to maintain a stable operation with high methane yield and VS reduction.

  2. Validity of heart rate based nomogram fors estimation of maximum oxygen uptake in Indian population.

    Kumar, S Krishna; Khare, P; Jaryal, A K; Talwar, A


    Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) during a graded maximal exercise test is the objective method to assess cardiorespiratory fitness. Maximal oxygen uptake testing is limited to only a few laboratories as it requires trained personnel and strenuous effort by the subject. At the population level, submaximal tests have been developed to derive VO2max indirectly based on heart rate based nomograms or it can be calculated using anthropometric measures. These heart rate based predicted standards have been developed for western population and are used routinely to predict VO2max in Indian population. In the present study VO2max was directly measured by maximal exercise test using a bicycle ergometer and was compared with VO2max derived by recovery heart rate in Queen's College step test (QCST) (PVO2max I) and with VO2max derived from Wasserman equation based on anthropometric parameters and age (PVO2max II) in a well defined age group of healthy male adults from New Delhi. The values of directly measured VO2max showed no significant correlation either with the estimated VO2max with QCST or with VO2max predicted by Wasserman equation. Bland and Altman method of approach for limit of agreement between VO2max and PVO2max I or PVO2max II revealed that the limits of agreement between directly measured VO2max and PVO2max I or PVO2max II was large indicating inapplicability of prediction equations of western population in the population under study. Thus it is evident that there is an urgent need to develop nomogram for Indian population, may be even for different ethnic sub-population in the country.

  3. Longitudinal Examination of Age-Predicted Symptom-Limited Exercise Maximum Heart Rate

    Zhu, Na; Suarez, Jose; Sidney, Steve; Sternfeld, Barbara; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Lewis, Cora E.; Crow, Richard S.; Bouchard, Claude; Haskell, William; Jacobs, David R.


    Purpose To estimate the association of age with maximal heart rate (MHR). Methods Data were obtained in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Participants were black and white men and women aged 18-30 in 1985-86 (year 0). A symptom-limited maximal graded exercise test was completed at years 0, 7, and 20 by 4969, 2583, and 2870 participants, respectively. After exclusion 9622 eligible tests remained. Results In all 9622 tests, estimated MHR (eMHR, beats/minute) had a quadratic relation to age in the age range 18 to 50 years, eMHR=179+0.29*age-0.011*age2. The age-MHR association was approximately linear in the restricted age ranges of consecutive tests. In 2215 people who completed both year 0 and 7 tests (age range 18 to 37), eMHR=189–0.35*age; and in 1574 people who completed both year 7 and 20 tests (age range 25 to 50), eMHR=199–0.63*age. In the lowest baseline BMI quartile, the rate of decline was 0.20 beats/minute/year between years 0-7 and 0.51 beats/minute/year between years 7-20; while in the highest baseline BMI quartile there was a linear rate of decline of approximately 0.7 beats/minute/year over the full age of 18 to 50 years. Conclusion Clinicians making exercise prescriptions should be aware that the loss of symptom-limited MHR is much slower at young adulthood and more pronounced in later adulthood. In particular, MHR loss is very slow in those with lowest BMI below age 40. PMID:20639723

  4. Maximum Likelihood based comparison of the specific growth rates for P. aeruginosa and four mutator strains

    Philipsen, Kirsten Riber; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Mandsberg, Lotte Frigaard


    with an exponentially decaying function of the time between observations is suggested. A model with a full covariance structure containing OD-dependent variance and an autocorrelation structure is compared to a model with variance only and with no variance or correlation implemented. It is shown that the model...... are used for parameter estimation. The data is log-transformed such that a linear model can be applied. The transformation changes the variance structure, and hence an OD-dependent variance is implemented in the model. The autocorrelation in the data is demonstrated, and a correlation model...... that best describes data is a model taking into account the full covariance structure. An inference study is made in order to determine whether the growth rate of the five bacteria strains is the same. After applying a likelihood-ratio test to models with a full covariance structure, it is concluded...

  5. Maximum type I error rate inflation from sample size reassessment when investigators are blind to treatment labels.

    Żebrowska, Magdalena; Posch, Martin; Magirr, Dominic


    Consider a parallel group trial for the comparison of an experimental treatment to a control, where the second-stage sample size may depend on the blinded primary endpoint data as well as on additional blinded data from a secondary endpoint. For the setting of normally distributed endpoints, we demonstrate that this may lead to an inflation of the type I error rate if the null hypothesis holds for the primary but not the secondary endpoint. We derive upper bounds for the inflation of the type I error rate, both for trials that employ random allocation and for those that use block randomization. We illustrate the worst-case sample size reassessment rule in a case study. For both randomization strategies, the maximum type I error rate increases with the effect size in the secondary endpoint and the correlation between endpoints. The maximum inflation increases with smaller block sizes if information on the block size is used in the reassessment rule. Based on our findings, we do not question the well-established use of blinded sample size reassessment methods with nuisance parameter estimates computed from the blinded interim data of the primary endpoint. However, we demonstrate that the type I error rate control of these methods relies on the application of specific, binding, pre-planned and fully algorithmic sample size reassessment rules and does not extend to general or unplanned sample size adjustments based on blinded data. © 2015 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. 基于遗传算法的多个光伏电源极限功率计算%Calculation of Maximum Penetration Level of Multi PV Generation Systems Based on Genetic Algorithm

    丁明; 刘盛


    The random fluctuation and Intermittency of photovoltaic (PV) generation system bring obvious affection on power grid. The higher the capacity of PV generation system, the more obvious the affection will be. A genetic algorithm (GA) based approach for the calculation of maximum penetration level of multi PV generations simultaneously connected to distribution network is proposed. In the proposed approach, the abrupt change of output of PV generations in distribution network and the condition that on-load tap changer (OLTC) and shunt capacitor participate in voltage regulation are taken into account. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, IEEE 33-bus test system is taken for example and calculation results show that the network-connected positions of PV generations, load level of the test system and power factors of PV generations evidently affect the maximum penetration level of multi PV generations.%  光伏电站出力具有随机波动性和间歇性,给电网带来很大的影响,且容量越大,影响越显著。提出了基于遗传算法求解多个光伏电源同时接入配电网的极限功率的计算方法。该方法考虑了配电网中光伏电源出力突变以及有载调压变压器和并联电容器参与调压的情况。以IEEE33测试系统为例,分析了光伏电源接入位置、电网负荷水平以及光伏电源功率因数对极限功率的影响,验证了该方法的有效性。

  7. Scaling of resting and maximum hopping metabolic rate throughout the life cycle of the locust Locusta migratoria.

    Snelling, Edward P; Seymour, Roger S; Matthews, Philip G D; Runciman, Sue; White, Craig R


    The hemimetabolous migratory locust Locusta migratoria progresses through five instars to the adult, increasing in size from 0.02 to 0.95 g, a 45-fold change. Hopping locomotion occurs at all life stages and is supported by aerobic metabolism and provision of oxygen through the tracheal system. This allometric study investigates the effect of body mass (Mb) on oxygen consumption rate (MO2, μmol h(-1)) to establish resting metabolic rate (MRO2), maximum metabolic rate during hopping (MMO2) and maximum metabolic rate of the hopping muscles (MMO2,hop) in first instar, third instar, fifth instar and adult locusts. Oxygen consumption rates increased throughout development according to the allometric equations MRO2=30.1Mb(0.83±0.02), MMO2=155Mb(1.01±0.02), MMO2,hop=120Mb(1.07±0.02) and, if adults are excluded, MMO2,juv=136Mb(0.97±0.02) and MMO2,juv,hop=103Mb(1.02±0.02). Increasing body mass by 20-45% with attached weights did not increase mass-specific MMO2 significantly at any life stage, although mean mass-specific hopping MO2 was slightly higher (ca. 8%) when juvenile data were pooled. The allometric exponents for all measures of metabolic rate are much greater than 0.75, and therefore do not support West, Brown and Enquist’s optimised fractal network model, which predicts that metabolism scales with a 3⁄4-power exponent owing to limitations in the rate at which resources can be transported within the body.

  8. ReplacementMatrix: a web server for maximum-likelihood estimation of amino acid replacement rate matrices.

    Dang, Cuong Cao; Lefort, Vincent; Le, Vinh Sy; Le, Quang Si; Gascuel, Olivier


    Amino acid replacement rate matrices are an essential basis of protein studies (e.g. in phylogenetics and alignment). A number of general purpose matrices have been proposed (e.g. JTT, WAG, LG) since the seminal work of Margaret Dayhoff and co-workers. However, it has been shown that matrices specific to certain protein groups (e.g. mitochondrial) or life domains (e.g. viruses) differ significantly from general average matrices, and thus perform better when applied to the data to which they are dedicated. This Web server implements the maximum-likelihood estimation procedure that was used to estimate LG, and provides a number of tools and facilities. Users upload a set of multiple protein alignments from their domain of interest and receive the resulting matrix by email, along with statistics and comparisons with other matrices. A non-parametric bootstrap is performed optionally to assess the variability of replacement rate estimates. Maximum-likelihood trees, inferred using the estimated rate matrix, are also computed optionally for each input alignment. Finely tuned procedures and up-to-date ML software (PhyML 3.0, XRATE) are combined to perform all these heavy calculations on our clusters. Supplementary data are available at

  9. Relationship between silent atrial fibrillation and the maximum heart rate in the 24-hour Holter: cross-sectional study.

    Kruse, Marcelo Lapa; Kruse, José Cláudio Lupi; Leiria, Tiago Luiz Luz; Pires, Leonardo Martins; Gensas, Caroline Saltz; Gomes, Daniel Garcia; Boris, Douglas; Mantovani, Augusto; Lima, Gustavo Glotz de


    Occurrences of asymptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) are common. It is important to identify AF because it increases morbidity and mortality. 24-hour Holter has been used to detect paroxysmal AF (PAF). The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between occurrence of PAF in 24-hour Holter and the symptoms of the population studied. Cross-sectional study conducted at a cardiology hospital. 11,321 consecutive 24-hour Holter tests performed at a referral service were analyzed. Patients with pacemakers or with AF throughout the recording were excluded. There were 75 tests (0.67%) with PAF. The mean age was 67 ± 13 years and 45% were female. The heart rate (HR) over the 24 hours was a minimum of 45 ± 8 bpm, mean of 74 ± 17 bpm and maximum of 151 ± 32 bpm. Among the tests showing PAF, only 26% had symptoms. The only factor tested that showed a correlation with symptomatic AF was maximum HR (165 ± 34 versus 147 ± 30 bpm) (P = 0.03). Use of beta blockers had a protective effect against occurrence of PAF symptoms (odds ratio: 0.24, P = 0.031). PAF is a rare event in 24-hour Holter. The maximum HR during the 24 hours was the only factor correlated with symptomatic AF, and use of beta blockers had a protective effect against AF symptom occurrence.

  10. Comparative Study of Peak Expiratory Flow Rate and Maximum Voluntary Ventilation Between Smokers and Non-Smokers

    Karia Ritesh M


    Full Text Available Objective: Objectives of this study is to study effect of smoking on Peak Expiratory Flow Rate and Maximum Voluntary Ventilation in apparently healthy tobacco smokers and non-smokers and to compare the result of both the studies to assess the effects of smoking Method: The present study was carried out by computerized software of Pulmonary Function Test named ‘Spiro Excel’ on 50 non-smokers and 50 smokers. Smokers are divided in three gropus. Full series of test take 4 to 5 minutes. Tests were compared in the both smokers and non-smokers group by the ‘unpaired t test’. Statistical significance was indicated by ‘p’ value < 0.05. Results: From the result it is found that actual value of Peak Expiratory Flow Rate and Maximum Voluntary Ventilation are significantly lower in all smokers group than non-smokers. The difference of actual mean value is increases as the degree of smoking increases. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(2.000: 191-193

  11. The differential effect of metabolic alkalosis on maximum force and rate of force development during repeated, high-intensity cycling.

    Siegler, Jason C; Marshall, Paul W M; Raftry, Sean; Brooks, Cristy; Dowswell, Ben; Romero, Rick; Green, Simon


    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on maximal force production, rate of force development (RFD), and muscle recruitment during repeated bouts of high-intensity cycling. Ten male and female (n = 10) subjects completed two fixed-cadence, high-intensity cycling trials. Each trial consisted of a series of 30-s efforts at 120% peak power output (maximum graded test) that were interspersed with 30-s recovery periods until task failure. Prior to each trial, subjects consumed 0.3 g/kg sodium bicarbonate (ALK) or placebo (PLA). Maximal voluntary contractions were performed immediately after each 30-s effort. Maximal force (F max) was calculated as the greatest force recorded over a 25-ms period throughout the entire contraction duration while maximal RFD (RFD max) was calculated as the greatest 10-ms average slope throughout that same contraction. F max declined similarly in both the ALK and PLA conditions, with baseline values (ALK: 1,226 ± 393 N; PLA: 1,222 ± 369 N) declining nearly 295 ± 54 N [95% confidence interval (CI) = 84-508 N; P force vs. maximum rate of force development during a whole body fatiguing task.

  12. Depressed pacemaker activity of sinoatrial node myocytes contributes to the age-dependent decline in maximum heart rate

    Larson, Eric D.; St. Clair, Joshua R.; Sumner, Whitney A.; Bannister, Roger A.; Proenza, Cathy


    An inexorable decline in maximum heart rate (mHR) progressively limits human aerobic capacity with advancing age. This decrease in mHR results from an age-dependent reduction in “intrinsic heart rate” (iHR), which is measured during autonomic blockade. The reduced iHR indicates, by definition, that pacemaker function of the sinoatrial node is compromised during aging. However, little is known about the properties of pacemaker myocytes in the aged sinoatrial node. Here, we show that depressed excitability of individual sinoatrial node myocytes (SAMs) contributes to reductions in heart rate with advancing age. We found that age-dependent declines in mHR and iHR in ECG recordings from mice were paralleled by declines in spontaneous action potential (AP) firing rates (FRs) in patch-clamp recordings from acutely isolated SAMs. The slower FR of aged SAMs resulted from changes in the AP waveform that were limited to hyperpolarization of the maximum diastolic potential and slowing of the early part of the diastolic depolarization. These AP waveform changes were associated with cellular hypertrophy, reduced current densities for L- and T-type Ca2+ currents and the “funny current” (If), and a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of If. The age-dependent reduction in sinoatrial node function was not associated with changes in β-adrenergic responsiveness, which was preserved during aging for heart rate, SAM FR, L- and T-type Ca2+ currents, and If. Our results indicate that depressed excitability of individual SAMs due to altered ion channel activity contributes to the decline in mHR, and thus aerobic capacity, during normal aging. PMID:24128759

  13. Error Rates of the Maximum-Likelihood Detector for Arbitrary Constellations: Convex/Concave Behavior and Applications

    Loyka, Sergey; Gagnon, Francois


    Motivated by a recent surge of interest in convex optimization techniques, convexity/concavity properties of error rates of the maximum likelihood detector operating in the AWGN channel are studied and extended to frequency-flat slow-fading channels. Generic conditions are identified under which the symbol error rate (SER) is convex/concave for arbitrary multi-dimensional constellations. In particular, the SER is convex in SNR for any one- and two-dimensional constellation, and also in higher dimensions at high SNR. Pairwise error probability and bit error rate are shown to be convex at high SNR, for arbitrary constellations and bit mapping. Universal bounds for the SER 1st and 2nd derivatives are obtained, which hold for arbitrary constellations and are tight for some of them. Applications of the results are discussed, which include optimum power allocation in spatial multiplexing systems, optimum power/time sharing to decrease or increase (jamming problem) error rate, an implication for fading channels ("fa...

  14. A novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging method for measuring the water front penetration rate in hydrophilic polymer matrix capsule plugs and its role in drug release.

    Ashraf, M; Iuorno, V L; Coffin-Beach, D; Evans, C A; Augsburger, L L


    An NMR imaging method was developed to estimate the rate of water movement in slow-release capsule matrices of pseudoephdrine HCl and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC). Test capsules were first placed in a USP method 2 (paddles, 50 rpm) dissolution apparatus. Each plug was removed from the dissolution medium at predetermined times, blotted dry, and placed within the magnetic field of a General Electric 400-MHz wide-bore NMR spectrometer equipped with a microimaging accessory. Images were recorded along the transverse plane of each plug. The water penetration rate was determined by comparison of the cut and weighed contour plots of the images acquired. After 1 hr, the plugs tamped to 200 N exhibited water penetration to the center, while only 45% of the drug was released. The percentage dry matrix was fitted to the Jost equation to obtain a diffusion coefficient of 4.15 x 10(-6) cm2/sec. NMR imaging is set forth as an important and practicable technique to investigate drug formulations. In the HPC matrix system of this study, the NMR imaging results convincingly revealed the rate of hydration front penetration not to be a rate-limiting step in the drug release process.

  15. Releasable activity and maximum permissible leakage rate within a transport cask of Tehran Research Reactor fuel samples

    Rezaeian Mahdi


    Full Text Available Containment of a transport cask during both normal and accident conditions is important to the health and safety of the public and of the operators. Based on IAEA regulations, releasable activity and maximum permissible volumetric leakage rate within the cask containing fuel samples of Tehran Research Reactor enclosed in an irradiated capsule are calculated. The contributions to the total activity from the four sources of gas, volatile, fines, and corrosion products are treated separately. These calculations are necessary to identify an appropriate leak test that must be performed on the cask and the results can be utilized as the source term for dose evaluation in the safety assessment of the cask.

  16. Effects of adipose tissue distribution on maximum lipid oxidation rate during exercise in normal-weight women.

    Isacco, L; Thivel, D; Duclos, M; Aucouturier, J; Boisseau, N


    Fat mass localization affects lipid metabolism differently at rest and during exercise in overweight and normal-weight subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a low vs high ratio of abdominal to lower-body fat mass (index of adipose tissue distribution) on the exercise intensity (Lipox(max)) that elicits the maximum lipid oxidation rate in normal-weight women. Twenty-one normal-weight women (22.0 ± 0.6 years, 22.3 ± 0.1 kg.m(-2)) were separated into two groups of either a low or high abdominal to lower-body fat mass ratio [L-A/LB (n = 11) or H-A/LB (n = 10), respectively]. Lipox(max) and maximum lipid oxidation rate (MLOR) were determined during a submaximum incremental exercise test. Abdominal and lower-body fat mass were determined from DXA scans. The two groups did not differ in aerobic fitness, total fat mass, or total and localized fat-free mass. Lipox(max) and MLOR were significantly lower in H-A/LB vs L-A/LB women (43 ± 3% VO(2max) vs 54 ± 4% VO(2max), and 4.8 ± 0.6 mg min(-1)kg FFM(-1)vs 8.4 ± 0.9 mg min(-1)kg FFM(-1), respectively; P normal-weight women, a predominantly abdominal fat mass distribution compared with a predominantly peripheral fat mass distribution is associated with a lower capacity to maximize lipid oxidation during exercise, as evidenced by their lower Lipox(max) and MLOR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Using tube rhizotrons to measure variation in depth penetration rate among modern North-European winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    Ytting, Nanna Karkov; Andersen, Sven Bode; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian


    in relevant seasons and environments. Depth penetration rate of roots varied significantly within the tested cultivars, from 1.39 (±0.35) mm °C-1 day-1 for cv. Tuareg to 2.07 (±0.34) mm °C-1 day-1, for cv. Mercedes. This study documented consistent differences of DPR among North-European winter wheat...... low light and temperature during autumn and winter-conditions not met in standard glasshouse facilities. This study used tube rhizotrons of 2 m length, positioned outdoor under a rainout shelter to screen for depth penetration rates (DPR) of roots. Rooting depths of 1 to 1.5 m were achieved with 23...

  18. Influence of Portland Cement Class on the Corrosion Rate of Steel Reinforcement in Cement Mortar Caused by Penetrating Chloride and Sulfate from the Environment

    Bikić, F.; Cacan, M.; Rizvanović, M.


    The influence of portland cement class on the corrosion rate of steel reinforcement in cement mortar caused by penetrating chloride or sulfate from the environment in already hardened cement mortar is investigated in this paper. Three classes of portland cement have been used for the tests, PC 35, PC 45 and PC 55. Cylindrical samples of cement mortar with steel reinfor- cement in the middle were treated 6 months at room temperature in the follow...

  19. Estimation of the players maximum heart rate in real game situations in team sports: a practical propose

    Jorge Cuadrado Reyes


    Full Text Available Abstract   This  research developed a logarithms  for calculating the maximum heart rate (max. HR for players in team sports in  game situations. The sample was made of  thirteen players (aged 24 ± 3   to a  Division Two Handball team. HR was initially measured by Course Navette test.  Later, twenty one training sessions were conducted  in which HR and Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE, were  continuously monitored, in each task. A lineal regression analysis was done  to help find a max. HR prediction equation from the max. HR of the three highest intensity sessions. Results from  this equation correlate significantly with data obtained in the Course Navette test and with those obtained by other indirect methods. The conclusion of this research is that this equation provides a very useful and easy way to measure the max. HR in real game situations, avoiding non-specific analytical tests and, therefore laboratory testing..   Key words: workout control, functional evaluation, prediction equation.

  20. Penetration equations

    Young, C.W. [Applied Research Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    In 1967, Sandia National Laboratories published empirical equations to predict penetration into natural earth materials and concrete. Since that time there have been several small changes to the basic equations, and several more additions to the overall technique for predicting penetration into soil, rock, concrete, ice, and frozen soil. The most recent update to the equations was published in 1988, and since that time there have been changes in the equations to better match the expanding data base, especially in concrete penetration. This is a standalone report documenting the latest version of the Young/Sandia penetration equations and related analytical techniques to predict penetration into natural earth materials and concrete. 11 refs., 6 tabs.

  1. 34 CFR 614.6 - What is the maximum indirect cost rate for all consortium members and any cost-type contract?


    ... PREPARING TOMORROW'S TEACHERS TO USE TECHNOLOGY § 614.6 What is the maximum indirect cost rate for all... requirements; or (3) Charged by the grantee to another Federal award. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 6832)...

  2. In vitro human skin penetration model for organophosphorus compounds with different physicochemical properties.

    Thors, L; Koch, B; Koch, M; Hägglund, L; Bucht, A


    A flow-through diffusion cell was validated for in vitro human epidermal penetration studies of organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) applied by infinite dosing. By testing OPCs with similar molecular weight but different physicochemical properties, it was shown that hydrophilic and lipophilic properties are major determinants for the penetration rate. Lipophilic OPCs displayed maximum cumulative penetration in the 20-75% agent concentration range whereas the hydrophilic OPCs displayed maximum cumulative penetration at 10 or 20% agent concentration. Low penetration was observed for all agents at 1% agent concentration or when applied as neat agents. The impact of the receptor solution composition was evaluated by comparing the penetration using receptor solutions of different ratios of ethanol and water. For diluted OPCs, a high concentration of ethanol in the receptor solution significantly increased the penetration compared to lower concentrations. When OPCs were applied as neat agents, the composition of the receptor solution only affected the penetration for one of four tested compounds. In conclusion, the flow-through diffusion cell was useful for examining the penetration of OPCs through the epidermal membrane. It was also demonstrated that the penetration rates of OPCs are strongly influenced by dilution in water and the receptor fluid composition.

  3. Effect of phentolamine, alprenolol and prenylamine on maximum rate of rise of action potential in guinea-pig papillary muscles.

    Sada, H


    Effects of phentolamine (13.3, 26.5 and 53.0 micron), alprenolol (3.5, 7.0 and 17.5 micron) and prenylamine (2.4, 4.8 and 11.9 micron) on the transmembrane potential were studied in isolated guinea-pig papillary muscles, superfused with Tyrode's solution. 1. Phentolamine, alprenolol and prenylamine reduced the maximum rate of rise of action potential (.Vmax) dose-dependently. Higher concentrations of phentolamine and prenylamine caused a loss of plateau in a majority of the preparations. Resting potential was not altered by any of the drugs. Readmittance of drug-free Tyrode's solution reversed these changes induced by 13.3 micron of phentolamine and all conconcentrations of alprenolol almost completely but those induced by higher concentrations of phentolamine and all concentrations of prenylamine only slightly. 2. .Vmax at steady state was increased with decreasing driving frequencies (0.5 and 0.25 Hz) and was decreased with increasing ones (2--5 Hz) in comparison with that at 1 Hz. Such changes were all exaggerated by the above drugs, particularly by prenylamine. 3. Prenylamine and, to a lesser degree, phentolamine and alprenolol delayed dose-dependently the recovery process of .Vmax in premature responses. 4. .Vmax in the first response after interruption of stimulation recovered toward the predrug value in the presence of the above three drugs. The time constants of recovery process ranged between 10.5 and 15.0s for phentolamine, between 4.5 and 15.5s for alprenolol. The time constant of the main component was estimated to be approximately 2s for the recovery process with prenylamine. 5. On the basis of the model recently proposed by Hondeghem and Katzung (1977), it is suggested that the drug molecules associate with the open sodium channels and dissociated slowly from the closed channels and that the inactivation parameter in the drug-associated channels is shifted in the hyperpolarizing direction.

  4. Relationship between visual prostate score (VPSS and maximum flow rate (Qmax in men with urinary tract symptoms

    Mazhar A. Memon


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate correlation between visual prostate score (VPSS and maximum flow rate (Qmax in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. Material and Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted at a university Hospital. Sixty-seven adult male patients>50 years of age were enrolled in the study after signing an informed consent. Qmax and voided volume recorded at uroflowmetry graph and at the same time VPSS were assessed. The education level was assessed in various defined groups. Pearson correlation coefficient was computed for VPSS and Qmax. Results: Mean age was 66.1±10.1 years (median 68. The mean voided volume on uroflowmetry was 268±160mL (median 208 and the mean Qmax was 9.6±4.96mLs/sec (median 9.0. The mean VPSS score was 11.4±2.72 (11.0. In the univariate linear regression analysis there was strong negative (Pearson's correlation between VPSS and Qmax (r=848, p<0.001. In the multiple linear regression analyses there was a significant correlation between VPSS and Qmax (β- after adjusting the effect of age, voided volume (V.V and level of education. Multiple linear regression analysis done for independent variables and results showed that there was no significant correlation between the VPSS and independent factors including age (p=0.27, LOE (p=0.941 and V.V (p=0.082. Conclusion: There is a significant negative correlation between VPSS and Qmax. The VPSS can be used in lieu of IPSS score. Men even with limited educational background can complete VPSS without assistance.

  5. An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration



    A deep drilling research program titled 'An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration' was conducted at TerraTek's Drilling and Completions Laboratory. Drilling tests were run to simulate deep drilling by using high bore pressures and high confining and overburden stresses. The purpose of this testing was to gain insight into practices that would improve rates of penetration and mechanical specific energy while drilling under high pressure conditions. Thirty-seven test series were run utilizing a variety of drilling parameters which allowed analysis of the performance of drill bits and drilling fluids. Five different drill bit types or styles were tested: four-bladed polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC), 7-bladed PDC in regular and long profile, roller-cone, and impregnated. There were three different rock types used to simulate deep formations: Mancos shale, Carthage marble, and Crab Orchard sandstone. The testing also analyzed various drilling fluids and the extent to which they improved drilling. The PDC drill bits provided the best performance overall. The impregnated and tungsten carbide insert roller-cone drill bits performed poorly under the conditions chosen. The cesium formate drilling fluid outperformed all other drilling muds when drilling in the Carthage marble and Mancos shale with PDC drill bits. The oil base drilling fluid with manganese tetroxide weighting material provided the best performance when drilling the Crab Orchard sandstone.

  6. Effect of feeding guanidinoacetic acid and L-arginine on the fertility rate and sperm penetration in the perivitelline layer of aged broiler breeder hens.

    Sharideh, H; Esmaeile Neia, L; Zaghari, M; Zhandi, M; Akhlaghi, A; Lotfi, L


    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) and L-arginine (ARG) on fertility and sperm penetration (SP) rate of broiler breeder hens. In the first experiment, a total of 200 broiler breeder hens (Ross 308) aged 53 weeks were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments (0, 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 g GAA/kg diet) with five replicates of 10 birds each. In the second experiment, 320 broiler breeder hens (Ross 308) were used from 53 to 62 weeks of age in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (0 or 1.2 g GAA/kg diet along with 0, 3, 6 or 9 g ARG/kg diet). The hens received a diet containing 2800 kcal ME/kg and 14% CP. Sixteen sexually mature Ross 308 breeder roosters (34 weeks old) were used to artificially inseminate the hens. Fertility of the hens was determined in 61 and 62 weeks of age. The sperm penetration holes in the inner perivitelline layer (IPL) overlying the germinal disc were enumerated on days 3 and 7 following each insemination. Adding GAA to the breeder diet increased the number of SPs in the IPL and fertility in both experiments (p hens at the later phase of the egg production period.

  7. 34 CFR 694.9 - What is the maximum indirect cost rate for an agency of a State or local government?


    ... for an agency of a State or local government? Notwithstanding 34 CFR 75.560-75.562 and 34 CFR 80.22, the maximum indirect cost rate that an agency of a State or local government receiving funds under... a State or local government? 694.9 Section 694.9 Education Regulations of the Offices of...

  8. Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance--Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis


    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2002 through September 2002. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit--fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. Accomplishments to date include the following: 4Q 2002--Project started; Industry Team was assembled; Kick-off meeting was held at DOE Morgantown; 1Q 2003--Engineering meeting was held at Hughes Christensen, The Woodlands Texas to prepare preliminary plans for development and testing and review equipment needs; Operators started sending information regarding their needs for deep drilling challenges and priorities for large-scale testing experimental matrix; Aramco joined the Industry Team as DEA 148 objectives paralleled the DOE project; 2Q 2003--Engineering and planning for high pressure drilling at TerraTek commenced; 3Q 2003--Continuation of engineering and design work for high pressure drilling at TerraTek; Baker Hughes INTEQ drilling Fluids and Hughes Christensen commence planning for Phase 1 testing--recommendations for bits and fluids.

  9. Online rate control in digital cameras for near-constant distortion based on minimum/maximum criterion

    Lee, Sang-Yong; Ortega, Antonio


    We address the problem of online rate control in digital cameras, where the goal is to achieve near-constant distortion for each image. Digital cameras usually have a pre-determined number of images that can be stored for the given memory size and require limited time delay and constant quality for each image. Due to time delay restrictions, each image should be stored before the next image is received. Therefore, we need to define an online rate control that is based on the amount of memory used by previously stored images, the current image, and the estimated rate of future images. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for online rate control, in which an adaptive reference, a 'buffer-like' constraint, and a minimax criterion (as a distortion metric to achieve near-constant quality) are used. The adaptive reference is used to estimate future images and the 'buffer-like' constraint is required to keep enough memory for future images. We show that using our algorithm to select online bit allocation for each image in a randomly given set of images provides near constant quality. Also, we show that our result is near optimal when a minimax criterion is used, i.e., it achieves a performance close to that obtained by applying an off-line rate control that assumes exact knowledge of the images. Suboptimal behavior is only observed in situations where the distribution of images is not truly random (e.g., if most of the 'complex' images are captured at the end of the sequence.) Finally, we propose a T- step delay rate control algorithm and using the result of 1- step delay rate control algorithm, we show that this algorithm removes the suboptimal behavior.

  10. 9 CFR 381.67 - Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums under traditional inspection procedure.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Young chicken and squab slaughter... INSPECTION REGULATIONS Operating Procedures § 381.67 Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate... inspector per minute under the traditional inspection procedure for the different young chicken and...

  11. FastMG: a simple, fast, and accurate maximum likelihood procedure to estimate amino acid replacement rate matrices from large data sets.

    Dang, Cuong Cao; Le, Vinh Sy; Gascuel, Olivier; Hazes, Bart; Le, Quang Si


    Amino acid replacement rate matrices are a crucial component of many protein analysis systems such as sequence similarity search, sequence alignment, and phylogenetic inference. Ideally, the rate matrix reflects the mutational behavior of the actual data under study; however, estimating amino acid replacement rate matrices requires large protein alignments and is computationally expensive and complex. As a compromise, sub-optimal pre-calculated generic matrices are typically used for protein-based phylogeny. Sequence availability has now grown to a point where problem-specific rate matrices can often be calculated if the computational cost can be controlled. The most time consuming step in estimating rate matrices by maximum likelihood is building maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees from protein alignments. We propose a new procedure, called FastMG, to overcome this obstacle. The key innovation is the alignment-splitting algorithm that splits alignments with many sequences into non-overlapping sub-alignments prior to estimating amino acid replacement rates. Experiments with different large data sets showed that the FastMG procedure was an order of magnitude faster than without splitting. Importantly, there was no apparent loss in matrix quality if an appropriate splitting procedure is used. FastMG is a simple, fast and accurate procedure to estimate amino acid replacement rate matrices from large data sets. It enables researchers to study the evolutionary relationships for specific groups of proteins or taxa with optimized, data-specific amino acid replacement rate matrices. The programs, data sets, and the new mammalian mitochondrial protein rate matrix are available at

  12. Market penetration of biodiesel

    Kenneth R. Szulczyk, Bruce A. McCarl


    Full Text Available This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting biodiesel for diesel #2. This endeavor examines three areas. First, the benefits of biodiesel are examined, and the technical problems of large-scale implementation. Second, the biodiesel production possibilities are examined for soybean oil, corn oil, tallow, and yellow grease, which are the largest sources of feedstocks for the United States. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows to identity the extent of technological change, production costs, byproducts, and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Finally, a U.S. agricultural model, FASOMGHG was used to predict market penetration of biodiesel, given technological progress, variety of technologies and feedstocks, market interactions, energy prices, and carbon dioxide equivalent prices. FASOMGHG has several interesting results. First, diesel fuel prices have an expansionary impact on the biodiesel industry. The higher the diesel fuel prices, the more biodiesel is produced. However, given the most favorable circumstances, the maximum biodiesel market penetration is 9% in 2030 with a wholesale diesel price of $4 per gallon. Second, the two dominant sources of biodiesel are from corn and soybeans. Sources like tallow and yellow grease are more limited, because they are byproducts of other industries. Third, GHG prices have an expansionary impact on the biodiesel prices, because biodiesel is quite GHG efficient. Finally, U.S. government subsidies on biofuels have an expansionary impact on biodiesel production, and increase market penetration at least an additional 3%.

  13. Market penetration of biodiesel

    Szulczyk, Kenneth R. [Department of Economics, Orbita 3, Suleyman Demirel University, Almaty, 050043 (Kazakhstan); McCarl, Bruce A. [Department of Agricultural Economics, 2124 TAMU, Texas A& amp; M University, College Station, Texas, 77843 (United States)


    This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting biodiesel for diesel number 2. This endeavor examines three areas. First, the benefits of biodiesel are examined, and the technical problems of large-scale implementation. Second, the biodiesel production possibilities are examined for soybean oil, corn oil, tallow, and yellow grease, which are the largest sources of feedstocks for the United States. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows to identity the extent of technological change, production costs, byproducts, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Finally, a U.S. agricultural model, FASOMGHG was used to predict market penetration of biodiesel, given technological progress, variety of technologies and feedstocks, market interactions, energy prices, and carbon dioxide equivalent prices. FASOMGHG has several interesting results. First, diesel fuel prices have an expansionary impact on the biodiesel industry. The higher the diesel fuel prices, the more biodiesel is produced. However, given the most favorable circumstances, the maximum biodiesel market penetration is 9% in 2030 with a wholesale diesel price of $4 per gallon. Second, the two dominant sources of biodiesel are from corn and soybeans. Sources like tallow and yellow grease are more limited, because they are byproducts of other industries. Third, GHG prices have an expansionary impact on the biodiesel prices, because biodiesel is quite GHG efficient. Finally, U.S. government subsidies on biofuels have an expansionary impact on biodiesel production, and increase market penetration at least an additional 3%.

  14. Prediction of alumina penetration

    Mandell, D A


    The MESA hydrocode was used to predict two-dimensional tests of L/D 10 and L/D 15 tungsten rods impacting AD 90 alumina with a steel backing. The residual penetration into the steel is the measured quantity in these experiments conducted at the Southwest Research Institute (SWR). The interface velocity as a function of time between an alumina target and a lithium fluoride window, impacted by an alumina disk at velocities between 544 m/s and 2329 m/s, was also predicted. These one-dimensional flyer plate experiments were conducted at Sandia National Laboratories using Coors AD 995 alumina. The material strength and fracture models are important in the prediction of ceramic experiments. The models used in these predictions are discussed. The penetrations in the two-dimensional tests were predicted to 11.4 percent or better. In five of the six experiments, the predicted penetration depth was deeper than the measured value. This trend is expected since the calculation is based on ideal conditions. The results show that good agreement between the 1-D flyer plate data and the MESA predictions exists at the lower impact velocities, but the maximum velocity is overpredicted as the flyer plate velocity increases. At a flyer plate velocity of 2329 m/s the code overpredicted the data by 12.3 percent.

  15. Gas surface density, star formation rate surface density, and the maximum mass of young star clusters in a disk galaxy. I. The flocculent galaxy M33

    Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A; Kroupa, Pavel


    We analyze the relationship between maximum cluster mass, M_max, and surface densities of total gas (Sigma_gas), molecular gas (Sigma_H2) and star formation rate (Sigma_SFR) in the flocculent galaxy M33, using published gas data and a catalog of more than 600 young star clusters in its disk. By comparing the radial distributions of gas and most massive cluster masses, we find that M_max is proportional to Sigma_gas^4.7, M_max is proportional Sigma_H2^1.3, and M_max is proportional to Sigma_SFR^1.0. We rule out that these correlations result from the size of sample; hence, the change of the maximum cluster mass must be due to physical causes.

  16. Modeling Non-Equilibrium Dynamics of a Discrete Probability Distribution: General Rate Equation for Maximal Entropy Generation in a Maximum-Entropy Landscape with Time-Dependent Constraints

    Gian Paolo Beretta


    Full Text Available A rate equation for a discrete probability distribution is discussed as a route to describe smooth relaxation towards the maximum entropy distribution compatible at all times with one or more linear constraints. The resulting dynamics follows the path of steepest entropy ascent compatible with the constraints. The rate equation is consistent with the Onsager theorem of reciprocity and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The mathematical formalism was originally developed to obtain a quantum theoretical unification of mechanics and thermodinamics. It is presented here in a general, non-quantal formulation as a part of an effort to develop tools for the phenomenological treatment of non-equilibrium problems with applications in engineering, biology, sociology, and economics. The rate equation is also extended to include the case of assigned time-dependences of the constraints and the entropy, such as for modeling non-equilibrium energy and entropy exchanges.

  17. Modeling Non-Equilibrium Dynamics of a Discrete Probability Distribution: General Rate Equation for Maximal Entropy Generation in a Maximum-Entropy Landscape with Time-Dependent Constraints

    Beretta, Gian P.


    A rate equation for a discrete probability distribution is discussed as a route to describe smooth relaxation towards the maximum entropy distribution compatible at all times with one or more linear constraints. The resulting dynamics follows the path of steepest entropy ascent compatible with the constraints. The rate equation is consistent with the Onsager theorem of reciprocity and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The mathematical formalism was originally developed to obtain a quantum theoretical unification of mechanics and thermodinamics. It is presented here in a general, non-quantal formulation as a part of an effort to develop tools for the phenomenological treatment of non-equilibrium problems with applications in engineering, biology, sociology, and economics. The rate equation is also extended to include the case of assigned time-dependences of the constraints and the entropy, such as for modeling non-equilibrium energy and entropy exchanges.

  18. The effect of strength training and short-term detraining on maximum force and the rate of force development of older men.

    Lovell, Dale I; Cuneo, Ross; Gass, Greg C


    This study examined the effect of strength training (ST) and short-term detraining on maximum force and rate of force development (RFD) in previously sedentary, healthy older men. Twenty-four older men (70-80 years) were randomly assigned to a ST group (n = 12) and C group (control, n = 12). Training consisted of three sets of six to ten repetitions on an incline squat at 70-90% of one repetition maximum three times per week for 16 weeks followed by 4 weeks of detraining. Regional muscle mass was assessed before and after training by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Training increased RFD, maximum bilateral isometric force, and force in 500 ms, upper leg muscle mass and strength above pre-training values (14, 25, 22, 7, 90%, respectively; P force and RFD of older men. However, older individuals may lose some neuromuscular performance after a period of short-term detraining and that resistance exercise should be performed on a regular basis to maintain training adaptations.

  19. Effect of precipitation, sorption and stable of isotope on maximum release rates of radionuclides from engineered barrier system (EBS) in deep repository.

    Malekifarsani, A; Skachek, M A


    shown that the concentrations of the following radionuclides are limited by solubility and precipitate around the waste and buffer: U, Np, Ra, Sm, Zr, Se, Tc, and Pd. The Sensitivity of maximum release rates in case precipitation shows that some nuclides such as Cs-135, Nb-94, Nb-93 m, Zr-93, Sn-126, Th-230, Pu-240, Pu-242, Pu-239, Cm-245, Am-243, Cm-245, U-233, Ac-227, Pb-210, Pa-231 and Th-229 are very little changed in case the maximum release rate from EBS corresponding to eliminate precipitation in buffer material. Some nuclides such as Se-79, Tc-99, Pd-107, Th-232, U-236, U-233, Ra-226, Np-237 U-235, U-234, and U-238 are virtually changed in the maximum release rate compared to case that taking account precipitation. In Sensitivity of maximum release rates in case to taking account stable isotopes (according to the table of inventory) there are only some nuclides with their stable isotopes in the vitrified waste. And calculation shows that Pd-107 and Se-79 are very increase in case eliminate stable isotope. The Sensitivity of maximum release rates in case retardation with sorption shows that some nuclides such as Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-239, Cm-245, Am-241, Cm-246, and Am-243 are increased in some time in case maximum release rate from EBS corresponding to eliminate retardation in buffer material. Some nuclides such as U-235, U-233 and U-236 have a little decrease in case maximum release because their parents have short live and before decay to their daughter will released from the EBS. If the characteristic time taken for a nuclide to diffuse across the buffer exceeds its half-life, then the release rate of that nuclide from the EBS will be attenuated by radioactive decay. Thus, the retardation of the diffusion process due to sorption tends to reduce the release rates of short-lived nuclides more effectively than for the long-lived ones. For example, release rates of Pu-240, Cm-246 and Am-241, which are relatively short-lived and strongly sorbing, are very small

  20. Maximum Heart Rate during exercise: Reliability of the 220-age and Tanaka formulas in healthy young people at a moderate elevation

    Luis Eduardo Cruz-Martínez


    Full Text Available Background. The formulas to predict maximum heart rate have been used for many years in different populations. Objective. To verify the significance and the association of formulas of Tanaka and 220-age when compared to real maximum heart rate. Materials and methods. 30 subjects -22 men, 8 women- between 18 and 30 years of age were evaluated on a cycle ergometer and their real MHR values were statistically compared with the values of formulas currently used to predict MHR. Results. The results demonstrate that both Tanaka p=0.0026 and 220-age p=0.000003 do not predict real MHR, nor does a linear association exist between them. Conclusions. Due to the overestimation with respect to real MHR value that these formulas make, we suggest a correction of 6 bpm to the final result. This value represents the median of the difference between the Tanaka value and the real MHR. Both Tanaka (r=0.272 and 220-age (r=0.276 are not adequate predictors of MHR during exercise at the elevation of Bogotá in subjects of 18 to 30 years of age, although more study with a larger sample size is suggested.

  1. A new approach to assess the dependency of extant half-saturation coefficients on maximum process rates and estimate intrinsic coefficients.

    Shaw, A; Takács, I; Pagilla, K R; Murthy, S


    The Monod equation is often used to describe biological treatment processes and is the foundation for many activated sludge models. The Monod equation includes a "half-saturation coefficient" to describe the effect of substrate limitations on the process rate and it is customary to consider this parameter to be a constant for a given system. The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology, and its use to show that the half-saturation coefficient for denitrification is not constant but is in fact a function of the maximum denitrification rate. A 4-step procedure is developed to investigate the dependency of half-saturation coefficients on the maximum rate and two different models are used to describe this dependency: (a) an empirical linear model and (b) a deterministic model based on Fick's law of diffusion. Both models are proved better for describing denitrification kinetics than assuming a fixed K(NO3) at low nitrate concentrations. The empirical model is more utilitarian whereas the model based on Fick's law has a fundamental basis that enables the intrinsic K(NO3) to be estimated. In this study data was analyzed from 56 denitrification rate tests and it was found that the extant K(NO3) varied between 0.07 mgN/L and 1.47 mgN/L (5th and 95th percentile respectively) with an average of 0.47 mgN/L. In contrast to this, the intrinsic K(NO3) estimated for the diffusion model was 0.01 mgN/L which indicates that the extant K(NO3) is greatly influenced by, and mostly describes, diffusion limitations.

  2. Maximum Fidelity

    Kinkhabwala, Ali


    The most fundamental problem in statistics is the inference of an unknown probability distribution from a finite number of samples. For a specific observed data set, answers to the following questions would be desirable: (1) Estimation: Which candidate distribution provides the best fit to the observed data?, (2) Goodness-of-fit: How concordant is this distribution with the observed data?, and (3) Uncertainty: How concordant are other candidate distributions with the observed data? A simple unified approach for univariate data that addresses these traditionally distinct statistical notions is presented called "maximum fidelity". Maximum fidelity is a strict frequentist approach that is fundamentally based on model concordance with the observed data. The fidelity statistic is a general information measure based on the coordinate-independent cumulative distribution and critical yet previously neglected symmetry considerations. An approximation for the null distribution of the fidelity allows its direct conversi...

  3. Measuring maximum and standard metabolic rates using intermittent-flow respirometry: a student laboratory investigation of aerobic metabolic scope and environmental hypoxia in aquatic breathers.

    Rosewarne, P J; Wilson, J M; Svendsen, J C


    Metabolic rate is one of the most widely measured physiological traits in animals and may be influenced by both endogenous (e.g. body mass) and exogenous factors (e.g. oxygen availability and temperature). Standard metabolic rate (SMR) and maximum metabolic rate (MMR) are two fundamental physiological variables providing the floor and ceiling in aerobic energy metabolism. The total amount of energy available between these two variables constitutes the aerobic metabolic scope (AMS). A laboratory exercise aimed at an undergraduate level physiology class, which details the appropriate data acquisition methods and calculations to measure oxygen consumption rates in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, is presented here. Specifically, the teaching exercise employs intermittent flow respirometry to measure SMR and MMR, derives AMS from the measurements and demonstrates how AMS is affected by environmental oxygen. Students' results typically reveal a decline in AMS in response to environmental hypoxia. The same techniques can be applied to investigate the influence of other key factors on metabolic rate (e.g. temperature and body mass). Discussion of the results develops students' understanding of the mechanisms underlying these fundamental physiological traits and the influence of exogenous factors. More generally, the teaching exercise outlines essential laboratory concepts in addition to metabolic rate calculations, data acquisition and unit conversions that enhance competency in quantitative analysis and reasoning. Finally, the described procedures are generally applicable to other fish species or aquatic breathers such as crustaceans (e.g. crayfish) and provide an alternative to using higher (or more derived) animals to investigate questions related to metabolic physiology.

  4. Maximum removal rate of propionic acid as a sole carbon source in UASB reactors and the importance of the macro- and micro-nutrients stimulation.

    Ma, Jingxing; Mungoni, Lucy Jubeki; Verstraete, Willy; Carballa, Marta


    The maximum propionic acid (HPr) removal rate (R(HPr)) was investigated in two lab-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) reactors. Two feeding strategies were applied by modifying the hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the UASB(HRT) and the influent HPr concentration in the UASB(HPr), respectively. The experiment was divided into three main phases: phase 1, influent with only HPr; phase 2, HPr with macro-nutrients supplementation and phase 3, HPr with macro- and micro-nutrients supplementation. During phase 1, the maximum R(HPr) achieved was less than 3 g HPr-CODL(-1)d(-1) in both reactors. However, the subsequent supplementation of macro- and micro-nutrients during phases 2 and 3 allowed to increase the R(HPr) up to 18.1 and 32.8 g HPr-CODL(-1)d(-1), respectively, corresponding with an HRT of 0.5h in the UASB(HRT) and an influent HPr concentration of 10.5 g HPr-CODL(-1) in the UASB(HPr). Therefore, the high operational capacity of these reactor systems, specifically converting HPr with high throughput and high influent HPr level, was demonstrated. Moreover, the presence of macro- and micro-nutrients is clearly essential for stable and high HPr removal in anaerobic digestion.

  5. Gas surface density, star formation rate surface density, and the maximum mass of young star clusters in a disk galaxy. II. The grand-design galaxy M51

    Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A; Kroupa, Pavel


    We analyze the relationship between maximum cluster mass, and surface densities of total gas (Sigma_gas), molecular gas (Sigma_H_2), neutral gas (Sigma_HI) and star formation rate (Sigma_SFR) in the grand design galaxy M51, using published gas data and a catalog of masses, ages, and reddenings of more than 1800 star clusters in its disk, of which 223 are above the cluster mass distribution function completeness limit. We find for clusters older than 25 Myr that M_3rd, the median of the 5 most massive clusters, is proportional to Sigma_HI^0.4. There is no correlation with Sigma_gas, Sigma_H2, or Sigma_SFR. For clusters younger than 10 Myr, M_3rd is proportional to Sigma_HI^0.6, M_3rd is proportional to Sigma_gas^0.5; there is no correlation with either Sigma_H_2 or Sigma_SFR. The results could hardly be more different than those found for clusters younger than 25 Myr in M33. For the flocculent galaxy M33, there is no correlation between maximum cluster mass and neutral gas, but M_3rd is proportional to Sigma_g...

  6. n-Order and maximum fuzzy similarity entropy for discrimination of signals of different complexity: Application to fetal heart rate signals.

    Zaylaa, Amira; Oudjemia, Souad; Charara, Jamal; Girault, Jean-Marc


    This paper presents two new concepts for discrimination of signals of different complexity. The first focused initially on solving the problem of setting entropy descriptors by varying the pattern size instead of the tolerance. This led to the search for the optimal pattern size that maximized the similarity entropy. The second paradigm was based on the n-order similarity entropy that encompasses the 1-order similarity entropy. To improve the statistical stability, n-order fuzzy similarity entropy was proposed. Fractional Brownian motion was simulated to validate the different methods proposed, and fetal heart rate signals were used to discriminate normal from abnormal fetuses. In all cases, it was found that it was possible to discriminate time series of different complexity such as fractional Brownian motion and fetal heart rate signals. The best levels of performance in terms of sensitivity (90%) and specificity (90%) were obtained with the n-order fuzzy similarity entropy. However, it was shown that the optimal pattern size and the maximum similarity measurement were related to intrinsic features of the time series.

  7. Petroleum production at Maximum Efficient Rate Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California. Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement


    This document provides an analysis of the potential impacts associated with the proposed action, which is continued operation of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. I (NPR-1) at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER) as authorized by Public law 94-258, the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976 (Act). The document also provides a similar analysis of alternatives to the proposed action, which also involve continued operations, but under lower development scenarios and lower rates of production. NPR-1 is a large oil and gas field jointly owned and operated by the federal government and Chevron U.SA Inc. (CUSA) pursuant to a Unit Plan Contract that became effective in 1944; the government`s interest is approximately 78% and CUSA`s interest is approximately 22%. The government`s interest is under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The facility is approximately 17,409 acres (74 square miles), and it is located in Kern County, California, about 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield and 100 miles north of Los Angeles in the south central portion of the state. The environmental analysis presented herein is a supplement to the NPR-1 Final Environmental Impact Statement of that was issued by DOE in 1979 (1979 EIS). As such, this document is a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS).

  8. Disease-modifying polymorphisms and C609Y mutation of RET associated with high penetrance of phaeochromocytoma and low rate of MTC in MEN2A

    Rowena Speak


    Full Text Available Mutations of the rearranged during transfection (RET proto-oncogene, located on chromosome 10q11.2, cause multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A. Patients with mutations at the codon 609 usually exhibit a high penetrance of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC, but a sufficiently low penetrance of phaeochromocytoma that screening for this latter complication has been called to question. Patients with other RET mutations are at higher risk of younger age onset phaeochromocytoma if they also possess other RET polymorphisms (L769L, S836S, G691S and S904S, but there are no similar data for patients with 609 mutations. We investigated the unusual phenotypic presentation in a family with MEN2A due to a C609Y mutation in RET. Sanger sequencing of the entire RET-coding region and exon–intron boundaries was performed. Five family members were C609Y mutation positive: 3/5 initially presented with phaeochromocytoma, but only 1/5 had MTC. The index case aged 73 years had no evidence of MTC, but presented with phaeochromocytoma. Family members also possessed the G691S and S904S RET polymorphisms. We illustrate a high penetrance of phaeochromocytoma and low penetrance of MTC in patients with a RET C609Y mutation and polymorphisms G691S and S904S. These data highlight the need for life-long screening for the complications of MEN2A in these patients and support the role for the screening of RET polymorphisms for the purposes of risk stratification.

  9. Effects of box size, frequency of lifting, and height of lift on maximum acceptable weight of lift and heart rate for male university students in Iran.

    Abadi, Ali Salehi Sahl; Mazlomi, Adel; Saraji, Gebraeil Nasl; Zeraati, Hojjat; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Amir Homayoun


    In spite of the widespread use of automation in industry, manual material handling (MMH) is still performed in many occupational settings. The emphasis on ergonomics in MMH tasks is due to the potential risks of workplace accidents and injuries. This study aimed to assess the effect of box size, frequency of lift, and height of lift on maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) on the heart rates of male university students in Iran. This experimental study was conducted in 2015 with 15 male students recruited from Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Each participant performed 18 different lifting tasks that involved three lifting frequencies (1lift/min, 4.3 lifts/min and 6.67 lifts/min), three lifting heights (floor to knuckle, knuckle to shoulder, and shoulder to arm reach), and two box sizes. Each set of experiments was conducted during the 20 min work period using the free-style lifting technique. The working heart rates (WHR) were recorded for the entire duration. In this study, we used SPSS version 18 software and descriptive statistical methods, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the t-test for data analysis. The results of the ANOVA showed that there was a significant difference between the mean of MAWL in terms of frequencies of lifts (p = 0.02). Tukey's post hoc test indicated that there was a significant difference between the frequencies of 1 lift/minute and 6.67 lifts/minute (p = 0. 01). There was a significant difference between the mean heart rates in terms of frequencies of lifts (p = 0.006), and Tukey's post hoc test indicated a significant difference between the frequencies of 1 lift/minute and 6.67 lifts/minute (p = 0.004). But, there was no significant difference between the mean of MAWL and the mean heart rate in terms of lifting heights (p > 0.05). The results of the t-test showed that there was a significant difference between the mean of MAWL and the mean heart rate in terms of the sizes of the two boxes (p = 0.000). Based on the results of

  10. Case Report: Penetrating Cardiac Injury

    Adem Grbolar


    Full Text Available Summary: Penetrating cardiac injurys caused by gunshots and penetrating tools have high mortality rates. The way of injury, how the cardiac area is effected and the presence of cardiac tamponadecauses mortality in different rates. However the better treatment quality of hospitals, increasingoperative techniques, and internel care unit quality has not been change during the years. Searching the literature, we want to present a 42 years old male patient whowas injured by knife and had a 1 cm skin wound on chest with cardiac tamponade. After sternotomy a 7 cm laseration was observed in heart. Cardioraphy was performed.

  11. Cement penetration after patella venting.

    Jones, Christopher W; Lam, Li-On; Butler, Adam; Wood, David J; Walsh, William R


    There is a high rate of patellofemoral complications following total knee arthroplasty. Optimization of the cement-bone interface by venting and suction of the tibial plateau has been shown to improve cement penetration. Our study was designed to investigate if venting the patella prior to cementing improved cement penetration. Ten paired cadaver patellae were allocated prior to resurfacing to be vented or non-vented. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by DEXA scanning. In vented specimens, a 1.6 mm Kirschner wire was used to breach the anterior cortex at the center. Specimens were resurfaced with standard Profix instrumentation and Versabond bone cement (Smith and Nephew PLC, UK). Cement penetration was assessed from Faxitron and sectioned images by a digital image software package (ImageJ V1.38, NIH, USA). Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to assess the difference in cement penetration between groups. The relationship between BMD and cement penetration was analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient. There was a strong negative correlation between peak BMD and cement penetration when analyzed independent of experimental grouping (r(2)=-0.812, p=0.004). Wilcoxon rank sum testing demonstrated no significant difference (rank sum statistic W=27, p=0.579) in cement penetration between vented (10.53%+/-4.66; mean+/-std dev) and non-vented patellae (11.51%+/-6.23; mean+/-std dev). Venting the patella using a Kirschner wire does not have a significant effect on the amount of cement penetration achieved in vitro using Profix instrumentation and Versabond cement.

  12. Maximum Plant Uptakes for Water, Nutrients, and Oxygen Are Not Always Met by Irrigation Rate and Distribution in Water-based Cultivation Systems.

    Blok, Chris; Jackson, Brian E; Guo, Xianfeng; de Visser, Pieter H B; Marcelis, Leo F M


    Growing on rooting media other than soils in situ -i.e., substrate-based growing- allows for higher yields than soil-based growing as transport rates of water, nutrients, and oxygen in substrate surpass those in soil. Possibly water-based growing allows for even higher yields as transport rates of water and nutrients in water surpass those in substrate, even though the transport of oxygen may be more complex. Transport rates can only limit growth when they are below a rate corresponding to maximum plant uptake. Our first objective was to compare Chrysanthemum growth performance for three water-based growing systems with different irrigation. We compared; multi-point irrigation into a pond (DeepFlow); one-point irrigation resulting in a thin film of running water (NutrientFlow) and multi-point irrigation as droplets through air (Aeroponic). Second objective was to compare press pots as propagation medium with nutrient solution as propagation medium. The comparison included DeepFlow water-rooted cuttings with either the stem 1 cm into the nutrient solution or with the stem 1 cm above the nutrient solution. Measurements included fresh weight, dry weight, length, water supply, nutrient supply, and oxygen levels. To account for differences in radiation sum received, crop performance was evaluated with Radiation Use Efficiency (RUE) expressed as dry weight over sum of Photosynthetically Active Radiation. The reference, DeepFlow with substrate-based propagation, showed the highest RUE, even while the oxygen supply provided by irrigation was potentially growth limiting. DeepFlow with water-based propagation showed 15-17% lower RUEs than the reference. NutrientFlow showed 8% lower RUE than the reference, in combination with potentially limiting irrigation supply of nutrients and oxygen. Aeroponic showed RUE levels similar to the reference and Aeroponic had non-limiting irrigation supply of water, nutrients, and oxygen. Water-based propagation affected the subsequent

  13. Results of the mole penetration tests in different materials

    Wawrzaszek, Roman; Seweryn, Karol; Grygorczuk, Jerzy; Banaszkiewicz, Marek; Rybus, Tomasz; Wisniewski, Lukasz; Neal, Clive R.; Huang, Shaopeng


    Mole devices are low velocity, medium to high energy, self-driven penetrators, designed as a carrier of different sensors for in situ investigations of subsurface layers of planetary bodies. The maximum insertion depth of such devices is limited by energy of single mole's stroke and soil resistance for the dynamic penetration. A mole penetrator ‘KRET' has been designed, developed, and successfully tested at Space Research Centre PAS in Poland. The principle of operation of the mole bases on the interaction between three masses: the cylindrical casing, the hammer, and the rest of the mass, acting as a support mass. This approach takes advantage of the MUPUS penetrator (a payload of Philae lander on Rosetta mission) insertion tests knowledge. Main parameters of the mole KRET are listed below: - outer diameter: 20.4mm, - length: 330mm, - total mass: 488g, - energy of the driving spring: 2.2J, - average power consumption: 0.28W, - average insertion progress/stroke: 8.5mm, The present works of Space Research Center PAS team are focused on three different activities. First one includes investigations of the mole penetration effectiveness in the lunar analogues (supported by ESA PECS project). Second activity, supported by Polish national fund, is connected with numerical calculation of the heat flow investigations and designing and developing the Heat Flow Probe Hardware Component (HPHC) for L-GIP NASA project. It's worth noting that L-GIP project refers to ILN activity. Last activity focuses on preparing the second version of the mole ready to work in low thermal and pressure conditions. Progress of a mole penetrator in granular medium depends on the mechanical properties of this medium. The mole penetrator ‘KRET' was tested in different materials: dry quartz sand (0.3 - 0.8 grain size), wet quartz sand, wheat flour and lunar regolith mechanical simulant - Chemically Enhanced OB-1 (CHENOBI). Wheat flour was selected due to its high cohesion rate and small grain size

  14. The Impact of Alternative Trait-Scaling Hypotheses for the Maximum Photosynthetic Carboxylation Rate (V (sub cmax)) on Global Gross Primary Production

    Walker, Anthony P.; Quaife, Tristan; Van Bodegom, Peter M.; De Kauwe, Martin G.; Keenan, Trevor F.; Joiner, Joanna; Lomas, Mark R.; MacBean, Natasha; Xu, Chongang; Yang, Xiaojuan; hide


    The maximum photosynthetic carboxylation rate (V (sub cmax)) is an influential plant trait that has multiple scaling hypotheses, which is a source of uncertainty in predictive understanding of global gross primary production (GPP). Four trait-scaling hypotheses (plant functional type, nutrient limitation, environmental filtering, and plant plasticity) with nine specific implementations were used to predict global V(sub cmax) distributions and their impact on global GPP in the Sheffield Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (SDGVM). Global GPP varied from 108.1 to 128.2 petagrams of Carbon (PgC) per year, 65 percent of the range of a recent model intercomparison of global GPP. The variation in GPP propagated through to a 27percent coefficient of variation in net biome productivity (NBP). All hypotheses produced global GPP that was highly correlated (r equals 0.85-0.91) with three proxies of global GPP. Plant functional type-based nutrient limitation, underpinned by a core SDGVM hypothesis that plant nitrogen (N) status is inversely related to increasing costs of N acquisition with increasing soil carbon, adequately reproduced global GPP distributions. Further improvement could be achieved with accurate representation of water sensitivity and agriculture in SDGVM. Mismatch between environmental filtering (the most data-driven hypothesis) and GPP suggested that greater effort is needed understand V(sub cmax) variation in the field, particularly in northern latitudes.

  15. Modal dispersion, pulse broadening and maximum transmission rate in GRIN optical fibers encompass a central dip in the core index profile

    El-Diasty, Fouad; El-Hennawi, H. A.; El-Ghandoor, H.; Soliman, Mona A.


    Intermodal and intramodal dispersions signify one of the problems in graded-index multi-mode optical fibers (GRIN) used for LAN communication systems and for sensing applications. A central index dip (depression) in the profile of core refractive-index may occur due to the CVD fabrication processes. The index dip may also be intentionally designed to broaden the fundamental mode field profile toward a plateau-like distribution, which have advantages for fiber-source connections, fiber amplifiers and self-imaging applications. Effect of core central index dip on the propagation parameters of GRIN fiber, such as intermodal dispersion, intramodal dispersion and root-mean-square broadening, is investigated. The conventional methods usually study optical signal propagation in optical fiber in terms of mode characteristics and the number of modes, but in this work multiple-beam Fizeau interferometry is proposed as an inductive but alternative methodology to afford a radial approach to determine dispersion, pulse broadening and maximum transmission rate in GRIN optical fiber having a central index dip.

  16. Estimation of autotrophic maximum specific growth rate constant--experience from the long-term operation of a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor system.

    Su, Yu-min; Makinia, Jacek; Pagilla, Krishna R


    The autotrophic maximum specific growth rate constant, muA,max, is the critical parameter for design and performance of nitrifying activated sludge systems. In literature reviews (i.e., Henze et al., 1987; Metcalf and Eddy, 1991), a wide range of muA,max values have been reported (0.25 to 3.0 days(-1)); however, recent data from several wastewater treatment plants across North America revealed that the estimated muA,max values remained in the narrow range 0.85 to 1.05 days(-1). In this study, long-term operation of a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor system was investigated for estimating this coefficient according to the low food-to-microorganism ratio bioassay and simulation methods, as recommended in the Water Environment Research Foundation (Alexandria, Virginia) report (Melcer et al., 2003). The estimated muA,max values using steady-state model calculations for four operating periods ranged from 0.83 to 0.99 day(-1). The International Water Association (London, United Kingdom) Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) dynamic model simulations revealed that a single value of muA,max (1.2 days(-1)) could be used, despite variations in the measured specific nitrification rates. However, the average muA,max was gradually decreasing during the activated sludge chlorination tests, until it reached the value of 0.48 day(-1) at the dose of 5 mg chlorine/(g mixed liquor suspended solids x d). Significant discrepancies between the predicted XA/YA ratios were observed. In some cases, the ASM1 predictions were approximately two times higher than the steady-state model predictions. This implies that estimating this ratio from a complex activated sludge model and using it in simple steady-state model calculations should be accepted with great caution and requires further investigation.

  17. Penetration profile of microspheres in follicular targeting of terminal hair follicles.

    Toll, R; Jacobi, U; Richter, H; Lademann, J; Schaefer, H; Blume-Peytavi, U


    The transfollicular administration of pharmacologically active molecules is of current therapeutic interest, mainly with regard to delivery to specific sites of the hair follicle (HF) and the reduction of hepatic metabolism and systemic toxicity. HF are privileged pathways for specific molecules depending on formulations, which enter faster into these shunts than through the stratum corneum. The aim was to optimize the delivery of fluorescent microspheres into the HF, thereby, developing a standardized protocol for follicular targeting with microspheres. The number of HF showing penetration, as well as the depth of penetration, was determined. Freshly excised skin samples with terminal HF were divided into groups, with or without prior treatment with cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping-technique (CSSS). Thereafter microspheres at a size of 0.75-6.0 microm were applied according to the developed standardized protocol. Skin biopsies were obtained, shock-frozen, and sectioned in 5 microm slices. We demonstrated a selective penetration route of the microspheres into the HF. Optimal microsphere size proved to be approximately 1.5 microm, with a 55% rate of all HF, and with a maximum penetration depth of >2300 microm. Without previous CSSS treatment of the skin, the transfollicular microsphere penetration was below 27% with a maximum penetration depth of 1000 microm. Thus, the basis for follicular targeting of essential structures containing stem cells for keratinocytes, melanocytes, and mast cells has been laid.


    Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A. [On sabbatical leave from the Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, UNAM, Campus Morelia, Michoacan, C.P. 58089, Mexico. (Mexico); Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan; Kroupa, Pavel, E-mail: [Argelander Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)


    We analyze the relationship between maximum cluster mass and surface densities of total gas ({Sigma}{sub gas}), molecular gas ({Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}}), neutral gas ({Sigma}{sub H{sub I}}), and star formation rate ({Sigma}{sub SFR}) in the grand-design galaxy M51, using published gas data and a catalog of masses, ages, and reddenings of more than 1800 star clusters in its disk, of which 223 are above the cluster mass distribution function completeness limit. By comparing the two-dimensional distribution of cluster masses and gas surface densities, we find for clusters older than 25 Myr that M{sub 3rd}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub H{sub I}{sup 0.4{+-}0.2}}, whereM{sub 3rd} is the median of the five most massive clusters. There is no correlation with{Sigma}{sub gas},{Sigma}{sub H2}, or{Sigma}{sub SFR}. For clusters younger than 10 Myr, M{sub 3rd}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub H{sub I}{sup 0.6{+-}0.1}} and M{sub 3rd}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub gas}{sup 0.5{+-}0.2}; there is no correlation with either {Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}} or{Sigma}{sub SFR}. The results could hardly be more different from those found for clusters younger than 25 Myr in M33. For the flocculent galaxy M33, there is no correlation between maximum cluster mass and neutral gas, but we have determined M{sub 3rd}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub gas}{sup 3.8{+-}0.3}, M{sub 3rd}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}{sup 1.2{+-}0.1}}, and M{sub 3rd}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub SFR}{sup 0.9{+-}0.1}. For the older sample in M51, the lack of tight correlations is probably due to the combination of strong azimuthal variations in the surface densities of gas and star formation rate, and the cluster ages. These two facts mean that neither the azimuthal average of the surface densities at a given radius nor the surface densities at the present-day location of a stellar cluster represent the true surface densities at the place and time of cluster formation. In the case of the younger sample, even if the clusters have not yet

  19. Evaluation of adaptation to visually induced motion sickness based on the maximum cross-correlation between pulse transmission time and heart rate

    Chiba Shigeru


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer graphics and virtual reality techniques are useful to develop automatic and effective rehabilitation systems. However, a kind of virtual environment including unstable visual images presented to wide field screen or a head mounted display tends to induce motion sickness. The motion sickness induced in using a rehabilitation system not only inhibits effective training but also may harm patients' health. There are few studies that have objectively evaluated the effects of the repetitive exposures to these stimuli on humans. The purpose of this study is to investigate the adaptation to visually induced motion sickness by physiological data. Methods An experiment was carried out in which the same video image was presented to human subjects three times. We evaluated changes of the intensity of motion sickness they suffered from by a subjective score and the physiological index ρmax, which is defined as the maximum cross-correlation coefficient between heart rate and pulse wave transmission time and is considered to reflect the autonomic nervous activity. Results The results showed adaptation to visually-induced motion sickness by the repetitive presentation of the same image both in the subjective and the objective indices. However, there were some subjects whose intensity of sickness increased. Thus, it was possible to know the part in the video image which related to motion sickness by analyzing changes in ρmax with time. Conclusion The physiological index, ρmax, will be a good index for assessing the adaptation process to visually induced motion sickness and may be useful in checking the safety of rehabilitation systems with new image technologies.

  20. High-Resolution Chronostratigraphic Correlation and Sedimentation Rate Calculations With Maximum Depositional Ages Derived From Large-n Detrital Zircon Datasets

    Hubbard, S. M.; Coutts, D. S.; Matthews, W.; Guest, B.; Bain, H.


    In basins adjacent to continually active arcs, detrital zircon geochronology can be used to establish a high-resolution chronostratigraphic framework for deep-time strata. Large-nU-Pb geochronological datasets can yield a statistically significant signature from the youngest sub-population of detrital zircons, which we deduce from maximum depositional age (MDA) calculations. MDA is determined through numerous methods such as the mean age of three or more overlapping grain ages at 2σ error, favored in this analysis. Positive identification of the youngest detrital zircon population in a rock is the limiting factor on precision and resolution. The Campanian-Paleogene Nanaimo Group of B.C., Canada, was deposited in a forearc basin, outboard of the Coast Mountain Batholith. The record of a deep-water sediment-routing system is exhumed at Denman and Hornby islands; sandstone- and conglomerate- dominated strata compose a composite sedimentary unit 20 km across and 1.5 km thick, in strike section. Volcanic ashes are absent from the succession, which has been constrained biostratigraphically. Eleven detrital zircon samples are analyzed to define stratigraphic architecture and provide insight into sedimentation rates. Our dataset (n=3081) constrains the overall duration of channelization to ~18 Ma. A series of at least five distinct composite channel fills 3-6 km wide and 400-600 m thick are identified. The MDA of these units are statistically distinct and constrained to better than 3% precision. Sedimentation rates amongst the channel fills increase upward, from 60-100 m/Ma to >500 m/Ma. This is likely linked to the tendency of a slope channel system to be dominated by sediment bypass early in its evolution, and later dominated by aggradation as large-scale levees develop. Channel processes were not continuous, with the longest hiatus ~6 Ma. The large-n detrital zircon dataset provides unprecedented insight into long-term sediment routing, evidence for which is

  1. Field Cone Penetration Tests with Various Penetration Rates - Test Results

    Poulsen, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    The test site is located at Nordre Ringgade near the town called Dronninglund in the northern Jutland in Denmark. The site area is relatively flat, and was chosen because it has a size of approximately 3 ha and contains a relatively thick deposit of silty soils. Furthermore the groundwater...... was encountered at approximately 0.2-0.6 m below the ground level. The soil stratigraphy of the test site was before test start identified by geotechnical borings results. The geotechnical borings indicated that the site contains of sandy silt with clay stripes from approx. 4.0 to 10 m. In the top the silty soil...... is very sandy with few clay stripes, and gradually the clay stripes increases wherefore the soil from approx. 10 m contains of clay with sandy silt stripes. Large soil sample was also collected from the test site in order to determine basic soil properties in the laboratory....

  2. Drilling Difficulty Analysis and Key Technology for Increasing Penetration Rate in Bamai Area%巴麦地区钻井难点分析与提速关键技术

    赵国顺; 郭宝玉; 蒋金宝


    巴麦地区是中国石化在西北地区的勘探开发新区,钻井过程中存在中上部地层阻卡严重,二叠系、石炭系井壁稳定性差,深部地层可钻性差、机械钻速低等技术难点.针对这些技术难点,进行了高压喷射钻井技术和优化水力参数的研究与现场试验,优选了钻头和螺杆类型,进行了涡轮复合钻井技术研究与现场试验,提出了微裂缝地层井壁稳定技术.结果表明:高压喷射钻井技术与常规钻井相比,平均机械钻速提高26.0%~29.3%;(o)311.1和(o)215.9 mm井眼段采用优选的钻头,机械钻速分别提高29.0%和43.0%;二开和四开井段采用优选的螺杆,机械钻速提高27.0%~100.0%;高速涡轮复合钻井与常规钻井相比,机械钻速提高146.0%,与螺杆复合钻井相比机械钻速提高20.0%;中速涡轮复合钻井与螺杆复合钻井相比,机械钻速提高23.0%;应用微裂缝地层井壁稳定技术后未出现井壁失稳问题,实现了微裂缝地层安全钻井.%Bamai Area is a new exploration area in Northwest China. A series of drilling problems occurred during drilling,such as drillpipe stuck in upper layers,poor wellbore stability in Permian system and Carboniferous system,low penetration rate in deep layers etc. In order to solve these problems,high pressure jet drilling and hydraulic parameters optimization were investigated and tested at wellsite. Drilling bit and screw were optimized, compound PDM drilling technology were investigated and tested and the wellbore stability technology for micro-cracks formation was put forwarded. The test results showed that high pressure jet drilling technology increased average penetration rate by 26. 0% - 29. 3% compared with conventional drilling technology. The optimized drill bit improved average penetration rate by 29. 0% and 43. 0% for φ311. 1 and φ215. 9 mm hole respectively. Optimized compound PDM(screw)drilling technology increased drilling rate by

  3. Real Exchange Rates, Import Penetration, and Protectionism in Industrial Countries (Taux de change réels, pénétration des importations et protectionnisme dans les pays industrialisés) (Tipos de cambio reales, penetración de las importaciones y proteccionismo en los países industriales)


    The paper addresses the interaction between exchange rate appreciation and increased protection, specifically nontariff trade barriers, in terms of a two-stage process. In the first stage, an appreciating real exchange rate leads to increases in import penetration beyond what would typically accompany the normal growth of international trade. In the second stage, rising import penetration leads to increased protection, a result that has been fairly well established by recent empirical studies...

  4. Simulation of Mine Electrical Penetration Technology

    LIU Zhi-xin; YUE Jian-hua; LIU Shu-cai


    Based on the principle of electrical penetration, the reflection characteristics of collapse columns at different locations of a working face is numerically simulated by using a 3D finite element method. The data collected by the electrical penetration is processed and interpreted using "tunnel penetration" which is similar to radio wave penetration. Reflection characteristics of collapse columns at different locations below floors of coal seams are analyzed, providing a new paradigm and a theoretical foundation for processing and interpreting electrical penetration data. The tomography analysis is made based on data simulation and calculation results and alltransmitting-receiving points are analyzed for their corresponding maximum attenuation values and maximum absorption coefficients. On the basis of this, a new method for precisely interpreting the spatial positions of geological anomalous bodies is suggested. The simulation shows that 1) the detection result of both roof and floors of the working face by electrical penetration is a volumetric effect and 2) there exists a corresponding relation between the detection depth and the working face width, with the optimal detection depth within 40% of the working face width.

  5. Penetration Testing of the OPRA Regolith Penetrator

    El Shafie, A.; Kegege, O.; Barrows, S.; Roe, L.; Ulrich, R.


    Our work focuses on the mechanical design and penetration forces for the Optical Probe for Regolith Analysis. This is a spike-shaped probe delivered to a planet, asteroid, or cometary body by a lander to provide IR spectroscopy of the subsurface.

  6. Prediction of weld penetration extent in GTAW

    Zhao Ming; Zhai Lei


    The governing equations of surface-deformation in fully-penetrated GTA W weld pool are derived. The solution scheme of the Lagrange multiplier, which makes the top sutface-deformation equation be coupled with that for the bottomsurface of a single weld pool, is given out. Through numerical analysis of weld pool surface-deformation in GTA W,it is found that there is clear correlation between the penetration extent and the Lagrange multiplier, in addition to the relationship between the penetration extent and the maximum depression and hump as well as the depressed volume of the top surface of weld pool. It lays good foundation for top-side sensing based weld penetration control.

  7. Follicular penetration and targeting.

    Lademann, Jürgen; Otberg, Nina; Jacobi, Ute; Hoffman, Robert M; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike


    In the past, intercellular penetration was assumed to be the most important penetration pathway of topically applied substances. First hints that follicular penetration needs to be taken into consideration were confirmed by recent investigations, presented during the workshop "Follicular Penetration and Targeting" at the 4th Intercontinental Meeting of Hair Research Societies", in Berlin 2004. Hair follicles represent an efficient reservoir for the penetration of topically applied substances with subsequent targeting of distinct cell populations, e.g., nestin-expressing follicular bulge cells. The volume of this reservoir can be determined by differential stripping technology. The follicular penetration processes are significantly influenced by the state of the follicular infundibulum; recent experimental investigations could demonstrate that it is essential to distinguish between open and closed hair follicles. Topically applied substances can only penetrate into open hair follicle. Knowledge of follicular penetration is of high clinical relevance for functional targeting of distinct follicular regions. Human hair follicles show a hair-cycle-dependent variation of the dense neuronal and vascular network. Moreover, during hair follicle cycling with initiation of anagen, newly formed vessels occur. Thus, the potential of nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells to form neurons and blood vessels was investigated.

  8. Simulation of laser penetration efficiency

    Semak, V. V.; Miller, T. F.


    The results of numerical simulation of laser beam interaction with a hypothetical metallic material with properties similar to a steel alloy are reported. The numerical simulation was performed using a physical model that includes detailed consideration of surface evaporation, evaporative cooling of the surface and evaporation recoil induced melt ejection. The laser beam ‘penetration’ is considered in terms of melting through the sample or drilling through the sample due to both evaporation and recoil ejection of material. As a demonstration of the predictive capabilities of the model, the average velocity of penetration through a material with steel-like properties is numerically predicted for various laser interaction parameters such as, laser beam radius, laser pulse duration (including CW regime), laser pulse energy and pulse repetition. In particular, the average penetration velocities through a sample due to melting are compared for pulsed and CW lasers of the same power. For the sake of another demonstration of penetration simulation, the temporal dynamics of the position of melt front relative to the sample surface irradiated by a laser beam was computed for different laser pulse repetition rates and constant average laser power. An illustration of the penetration efficiency (W parameter) defined as the amount of energy per unit volume delivered into a target in order to achieve either melting of drilling through a target wall is shown in a wide range of laser pulse parameters covering regimes corresponding to domination of melting through and drilling through.

  9. Effect of Aerobic Exercise with 75-85% of Maximum Heart Rate on Apelin and Insulin Resistance Index in Sedentary Men

    N. Alavizadeh


    Full Text Available ims: Apelin is an adipokine, which secreted from adipose tissue and has positive effects against the insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 8-week aerobic exercise on levels of apelin and insulin resistance index in sedentary men. Materials & Methods: In this semi-experimental study with controlled group pre/post-test design in 2015, 27 healthy sedentary men living in Mashhad City, Iran, were selected by convenience sampling method. They were divided into two groups; experimental group (n=14 and control group (n=13. In the trained group, the volunteers participated in 8 weeks aerobic exercise, 3 days/week (equivalent to 75-85% of maximum oxygen consumption for 60 minutes per session. The research variables were assessed before and after the intervention in both groups. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 20 software using paired and independent sample T tests. Findings: 8-week aerobic exercise significantly decreased the weight, BMI and apelin, insulin and insulin resistance index levels and increased the maximum oxygen consumption in experimental group sedentary men (p<0.05. Moreover, there were significant differences in levels of FBS, insulin, apelin, insulin resistance index and maximum oxygen consumption between experimental and control groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: 8-week aerobic exercise reduces apelin levels and insulin resistance index in sedentary men.

  10. Control of penetration zone GMAW

    Віталій Петрович Iванов


    Full Text Available Thermal properties of the base metal, shielding medium and the nature of the electrode metal transfer to a great extent determine the penetration area formation in gas-arc welding. It is not always possible to take into account the influence of these factors on penetration front forming within the existing models. The aim of the work was to research the penetration area forming in gas-arc welding. The research of the penetration area forming in gas-arc welding of CrNi austenitic steels was made. The parameters of the regime as well as the kind of the gaseous medium influence on the formation of the penetration zone were studied. The article shows a linear proportional relationship between the electrode feed rate and the size of the base metal plate. The penetration area formation mode for welding in argon and carbon dioxide have been worked out. Diameter, feed rate and the speed of the electrode movement have been chosen as the main input parameters. Multiple regression analysis method was used to make up the modes. The relations of the third order that make it possible to take into account the electrode metal transfer and thermal properties change of the materials to be welded were used. These relationships show quite good agreement with the experimental measurements in the calculation of the fusion zone shape with consumable electrode in argon and carbon dioxide. It was determined that the shape of the melting front curve can be shown as a generalized function in which the front motion parameters depend on feed rate and the diameter of the electrode. Penetration zone growth time is determined by the welding speed and is calculated as a discrete function of the distance from the electrode with the spacing along the movement coordinate. The influence of the mode parameters on the formation of the fusion zone has been investigated and the ways to manage and stabilize the weld pool formation have been identified. The modes can be used to develop

  11. Maximum Plant Uptakes for Water, Nutrients, and Oxygen Are Not Always Met by Irrigation Rate and Distribution in Water-based Cultivation Systems

    Blok, Chris; Jackson, Brian E.; Guo, Xianfeng; Visser, De Pieter H.B.; Marcelis, Leo F.M.


    Growing on rooting media other than soils in situ -i.e., substrate-based growing- allows for higher yields than soil-based growing as transport rates of water, nutrients, and oxygen in substrate surpass those in soil. Possibly water-based growing allows for even higher yields as transport rates of

  12. Metasploit penetration testing cookbook

    Agarwal, Monika


    This book follows a Cookbook style with recipes explaining the steps for penetration testing with WLAN, VOIP, and even cloud computing. There is plenty of code and commands used to make your learning curve easy and quick.This book targets both professional penetration testers as well as new users of Metasploit, who wish to gain expertise over the framework and learn an additional skill of penetration testing, not limited to a particular OS. The book requires basic knowledge of scanning, exploitation, and the Ruby language.

  13. Should measurement of maximum urinary flow rate and residual urine volume be a part of a "minimal care" assessment programme in female incontinence?

    Sander, Pia; Mouritsen, L; Andersen, J Thorup


    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of routine measurements of urinary flow rate and residual urine volume as a part of a "minimal care" assessment programme for women with urinary incontinence in detecting clinical significant bladder emptying problems. MATERIAL AND METHOD...... female urinary incontinence. Thus, primary health care providers can assess women based on simple guidelines without expensive equipment for assessment of urine flow rate and residual urine....

  14. Penetration testing with Perl

    Berdeaux, Douglas


    If you are an expert Perl programmer interested in penetration testing or information security, this guide is designed for you. However, it will also be helpful for you even if you have little or no Linux shell experience.

  15. Oxygen supply in disposable shake-flasks: prediction of oxygen transfer rate, oxygen saturation and maximum cell concentration during aerobic growth.

    Schiefelbein, Sarah; Fröhlich, Alexander; John, Gernot T; Beutler, Falco; Wittmann, Christoph; Becker, Judith


    Dissolved oxygen plays an essential role in aerobic cultivation especially due to its low solubility. Under unfavorable conditions of mixing and vessel geometry it can become limiting. This, however, is difficult to predict and thus the right choice for an optimal experimental set-up is challenging. To overcome this, we developed a method which allows a robust prediction of the dissolved oxygen concentration during aerobic growth. This integrates newly established mathematical correlations for the determination of the volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient (kLa) in disposable shake-flasks from the filling volume, the vessel size and the agitation speed. Tested for the industrial production organism Corynebacterium glutamicum, this enabled a reliable design of culture conditions and allowed to predict the maximum possible cell concentration without oxygen limitation.

  16. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand

    Marston, J. O.; Vakarelski, I. U.; Thoroddsen, S. T.


    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  17. Percutaneous penetration studies for risk assessment

    Sartorelli, Vittorio; Andersen, Helle Raun; Angerer, Jürgen


    . In order to predict the systemic risk of dermally absorbed chemicals and to enable agencies to set safety standards, data is needed on the rates of percutaneous penetration of important chemicals. Standardization of in vitro tests and comparison of their results with the in vivo data could produce...... of percutaneous penetration. This paper is an outcome of the meetings of the Percutaneous Penetration Subgroup and reports the presentations on the key issues identified throughout the 3-year duration of the Dermal Exposure Network (1997-1999)....

  18. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand

    Marston, J. O.


    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  19. Assessing high wind energy penetration

    Tande, J.O.


    In order to convincingly promote installing wind power capacity as a substantial part of the energy supply system, a set of careful analyses must be undertaken. This paper applies a case study concentrated on assessing the cost/benefit of high wind energy penetration. The case study considers...... expanding the grid connected wind power capacity in Praia, the capital of Cape Verde. The currently installed 1 MW of wind power is estimated to supply close to 10% of the electric energy consumption in 1996. Increasing the wind energy penetration to a higher level is considered viable as the project...... with the existing wind power, supply over 30% of the electric consumption in 1996. Applying the recommended practices for estimating the cost of wind energy, the life-cycle cost of this 2.4 MW investment is estimated at a 7% discount rate and a 20 year lifetime to 0.26 DKK/kW h....

  20. [Guide values for heart rate and blood pressure with reference to 20, 40, 60 und 80% of maximum exertion considering age, sex and body mass in non-trained individuals].

    Strasser, Barbara; Schwarz, Joachim; Haber, Paul; Schobersberger, Wolfgang


    Aim of this study was to evaluate reliable guide values for heart rate (HF) and blood pressure (RR) with reference to defined sub maximum exertion considering age, gender and body mass. One hundred and eighteen healthy but non-trained subjects (38 women, 80 men) were included in the study. For interpretation, finally facts of 28 women and 59 men were used. We found gender differences for HF and RR. Further, we noted significant correlations between HF and age as well as between RR and body mass at all exercise levels. We established formulas for gender-specific calculation of reliable guide values for HF and RR on sub maximum exercise levels.

  1. Maximum Likelihood Associative Memories

    Gripon, Vincent; Rabbat, Michael


    Associative memories are structures that store data in such a way that it can later be retrieved given only a part of its content -- a sort-of error/erasure-resilience property. They are used in applications ranging from caches and memory management in CPUs to database engines. In this work we study associative memories built on the maximum likelihood principle. We derive minimum residual error rates when the data stored comes from a uniform binary source. Second, we determine the minimum amo...

  2. Effect of contraction mode of slow-speed resistance training on the maximum rate of force development in the human quadriceps

    Blazevich, Anthony J; Horne, Sara; Cannavan, Dale


    knee extension training was performed 3 x week(-1) for 10 weeks. Maximal isometric strength (+11.2%) and RFD (measured from 0-30/50/100/200 ms, respectively; +10.5%-20.5%) increased after 10 weeks (P training mode. Peak EMG amplitude and rate of EMG rise......This study examined the effects of slow-speed resistance training involving concentric (CON, n = 10) versus eccentric (ECC, n = 11) single-joint muscle contractions on contractile rate of force development (RFD) and neuromuscular activity (EMG), and its maintenance through detraining. Isokinetic...... were not significantly altered with training or detraining. Subjects with below-median normalized RFD (RFD/MVC) at 0 weeks significantly increased RFD after 5- and 10-weeks training, which was associated with increased neuromuscular activity. Subjects who maintained their higher RFD after detraining...

  3. Allocation of new growth between shoot, root and mycorrhiza in relation to carbon, nitrogen and phosphate supply: teleonomy with maximum growth rate.

    Thornley, John H M; Parsons, Anthony J


    Treating resource allocation within plants, and between plants and associated organisms, is essential for plant, crop and ecosystem modelling. However, it is still an unresolved issue. It is also important to consider quantitatively when it is efficient and to what extent a plant can invest profitably in a mycorrhizal association. A teleonomic model is used to address these issues. A six state-variable model giving exponential growth is constructed. This represents carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) substrates with structure in shoot, root and mycorrhiza. The shoot is responsible for uptake of substrate C, the root for substrates N and P, and the mycorrhiza also for substrates N and P. A teleonomic goal, maximizing proportional growth rate, is solved analytically for the allocation fractions. Expressions allocating new dry matter to shoot, root and mycorrhiza are derived which maximize growth rate. These demonstrate several key intuitive phenomena concerning resource sharing between plant components and associated mycorrhizae. For instance, if root uptake rate for phosphorus is equal to that achievable by mycorrhiza and without detriment to root uptake rate for nitrogen, then this gives a faster growing mycorrhizal-free plant. However, if root phosphorus uptake is below that achievable by mycorrhiza, then a mycorrhizal association may be a preferred strategy. The approach offers a methodology for introducing resource sharing between species into ecosystem models. Applying teleonomy may provide a valuable short-term means of modelling allocation, avoiding the circularity of empirical models, and circumventing the complexities and uncertainties inherent in mechanistic approaches. However it is subjective and brings certain irreducible difficulties with it.

  4. Procedure to estimate maximum ground acceleration from macroseismic intensity rating: application to the Lima, Perú data from the October-3-1974-8.1-Mw earthquake

    L. Ocola


    Full Text Available Post-disaster reconstruction management of urban areas requires timely information on the ground response microzonation to strong levels of ground shaking to minimize the rebuilt-environment vulnerability to future earthquakes. In this paper, a procedure is proposed to quantitatively estimate the severity of ground response in terms of peak ground acceleration, that is computed from macroseismic rating data, soil properties (acoustic impedance and predominant frequency of shear waves at a site. The basic mathematical relationships are derived from properties of wave propagation in a homogeneous and isotropic media. We define a Macroseismic Intensity Scale IMS as the logarithm of the quantity of seismic energy that flows through a unit area normal to the direction of wave propagation in unit time. The derived constants that relate the IMS scale and peak acceleration agree well with coefficients derived from a linear regression between MSK macroseismic rating and peak ground acceleration for historical earthquakes recorded at a strong motion station, at IGP's former headquarters, since 1954. The procedure was applied to 3-October-1974 Lima macroseismic intensity data at places where there was geotechnical data and predominant ground frequency information. The observed and computed peak acceleration values, at nearby sites, agree well.

  5. Physics of Armour penetration

    Sampooran Singh


    Full Text Available When a “Shaped-Charge” projectile is spin-stabilized during its flight, its penetration is greatly reduced, hence such a projectile is fin-stabilized and consequently the range is less and accuracy is poor. Attempts are being made to combine the penetrating power of a bazooka, and range and accuracy of rifled weapon. Just as the introduction of fire-arms brought about the extinction of the armour knights because a bullet could easily penetrate the kind of armour that the knights could put on; similarly “Shaped-Charge” projectiles having the range and accuracy of a rifled weapon will seriously affect the tactical use of amour in the battle-field.

  6. Penetrômetro de cone com taxa constante de penetração no solo: desenvolvimento e teste de funcionalidade Constant-rate cone penetrometer: development and functionality

    Dalvan J. Reinert


    Full Text Available Penetrômetros auxiliam na determinação da capacidade de suporte do solo na engenharia civil e na avaliação da resistência mecânica de solos agrícolas, relacionando-a com compactação do solo e crescimento do sistema radicular das plantas. Este trabalho relata o desenvolvimento de um penetrômetro de cone com taxa constante de penetração, suas partes e funcionalidade, bem como resultados do uso na avaliação comparativa da compactação em experimentos e em lavoura. A quantificação da resistência é realizada com célula de carga, a distância de penetração no solo com potenciômetro, e a aquisição e o armazenamento de dados com placas eletrônicas. A concepção do equipamento, que emprega velocidade constante de penetração da haste no perfil do solo, possibilitou a aquisição de grande coleção de dados relativos com pequena variação de profundidade (5 mm, atingindo a profundidade máxima de 0,80 m. O equipamento é eficaz na aquisição e no tratamento de dados de resistência mecânica do solo à penetração em profundidade do perfil. A variação entre os pontos permite inferir sobre parâmetros e características do solo, bem como sobre o comportamento desses sob condições externas impostas, quer seja imediata, quer seja residual.Penetrometers are used to quantify soil bearing capacity in civil engineering and to evaluate mechanical resistance of agricultural soils, which is an indicator of soil compaction and of root growth. This paper reports the development, components and functionality of a constant-rate cone penetrometer, as well as its application to measure soil compaction. The force is measured by a load cell, the distance is measured by a potentiometer, and data acquisition and storage are performed by an electronic board. The equipment was tested in agricultural field transects with profile variability and experimental plots with compaction variability, generating soil penetration resistance information

  7. The Effect and Mechanism of Transdermal Penetration Enhancement of Fu's Cupping Therapy: New Physical Penetration Technology for Transdermal Administration with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Characteristics.

    Xie, Wei-Jie; Zhang, Yong-Ping; Xu, Jian; Sun, Xiao-Bo; Yang, Fang-Fang


    In this paper, a new type of physical penetration technology for transdermal administration with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) characteristics is presented. Fu's cupping therapy (FCT), was established and studied using in vitro and in vivo experiments and the penetration effect and mechanism of FCT physical penetration technology was preliminarily discussed. With 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methylindole-3-ylacetic acid (indomethacin, IM) as a model drug, the establishment of high, medium, and low references was completed for the chemical permeation system via in vitro transdermal tests. Furthermore, using chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs) and iontophoresis as references, the percutaneous penetration effect of FCT for IM patches was evaluated using seven species of in vitro diffusion kinetics models and in vitro drug distribution; the IM quantitative analysis method in vivo was established using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technology (UPLC-MS/MS), and pharmacokinetic parameters: area under the zero and first moment curves from 0 to last time t (AUC0-t, AUMC0-t), area under the zero and first moment curves from 0 to infinity (AUC0-∞, AUMC0-∞), maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and mean residence time (MRT), were used as indicators to evaluate the percutaneous penetration effect of FCT in vivo. Additionally, we used the 3(K) factorial design to study the joint synergistic penetration effect on FCT and chemical penetration enhancers. Through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging, micro- and ultrastructural changes on the surface of the stratum corneum (SC) were observed to explore the FCT penetration mechanism. In vitro and in vivo skin permeation experiments revealed that both the total cumulative percutaneous amount and in vivo percutaneous absorption amount of IM using FCT were greater than the amount using CPEs and iontophoresis. Firstly, compared with the

  8. Session: Hard Rock Penetration

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter


    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

  9. Ground penetrating radar

    Daniels, David J


    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  10. Effects of whole-body electromyostimulation on resting metabolic rate, body composition, and maximum strength in postmenopausal women: the Training and ElectroStimulation Trial.

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Schliffka, Rebecca; Mayhew, Jerry L; von Stengel, Simon


    We evaluated the effect of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) during dynamic exercises over 14 weeks on anthropometric, physiological, and muscular parameters in postmenopausal women. Thirty women (64.5 +/- 5.5 years) with experience in physical training (>3 years) were randomly assigned either to a control group (CON, n = 15) that maintained their general training program (2 x 60 min.wk of endurance and dynamic strength exercise) or to an electromyostimulation group (WB-EMS, n = 15) that additionally performed a 20-minute WB-EMS training (2 x 20 min.10 d). Resting metabolic rate (RMR) determined from spirometry was selected to indicate muscle mass. In addition, body circumferences, subcutaneous skinfolds, strength, power, and dropout and adherence values. Resting metabolic rate was maintained in WB-EMS (-0.1 +/- 4.8 kcal.h) and decreased in CON (-3.2+/-5.2 kcal.h, p = 0.038); although group differences were not significant (p = 0.095), there was a moderately strong effect size (ES = 0.62). Sum of skinfolds (28.6%) and waist circumference (22.3%) significantly decreased in WB-EMS whereas both parameters (1.4 and 0.1%, respectively) increased in CON (p = 0.001, ES = 1.37 and 1.64, respectively), whereas both parameters increased in CON (1.4 and 0.1%, respectively). Isometric strength changes of the trunk extensors and leg extensors differed significantly (p < or = 0.006) between WB-EMS and CON (9.9% vs. -6.4%, ES = 1.53; 9.6% vs. -4.5%, ES = 1.43, respectively). In summary, adjunct WB-EMS training significantly exceeds the effect of isolated endurance and resistance type exercise on fitness and fatness parameters. Further, we conclude that for elderly subjects unable or unwilling to perform dynamic strength exercises, electromyostimulation may be a smooth alternative to maintain lean body mass, strength, and power.

  11. Characterization of the heart rate curve during a maximum incremental test on a treadmill. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n4p285

    Eduardo Marcel Fernandes Nascimento


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the heart rate (HR profile plotted against incremental workloads (IWL during a treadmill test using three mathematical models [linear, linear with 2 segments (Lin2, and sigmoidal], and to determine the best model for the identification of the HR threshold that could be used as a predictor of ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2. Twenty-two men underwent a treadmill incremental test (retest group: n=12 at an initial speed of 5.5 km.h-1, with increments of 0.5 km.h-1 at 1-min intervals until exhaustion. HR and gas exchange were continuously measured and subsequently converted to 5-s and 20-s averages, respectively. The best model was chosen based on residual sum of squares and mean square error. The HR/IWL ratio was better fitted with the Lin2 model in the test and retest groups (p0.05. During a treadmill incremental test, the HR/IWL ratio seems to be better fitted with a Lin2 model, which permits to determine the HR threshold that coincides with VT1.


    Alli Muthiah


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Penetrating abdominal injuries forms an important component of surgical emergencies. It remains one of the commonest reasons for preventable deaths in any trauma systems. 1 Abdominal injuries may be parietal or visceral or perforating through and through injury. Unnecessary exploration leads to increased morbidity. The goal in managing penetrating abdominal injuries is to identify and treat all the damages caused by the weapon and to reduce negative laparotomy and avoid missed injuries. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study that was carried out in 53 patients in Government Kilpauk Medical College and Government Royapettah Hospital from May 2007 to July 2009 on penetrating injuries abdomen. RESULTS Among 53 patients, maximum number of cases were in the age group of 30-40 years. Assault injuries account for 87% of cases of penetrating abdominal injuries. Small bowel was the commonly injured organ in this study. Laparotomy was therapeutic in 94% of the cases (64% of the cases underwent laparotomy. CONCLUSION Careful and serial clinical examination and appropriate diagnostic investigations leads to successful treatment in these patients. Computed tomography is highly sensitive in predicting both peritoneal penetration and intra-abdominal visceral injuries.

  13. New constraints on the maximum rate of change of the geomagnetic field intensity in Western Europe during the last two millennia

    Gomez-Paccard, Miriam; Osete, Maria Luisa; Chauvin, Annick; Pérez-Asensio, Manuel; Jimenez-Castillo, Pedro


    Available European data indicate that during the past 2500 years there have been periods of rapid intensity geomagnetic fluctuations interspersed with periods of little change. The challenge now is to precisely describe these rapid changes. Due to the difficulty to obtain precisely dated heated materials to obtain a high-resolution description of past geomagnetic field intensity changes, new high-quality archeomagnetic data from archeological heated materials founded in well-defined superposed stratigraphic units are particularly valuable. In this work we report the archeomagnetic study of several groups of ceramic fragments from southeastern Spain that belong to 14 superposed stratigraphic levels corresponding to a surface no bigger than 3 m by 7 m. Between four and eight ceramic fragments were selected per stratigraphic unit. The age of the pottery fragments range from the second half of the 7th to the11th centuries. The dates were established by three radiocarbon dates and by archeological/historical constraints including typological comparisons and well-controlled stratigraphic constrains.Between two and four specimens per pottery fragment were studied. The classical Thellier and Thellier method including pTRM checks and TRM anisotropy and cooling rate corrections was used to estimate paleointensities at specimen level. All accepted results correspond to well-defined single components of magnetization going toward the origin and to high-quality paleointensity determinations. From these experiments nine new high-quality mean intensities have been obtained. The new data provide an improved description of the sharp abrupt intensity changes that took place in this region between the 7th and the 11th centuries. The results confirm that several rapid intensity changes (of about ~15-20 µT/century) took place in Western Europe during the recent history of the Earth.

  14. Tumor penetrating peptides

    Tambet eTeesalu


    Full Text Available Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC, contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular zip code of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is

  15. A Study on Factors Affecting Airborne LiDAR Penetration

    Wei-Chen Hsu


    Full Text Available This study uses data from different periods, areas and parameters of airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging surveys to understand the factors that influence airborne LiDAR penetration rate. A discussion is presented on the relationships between these factors and LiDAR penetration rate. The results show that the flight height above ground level (AGL does not have any relationship with the penetration rate. There are some factors that should have larger influence. For example, the laser is affected by a wet ground surface by reducing the number of return echoes. The field of view (FOV has a slightly negative correlation with the penetration rate, which indicates that the laser incidence angle close to zero should achieve the best penetration. The vegetation cover rate also shows a negative correlation with the penetration rate, thus bare ground and reduced vegetation in the aftermath of a typhoon also cause high penetration rate. More return echoes could be extracted from the full-waveform system, thereby effectively improving the penetration rate. This study shows that full-waveform LiDAR is an effective method for increasing the number of surface reflected echoes. This study suggests avoiding LiDAR survey employment directly following precipitation to prevent laser echo reduction.

  16. Interpretation of Cone Penetration Testing in Silty Soils Conducted under Partially Drained Conditions

    Holmsgaard, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    The standard penetration rate used in cone penetration tests (CPTs) is 20 mm=s, regardless of soil type, which yields fully drained penetration in sand and fully undrained penetration in clay. However, for silty soils that represent an intermediate grain size composition and unique characteristics...... compared with sand and clay, the standard rate of penetration results in partially drained penetration, often leading to misinterpretation of this soil type. In this study, 15 CPTs, with penetration rates varying from 0.5 to 60 mm=s, were performed at a test site in northern Denmark, where the subsoil...... consisted primarily of sandy silt with clay bands. The results illustrated that when the penetration rate is reduced, the cone resistance increases, but the pore pressure decreases. The transition between undrained and fully drained penetration was determined by converting the results into a normalized...

  17. Python penetration testing essentials



    If you are a Python programmer or a security researcher who has basic knowledge of Python programming and want to learn about penetration testing with the help of Python, this book is ideal for you. Even if you are new to the field of ethical hacking, this book can help you find the vulnerabilities in your system so that you are ready to tackle any kind of attack or intrusion.

  18. Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.


    This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from...

  19. An Overview of Penetration Testing


    Penetration testing is a series of activities undertaken to identify and exploit security vulnerabilities. It helps confirm the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of the security measures that have been implemented. This paper provides an overview of penetration testing. It discusses the benefits, the strategies and the methodology of conducting penetration testing. The methodology of penetration testing includes three phases: test preparation, test and test analysis. The test phase involves ...

  20. The full penetration hole as a stochastic process: controlling penetration depth in keyhole laser-welding processes

    Blug, A.; Abt, F.; Nicolosi, L.; Heider, A.; Weber, R.; Carl, D.; Höfler, H.; Tetzlaff, R.


    Although laser-welding processes are frequently used in industrial production the quality control of these processes is not satisfactory yet. Until recently, the "full penetration hole" was presumed as an image feature which appears when the keyhole opens at the bottom of the work piece. Therefore it was used as an indicator for full penetration only. We used a novel camera based on "cellular neural networks" which enables measurements at frame rates up to 14 kHz. The results show that the occurrence of the full penetration hole can be described as a stochastic process. The probability to observe it increases near the full penetration state. In overlap joints, a very similar image feature appears when the penetration depth reaches the gap between the sheets. This stochastic process is exploited by a closed-loop system which controls penetration depth near the bottom of the work piece ("full penetration") or near the gap in overlap joints ("partial penetration"). It guides the welding process at the minimum laser power necessary for the required penetration depth. As a result, defects like spatters are reduced considerably and the penetration depth becomes independent of process drifts such as feeding rate or pollution on protection glasses.

  1. Primary reserve studies for high wind power penetrated systems

    Das, Kaushik; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela;


    With high penetration of non-synchronous wind generations replacing conventional generators, the inertia of power system will reduce. A large disturbance in such a power system can cause faster frequency change in this power system and might invoke emergency defence strategies like underfrequency....... This paper further explores the capabilities of wind turbines to provide support during underfrequency to prevent load shedding. Maximum wind penetration possible without causing load shedding following a large disturbance is also investigated....

  2. Penetration of amalgam constituents into dentine

    Scholtanus, Johannes D.; Ozcan, Mutlu; Huysmans, Marie-Charlotte D. N. J. M.


    Objectives: Amalgam restorations are replaced by adhesively placed composite resin restorations at an increasing rate. After the removal of amalgam dentine often shows marked dark discoloration that is attributed to the penetration of corrosion products from overlying amalgams. it is questioned whet

  3. Penetration of amalgam constituents into dentine.

    Scholtanus, J.D.; Ozcan, M.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.


    OBJECTIVES: Amalgam restorations are replaced by adhesively placed composite resin restorations at an increasing rate. After the removal of amalgam dentine often shows marked dark discoloration that is attributed to the penetration of corrosion products from overlying amalgams. It is questioned whet

  4. An Overview of Penetration Testing

    Aileen G. Bacudio


    Full Text Available Penetration testing is a series of activities undertaken to identify and exploit security vulnerabilities. It helps confirm the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of the security measures that have been implemented. This paper provides an overview of penetration testing. It discusses the benefits, the strategies and the methodology of conducting penetration testing. The methodology of penetration testing includes three phases: test preparation, test and test analysis. The test phase involves the following steps: information gathering, vulnerability analysis, and vulnerability exploit. This paper further illustrates how to apply this methodology to conduct penetration testing on two example web applications.

  5. Penetrating facial injury with an "Airsoft" pellet: a case report.

    Strong, Ben; Coady, Martin


    Airsoft is a recreational combat sport that originated in Japan in the 1970s and is currently increasing in popularity in the UK. Participants use air or electrically powered weapons to fire small plastic pellets at a controlled pressure. UK law strictly regulates the maximum muzzle velocity and the type of ammunition used in these weapons. A search of published papers found several reports of penetrating ocular injuries caused by Airsoft pellets, but no reports of penetrating injuries to other areas of the body. We report the case of a 25-year-old man who sustained a penetrating injury to the cheek after being shot with an Airsoft weapon.

  6. Proniosomes for Penetration Enhancement in Transdermal System

    Samita Singla


    Full Text Available Over the last few years an inclusive research has been done over provesicular approach for transdermal drug delivery. Skin has a very tough diffusion barrier inhibiting penetration of drug moiety which is rate limiting barrier for penetration of drugs. There are several approaches that deal with penetration enhancement across the skin. Vesicular and provesicular systems are promising amongst them. Vesicular systems including (niosomes, ethosomes, transfersomes and liposomes are promising systems to cross this permeation barrier. But their major drawback is their unstability, which can be overcome by using provesicular approaches like proniosomes, protransfersomes and proliposomes. Provesicular approaches have been proposed to enhance the stability of vesicles. These approaches may overcome skin barrier properties and enhance percutaneous absorption. In these systems both type of drugs, hydrophilic and lipophillic drugs can be incorporated. The focus of this review is to bring together different aspects related to mechanism of skin permeation of provesicular system, proniosomes preparation and its applications as a carrier system

  7. Vacuum Radiation Pressure Fluctuations and Barrier Penetration

    Huang, Haiyan


    We apply recent results on the probability distribution for quantum stress tensor fluctuations to the problem of barrier penetration by quantum particles. The probability for large stress tensor fluctuations decreases relatively slowly with increasing magnitude of the fluctuation, especially when the quantum stress tensor operator has been averaged over a finite time interval. This can lead to large vacuum radiation pressure fluctuations on charged or polarizable particles, which can in turn push the particle over a potential barrier. The rate for this effect depends sensitively upon the details of the time averaging of the stress tensor operator, which might be determined by factors such as the shape of the potential. We make some estimates for the rate of barrier penetration by this mechanism and argue that in some cases this rate can exceed the rate for quantum tunneling through the barrier. The possibility of observation of this effect is discussed.

  8. Penetration of erythromycin through Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm

    LIN Mao-hu; HE Lei; GAO Jie; LIU Yun-xi; SUO Ji-jiang; XING Yu-bin; JIA Ning


    Background The catheter related infection caused by Staphylococcus epiderrnidis biofilm is increasing and difficult to treat by antimicrobial chemotherapy.The properties of biofilms that give rise to antibiotic resistance are only partially understood.This study aimed to elucidate the penetration of erythromycin through Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm.Methods The penetration ratio of erythromycin through Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms of 1457,1457-msrA,and wild isolate S68 was detected by biofilm penetration model at different time points according to the standard regression curve.The RNNDNA ratio and the cell density within the biofilms were observed by confocal laser microscope and transmission electromicroscope,respectively.Results The penetration ratios of erythromycin through the biofilms of 1457,1457-msrA,and S68 after cultivation for 36 hours were 0.93,0.55 and 0.4,respectively.The erythromycin penetration ratio through 1457 biofilm (0.58 after 8 hours)was higher than that through the other two (0.499 and 0.31 after 24 hours).Lower growth rate of the cells in biofilm was shown,with reduction of RNA/DNA proportion observed by confocal laser microscope through acridine orange stain.Compared with the control group observed by transmission electrmicroscope,the cell density of biofilm air face was lower than that of agar face,with more cell debris.Conclusions Erythromycin could penetrate to the Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm,but could not kill the cells thoroughly.The lower growth rate of the cells within biofilm could help decreasing the erythromycin susceptibility.

  9. Penetration Testing: A Review

    Kumar Shravan


    Full Text Available : Network Security is becoming more and more crucial as the volume of data being exchanged on the Internet increases. When people use Internet, they have certain expectations. They expect confidentiality, data integrity and authentication (CIA Standards. In 1980’s most organizations had only a physical boundary that needed protection of the assets. Today, due to the changes in the way resources are made available Organizations are forced to verify that their assets are protected from both the external and internal threats that our working environment has enabled. Due to the increasing dependency of our society on networked information system the overall security of these systems should be measured and improved. The most accurate method to evaluate organization’s information security stance is to observe how it stands up against an attack. Network administrators have often tried their best by improving their network security, however with rapid surface of new exploits; the best way of ensuring that the system is secure is to attempt penetration testing. This would be the most effective way to find exploits and to proof whether a system is vulnerable. Penetration test ing often allows the security analyst to find new vulnerabilities.

  10. Penetration Dynamics of Earth Penetration Warhead into Composite Target Media

    P. K. Roy


    Full Text Available Attempts have been made to develop a suitable computer code that can find solutions to the axi-symmetric penetration of an Earth Penetrating Warhead yielding complete space-time histories of the resistive force offered by the target medium. The consequent warhead deceleration and velocity reduction, the resulting axial compressive stress developed in warhead casing as the penetration process progresses into the composite target media consisting of hard concrete of specified thickness followed by earth soil have been discussed.

  11. Weak Consistency and Convergence Rate of Quasi -Maximum Likelihood Estimated in Generalized Linear Models%广义线性模型中拟似然估计的弱相合性及收敛速度

    邓春亮; 胡南辉


    在非自然联系情形下讨论了广义线性模型拟似然方程的解βn在λn→∞和其他一些正则性条件下证明了解的弱相合性,并得到其收敛于真值βo的速度为Op(λn^-1/2),其中λn(λ^-n)为方阵Sn=n∑i=1XiX^11的最小(最大)特征值.%In this paper,we study the solution βn of quasi - maximum likelihood equation for generalized linear mod- els (GLMs). Under the assumption of an unnatural link function and other some mild conditions , we prove the weak consistency of the solution to βnquasi - - maximum likelihood equation and present its convergence rate isOp(λn^-1/2),λn(^λn) which denotes the smallest (Maximum)eigervalue of the matrixSn =n∑i=1XiX^11,

  12. 指数多项式模型中参数最大似然估计的收敛速度%Convergence rate for maximum likelihood estimation of parameters in exponential polynomial model

    房祥忠; 陈家鼎


    强度随时间变化的非齐次Possion过程在很多领域应用广泛.对一类非常广泛的非齐次Poisson过程—指数多项式模型,得到了当观测时间趋于无穷大时,参数的最大似然估计的“最优”收敛速度.%The model of nonhomogeneous Poisson processes with varying intensity function is applied in many fields. The best convergence rate for the maximum likelihood estimate ( MLE ) of exponential polynomial model, which is a kind of wide used nonhomogeneous Poisson processes, is given when time going to infinity.

  13. Unsteady penetration of a target by a liquid jet.

    Uth, Tobias; Deshpande, Vikram S


    It is widely acknowledged that ceramic armor experiences an unsteady penetration response: an impacting projectile may erode on the surface of a ceramic target without substantial penetration for a significant amount of time and then suddenly start to penetrate the target. Although known for more than four decades, this phenomenon, commonly referred to as dwell, remains largely unexplained. Here, we use scaled analog experiments with a low-speed water jet and a soft, translucent target material to investigate dwell. The transient target response, in terms of depth of penetration and impact force, is captured using a high-speed camera in combination with a piezoelectric force sensor. We observe the phenomenon of dwell using a soft (noncracking) target material. The results show that the penetration rate increases when the flow of the impacting water jet is reversed due to the deformation of the jet-target interface--this reversal is also associated with an increase in the force exerted by the jet on the target. Creep penetration experiments with a constant indentation force did not show an increase in the penetration rate, confirming that flow reversal is the cause of the unsteady penetration rate. Our results suggest that dwell can occur in a ductile noncracking target due to flow reversal. This phenomenon of flow reversal is rather widespread and present in a wide range of impact situations, including water-jet cutting, needleless injection, and deposit removal via a fluid jet.

  14. Localizing Ground-Penetrating Radar


    ing Ground-Penetrating Radar (LGPR) uses very high frequency (VHF) radar reflections of underground features to generate base- line maps and then...Innovative ground- penetrating radar that maps underground geological features provides autonomous vehicles with real-time localization. Localizing...NOV 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Localizing Ground-Penetrating Radar 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  15. Penetration Tester's Open Source Toolkit

    Faircloth, Jeremy


    Great commercial penetration testing tools can be very expensive and sometimes hard to use or of questionable accuracy. This book helps solve both of these problems. The open source, no-cost penetration testing tools presented do a great job and can be modified by the user for each situation. Many tools, even ones that cost thousands of dollars, do not come with any type of instruction on how and in which situations the penetration tester can best use them. Penetration Tester's Open Source Toolkit, Third Edition, expands upon existing instructions so that a professional can get the most accura

  16. Aerodynamic Jump for Long Rod Penetrators

    Mark L. Bundy


    Aerodynamic jump for a non-spinning kinetic energy penetrator is neither a discontinuous change in the ,direction of motion at the origin of free night, nor is it the converse, i.e. a cumulativer~direc4on over a domain of infinite extent. Rather aerodynamic jump, for such a projectile, is a localised redirection of the centre of gravity motion, caused ~ the force of lift due to yaw over ther4latively short region from entry into free flight until the yaw reaches its first maximum. The primary...

  17. Physical Penetration Testing: A Whole New Story in Penetration Testing

    Dimkov, Trajce; Pieters, Wolter


    Physical penetration testing plays an important role in assuring a company that the security policies are properly enforced and that the security awareness of the employees is on the appropriate level. In physical penetration tests the tester physically enters restricted locations and directly inter

  18. Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery

    Chih-Yuan Tseng


    Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.

  19. Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.; Steenfelt, Agnete


    This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from an ordinary non-spatial factor analysis, and they are interpreted in a geological context. It is demonstrated that MAF analysis contrary to ordinary non-spatial factor analysis gives an objective discrimina...

  20. Effect of Drainage Conditions on Cone Penetration Testing in Silty Soils

    Poulsen, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    This paper discusses the challenges that occur when performing Cone Penetration Tests (CPT) in silty soil due to changes in drainage conditions. In this paper, CPT results from various papers and researchers are collected and interpreted. Results from cone penetrations tests with various...... penetration rates is analysed, and it is shown how the changes in drainage condition, caused by the change in penetration rate, affects the plot in the soil classification charts. In addition, the effect on changes in penetration rate is compared for clay and silt, respectively, where the silty soil is more...... susceptible towards change in penetration rate. A normalized penetration rate is implemented in order to compare various cone resistance results, and hence investigate the changes from undrained to partially drained and from partially drained to fully drained....

  1. [Relative bioavailability of glucosamine after oral, intramuscular and transdermal administration of hondroxid maximum preparation in experiment].

    Yasso, B; Li, Y; Alexander, A; Mel'nikova, N B; Mukhina, I V


    A comparison of the relative bioavailability and intensity of penetration of glucosamine sulfate in oral, injection and topical administration of the dosage form Hondroxid Maximum as a cream containing micellar system for transdermal delivery of glucosamine in the experiment by Sprague-Dawley rats was carried out. On the base on the pharmacokinetic profiles data of glucosamine in rat blood plasma with daily administration in 3 times a day for 1 week by cream Hondroxid Maximum 400 mg/kg and the single injection solution of 4% Glucosamine sulfate 400 mg/kg was found that the relative bioavailability was 61.6%. Calculated penetration rate of glucosamine in the plasma through the rats skin in 4 hours, equal to 26.9 μg/cm2 x h, and the penetration of glucosamine through the skin into the plasma after a single dose of cream in 4 hours was 4.12%. Comparative analysis of literature and experimental data and calculations based on them suggest that medicine Hondroxid Maximum, cream with transdermal glucosamine complex in the treatment in accordance with the instructions can provide an average concentration of glucosamine in the synovial fluid of an inflamed joint in the range (0.7 - 1.5) μg/ml, much higher than the concentration of endogenous glucosamine human synovial joint fluid (0.02 - 0.07 μg/ml). By theoretical calculations taking into account experimental data it is shown that the medicine Hondroxid Maximum can reach the bioavailability level of the modern injection forms and exceed the bioavailability level of modern oral forms of glucosamine up to 2 times.

  2. Failure Engineered Heavy Metal Penetrators


    ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY Failure Engineered Heavy Metal Penetrators, Phase I, SBIR ARL-CR-5· R. Cavalieri, W. Tiarn, and D. Nicholson prepared...REPORT DATE S. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED December 1992 Final Report-1/1/92 - 7/31/92 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FAILURE ENGINEERED HEAVY METAL PENETRATORS

  3. Microscopic Driving Parameters-Based Energy-Saving Effect Analysis under Different Electric Vehicle Penetration

    Enjian Yao


    Full Text Available Due to the rapid motorization over the recent years, China's transportation sector has been facing an increasing environmental pressure. Compared with gasoline vehicle (GV, electric vehicle (EV is expected to play an important role in the mitigation of CO2 and other pollution emissions, and urban air quality improvement, for its zero emission during use and higher energy efficiency. This paper aims to estimate the energy saving efficiency of EV, especially under different EV penetration and road traffic conditions. First, based on the emission and electricity consumption data collected by a light-duty EV and a light duty GV, a set of electricity consumption rate models and gasoline consumption rate models are established. Then, according to the conversion formula of coal equivalent, these models are transformed into coal equivalent consumption models, which make gasoline consumption and electricity consumption comparable. Finally, the relationship between the EV penetration and the reduction of energy consumption is explored based on the simulation undertaken on the North Second Ring Road in Beijing. The results show that the coal equivalent consumption will decrease by about 5% with the increases of EV penetration by 10% and the maximum energy-saving effect can be achieved when the traffic volume is about 4000 pcu/h.

  4. Electromagnetic Field Penetration Studies

    Deshpande, M.D.


    A numerical method is presented to determine electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of rectangular enclosure with apertures on its wall used for input and output connections, control panels, visual-access windows, ventilation panels, etc. Expressing EM fields in terms of cavity Green's function inside the enclosure and the free space Green's function outside the enclosure, integral equations with aperture tangential electric fields as unknown variables are obtained by enforcing the continuity of tangential electric and magnetic fields across the apertures. Using the Method of Moments, the integral equations are solved for unknown aperture fields. From these aperture fields, the EM field inside a rectangular enclosure due to external electromagnetic sources are determined. Numerical results on electric field shielding of a rectangular cavity with a thin rectangular slot obtained using the present method are compared with the results obtained using simple transmission line technique for code validation. The present technique is applied to determine field penetration inside a Boeing-757 by approximating its passenger cabin as a rectangular cavity filled with a homogeneous medium and its passenger windows by rectangular apertures. Preliminary results for, two windows, one on each side of fuselage were considered. Numerical results for Boeing-757 at frequencies 26 MHz, 171-175 MHz, and 428-432 MHz are presented.

  5. Top Sounder Ice Penetration

    Porter, D. L.; Goemmer, S. A.; Sweeney, J. H.


    Ice draft measurements are made as part of normal operations for all US Navy submarines operating in the Arctic Ocean. The submarine ice draft data are unique in providing high resolution measurements over long transects of the ice covered ocean. The data has been used to document a multidecadal drop in ice thickness, and for validating and improving numerical sea-ice models. A submarine upward-looking sonar draft measurement is made by a sonar transducer mounted in the sail or deck of the submarine. An acoustic beam is transmitted upward through the water column, reflecting off the bottom of the sea ice and returning to the transducer. Ice thickness is estimated as the difference between the ship's depth (measured by pressure) and the acoustic range to the bottom of the ice estimated from the travel time of the sonar pulse. Digital recording systems can provide the return off the water-ice interface as well as returns that have penetrated the ice. Typically, only the first return from the ice hull is analyzed. Information regarding ice flow interstitial layers provides ice age information and may possibly be derived with the entire return signal. The approach being investigated is similar to that used in measuring bottom sediment layers and will involve measuring the echo level from the first interface, solving the reflection loss from that transmission, and employing reflection loss versus impedance mismatch to ascertain ice structure information.

  6. An Earth Penetrating Modeling Assessment

    Stokes, E; Yarrington, P; Glenn, L


    Documentation of a study to assess the capability of computer codes to predict lateral loads on earth penetrating projectiles under conditions of non-normal impact. Calculations simulated a set of small scale penetration tests into concrete targets with oblique faces at angles of 15 and 30 degrees to the line-of-flight. Predictive codes used by the various calculational teams cover a wide range of modeling approaches from approximate techniques, such as cavity expansion, to numerical methods, such as finite element codes. The modeling assessment was performed under the auspices of the Phenomenology Integrated Product Team (PIPT) for the Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Program (RNEP). Funding for the penetration experiments and modeling was provided by multiple earth penetrator programs.


    Raghu; Santhosh Babu; Devender


    Penetrating trauma forms an important component of surgical emergencies. The importance of this category becomes further apparent when one realises that most of such trauma victims are essentially healthy people and in the prime of their life. Over the past century, great advances were made in the management of such wounds. The operative management replaced the expectant therapy and reduced mortality rates. So this study is being done to evaluate the various indications for early ...

  8. Determining the penetrability factor using a small perturbations method

    Khayrullin, M.Kh.


    An iterational process is built for finding the penetrability factor which is based on small perturbation formulas with the assumption that the penetrability factor belongs to a class of piecewise constant functions. The iteration process is built in the following manner: finite differential analogies of direct and adjacent problems are solved in each step, then these solutions are used for obtaining a system of linear algebraic equations relative to perturbations in the penetrability factor. The refined values of the penetrability factor serve as the initial data for the next step of the iteration process. When the penetrability factor belongs to another class of functions, then it is possible to build its evaluation in the class of piecewise constant functions using the known values of the bottom hole pressures and flow rates using this iteration process. Examples of calculations of such evaluations are given and they are compared with evaluations obtained through a least squares method in the class of piecewise constant functions.

  9. An Approach to Maximize Weld Penetration During TIG Welding of P91 Steel Plates by Utilizing Image Processing and Taguchi Orthogonal Array

    Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Debnath, Tapas; Dey, Vidyut; Rai, Ram Naresh


    P-91 is modified 9Cr-1Mo steel. Fabricated structures and components of P-91 has a lot of application in power and chemical industry owing to its excellent properties like high temperature stress corrosion resistance, less susceptibility to thermal fatigue at high operating temperatures. The weld quality and surface finish of fabricated structure of P91 is very good when welded by Tungsten Inert Gas welding (TIG). However, the process has its limitation regarding weld penetration. The success of a welding process lies in fabricating with such a combination of parameters that gives maximum weld penetration and minimum weld width. To carry out an investigation on the effect of the autogenous TIG welding parameters on weld penetration and weld width, bead-on-plate welds were carried on P91 plates of thickness 6 mm in accordance to a Taguchi L9 design. Welding current, welding speed and gas flow rate were the three control variables in the investigation. After autogenous (TIG) welding, the dimension of the weld width, weld penetration and weld area were successfully measured by an image analysis technique developed for the study. The maximum error for the measured dimensions of the weld width, penetration and area with the developed image analysis technique was only 2 % compared to the measurements of Leica-Q-Win-V3 software installed in optical microscope. The measurements with the developed software, unlike the measurements under a microscope, required least human intervention. An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) confirms the significance of the selected parameters. Thereafter, Taguchi's method was successfully used to trade-off between maximum penetration and minimum weld width while keeping the weld area at a minimum.

  10. Maximum likely scale estimation

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo


    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...

  11. Physical Penetration Testing: A Whole New Story in Penetration Testing


    Physical penetration testing plays an important role in assuring a company that the security policies are properly enforced and that the security awareness of the employees is on the appropriate level. In physical penetration tests the tester physically enters restricted locations and directly interacts with the employees to convince them to break a policy or provide credentials. The physical access and the direct interaction with the employees complicate the execution of the tests and have e...

  12. Penetration through the Skin Barrier

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Benfeldt, Eva; Holmgaard, Rikke


    . During recent decades, the latter has received increased attention as a route for intentionally delivering drugs to patients. This has stimulated research in methods for sampling, measuring and predicting percutaneous penetration. Previous chapters have described how different endogenous, genetic...... and exogenous factors may affect barrier characteristics. The present chapter introduces the theory for barrier penetration (Fick's law), and describes and discusses different methods for measuring the kinetics of percutaneous penetration of chemicals, including in vitro methods (static and flow......-through diffusion cells) as well as in vivo methods (microdialysis and microperfusion). Then follows a discussion with examples of how different characteristics of the skin (age, site and integrity) and of the penetrants (size, solubility, ionization, logPow and vehicles) affect the kinetics of percutaneous...

  13. Maximum information photoelectron metrology

    Hockett, P; Wollenhaupt, M; Baumert, T


    Photoelectron interferograms, manifested in photoelectron angular distributions (PADs), are a high-information, coherent observable. In order to obtain the maximum information from angle-resolved photoionization experiments it is desirable to record the full, 3D, photoelectron momentum distribution. Here we apply tomographic reconstruction techniques to obtain such 3D distributions from multiphoton ionization of potassium atoms, and fully analyse the energy and angular content of the 3D data. The PADs obtained as a function of energy indicate good agreement with previous 2D data and detailed analysis [Hockett et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 223001 (2014)] over the main spectral features, but also indicate unexpected symmetry-breaking in certain regions of momentum space, thus revealing additional continuum interferences which cannot otherwise be observed. These observations reflect the presence of additional ionization pathways and, most generally, illustrate the power of maximum information measurements of th...

  14. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.


    ... month on one person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family maximum used to adjust the social security overall minimum rate is based on the employee's Overall..., when any of the persons entitled to benefits on the insured individual's compensation would, except...

  15. Is Color Experience Cognitively Penetrable?

    Brogaard, Berit; Gatzia, Dimitria E


    Is color experience cognitively penetrable? Some philosophers have recently argued that it is. In this paper, we take issue with the claim that color experience is cognitively penetrable. We argue that the notion of cognitive penetration that has recently dominated the literature is flawed since it fails to distinguish between the modulation of perceptual content by non-perceptual principles and genuine cognitive penetration. We use this distinction to show that studies suggesting that color experience can be modulated by factors of the cognitive system do not establish that color experience is cognitively penetrable. Additionally, we argue that even if color experience turns out to be modulated by color-related beliefs and knowledge beyond non-perceptual principles, it does not follow that color experience is cognitively penetrable since the experiences of determinate hues involve post-perceptual processes. We conclude with a brief discussion of the implications that these ideas may have on debates in philosophy. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  16. Penetration analysis of projectile with inclined concrete target

    Kim, S. B.; Kim, H. W.; Yoo, Y. H.


    This paper presents numerical analysis result of projectile penetration with concrete target. We applied dynamic material properties of 4340 steels, aluminium and explosive for projectile body. Dynamic material properties were measured with static tensile testing machine and Hopkinson pressure bar tests. Moreover, we used three concrete damage models included in LS-DYNA 3D, such as SOIL_CONCRETE, CSCM (cap model with smooth interaction) and CONCRETE_DAMAGE (K&C concrete) models. Strain rate effect for concrete material is important to predict the fracture deformation and shape of concrete, and penetration depth for projectiles. CONCRETE_DAMAGE model with strain rate effect also applied to penetration analysis. Analysis result with CSCM model shows good agreement with penetration experimental data. The projectile trace and fracture shapes of concrete target were compared with experimental data.

  17. Penetration analysis of projectile with inclined concrete target

    Kim S.B.


    Full Text Available This paper presents numerical analysis result of projectile penetration with concrete target. We applied dynamic material properties of 4340 steels, aluminium and explosive for projectile body. Dynamic material properties were measured with static tensile testing machine and Hopkinson pressure bar tests. Moreover, we used three concrete damage models included in LS-DYNA 3D, such as SOIL_CONCRETE, CSCM (cap model with smooth interaction and CONCRETE_DAMAGE (K&C concrete models. Strain rate effect for concrete material is important to predict the fracture deformation and shape of concrete, and penetration depth for projectiles. CONCRETE_DAMAGE model with strain rate effect also applied to penetration analysis. Analysis result with CSCM model shows good agreement with penetration experimental data. The projectile trace and fracture shapes of concrete target were compared with experimental data.

  18. Freqüência cardíaca máxima em idosas brasileiras: uma comparação entre valores medidos e previstos Maximum heart rate in Brazilian elderly women: comparing measured and predicted values

    Valter Abrantes Pereira da Silva


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O presente estudo objetivou comparar os valores de freqüência cardíaca máxima (FCmáx medidos durante um teste de esforço progressivo (TEP, com os obtidos através de equações de predição, em idosas brasileiras. MÉTODOS: Um TEP máximo sob o protocolo modificado de Bruce, realizado em esteira, foi utilizado para obtenção dos valores de referência da freqüência cardíaca máxima (FCmáx, em 93 mulheres idosas (67,1±5,16 anos. Os valores obtidos foram comparados aos estimados pelas equações "220 - idade" e a de Tanaka e cols., através da ANOVA, para amostras repetidas. A correlação e a concordância entre os valores medidos e os estimados foram testadas. Adicionalmente, a correlação entre os valores de FCmáx medidos e a idade das voluntárias foi examinada. RESULTADOS: Os resultados foram os seguintes: 1 a média da FCmáx atingida no TEP foi de 145,5±12,5 batimentos por minuto (bpm; 2 as equações "220 - idade" e a de Tanaka e cols. (2001 superestimaram significativamente (p OBJECTIVE: This study sought to compare maximum heart rate (HRmax values measured during a graded exercise test (GXT with those calculated from prediction equations in Brazilian elderly women. METHODS: A treadmill maximal graded exercise test in accordance with the modified Bruce protocol was used to obtain reference values for maximum heart rate (HRmax in 93 elderly women (mean age 67.1 ± 5.16. Measured values were compared with those estimated from the "220 - age" and Tanaka et al formulas using repeated-measures ANOVA. Correlation and agreement between measured and estimated values were tested. Also evaluated was the correlation between measured HRmax and volunteers’ age. RESULTS: Results were as follows: 1 mean HRmax reached during GXT was 145.5 ± 12,5 beats per minute (bpm; 2 both the "220 - age" and Tanaka et al (2001 equations significantly overestimated (p < 0.001 HRmax by a mean difference of 7.4 and 15.5 bpm, respectively; 3

  19. International Prostatic Symptom Score-voiding/storage subscore ratio in association with total prostatic volume and maximum flow rate is diagnostic of bladder outlet-related lower urinary tract dysfunction in men with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Yuan-Hong Jiang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive values of the total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS-T and voiding to storage subscore ratio (IPSS-V/S in association with total prostate volume (TPV and maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax in the diagnosis of bladder outlet-related lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS. METHODS: A total of 298 men with LUTS were enrolled. Video-urodynamic studies were used to determine the causes of LUTS. Differences in IPSS-T, IPSS-V/S ratio, TPV and Qmax between patients with bladder outlet-related LUTD and bladder-related LUTD were analyzed. The positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV for bladder outlet-related LUTD were calculated using these parameters. RESULTS: Of the 298 men, bladder outlet-related LUTD was diagnosed in 167 (56%. We found that IPSS-V/S ratio was significantly higher among those patients with bladder outlet-related LUTD than patients with bladder-related LUTD (2.28±2.25 vs. 0.90±0.88, p1 or >2 was factored into the equation instead of IPSS-T, PPV were 91.4% and 97.3%, respectively, and NPV were 54.8% and 49.8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Combination of IPSS-T with TPV and Qmax increases the PPV of bladder outlet-related LUTD. Furthermore, including IPSS-V/S>1 or >2 into the equation results in a higher PPV than IPSS-T. IPSS-V/S>1 is a stronger predictor of bladder outlet-related LUTD than IPSS-T.

  20. Soil Properties from Low-Velocity Probe Penetration

    Jerome B. Johnson


    Full Text Available A physical model of low-velocity probe penetration is developed to characterize soil by type, strength, maximum compaction, and initial density using Newton's second law to describe the processes controlling probe momentum loss. The probe loses momentum by causing soil failure (strength, accelerating and compacting soil around the probe (inertia, and through frictional sliding at the probe/soil interface (friction. Probe geometry, mass, and impact velocity influences are incorporated into the model. Model predictions of probe deceleration history and depth of penetration agree well with experiments, without the need for free variables or complex numerical simulations.

  1. Cryopreservation of human spermatozoa. II. Postthaw chronology of motility and of zona-free hamster ova penetration.

    Critser, J K; Arneson, B W; Aaker, D V; Huse-Benda, A R; Ball, G D


    Postthaw dynamics of motility maintenance and ability to penetrate zona-free hamster ova were examined with human sperm. Ten semen samples were each divided into two equal volumes; one was cryopreserved while the other half remained untreated. Frozen samples were thawed, and initial evaluations for motility and hamster egg penetration were made on both untreated and frozen-thawed samples. The time difference between the initial evaluations for the two treatment groups was approximately 30 minutes as a result of the time required to freeze and thaw aliquots. Subsequent evaluations were made 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours later. Over all times both the motility and fertilizability of cryopreserved spermatozoa were significantly reduced (P less than 0.05) when compared with those of untreated sperm. The pattern of motility loss over time was similar between untreated and frozen-thawed sperm (P greater than 0.10). Conversely, differences between untreated and frozen-thawed sperm in fertilizability patterns were dramatic (P less than 0.05). This was evidenced by penetration rates for cryopreserved sperm highest at 0 hour and decreasing over time, whereas penetration by untreated spermatozoa was lowest at 0 hour, increasing to a maximum at 24 hours. These observations may be important in the development of laboratory protocols for freezing and clinical protocols for using frozen-thawed sperm.

  2. Maximum likely scale estimation

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo


    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and....../or having different derivative orders. Although the principle is applicable to a wide variety of image models, the main focus here is on the Brownian model and its use for scale selection in natural images. Furthermore, in the examples provided, the simplifying assumption is made that the behavior...... of the measurements is completely characterized by all moments up to second order....

  3. Deep penetration of light into biotissue

    Bearden, Edward D.; Wilson, James D.; Zharov, Vladimir P.; Lowery, Curtis L.


    The results of a study of deep (several centimeters) light penetration into biological tissue are presented in order to estimate its significance to potentially photosensitive structures and processes including the fetal eyes. In order to accomplish this goal, samples of various tissues (fat, muscle, and uterus) from surgical patients and autopsies were examined with a double integrating sphere arrangement to determine their optical properties. The results were implemented in a Monte Carlo modeling program. Next, optical fiber probes were inserted into the uterus and abdominal wall of patients undergoing laparoscopic procedures. The fibers were couples to a photomultiplier tube with intervening filters allowing measurements of light penetration at various wavelengths. To determine the feasibility of stimulation in utero, a xenon lamp and waveguide were used to transilluminate the abdomen of several labor patients. Light in the range of 630 to 670 nm where the eye sensitivity and penetration depth are well matched, will likely provide the best chance of visual stimulation. Fetal heart rate, fetal movement, and fetal magnetoencephalography (SQUID) and electroencephalography (EEG) were observed in different studies to determine if stimulation has occurred. Since internal organs and the fetus are completely dark adapted, the amount of light required to simulate in our opinion could be on the order of 10(superscript -8 Watts.

  4. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    F. Topsøe


    Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over

  5. High Penetration Photovoltaic Case Study Report

    Bank, J.; Mather, B.; Keller, J.; Coddington, M.


    Technical concerns with integrating higher penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) systems include grid stability, voltage regulation, power quality (voltage rise, sags, flicker, and frequency fluctuations), and protection and coordination. The current utility grid was designed to accommodate power flows from the central generation source to the transmission system and eventually to the distribution feeders. At the distribution level, the system was designed to carry power from the substation toward the load. Renewable distributed generation, particularly solar PV, provides power at the distribution level challenging this classical paradigm. As these resources become more commonplace the nature of the distribution network and its operation is changing to handle power flow in both directions. This report is focused on large PV installations in which penetration is significantly greater than 15% of maximum daytime feeder load. These case studies are intended to demonstrate success stories with integration of large PV plants at the distribution level as well as some of the solutions used by the utility to ensure safe, reliable operation of both the PV system and the distribution network.

  6. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan


    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  7. Maximum Throughput in Multiple-Antenna Systems

    Zamani, Mahdi


    The point-to-point multiple-antenna channel is investigated in uncorrelated block fading environment with Rayleigh distribution. The maximum throughput and maximum expected-rate of this channel are derived under the assumption that the transmitter is oblivious to the channel state information (CSI), however, the receiver has perfect CSI. First, we prove that in multiple-input single-output (MISO) channels, the optimum transmission strategy maximizing the throughput is to use all available antennas and perform equal power allocation with uncorrelated signals. Furthermore, to increase the expected-rate, multi-layer coding is applied. Analogously, we establish that sending uncorrelated signals and performing equal power allocation across all available antennas at each layer is optimum. A closed form expression for the maximum continuous-layer expected-rate of MISO channels is also obtained. Moreover, we investigate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels, and formulate the maximum throughput in the asympt...

  8. Aerodynamic Jump for Long Rod Penetrators

    Mark L. Bundy


    Full Text Available Aerodynamic jump for a non-spinning kinetic energy penetrator is neither a discontinuous change in the ,direction of motion at the origin of free night, nor is it the converse, i.e. a cumulativer~direc4on over a domain of infinite extent. Rather aerodynamic jump, for such a projectile, is a localised redirection of the centre of gravity motion, caused ~ the force of lift due to yaw over ther4latively short region from entry into free flight until the yaw reaches its first maximum. The primary objective of this paper is to provide answtfrs to the questions like what is aerodynamic jump, what liauses it, !lnd wh~t aspects df the flight trajectory does it refer to, or account for .

  9. Effects of Temperature on Maximum Metabolic Rate and Metabolic Scope of Juvenile Manchurian Trout, Brachymystax lenok (Pallas)%温度对细鳞鲑幼鱼最大代谢率和代谢范围的影响

    徐革锋; 尹家胜; 韩英; 刘洋; 牟振波


    This study examined the effects of water temperature on the metabolic characteristics and aerobic exer-cise capacity of juvenile manchurian trout , Brachymystax lenok ( Pallas) .The resting metabolic rate ( RMR) ,maxi-mum metabolic rate (MMR), metabolic scope(MS)and critical swimming speed (UCrit) of juveniles were measured at different temperature (4, 8, 12, 16, 20℃).The results showed that both the RMR and the MMR increased sig-nificantly with the increasing of water temperature ( P<0 .05 ) .Compared with test group at 4℃, the RMR for 8℃, 12℃, 16℃ and 20℃increased by 62%, 165%, 390%, 411%,respectively, and the MMR increased by 3%, 34%, 111%, 115%, respectively .However , the MS decreased with the increasing of water temperature with the highest MS occurring at 4℃.UCrit was significantly affected by water temperature (P<0.05), but the varia-tions of UCrit didn′t follow certain pattern with temperature .In the test of aerobic exercise , the MMR for each tem-perature level occurred at the swimming speed of 70% UCrit , probably due to the start of anaerobic metabolism , which caused excessive creatine in body , consequently hindered the aerobic metabolism .%为了探究温度对细鳞鲑( Brachymystax lenok)幼鱼的代谢特征和有氧运动能力的影响,在不同温度(4℃、8℃、12℃、16℃、20℃)下测定了实验鱼的静止代谢率( RMR)、有氧运动过程中的最大代谢率( MMR)以及能量代谢范围(MS)和临界游泳速度(UCrit)。结果表明,随着温度的上升,RMR和MMR均显著提高(P<0.05),各温度下的RMR和MMR分别较4℃条件的提高了62%(8℃)、165%(12℃)、390%(16℃)、411%(20℃)和3%(8℃)、34%(12℃)、111%(16℃)、115%(20℃);MS随水温的升高呈现下降的趋势,且4℃条件具有最大的代谢范围。不同温度条件下UCrit存在显著性差异,但随着温度升高未表现出明显的变

  10. Penetration and lateral diffusion characteristics of polycrystalline graphene barriers

    Yoon, Taeshik; Mun, Jeong Hun; Cho, Byung Jin; Kim, Taek-Soo


    We report penetration and lateral diffusion behavior of environmental molecules on synthesized polycrystalline graphene. Penetration occurs through graphene grain boundaries resulting in local oxidation. However, when the penetrated molecules diffuse laterally, the oxidation region will expand. Therefore, we measured the lateral diffusion rate along the graphene-copper interface for the first time by the environment-assisted crack growth test. It is clearly shown that the lateral diffusion is suppressed due to the high van der Waals interaction. Finally, we employed bilayer graphene for a perfect diffusion barrier facilitated by decreased defect density and increased lateral diffusion path.We report penetration and lateral diffusion behavior of environmental molecules on synthesized polycrystalline graphene. Penetration occurs through graphene grain boundaries resulting in local oxidation. However, when the penetrated molecules diffuse laterally, the oxidation region will expand. Therefore, we measured the lateral diffusion rate along the graphene-copper interface for the first time by the environment-assisted crack growth test. It is clearly shown that the lateral diffusion is suppressed due to the high van der Waals interaction. Finally, we employed bilayer graphene for a perfect diffusion barrier facilitated by decreased defect density and increased lateral diffusion path. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03849a

  11. Equalized near maximum likelihood detector


    This paper presents new detector that is used to mitigate intersymbol interference introduced by bandlimited channels. This detector is named equalized near maximum likelihood detector which combines nonlinear equalizer and near maximum likelihood detector. Simulation results show that the performance of equalized near maximum likelihood detector is better than the performance of nonlinear equalizer but worse than near maximum likelihood detector.

  12. Generalized Maximum Entropy

    Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John


    A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].

  13. The Penetration of Shaped Charges

    Wu Mingde


    @@ In order to get the best perforating effect, many facts have to be considered. Perforating job is often design by computer. A perforating engineer has to decide the perforating technology and procedure, the gun and charge system, the shot density and phasing, the penetration and hole size, etc.

  14. FAA Fluorescent Penetrant Laboratory Inspections



    The Federal Aviation Administration Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center currently assesses the capability of various non-destructive inspection (NDI) methods used for analyzing aircraft components. The focus of one such exercise is to evaluate the sensitivity of fluorescent liquid penetrant inspection. A baseline procedure using the water-washable fluorescent penetrant method defines a foundation for comparing the brightness of low cycle fatigue cracks in titanium test panels. The analysis of deviations in the baseline procedure will determine an acceptable range of operation for the steps in the inspection process. The data also gives insight into the depth of each crack and which step(s) of the inspection process most affect penetrant sensitivities. A set of six low cycle fatigue cracks produced in 6.35-mm thick Ti-6Al-4V specimens was used to conduct the experiments to produce sensitivity data. The results will document the consistency of the crack readings and compare previous experiments to find the best parameters for water-washable penetrant.

  15. Stylet penetration activities by aphids

    Tjallingii, W.F.


    The composition of stylet penetration behaviour in aphids and its possible role in food-plant selection is the subject of these studies. Evidence is presented that the labium is devoid of external chemoreceptors (Chapter 1). In addition to other morphological data (Wensler & Filshie, 1969; Wensler,

  16. Penetration Physics of Armor Glass


    Penetration Response of Borosilicate Glass during Short Rod Impact”, Proc. 23rd Int. Symp. Ballistics, 2, 1251-1258, Graficas Couche, Madrid, Spain (”, Proc. 23rd Int. Symp. Ballistics, 2, 1049-1056, Graficas Couche, Madrid, Spain (2007). 8D. R. Curran, “Comparison of Mesomechanical and

  17. Ejercicio físico, salud y supuestos en el cálculo de la frecuencia cardíaca máxima estimada / Exercise, Health and Assumptions in Calculating the Estimated Maximum Heart Rate

    Alixon David Reyes Rodríguez


    theoretical points of reference that responded to scientific needs before, but which are insufficient now.  It has been observed in national and international conferences, seminaries, research encounters, in our universities and in different kinds of scientific meetings that some obsolete assumptions are still being taught, which slows down progress in Education Sciences and Sports Science. We recognize that some predictive formulas used to calculate the estimated maximum heart rate (EMHR represented progress for Exercise Science and Exercise Physiology, at some point; however, there are important aspects that should be considered. It is not that we despise them, but we intend to demonstrate and demystify the use of the traditional formula almost as the only calculation and measurement pattern for EMHR and, to offer, from the perspective of other researchers, better possibilities of exercise dosage for certain populations with particular characteristics.

  18. Penetration, Post-penetration Development, and Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Cucumis melo var. texanus.

    Faske, T R


    Cucumis melo var. texanus, a wild melon commonly found in the southern United States and two accessions, Burleson Co. and MX 1230, expressed resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in preliminary experiments. To characterize the mechanism of resistance, we evaluated root penetration, post-penetration development, reproduction, and emigration of M. incognita on these two accessions of C. melo var. texanus. Additionally, we evaluated 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus for their reaction against M. incognita in a greenhouse experiment. Fewer (P ≤ 0.05) J2 penetrated the root system of C. melo var. texanus accessions (Burleson Co. and MX 1230) and C. metuliferus (PI 482452) (resistant control), 7 days after inoculation (DAI) than in C. melo 'Hales Best Jumbo' (susceptible control). A delayed (P ≤ 0.05) rate of nematode development was observed at 7, 14, and 21 DAI that contributed to lower (P ≤ 0.05) egg production on both accessions and C. metuliferus compared with C. melo. Though J2 emigration was observed on all Cucumis genotypes a higher (P ≤ 0.05) rate of J2 emigration was observed from 3 to 6 DAI on accession Burleson Co. and C. metuliferus than on C. melo. The 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus varied relative to their reaction to M. incognita with eight supporting similar levels of nematode reproduction to that of C. metuliferus. Cucumis melo var. texanus may be a useful source of resistance against root-knot nematode in melon.

  19. Staged Penetrating Sclerokeratoplasty and Penetrating Keratoplasty for Management of Advanced Acquired Anterior Staphyloma

    Enrique de la Torre-Gonzalez


    Full Text Available Herein we describe a staged surgical technique consisting of penetrating sclerokeratoplasty (PSKP followed by penetrating keratoplasty (PKP and present its clinical course and complications over two years of follow-up. A 23-year-old man presented with cosmetically unacceptable protrusion of the globe corresponding to the cornea and sclera. PSKP was performed transplanting a full-thickness beveled 13 mm corneoscleral tectonic graft. Hypotony developed subsequently and was successfully managed medically, however corneal graft failure occurred. After 15 months, a 7.5 mm PKP was performed for optical reasons, which subsequently remained clear with a healthy epithelium. In this particular case, cosmetic, tectonic, therapeutic, and optical requirements were met. PSKP is a surgical procedure which entails a high rate of complications but may be the only alternative when the main goal of intervention is restoration of the globe in complicated cases such as our patient.

  20. Energy Impact of Different Penetrations of Connected and Automated Vehicles: A Preliminary Assessment

    Rios-Torres, Jackeline [ORNL; Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL


    Previous research reported in the literature has shown the benefits of traffic coordination to alleviate congestion, and reduce fuel consumption and emissions. However, there are still many remaining challenges that need to be addressed before a massive deployment of fully automated vehicles. This paper aims to investigate the energy impacts of different penetration rates of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) and their interaction with human-driven vehicles. We develop a simulation framework for mixed traffic (CAVs interacting with human-driven vehicles) in merging roadways and analyze the energy impact of different penetration rates of CAVs on the energy consumption. The Gipps car following model is used along with heuristic controls to represent the driver decisions in a merging roadways traffic scenario. Using different penetration rates of CAVs, the simulation results indicated that for low penetration rates, the fuel consumption benefits are significant but the total travel time increases. The benefits in travel time are noticeable for higher penetration rates of CAVs.

  1. In vitro dermal penetration study of carbofuran, carbosulfan, and furathiocarb

    Liu, Kwang-Hyeon [Department of Pharmacology, Inje University, College of Medicine, 614-735, Busan (Korea); Kim, Jeong-Han [School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, 441-744, Suwon (Korea)


    In this study, the dermal penetration rate of carbofuran, carbosulfan, and furathiocarb has been measured with rat abdominal skin using the static diffusion cell. The technical grades of three compounds were applied at different doses on skin surface mounted in static diffusion cell and incubated at 32 C for 48 h with shaking. The same procedures were carried out with furathiocarb EC (emulsifiable concentrate) and WP (wettable powder). At regular intervals, the receptor fluid in cell was sampled and analyzed by HPLC. Only carbofuran was found in carbosulfan- or furathiocarb-treated samples, suggesting they converted into carbofuran while passing through the skin layer. The quantity of insecticide penetrating skin increased with time and applied dose. The skin penetration rate increased with the water solubility of insecticides. The dermal penetration rates of carbofuran, furathiocarb, and carbosulfan were determined as 1.05 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} per h (r{sup 2}=0.991), 0.46 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} per h (r{sup 2}=0.984) and 0.14 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} per h (r{sup 2}=0.967), respectively. There was no significant difference in rate of skin penetration between furathiocarb EC (1.42 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} per h, r{sup 2}=0.988) and WP (1.35 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} per h, r{sup 2}=0.982), while furathiocarb technical grade showed a lower skin penetration rate. In vitro models may be used to predict percutaneous absorption and are useful in selecting safer formulations for field application of pesticide. (orig.)

  2. Akon - A Penetrator for Europa

    Jones, Geraint


    Jupiter's moon Europa is one of the most intriguing objects in our Solar System. This 2000km-wide body has a geologically young solid water ice crust that is believed to cover a global ocean of liquid water. The presence of this ocean, together with a source of heating through tidal forces, make Europa a conceivable location for extraterrestrial life. The science case for exploring all aspects of this icy world is compelling. NASA has selected the Europa Mission (formerly Europa Clipper) to study Europa in detail in the 2020s through multiple flybys, and ESA's JUICE mission will perform two flybys of the body in the 2030s. The US agency has extended to the European Space Agency an invitation to provide a contribution to their mission. European scientists interested in Europa science and exploration are currently organizing themselves, in the framework of a coordinated Europa M5 Inititative to study concurrently the main options for this ESA contribution, from a simple addition of individual instruments to the NASA spacecraft, to a lander to investigate Europa's surface in situ. A high speed lander - a penetrator - is by far the most promising technology to achieve this latter option within the anticipated mass constraints, and studies of such a hard lander, many funded by ESA, are now at an advanced level. An international team to formally propose an Europa penetrator to ESA in response to the anticipated ESA M5 call is growing. The working title of this proposal is Akon (Άκων), named after the highly accurate javelin gifted to Europa by Zeus in ancient Greek mythology. We present plans for the Akon penetrator, which would impact Europa's surface at several hundred metres per second, and travel up to several metres into the moon's subsurface. To achieve this, the penetrator would be delivered to the surface by a dedicated descent module, to be destroyed on impact following release of the penetrator above the surface. It is planned that the instruments to be

  3. Effects of soap-water wash on human epidermal penetration.

    Zhu, Hanjiang; Jung, Eui-Chang; Phuong, Christina; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard


    Skin decontamination is a primary interventional method used to decrease dermal absorption of hazardous contaminants, including chemical warfare agents, pesticides and industrial pollutants. Soap and water wash, the most common and readily available decontamination system, may enhance percutaneous absorption through the "wash-in effect." To understand better the effect of soap-water wash on percutaneous penetration, and provide insight to improving skin decontamination methods, in vitro human epidermal penetration rates of four C(14) -labeled model chemicals (hydroquinone, clonidine, benzoic acid and paraoxon) were assayed using flow-through diffusion cells. Stratum corneum (SC) absorption rates of these chemicals at various hydration levels (0-295% of the dry SC weights) were determined and compared with the results of the epidermal penetration study to clarify the effect of SC hydration on skin permeability. Results showed accelerated penetration curves of benzoic acid and paraoxon after surface wash at 30 min postdosing. Thirty minutes after washing (60 min postdosing), penetration rates of hydroquinone and benzoic acid decreased due to reduced amounts of chemical on the skin surface and in the SC. At the end of the experiment (90 min postdosing), a soap-water wash resulted in lower hydroquinone penetration, greater paraoxon penetration and similar levels of benzoic acid and clonidine penetration compared to penetration levels in the non-wash groups. The observed wash-in effect agrees with the enhancement effect of SC hydration on the SC chemical absorption rate. These results suggest SC hydration derived from surface wash to be one cause of the wash-in effect. Further, the occurrence of a wash-in effect is dependent on chemical identity and elapsed time between exposure and onset of decontamination. By reducing chemical residue quantity on skin surface and in the SC reservoir, the soap-water wash may decrease the total quantity of chemical absorbed in the

  4. Weld penetration and defect control

    Chin, B.A.


    Highly engineered designs increasingly require the use of improved materials and sophisticated manufacturing techniques. To obtain optimal performance from these engineered products, improved weld properties and joint reliability are a necessarily. This requirement for improved weld performance and reliability has led to the development of high-performance welding systems in which pre-programmed parameters are specified before any welding takes place. These automated systems however lack the ability to compensate for perturbations which arise during the welding process. Hence the need for systems which monitor and control the in-process status of the welding process. This report discusses work carried out on weld penetration indicators and the feasibility of using these indicators for on-line penetration control.

  5. IPMN penetration of the stomach.

    Nakano, Masakazu; Tominaga, Keiichi; Watanabe, Hidetaka; Kanke, Kazunari; Tamano, Masaya; Hiraishi, Hideyuki


    An 83-year old Japanese man was transferred to our hospital due to a 1-week history of melena and signs of disordered awareness. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed a villous tumor associated with massive white mucous discharge in the posterior wall of the gastric corpus, where pathologically identified mucin-producing epithelium with nuclear atypia had developed into a papillary form. An abdominal enhanced computed tomography scan demonstrated communication between the dilated main pancreatic duct and the gastric lumen. Based on these findings, we reached a diagnosis of gastric penetration by an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the main pancreatic duct. IPMN is partly characterized by expansive mucinous growth that may result in penetration into adjacent organs.

  6. Penetration Testing in Wireless Networks

    Lamichhane, Shree


    This thesis illustrates the security measures and mechanisms behind the encryption and decryption of data while transmitting data in a wireless network. Furthermore, this thesis describes and demonstrates several security threats in a wireless network that are widely experienced. It also explains shortly the evolution of the widely implemented IEEE 802.11 standard and its amendments. Kali Linux tools were used to perform a penetration test in a WPA secured test network. In-formation on th...

  7. Transconjunctival penetration of mitomycin C

    Velpandian T; Sihota Ramanjit; Sinha Ankur; Gupta Viney


    Aims: The study was performed to estimate transconjunctival penetration of mitomycin C (MMC) to Tenon′s tissue following application over the intact conjunctiva before routine trabeculectomy. Settings and Design: Institution-based case series. Materials and Methods: In 41 eyes of 41 patients, MMC (0.4 mg/ml for 3 min) was applied over the intact conjunctiva before beginning trabeculectomy. Tenon′s capsule directly beneath the site of application was excised during trabecule...

  8. Cardiac Penetrating Injuries and Pseudoaneurysm

    CHEN Shifeng


    Objective To discuss the early diagnosis and treatment of cardiac penetrating injuries and pseudoaneurysm. Methods 18 cases of cardiac penetrating injuries, in which 2 cases were complicated with pseudoaneurysm, were diagnosed by emergency operation and color Doppler echocardiography between May 1973 and Dec. 2001 in our hospital. The basis for emergency operation is the injured path locating in cardiac dangerous zone, severe shock or pericardial tamponade. ResultsAmong 18 cases of this study, 17 cases underwent emergency operation. During the operation, 11 cases were found injured in right ventricle, 2 cases were found injured in right atrium, 1 case was found injured in pulmonary artery,4 cases were found injured in left ventricle, 2 cases were found complicated with pseudoaneurysm. 17cases underwent cardiac repair including 1 case of rupture of aneurysm. 1 case underwent elective aneurysm resection. In whole group, 15 cases survived(83.33% ), 3 cases died( 16.67%). The cause of death is mainly hemorrhagic shock. Conclusion Highly suspicious cardiac penetrating injuries or hemopericaridium should undergo direct operative exploration. Pseudoaneurysm should be resected early,which can prevent severe complications.

  9. Locating a buried earth penetrator

    Caffey, T.W.H.


    The purpose of this work was to assist the recovery of a buried earth penetrator by locating the vertical projection of the penetator upon the surface within a horizontal radius error of one meter. The penetrator will carry a small coil which is driven by an alternating current to form a magnetic dipole. Five measurements of the magnetic field vector upon the surface of the earth are shown to be sufficient for determining not only the xyz-coordinates of the dipole, but also the orientation of the dipole axis. The theory, computation process, and field tests are comprehensively described. Results of 26 field tests with the dipole at 9 different combinations of location and orientation are given. Average radial and vertical location errors are 0.27 m and -0.05 m, respectively, while the mean errors in the tilt and orientation angles of the dipole axis are 3 degrees and 8 degrees, respectively. The results are applied to the design of a locating system for a Pershing II penetrator which contains a recessed, rear-mounted coil.

  10. Ethical Dilemmas and Dimensions in Penetration Testing

    Faily, Sharmal; McAlaney, John; Iacob, C


    Penetration testers are required to attack systems to evaluate their security, but without engaging in unethical behaviour while doing so. Despite work on hacker values and studies into security practice, there is little literature devoted to the ethical pressures associated with penetration testing. This paper presents several ethical dilemmas and dimensions associated with penetration testing;\\ud these shed light on the ethical positions taken by Penetration testers, and help identify poten...

  11. The production process for water penetrated brick



    Waste penetrated brick, which is a green building material with good water penetration, high strength, lower firing temperature, lower production cost, good appearance and good structure, can holding ground water lever. This article analysis the production process and related factor for water penetrated brick:proper particle size distribution, proper shaping method, proper press and proper firing can ensure to produce good quality water penetrated brick.

  12. Penetration Testing: A Roadmap to Network Security


    Network penetration testing identifies the exploits and vulnerabilities those exist within computer network infrastructure and help to confirm the security measures. The objective of this paper is to explain methodology and methods behind penetration testing and illustrate remedies over it, which will provide substantial value for network security Penetration testing should model real world attacks as closely as possible. An authorized and scheduled penetration testing will probably detected ...

  13. Network Penetration Testing and Research

    Murphy, Brandon F.


    This paper will focus the on research and testing done on penetrating a network for security purposes. This research will provide the IT security office new methods of attacks across and against a company's network as well as introduce them to new platforms and software that can be used to better assist with protecting against such attacks. Throughout this paper testing and research has been done on two different Linux based operating systems, for attacking and compromising a Windows based host computer. Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu (Linux based penetration testing operating systems) are two different "attacker'' computers that will attempt to plant viruses and or NASA USRP - Internship Final Report exploits on a host Windows 7 operating system, as well as try to retrieve information from the host. On each Linux OS (Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu) there is penetration testing software which provides the necessary tools to create exploits that can compromise a windows system as well as other operating systems. This paper will focus on two main methods of deploying exploits 1 onto a host computer in order to retrieve information from a compromised system. One method of deployment for an exploit that was tested is known as a "social engineering" exploit. This type of method requires interaction from unsuspecting user. With this user interaction, a deployed exploit may allow a malicious user to gain access to the unsuspecting user's computer as well as the network that such computer is connected to. Due to more advance security setting and antivirus protection and detection, this method is easily identified and defended against. The second method of exploit deployment is the method mainly focused upon within this paper. This method required extensive research on the best way to compromise a security enabled protected network. Once a network has been compromised, then any and all devices connected to such network has the potential to be compromised as well. With a compromised

  14. 7 CFR 2902.14 - Penetrating lubricants.


    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Penetrating lubricants. 2902.14 Section 2902.14... Items § 2902.14 Penetrating lubricants. (a) Definition. Products formulated to provide light lubrication..., will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased penetrating lubricants. By that...

  15. Kali Linux wireless penetration testing essentials

    Alamanni, Marco


    This book is targeted at information security professionals, penetration testers and network/system administrators who want to get started with wireless penetration testing. No prior experience with Kali Linux and wireless penetration testing is required, but familiarity with Linux and basic networking concepts is recommended.

  16. Feature Profile Simulations and Finite Penetration Depth

    Moroz, Paul; Moroz, Daniel


    In plasma materials processing, energetic ions, neutrals and UV photons typically penetrate deep inside solid materials breaking atomic bonds and displacing atoms on their paths. These important phenomena are rarely taken into consideration in processing simulation software, primarily because the proper penetration depths and the corresponding energy depositions, breaking bonds, and atom displacements are difficult and computationally expensive to compute. The FPS-3D feature profile simulator [1-2] is doing that computationally efficiently by utilizing tabulated results obtained with other methods. We discuss, compare, and present results of such simulations made with different methods, one of which is the molecular dynamics analysis. In general, molecular dynamics could be used for simulating materials processing, etching and deposition, but it is extremely computationally expensive to be used for large groups of atoms. In practice, molecular dynamics methods are too slow to be used for feature profile simulations. However, they could help in defining proper chemical reactions and corresponding rates to be used in an advanced feature profile simulator such as FPS-3D. We present results of FPS-3D simulations for Si and SiO2 etching in Ar/Cl2 and Ar/C4F6/O2 plasmas. [4pt] [1] P. Moroz, ``General Feature Profile Simulator FPS-3D,'' ECS Transactions, 35, 25 (2011). [0pt] [2] P. Moroz, ``Numerical Simulation of Feature Profile Evolution using FPS-3D,'' IEEE Transactions of Plasma Science, 39, 2804 (2011).

  17. In-vitro permeability of the human nail and of a keratin membrane from bovine hooves: penetration of chloramphenicol from lipophilic vehicles and a nail lacquer.

    Mertin, D; Lippold, B C


    Lipophilic vehicles and especially nail lacquers are more appropriate for topical application on the nail than aqueous systems because of their better adhesion. This work has, therefore, studied the penetration through the human nail plate of the model compound chloramphenicol from the lipophilic vehicles medium chain triglycerides and n-octanol and from a lacquer based on quaternary poly(methyl methacrylates) (Eudragit RL). The results were compared with data obtained with a keratin membrane from bovine hooves. If the swelling of the nail plate or the hoof membrane is not altered by use of lipophilic vehicles, the maximum flux of the drug is independent of its solubility in the vehicle and is the same as that from a saturated aqueous solution. These vehicles are not able to enter the hydrophilic keratin membrane because of their non-polar character and so cannot change the solubility of the penetrating substance in the barrier. If the concentration of the drug in the nail lacquer is sufficiently high, the maximum flux through both barriers equals that from aqueous vehicles or even exceeds it because of the formation of a supersaturated system. Penetration through the nail plate follows first order kinetics after a lag-time of 400 h. The course of penetration through the hoof membrane is initially membrane-controlled and later becomes a matrix-controlled process because of the membrane's greater permeability. Chloramphenicol is dissolved in the lacquer up to a concentration of 31%. The relative release rates from these solution matrices are independent of the drug concentration but they decrease on changing to a suspension matrix. These results show that drug flux is independent of the character of the vehicle and that penetration of the drug is initially membrane-controlled and changes to being matrix-controlled as the drug content of the lacquer decreases.

  18. Study of Method for Predict Rate of Penetration Based of Multiple Regression Analysis%基于多元回归分析的钻速预测方法研究



    During the drilling process, drilling optimization technology can reduce drilling cost and construction accidents, and drilling rate prediction is the basis of optimum drilling technology. The current equations of drilling rate prediction consider different emphasis about drilling rate influencing factors, most of the equations are simplified so prediction accuracy can not meet the demand of the drilling operations. A few equations considering them comprehensively lead to poor operability and limited practicality because of complex structure. Based on the Bour-goyne & Youngs equation, 300 sets of mud log data from Yuanba drilling database are extracted and calculated the coefficients of drilling rate equation by multiple regression analysis. Differentiation of formation results in different regression coefficient. The drilling data of offset well is adopted to prove accuracy, the result is found that real drilling rate and predicted drilling rate are consistent and mean relative error is less than 13%. The method improves solving precision of coefficients of drilling rate equation, computing processes is relatively simple and data needed is easily obtained. Hence the method has important implications for popularizing drilling optimization techniques.%在钻井过程中,优化钻井技术可以降低钻井成本和减少施工事故,而钻速预测是优化钻井的基础.目前的钻速预测方程繁多,所考虑的钻速影响因素各有侧重,大多数方程做了诸多简化,预测精度不能满足现场需要;少数方程即便考虑比较全面,但由于结构复杂,可操作性差,实用性受到一定限制.以Bourgoyne &Youngs方程作为理论基础,从元坝地区钻井数据库抽取300组录井数据,利用多元回归分析方法进行钻速方程系数的求解,针对不同地层得到的回归系数也不相同.采用同区块井的钻井数据进行验证,发现其预测钻速与实际钻速基本相符,平均相对误差小于13%,说明所

  19. Are high penetrations of commercial cogeneration good for society?

    Keen, Jeremy F.; Apt, Jay


    Low natural gas prices, market reports and evidence from New York State suggest that the number of commercial combined heat and power (CHP) installations in the United States will increase by 2%-9% annually over the next decade. We investigate how increasing commercial CHP penetrations may affect net emissions, the distribution network, and total system energy costs. We constructed an integrated planning and operations model that maximizes owner profit through sizing and operation of CHP on a realistic distribution feeder in New York. We find that a greater penetration of CHP reduces both total system energy costs and network congestion. Commercial buildings often have low and inconsistent heat loads, which can cause low fuel utilization efficiencies, low CHP rates-of-return and diminishing avoided emissions as CHP penetration increases. In the northeast, without policy intervention, a 5% penetration of small commercially owned CHP would increase CO2 emissions by 2% relative to the bulk power grid. Low emission CHP installations can be encouraged with incentives that promote CHP operation only during times of high heat loads. Time-varying rates, such as time-of-day and seasonal rates, are one option and were shown to reduce customer emissions without reducing profits. In contrast, natural gas rate discounts, a common incentive for industrial CHP in some states, can encourage CHP operation during low heat loads and thus increase emissions.

  20. FAA Fluorescent Penetrant Activities - An Update

    Moore, D.G.


    The Federal Aviation Administration's Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) is currently characterizing low cycle fatigue specimens that will support the needs of penetrant manufacturers, commercial airline industry and the Federal Aviation Administration. The main focus of this characterization is to maintain and enhance the evaluation of penetrant inspection materials and apply resources to support the aircraft community needs. This paper discusses efforts to-date to document the Wright Laboratory penetrant evaluation process and characterize penetrant brightness readings in the initial set of sample calibration panels using Type 1 penetrant.

  1. Web penetration testing with Kali Linux

    Muniz, Joseph


    Web Penetration Testing with Kali Linux contains various penetration testing methods using BackTrack that will be used by the reader. It contains clear step-by-step instructions with lot of screenshots. It is written in an easy to understand language which will further simplify the understanding for the user.""Web Penetration Testing with Kali Linux"" is ideal for anyone who is interested in learning how to become a penetration tester. It will also help the users who are new to Kali Linux and want to learn the features and differences in Kali versus Backtrack, and seasoned penetration testers

  2. PENCALC: a program for penetrance estimation in autosomal dominant diseases

    Andréa R.V. Russo Horimoto


    Full Text Available We present a computer program developed for estimating penetrance rates in autosomal dominant diseases by means of family kinship and phenotype information contained within the pedigrees. The program also determines the exact 95% credibility interval for the penetrance estimate. Both executable (PenCalc for Windows and web versions (PenCalcWeb of the software are available. The web version enables further calculations, such as heterozygosity probabilities and assessment of offspring risks for all individuals in the pedigrees. Both programs can be accessed and down-loaded freely at the home-page address

  3. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration Scenarios

    Balducci, Patrick J.


    This report examines the economic drivers, technology constraints, and market potential for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the U.S. A PHEV is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting to the grid and an internal combustion engine that can be activated when batteries need recharging. The report presents and examines a series of PHEV market penetration scenarios. Based on input received from technical experts and industry representative contacted for this report and data obtained through a literature review, annual market penetration rates for PHEVs are presented from 2013 through 2045 for three scenarios. Each scenario is examined and implications for PHEV development are explored.

  4. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration Scenarios

    Balducci, Patrick J.


    This report examines the economic drivers, technology constraints, and market potential for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the U.S. A PHEV is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting to the grid and an internal combustion engine that can be activated when batteries need recharging. The report presents and examines a series of PHEV market penetration scenarios. Based on input received from technical experts and industry representative contacted for this report and data obtained through a literature review, annual market penetration rates for PHEVs are presented from 2013 through 2045 for three scenarios. Each scenario is examined and implications for PHEV development are explored.

  5. Penetration testing with Raspberry Pi

    Muniz, Joseph


    If you are looking for a low budget, small form-factor remotely accessible hacking tool, then the concepts in this book are ideal for you. If you are a penetration tester who wants to save on travel costs by placing a low-cost node on a target network, you will save thousands by using the methods covered in this book. You do not have to be a skilled hacker or programmer to use this book. It will be beneficial to have some networking experience; however, it is not required to follow the concepts covered in this book.

  6. Penetration Testing: A Roadmap to Network Security

    Naik, Nitin A; Khamitkar, Santosh D; Kalyankar, Namdeo V


    Network penetration testing identifies the exploits and vulnerabilities those exist within computer network infrastructure and help to confirm the security measures. The objective of this paper is to explain methodology and methods behind penetration testing and illustrate remedies over it, which will provide substantial value for network security Penetration testing should model real world attacks as closely as possible. An authorized and scheduled penetration testing will probably detected by IDS (Intrusion Detection System). Network penetration testing is done by either or manual automated tools. Penetration test can gather evidence of vulnerability in the network. Successful testing provides indisputable evidence of the problem as well as starting point for prioritizing remediation. Penetration testing focuses on high severity vulnerabilities and there are no false positive.

  7. Study of aerosol penetration into filtering layers; Etude de la penetration des aerosols dans les couches filtrantes

    Parnianpour, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    In this work a radio-active aerosol is used to study the penetration of particles inside various filtering media by a layer technique. First of all the penetration of the active thoron deposit fixed on the atmospheric dust was examined for a series of filters which were considered to be representative of the various filtering materials used. From this series of tests it appears that the penetration of an ultrafine aerosol in a filter made up of fibrous matter involves two successive, different processes: the first part of the curve characterizes the surface effect, the second part which is practically exponential in form has a slope which depends on the test conditions and on the nature of the filter. The changes in the penetration as a function either of the porosity or of the rate of filtration yield only a qualitative check of the theory; in all cases the penetration is much greater than predicted. The last part of the work is devoted to an examination and a discussion of results obtained, and to various applications of the method, especially concerning the determination of the absorption coefficient for {alpha} particles by the matter. The changes in the absorption factor with filtering speed are particularly studied. (author) [French] On se propose dans ce travail d'etudier, avec un aerosol radioactif, la penetration des particules a l'interieur de differents milieux filtrants en utilisant une methode de feuilletage. On a tout d'abord examine la penetration du depot actif du thoron fixe sur les poussieres atmospheriques pour une serie de filtres que nous avons voulu representative des differents materiaux filtrants utilises. Il ressort de cette serie d'essais que la penetration d'un aerosol ultrafin dans un filtre compose de matiere fibreuse fait intervenir deux processus successifs differents: la premiere partie de courbe caracterise l'effet de surface; la seconde partie pratique- ment exponentielle ou la pente depend des

  8. Fiscal year 1976 progress report on a feasibility study evaluating the use of surface penetrators for planetary exploration

    Blanchard, M. B.; Oberbeck, V. R.; Bunch, T. E.; Reynolds, R. T.; Canning, T. N.; Jackson, R. W.


    The feasibility of employing penetrators for exploring Mars was examined. Eight areas of interest for key scientific experiments were identified. These include: seismic activity, imaging, geochemistry, water measurement, heatflow, meteorology, magnetometry, and biochemistry. In seven of the eight potential experiment categories this year's progress included: conceptual design, instrument fabrication, instrument performance evaluation, and shock loading of important components. Most of the components survived deceleration testing with negligible performance changes. Components intended to be placed inside the penetrator forebody were tested up to 3,500 g and components intended to be placed on the afterbody were tested up to 21,000 g. A field test program was conducted using tentative Mars penetrator mission constraints. Drop tests were performed at two selected terrestrial analog sites to determine the range of penetration depths for anticipated common Martian materials. Minimum penetration occurred in basalt at Amboy, California. Three full-scale penetrators penetrated 0.4 to 0.9 m into the basalt after passing through 0.3 to 0.5 m of alluvial overburden. Maximum penetration occurred in unconsolidated sediments at McCook, Nebraska. Two full-scale penetrators penetrated 2.5 to 8.5 m of sediment. Impact occurred in two kinds of sediment: loess and layered clay. Deceleration g loads of nominally 2,000 for the forebody and 20,000 for the afterbody did not present serious design problems for potential experiments. Penetrators have successfully impacted into terrestrial analogs of the probable extremes of potential Martian sites.

  9. Investigation of molecular penetration depth variation with SMBI fluxes

    Zhou, Yu-Lin; Wang, Zhan-Hui; Xu, Min; Wang, Qi; Nie, Lin; Feng, Hao; Sun, Wei-Guo


    We study the molecular penetration depth variation with the SMBI fluxes. The molecular transport process and the penetration depth during SMBI with various injection velocities and densities are simulated and compared. It is found that the penetration depth of molecules strongly depends on the radial convective transport of SMBI and it increases with the increase of the injection velocity. The penetration depth does not vary much once the SMBI injection density is larger than a critical value due to the dramatic increase of the dissociation rate on the fueling path. An effective way to improve the SMBI penetration depth has been predicted, which is SMBI with a large radial injection velocity and a lower molecule injection density than the critical density. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11375053, 11575055, 11405022, and 11405112), the Chinese National Fusion Project for ITER (Grant Nos. 2013GB107001 and 2013GB112005), the International S&T Cooperation Program of China (Grant No. 2015DFA61760), and the Funds of the Youth Innovation Team of Science and Technology in Sichuan Province of China (Grant No. 2014TD0023).

  10. Follicular and percutaneous penetration pathways of topically applied minoxidil foam.

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Massoudy, Lida; Patzelt, Alexa; Lademann, Jürgen; Dietz, Ekkehart; Rasulev, Utkur; Garcia Bartels, Natalie


    In the past, it was assumed that the intercellular route was the only relevant penetration pathway for topically applied substances. Recent results on follicular penetration emphasize that the hair follicles represent a highly relevant and efficient penetration pathway and reservoir for topically applied substances. This study investigates a selective closure technique of hair follicle orifices in vivo assessing interfollicular and follicular absorption rates of topical minoxidil foam in humans. In delimited skin area, single hair orifices or interfollicular skin were blocked with a microdrop of special varnish-wax-mixture in vivo. Minoxidil foam (5%) was topically applied, and transcutaneous absorption was measured by a new surface ionization mass spectrometry technique in serum. Different settings (open, closed or none of both) enabled to clearly distinguish between interfollicular and follicular penetration of the topically applied minoxidil foam. Five minutes after topical application, minoxidil was detected in blood samples when follicles remained open, whereas with closed follicles 30 min were needed. Highest levels were found first when both pathways were open, followed by open follicles and subsequently by closed follicles. These results demonstrate the high importance of the follicular penetration pathway. Hair follicles are surrounded by a dense network of blood capillaries and dendritic cells and have stem cells in their immediate vicinity, making them ideal targets for drug delivery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Maximum Performance Tests in Children with Developmental Spastic Dysarthria.

    Wit, J.; And Others


    Three Maximum Performance Tasks (Maximum Sound Prolongation, Fundamental Frequency Range, and Maximum Repetition Rate) were administered to 11 children (ages 6-11) with spastic dysarthria resulting from cerebral palsy and 11 controls. Despite intrasubject and intersubject variability in normal and pathological speakers, the tasks were found to be…

  12. Effects of the tool rotational speed and shoulder penetration depth on mechanical properties and failure modes of friction stir spot welds of aluminum 2024-T3 sheets

    Paidar, Moslem; Khodabandeh, Alireza; Najafi, Hamidreza [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Roughaghdam, Alireza Sabour [Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In this work, friction stir spot welding with 1.6 mm thickness of the 2024-T3 aluminum alloy is carried out. The effects of the tool rotational speed and shoulder penetration depth on surface appearance, macrostructure, temperature profile, maximum failure load and failure modes are investigated. Results show that, the effect of the tool rotational speed on maximum tensile shear load is similar to the effect of the shoulder penetration depth, increasing tool rotational speed and shoulder penetration depth resulted in the increase of the tensile shear load. Maximum load of about 8282 N is obtained by using 1000 rpm rotational speed and 0.7 mm shoulder penetration depth. Observation of the failed specimens indicates two types of failure modes under tensile shear loading, the shear fracture that occurs in low shoulder penetration depths and tensile shear fracture that occurs in high shoulder penetration depths.

  13. 粗针透刺身柱穴对帕金森病患者UPDRS评分的影响%Effect of Penetrating Needling with Thick Needle at Shenzhu (GV 12) on the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale Score

    石月杰; 张海峰


    Objective To observe the effect of penetrating needling with thick needle at Shenzhu (GB 12) on the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) score in patients with Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Methods Sixty-one PD patients were randomized into a treatment group of 31 cases and a control group of 30 cases. The treatment group was intervened by penetrating needling with thick needle at Shenzhu (GV 12) in addition to oral administration of Levodopa and Benserazide Hydrochloride;while the control group was by oral administration of Levodopa and Benserazide Hydrochloride alone. The UPDRS was evaluated before and after intervention in both groups. Results Respectively after 30-day treatment, 90-day treatment, and 90 d after the intervention, the UPDRS scores were significantly changed compared to that before intervention in both groups (P<0.01, P<0.05);there were also significant differences in comparing the UPDRS score between the two groups at each time point (P<0.01, P<0.05). Conclusions Penetrating needling with thick needle at Shenzhu (GV 12) can improve the UPDRS score in PD patients, and it’s an effective method in treating PD.%目的:观察粗针身柱穴透刺对帕金森病患者UPDRS评分的影响。方法将61例帕金森病患者随机分为治疗组31例和对照组30例。治疗组在口服多巴丝肼片的基础上加用粗针透刺身柱穴治疗,对照组采用单纯口服多巴丝肼片治疗。观察观察两组治疗前后统一帕金森病评定量表(UPDRS)评分。结果两组治疗30、90 d后及治疗后90 d UPDRS评分与同组治疗前比较,差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.01,P<0.05)。治疗组治疗30、90 d后及治疗后90 d UPDRS评分与对照组比较,差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.01,P<0.05)。结论粗针透刺身柱穴能改善帕金森病患者UPDRS评分,是一种治疗帕金森病的有效方法。

  14. 拟似然非线性模型中极大拟似然估计的强收敛速度%Strong Convergence Rates of Maximum Quasi-likelihood Estimation in Quasi-likelihood nonlinear model



    We studies the issue raised by Reference[3],according to appropriate assumptions and other smooth conditions,With a more simple method,Proved that asymptotic existence of quasi likelihood equations in Quasi-likelihood nonlinear model ,and proved the convergence rate of the solution.%在适当假定及其它一些光滑条件下,用更为简便的方法证明了拟似然非线性模型的拟似然方程解的渐近存在性,并且求出了该解收敛于真值的速度.


    Nagy, S M; Golumbic, C; Stein, W H; Fruton, J S; Bergmann, M


    Analytical methods which are accurate to about 1 per cent have been developed for the determination of small amounts (ca. 500 gamma) of bis(beta-chloroethyl)-sulfide (H), ethyl-bis(beta-chloroethyl)amine (EBA), tris(beta-chloroethyl)amine (TBA), beta-chloroethyl-benzylsulfide (benzyl-H), and beta-chloroethyl-ethylsulfide (ethyl-H). The determinations are made by micro titration of the HCl liberated upon complete hydrolysis of the vesicants. A description is given of an apparatus suitable for applying vapors of vesicants to unit areas of skin. A very precise and reproducible micropipetting technique is described for the introduction of the vesicants into the penetration apparatus. By means of this penetration apparatus studies have been made of several factors which may influence the rate at which vesicant vapors penetrate into skin. Model experiments have been performed in which H was allowed to vaporize and the vapor was absorbed on a surface such as that of diethylene glycol or vaseline. It has been found that if the surface of liquid H is increased by spreading the agent on filter paper, the rate of evaporation is markedly increased. Furthermore, if the vapor is agitated by means of a magnetically driven fan, the rate of absorption by diethylene glycol is greatly accelerated. With vaseline as the absorbing surface it has been found that the area of the absorbing surface has an effect on the rate of absorption of H vapor. More H is absorbed by vaseline spread on filter paper to give a rough surface than is absorbed by a smooth film of vaseline. Measurements of the rate of penetration into human skin of H, EBA, TBA, benzyl-H, and ethyl-H vapors have been performed at 21-23 degrees C. and 30-31 degrees C. by means of the penetration apparatus described in this paper. The measurements were carred out on human volunteers under conditions of controlled temperature and humidity. When human skin is exposed to air saturated with H vapor, the H penetrates the skin of the

  16. Effect of various penetration enhancers concentrations on diclafenac sodium release from cellulose acetate phthalate polymeric film

    El-Nahas Hanan


    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted to evaluate the influence of different penetration enhancers in various concentrations on the release of diclofenac sodium (DFS as a water-soluble drug from Cellulose acetate phthalate polymeric films containing 50% w/w PEG 600 as plasticizer, to choose the most appropriate enhancer and its optimum concentration to be used to achieve the maximum release and permeation of the drug. The addition of various enhancers, as isopropylmyristate (IPM; 0.2_5% w/w, oleic acid (OA; 0.2_5% w/w and linoleic acid (LOA; 0.2_5% w/w, Tween 80 (T80;1_10% w/w and transcutol, (TC; 1_10% w/w enhanced the DFS release from the polymeric films. The enhancement ratio of the penetration enhancers used in the formulation of DFS were found to increase in the order of IPM>LOA>OA>T80>TC. (56.2, 54.1, 50, 48.7 and 48%, respectively. In vitro permeation studies were performed using rabbit abdominal skin as the permeating membrane. The results indicated that maximum permeation was obtained at 24hrs (0.5% IPM, 0.2% LOA, 1% OA, 0.5% T80 and 10% TC, increased skin permeation of DFS by 4.46, 4.06, 3.37, 1.65 and 1.49 time, respectively. IPM was found to be the most efficient enhancer. The results obtained from ANOVA test indicate that the difference in drug permeation rates is highly significant compared to the control formulation (P<0.05. The mechanism of drug release from the polymeric films obey Higuchi′s model.

  17. Zipf's law and maximum sustainable growth

    Malevergne, Y; Sornette, D


    Zipf's law states that the number of firms with size greater than S is inversely proportional to S. Most explanations start with Gibrat's rule of proportional growth but require additional constraints. We show that Gibrat's rule, at all firm levels, yields Zipf's law under a balance condition between the effective growth rate of incumbent firms (which includes their possible demise) and the growth rate of investments in entrant firms. Remarkably, Zipf's law is the signature of the long-term optimal allocation of resources that ensures the maximum sustainable growth rate of an economy.

  18. Ethical hacking and penetration testing guide

    Baloch, Rafay


    Requiring no prior hacking experience, Ethical Hacking and Penetration Testing Guide supplies a complete introduction to the steps required to complete a penetration test, or ethical hack, from beginning to end. You will learn how to properly utilize and interpret the results of modern-day hacking tools, which are required to complete a penetration test. The book covers a wide range of tools, including Backtrack Linux, Google reconnaissance, MetaGooFil, dig, Nmap, Nessus, Metasploit, Fast Track Autopwn, Netcat, and Hacker Defender rootkit. Supplying a simple and clean explanation of how to effectively utilize these tools, it details a four-step methodology for conducting an effective penetration test or hack.Providing an accessible introduction to penetration testing and hacking, the book supplies you with a fundamental understanding of offensive security. After completing the book you will be prepared to take on in-depth and advanced topics in hacking and penetration testing. The book walks you through each ...

  19. Cable Braid Electromagnetic Penetration Model.

    Warne, Larry K. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langston, William L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Basilio, Lorena I. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, W. A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The model for penetration of a wire braid is rigorously formulated. Integral formulas are developed from energy principles and reciprocity for both self and transfer immittances in terms of potentials for the fields. The detailed boundary value problem for the wire braid is also setup in a very efficient manner; the braid wires act as sources for the potentials in the form of a sequence of line multipoles with unknown coefficients that are determined by means of conditions arising from the wire surface boundary conditions. Approximations are introduced to relate the local properties of the braid wires to a simplified infinite periodic planar geometry. This is used in a simplified application of reciprocity to be able to treat nonuniform coaxial geometries including eccentric interior coaxial arrangements and an exterior ground plane.

  20. Respirator Testing Using Virus Aerosol: Comparison between Viability Penetration and Physical Penetration.

    Zuo, Zhili; Kuehn, Thomas H; Pui, David Y H


    Viability, fluorescence (particle volume), photometric, viral RNA, and particle number penetration of MS2 bacteriophage through filter media used in three different models of respirators were compared to better understand the correlation between viability and physical penetration. Although viability and viral RNA penetration were better represented by particle volume penetration than particle number penetration, they were several-fold lower than photometric penetration, which was partially due to the difference in virus survival between upstream and downstream aerosol samples. Results suggest that the current NIOSH photometer-based test method can be used as a quick means to roughly differentiate respirators with different performance against virus aerosols.

  1. The Sherpa Maximum Likelihood Estimator

    Nguyen, D.; Doe, S.; Evans, I.; Hain, R.; Primini, F.


    A primary goal for the second release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is to include X-ray sources with as few as 5 photon counts detected in stacked observations of the same field, while maintaining acceptable detection efficiency and false source rates. Aggressive source detection methods will result in detection of many false positive source candidates. Candidate detections will then be sent to a new tool, the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE), to evaluate the likelihood that a detection is a real source. MLE uses the Sherpa modeling and fitting engine to fit a model of a background and source to multiple overlapping candidate source regions. A background model is calculated by simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in multiple background regions. This model is used to determine the quality of the fit statistic for a background-only hypothesis in the potential source region. The statistic for a background-plus-source hypothesis is calculated by adding a Gaussian source model convolved with the appropriate Chandra point spread function (PSF) and simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in each observation in the stack. Since a candidate source may be located anywhere in the field of view of each stacked observation, a different PSF must be used for each observation because of the strong spatial dependence of the Chandra PSF. The likelihood of a valid source being detected is a function of the two statistics (for background alone, and for background-plus-source). The MLE tool is an extensible Python module with potential for use by the general Chandra user.

  2. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    Carlo Fantoni


    Full Text Available Fantoni & Gerbino (2014 showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP, they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015 would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions, in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top

  3. Particle stratification and penetration of a linear vibrating screen by the discrete element method

    Xiao Jianzhang; Tong Xin


    A simulation of stratification and penetration was performed over a range of structural parameters that included screen width,aperture size,inclination angle,and wire diameter.The discrete element method (DEM) was used for the simulations.The terms stratification and penetration are defined and the change in fine particle concentration is discussed.Mathematical models relating fine particle ratio to time are established using the least squares method.The effect of structural parameters on fine particle ratio is analyzed.Stratification and penetration rate are discussed by considering the time derivative of the fine particle ratio.The conclusions are:an increase in inclination or wire diameter has a positive effect on particle stratifying; The optimal screen width is 40 mm for particle stratification; The inclination angle has a negative effect on the penetration; The effect of wire diameter and screen width on the penetration rate is negligible.

  4. A Multiple Scattering Theory for Proton Penetration

    YANG Dai-Lun; WU Zhang-Wen; JIANG Steve-Bin; LUO Zheng-Ming


    @@ We extend the electron small-angle multiple scattering theory to proton penetration. After introducing the concept of narrow energy spectra, the proton energy loss process is included in the proton deep penetration theory. It precisely describes the whole process of proton penetration. Compared to the Monte Carlo method,this method maintains the comparable precision and possesses much higher computational efficiency. Thus, it shows the real feasibility of applying this algorithm to proton clinical radiation therapy.

  5. New injector for controllable transient spray characteristics in DI diesel engine. 2nd report. ; Controllability of injection rate and penetration characteristics of new pilot injector. Diesel funmu no katoteki seigyo wo mokuteki to shita inzekuta ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. ; Nozuru kaiben'atsu kahengata pilot inzekuta ni yoru funsharitsu seigyo to penetoreshon tokusei

    Yoshizu, F. (Zexel Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    The author of this report has studied a spray control system which can make the transient control of spray in the direct injection diesel engine, and has designed and test-manufactured a variable nozzle injection valve opening pressure pilot injector. In this report, in order to obtain the basic data necessary for designing the above new type pilot injector, the effect of the operating condition of the pump on the control of injection rate has been evaluated using a conventional asymmetrical nozzle. Also in the operational condition at which the pilot injection has been obtained, the effect of the seat diameter and lift of the Dodge plunger on the injection rate and the penetration characteristics of the pilot injector has been elucidated. Part of the obtained knowledge is as follows; the injection quantity and separation can be maintained at almost constant values against the variation of the injection quantity, but against the rotating speed of the pump, they depend on the selection of the seat diameter of the Dodge plunger. By changing the above seat diameter and lifting amount, the above injection quantity and separation can be controlled. 3 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  6. In-place HEPA filter penetration test

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Elliott, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others


    We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting penetration tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters as installed in nuclear ventilation systems. The in-place penetration test, which is designed to yield equivalent penetration measurements as the standard DOP efficiency test, is based on measuring the aerosol penetration of the filter installation as a function of particle size using a portable laser particle counter. This in-place penetration test is compared to the current in-place leak test using light scattering photometers for single HEPA filter installations and for HEPA filter plenums using the shroud method. Test results show the in-place penetration test is more sensitive than the in-place leak test, has a similar operating procedure, but takes longer to conduct. Additional tests are required to confirm that the in-place penetration test yields identical results as the standard dioctyl phthalate (DOP) penetration test for HEPA filters with controlled leaks in the filter and gasket and duct by-pass leaks. Further development of the procedure is also required to reduce the test time before the in-place penetration test is practical. 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Study and simulation of a multi-lithology stratigraphic model under maximum erosion rate constraint; Etude et simulation d'un modele statigraphique multi-lithologique sous contrainte de taux d'erosion maximal

    Gervais, V.


    The subject of this report is the study and simulation of a model describing the infill of sedimentary basins on large scales in time and space. It simulates the evolution through time of the sediment layer in terms of geometry and rock properties. A parabolic equation is coupled to an hyperbolic equation by an input boundary condition at the top of the basin. The model also considers a unilaterality constraint on the erosion rate. In the first part of the report, the mathematical model is described and particular solutions are defined. The second part deals with the definition of numerical schemes and the simulation of the model. In the first chap-ter, finite volume numerical schemes are defined and studied. The Newton algorithm adapted to the unilateral constraint used to solve the schemes is given, followed by numerical results in terms of performance and accuracy. In the second chapter, a preconditioning strategy to solve the linear system by an iterative solver at each Newton iteration is defined, and numerical results are given. In the last part, a simplified model is considered in which a variable is decoupled from the other unknowns and satisfies a parabolic equation. A weak formulation is defined for the remaining coupled equations, for which the existence of a unique solution is obtained. The proof uses the convergence of a numerical scheme. (author)

  8. OECD Maximum Residue Limit Calculator

    With the goal of harmonizing the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the OECD has developed an MRL Calculator. View the calculator.

  9. Calculation of Maximum Waste Heat and Recovery Rate of Liquid and Gas Fuels%液气燃料烟气的最大余热量与节能率计算研究



    The consumption of various liqui d oil and gas fuel grows rapidly in Chinese energy structure. The discharged flue's temperature is generally 160℃ ~180℃ after these fuels are combusted. This part of energy can be used as secondary energy, though whose grade is low. A lot of H elements are in the form of liquid and gas fuels, and the vapor is the flue's main ingredi-ents. In this paper, the waste heat quantity and recovery rate of 0# light diesel oil and natural gas's flue is calculated, whose tem-perature is from 180℃ to 25℃ at the condition of 1 atm. In the 0# light diesel's flue, the residual heat's proportion of the vapor's heat is about 55. 08%. In the natural gas's flue, which proportion is about 79. 41%. Moreover, the vapor's latent heat is about 3/4. Therefore, recovering the latent heat of vapor is of great significance for the heat recovery of the low temperature waste heat.%在中国能源结构中,燃油与天然气所占比例迅速上升.燃烧后排烟温度一般为160℃~180℃,仍含有较多能量,可以二次利用.本文通过对液、气体燃料中具有代表性的0号轻质柴油及天然气烟气的余热量与节能率进行计算,发现低温烟气余热中的水蒸气余热量占有很大比例,柴油烟气为55.08%,天热气烟气为79.41%.回收烟气余热,尤其是其中水蒸汽的潜热对低温烟气的热回收具有重要意义.若有效回收利用,既是对一次能源的二次利用,更符合"十三五"期间国家节能减排的相关政策要求.

  10. The Effect of Penetrator Geometry on the Dynamic Response of Woven Graphite/Epoxy Composites

    Wosu, Sylvanus N.; Xie, Qiaoyun


    The primary focus on this paper is to study the high energy penetration/perforation damage propagation of composite plates using the perforation split Hopkinson pressure bar. The objectives include: investigation of propagation of penetration and surface crack damage in the vicinity perforation threshold velocity; investigation of energy absorption and strain intensity profiling; and quantitative analysis of the interactive effects of penetrator geometry and sample thickness on the perforation damage of woven graphite-epoxy composite plates. The results show that strain rate increased with damage energy threshold levels and decreased with sample thickness from below to above the perforation limit velocity on the average. There was a significant difference between penetrator geometries on a specimen strain rate, and penetrator size other than shape was a more important factor. As the size of the penetrator increased, the perforation energy thresholds increased accordingly. Thus, for the same energy level, the larger penetrator delivered more energy to the target. The mode of perforation failure was localized with obliquely shaped cracks for the woven specimens. It was conceivable that the cracks first initiate at the point of intersections of the weave and move in both directions. These results would provide some instructions in building, designing, and evaluating protective structures that undergo any penetration type of impact.

  11. Modeling and Experimental Validation for Hammer-Driven Type Penetrators under Horizontal Condition

    Yi Shen


    Full Text Available This paper proposed a method used to analyze the motion of hammer-driven type penetrators and built a testbed for validating the result of structure optimization of the penetrator in deep space exploration. This method gave a clear understanding of the working principle of the penetrator. The penetrator mainly comprises five components: hammer element, suppressor element, housing element, brake spring, and force spring. Based on the structure of the penetrator, the maximum forward movement of housing element was chosen as optimal object. In order to describe the working process clearly and properly, the working stroke was divided into three phases: unlocking phase, colliding phase, and penetrating phase. In each phase, the displacement and velocity of hammer element, suppressor element, and housing element were described with equation sets when numerically solved. Then, the corresponding parameters of the penetrator were obtained in the testbed with high-speed camera. At last, comparing the parameters obtained by theoretical analysis with that obtained by experiment test with high-speed camera, the perfect ratio of mass element (hammer element, suppressor element, and housing element and perfect ratio of stiffness of spring element (brake spring and force spring were obtained.

  12. Outcome of penetrating cardiac injuries in southern Iran, Shiraz

    Janati Mansour


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Cardiac injuries are one of the most challenging injuries in the field of trauma surgery. Their management often requires immediate surgical intervention, excellent surgical technique and the ability to provide excellent postoperative critical care to patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome and survival rate of patients with penetrating cardiac injury in southern Iran, Shiraz. Methods: From January 2001 to June 2007, medical records of all patients suffering from penetrating cardiac injuries were reviewed and their outcomes were investigated. The inclusion criterion was the presence of a confirmed penetrating cardiac injury intraoperatively or by autopsy. Patients with blunt cardiac injuries were excluded from the study. Results: The study consisted of 37 patients, including 1 gunshot wound (2.7%, 35 stab wounds (94.6% and 1 (2.7% shotgun wound. The overall survival rate was 76% (28 in 37 and that in stab wound patients was 80%. The collected data of 9 expired patients revealed 11% death on arrival, 67% hypotensive, and 22% normotensive considering physiologic presentation. Paired sample test showed sig-nificant correlation between mortality and electrocardio-graphic changes, amount of retained blood in pericardium, clinical stage and physiologic condition at presentation, as well as associated injury type (gunshot more than stab wound. Conclusion: Our results show that injury mechanism and initial cardiac rhythm are significant predictors of out-comes in patients with penetrating cardiac injuries. Besides, gunshot injury and exsanguination are the most important predictive variables of mortality. Key words: Heart injuries; Wounds, penetrating; Heart arrest; Survival

  13. Seismic stability analysis of concrete gravity dams with penetrated cracks

    Shou-yan JIANG


    Full Text Available The seismic stability of a cracked dam was examined in this study. Geometric nonlinearity and large deformations, as well as the contact condition at the crack site, were taken into consideration. The location of penetrated cracks was first identified using the concrete plastic-damage model based on the nonlinear finite element method (FEM. Then, the hard contact algorithm was used to simulate the crack interaction in the normal direction, and the Coloumb friction model was used to simulate the crack interaction in the tangential direction. After verification of numerical models through a case study, the seismic stability of the Koyna Dam with two types of penetrated cracks is discussed in detail with different seismic peak accelerations, and the collapse processes of the cracked dam are also presented. The results show that the stability of the dam with two types of penetrated cracks can be ensured in an earthquake with a magnitude of the original Koyna earthquake, and the cracked dam has a large earthquake-resistant margin. The failure processes of the cracked dam in strong earthquakes can be divided into two stages: the sliding stage and the overturning stage. The sliding stage ends near the peak acceleration, and the top block slides a long distance along the crack before the collapse occurs. The maximum sliding displacement of the top block will decrease with an increasing friction coefficient at the crack site.

  14. Penetrating Moral Education in English Teaching



    Middle school students’ moral education is not ful y implemented or even ignored in the present English teaching,so in this paper,the importance of penetrating the cultivation of middle school students’ moral education in English teaching is analyzed,the strategies of penetrating moral education are discussed and the significance is also pointed out.

  15. Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory

    Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle


    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including

  16. Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory

    Pieters, W.; Arnold, F.; Stoelinga, M.I.A.


    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Therefore, penetration testing has thus far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, in

  17. Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory

    Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle


    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including

  18. Endoscopic biopsy: Duodenal ulcer penetrating into liver

    Baybora Kircali; Tülay Saricam; Aysegul Ozakyol; Eser Vardareli


    @@ TO THE EDITOR We have read with interest the recent report by E Kayacetin and S Kayacetin of Gastric ulcer penetrating to liver diagnosed by endoscopic biopsy[1] since we diagnosed the duodenal ulcer which penetrated into liver similarly. This is a rather unusual case because of the fifth case in the literature and responding to medical therapy.

  19. Efficient Calculation of Earth Penetrating Projectile Trajectories


    CALCULATION OF EARTH PENETRATING PROJECTILE TRAJECTORIES by Daniel F . Youch September 2006 Thesis Advisor: Joshua Gordis... Daniel F . Youch 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING...EFFICIENT CALCULATION OF EARTH PENETRATING PROJECTILE TRAJECTORIES Daniel F . Youch Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy B.S., Temple

  20. Maximum margin Bayesian network classifiers.

    Pernkopf, Franz; Wohlmayr, Michael; Tschiatschek, Sebastian


    We present a maximum margin parameter learning algorithm for Bayesian network classifiers using a conjugate gradient (CG) method for optimization. In contrast to previous approaches, we maintain the normalization constraints on the parameters of the Bayesian network during optimization, i.e., the probabilistic interpretation of the model is not lost. This enables us to handle missing features in discriminatively optimized Bayesian networks. In experiments, we compare the classification performance of maximum margin parameter learning to conditional likelihood and maximum likelihood learning approaches. Discriminative parameter learning significantly outperforms generative maximum likelihood estimation for naive Bayes and tree augmented naive Bayes structures on all considered data sets. Furthermore, maximizing the margin dominates the conditional likelihood approach in terms of classification performance in most cases. We provide results for a recently proposed maximum margin optimization approach based on convex relaxation. While the classification results are highly similar, our CG-based optimization is computationally up to orders of magnitude faster. Margin-optimized Bayesian network classifiers achieve classification performance comparable to support vector machines (SVMs) using fewer parameters. Moreover, we show that unanticipated missing feature values during classification can be easily processed by discriminatively optimized Bayesian network classifiers, a case where discriminative classifiers usually require mechanisms to complete unknown feature values in the data first.

  1. Release Kinetics of Urea from Polymer Coated Urea and Its Relationship with Coating Penetrability

    ZHANG Hai-jun; WU Zhi-jie; CHEN Li-jun; LIANG Wen-ju


    Four kinds of polymer coated urea (PCU) were put in distilled water at 30C to determine the variation of coating penetrability and give a precise description of the urea release kinetics. The urea release from PCU could be divided into four stages: lag stage, swell stage, steady stage and decay stage. The release rate coefficient K, a measure of coating penetrability, was linearly increased at swell stage, but almost not variable at steady stage. At decay stage, the relation of K to time t could be described by the equation K= mtn-1(where m and n are the coefficients). When n>1, the coating penetrability was gradually increased, and the urea release from PCU was accelerated; when n=1, the coating penetrability was steady, and the urea release from PCU obeyed the first-order kinetics; and when n<1, the coating penetrability was gradually decreased,and the urea release from PCU was delayed, resulting in a significant "tailing effect".

  2. Hard rock tunnel boring machine penetration test as an indicator of chipping process efficiency

    M.C. Villeneuve


    Full Text Available The transition from grinding to chipping can be observed in tunnel boring machine (TBM penetration test data by plotting the penetration rate (distance/revolution against the net cutter thrust (force per cutter over the full range of penetration rates in the test. Correlating penetration test data to the geological and geomechanical characteristics of rock masses through which a penetration test is conducted provides the ability to reveal the efficiency of the chipping process in response to changing geological conditions. Penetration test data can also be used to identify stress-induced tunnel face instability. This research shows that the strength of the rock is an important parameter for controlling how much net cutter thrust is required to transition from grinding to chipping. It also shows that the geological characteristics of a rock will determine how efficient chipping occurs once it has begun. In particular, geological characteristics that lead to efficient fracture propagation, such as fabric and mica contents, will lead to efficient chipping. These findings will enable a better correlation between TBM performance and geological conditions for use in TBM design, as a basis for contractual payments where penetration rate dominates the excavation cycle and in further academic investigations into the TBM excavation process.

  3. Drop spreading and penetration into pre-wetted powders

    Marston, Jeremy


    We present results from an experimental study of the impact of liquid drops onto powder beds which are pre-wetted with the impacting liquid. Using high-speed video imaging, we study both the dynamics of the initial spreading regime and drainage times once the drop has reached its maximum spread on the surface. During the initial spreading stage, we compare our experimental data to a previously developed model which incorporates imbibition into the spreading dynamics and observe reasonable agreement. We find that the maximum spread is a strong function of the moisture content in the powder bed and that the total time from impact to complete drainage is always shorter than that for dry powder. Our results indicate that there is an optimum moisture content (or saturation) which leads to the fastest penetration. We use simple scaling arguments which also identify an optimum moisture content for fastest penetration, which agrees very well with the experimental result. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  4. An Analytical Means of Determining Mass Loss from High Velocity Rigid Penetrators based on the Thermodynamic and Mechanical Properties of the Penetrator and Target

    Foster, Joseph C., Jr.; Jones, S. E.; Rule, William; Toness, Odin


    of 6061-T6511 Aluminum Target by Ogive-Nose Projectiles with Striking Velocities between 0.5 and 3.0 Km/s,’ Int. J. Impact Engng. Vol. 23, 1999 4. Joseph C. Foster, Jr., Frank Christopher, Leo Wilson, Dave Jerome, Odin Toness, “Observations concerning the Damage in Concrete Subjected to High Rates of Loading,” Proceedings of Plasticity ’99, Cancun Mexico, 4-14 January 1999 5. S.E. Jones, Joseph C. Foster, Jr. , and William K Rule, “Estimating Target Strength from Penetration Experiments,” (submitted for publication)

  5. Transconjunctival penetration of mitomycin C

    Velpandian T


    Full Text Available Aims: The study was performed to estimate transconjunctival penetration of mitomycin C (MMC to Tenon′s tissue following application over the intact conjunctiva before routine trabeculectomy. Settings and Design: Institution-based case series. Materials and Methods: In 41 eyes of 41 patients, MMC (0.4 mg/ml for 3 min was applied over the intact conjunctiva before beginning trabeculectomy. Tenon′s capsule directly beneath the site of application was excised during trabeculectomy and was homogenized, centrifuged and MMC concentrations were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using stata0 8.0 version software (STATA Corporation, Houston, TX, USA. In this study, P -values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: The average weight of the sample of Tenon′s tissue excised was 5.51 ± 4.42 mg (range: 0.9-17.1 and the average estimated MMC concentration found to be present in Tenon′s tissue using HPLC was 18.67 ± 32.36 x 10−6 moles/kg of the tissue (range: 0.38-197.05 x 10−6 . In 36 of the 41 patients (87.80%, the MMC concentration reached above 2 x 10−6 moles/kg of the tissue concentration required to inhibit human conjunctival fibroblasts. Conclusions: Mitomycin C does permeate into the subconjunctival tissue after supraconjunctival application for 3 min. Application of MMC over the conjunctiva may be a useful alternative to subconjunctival or subscleral application during routine trabeculectomy and as an adjunct for failing blebs.

  6. 44 CFR 208.12 - Maximum Pay Rate Table.


    ... reimbursement and Backfill, for the System Member's actual compensation or the actual compensation of the... OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM General...

  7. Entrainment and maximum vapour flow rate of trays

    Van Sinderen, AH; Wijn, EF; Zanting, RWJ

    This is a report on free entrainment measurements in a small (0.20 m x 0.20 in) air-water column. An adjustable weir controlled the liquid height on a test tray. Several sieve and valve trays were studied. The results were interpreted with a two- or three-layer model of the two-phase mixture on the

  8. Nitric-glycolic flowsheet testing for maximum hydrogen generation rate

    Martino, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site is developing for implementation a flowsheet with a new reductant to replace formic acid. Glycolic acid has been tested over the past several years and found to effectively replace the function of formic acid in the DWPF chemical process. The nitric-glycolic flowsheet reduces mercury, significantly lowers the chemical generation of hydrogen and ammonia, allows purge reduction in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT), stabilizes the pH and chemistry in the SRAT and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), allows for effective adjustment of the SRAT/SME rheology, and is favorable with respect to melter flammability. The objective of this work was to perform DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) testing at conditions that would bound the catalytic hydrogen production for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet.


    Intisar Al-Mejibli


    Full Text Available Minimizing the number of dropped User Datagram Protocol (UDP messages in a network is regarded asa challenge by researchers. This issue represents serious problems for many protocols particularly thosethat depend on sending messages as part of their strategy, such us service discovery protocols.This paper proposes and evaluates an algorithm to predict the minimum period of time required betweentwo or more consecutive messages and suggests the minimum queue sizes for the routers, to manage thetraffic and minimise the number of dropped messages that has been caused by either congestion or queueoverflow or both together. The algorithm has been applied to the Universal Plug and Play (UPnPprotocol using ns2 simulator. It was tested when the routers were connected in two configurations; as acentralized and de centralized. The message length and bandwidth of the links among the routers weretaken in the consideration. The result shows Better improvement in number of dropped messages `amongthe routers.

  10. veteran athletes exercise at higher maximum heart rates than are ...

    questionnaire, a full medical examination and a routine. sECG. Thereafter ... activities than during stress testing in the laboratory. (P < 0.01). ... After the risks and procedures involved ..... for the first time in either rehabilitation or sporting activities. .... set were i. Results. E. 25 - 29.9), underwei increased. ;;, 24-year- pressure,.

  11. The Maximum Density of Water.

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.


    Discusses a series of experiments performed by Thomas Hope in 1805 which show the temperature at which water has its maximum density. Early data cast into a modern form as well as guidelines and recent data collected from the author provide background for duplicating Hope's experiments in the classroom. (JN)

  12. Abolishing the maximum tension principle

    Dabrowski, Mariusz P


    We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension $F_{max} = c^2/4G$ represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.

  13. Abolishing the maximum tension principle

    Mariusz P. Da̧browski


    Full Text Available We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension Fmax=c4/4G represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.

  14. A study on the particle penetration in RMS Right Single Quotation Marks particle transport system

    Son, S. M.; Oh, S. H.; Choi, C. R. [ELSOLTEC Inc., Youngin (Korea, Republic of)


    In nuclear facilities, a radiation monitoring system (RMS) monitors the exhaust gas containing the radioactive material. Samples of exhaust gas are collected in the downstream region of air cleaning units (ACUs) in order to examine radioactive materials. It is possible to predict an amount of radioactive material by analyzing the corrected samples. Representation of the collected samples should be assured in order to accurately sense and measure of radioactive materials. The radius of curvature is mainly 5 times of tube diameter. Sometimes, a booster fan is additionally added to enhance particle penetration rate... In this study, particle penetrations are calculated to evaluate particle penetration rate with various design parameters (tube lengths, tube declined angles, radius of curvatures, etc). The particle penetration rates have been calculated for several elements in the particle transport system. In general, the horizontal length of tube and the number of bending tube have a big impact on the penetration rate in the particle transport system. If the sampling location is far from the radiation monitoring system, additional installation of booster fans could be considered in case of large diameter tubes, but is not recommended in case of small diameter tube. In order to enhance particle penetration rate, the following works are recommended by priority. 1) to reduce the interval between sampling location and radiation monitoring system 2) to reduce the number of the bending tube.

  15. Modeling pollutant penetration across building envelopes

    Liu, De-Ling; Nazaroff, William W.


    As air infiltrates through unintentional openings in building envelopes, pollutants may interact with adjacent surfaces. Such interactions can alter human exposure to air pollutants of outdoor origin. We present modeling explorations of the proportion of particles and reactive gases (e.g., ozone) that penetrate building envelopes as air enters through cracks and wall cavities. Calculations were performed for idealized rectangular cracks, assuming regular geometry, smooth inner crack surface and steady airflow. Particles of 0.1-1.0 {micro}m diameter are predicted to have the highest penetration efficiency, nearly unity for crack heights of 0.25 mm or larger, assuming a pressure difference of 4 Pa or greater and a flow path length of 3 cm or less. Supermicron and ultrafine particles are significantly removed by means of gravitational settling and Brownian diffusion, respectively. In addition to crack geometry, ozone penetration depends on its reactivity with crack surfaces, as parameterized by the reaction probability. For reaction probabilities less than {approx}10{sup -5}, penetration is complete for cracks heights greater than 1 mm. However, penetration through mm scale cracks is small if the reaction probability is {approx}10{sup -4} or greater. For wall cavities, fiberglass insulation is an efficient particle filter, but particles would penetrate efficiently through uninsulated wall cavities or through insulated cavities with significant airflow bypass. The ozone reaction probability on fiberglass fibers was measured to be 10{sup -7} for fibers previously exposed to high ozone levels and 6 x 10{sup -6} for unexposed fibers. Over this range, ozone penetration through fiberglass insulation would vary from >90% to {approx}10-40%. Thus, under many conditions penetration is high; however, there are realistic circumstances in which building envelopes can provide substantial pollutant removal. Not enough is yet known about the detailed nature of pollutant penetration

  16. Earthquakes induced by deep penetrating bombing?

    Serguei Yu. Balassanian


    The data of M≥5 earthquakes occurred in one year before and after 4 deep penetrating bombs in the region within 500 km and 1 000 km from the shooting site are presented. The 4 bombs are those happened in 1999 Kosovo of Yugoslavia, the 1991 Baghdad of Iraq, the 2001 Tora Bora of Afghanistan, and the 2003 Kirkuk of Iraq, respectively. The data indicate that the deep penetrating bombs may have remotely triggered some earthquakes. The deep penetrating bombs in seismically active regions should be forbidden.

  17. Simulated meteoroid penetration of reusable surface insulation

    Lehman, J. K.; Christensen, H. E.


    Meteoroid impact simulation test results on insulation tiles were used to determine penetration resistance of reusable surface insulation attached to simulated shuttle structures. The probability of no meteoroid damage to a typical shuttle orbiter was determined. Specimens were plasma jet tested to determine effects of various size meteoroid cavities on their thermal performance. None of the tiles failed catastrophically, but large, egg-shaped craters did result from meteoroid penetration. The metallic side of a specimen that was completely penetrated showed a petalled hole typical for thin gage shielded structures.

  18. A Mass Loss Penetration Model to Investigate the Dynamic Response of a Projectile Penetrating Concrete considering Mass Abrasion

    NianSong Zhang; Dong; Wang; Bei Peng; Yong He


    A study on the dynamic response of a projectile penetrating concrete is conducted. The evolutional process of projectile mass loss and the effect of mass loss on penetration resistance are investigated using theoretical methods. A projectile penetration model considering projectile mass loss is established in three stages, namely, cratering phase, mass loss penetration phase, and remainder rigid projectile penetration phase.

  19. Reaction mechanisms and microstructures of ceramic-metal composites made by reactive metal penetration

    Fahrenholtz, W.F. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Materials Lab.; Ewsuk, K.G.; Loehman, R.E. [Sandia National Labs., NM (United States)] [and others


    Ceramic-metal composites can be made by reactive penetration of molten metals into dense ceramic performs. The metal penetration is driven by a large negative Gibbs energy for reaction, which is different from the more common physical infiltration of porous media. Reactions involving Al can be written generally as (x+2)Al + (3/y)MO{sub y} {yields} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + M{sub 3/y}Al{sub x}, where MO{sub y} is an oxide that is wet by molten Al. In low Po{sub 2} atmospheres and at temperature above about 900{degrees}c, molten Al reduces mullite to produce Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + M{sub 3/y}Al{sub x}, where MO is an oxide that is wet by molten Al. In low Po{sub 2} atmospheres and at temperatures above about 900{degrees}C, molten al reduces mullite to produce Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Si. The Al/mullite reaction has a {Delta}G{sub r}{degrees} (1200K) of -1014 kJ/mol and, if the mullite is fully dense, the theoretical volume change on reaction is less than 1%. A microstructure of mutually-interpenetrating metal and ceramic phases generally is obtained. Penetration rate increases with increasing reaction temperature from 900 to 1150{degrees}C, and the reaction layer thickness increases linearly with time. Reaction rate is a maximum at 1150{degrees}C; above that temperature the reaction slows and stops after a relatively short period of linear growth. At 1300{degrees}C and above, no reaction layer is detected by optical microscopy. Observations of the reaction front by TEM show only al and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} after reaction at 900{degrees}C, but Si is present in increasing amounts as the reaction temperature increases to 1100{degrees}C and above. The kinetic and microstructural data suggest that the deviation from linear growth kinetics at higher reaction temperatures and longer times is due to Si build-up and saturation at the reaction front. The activation energy for short reaction times at 900 to 1150{degrees}C varies from {approximately}90 to {approximately}200 kJ/mole.

  20. Differential sperm performance as judged by the zona-free hamster egg penetration test relative to differing sperm penetration techniques.

    Chan, S Y; Tucker, M J


    A prospective study on 61 unselected semen samples from infertile patients was conducted to evaluate the effects of sperm preparation techniques on the outcomes of the zona-free hamster egg penetration test (HEPT) to assess the in-vitro fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa. Each semen sample was divided into two equal portions before separation of the spermatozoa from seminal plasma either by the single-tube swim-up method, or using a two-layer discontinuous Percoll gradient. Spermatozoa were incubated overnight for initiation of capacitation after which HEPT was performed. The swim-up spermatozoa were further divided into two subgroups before HEPT as follows: with or without (control) treatment for 20 min with 50% (v/v) pooled, human follicular fluid (hFF) which had not been heat-inactivated. It was demonstrated (P less than 0.05) that the Percoll-separated spermatozoa exhibited higher penetration scores (percentage penetration rate and penetration index) than the control or the hFF-treated swim-up spermatozoa. A short exposure (20 min) to hFF significantly increased the penetration scores in HEPT for swim-up spermatozoa (P less than 0.05) but the average results were still significantly lower (P less than 0.05) than those of the Percoll separated spermatozoa, which had received no hFF treatment. Based on these findings, we conclude that the Percoll separation technique is better than the centrifugal pelleting and single-tube swim-up technique for reducing the false-negative results in HEPT. In addition, the use of hFF can significantly improve the performance of the swim-up sperm samples in HEPT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Maximum Genus of Strong Embeddings

    Er-ling Wei; Yan-pei Liu; Han Ren


    The strong embedding conjecture states that any 2-connected graph has a strong embedding on some surface. It implies the circuit double cover conjecture: Any 2-connected graph has a circuit double cover.Conversely, it is not true. But for a 3-regular graph, the two conjectures are equivalent. In this paper, a characterization of graphs having a strong embedding with exactly 3 faces, which is the strong embedding of maximum genus, is given. In addition, some graphs with the property are provided. More generally, an upper bound of the maximum genus of strong embeddings of a graph is presented too. Lastly, it is shown that the interpolation theorem is true to planar Halin graph.

  2. D(Maximum)=P(Argmaximum)

    Remizov, Ivan D


    In this note, we represent a subdifferential of a maximum functional defined on the space of all real-valued continuous functions on a given metric compact set. For a given argument, $f$ it coincides with the set of all probability measures on the set of points maximizing $f$ on the initial compact set. This complete characterization lies in the heart of several important identities in microeconomics, such as Roy's identity, Sheppard's lemma, as well as duality theory in production and linear programming.

  3. The Testability of Maximum Magnitude

    Clements, R.; Schorlemmer, D.; Gonzalez, A.; Zoeller, G.; Schneider, M.


    Recent disasters caused by earthquakes of unexpectedly large magnitude (such as Tohoku) illustrate the need for reliable assessments of the seismic hazard. Estimates of the maximum possible magnitude M at a given fault or in a particular zone are essential parameters in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), but their accuracy remains untested. In this study, we discuss the testability of long-term and short-term M estimates and the limitations that arise from testing such rare events. Of considerable importance is whether or not those limitations imply a lack of testability of a useful maximum magnitude estimate, and whether this should have any influence on current PSHA methodology. We use a simple extreme value theory approach to derive a probability distribution for the expected maximum magnitude in a future time interval, and we perform a sensitivity analysis on this distribution to determine if there is a reasonable avenue available for testing M estimates as they are commonly reported today: devoid of an appropriate probability distribution of their own and estimated only for infinite time (or relatively large untestable periods). Our results imply that any attempt at testing such estimates is futile, and that the distribution is highly sensitive to M estimates only under certain optimal conditions that are rarely observed in practice. In the future we suggest that PSHA modelers be brutally honest about the uncertainty of M estimates, or must find a way to decrease its influence on the estimated hazard.

  4. Alternative Multiview Maximum Entropy Discrimination.

    Chao, Guoqing; Sun, Shiliang


    Maximum entropy discrimination (MED) is a general framework for discriminative estimation based on maximum entropy and maximum margin principles, and can produce hard-margin support vector machines under some assumptions. Recently, the multiview version of MED multiview MED (MVMED) was proposed. In this paper, we try to explore a more natural MVMED framework by assuming two separate distributions p1( Θ1) over the first-view classifier parameter Θ1 and p2( Θ2) over the second-view classifier parameter Θ2 . We name the new MVMED framework as alternative MVMED (AMVMED), which enforces the posteriors of two view margins to be equal. The proposed AMVMED is more flexible than the existing MVMED, because compared with MVMED, which optimizes one relative entropy, AMVMED assigns one relative entropy term to each of the two views, thus incorporating a tradeoff between the two views. We give the detailed solving procedure, which can be divided into two steps. The first step is solving our optimization problem without considering the equal margin posteriors from two views, and then, in the second step, we consider the equal posteriors. Experimental results on multiple real-world data sets verify the effectiveness of the AMVMED, and comparisons with MVMED are also reported.

  5. Penetrating trauma to the external genitalia in Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    Waxman, S; Beekley, A; Morey, A; Soderdahl, D


    This report details the incidence and description of trauma to the external genitalia experienced during Operation Iraqi Freedom at a United States Army Combat Support Hospital, and demonstrates that acceptable rates of testicular salvage are possible in the combat setting. The operating room logs and the Joint Theater Trauma Registry were used to conduct a retrospective review of the patients who sustained genitourinary (GU) injuries at an US Army Combat Support Hospital (CSH) in Iraq from 27 February 2007 to 14 August 2007. Of the 3595 battle trauma injuries seen at the CSH during the time period, 168 (4.7%) had one or more GU injuries for a total of 172 GU injuries. Of these patients, 115 (68%) with GU injuries had one or more injuries to the external genitalia for a total of 119 external GU injuries. Penetrating trauma to the penis and scrotum accounted for 59 of the injuries. In total, 43 testicles were injured in 34 patients (9 had bilateral injuries). In total, 32 testes were repaired primarily and 11 were removed. Injuries to the external genitalia continue to account for the vast majority of GU trauma in a combat setting. Of patients who presented with penetrating testicular trauma, there was a 74.4% salvage rate, which is higher than previous reports of combat external genitalia injuries. Treatment of penetrating trauma to the external genitalia in a combat setting requires attention to tissue preservation while coordinating associated surgical procedures.

  6. 20 CFR 226.52 - Total annuity subject to maximum.


    ... rate effective on the date the supplemental annuity begins, before any reduction for a private pension... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total annuity subject to maximum. 226.52... COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Railroad Retirement Family Maximum § 226.52...

  7. 3D Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar

    ECT Team, Purdue


    GPiR (ground-penetrating imaging radar) is a new technology for mapping the shallow subsurface, including society’s underground infrastructure. Applications for this technology include efficient and precise mapping of buried utilities on a large scale.

  8. Penetration testing protecting networks and systems

    Henry, Kevin M


    This book is a preparation guide for the CPTE examination, yet is also a general reference for experienced penetration testers, ethical hackers, auditors, security personnel and anyone else involved in the security of an organization's computer systems.

  9. Identifying structural damage with ground penetrating radar

    Van Schoor, Abraham M


    Full Text Available Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistance tomography (ERT) surveys were conducted in an urban environment in an attempt to identify the cause of severe structural damage to a historically significant residential property...

  10. Kali Linux wireless penetration testing beginner's guide

    Ramachandran, Vivek


    If you are a security professional, pentester, or anyone interested in getting to grips with wireless penetration testing, this is the book for you. Some familiarity with Kali Linux and wireless concepts is beneficial.

  11. Airborne ground penetrating radar: practical field experiments

    Van Schoor, Michael


    Full Text Available The performance of ground penetrating radar (GPR) under conditions where the ground coupling of the antenna is potentially compromised is investigated. Of particular interest is the effect of increasing the distance between the antennae...

  12. An Observational Investigation of Penetrative Convection

    Jensen, Niels Otto; Lenschow, D. H.


    Data taken during the Air Mass Transformation Experiment (AMTEX) by the NCAR Electra aircraft have proven useful for investigating the structure of thermals penetrating into the turbulent inversion layer which caps the convective mixed layer. Variances, covariances, spectra and cospectra...

  13. Efficacy of non-penetrating trabecular surgery for open angle glaucoma:a meta-analysis

    程金伟; 马晓晔; 魏锐


    Background Non-penetrating trabecular surgery is a new filtrating surgery without opening in ternal trabecular structures. This study was to estimate the overall efficacy of non-penetrating trabecular surgery for open angle glaucoma.Methods The published articles selected for this study were obtained by a computerised Medline and China Biological Medicine Disk search of the literature and a manual search of the bibliographies of relevant articles. Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were reviewed systematically, and the reported data were aggregated using the statistical techniques of meta-analysis.Results A total of 37 articles were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled complete success rates of non-penetrating trabecular surgery with different techniques were: deep sclerectomy single, 69.7% (95% CI: 58.5%-81.0%); deep sclerectomy with collagen implant, 59.4% (95% CI: 47.0%-71.8%); deep sclerectomy with reticulated hyaluronic acid implant, 71.1% (95% CI: 56.8%-85.3%); and viscocanalostomy, 72.0% (95% CI: 57.6%-86.4%). The overall weighted complete success rate of non-penetrating trabecular surgery was 67.8% (95% CI: 61.4%-74.3%).Conclusions Non-penetrating trabecular surgery is the best available therapy method for medically uncontrolled open angle glaucoma with a complete success rate of over 60%. But the different techniques cannot belie the complete success rate of non-penetrating trabecular surgery.

  14. An unusual penetrating craniocerebral injury due to landmine explosion: a case report.

    Atabey, Cem; Ersoy, Turgay


    Penetrating landmine injuries are the unavoidable consequences of military conflicts. They are potentially life-threatening. The mortality rates in the literature range from 23% to 92% and are considerably higher in patients admitted with poor neurologic state. Penetrating craniocerebral injuries require early surgical management designated to prevent infection and remove foreign objects, necrotic tissue and complicating blood clots, as well as to minimalize post-traumatic sequelae. We report herein an interesting case of penetrating intracerebral injury with giant shrapnel due to landmine in a 20-year-old young man.

  15. Inconsistency of mesophyll conductance estimate causes the inconsistency for the estimates of maximum rate of Rubisco carboxylation among the linear, rectangular and non-rectangular hyperbola biochemical models of leaf photosynthesis--a case study of CO₂ enrichment and leaf aging effects in soybean.

    Sun, Jindong; Feng, Zhaozhong; Leakey, Andrew D B; Zhu, Xinguang; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R


    The responses of CO2 assimilation to [CO2] (A/Ci) were investigated at two developmental stages (R5 and R6) and in several soybean cultivars grown under two levels of CO2, the ambient level of 370 μbar versus the elevated level of 550 μbar. The A/Ci data were analyzed and compared by either the combined iterations or the separated iterations of the Rubisco-limited photosynthesis (Ac) and/or the RuBP-limited photosynthesis (Aj) using various curve-fitting methods: the linear 2-segment model; the non-rectangular hyperbola model; the rectangular hyperbola model; the constant rate of electron transport (J) method and the variable J method. Inconsistency was found among the various methods for the estimation of the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax), the mitochondrial respiration rate in the light (Rd) and mesophyll conductance (gm). The analysis showed that the inconsistency was due to inconsistent estimates of gm values that decreased with an instantaneous increase in [CO2], and varied with the transition Ci cut-off between Rubisco-limited photosynthesis and RuBP-regeneration-limited photosynthesis, and due to over-parameters for non-linear curve-fitting with gm included. We proposed an alternate solution to A/Ci curve-fitting for estimates of Vcmax, Rd, Jmax and gm with the various A/Ci curve-fitting methods. The study indicated that down-regulation of photosynthetic capacity by elevated [CO2] and leaf aging was due to partially the decrease in the maximum rates of carboxylation and partially the decrease in gm. Mesophyll conductance lowered photosynthetic capacity by 18% on average for the case of soybean plants.

  16. Penetrating facial injury by a wooden log

    Mohan, Sadanandan; Varghese, George; Kumar, Sanjay; Subramanian, Dinesh Pambungal


    Penetrating facial injuries are potentially dangerous and require emergency management because of the presence of vital structures in the face and it may be life threatening especially when the injury involves airway, major blood vessels, spinal cord and cervical spines. Penetrating injuries of facial region can occur due to missile injuries, blast injuries, accidental fall on sharp objects such as sticks or glass and motor vehicle accidents etc., Indications for immediate surgical management...

  17. Magnetic field penetration of erosion switch plasmas

    Mason, Rodney J.; Jones, Michael E.; Grossmann, John M.; Ottinger, Paul F.


    Computer simulations demonstrate that the entrainment (or advection) of magnetic field with the flow of cathode-emitted electrons can constitute a dominant mechanism for the magnetic field penetration of erosion switch plasmas. Cross-field drift in the accelerating electric field near the cathode starts the penetration process. Plasma erosion propagates the point for emission and magnetic field injection along the cathode toward the load-for the possibility of rapid switch opening.

  18. Effect of penetrants on the aramid Nomex

    Anjana Jain; Kalyani Vijayan


    The response of Nomex sheets to some penetrants has been analyzed. The process of moisture uptake depends on the relative humidity (RH) of the ambient atmosphere and the initial characteristics of the polymer. In the case of common laboratory solvents, the uptake by the polymer shows an inverse dependence on the molar volume of the former. Although the calendered and the uncalendered Nomex sheets exhibit an overall similarity in their response to various penetrants, quantitative comparison reveals distinct differences.

  19. Comparison of Sealer Penetration by Using Different Irrigation Techniques – An In-vitro Study

    Ahamed, Siddiq; Sabiha, PB; Sekhar, M Chandra; Moosani, Gopikrishna; Reddy, S Nagalakshmi; Reddy, N Upendranatha; Sumanthi, CH


    Introduction The main goal of root canal treatment is to eliminate the microorganisms particularly in the apical third area and to prevent re-infection. In order to achieve these goals the instrumentation must be combined with adequate irrigation. Aim To compare sealer penetration by using different irrigation techniques i.e., apical negative pressure irrigation, Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation (PUI) and combination of apical negative pressure irrigation and PUI. Materials and Methods A total of 48 single rooted maxillary central incisors were taken. Access cavity was prepared and biomechanical preparation was done. The samples were randomly assigned into three experimental groups based on the final irrigation technique used. Group I: Apical negative pressure (Endovac); Group II: PUI; Group III: Combination of apical negative pressure and PUI. All the samples were obturated using AH plus sealer and the sections were observed under confocal laser scanning microscope to evaluate the percentage and maximum depth of sealer penetration at 1mm, 3mm and 5mm levels. Statistical analysis was done by using two way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test to compare the percentage and maximum depth of sealer penetration. Results Combination group resulted in better sealer penetration at 1mm and 3mm from the working length than the Endovac and PUI group. However, the Endovac group showed significantly better sealer penetration at 1mm from the working length when compared with PUI. There was no significant difference in sealer penetration at 5mm level between PUI and combination group. Conclusion Combination group was the only group to achieve better sealer penetration at 1mm and 3mm levels from the working length. PMID:28209004

  20. Application of Low-penetration Concrete as the Protecting Layer in Wuhan Yangtse River Tunnel Tube


    Based on the Wuhan Yangtse River Tunnel Project, the low-penetration fiber concrete used in the protecting layer of Wuhan Yangtse River Tunnel tube has been studied in this paper. With the effect of silica fume, slag and polypropylene fiber on the anti-penetration of tunnel concrete by means of NEL test, XRD and SEM, some conclusions has been drawn. The affection on the anti-penetration capability of the four factors is capacity of silica fume>portion of short and long fiber>fiber VOL Portion>length of Fiber. Fiber capacity of 0.15% is still not good enough for the anti-penetration capability of concrete. While that of 0.5% has exceed the maximum, and the fiber tends to assemble together. Silica fume may greatly enhance the anti-penetration capability of concrete, while the relationship between them is not direct proportion. The average of chloric ion pervasion coefficient with 8% capacity of silica fume is the lowest. Slag may reacted with other component to generate lots of C-A-H. When reacted with free chloride ion, C-A-H may form friedel salt which may also enhance the Anti-penetration capability of concrete.

  1. Penetration of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus into host cells.

    Abram, D; Castro e Melo, J; Chou, D


    Electron microscopy reveals that, in Bdellovibrio infection, after the formation of a passage pore in the host cell wall, the differentiated parasite penetration pole is associated with the host protoplast. This firm contact persists throughout the parasite penetration and after this process is completed. In penetrated hosts this contact is also apparent by phase microscopy. The association between the walls of the parasite and the host at the passage pore, on the other hand, is transient. Bdellovibrio do not penetrate hosts whose protoplast and cell walls are separated by plasmolysis, or in which the membrane-wall relationship is affected by low turgor pressure. It is concluded, therefore, that for penetration to occur it is essential that the host protoplast be within reach of the parasite, so that a firm contact can be established between them. A penetration mechanism is proposed that is effected by forces generated by fluxes of water and solutes due to structural changes in the infected host envelope. These forces cause a differential expansion of the host protoplast and cell wall and their separation from each other around the entry site, while the parasite remains firmly anchored to the host protoplast. Consequently, the parasite ends up enclosed in the expanded host periplasm. The actual entry, therefore, is a passive act of the parasite.

  2. Estimating Consequences of MMOD Penetrations on ISS

    Evans, H.; Hyde, James; Christiansen, E.; Lear, D.


    The threat from micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts on space vehicles is often quantified in terms of the probability of no penetration (PNP). However, for large spacecraft, especially those with multiple compartments, a penetration may have a number of possible outcomes. The extent of the damage (diameter of hole, crack length or penetration depth), the location of the damage relative to critical equipment or crew, crew response, and even the time of day of the penetration are among the many factors that can affect the outcome. For the International Space Station (ISS), a Monte-Carlo style software code called Manned Spacecraft Crew Survivability (MSCSurv) is used to predict the probability of several outcomes of an MMOD penetration-broadly classified as loss of crew (LOC), crew evacuation (Evac), loss of escape vehicle (LEV), and nominal end of mission (NEOM). By generating large numbers of MMOD impacts (typically in the billions) and tracking the consequences, MSCSurv allows for the inclusion of a large number of parameters and models as well as enabling the consideration of uncertainties in the models and parameters. MSCSurv builds upon the results from NASA's Bumper software (which provides the probability of penetration and critical input data to MSCSurv) to allow analysts to estimate the probability of LOC, Evac, LEV, and NEOM. This paper briefly describes the overall methodology used by NASA to quantify LOC, Evac, LEV, and NEOM with particular emphasis on describing in broad terms how MSCSurv works and its capabilities and most significant models.

  3. Giant gastric ulcer penetrating into the pancreas.

    Fujihara, Shintaro; Mori, Hirohito; Nishiyama, Noriko; Kobara, Hideki; Masaki, Tsutomu


    A 57-year-old man developed haematemesis and was referred to our institution. His discomfort had begun 3 weeks earlier and localised to the upper abdomen. Abdominal CT showed a defect of gastric mucosa and gastric wall thickening. Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy showed that he had an active gastric ulcer, 40 mm in diameter, on the lesser curvature in the upper third of the corpus and the presence of a pancreatic body at the ulcer base, penetration to the pancreas. Open gastrectomy was performed with a preoperative diagnosis of localised peritonitis caused by penetration of the stomach into the pancreas. Histopathology of resected specimens showed a benign peptic ulcer, 40×40 mm in size, was found on the lesser curvature in the antrum, and this had penetrated through the pancreas. The most serious complications of PUD include haemorrhage, perforation, penetration, and gastric outlet obstruction. Approximately 7% of patients experience perforation, which occurs when an ulcer erodes through the wall and leaks air and digestive contents into the peritoneal cavity. Antral and duodenal ulcers can penetrate into the pancreas. We report a case of gastric ulcer penetrating into the pancreas.

  4. Carbon mineralization and oxygen dynamics in sediments with deep oxygen penetration, Lake Superior

    Li, Jiying; Crowe, Sean Andrew; Miklesh, David


    To understand carbon and oxygen dynamics in sediments with deep oxygen penetration, we investigated eight locations (160–318-m depth) throughout Lake Superior. Despite the 2–4 weight percent organic carbon content, oxygen penetrated into the sediment by 3.5 to > 12 cm at all locations. Such deep...... penetration is explained by low sedimentation rates (0.01–0.04 cm yr−1), high solubility of oxygen in freshwater, and a shallow (∼ 2 cm) bioturbation zone. In response mainly to oxygen variations in the bottom waters, the sediment oxygen penetration varied seasonally by as much as several centimeters......, suggesting that temporal variability in deeply oxygenated sediments may be greater than previously acknowledged. The oxygen uptake rates (4.4–7.7 mmol m−2 d−1, average 6.1 mmol m−2 d−1) and carbon mineralization efficiency (∼ 90% of deposited carbon) were similar to those in marine hemipelagic and pelagic...

  5. Evaluation of selective treatment of penetrating abdominal trauma.

    Schmelzer, Thomas M; Mostafa, Gamal; Gunter, Oliver L; Norton, H James; Sing, Ronald F


    In penetrating abdominal trauma, diagnostic imaging and the application of selective clinical management may avoid negative celiotomy and improve outcome. We prospectively observed patients with penetrating abdominal trauma over 15 months and recorded demographics, presentation, imaging, surgical procedure, and outcome. Patients who underwent immediate laparotomy were compared with patients who were observed and/or had a computed tomography (CT) scan. Outcomes of negative versus positive and immediate versus delayed celiotomy were compared. Chi-square and Student t tests were used. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. A level 1 trauma center. Adult patients who presented with penetrating abdominal injury. In all, 100 consecutive patients (mean age, 32 years) were included (male:female, 91:9; gunshot wound:stab wound, 65:35). Overall, 60 immediate and 10 delayed laparotomies were performed; 30 patients did not undergo surgery. Predictors of immediate celiotomy were hypotension (p = 0.03), anteriorly located entrance wounds (p = 0.0005), and transaxial wounds (p = 0.03). Overall morbidity and mortality was 32% and 2%, respectively. The negative celiotomy rate was 25%. Patients with a positive celiotomy had higher morbidity (p = 0.006) and longer hospital length of stay (p = 0.003) compared with negative celiotomy. A CT scan was employed in 32% of patients, with 100% sensitivity and 94% specificity. Delayed celiotomy (10%) did not adversely impact morbidity (p = 0.70) and was 100% therapeutic, with no deaths. Nonselective immediate celiotomy for penetrating abdominal trauma results in a high rate of unnecessary surgery. Hemodynamically stable patients can safely be observed and/or have contrast CT scans and undergo delayed celiotomy, if indicated. This selective treatment had no adverse effect on patient outcomes and can potentially improve overall outcome.

  6. Outcome of penetrating cardiac injuries in southern Iran,Shiraz

    Mansour Janati; Shahram Bolandparvaz; Shirvan Salaminia; Hamed Ghoddusi Johari; Babak Sabet; Javad Kojuri


    Objective:Cardiac injuries are one of the most challenging injuries in the field of trauma surgery.Their management often requires immediate surgical intervention,excellent surgical technique and the ability to provide excellent postoperative critical care to patients.The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome and survival rate of patients with penetrating cardiac injury in southern Iran,Shiraz.Methods:From January 2001 to June 2007,medical records of all patients suffering from penetrating cardiac injuries were reviewed and their outcomes were investigated.The inclusion criterion was the presence of a confirmed penetrating cardiac injury intraoperatively or by autopsy.Patients with blunt cardiac injuries were excluded from the study.Results:The study consisted of 37 patients,including 1 gunshot wound (2.7%),35 stab wounds (94.6%) and 1 (2.7%)shotgun wound.The overall survival rate was 76% (28 in 37) and that in stab wound patients was 80%.The collected data of 9 expired patients revealed 11% death on arrival,67% hypotensive,and 22% normotensive considering physiologic presentation.Paired sample test showed significant correlation between mortality and electrocardiographic changes,amount of retained blood in pericardium,clinical stage and physiologic condition at presentation,as well as associated injury type (gunshot more than stab wound).Conclusion:Our results show that injury mechanism and initial cardiac rhythm are significant predictors of outcomes in patients with penetrating cardiac injuries.Besides,gunshot injury and exsanguination are the most important predictive variables of mortality.

  7. Damage visualization and deformation measurement in glass laminates during projectile penetration

    Elmar Strassburger


    Full Text Available Transparent armor consists of glass-polymer laminates in most cases. The formation and propagation of damage in the different glass layers has a strong influence on the ballistic resistance of such laminates. In order to clarify the course of events during projectile penetration, an experimental technique was developed, which allows visualizing the onset and propagation of damage in each single layer of the laminate. A telecentric objective lens was used together with a microsecond video camera that allows recording 100 frames at a maximum rate of 1 MHz in a backlit photography set-up. With this technique, the damage evolution could be visualized in glass laminates consisting of four glass layers with lateral dimensions 500 mm × 500 mm. Damage evolution was recorded during penetration of 7.62 mm AP projectiles with tungsten carbide core and a total mass of 11.1 g in the impact velocity range from 800 to 880 m/s. In order to measure the deformation of single glass plates within the laminates, a piece of reflecting tape was attached to the corresponding glass plate, and photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV was applied. With the photonic Doppler velocimeter, an infrared laser is used to illuminate an object to be measured and the Doppler-shifted light is superimposed to a reference light beam at the detector. The simultaneous visualization and PDV measurement of the glass deformation allow determining the deformation at the time of the onset of fracture. The analysis of the experimental data was supported by numerical simulations, using the AUTODYN commercial hydro-code.

  8. Damage visualization and deformation measurement in glass laminates during projectile penetration

    Elmar STRASSBURGER; Steffen BAUER; Gregor POPKO


    Transparent armor consists of glass-polymer laminates in most cases. The formation and propagation of damage in the different glass layers has a strong influence on the ballistic resistance of such laminates. In order to clarify the course of events during projectile penetration, an experimental technique was developed, which allows visualizing the onset and propagation of damage in each single layer of the laminate. A telecentric objective lens was used together with a microsecond video camera that allows recording 100 frames at a maximum rate of 1 MHz in a backlit photography set-up. With this technique, the damage evolution could be visualized in glass laminates consisting of four glass layers with lateral dimensions 500 mm ? 500 mm. Damage evolution was recorded during penetration of 7.62 mm AP projectiles with tungsten carbide core and a total mass of 11.1 g in the impact velocity range from 800 to 880 m/s. In order to measure the deformation of single glass plates within the laminates, a piece of reflecting tape was attached to the corresponding glass plate, and photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) was applied. With the photonic Doppler velocimeter, an infrared laser is used to illuminate an object to be measured and the Doppler-shifted light is superimposed to a reference light beam at the detector. The simultaneous visualization and PDV measurement of the glass deformation allow determining the deformation at the time of the onset of fracture. The analysis of the experimental data was supported by numerical simulations, using the AUTODYN commercial hydro-code.

  9. In vitro penetration of bleaching agents into the pulp chamber

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Valera, M C; Mancini, M N G


    To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures.......To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures....

  10. The biological effect of cage design corrected for reductions in spray penetration

    Fritz Bradley Keith; Hoffmann Wesley Clint; Bonds Jane Annalise Sara; Haas Keith; Czaczyk Zbigniew


    In-field measures of physical spray concentration do not tend to correlate well with caged insect mortality data. This is partly due to the reduced penetration of the spray into the cage. Spray penetration is hindered by the structure of the cage. Wind tunnel studies were conducted to investigate the accuracy of those calculations developed to correct for filtration levels in caged mosquito bioassays. Zenivex E20 (Etofenprox) was applied at rates ranging from an LD10 to an LD90. Thre...

  11. Rapid penetration into granular media visualizing the fundamental physics of rapid earth penetration

    Iskander, Magued


    Rapid Penetration into Granular Media: Visualizing the Fundamental Physics of Rapid Earth Penetration introduces readers to the variety of methods and techniques used to visualize, observe, and model the rapid penetration of natural and man-made projectiles into earth materials. It provides seasoned practitioners with a standard reference that showcases the topic's most recent developments in research and application. The text compiles the findings of new research developments on the subject, outlines the fundamental physics of rapid penetration into granular media, and assembles a com

  12. Cacti with maximum Kirchhoff index

    Wang, Wen-Rui; Pan, Xiang-Feng


    The concept of resistance distance was first proposed by Klein and Randi\\'c. The Kirchhoff index $Kf(G)$ of a graph $G$ is the sum of resistance distance between all pairs of vertices in $G$. A connected graph $G$ is called a cactus if each block of $G$ is either an edge or a cycle. Let $Cat(n;t)$ be the set of connected cacti possessing $n$ vertices and $t$ cycles, where $0\\leq t \\leq \\lfloor\\frac{n-1}{2}\\rfloor$. In this paper, the maximum kirchhoff index of cacti are characterized, as well...

  13. Generic maximum likely scale selection

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo


    The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...... on second order moments of multiple measurements outputs at a fixed location. These measurements, which reflect local image structure, consist in the cases considered here of Gaussian derivatives taken at several scales and/or having different derivative orders....

  14. Economics and Maximum Entropy Production

    Lorenz, R. D.


    Price differentials, sales volume and profit can be seen as analogues of temperature difference, heat flow and work or entropy production in the climate system. One aspect in which economic systems exhibit more clarity than the climate is that the empirical and/or statistical mechanical tendency for systems to seek a maximum in production is very evident in economics, in that the profit motive is very clear. Noting the common link between 1/f noise, power laws and Self-Organized Criticality with Maximum Entropy Production, the power law fluctuations in security and commodity prices is not inconsistent with the analogy. There is an additional thermodynamic analogy, in that scarcity is valued. A commodity concentrated among a few traders is valued highly by the many who do not have it. The market therefore encourages via prices the spreading of those goods among a wider group, just as heat tends to diffuse, increasing entropy. I explore some empirical price-volume relationships of metals and meteorites in this context.

  15. Estimation of Maximum Allowable PV Connection to LV Residential Power Networks

    Demirok, Erhan; Sera, Dezso; Teodorescu, Remus


    transformer or using solar inverters with new grid support features. This study presents a methodology for the estimation of maximum PV hosting capacity including IEC 60076-7 based thermal model of distribution transformer. Certain part of a real distribution network of Braedstrup suburban area in Denmark...... is used in simulation as a case study model. Furthermore, varying solutions (utilizing thermally upgraded insulation paper in transformers, reactive power services from solar inverters, etc.) are implemented on the network under investigation to examine PV penetration level and finally key results learnt......Maximum photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacity of low voltage (LV) power networks is mainly restricted by either thermal limits of network components or grid voltage quality resulted from high penetration of distributed PV systems. This maximum hosting capacity may be lower than the available solar...


    Chhaya Ashok Shinde


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty for corneal infections restores anatomical integrity. Improvement in instrumentation and surgical techniques, better postoperative management have improved corneal transplant outcome. Purpose of the study was to know what are the anatomical and visual results after therapeutic keratoplasty and to judge what could be the factors affecting the results. MATERIALS AND METHODS Prospective, non-comparative, observational cohort study was done in 56 patient (56 eyes operated for therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty at tertiary care institute .Patients were reviewed for demographic data, postoperative best-corrected visual acuity, graft clarity, and complications. Pre-operative treatment in bacterial infections included Cefazolin 50 mg/ml and Tobramycin 1.4 % or gentamicin 1.4% half hourly, 1% atropine drops. Fungal infections were treated with Natamycin 5% suspension. Debridement was done. Amphotericin B was used against yeasts. Voriconazole (1% eye drops were given in Aspergillus species. With full aseptic precautions penetrating keratoplasty was carried out. The graft was 0.5 mm larger than the lesion. Keratoplasties were evaluated for (1 Graft clarity at 1 month and 1 year postoperative. (2 Cure of the infectious disease after surgery. (3 Anatomical success rate and visual results. RESULTS At the end of one year clear graft with bacterial keratitis was seen in 23 eyes (74.19% out of 31 eyes. In fungal keratitis clear graft was seen in 10 eyes (45.45% out of 22 eyes. 48.22% patients had vision of FC 1m-6/60 compared to preoperative vision at the end of one year. At the end of one year anatomical integrity was maintained in 53 (94.64% cases and it was lost in 5.36% patients. CONCLUSION Patients who underwent keratoplasty with 7.5 mm graft size had maximum graft clarity at the end of one year. Graft was clear in 36 patients (64.29% out of total 56 patients. At the end of 1 year vision improved to FC 1 mt

  17. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    This dissertation examines the influence that economic and technological factors have on the penetration of biodiesel and ethanol into the transportation fuels market. This dissertation focuses on four aspects. The first involves the influence of fossil fuel prices, because biofuels are substitutes and have to compete in price. The second involves biofuel manufacturing technology, principally the feedstock-to-biofuel conversion rates, and the biofuel manufacturing costs. The third involves prices for greenhouse gas offsets. The fourth involves the agricultural commodity markets for feedstocks, and biofuel byproducts. This dissertation uses the Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model-Greenhouse Gas (FASOM-GHG) to quantitatively examine these issues and calculates equilibrium prices and quantities, given market interactions, fossil fuel prices, carbon dioxide equivalent prices, government biofuel subsidies, technological improvement, and crop yield gains. The results indicate that for the ranges studied, gasoline prices have a major impact on aggregate ethanol production but only at low prices. At higher prices, one runs into a capacity constraint that limits expansion on the capacity of ethanol production. Aggregate biodiesel production is highly responsive to gasoline prices and increases over time. (Diesel fuel price is proportional to the gasoline price). Carbon dioxide equivalent prices expand the biodiesel industry, but have no impact on ethanol aggregate production when gasoline prices are high again because of refinery capacity expansion. Improvement of crop yields shows a similar pattern, expanding ethanol production when the gasoline price is low and expanding biodiesel. Technological improvement, where biorefinery production costs decrease over time, had minimal impact on aggregate ethanol and biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government subsidies have a large expansionary impact on aggregate biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government

  18. Novel surgical procedures in glaucoma: advances in penetrating glaucoma surgery.

    Filippopoulos, Theodoros; Rhee, Douglas J


    Despite late modifications and enhancements, traditional penetrating glaucoma surgery is not without complications and is reserved for patients in whom pharmacologic treatment and/or laser trabeculoplasty do not suffice to control the intraocular pressure. This article critically reviews recent advances in penetrating glaucoma surgery with particular attention paid to two novel surgical approaches: ab interno trabeculectomy with the Trabectome and implantation of the Ex-PRESS shunt. Ab interno trabeculectomy (Trabectome) achieves a sustained 30% reduction in intraocular pressure by focally ablating and cauterizing the trabecular meshwork/inner wall of Schlemm's canal. It has a remarkable safety profile with respect to early hypotonous or infectious complications as it does not generate a bleb, but it can be associated with early postoperative intraocular pressure spikes that may necessitate additional glaucoma surgery. The Ex-PRESS shunt is more commonly implanted under a partial thickness scleral flap, and appears to have similar efficacy to standard trabeculectomy offering some advantages with respect to the rate of early complications related to hypotony. Penetrating glaucoma surgery will continue to evolve. As prospective randomized clinical trials become available, we will determine the exact role of these surgical techniques in the glaucoma surgical armamentarium.

  19. Enhanced chlorhexidine skin penetration with eucalyptus oil

    Worthington Tony


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG is a widely used skin antiseptic, however it poorly penetrates the skin, limiting its efficacy against microorganisms residing beneath the surface layers of skin. The aim of the current study was to improve the delivery of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG when used as a skin antiseptic. Method Chlorhexidine was applied to the surface of donor skin and its penetration and retention under different conditions was evaluated. Skin penetration studies were performed on full-thickness donor human skin using a Franz diffusion cell system. Skin was exposed to 2% (w/v CHG in various concentrations of eucalyptus oil (EO and 70% (v/v isopropyl alcohol (IPA. The concentration of CHG (μg/mg of skin was determined to a skin depth of 1500 μm by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results The 2% (w/v CHG penetration into the lower layers of skin was significantly enhanced in the presence of EO. Ten percent (v/v EO in combination with 2% (w/v CHG in 70% (v/v IPA significantly increased the amount of CHG which penetrated into the skin within 2 min. Conclusion The delivery of CHG into the epidermis and dermis can be enhanced by combination with EO, which in turn may improve biocide contact with additional microorganisms present in the skin, thereby enhancing antisepsis.

  20. Objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality

    Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan


    We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. The upper bound is attained if and only if the object is transparent for fields of one handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e. helicity preservation upon scattering, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal scatterers to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal scatterers. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar scatterers or as material constitutive relations. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: A twofold resonantly enhanced and background free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle independent helicity filtering glasses.

  1. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan


    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  2. The strong maximum principle revisited

    Pucci, Patrizia; Serrin, James

    In this paper we first present the classical maximum principle due to E. Hopf, together with an extended commentary and discussion of Hopf's paper. We emphasize the comparison technique invented by Hopf to prove this principle, which has since become a main mathematical tool for the study of second order elliptic partial differential equations and has generated an enormous number of important applications. While Hopf's principle is generally understood to apply to linear equations, it is in fact also crucial in nonlinear theories, such as those under consideration here. In particular, we shall treat and discuss recent generalizations of the strong maximum principle, and also the compact support principle, for the case of singular quasilinear elliptic differential inequalities, under generally weak assumptions on the quasilinear operators and the nonlinearities involved. Our principal interest is in necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of both principles; in exposing and simplifying earlier proofs of corresponding results; and in extending the conclusions to wider classes of singular operators than previously considered. The results have unexpected ramifications for other problems, as will develop from the exposition, e.g. two point boundary value problems for singular quasilinear ordinary differential equations (Sections 3 and 4); the exterior Dirichlet boundary value problem (Section 5); the existence of dead cores and compact support solutions, i.e. dead cores at infinity (Section 7); Euler-Lagrange inequalities on a Riemannian manifold (Section 9); comparison and uniqueness theorems for solutions of singular quasilinear differential inequalities (Section 10). The case of p-regular elliptic inequalities is briefly considered in Section 11.

  3. Chloride penetration into concrete under simulated field conditions

    Motohashi, K.; Misra, S.; Yamamoto, A. (Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of field conditions such curing period, slump, maximum size of aggregate, etc. on chloride penetration into concrete. With a view to closely simulate the field conditions, all specimens were exposed to chloride attack for five days after casting. From the preliminary results obtained after a six month immersion in 3.3% NaCl solution, higher degrees of chloride ingress were observed in cases when the concrete was prematurely exposed to chloride attack or had a higher slump. In addition, apart from properties, such as water-cement ratio, etc., the relative orientation of the direction of penetration to that of casting, the mortar content of the mix, and the properties of the transition zone between the coarse aggregate and mortar were found to affect the diffusivity of the chloride. Under a limited number of conditions, soluble chloride content was also illustrated in addition to the total chlorides. 10 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Two methodologies for physical penetration testing using social engineering

    Dimkov, Trajce; Pieters, Wolter; Hartel, Pieter


    Penetration tests on IT systems are sometimes coupled with physical penetration tests and social engineering. In physical penetration tests where social engineering is allowed, the penetration tester directly interacts with the employees. These interactions are usually based on deception and if not

  5. Variation of energy absorption build-up factor with penetration depth for some titanium compounds

    Singh Lovedeep


    Full Text Available The buildup factor is an important characteristic that need to be studied and determined prior to using a material clinically in radiation treatment and protection. Energy absorption buildup factors for some titanium compounds like Titanium dioxide (TiO2, Titanium Carbide (TiC, Titanium Nitride (TiN and Titanium Silicate (TiSi2 has been calculated using the G.P. fitting technique upto penetration depth of 40 mean free path (mfp and in an energy range from 0.015 to 15.0 MeV. The variation of absorption buildup factors with penetration depth for the selected compounds of titanium has been studied. It has been found that the maximum value of energy absorption buildup factors shifts to the intermediate incident photon energy regions with the increase in penetration depth of the selected compounds of titanium.

  6. Optimal penetration landing trajectories in the presence of wind shear

    Miele, A.; Wang, T.; Melvin, W. W.; Wang, H.


    Aircraft penetration landing in the presence of strong-to-severe wind shear is investigated analytically. The optimal-control problem for vertical-plane trajectories is considered, using angle of attack as one control parameter with either (1) a power setting (PS) which remains constant at its preshear value, (2) a PS which increases to its maximum value, or (3) a PS which is controlled (as the second parameter). The problem formulation is explained in detail, and numerical results obtained with the primal sequential gradient-restoration algorithm of Miele and Wang (1986) are presented in extensive tables and graphs. It is found that the touchdown requirements can only be satisfied by optimal trajectories using scheme (1) (but only at low altitudes) or scheme (3); the characteristics of the latter trajectories are explored.

  7. Penetrating power of resonant electromagnetic induction imaging

    Guilizzoni, Roberta; Watson, Joseph C.; Bartlett, Paul; Renzoni, Ferruccio


    The possibility of revealing the presence and identifying the nature of conductive targets is of central interest in many fields, including security, medicine, industry, archaeology and geophysics. In many applications, these targets are shielded by external materials and thus cannot be directly accessed. Hence, interrogation techniques are required that allow penetration through the shielding materials, in order for the target to be identified. Electromagnetic interrogation techniques represent a powerful solution to this challenge, as they enable penetration through conductive shields. In this work, we demonstrate the power of resonant electromagnetic induction imaging to penetrate through metallic shields (1.5-mm-thick) and image targets (having conductivities σ ranging from 0.54 to 59.77 MSm-1) concealed behind them.

  8. Penetrating power of resonant electromagnetic induction imaging

    Roberta Guilizzoni


    Full Text Available The possibility of revealing the presence and identifying the nature of conductive targets is of central interest in many fields, including security, medicine, industry, archaeology and geophysics. In many applications, these targets are shielded by external materials and thus cannot be directly accessed. Hence, interrogation techniques are required that allow penetration through the shielding materials, in order for the target to be identified. Electromagnetic interrogation techniques represent a powerful solution to this challenge, as they enable penetration through conductive shields. In this work, we demonstrate the power of resonant electromagnetic induction imaging to penetrate through metallic shields (1.5-mm-thick and image targets (having conductivities σ ranging from 0.54 to 59.77 MSm−1 concealed behind them.

  9. Opportunities for high wind energy penetration

    Tande, J.O.; Hansen, J.C.


    Wind power is today a mature technology, which at windy locations, is economically competitive to conventional power generation technologies. This and growing global environmental concerns have led governments to encourage and plan for wind energy development, a typical aim being 10% of electricity...... consumption. The successful operation of the three major power systems of Cape Verde, with a total wind energy penetration of about 15% since December 1994, demonstrates that power systems can be operated with high penetration of wind energy by adding simple control and monitoring systems only. Thorough...... analyses conclude that expanding to even above 15% wind energy penetration in the Cape Verde power systems is economical. Worldwide, numerous locations with favorable wind conditions and power systems similar to the Capeverdean provide good opportunities for installing wind farms and achieving high wind...

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of penetrating anorectal wounds

    LIU Xin-sheng; HUI Xi-zeng; ZHANG Yang-de; LI Kun


    Objective:To research the diagnosis and effective treatment of penetrating anorectal wounds.Methods: Retrospective analysis was done in 16 cases of penetrating anorectal wounds from 1985 to 2004.Debridement and suture of anorectal and vesical wounds,effective diversion of fecal and urinary stream and sufficient presacral drainage were performed in all cases.Results: All the 16 cases were cured. Among them, 2cases with infection in presacral space were cured by sufficient drainage after operation, one case was cured by secondary repair after anal sphincter was repaired unsuccessfully and one case with rectovesical fistula was cured with conservative treatment. None of them suffered from complications such as anal stenosis, dysuria or importence etc.Conclusions: For penetrating anorectal wound, to master early recognition of concomitant injures, to select appropriate surgical intervention and to strengthen perioperative treatment are the keys to improve the curative effects.

  11. Wireless Network Penetration Testing and Security Auditing

    Wang Shao-Long


    Full Text Available IEEE802.11 wireless wireless networks have security issues that are vulnerable to a variety of attacks. Due to using radio to transport data, attackers can bypass firewalls, sniff sensitive information, intercept packets and send malicious packets. Security auditing and penetration testing is expected to ensure wireless networks security. The contributions of this work are analyzed the vulnerability and types of attacks pertaining to IEEE 802.11 WLAN, performed well known attacks in a laboratory environment to conduct penetration tests to confirm whether our wireless network is hackable or not. WAIDPS is configured as auditing tool to view wireless attacks, such as WEP/WPA/WPA2 cracking, rouge access points, denial of service attack. WAIDPS is designed to detect wireless intrusion with additional features. Penetration testing and auditing will mitigate the risk and threatening to protect WALN.

  12. Chemical engineering of cell penetrating antibodies.

    Zhao, Y; Lou, D; Burkett, J; Kohler, H


    Antibodies, being exquisitely specific tools in biology, are routinely used to detect and identify intra-cellular structures. However, current intra-cellular application of antibodies requires that the membrane be rendered leaky, resulting in the death of cells. Here, we present a novel method to allow antibodies to penetrate the cellular membrane of living cells without affecting cell viability. A peptide (MTS, membrane transport sequence) that facilitates transport across membranes has been site-specifically attached to antibodies. MTS-antibodies enter the living cells in culture and can be detected by immunofluorescence and ELISA after extraction. Cellular structures are visualized in living cells using a specific MTS-antibody. Antibodies with membrane penetrating properties can become an important tool for the study of intra-cellular processes in living cells. Furthermore, such membrane penetrating antibodies can be used to selectively stimulate or suppress functions of the cellular machinery.

  13. Penetration of Projectiles in Composite Laminates

    B. P. Patel


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the prediction of the penetration phenomenon of a cylindro-conical impactor on the ke;labepoxy-laminated composites using C eight-nded serendipity q&drilateral finite elementbased on first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT. Local as well as global deformations during impact is considered in the evaluation of indentation, penetration, and perforation phases. Local strainsduring impact have been evaluated using the hypothesis made from the available experimental observations of bulging during penetration. A detailed parametric study, considering various projectilesand target plate variables, has been carried out to find their effect on the response of the plate, and ballistic parameters, such as ballistic limit and absorbed energy.

  14. Closed-loop control of weld penetration in keyhole plasma arc welding

    陈强; 孙振国; 孙久文; 王耀文


    To improve the penetrating ability and the welding quality of keyhole plasma arc welding, a novel penetration closed-loop control system was established. In the system, welding current and plasma gas flow rate were selected as adjusting variables. The wavelet method was used to detect penetration status from welding arc voltage in real-time. The control strategy of one-keyhole-per-pulse was adapted to fulfill stable and high quality welding process. Experimental results show that the developed system can apparently increase the penetrating force of plasma arc and keyhole plasma arc welding is realized successfully in stainless steel with 10 mm in thickness. Moreover,the disturbances of gradual change and break change from 3 mm to 6 mm in thickness are come over due to the good response property of the developed system.

  15. Common gene therapy viral vectors do not efficiently penetrate sputum from cystic fibrosis patients.

    Kaoru Hida

    Full Text Available Norwalk virus and human papilloma virus, two viruses that infect humans at mucosal surfaces, have been found capable of rapidly penetrating human mucus secretions. Viral vectors for gene therapy of Cystic Fibrosis (CF must similarly penetrate purulent lung airway mucus (sputum to deliver DNA to airway epithelial cells. However, surprisingly little is known about the rates at which gene delivery vehicles penetrate sputum, including viral vectors used in clinical trials for CF gene therapy. We find that sputum spontaneously expectorated by CF patients efficiently traps two viral vectors commonly used in CF gene therapy trials, adenovirus (d∼80 nm and adeno-associated virus (AAV serotype 5; d∼20 nm, leading to average effective diffusivities that are ∼3,000-fold and 12,000-fold slower than their theoretical speeds in water, respectively. Both viral vectors are slowed by adhesion, as engineered muco-inert nanoparticles with diameters as large as 200 nm penetrate the same sputum samples at rates only ∼40-fold reduced compared to in pure water. A limited fraction of AAV exhibit sufficiently fast mobility to penetrate physiologically thick sputum layers, likely because of the lower viscous drag and smaller surface area for adhesion to sputum constituents. Nevertheless, poor penetration of CF sputum is likely a major contributor to the ineffectiveness of viral vector based gene therapy in the lungs of CF patients observed to date.

  16. Operational experience of extreme wind penetrations

    Estanqueiro, Ana [INETI/LNEG - National Laboratory for Energy and Geology, Lisbon (Portugal); Mateus, Carlos B. [Instituto de Meteorologia, Lisboa (Portugal); Pestana, Rui [Redes Energeticas Nacionais (REN), Lisboa (Portugal)


    This paper reports the operational experience from the Portuguese Power System during the 2009/2010 winter months when record wind penerations were observed: the instantaneous wind power penetration peaked at 70% of consumption during no-load periods and the wind energy accounted for more than 50% of the energy consumed for a large period. The regulation measures taken by the TSO are presented in the paper, together with the additional reserves operated for added system security. Information on the overall power system behavior under such extreme long-term wind power penetrations will also be addressed. (org.)

  17. Hybrid treatment of penetrating aortic ulcer

    Lara, Juan Antonio Herrero; Martins-Romeo, Daniela de Araujo; Escudero, Carlos Caparros; Falcon, Maria del Carmen Prieto; Batista, Vinicius Bianchi, E-mail: [Unidade de Gestao Clinica (UGC) de Diagnostico por Imagem - Hosppital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Sevilha (Spain); Vazquez, Rosa Maria Lepe [Unit of Radiodiagnosis - Hospital Nuestra Senora de la Merced, Osuna, Sevilha (Spain)


    Penetrating atherosclerotic aortic ulcer is a rare entity with poor prognosis in the setting of acute aortic syndrome. In the literature, cases like the present one, located in the aortic arch, starting with chest pain and evolving with dysphonia, are even rarer. The present report emphasizes the role played by computed tomography in the diagnosis of penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer as well as in the differentiation of this condition from other acute aortic syndromes. Additionally, the authors describe a new therapeutic approach represented by a hybrid endovascular surgical procedure for treatment of the disease. (author)

  18. Large scale wind power penetration in Denmark

    Karnøe, Peter


    he Danish electricity generating system prepared to adopt nuclear power in the 1970s, yet has become the world's front runner in wind power with a national plan for 50% wind power penetration by 2020. This paper deploys a sociotechnical perspective to explain the historical transformation of "net...... expertise evolves and contributes to the normalization and large-scale penetration of wind power in the electricity generating system. The analysis teaches us how technological paths become locked-in, but also indicates keys for locking them out....

  19. Standard Penetration Test and Relative Density


    laboratorio ejecutados con un penetr6metro est’tico pequeno. INTRODUCTION One of the main problems encountered in subsoil e’xploration is in situ...would be more valid. REFERENCES Burmister, D. M. �), "The Grading-Density Relation of Gr•anular Materials ." Proc,.edings of the American Society for...Reclamation (1953), "Second Progress Report of Re- search of the Penetration Resistance Method of Subsurface Explora- tion," Report No. EM-356. Design and Construction Division, Earth Materials Laboratory, Denver,


    刘宇红; 曾衍钧; 许景锋; 张梅


    Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) is a new method for drug delivery. The analysis of plenty of experiments in vitro can lead to a suitable mathematical model for the description of the process of the drug's penetration through the skin, together with the important parameters that are related to the characters of the drugs.After the research work of the experiments data,a suitable nonlinear regression model was selected. Using this model, the most important parameter-penetrated coefficient of 20 drugs was computed.In the result one can find, this work supports the theory that the skin can be regarded as singular membrane.

  1. FREEFALL: A seabed penetrator flight code

    Hickerson, J.


    This report presents a one-dimensional model and computer program for predicting the motion of seabed penetrators. The program calculates the acceleration, velocity, and depth of a penetrator as a function of time from the moment of launch until the vehicle comes to rest in the sediment. The code is written in Pascal language for use on a small personal computer. Results are presented as printed tables and graphs. A comparison with experimental data is given which indicates that the accuracy of the code is perhaps as good as current techniques for measuring vehicle performance. 31 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Sub-microsecond vapor plume dynamics under different keyhole penetration regimes in deep penetration laser welding

    Chen, Xin; Pang, Shengyong; Shao, Xinyu; Wang, Chunming; Zhang, Xiaosi; Jiang, Ping; Xiao, Jianzhong


    It is well-known that distinct vapor plume dynamics occur during deep penetration laser welding under different keyhole penetration states. However, there is little knowledge about the physical characteristics of vapor plumes (velocity, pressure, flow patterns, etc) located inside transient keyholes of varying penetration regimes in laser welding. This lack of knowledge is primarily because mesoscale vapor plumes are highly dynamic and generally invisible. Based on a well-tested three-dimensional multiphase laser welding model, we conducted a computational study on vapor plume dynamics inside transient keyholes during the fiber laser welding of 304 austenite stainless steel as a function of keyhole penetration regimes. We observed three keyhole regimes of penetration: full penetration, partial penetration and no penetration. We then physically analyzed the vapor plumes in these regimes. We determined that the vapor plume velocities and pressures in all three regimes were uneven and oscillated following the dynamic keyhole with a characteristic timescale in sub-microseconds. Only when the keyhole approached the full penetration regime did vapor plumes begin to violently eject from the bottom of the keyhole opening, whereas in the partial penetration regime, even when the bottom part of the keyhole was open, most of the vapor plume ejected from the upper keyhole opening. This latter observation was similar to that in the no penetration mode. We studied the physical mechanism of this behavior by analyzing the keyhole temperature and vapor plume velocity distributions. We determined that the upward ejection of the vapor plume from the upper keyhole opening was the result of an uneven micro-meter scale boiling phenomenon of the transient keyhole governed by Fresnel absorptions dependent on the local inclination angle of the keyhole wall. Similarly, we determined that the ejection of the vapor plume from the bottom of the keyhole opening resulted from pressure

  3. Maximum entropy production in daisyworld

    Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.


    Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.

  4. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    F W Giacobbe


    An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is described in this paper. The method employed depends, in part, upon an estimate of the true relativistic mass increase experienced by electrons within a highly compressed iron core, just prior to core collapse, and is significantly different from a more typical Chandrasekhar mass limit approach. This technique produced a maximum stellar iron core mass value of 2.69 × 1030 kg (1.35 solar masses). This mass value is very near to the typical mass values found for neutron stars in a recent survey of actual neutron star masses. Although slightly lower and higher neutron star masses may also be found, lower mass neutron stars are believed to be formed as a result of enhanced iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large stars. And, higher mass neutron stars are likely to be formed as a result of fallback or accretion of additional matter after an initial collapse event involving an iron core having a mass no greater than 2.69 × 1030 kg.

  5. Maximum Matchings via Glauber Dynamics

    Jindal, Anant; Pal, Manjish


    In this paper we study the classic problem of computing a maximum cardinality matching in general graphs $G = (V, E)$. The best known algorithm for this problem till date runs in $O(m \\sqrt{n})$ time due to Micali and Vazirani \\cite{MV80}. Even for general bipartite graphs this is the best known running time (the algorithm of Karp and Hopcroft \\cite{HK73} also achieves this bound). For regular bipartite graphs one can achieve an $O(m)$ time algorithm which, following a series of papers, has been recently improved to $O(n \\log n)$ by Goel, Kapralov and Khanna (STOC 2010) \\cite{GKK10}. In this paper we present a randomized algorithm based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo paradigm which runs in $O(m \\log^2 n)$ time, thereby obtaining a significant improvement over \\cite{MV80}. We use a Markov chain similar to the \\emph{hard-core model} for Glauber Dynamics with \\emph{fugacity} parameter $\\lambda$, which is used to sample independent sets in a graph from the Gibbs Distribution \\cite{V99}, to design a faster algori...

  6. 76 FR 1504 - Pipeline Safety: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure...


    ...: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure Using Record Evidence, and... facilities of their responsibilities, under Federal integrity management (IM) regulations, to perform... system, especially when calculating Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) or Maximum Operating...

  7. Nutritional influence on the ability of fungal mycelia to penetrate toxic metal-containing domains.

    Fomina, Marina; Ritz, Karl; Gadd, Geoffrey M


    Metal-contaminated soils often contain a spatially heterogeneous distribution of metal concentrations, and the ability of fungi to colonize such metal-contaminated domains will be influenced by the nutritional resources available. An experimental system based upon tessellated agar tiles was used to study the influence of nutrients upon the ability of soil fungi Trichoderma virens and Clonostachys rosea to colonize spatially discrete toxic metal (copper and cadmium) containing domains. The growth parameters recorded demonstrated a decrease in apparent metal toxicity with increasing concentration of available carbon source. It was shown that maximum hyphal extension rates and the efficacy of carbon substrate utilization of both species decreased with increasing concentration of toxic metals. It was also observed that in the gap between metal-free and metal-containing tiles, the presence of toxic metals led to negative chemotropic reactions and cessation of growth, swelling and lysis of some hyphal tips. Penetration of the hyphae into the metal-containing domain was often followed by the formation of very dense mycelia or mycelial 'bushes' representing an associative (constraining, exploitative or 'phalanx') growth strategy of the mycelial system. After the fungi entered the toxic metal-containing domains, they often produced long sparsely-branched or branchless explorative hyphae representing a dissociative (expansive, explorative or 'guerrilla') growth strategy. Our data therefore demonstrate that fungi efficiently use both 'phalanx' and 'guerrilla' states of the mycelial system as well as shifts in these growth strategies as a response to toxic metal stress combined with nutritionally-poor conditions.

  8. Percutaneous penetration characteristics and release kinetics of contact allergens encapsulated in ethosomes.

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Nielsen, Jesper Bo


    Formulation of the contact allergens dinitrochlorobenzene and isoeugenol in ethanolic liposomes (ethosomes) increases their sensitizing properties in the local lymph node assay compared with an ethanol-water formulation of the allergens. Likewise, isoeugenol and methyldibromo-glutaronitrile formulated in ethosomes enhanced the patch test reactions in sensitized human volunteers. The relationship between the percutaneous penetration/absorption and sensitization/elicitation phases of contact allergy is not well elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the observed increased sensitizing and elicitation properties following the formulation of selected contact allergens in ethosomes could be explained by a change in release kinetics of the allergens and their pattern of percutaneous penetration and absorption as well as allergen deposition in epidermis and dermis. Release kinetics were studied using dialysis bags, and samples were taken at selected time points until equilibrium was reached. Percutaneous absorption and penetration were studied using human skin on Franz cells, and receptor fluid samples were taken at selected time points. Experiments were terminated after 24 hours, and deposition of allergen in epidermis and dermis was measured. Maximum flux and lag time were calculated. Ethosome formulation decreased the release of both allergens compared with the ethanol-water formulation. Ethosome formulation of dinitrochlorobenzene increased its percutaneous penetration but reduced the percutaneous penetration of isoeugenol compared with control formulations. Likewise, all other calculated parameters showed an opposite trend for the 2 allergens in ethosomes and ethanol-water. The present study demonstrates that identical ethosomes affect the percutaneous penetration characteristics of 2 allergens differently. Thus, our results indicate that each combination of an allergen and a vehicle needs to be evaluated separately. The exact mechanistic

  9. Chloride Penetration through Cracks in High-Performance Concrete and Surface Treatment System for Crack Healing

    In-Seok Yoon


    Full Text Available For enhancing the service life of concrete structures, it is very important to minimize crack at surface. Even if these cracks are very small, the problem is to which extend these cracks may jeopardize the durability of these decks. It was proposed that crack depth corresponding with critical crack width from the surface is a crucial factor in view of durability design of concrete structures. It was necessary to deal with chloride penetration through microcracks characterized with the mixing features of concrete. This study is devoted to examine the effect of high strength concrete and reinforcement of steel fiber on chloride penetration through cracks. High strength concrete is regarded as an excellent barrier to resist chloride penetration. However, durability performance of cracked high strength concrete was reduced seriously up to that of ordinary cracked concrete. Steel fiber reinforcement is effective to reduce chloride penetration through cracks because steel fiber reinforcement can lead to reduce crack depth significantly. Meanwhile, surface treatment systems are put on the surface of the concrete in order to seal the concrete. The key-issue is to which extend a sealing is able to ensure that chloride-induced corrosion can be prevented. As a result, penetrant cannot cure cracks, however, coating and combined treatment can prevent chloride from flowing in concrete with maximum crack width of 0.06 mm and 0.08 mm, respectively.

  10. [Effects of tillage mode on black soil's penetration resistance and bulk density].

    Chen, Xue-Wen; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Liang, Ai-Zhen; Jia, Shu-Xia; Shi, Xiu-Huan; Fan, Ru-Qin; Wei, Shou-Cai


    Taking an eight-year field experiment site in Dehui County of Jilin Province, Northeast China as test object, this paper studied the effects of different tillage modes (no tillage and ploughing in autumn) on the penetration resistance and bulk density of black soil. No tillage increased the soil penetration resistance, especially at the soil depth of 2.5-17.5 cm. In the continuous cropping of maize and the rotation of maize-soybean, the maximum soil penetration resistance at planting zone under no tillage and ploughing in autumn was 2816 and 1931 kPa, and 2660 and 2051 kPa, respectively, which had no restriction on the crop growth. The curve of soil penetration resistance under ploughing in autumn changed with ridge shape, while that under no tillage changed less. Comparing with ploughing in autumn, no tillage increased the bulk density of 5-20 cm soil layer significantly. Under no tillage, the bulk density of 5-30 cm soil layer changed little, but under ploughing in autumn, soil bulk density increased gradually with increasing soil depth. There was no significant correlation between soil bulk density and soil penetration resistance.

  11. Advances in Ice Penetrating Radar

    Paden, J. D.


    Radars have been employed for ice remote sensing since the mid-twentieth century. The original application in radioglaciology was to obtain ice thickness: an essential parameter in ice flux calculations and boundary condition in ice flow models. Later, radars were used to estimate basal conditions and track laterally persistent features in the ice. The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheet's recent hardware advances include multichannel systems and radar suites covering the usable frequency spectrum. These advances coupled with increased interest in the polar regions result in a concomitant exponential growth in data. We focus on a few results that have come from these changes. Multichannel radar systems improved clutter rejection and enabled 3D imaging. Using computer vision algorithms, we have automated the process of extracting the ice bottom surface in 3D imagery for complex topographies including narrow glacier channels where the ice surface and ice bottom merge together within the 3D images. We present results of wide swath imaging which have enabled narrow, 2-3 km wide, glacier channels to be fully imaged in a single pass. When radar data are available across the frequency spectrum, we have the ability to enhance target detection and measure frequency dependent properties. For example, we can couple HF sounder measurements in warmer ice where scattering attenuates and hides the signal of interest with VHF sounder measurements in cooler ice which have much improved resolution from a single flight line. We present examples of improved bed detection with coupled HF and VHF imagery in a temperate to cold ice transition that show the strong frequency dependence of englacial scattering. To handle the increased data rate, we developed a standard processing chain and data product for CReSIS radar systems, including legacy systems. Application specific GIS tools are an essential part and enable us to merge other data products during data analysis. By using imagery

  12. Vestige: Maximum likelihood phylogenetic footprinting

    Maxwell Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic footprinting is the identification of functional regions of DNA by their evolutionary conservation. This is achieved by comparing orthologous regions from multiple species and identifying the DNA regions that have diverged less than neutral DNA. Vestige is a phylogenetic footprinting package built on the PyEvolve toolkit that uses probabilistic molecular evolutionary modelling to represent aspects of sequence evolution, including the conventional divergence measure employed by other footprinting approaches. In addition to measuring the divergence, Vestige allows the expansion of the definition of a phylogenetic footprint to include variation in the distribution of any molecular evolutionary processes. This is achieved by displaying the distribution of model parameters that represent partitions of molecular evolutionary substitutions. Examination of the spatial incidence of these effects across regions of the genome can identify DNA segments that differ in the nature of the evolutionary process. Results Vestige was applied to a reference dataset of the SCL locus from four species and provided clear identification of the known conserved regions in this dataset. To demonstrate the flexibility to use diverse models of molecular evolution and dissect the nature of the evolutionary process Vestige was used to footprint the Ka/Ks ratio in primate BRCA1 with a codon model of evolution. Two regions of putative adaptive evolution were identified illustrating the ability of Vestige to represent the spatial distribution of distinct molecular evolutionary processes. Conclusion Vestige provides a flexible, open platform for phylogenetic footprinting. Underpinned by the PyEvolve toolkit, Vestige provides a framework for visualising the signatures of evolutionary processes across the genome of numerous organisms simultaneously. By exploiting the maximum-likelihood statistical framework, the complex interplay between mutational

  13. Subsurface investigation with ground penetrating radar

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) data was collected on a small test plot at the OTF/OSU Turfgrass Research & Education Facility in Columbus, Ohio. This test plot was built to USGA standards for a golf course green, with a constructed sand layer just beneath the surface overlying a gravel layer, that i...

  14. Planetary penetrators: Their origins, history and future

    Lorenz, Ralph D.


    Penetrators, which emplace scientific instrumentation by high-speed impact into a planetary surface, have been advocated as an alternative to soft-landers for some four decades. However, such vehicles have yet to fly successfully. This paper reviews in detail, the origins of penetrators in the military arena, and the various planetary penetrator mission concepts that have been proposed, built and flown. From the very limited data available, penetrator developments alone (without delivery to the planet) have required ˜$30M: extensive analytical instrumentation may easily double this. Because the success of emplacement and operation depends inevitably on uncontrollable aspects of the target environment, unattractive failure probabilities for individual vehicles must be tolerated that are higher than the typical '3-sigma' (99.5%) values typical for spacecraft. The two pathways to programmatic success, neither of which are likely in an austere financial environment, are a lucky flight as a 'piggyback' mission or technology demonstration, or with a substantial and unprecedented investment to launch a scientific (e.g. seismic) network mission with a large number of vehicles such that a number of terrain-induced failures can be tolerated.

  15. Computed tomographic findings in penetrating peptic ulcer

    Madrazo, B.L.; Halpert, R.D.; Sandler, M.A.; Pearlberg, J.L.


    Four cases of peptic ulcer penetrating the head of the pancreas were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT). Findings common to 3 cases included (a) an ulcer crater, (b) a sinus tract, and (c) enlargement of the head of the pancreas. Unlike other modalities, the inherent spatial resolution of CT allows a convenient diagnosis of this important complication of peptic ulcer disease.

  16. Penetration of albendazole sulphoxide into hydatid cysts.

    D. L. Morris; Chinnery, J B; Georgiou, G.; Stamatakis, G; Golematis, B.


    The penetration of albendazole sulphoxide, the principal metabolite of albendazole into hydatid cysts (E granulosus) was measured by means of in vitro animal and clinical studies. The drug freely diffuses across the parasitic membranes. Cyst/serum concentrations of 22% were achieved in patients, longer pre-operative therapy produced higher concentrations.

  17. Limited cerebrospinal fluid penetration of docetaxel

    ten Tije, Albert J; Loos, Walter J; Zhao, Ming; Baker, Sharyn D; Enting, Roelien H; van der Meulen, Hans; Verweij, Jaap; Sparreboom, Alex; Enting, Roeline


    Our purpose was to investigate the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) penetration of docetaxel in cancer patients. Docetaxel was administered as a 1-h infusion at a dose of 75 mg/m2 to two patients with metastatic breast cancer and leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. CSF samples were obtained using a lumbar punct

  18. Tree root mapping with ground penetrating radar

    Van Schoor, Abraham M


    Full Text Available roots is required a detailed 3D survey approach is recommended. REFERENCES Butnor, J.R., Doolittle, J.A., Johnsen, K.H., Samuelson, L., Stokes, T. and Kress, L., 2003, Utility of Ground-Penetrating Radar as a Root Biomass Survey Tool in Forest...

  19. Good penetration of moxifloxacin into human abscesses.

    Sauermann, Robert; Karch, Rudolf; Kjellsson, Maria C; Feurstein, Thomas; Püspök, Andreas; Langenberger, Herbert; Böhmdorfer, Michaela; Jäger, Walter; Zeitlinger, Markus


    Abscesses are often treated with antibiotics in addition to incision or when incision is unfeasible, but accurate information about antibiotic abscess penetration in humans is missing. This study aimed at evaluating the penetration of moxifloxacin into human abscesses. After administration of a single dose of 400 mg moxifloxacin, drug concentrations were measured in 10 differently located abscesses at incision, and in plasma over 8 h. At incision performed 0.9-4.8 h after administration, moxifloxacin concentrations in abscesses ranged from ≤0.01 to 9.2 mg/l (1.9 ± 3.4 mg/l), indicating pronounced drug accumulation in some abscesses. The degree of abscess penetration could not be explained by covariates like the ratio of surface area to volume or pH of abscesses, or by moxifloxacin plasma concentrations. Concluding, moxifloxacin was detectable in most abscesses and may be a useful antibiotic for this indication. However, antibiotic abscess penetration was highly variable and unpredictable, suggesting surgical abscess incision whenever possible.

  20. Penetration of lipid monolayers by psychoactive drugs

    Demel, R.A.; Deenen, L.L.M. van


    The ability of a number of psychoactive drugs to penetrate lipid monolayers of varying composition was examined, and the following observation were made: (1) The increase in surface pressure of a monomolecular film appeared to depend on the chemical nature of the lipid as well as on the initial film

  1. Penetrative internally heated convection in two and three dimensions

    Goluskin, David


    Convection of an internally heated fluid, confined between top and bottom plates of equal temperature, is studied by direct numerical simulation in two and three dimensions. The unstably stratified upper region drives convection that penetrates into the stably stratified lower region. The fraction of produced heat escaping across the bottom plate, which is one half without convection, initially decreases as convection strengthens. Entering the turbulent regime, this decrease reverses in two dimensions but continues monotonically in three dimensions. The mean fluid temperature, which grows proportionally to the heating rate ($H$) without convection, grows like $H^{4/5}$ when convection is strong in both two and three dimensions. The ratio of the heating rate to the fluid temperature is likened to the Nusselt number of Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection. Simulations are reported for Prandtl numbers between 0.1 and 10 and for Rayleigh numbers (defined in terms of the heating rate) up to $5\\times10^{10}$.

  2. The Basics of Hacking and Penetration Testing Ethical Hacking and Penetration Testing Made Easy

    Engebretson, Patrick


    The Basics of Hacking and Penetration Testing serves as an introduction to the steps required to complete a penetration test or perform an ethical hack. You learn how to properly utilize and interpret the results of modern day hacking tools; which are required to complete a penetration test. Tool coverage will include, Backtrack Linux, Google, Whois, Nmap, Nessus, Metasploit, Netcat, Netbus, and more. A simple and clean explanation of how to utilize these tools will allow you  to gain a solid understanding of each of the four phases and prepare them to take on more in-depth texts and topi

  3. Video segmentation using Maximum Entropy Model

    QIN Li-juan; ZHUANG Yue-ting; PAN Yun-he; WU Fei


    Detecting objects of interest from a video sequence is a fundamental and critical task in automated visual surveillance.Most current approaches only focus on discriminating moving objects by background subtraction whether or not the objects of interest can be moving or stationary. In this paper, we propose layers segmentation to detect both moving and stationary target objects from surveillance video. We extend the Maximum Entropy (ME) statistical model to segment layers with features, which are collected by constructing a codebook with a set of codewords for each pixel. We also indicate how the training models are used for the discrimination of target objects in surveillance video. Our experimental results are presented in terms of the success rate and the segmenting precision.

  4. Effect of lauric acid on transdermal penetration of phenazepam in vivo.

    Kravchenko, I A; Golovenko, N Ya; Larionov, V B; Aleksandrova, A I; Ovcharenko, N V


    We studied the effect of lauric acid on transdermal penetration of phenazepam in vivo. It was found that treatment with lauric acid 3-fold increased the maximum anticonvulsive effect of phenazepam applied in a transdermal therapeutic system in comparison with the control. Study of the pharmacokinetics of phenazepam transdermal therapeutic system showed its higher bioavailability in the presence of lauric acid (f=0.9).

  5. Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture with combined thoracoabdominal injuries: Difference between penetrating and blunt injuries

    Gao Jinmou


    Full Text Available Purpose: Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture (TDR needs early diagnosis and operation. However, the early diagnosis is usually difficult, especially in the patients without diaphragmatic hernia. The objective of this study was to explore the early diagnosis and treatment of TDR. Methods: Data of 256 patients with TDR treated in our department between 1994 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively regarding to the diagnostic methods, percentage of preoperative judgment, incidence of diaphragmatic hernia, surgical procedures and outcome, etc. Two groups were set up according to the mechanism of injury (blunt or penetrating. Results: Of 256 patients with a mean age of 32.4 years (9e84, 218 were male. The average ISS was 26.9 (13e66; and shock rate was 62.9%. There were 104 blunt injuries and 152 penetrating injuries. Preoperatively diagnostic rate was 90.4% in blunt injuries and 80.3% in penetrating, respectively, P < 0.05. The incidence of diaphragmatic hernia was 94.2% in blunt and 15.1% in penetrating respectively, P < 0.005. Thoracotomy was performed in 62 cases, laparotomy in 153, thoracotomy plus laparotomy in 29, and combined thoraco-laparotomy in 12. Overall mortality rate was 12.5% with the average ISS of 41.8; and it was 21.2% in blunt injuries and 6.6% in penetrating, respectively, P < 0.005. The main causes of death were hemorrhage and sepsis. Conclusions: Diagnosis of blunt TDR can be easily obtained by radiograph or helical CT scan signs of diaphragmatic hernia. For penetrating TDR without hernia, “offside sign” is helpful as initial assessment. CT scan with coronal/sagittal reconstruction is an accurate technique for diagnosis. All TDR require operation. Penetrating injury has a relatively better prognosis.

  6. Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture with combined thoracoabdominal injuries: Difference between penetrating and blunt injuries

    Jinmou Gao; Dingyuan Du; Hui Li; Chaopu Liu; Shaoyong Liang; Qiang Xiao; Shanhong Zhao


    Purpose:Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture (TDR) needs early diagnosis and operation.However,the early diagnosis is usually difficult,especially in the patients without diaphragmatic hernia.The objective of this study was to explore the early diagnosis and treatment of TDR.Methods:Data of 256 patients with TDR treated in our department between 1994 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively regarding to the diagnostic methods,percentage of preoperative judgment,incidence of diaphragmatic hernia,surgical procedures and outcome,etc.Two groups were set up according to the mechanism of injury (blunt or penetrating).Results:Of 256 patients with a mean age of 32.4 years (9-84),218 were male.The average ISS was 26.9 (13-66);and shock rate was 62.9%.There were 104 blunt injuries and 152 penetrating injuries.Preoperatively diagnostic rate was 90.4% in blunt injuries and 80.3% in penetrating,respectively,P < 0.05.The incidence of diaphragmatic hernia was 94.2% in blunt and 15.1% in penetrating respectively,P < 0.005.Thoracotomy was performed in 62 cases,laparotomy in 153,thoracotomy plus laparotomy in 29,and combined thoraco-laparotomy in 12.Overall mortality rate was 12.5% with the average ISS of 41.8;and it was 21.2% in blunt injuries and 6.6% in penetrating,respectively,P < 0.005.The main causes of death were hemorrhage and sepsis.Conclusions:Diagnosis of blunt TDR can be easily obtained by radiograph or helical CT scan signs of diaphragmatic hernia.For penetrating TDR without hernia,"offside sign" is helpful as initial assessment.CT scan with coronal/sagittal reconstruction is an accurate technique for diagnosis.All TDR require operation.Penetrating injury has a relatively better prognosis.

  7. Development of a crack growth analysis is program for reactor head penetration

    Hong, Sung Yull; Choi, Kwang Hee; Park, Jeong Il [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young Hwan; Park, Sung Ho; Kim, Il; Kim, Young Jong; Yoo, Young Joon; Yoo, Wan; Maeng, Wan Young; Choi, Suk Nam; Kim, Kee Suk; Yoon, Sung Won; Kim, Jee Ho; Park, Myung Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Crack growth analysis program for Reactor Head Penetration is being developed for applying to plants such as, Kori 1, Kori 2, Kori 3,4 YoungKwang 1,2 and Uljin 1,2 (1) Stress Evaluation - The stress analysis is required to evaluate the structure integrity for the RVH penetration tubes. The RVH penetration tubes are geometrically non-symmetry except center one. Thus, 3D finite element analysis should be employed for the stress analysis. The magnitude and distribution of residual stress resulted from welding can be determined analytically by simulation welding procedure. (2) Flaw Evaluation - There are two objectives of the penetration tube flaw evaluation to predict the time required for a crack to propagate to the acceptance criteria. The first objective is to perform the parametric evaluation for a postulated crack. The second objective is to develop the flaw evaluation program for the crack detected during the inspection. (3) Characterization of Material Properties of Alloy 600 - These study is to provide data which similarly represent the properties of PWR power plants in Korea. The data is used for analyzing of the stress distribution around penetration tubes. And the PWSCC data will be used for the crack growth rate of the penetration tubes. (author). 92 refs., 121 figs.

  8. The penetrating depth analysis of Lunar Penetrating Radar onboard Chang’e-3 rover

    Xing, Shu-Guo; Su, Yan; Feng, Jian-Qing; Dai, Shun; Xiao, Yuan; Ding, Chun-Yu; Li, Chun-Lai


    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) has successfully been used to acquire a large amount of scientific data during its in-situ detection. The analysis of penetrating depth can help to determine whether the target is within the effective detection range and contribute to distinguishing useful echoes from noise. First, this study introduces two traditional methods, both based on a radar transmission equation, to calculate the penetrating depth. The only difference between the two methods is that the first method adopts system calibration parameters given in the calibration report and the second one uses high-voltage-off radar data. However, some prior knowledge and assumptions are needed in the radar equation and the accuracy of assumptions will directly influence the final results. Therefore, a new method termed the Correlation Coefficient Method (CCM) is provided in this study, which is only based on radar data without any a priori assumptions. The CCM can obtain the penetrating depth according to the different correlation between reflected echoes and noise. To be exact, there is a strong correlation in the useful reflected echoes and a random correlation in the noise between adjacent data traces. In addition, this method can acquire a variable penetrating depth along the profile of the rover, but only one single depth value can be obtained from traditional methods. Through a simulation, the CCM has been verified as an effective method to obtain penetration depth. The comparisons and analysis of the calculation results of these three methods are also implemented in this study. Finally, results show that the ultimate penetrating depth of Channel 1 and the estimated penetrating depth of Channel 2 range from 136.9 m to 165.5 m ({\\varepsilon }r=6.6) and from 13.0 m to 17.5 m ({\\varepsilon }r=2.3), respectively.

  9. 多普勒频率变化率快速最大似然估计辅助的高动态载波跟踪环路%Carrier Tracking Loop in High Dynamic Environment Aided by Fast Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Doppler Frequency Rate-of-change

    郇浩; 陶选如; 陶然; 程小康; 董朝; 李鹏飞


    To reach a compromise between efficient dynamic performance and high tracking accuracy of carrier tracking loop in high-dynamic circumstance which results in large Doppler frequency and Doppler frequency rate-of-change, a fast maximum likelihood estimation method of Doppler frequency rate-of-change is proposed in this paper, and the estimation value is utilized to aid the carrier tracking loop. First, it is pointed out that the maximum likelihood estimation method of Doppler frequency and Doppler frequency rate-of-change is equivalent to the Fractional Fourier Fransform (FrFT). Second, the estimation method of Doppler frequency rate-of-change, which combines the instant self-correlation and the segmental Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) is proposed to solve the large two-dimensional search calculation amount of the Doppler frequency and Doppler frequency rate-of-change, and the received coarse estimation value is applied to narrow down the search range. Finally, the estimation value is used in the carrier tracking loop to reduce the dynamic stress and improve the tracking accuracy. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation show that the search calculation amount falls to 5.25 percent of the original amount with Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR)-30 dB, and the Root Mean Sguare Error(RMSE) of frequency tracked is only 8.46 Hz/s, compared with the traditional carrier tracking method the tracking sensitivity can be improved more than 3 dB.%高动态环境下接收信号含有较大的多普勒频率及其变化率,传统载波跟踪方法难以在高动态应力和跟踪精度两方面取得较好折中,针对这一问题该文提出一种多普勒频率变化率快速最大似然估计方法,并利用估计值辅助载波跟踪环路。首先指出了多普勒频率及其变化率的最大似然估计可等效采用分数阶傅里叶变换(FrFT)来实现;其次,针对频率及其变化率2维搜索运算量大的问题,提出一种瞬时自相关与分段离

  10. Low frequency variability of Climate-Related-Energy penetration in Europe

    Raynaud, Damien; Baptiste, François; Hingray, Benoit; Creutin, Jean-Dominique


    The penetration rate of Climate Related Energy sources like solar-power, wind-power and hydro-power source measures the mismatch between the energy availability from those fatal productions and the energy demand which may be also partly dependent on the climate. The penetration rate is a key factor - with potentially large technical and economic implications, to be accounted for in public policies and private initiatives for a massive integration of renewables in the classical energy system. For a given region, it is classically estimated from high resolution time series of energy productions and energy demand derived from times series of their driving climatic variables (temperature, wind, radiation, precipitation). The penetration rate obviously highly depends on the seasonal and also high frequency time variability of these climatic variables (François et al. 2016). A less studied aspect of this penetration rate is its dependence to low frequency variability of climate, from annual to pluriannual time scales. We here explore this dependence for a set of 12 contrasted hydroclimatic regions in Europe with long time series of weather variables reconstructed for the whole 20th century. We discuss the interannual, and interdecadal variability of the penetration rate for the solar-power, wind-power and run-of-the river energy sources taken individually and for different mixes. We discuss how it can be increased / stabilized with local energy storage. Reference : François, B, Hingray, B., Raynaud, R., Borga, M. and Creutin, J.D., 2016. Increasing Climate-Related-Energy penetration by integrating run-of-the river hydropower to wind/solar mix. Renewable Energy. 87(1), pp.686-696. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2015.10.064 This work is part of the COMPLEX Project (European Collaborative Project FP7-ENV-2012 number: 308601;

  11. Impact of Soil Resistance to Penetration in the Irrigation Interval of Supplementary Irrigation Systems at the Humid Pampa, Argentina

    Hernández J., P.; Befani M., R.; Boschetti N., G.; Quintero C., E.; Díaz E., L.; Lado, M.; Paz-González, A.


    The Avellaneda District, located in northeastern of Santa Fe Province, Argentina, has an average annual rainfall of 1250 mm per year, but with a high variability in their seasonal distribution. Generally, the occurrence of precipitation in winter is low, while summer droughts are frequent. The yearly hydrological cycle shows a water deficit, given that the annual potential evapotranspiration is estimated at 1330 mm. Field crops such as soybean, corn, sunflower and cotton, which are affected by water stress during their critical growth periods, are dominant in this area. Therefore, a supplemental irrigation project has been developed in order to identify workable solutions. This project pumps water from Paraná River to provide a water supply to the target area under irrigation. A pressurized irrigation system operating on demand provides water to a network of channels, which in turn deliver water to farms. The scheduled surface of irrigation is 8800 hectares. The maximum flow rate was designed to be 8.25 m3/second. The soils have been classified as Aquic Argiudolls in areas of very gentle slopes, and Vertic Argiudolls in flat and concave reliefs; neither salinity nor excess sodium affect the soils of the study are. The objective of this study was to provide a quantitative data set to manage the irrigation project, through the determination of available water (AW), easily available water (EAw) and optimal water range (or interval) of the soil horizons. The study has been conducted in a text area of 1500 hectares in surface. Five soil profiles were sampled to determine physical properties (structure stability, effective root depth, infiltration, bulk density, penetration resistance and water holding capacity), chemical properties (pH, cation exchange capacity, base saturation, salinity, and sodium content ) and morphological characteristics of the successive horizons. Also several environmental characteristics were evaluated, including: climate, topographic

  12. Investigating the Nanoparticles Penetration Efficiency through Horizontal Tubes Using an Experimental Approach

    Zhaoqin Yin


    Full Text Available It is a complex transfer process of nanoparticles in a tube. In this paper, in order to quantify the penetration efficiency of nanoparticles in different flows condition through horizontal tubes, the experiments have been carried out with particles diameter between 6 nm and 560 nm in various lengths of sampling tube. The results were in good agreement with the theory of Gormley and Kennedy and the experiment results of Kumar et al. for particles size smaller than 100 nm. Particles penetration rate increases with increasing of the Schmidt number (Sc, and it decreases with increasing Reynolds and tube length. Particles deposition on the wall induces the changes of the mass and average diameter of particles continuously. Therefore, a nondimensional parameter (ς defined dependency on Reynolds number and particle residence time in tube has been used to express total mass penetration efficiency and mean size growth rate through a straight tube.

  13. Prediction of Melting Penetration of Armco Iron by Liquid Uranium Using MPS_LER

    Mustari, A. P. A.; Iksal; Sumiati; Syeilendra; Irwanto, Dwi; Aprianti, N. A.


    Given the nuclear reactor severe accident, molten uranium may relocate and contact with iron based structural material which could result in melting of iron based material. According to binary phase diagram, contact between Fe and U may include eutectic phenomenon where melting temperature of the material drop sharply. Information of melting penetration rate of iron based material by uranium is important for melting relocation investigation during severe accident. MPS_LER has been developed and validated to simulate eutectic phenomena of Fe-U system. In the present study, the MPS_LER was used to predict melting penetration of Armco Iron by liquid uranium that has not been experimentally recorded. The present results show MPS_LER’s prediction on melting penetration rate of Fe-U system at high temperature.

  14. Depleted Uranium Penetrators : Hazards and Safety

    S. S. Rao


    Full Text Available The depleted uranium (DU alloy is a state-of-the-art material for kinetic energy penetrators due to its superior ballistic performance. Several countries use DU penetrators in their main battle tanks. There is no gamma radiation hazard to the crew members from stowage of DO rounds. Open air firing can result in environmental contamination and associated hazards due to airborne particles containing essentially U/sub 3/0/sub 8/ and UO/sub 2/. Inhalation of polluted air only through respirators or nose masks and refraining form ingestion of water or food materials from contaminated environment are safety measures for avoiding exposure to uranium and its toxicity. Infusion of sodium bicarbonate helps in urinary excretion of uranium that may have entered the body.

  15. Weld penetration and defect control. Final report

    Chin, B.A.


    Highly engineered designs increasingly require the use of improved materials and sophisticated manufacturing techniques. To obtain optimal performance from these engineered products, improved weld properties and joint reliability are a necessarily. This requirement for improved weld performance and reliability has led to the development of high-performance welding systems in which pre-programmed parameters are specified before any welding takes place. These automated systems however lack the ability to compensate for perturbations which arise during the welding process. Hence the need for systems which monitor and control the in-process status of the welding process. This report discusses work carried out on weld penetration indicators and the feasibility of using these indicators for on-line penetration control.

  16. Percutaneous penetration through slightly damaged skin

    Nielsen, Jesper B


    Guidelines for experimental studies of percutaneous penetration prescribe optimal barrier integrity of the skin. The barrier integrity of the skin exposed in occupational or household situations is, however, not always ideal, and skin problems are among the most dominant reasons for absence from...... work. We have therefore evaluated an experimental model for percutaneous penetration through slightly damaged skin. The influence of a slight damage to the skin was evaluated using five pesticides covering a wide range of solubilities. We used an experimental model with static diffusion cells mounted...... with human skin. A slight damage to the barrier integrity was induced by pre-treatment of the skin with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) before pesticide exposure. The experimental model with 3 h pre-treatment with SLS (0.1% or 0.3%) assured a significant but controlled damage to the barrier integrity, a damage...

  17. Variabilidade da frequência cardíaca e carga máxima atingida no teste de esforço físico dinâmico em homens idosos Heart rate variability and maximum workload reached in the dynamic physical exertion test in elderly men

    Suenimeire Vieira


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Um dos benefícios promovidos pelo exercício físico parece ser a melhora da modulação do sistema nervoso autônomo sobre o coração. No entanto, o papel da atividade física como um fator determinante da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca (VFC não está bem estabelecido. Desta forma, o objetivo do estudo foi verificar se há correlação entre a frequência cardíaca de repouso e a carga máxima atingida no teste de esforço físico com os índices de VFC em homens idosos. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 18 homens idosos com idades entre 60 e 70 anos. Foram feitas as seguintes avaliações: a teste de esforço máximo em cicloergômetro utilizando-se o protocolo de Balke para avaliação da capacidade aeróbia; b registro da frequência cardíaca (FC e dos intervalos R-R durante 15 minutos na condição de repouso em decúbito dorsal. Após a coleta, os dados foram analisados no domínio do tempo, calculando-se o índice RMSSD, e no domínio da frequência, calculando-se os índices de baixa frequência (BF, alta frequência (AF e razão BF/AF. Para verificar se existe associação entre a carga máxima atingida no teste de esforço e os índices de VFC foi aplicado o teste de correlação de Pearson (p 0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Os índices de variabilidade da frequência cardíaca temporal e espectrais estudados não são indicadores do nível de capacidade aeróbia de homens idosos avaliados em cicloergômetro.INTRODUCTION: One of the benefits provided by regular physical activities seems to be the improvement of cardiac autonomic nervous system modulation. However, the role of physical activity as a determinant factor of the heart rate variability (HRV is not well-established. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify whether there was a correlation between resting heart rate and maximum workload reached in an exercise test with HRV indices in elderly men. METHODS: A study was carried out with 18 elderly men between the ages of

  18. Market penetration of new energy technologies

    Packey, D.J.


    This report examines the characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and, for some, the mathematical formulas of forecasting methods that can be used to forecast the market penetration of renewable energy technologies. Among the methods studied are subjective estimation, market surveys, historical analogy models, cost models, diffusion models, time-series models, and econometric models. Some of these forecasting methods are more effective than others at different developmental stages of new technologies.

  19. Pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration

    Reynolds, A.C.; Chen, J.C.; Raghavan, R.


    In this study the authors examine the pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration in a two-layer reservoir when only one layer is open to flow. They show that the pseudo skin factor can be correlated as a unique function of three reservoir parameters and in some cases can be accurately correlated as a function of two reservoir parameters. They also present graphs and procedures for estimating the pseudo skin factor.

  20. Pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration

    Reynolds, A.C.; Chen, J.C.; Raghavan, R.


    This study examines the pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration in a 2-layer reservoir when only one layer is open to flow. The pseudo skin factor can be correlated as a unique function of 3 reservoir parameters and in some cases can be correlated accurately as a function of 2 reservoir parameters. Graphs and procedures for estimating the pseudo skin factor are presented. 17 references.

  1. Engineering and Design: Standard Penetration Test


    Penetration TestDe Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Project Number Task Number Work Unit Number Performing Organization Name...jsfi I I US* of drlXXi~ mucl -r*ueusiog In I Decrm8e8 hcrea8ea Zither Increases Increases Increeses Decrea8es lncreeaes Increases Increeaes Zither &creases DecrU8e* nem8*s hcruses Xnt-ses tieee Utber k~ee Enclosure 2

  2. Effect of egg washing and correlation between eggshell characteristics and egg penetration by various Salmonella Typhimurium strains.

    Vaibhav C Gole

    Full Text Available Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen, causing an estimated 11,992 cases of infection in Australia per year. Egg or egg product related salmonellosis is a major concern for the egg industry. Worldwide, S. Typhimurium is one of the most common serovars identified in Salmonella food poisoning cases. The current study investigated the ability of five S. Typhimurium strains to penetrate washed and unwashed eggs using whole egg and agar egg penetration methods. All S. Typhimurium strains were able to penetrate eggshells and survive in egg albumen (at 20°C according to whole egg penetration results. Polymerase Chain Reaction results demonstrated that S. Typhimurium strain 2 (10(3 and 10(5 CFU/mL, and strain 5 (10(3 and 10(5 CFU/mL egg penetration was significantly higher (p<0.05 in washed eggs when compared to unwashed eggs. Statistical analysis of the agar penetration experiment indicated that S. Typhimurium was able to penetrate washed eggs at a significantly higher rate when compared to unwashed eggs (p<0.05. When compared to unwashed eggs, washed eggs also had significantly damaged cuticles. Statistical analysis also indicated that eggshell penetration by S. Typhimurium was related to various eggshell ultrastructural features such as cap quality, alignment, erosion, confluence, Type B bodies and cuticle cover.

  3. Penetration in bimodal, polydisperse granular material

    Kouraytem, N.; Thoroddsen, S. T.; Marston, J. O.


    We investigate the impact penetration of spheres into granular media which are compositions of two discrete size ranges, thus creating a polydisperse bimodal material. We examine the penetration depth as a function of the composition (volume fractions of the respective sizes) and impact speed. Penetration depths were found to vary between δ =0.5 D0 and δ =7 D0 , which, for mono-modal media only, could be correlated in terms of the total drop height, H =h +δ , as in previous studies, by incorporating correction factors for the packing fraction. Bimodal data can only be collapsed by deriving a critical packing fraction for each mass fraction. The data for the mixed grains exhibit a surprising lubricating effect, which was most significant when the finest grains [ds˜O (30 ) μ m ] were added to the larger particles [dl˜O (200 -500 ) μ m ] , with a size ratio, ɛ =dl/ds , larger than 3 and mass fractions over 25%, despite the increased packing fraction. We postulate that the small grains get between the large grains and reduce their intergrain friction, only when their mass fraction is sufficiently large to prevent them from simply rattling in the voids between the large particles. This is supported by our experimental observations of the largest lubrication effect produced by adding small glass beads to a bed of large sand particles with rough surfaces.

  4. Penetrating spinal injuries and their management

    A Kumar


    Full Text Available Penetrating spinal trauma due to missile/gunshot injuries has been well reported in the literature and has remained the domain of military warfare more often. Civic society′s recent upsurge in gunshot injuries has created a dilemma for the treating neurosurgeon in many ways as their management has always involved certain debatable and controversial issues. Both conservative and surgical management of penetrating spinal injuries (PSI have been practiced widely. The chief neurosurgical concern in these types of firearm injuries is the degree of damage sustained during the bullet traversing through the neural tissue and the after-effects of the same in long term. We had an interesting case of a penetrating bullet injury to cervical spine at C2 vertebral level. He was operated and the bullets were removed from posterior midline approach. Usually, the management of such cases differs from region to region depending on the preference of the surgeon but still certain common principles are followed world over. Thus, we realized the need to review the literature regarding spinal injuries with special emphasis on PSI and to study the recent guidelines for their treatment in light of our case.

  5. Penetrating eye injuries in road traffic accidents.

    Patel, B C; Morgan, L H


    A review of all penetrating eye injuries treated by the Manchester Eye Hospital over four years (1 February 1982-31 January 1986) was undertaken. One hundred and ninety-six penetrating eye injuries were seen, of which 16 (8.2%) were due to road traffic accidents. Eight patients (nine eyes) were seen in the 12 months prior to the introduction of the seat-belt legislation on 1 February 1983. None of these patients was wearing a seat-belt whereas two of the eight patients (10 eyes) seen after the seat-belt legislation were. Both these patients suffered severe visual loss due to intraocular glass from shattered windscreens. Three patients had bilateral penetrating eye injuries, one before and two after the seat-belt legislation. Two of the nine eyes involved prior to the legislation and three of the 10 eyes after the legislation had an eventual visual acuity of 6/12 or better. In the majority of patients, failure to wear seat-belts or defective use is to blame. Flying glass from shattered toughened windscreens is a preventable danger. Nine of the 16 patients were first seen in the general accident and emergency department and, of these, seven did not have visual acuities recorded prior to referral to an ophthalmologist. The importance of measurement of the visual acuity and detection of an afferent pupillary defect is stressed based on these findings.

  6. Penetration in bimodal, polydisperse granular material

    Kouraytem, N.


    We investigate the impact penetration of spheres into granular media which are compositions of two discrete size ranges, thus creating a polydisperse bimodal material. We examine the penetration depth as a function of the composition (volume fractions of the respective sizes) and impact speed. Penetration depths were found to vary between delta = 0.5D(0) and delta = 7D(0), which, for mono-modal media only, could be correlated in terms of the total drop height, H = h + delta, as in previous studies, by incorporating correction factors for the packing fraction. Bimodal data can only be collapsed by deriving a critical packing fraction for each mass fraction. The data for the mixed grains exhibit a surprising lubricating effect, which was most significant when the finest grains [d(s) similar to O(30) mu m] were added to the larger particles [d(l) similar to O(200 - 500) mu m], with a size ratio, epsilon = d(l)/d(s), larger than 3 and mass fractions over 25%, despite the increased packing fraction. We postulate that the small grains get between the large grains and reduce their intergrain friction, only when their mass fraction is sufficiently large to prevent them from simply rattling in the voids between the large particles. This is supported by our experimental observations of the largest lubrication effect produced by adding small glass beads to a bed of large sand particles with rough surfaces.

  7. Cutaneous mucormycosis secondary to penetrative trauma.

    Zahoor, Bilal; Kent, Stephen; Wall, Daryl


    Mucormycosis is a rare but serious sequelae of penetrating trauma [1-5]. In spite of aggressive management, mortality remains high due to dissemination of infection. We completed a review of literature to determine the most optimal treatment of cutaneous mucormycosis which occurs secondary to penetrating trauma. We completed a review regarding the management of mucormycosis in trauma patients. We selected a total of 36 reports, of which 18 were case-based, for review. Surgical debridement is a primary predictor of improved outcomes in the treatment of mucormycosis [3,6,7]. Anti-fungal therapy, especially lipid soluble formulation of Amphotericin B, is helpful as an adjunct or when surgical debridement has been maximally achieved. Further research is needed to fully evaluate the impact of topical dressings; negative pressure wound therapy is helpful. An aggressive and early surgical approach, even at the expense of disfigurement, is necessary to reduce mortality in the setting of cutaneous mucormycosis that results from penetrating trauma [4,8,9]. Anti-fungal therapy and negative pressure wound therapy are formidable adjuncts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Campbell penetration depth in Fe-based superconductors

    Prommapan, Plegchart [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    A 'true' critical current density, jc, as opposite to commonly measured relaxed persistent (Bean) current, jB, was extracted from the Campbell penetration depth, Λc(T,H) measured in single crystals of LiFeAs, and optimally electron-doped Ba(Fe0.954Ni0.046)2As2 (FeNi122). In LiFeAs, the effective pinning potential is nonparabolic, which follows from the magnetic field - dependent Labusch parameter α. At the equilibrium (upon field - cooling), α(H) is non-monotonic, but it is monotonic at a finite gradient of the vortex density. This behavior leads to a faster magnetic relaxation at the lower fields and provides a natural dynamic explanation for the fishtail (second peak) effect. We also find the evidence for strong pinning at the lower fields.The inferred field dependence of the pinning potential is consistent with the evolution from strong pinning, through collective pinning, and eventually to a disordered vortex lattice. The value of jc(2 K) ≅ 1.22 x 106 A/cm2 provide an upper estimate of the current carrying capability of LiFeAs. Overall, vortex behavior of almost isotropic, fully-gapped LiFeAs is very similar to highly anisotropic d-wave cuprate superconductors, the similarity that requires further studies in order to understand unconventional superconductivity in cuprates and pnictides. In addition to LiFeAs, we also report the magnetic penetration depth in BaFe2As2 based superconductors including irradiation of FeNi122. In unirradiated FeNi122, the maximum critical current value is, jc(2K) ≅ 3.3 x 106 A/cm2. The magnetic-dependent feature was observed near the transition temperature in FeTe0.53Se0.47 and irradiated FeNi122. Because of this feature, further studies are required in order to properly calibrate the Campbell penetration depth. Finally, we detected the

  9. Root cap removal increases root penetration resistance in maize (Zea mays L).

    Iijima, Morio; Higuchi, Toshifumi; Barlow, Peter W; Bengough, A Glyn


    The root cap assists the passage of the root through soil by means of its slimy mucilage secretion and by the sloughing of its outer cells. The root penetration resistance of decapped primary roots of maize (Zea mays L. cv. Mephisto) was compared with that of intact roots in loose (dry bulk density 1.0 g cm-3; penetration resistance 0.06 MPa) and compact soil (1.4 g cm-3; penetration resistance 1.0 MPa), to evaluate the contribution of the cap to decreasing the impedance to root growth. Root elongation rate and diameter were the same for decapped and intact roots when the plants were grown in loose soil. In compacted soil, however, the elongation rate of decapped roots was only about half that of intact roots, whilst the diameter was 30% larger. Root penetration resistances of intact and decapped seminal axis were 0.31 and 0.52 MPa, respectively, when the roots were grown in compacted soil. These results indicated that the presence of a root cap alleviates much of the mechanical impedance to root penetration, and enables roots to grow faster in compacted soils.

  10. Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生


    Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.

  11. 一个适于最大似然法估计物种分化年代的进化速率平滑近似方法%A heuristic rate smoothing procedure for maximum likelihood estmation of species divergence times

    Ziheng YANG


    众所周知,物种分化年代的估计对分子钟(进化速率恒定)假定很敏感.另一方面,在远缘物种(例如哺乳纲不同目的动物)的比较中,分子钟几乎总是不成立的.这样在估计分化时间时考虑不同进化区系的速率差异至为重要.最大似然法可以很自然地考虑这种速率差异,并且可以同时分析多个基因位点的资料以及同时利用多重化石校正数据.以前提出的似然法需要研究者将进化树的树枝按速率分组,本文提出一个近似方法以使这个过程自动化.本方法综合了以前的似然法、贝斯法及近似速率平滑法的一些特征.此外,还对算法加以改进,以适应综合数据分析时某些基因在某些物种中缺乏资料的情形.应用新提出的方法来分析马达加斯加的倭狐猴的分化年代,并与以前的似然法及贝斯法的分析进行了比较[动物学报50(4):645-656,2004].%Estimation of species divergence times is well-known to be sensitive to violation of the molecular clock assumption (rate constancy over time). However, the molecular clock is almost always violated in comparisons of distantly related species, such as different orders of mammals. Thus it is important to take into account different rates among lineages when divergence times are estimated. The maximum likelihood method provides a framework for accommodating rate variation and can naturally accommodate heterogeneous datasets from multiple loci and fossil calibrations at multiple nodes.Previous implementations of the likelihood method require the researcher to assign branches to different rate classes. In this paper, I implement a heuristic rate-smoothing algorithm (the AHRS algorithm) to automate the assignment of branches to rate groups. The method combines features of previous likelihood, Bayesian and rate-smoothing methods. The likelihood algorithm is also improved to accommodate missing sequences at some loci in the combined analysis. The new

  12. Penetration Testing Professional Ethics: a conceptual model and taxonomy

    Justin Pierce; Ashley Jones; Matthew Warren


    In an environment where commercial software is continually patched to correct security flaws, penetration testing can provide organisations with a realistic assessment of their security posture. Penetration testing uses the same principles as criminal hackers to penetrate corporate networks and thereby verify the presence of software vulnerabilities. Network administrators can use the results of a penetration test to correct flaws and improve overall security. The use of hacking techniques...

  13. Maximum Power from a Solar Panel

    Michael Miller


    Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.

  14. Penetration Testing Curriculum Development in Practice

    Chengcheng Li


    Full Text Available As both the frequency and the severity of network breaches have increased in recent years, it is essential that cybersecurity is incorporated into the core of business operations. Evidence from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2012 indicates that there is, and will continue to be, a severe shortage of cybersecurity professionals nationwide throughout the next decade. To fill this job shortage we need a workforce with strong hands-on experience in the latest technologies and software tools to catch up with the rapid evolution of network technologies. It is vital that the IT professionals possess up-to-date technical skills and think and act one step ahead of the cyber criminals who are constantly probing and exploring system vulnerabilities. There is no perfect security mechanism that can defeat all the cyber-attacks; the traditional defensive security mechanism will eventually fail to the pervasive zero-day attacks. However, there are steps to follow to reduce an organization’s vulnerability to cyber-attacks and to mitigate damages. Active security tests of the network from a cyber-criminal’s perspective can identify system vulnerabilities that may lead to future breaches. “If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat. But if you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of hundred battles” (Sun, 2013. Penetration testing is a discipline within cybersecurity that focuses on identifying and exploiting the vulnerabilities of a network, eventually obtaining access to the critical business information. The pentesters, the security professionals who perform penetration testing, or ethical hackers, break the triad of information security - Confidentiality, Integrity, and Accountability (CIA - as if they were a cyber-criminal. The purpose of ethical hacking or penetration testing is to know what the “enemy” can do and then generate a

  15. Electrical recording of plant penetration by western flower thrips.

    Harrewijn, P.; Tjallingii, W.F.; Mollema, C.


    Plant penetration by western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)) was analysed with the electrical penetration graph technique (EPG, DC-system). Thrips attached to a gold wire were included in an electrical circuit to record EPGs when penetrating the plant tissues with their

  16. Integrating High Penetrations of PV into Southern California

    Kroposki, B.; Mather, B.; Hasper-Tuttle, J.; Neal, R.; Katiraei, F.; Yazdani, A.; Aguero, J. R.; Hoff, T. E.; Norris, B. L.; Parkins, A.; Seguin, R.; Schauder, C.


    California regulators recently approved a plan proposed by Southern California Edison (SCE) to install 500 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy in its utility service territory over the next 5 years. The installations will include 250 MW of utility-owned solar and 250 MW of independently owned solar. SCE expects that the majority of these systems will be commercial-scale rooftop PV systems connected at various points in the distribution system. Each of the SCE rooftop PV systems will typically have a rating of 1-3 MW. To understand the impact of high-penetration PV on the distribution grid, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and SCE brought together a team of experts in resource assessment, distribution modeling, and planning to help analyze the impacts of adding high penetration of PV into the distribution system. Through modeling and simulation, laboratory testing, and field demonstrations, the team will address the issues identified in the analysis by fully examining the challenges, developing solutions, and transitioning those solutions to the field for large-scale deployment. This paper gives an update on the project and discusses technical results of integrating a large number of distributed PV systems into the grid.

  17. Neuroimaging in adult penetrating brain injury: a guide for radiographers

    Temple, Nikki; Donald, Cortny; Skora, Amanda [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Reed, Warren, E-mail: [Medical Image Optimisation and Perception Group, Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia)


    Penetrating brain injuries (PBI) are a medical emergency, often resulting in complex damage and high mortality rates. Neuroimaging is essential to evaluate the location and extent of injuries, and to manage them accordingly. Currently, a myriad of imaging modalities are included in the diagnostic workup for adult PBI, including skull radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography, with each modality providing their own particular benefits. This literature review explores the current modalities available for investigating PBI and aims to assist in decision making for the appropriate use of diagnostic imaging when presented with an adult PBI. Based on the current literature, the authors have developed an imaging pathway for adult penetrating brain injury that functions as both a learning tool and reference guide for radiographers and other health professionals. Currently, CT is recommended as the imaging modality of choice for the initial assessment of PBI patients, while MRI is important in the sub-acute setting where it aids prognosis prediction and rehabilitation planning, Additional follow-up imaging, such as angiography, should be dependent upon clinical findings.

  18. Radon penetration of concrete slab cracks, joints, pipe penetrations, and sealants.

    Nielson, K K; Rogers, V C; Holt, R B; Pugh, T D; Grondzik, W A; de Meijer, R J


    Radon movement through 12 test slabs with different cracks, pipe penetrations, cold joints, masonry blocks, sealants, and tensile stresses characterized the importance of these anomalous structural domains. Diffusive and advective radon transport were measured with steady-state air pressure differences controlled throughout the deltaP = 0 to 60 Pa range. Diffusion coefficients (deltaP = 0) initially averaged 6.5 x 10(-8) m2 s(-1) among nine slabs with only 8% standard deviation, but increased due to drying by 0.16% per day over a 2-y period to an average of 2.0 x 10(-7) m2 s(-1). An asphalt coating reduced diffusion sixfold but an acrylic surface sealant had no effect. Diffusion was 42 times higher in solid masonry blocks than in concrete and was not affected by small cracks. Advective transport (deltaP permeability), pipe penetrations, and caulked gaps, but was significant for cracks, disturbed pipe penetrations, cold joints, masonry blocks, and concrete under tensile stress. Crack areas calculated to be as small as 10(-7) m2 significantly increased radon advection. Algebraic expressions predict air velocity and effective crack width from enhanced radon transport and air pressures. Masonry blocks, open cracks, and slab cold joints enhance radon penetration but stressed slabs, undisturbed pipe penetrations, and sealed cracks may not.

  19. An overview of skin penetration enhancers: penetration enhancing activity, skin irritation potential and mechanism of action

    Sarunyoo Songkro


    Full Text Available Transdermal drug delivery has attracted considerable attention over the past 2-3 decades in regard of its many potentialadvantages. However, the role of the skin as a protective barrier renders skin absorption of most drugs problematic. Therefore,skin penetration enhancers are frequently used in the field of transdermal drug delivery in order to reversibly reduce thebarrier function of the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the skin. To date, a wide range of chemical compounds havebeen shown to enhance the skin penetration of therapeutic drugs. This review presents a critical account of the most commonlyused chemical penetration enhancers (fatty acids and surfactants, and some newer classes of chemical enhancers (terpenes,polymers, monoolein, oxazolidinones, with emphasis on their efficacy, mechanism of action, and skin irritation potential. Thisreview also discusses the traditional and more recently developed methods for the screening and evaluation of chemical penetration enhancers, and addresses the continuing problems in the rational selection of a chemical penetration enhancer for a specific drug to be delivered via the transdermal route.

  20. Effect of oral acyclovir after penetrating keratoplasty for herpetic keratitis: a placebo-controlled multicenter trial.

    Rooij, J.G.M. van; Rijneveld, W.J.; Remeijer, L.; Volker-Dieben, H.J.; Eggink, C.A.; Geerards, A.J.; Mulder, P.G.H.; Doornenbal, P.; Beekhuis, W.H.


    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prophylactic effect of oral acyclovir on the recurrence rate of herpetic eye disease after penetrating keratoplasty. DESIGN: A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-eight consecutive patients (68 eyes) with corneal opacities

  1. The maximum force in a column under constant speed compression

    Kuzkin, Vitaly A


    Dynamic buckling of an elastic column under compression at constant speed is investigated assuming the first-mode buckling. Two cases are considered: (i) an imperfect column (Hoff's statement), and (ii) a perfect column having an initial lateral deflection. The range of parameters, where the maximum load supported by a column exceeds Euler static force is determined. In this range, the maximum load is represented as a function of the compression rate, slenderness ratio, and imperfection/initial deflection. Considering the results we answer the following question: "How slowly the column should be compressed in order to measure static load-bearing capacity?" This question is important for the proper setup of laboratory experiments and computer simulations of buckling. Additionally, it is shown that the behavior of a perfect column having an initial deflection differ significantlys form the behavior of an imperfect column. In particular, the dependence of the maximum force on the compression rate is non-monotoni...

  2. Ten-year postoperative results of penetrating keratoplasty.

    Ing, J J; Ing, H H; Nelson, L R; Hodge, D O; Bourne, W M


    To investigate the changes in central corneal endothelial cells and corneal thickness in transplanted corneas from 5 to 10 years after grafting. This study also aimed to investigate the development of glaucoma, graft rejection, and graft failure during the first 10 postoperative years. Longitudinal cohort study of 500 consecutive penetrating keratoplasties by 1 surgeon. Patients were asked to return for follow-up examinations at 2 months and at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years after grafting. The authors excluded eyes regrafted during the study and the fellow eyes of bilateral cases, leaving 394 grafts in 394 patients for analysis. Penetrating keratoplasty was performed. Using specular microscopy, the authors measured endothelial cell density, coefficient of variation of cell area, percentage of hexagonal cells, and corneal thickness. The authors performed clinical examinations to determine graft rejection or failure and the development of glaucoma. By 10 years postkeratoplasty, 80 of the 394 patients had died and 68 grafts had failed. Of the remaining 246 patients, 119 (48%) returned for their 10-year examinations. For the 72 patients who returned for all of the scheduled postoperative visits and had no rejection episodes, reoperations, or failure, endothelial cell loss from preoperative donor levels at 10 years was 67 +/- 18% (mean +/- standard deviation), endothelial cell density was 958 +/- 471 cells/mm2, coefficient of variation was 0.32 +/- 0.11, hexagonal cells were 56 +/- 12%, and corneal thickness was 0.58 +/- 0.05 mm. The 5- to 10-year changes for all these values were significant (P risk of glaucoma, rejection, or failure was 21%, 21%, and 22%, respectively. Late endothelial failure became the major cause for graft failure, accounting for 9 of the 11 failures after 5 postoperative years. From 5 to 10 years after penetrating keratoplasty, the annual rate of endothelial cell loss was seven times the normal rate. The endothelial cell loss, pleomorphism, polymegethism

  3. Influence of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin on transdermal penetration and photostability of avobenzone.

    Yang, Jing; Wiley, Cody J; Godwin, Donald A; Felton, Linda A


    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) complexation on the transdermal penetration and photostability of a model ultraviolet A (UVA) absorber, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (avobenzone), and to determine the influence of complexation on in vivo photoprotection. Avobenzone-HPCD complexation was demonstrated by differential scanning calorimetry. Formulations containing 0.12 mg/ml avobenzone and up to 30% (w/w) HPCD were prepared. Transdermal penetration was conducted using a modified Franz diffusion cell apparatus. As the concentration of HPCD was increased from 0% to 20%, transdermal permeation increased. Maximum flux occurred at 20% HPCD, where sufficient cyclodextrin was present to completely solubilize all avobenzone. When the concentration of HPCD was increased to 30%, transdermal penetration decreased, suggesting the formation of an avobenzone reservoir on the skin surface. Photostability of avobenzone was investigated under 100, 250, and 500 kJ/m2 UVA irradiation. The 30% HPCD formulation was the most photostable, followed by 20%, 10%, and 0% formulations. In vivo, the 30% HPCD formulation afforded the best photoprotection, as evidenced by the lowest extent of sunburn cell formation and edema induction. This work indicates that inclusion of HPCD in sunscreen formulations may enhance photoprotection by reducing both skin penetration and photodecomposition of UV absorbers.

  4. Penetration Testing Professional Ethics: a conceptual model and taxonomy

    Justin Pierce


    Full Text Available In an environment where commercial software is continually patched to correct security flaws, penetration testing can provide organisations with a realistic assessment of their security posture. Penetration testing uses the same principles as criminal hackers to penetrate corporate networks and thereby verify the presence of software vulnerabilities. Network administrators can use the results of a penetration test to correct flaws and improve overall security. The use of hacking techniques, however, raises several ethical questions that centre on the integrity of the tester to maintain professional distance and uphold the profession. This paper discusses the ethics of penetration testing and presents our conceptual model and revised taxonomy.

  5. Effect of Liquid Penetrant Sensitivity on Probability of Detection

    Parker, Bradford H.


    The objective of the task is to investigate the effect of liquid penetrant sensitivity level on probability of crack detection (POD). NASA-STD-5009 currently requires the use of only sensitivity level 4 liquid penetrants. This requirement is based on the fact that the data generated in the NTIAC Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Capabilities Data Book was produced using only sensitivity level 4 penetrants. Many NDE contractors supporting NASA Centers routinely use sensitivity level 3 penetrants. Because of the new NASA-STD-5009 requirement, these contractors will have to either shift to sensitivity level 4 penetrants or perform formal POD demonstration tests to qualify their existing process.

  6. In Vivo Microdialysis To Determine Subcutaneous Interstitial Fluid Penetration and Pharmacokinetics of Fluconazole in Intensive Care Unit Patients with Sepsis.

    Sinnollareddy, Mahipal G; Roberts, Michael S; Lipman, Jeffrey; Lassig-Smith, Melissa; Starr, Therese; Robertson, Thomas; Peake, Sandra L; Roberts, Jason A


    The objective of the study was to describe the subcutaneous interstitial fluid (ISF) pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in critically ill patients with sepsis. This prospective observational study was conducted at two tertiary intensive care units in Australia. Serial fluconazole concentrations were measured over 24 h in plasma and subcutaneous ISF using microdialysis. The concentrations in plasma and microdialysate were measured using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography system with electrospray mass spectrometer detector method. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Twelve critically ill patients with sepsis were enrolled. The mean in vivo fluconazole recovery rates ± standard deviation (SD) for microdialysis were 51.4% ± 16.1% with a mean (±SD) fluconazole ISF penetration ratio of 0.52 ± 0.30 (coefficient of variation, 58%). The median free plasma area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24) was significantly higher than the median ISF AUC0-24 (340.4 versus 141.1 mg · h/liter; P = 0.004). There was no statistical difference in median fluconazole ISF penetration between patients receiving and not receiving vasopressors (median, 0.28 versus 0.78; P = 0.106). Both minimum and the maximum concentrations of drug in serum (Cmax and Cmin) showed a significant correlation with the fluconazole plasma exposure (Cmax, R(2) = 0.86, P fluconazole was distributed variably, but incompletely, from plasma into subcutaneous interstitial fluid in this cohort of critically ill patients with sepsis. Given the variability of fluconazole interstitial fluid exposures and lack of clinically identifiable factors by which to recognize patients with reduced distribution/exposure, we suggest higher than standard doses to ensure that drug exposure is adequate at the site of infection.

  7. Corneal shrinkage induced by nonmechanical Q-switched erbium:YAG laser trephination for penetrating keratoplasty in porcine eyes.

    Stojkovic, Milenko; Seitz, Berthold; Küchle, Michael; Langenbucher, Achim; Viestenz, Arne; Viestenz, Anja; Hofmann-Rummelt, Carmen; Naumann, Gottfried O H


    To assess the degree of corneal diameter shrinkage induced by Q-switched mid-infrared laser corneal trephination for penetrating keratoplasty in an experimental model. Corneal trephination was performed in 80 enucleated porcine eyes fixed in a holder centered on an automated globe rotation device, by Q-switched (2.94 microm) Er:YAG laser along open masks. Four types of masks were used to protect the underlying corneal tissue: metal masks (donor and recipient) and ceramic masks (donor and recipient). Two spot diameters (0.65 mm and 0.96 mm) were combined with two energy settings (40 mJ/pulse and 50 mJ/pulse) for each of the masks used. Repetition rate was fixed at 5 Hz. Diameters of donor buttons/recipient beds (horizontal and vertical) were measured immediately after the trephination and compared to the given mask size. Minimum corneal shrinkage was found in the recipient metal mask group (mean +/- SD=0.3+/-0.4%) with 50 mJ pulse energy and 0.65 mm spot diameter (in the horizontal diameter), while the maximum shrinkage (5.3+/-2.8%) was found in the donor metal mask group with 50 mJ pulse energy and 0.96 mm spot diameter. Corneal shrinkage was less pronounced in recipient beds than in donor buttons (P0.05). Mean induced corneal diameter discrepancies between the donor button and the recipient bed (with metal and ceramic masks) were 2.5% and 2.5% in vertical diameter and 3.4% and 2.4% in horizontal diameter. The Q-switched Er:YAG laser experimental corneal trephination for penetrating keratoplasty may induce minor degrees of corneal diameter shrinkage in donor buttons and recipient openings. Oversizing of donor masks by 0.25-0.35 mm (i.e. 3-4% of graft size) may be a valid option to avoid refractive consequences.

  8. Prediction of Maximum Oxygen Consumption from Walking, Jogging, or Running.

    Larsen, Gary E.; George, James D.; Alexander, Jeffrey L.; Fellingham, Gilbert W.; Aldana, Steve G.; Parcell, Allen C.


    Developed a cardiorespiratory endurance test that retained the inherent advantages of submaximal testing while eliminating reliance on heart rate measurement in predicting maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). College students completed three exercise tests. The 1.5-mile endurance test predicted VO2max from submaximal exercise without requiring heart…

  9. Prediction of Maximum Oxygen Consumption from Walking, Jogging, or Running.

    Larsen, Gary E.; George, James D.; Alexander, Jeffrey L.; Fellingham, Gilbert W.; Aldana, Steve G.; Parcell, Allen C.


    Developed a cardiorespiratory endurance test that retained the inherent advantages of submaximal testing while eliminating reliance on heart rate measurement in predicting maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). College students completed three exercise tests. The 1.5-mile endurance test predicted VO2max from submaximal exercise without requiring heart…

  10. Closed form maximum likelihood estimator of conditional random fields

    Zhu, Zhemin; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Apers, Peter M.G.; Wombacher, Andreas


    Training Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) can be very slow for big data. In this paper, we present a new training method for CRFs called {\\em Empirical Training} which is motivated by the concept of co-occurrence rate. We show that the standard training (unregularized) can have many maximum likeliho

  11. A Monte Carlo Evaluation of Maximum Likelihood Multidimensional Scaling Methods

    Bijmolt, T.H.A.; Wedel, M.


    We compare three alternative Maximum Likelihood Multidimensional Scaling methods for pairwise dissimilarity ratings, namely MULTISCALE, MAXSCAL, and PROSCAL in a Monte Carlo study.The three MLMDS methods recover the true con gurations very well.The recovery of the true dimensionality depends on the

  12. The inverse maximum dynamic flow problem

    BAGHERIAN; Mehri


    We consider the inverse maximum dynamic flow (IMDF) problem.IMDF problem can be described as: how to change the capacity vector of a dynamic network as little as possible so that a given feasible dynamic flow becomes a maximum dynamic flow.After discussing some characteristics of this problem,it is converted to a constrained minimum dynamic cut problem.Then an efficient algorithm which uses two maximum dynamic flow algorithms is proposed to solve the problem.

  13. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)


    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  14. Incomplete penetrance in mitochondrial optic neuropathies.

    Caporali, Leonardo; Maresca, Alessandra; Capristo, Mariantonietta; Del Dotto, Valentina; Tagliavini, Francesca; Valentino, Maria Lucia; La Morgia, Chiara; Carelli, Valerio


    Incomplete penetrance characterizes the two most frequent inherited optic neuropathies, Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) and dominant optic atrophy (DOA), due to genetic errors in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the nuclear DNA (nDNA), respectively. For LHON, compelling evidence has accumulated on the complex interplay of mtDNA haplogroups and environmental interacting factors, whereas the nDNA remains essentially non informative. However, a compensatory mechanism of activated mitochondrial biogenesis and increased mtDNA copy number, possibly driven by a permissive nDNA background, is documented in LHON; when successful it maintains unaffected the mutation carriers, but in some individuals it might be hampered by tobacco smoking or other environmental factors, resulting in disease onset. In females, mitochondrial biogenesis is promoted and maintained within the compensatory range by estrogens, partially explaining the gender bias in LHON. Concerning DOA, none of the above mechanisms has been fully explored, thus mtDNA haplogroups, environmental factors such as tobacco and alcohol, and further nDNA variants may all participate as protective factors or, on the contrary, favor disease expression and severity. Next generation sequencing, complemented by transcriptomics and proteomics, may provide some answers in the next future, even if the multifactorial model that seems to apply to incomplete penetrance in mitochondrial optic neuropathies remains problematic, and careful stratification of patients will play a key role for data interpretation. The deep understanding of which factors impinge on incomplete penetrance may shed light on the pathogenic mechanisms leading to optic nerve atrophy, on their possible compensation and, thus, on development of therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Maximum entropy production and plant optimization theories.

    Dewar, Roderick C


    Plant ecologists have proposed a variety of optimization theories to explain the adaptive behaviour and evolution of plants from the perspective of natural selection ('survival of the fittest'). Optimization theories identify some objective function--such as shoot or canopy photosynthesis, or growth rate--which is maximized with respect to one or more plant functional traits. However, the link between these objective functions and individual plant fitness is seldom quantified and there remains some uncertainty about the most appropriate choice of objective function to use. Here, plants are viewed from an alternative thermodynamic perspective, as members of a wider class of non-equilibrium systems for which maximum entropy production (MEP) has been proposed as a common theoretical principle. I show how MEP unifies different plant optimization theories that have been proposed previously on the basis of ad hoc measures of individual fitness--the different objective functions of these theories emerge as examples of entropy production on different spatio-temporal scales. The proposed statistical explanation of MEP, that states of MEP are by far the most probable ones, suggests a new and extended paradigm for biological evolution--'survival of the likeliest'--which applies from biomacromolecules to ecosystems, not just to individuals.

  16. Kali Linux assuring security by penetration testing

    Ali, Shakeel; Allen, Lee


    Written as an interactive tutorial, this book covers the core of Kali Linux with real-world examples and step-by-step instructions to provide professional guidelines and recommendations for you. The book is designed in a simple and intuitive manner that allows you to explore the whole Kali Linux testing process or study parts of it individually.If you are an IT security professional who has a basic knowledge of Unix/Linux operating systems, including an awareness of information security factors, and want to use Kali Linux for penetration testing, then this book is for you.

  17. Premium Efficiency Motors And Market Penetration Policy

    Benhaddadi, Mohamed; Olivier, Guy


    This paper illustrates the induced enormous energy saving potential, permitted by using high-efficiency motors. Furthermore, the most important barriers to larger high-efficiency motors utilization are identified, and some incentives recommendations are given to overcome identified impediments. The authors consider that there is a strong case to enhance incentives policies for larger market penetration. The US Energy Policy Act and the Canadian Energy Efficient Act have lead to North American leadership on motor efficiency implementation. North America is not on the leading edge for energy saving and conservation. Motor efficiency is an exception that should be at least maintained.

  18. [Penetrating ocular trauma with intraocular foreign body].

    Musat, O; Ochinciuc, Uliana; Gutu, Tatiana; Cristescu, T R; Coman, Corina


    We present the case of a 65 years old pacient which was admitted for the sudden decrease of visual acuity in the left eye, accompanied by ocular pain and conjunctival hiperemia, simptoms appeared after an ocular trauma. After the clinical and paraclinical examination we determined the diagnosis of OS: Penetrating ocular trauma with retention of a foreign body; posttraumatic cataract. Surgical treatement was warrented and we performed OS : Facoemulsification + PFK implant in sulcus + 23 Ga posterior vitrectomy + peeling of the posterior hyaloid membrane + extraction of the foreign body + LASER endofotocoagulation + transscleral cryotherapy + SF6 gas injection. The post-operatory evolution was favorable.

  19. Suicide bomb attack causing penetrating craniocerebral injury

    Manzar Hussain; Muhammad Ehsan Bari


    Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies are rare in civilian neurosurgical trauma,although there are various reports of blast or gunshot injuries in warfare due to multiple foreign bodies like pellets and nails.In our case,a 30-year-old man presented to neurosurgery clinic with signs and symptoms of right-sided weakness after suicide bomb attack.The skull X-ray showed a single intracranial nail.Small craniotomy was done and the nail was removed with caution to avoid injury to surrounding normal brain tissue.At 6 months' follow-up his right-sided power improved to against gravity.

  20. Penetrating abdominal injuries in children in Nigeria.

    Ameh, E A; Nmadu, P T


    This is a report of a retrospective study of 24 children managed for penetrating abdominal injury over 10 years, and it represents 34% of all abdominal injuries in children in that period. Falls onto sharp objects within and around the home were responsible for ten of the injuries, seven were injured by animal horns and four were sporting injuries. Violence and road traffic accidents were uncommon. Most patients (67%) had evisceration of omentum or intestine, and one of these was found at laparotomy to have a jejuno-jejunal intussusception. Seven children had injury to hollow viscera. There were three deaths, one each from overwhelming sepsis, tetanus and haemorrhage.

  1. Penetrating wounds of the head and neck.

    Jahrsdoerfer, R A; Johns, M E; Cantrell, R W


    Wounding capability of bullets is primarily releated to velocity. Bullet mass and shape, and specific gravity of body tissues being struck by the missile, are lesser factors. Seventy cases of penetrating wounds of the head and neck were treated during a six-year period. Vascular injuries were more common with neck wounds, while face and head injuries (extracranial) were similar to maxillofacial trauma. It is recognized that hemorrhage at the base of the skull is difficult to treat, and contemporary training in temporal bone and base of skull surgery is mandatory for the critical management of these wounds.

  2. Retained crossbow bolt after penetrating facial trauma.

    Shah, Manan U; Sridhara, Shankar K; Wolf, Jeffrey S; Ambro, Bryan T


    We present an unusual case of a retained crossbow bolt in the maxillofacial area of a 31-year-old man. While crossbow injuries are rare, this case is of interest because otolaryngologists are often faced with treating retained foreign objects after penetrating facial trauma. These cases are difficult to manage because of the complexity and variety of injuries that can occur during both the initial trauma and the removal. We focus on the management of the bolt's removal and provide a brief discussion of the relevant literature on crossbow injuries to the head and neck.

  3. Hacking with Kali practical penetration testing techniques

    Broad, James


    Hacking with Kali introduces you the most current distribution of the de facto standard tool for Linux pen testing. Starting with use of the Kali live CD and progressing through installation on hard drives, thumb drives and SD cards, author James Broad walks you through creating a custom version of the Kali live distribution. You'll learn how to configure networking components, storage devices and system services such as DHCP and web services. Once you're familiar with the basic components of the software, you'll learn how to use Kali through the phases of the penetration testing lifecycle

  4. Mastering Kali Linux for advanced penetration testing

    Beggs, Robert W


    This book provides an overview of the kill chain approach to penetration testing, and then focuses on using Kali Linux to provide examples of how this methodology is applied in the real world. After describing the underlying concepts, step-by-step examples are provided that use selected tools to demonstrate the techniques. If you are an IT professional or a security consultant who wants to maximize the success of your network testing using some of the advanced features of Kali Linux, then this book is for you. This book will teach you how to become an expert in the pre-engagement, management,

  5. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)


    Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  6. Storability evaluation of Golab apple with acoustic and penetration methods

    M. R Bayati


    Full Text Available Introduction: Apple fruit (Mauls domestica Borkh, Rosaceae after citrus fruits, grape and banana, is the fourth important fruit in the world and is considered the most important fruit of temperate regions. In terms of trade volume, Iran is fourth producer and 17th exporter in the world. Among Iranian cultivars of apple fruit, known as “Golab apple”. Golab apple is one of the fragrant and tasty varieties and meanwhile is very sensitive and also its period of the postharvest shelf life is very short. In a study, the firmness of pear fruit during 4 weeks of storage was monitored using non-destructive impulse response (I-R and destructive Magness-Taylor (M-T puncture tests. The results of this study showed that the dominant frequency, stiffness coefficient and elasticity coefficient as a function of time could be expressed as a decreasing linear function (Gómez et al., 2005. Tiplica et al., (2010, showed that acoustic measurement can be a useful tool to discriminate different apple batches with a low error rate. Starting from the spectrum of the signal recorded by a microphone after the impact of a small hammer on the fruit, 18 key features were identified and used for the classification of apples belonging to 10 different varieties. The study aimed to evaluate apple firmness measured using both the penetrometer and acoustic methods. The methodologies were applied to Royal Gaya and Golden Smoothee apples harvested from 12 different orchards in Catalonia (Spain, on six different dates, and over three seasons. The results obtained showed a noticeable correlation between Magness Taylor firmness and acoustic measurements in Royal Gala, but no correlation was found for Golden Smoothee. In this study, also, acoustic measurements seemed to be a good tool for evaluating changes in tissue firmness during long-term storage (Molina-Delgado et al., 2009. In another study, it was presented a novel approach based on the simultaneous profiling of the

  7. Boundary condition effects on maximum groundwater withdrawal in coastal aquifers.

    Lu, Chunhui; Chen, Yiming; Luo, Jian


    Prevention of sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers subject to groundwater withdrawal requires optimization of well pumping rates to maximize the water supply while avoiding sea water intrusion. Boundary conditions and the aquifer domain size have significant influences on simulating flow and concentration fields and estimating maximum pumping rates. In this study, an analytical solution is derived based on the potential-flow theory for evaluating maximum groundwater pumping rates in a domain with a constant hydraulic head landward boundary. An empirical correction factor, which was introduced by Pool and Carrera (2011) to account for mixing in the case with a constant recharge rate boundary condition, is found also applicable for the case with a constant hydraulic head boundary condition, and therefore greatly improves the usefulness of the sharp-interface analytical solution. Comparing with the solution for a constant recharge rate boundary, we find that a constant hydraulic head boundary often yields larger estimations of the maximum pumping rate and when the domain size is five times greater than the distance between the well and the coastline, the effect of setting different landward boundary conditions becomes insignificant with a relative difference between two solutions less than 2.5%. These findings can serve as a preliminary guidance for conducting numerical simulations and designing tank-scale laboratory experiments for studying groundwater withdrawal problems in coastal aquifers with minimized boundary condition effects.

  8. Penetrating Gas Streams Generate Unrelaxed,Non-Cool-Core Clusters of Galaxies

    Zinger, E; Birnboim, Y; Kravtsov, A; Nagai, D


    We utilize cosmological simulations of 16 galaxy clusters at redshifts $z=0$ and $z=0.6$ to study the effect of inflowing streams on the properties of the inner Intra-Cluster Medium (ICM). We find that the mass accretion occurs predominantly along streams that originate from the cosmic web and consist of heated gas. Clusters that are unrelaxed in terms of their X-ray morphology are characterized by higher mass inflow rates and deeper penetration of the streams, typically into the inner third of the virial radius. The penetrating streams generate elevated random motions, bulk flows, cold fronts and metal mixing, thus producing Non-Cool-Core clusters. The degree of penetration of the streams may change over time such that clusters can switch from being unrelaxed to relaxed over a time-scale of several Gyrs. The stream properties thus help us understand the distinction between cool-core and non-cool-core clusters.

  9. [Assessment of measured respirable dust sampler penetration and the sampling convention for work environment measurement].

    Myojo, Toshihiko


    The relationship between dust size and penetration for a static horizontal elutriator (Sibata C-30) was measured in calm air. The elutriator as a low-volume air sampler is widely used as a dust size classifier in work environment measurements. The actual penetrations were compared with the theoretical models of the sampler and with sampling convention for respirable dust in work environment measurement. The sampling convention was recently introduced into the Japanese standard for work environment measurement and is based on the ISO 7708 respirable dust convention. The bias of sampled masses from the respirable dust was calculated for two flow rates of the sampler, i.e., 50% cut sizes of 4 microm and 5 microm, from measured penetration curves. The bias of the sampler was overestimated in the 5 microm, 50% cut condition and underestimated in the 4 microm, 50% cut condition for most workplace sampling situations.

  10. Study on mixed convective flow penetration into subassembly from reactor hot plenum in FBRs

    Kobayashi, J.; Ohshima, H.; Kamide, H.; Ieda, Y. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Ibaraki (Japan)


    Fundamental experiments using water were carried out in order to reveal the phenomenon of mixed convective flow penetration into subassemblies from a reactor`s upper plenum of fast breeder reactors. This phenomenon appears under a certain natural circulation conditions during the operation of the direct reactor auxiliary cooling system for decay heat removal and might influence the natural circulation head which determines the core flow rate and therefore affects the core coolability. In the experiment, a simplified model which simulates an upper plenum and a subassembly was used and the ultrasonic velocity profile monitor as well as thermocouples were applied for the simultaneous measurement of velocity and temperature distributions in the subassembly. From the measured data, empirical equations related to the penetration flow onset condition and the penetration depth were obtained using relevant parameters which were derived from dimensional analysis.

  11. Light penetration in the human prostate: a whole prostate clinical study at 763 nm

    Moore, Caroline M.; Mosse, C. Alexander; Allen, Clare; Payne, Heather; Emberton, Mark; Bown, Stephen G.


    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is being investigated as a treatment for localized prostate cancer. Photodynamic therapy uses a photosensitizing drug which is activated by a specific wavelength of light, in the presence of oxygen. The activated drug reacts with tissue oxygen to produce reactive oxygen species which are responsible for localized tissue necrosis. One of the determinants of the PDT effect is the penetration of light in the prostate. This study assesses the penetration depth of 763 nm light throughout the prostate. Eight men undergoing multiple hollow needle insertion for high dose rate brachytherapy were recruited. 763 nm light, produced by a diode laser, was delivered to the prostate using cylindrically diffusing optical fibers within the plastic needles. Light was detected at different distances from the source, using an isotropic detector within nearby needles. Penetration depth was calculated using the Boltzmann approximation to the diffusion equation. Delivery detector fiber separation was measured on computed tomography. The mean penetration depth was 0.57 cm, but there was within patient variation of a mean factor of 4.3. Further work is ongoing to assess the effect of such variability in light penetration, on the PDT effect.

  12. Corrosion Penetration and Crystal Structure of AA5022 in HCl Solution and Rare Earth Elements

    A.A.El-Meligi; S.H. Sanad; A.A.Ismail; A.M. Baraka


    Al-alloy (AA5022) corrosion penetration (CP) and crystal structure were investigated after running static immersion corrosion tests in 1 mol/L HCl solution and different concentrations of rare earth elements (La3+), (Ce3+) and their combination, at different temperatures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to examine the surface structure before and after immersion, and secondary electron detector (SED) was operated to study surface morphology. In 1 mol/L HCl solution the corrosion penetration increased with increasing temperature and immersion time. The increase of La3+ concentrations up to 1000× 10-6 g/L led to the decrease in the corrosion penetration, and the decrease in Ce3+concentrations up to 50×10-6 g/L decreases the corrosion penetration of the alloy. Mix3 (combination of La3+ and Ce3+) dramatically reduced the corrosion penetration. This suggests that a synergistic effect exists between La3+and Ce3+. The reaction kinetics both in absence and presence of La3+ and Ce3+ and their combination would follow a parabolic rate law. The XRD patterns revealed that the intensities of certain hkl phases are affected. The crystalline structure has not been deformed either before or after testing and there are no additional peaks except that of the as-received alloy. In the case of accelerating CP, the surface morphology shows that the roughness andvoids of surface are increased.

  13. Respostas da freqüência cardíaca de pico em testes máximos de campo e laboratório Respuestas de la frecuencia cardíaca de pico en tests máximos de campo y de laboratorio Peak heart rate responses in maximum laboratory and field tests

    Alexandre Lima dos Santos


    atletismo y protocolos maximos en rampa de laboratorio. Todos los tests fueron hechos en intervalos de dos semanas en un orden alternado para cada individuo. antes de cada test eran asignadas la humedad de aire y temperatura ambiente. En las 48 horas precedentes los individuos fueron instruidos a no realizar ninguna actividad fisica. Posibles diferencias en la fc pico, en condindiones ambientales (temperatura y humedad relativa del aire en campo y en laboratorio fueron testeados por el test t de Student emparejado y simple respectivamente (p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The peak heart rate (HRpeak assessed in maximum laboratory tests has been used to determine the aerobic exercise intensity in field situations. However, HRpeak values may differ in field and laboratory situations, which can influence the relative intensity of the prescribed workloads. The objective of this study was to measure the HRpeak responses in laboratory and field maximum tests, analyzing their influence in the exercise prescription. METHODS: Twenty-five physically active men aged 21-51 yrs (28.9 ± 8 yrs executed a 2,400 m field test in a running track and an individualized maximum treadmill ramp protocol. All tests were performed within two weeks, in a counterbalanced order. Before each test, the temperature and air humidity were checked, and the subjects were told no to engage in any physical activity 48 hours before. Differences between HRpeak and environmental conditions (temperature and humidity in field and laboratory situations were respectively tested by paired and simple Student's t tests (p < 0.05. RESULTS: HRpeak values were significant higher in the field test than in the laboratory protocol, reaching 10 beats per minute in some cases. These differences may be partially accounted for a significant higher temperature and air humidity in the field conditions. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, maximum field tests seem to elicit higher HRpeak values than laboratory protocols, suggesting that the former

  14. Effects of cyclic chloride exposure on penetration of concrete cover

    Hong, K.; Hooton, R.D.


    Concretes are in a state of flux between saturated and partially saturated conditions as they undergo continuous cycles of wetting and drying. In saturated concrete, dissolved ions enter through diffusion, whereas in partially saturated concrete, ion-containing fluids are absorbed by capillary suction and concentrated by evaporation of water. The primary focus of this study was to examine the effects of cyclic wetting and drying with sodium chloride solution on chloride ingress into concrete. Chloride profiles of samples exposed to various lengths and numbers of cycles were determined for three mixtures of concrete: two containing slag and/or silica fume with a 0.4 w/cm (water to cementing materials ratio) and one with a 0.3 w/cm. It was found that longer drying times increase the rate of chloride ingress. A good relationship exists between the depth of chloride penetration and the square root of the number of cycles.

  15. Are capecitabine and the active metabolite 5-Fu CNS penetrable to treat breast cancer brain metastasis?

    Zhang, Jinqiang; Zhang, Lingli; Yan, Yumei; Li, Shaorong; Xie, Liang; Zhong, Wei; Lv, Jing; Zhang, Xiuhua; Bai, Yu; Cheng, Ziqiang


    Brain metastasis (BM) is increasingly diagnosed in Her2 positive breast cancer (BC) patients. Lack of effective treatment to breast cancer brain metastases (BCBMs) is probably due to inability of the current therapeutic agents to cross the blood-brain barrier. The central nervous system (CNS) response rate in BCBM patients was reported to improve from 2.6%-6% (lapatinib) to 20%-65% (lapatinib in combination with capecitabine). Lapatinib is a poor brain penetrant. In this study, we evaluated the CNS penetration of capecitabine and hoped to interpret the mechanism of the improved CNS response from the pharmacokinetic (PK) perspective. Capecitabine does not have antiproliferative activity and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is the active metabolite. Capecitabine was orally administered to mouse returning an unbound brain-to-blood ratio (Kp,uu,brain) at 0.13 and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-to-unbound blood ratio (Kp,uu,CSF) at 0.29 for 5-FU. Neither free brain nor CSF concentration of 5-FU can achieve antiproliferative concentration for 50% of maximal inhibition of cell proliferation of 4.57 µM. BCBM mice were treated with capecitabine monotherapy or in combination with lapatinib. The Kp,uu,brain value of 5-FU increased to 0.17 in the brain tumor in the presence of lapatinib, which is still far below unity. The calculated free concentration of 5-FU and lapatinib in the brain tumor did not reach the antiproliferative potency and neither treatment showed antitumor activity in the BCBM mice. The CNS penetration of 5-FU in human was predicted based on the penetration in preclinical brain tumor, CSF, and human PK and the predicted free CNS concentration was below the antiproliferative potency. These results suggest that CNS penetration of 5-FU and lapatinib are not desirable and development of a true CNS penetrable therapeutic agent will further improve the response rate for BCBM.

  16. High-Penetration Photovoltaic Planning Methodologies

    Gao, David Wenzhong [Alternative Power Innovations, LLC, Broomfield, CO (United States); Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    The main objective of this report is to provide an overview of select U.S. utility methodologies for performing high-penetration photovoltaic (HPPV) system planning and impact studies. This report covers the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's orders related to photovoltaic (PV) power system interconnection, particularly the interconnection processes for the Large Generation Interconnection Procedures and Small Generation Interconnection Procedures. In addition, it includes U.S. state interconnection standards and procedures. The procedures used by these regulatory bodies consider the impacts of HPPV power plants on the networks. Technical interconnection requirements for HPPV voltage regulation include aspects of power monitoring, grounding, synchronization, connection to the overall distribution system, back-feeds, disconnecting means, abnormal operating conditions, and power quality. This report provides a summary of mitigation strategies to minimize the impact of HPPV. Recommendations and revisions to the standards may take place as the penetration level of renewables on the grid increases and new technologies develop in future years.

  17. Ground penetrating radar for asparagus detection

    Seyfried, Daniel; Schoebel, Joerg


    Ground penetrating radar is a promising technique for detection of buried objects. Recently, radar has more and more been identified to provide benefits for a plurality of applications, where it can increase efficiency of operation. One of these fields is the industrial automatic harvesting process of asparagus, which is performed so far by cutting the soil ridge at a certain height including all the asparagus spears and subsequently sieving the latter out of the soil. However, the height where the soil is cut is a critical parameter, since a wrong value leads to either damage of the roots of the asparagus plants or to a reduced crop yield as a consequence of too much biomass remaining in the soil. In this paper we present a new approach which utilizes ground penetrating radar for non-invasive sensing in order to obtain information on the optimal height for cutting the soil. Hence, asparagus spears of maximal length can be obtained, while keeping the roots at the same time undamaged. We describe our radar system as well as the subsequent digital signal processing steps utilized for extracting the information required from the recorded radar data, which then can be fed into some harvesting unit for setting up the optimal cutting height.

  18. Factors affecting penetrating captive bolt gun performance.

    Gibson, Troy J; Mason, Charles W; Spence, Jade Y; Barker, Heather; Gregory, Neville G


    Captive bolt stunning is used for rendering livestock insensible at slaughter. The mechanical factors relating to performance of 6 penetrating captive bolt gun (CBG) models were examined. The Matador Super Sécurit 3000 and the .25 Cash Euro Stunner had the highest kinetic energy values (443 J and 412 J, respectively) of the CBGs tested. Ninety percent (27/30) of CBGs held at a government gun repository (United Kingdom) were found to have performed at a normal standard for the model, while 53% (10/19) of commercial contractor CBGs tested were found to underperform for the gun model. When the .22 Cash Special was fired 500 times at 4 shots per min, the gun reached a peak temperature of 88.8°C after 2.05 hr. Repeat firing during extended periods significantly reduced the performance of the CBG. When deciding on the appropriate CBG/cartridge combination, the kinetic energy delivered to the head of the nonhuman animal, bolt penetration depth, and species/animal type must be considered. It is recommended that CBGs are routinely checked for wear to the bolt and barrel if they are repeatedly fired in a session.

  19. Penetration of projectiles into granular targets

    Ruiz-Suárez, J. C.


    Energetic collisions of subatomic particles with fixed or moving targets have been very valuable to penetrate into the mysteries of nature. But the mysteries are quite intriguing when projectiles and targets are macroscopically immense. We know that countless debris wandering in space impacted (and still do) large asteroids, moons and planets; and that millions of craters on their surfaces are traces of such collisions. By classifying and studying the morphology of such craters, geologists and astrophysicists obtain important clues to understand the origin and evolution of the Solar System. This review surveys knowledge about crater phenomena in the planetary science context, avoiding detailed descriptions already found in excellent papers on the subject. Then, it examines the most important results reported in the literature related to impact and penetration phenomena in granular targets obtained by doing simple experiments. The main goal is to discern whether both schools, one that takes into account the right ingredients (planetary bodies and very high energies) but cannot physically reproduce the collisions, and the other that easily carries out the collisions but uses laboratory ingredients (small projectiles and low energies), can arrive at a synergistic intersection point.

  20. Plasma penetration of the dayside magnetopause

    Gunell, H.; Maggiolo, R. [Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Avenue Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Nilsson, H.; Stenberg, G.; Lundin, R. [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, P.O. Box 812, SE-981 28 Kiruna (Sweden); Hamrin, M. [Department of Physics, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden); Karlsson, T. [Space and Plasma Physics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Andre, M. [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Box 537, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Dandouras, I. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, UPS-CNRS, Toulouse (France)


    Data from the Cluster spacecraft during their magnetopause crossing on 25 January 2002 are presented. The magnetopause was in a state of slow non-oscillatory motion during the observational period. Coherent structures of magnetosheath plasma, here typified as plasmoids, were seen on closed magnetic field lines on the inside of the magnetopause. Using simultaneous measurements on two spacecraft, the inward motion of the plasmoids is followed from one spacecraft to the next, and it is found to be in agreement with the measured ion velocity. The plasma characteristics and the direction of motion of the plasmoids show that they have penetrated the magnetopause, and the observations are consistent with the concept of impulsive penetration, as it is known from theory, simulations, and laboratory experiments. The mean flux across the magnetopause observed was 0.2%-0.5% of the solar wind flux at the time, and the peak values of the flux inside the plasmoids reached approximately 20% of the solar wind flux.