A. Hak (Tony); J. Dul (Jan)
2009-01-01
textabstractPattern matching is comparing two patterns in order to determine whether they match (i.e., that they are the same) or do not match (i.e., that they differ). Pattern matching is the core procedure of theory-testing with cases. Testing consists of matching an “observed pattern” (a pattern
Hak, Tony; Dul, Jan
2009-01-01
textabstractPattern matching is comparing two patterns in order to determine whether they match (i.e., that they are the same) or do not match (i.e., that they differ). Pattern matching is the core procedure of theory-testing with cases. Testing consists of matching an “observed pattern” (a pattern of measured values) with an “expected pattern” (a hypothesis), and deciding whether these patterns match (resulting in a confirmation of the hypothesis) or do not match (resulting in a disconfirmat...
Maximum Matchings via Glauber Dynamics
Jindal, Anant; Pal, Manjish
2011-01-01
In this paper we study the classic problem of computing a maximum cardinality matching in general graphs $G = (V, E)$. The best known algorithm for this problem till date runs in $O(m \\sqrt{n})$ time due to Micali and Vazirani \\cite{MV80}. Even for general bipartite graphs this is the best known running time (the algorithm of Karp and Hopcroft \\cite{HK73} also achieves this bound). For regular bipartite graphs one can achieve an $O(m)$ time algorithm which, following a series of papers, has been recently improved to $O(n \\log n)$ by Goel, Kapralov and Khanna (STOC 2010) \\cite{GKK10}. In this paper we present a randomized algorithm based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo paradigm which runs in $O(m \\log^2 n)$ time, thereby obtaining a significant improvement over \\cite{MV80}. We use a Markov chain similar to the \\emph{hard-core model} for Glauber Dynamics with \\emph{fugacity} parameter $\\lambda$, which is used to sample independent sets in a graph from the Gibbs Distribution \\cite{V99}, to design a faster algori...
Jeuring, J.T.
2007-01-01
The pattern matching problem can be informally specified as follows: given a pattern and a text, find all occurrences of the pattern in the text. The pattern and the text may both be lists, or they may both be trees, or they may both be multi-dimensional arrays, etc. This paper describes a general p
Cristian GEORGESCU
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to investigate how such a pattern matching could be performed on models,including the definition of the input language as well as the elaboration of efficient matchingalgorithms. Design patterns can be considered reusable micro-architectures that contribute to anoverall system architecture. Frameworks are also closely related to design patterns. Componentsoffer the possibility to radically change the behaviors and services offered by an application bysubstitution or addition of new components, even a long time after deployment. Software testing isanother aspect of reliable development. Testing activities mainly consist in ensuring that a systemimplementation conforms to its specifications.
Faust, Sebastian; Hazay, Carmit; Venturi, Daniele
2013-01-01
on concrete and important functionalities and give the first protocol for the pattern matching problem in the cloud. Loosely speaking, this problem considers a text T that is outsourced to the cloud S by a client C T . In a query phase, clients C 1, …, C l run an efficient protocol with the server S...... that contain confidential data (e.g., health related data about patient history). Our constructions offer simulation-based security in the presence of semi-honest and malicious adversaries (in the random oracle model) and limit the communication in the query phase to O(m) bits plus the number of occurrences...
Review og pattern matching approaches
Manfaat, D.; Duffy, Alex; Lee, B. S.
1996-01-01
This paper presents a review of pattern matching techniques. The application areas for pattern matching are extensive, ranging from CAD systems to chemical analysis and from manufacturing to image processing. Published techniques and methods are classified and assessed within the context of three...... key issues: pattern classes, similiarity types and mathing methods. It has been shown that the techniques and approaches are as diverse and varied as the applications....
Pattern recognition and string matching
Cheng, Xiuzhen
2002-01-01
The research and development of pattern recognition have proven to be of importance in science, technology, and human activity. Many useful concepts and tools from different disciplines have been employed in pattern recognition. Among them is string matching, which receives much theoretical and practical attention. String matching is also an important topic in combinatorial optimization. This book is devoted to recent advances in pattern recognition and string matching. It consists of twenty eight chapters written by different authors, addressing a broad range of topics such as those from classifica tion, matching, mining, feature selection, and applications. Each chapter is self-contained, and presents either novel methodological approaches or applications of existing theories and techniques. The aim, intent, and motivation for publishing this book is to pro vide a reference tool for the increasing number of readers who depend upon pattern recognition or string matching in some way. This includes student...
Fast algorithm on string cross pattern matching
Liu Gongshen; Li Jianhua; Li Shenghong
2005-01-01
Given a set U which is consisted of strings defined on alphabet ∑ , string cross pattern matching is to find all the matches between every two strings in U. It is utilized in text processing like removing the duplication of strings.This paper presents a fast string cross pattern matching algorithm based on extracting high frequency strings. Compared with existing algorithms including single-pattern algorithms and multi-pattern matching algorithms, this algorithm is featured by both low time complexityand low space complexity. Because Chinese alphabet is large and the average length of Chinese words is much short, this algorithm is more suitable to process the text written by Chinese, especially when the size of ∑ is large and the number of strings is far more than the maximum length of strings of set U.
Pattern Matching in Multiple Streams
Clifford, Raphael; Porat, Ely; Sach, Benjamin
2012-01-01
We investigate the problem of deterministic pattern matching in multiple streams. In this model, one symbol arrives at a time and is associated with one of s streaming texts. The task at each time step is to report if there is a new match between a fixed pattern of length m and a newly updated stream. As is usual in the streaming context, the goal is to use as little space as possible while still reporting matches quickly. We give almost matching upper and lower space bounds for three distinct pattern matching problems. For exact matching we show that the problem can be solved in constant time per arriving symbol and O(m+s) words of space. For the k-mismatch and k-differences problems we give O(k) time solutions that require O(m+ks) words of space. In all three cases we also give space lower bounds which show our methods are optimal up to a single logarithmic factor. Finally we set out a number of open problems related to this new model for pattern matching.
Explicit pattern matching assignment algorithm
Levedahl, Mark
2002-08-01
Sharing data between two tracking systems frequently involves use of an object map: the transmitting system sends a frame of data with multiple observations, and the receiving system uses an assignment algorithm to correlate the information with its local observation data base. The usual prescription for this problem is an optimal assignment algorithm (such as JVC or auction) using a cost matrix based upon chi-squared distances between the local and remote observation data. The optimal assignment algorithm does not actually perform pattern matching, so this approach is not robust to large registration errors between the two systems when there exist differences in the number of observations held by both systems. Performance of a new assignment algorithm that uses a cost function including terms for both registration errors and track to track random errors is presented: the cost function explicitly includes a bias between the two observation sets and thus provides a maximum likelihood solution to the assignment problem. In practice, this assignment approach provides near perfect assignment accuracy in cases where the bias errors exceed the dimension of the transmitted object map and there exist mismatches in the numbers of observations made by the two systems. This performance extends to many cases where the optimal assignment algorithm methodology produces errors nearly 100% of the time. The paper includes the theoretical foundation of the assignment problem solved and comparison of achieved accuracy with existing optimal assignment approaches.
An Efficient Pattern Matching Algorithm
Sleit, Azzam; Almobaideen, Wesam; Baarah, Aladdin H.; Abusitta, Adel H.
In this study, we present an efficient algorithm for pattern matching based on the combination of hashing and search trees. The proposed solution is classified as an offline algorithm. Although, this study demonstrates the merits of the technique for text matching, it can be utilized for various forms of digital data including images, audio and video. The performance superiority of the proposed solution is validated analytically and experimentally.
Memristor-based pattern matching
Klimo, Martin; Such, Ondrej; Skvarek, Ondrej; Fratrik, Milan
2014-10-01
Pattern matching is a machine learning area that requires high-performance hardware. It has been hypothesized that massively parallel designs, which avoid von Neumann architecture, could provide a significant performance boost. Such designs can advantageously use memristive switches. This paper discusses a two-stage design that implements the induced ordered weighted average (IOWA) method for pattern matching. We outline the circuit structure and discuss how a functioning circuit can be achieved using metal oxide devices. We describe our simulations of memristive circuits and illustrate their performance on a vowel classification task.
Graphical models and point pattern matching.
Caetano, Tibério S; Caelli, Terry; Schuurmans, Dale; Barone, Dante A C
2006-10-01
This paper describes a novel solution to the rigid point pattern matching problem in Euclidean spaces of any dimension. Although we assume rigid motion, jitter is allowed. We present a noniterative, polynomial time algorithm that is guaranteed to find an optimal solution for the noiseless case. First, we model point pattern matching as a weighted graph matching problem, where weights correspond to Euclidean distances between nodes. We then formulate graph matching as a problem of finding a maximum probability configuration in a graphical model. By using graph rigidity arguments, we prove that a sparse graphical model yields equivalent results to the fully connected model in the noiseless case. This allows us to obtain an algorithm that runs in polynomial time and is provably optimal for exact matching between noiseless point sets. For inexact matching, we can still apply the same algorithm to find approximately optimal solutions. Experimental results obtained by our approach show improvements in accuracy over current methods, particularly when matching patterns of different sizes.
Incremental pattern matching for regular expressions
Jalali, Arash; Ghamarian, Amir Hossein; Rensink, Arend; Fish, Andrew; Lambers, Leen
2012-01-01
Graph pattern matching lies at the heart of any graph transformation-based system. Incremental pattern matching is one approach proposed for reducingthe overall cost of pattern matching over successive transformations by preserving the matches that stay relevant after a rule application. An importan
Fuzzy automata and pattern matching
Setzer, C. B.; Warsi, N. A.
1986-01-01
A wide-ranging search for articles and books concerned with fuzzy automata and syntactic pattern recognition is presented. A number of survey articles on image processing and feature detection were included. Hough's algorithm is presented to illustrate the way in which knowledge about an image can be used to interpret the details of the image. It was found that in hand generated pictures, the algorithm worked well on following the straight lines, but had great difficulty turning corners. An algorithm was developed which produces a minimal finite automaton recognizing a given finite set of strings. One difficulty of the construction is that, in some cases, this minimal automaton is not unique for a given set of strings and a given maximum length. This algorithm compares favorably with other inference algorithms. More importantly, the algorithm produces an automaton with a rigorously described relationship to the original set of strings that does not depend on the algorithm itself.
Maximum Bipartite Matching Size And Application to Cuckoo Hashing
Kanizo, Yossi; Keslassy, Isaac
2010-01-01
Cuckoo hashing with a stash is a robust high-performance hashing scheme that can be used in many real-life applications. It complements cuckoo hashing by adding a small stash storing the elements that cannot fit into the main hash table due to collisions. However, the exact required size of the stash and the tradeoff between its size and the memory over-provisioning of the hash table are still unknown. We settle this question by investigating the equivalent maximum matching size of a random bipartite graph, with a constant left-side vertex degree $d=2$. Specifically, we provide an exact expression for the expected maximum matching size and show that its actual size is close to its mean, with high probability. This result relies on decomposing the bipartite graph into connected components, and then separately evaluating the distribution of the matching size in each of these components. In particular, we provide an exact expression for any finite bipartite graph size and also deduce asymptotic results as the nu...
Pattern Matching, Searching, and Heuristics in Algebra.
Lopez, Antonio M.
1996-01-01
Presents a methodology designed to strengthen the cognitive effects of using graphing calculators to solve polynomial equations using pattern matching, searching, and heuristics. Discusses pattern matching as a problem-solving strategy useful in the physical, social, political, and economic worlds of today's students. (DDR)
Lazy AC-Pattern Matching for Rewriting
Walid Belkhir; Alain Giorgetti
2012-01-01
We define a lazy pattern-matching mechanism modulo associativity and commutativity. The solutions of a pattern-matching problem are stored in a lazy list composed of a first substitution at the head and a non-evaluated object that encodes the remaining computations. We integrate the lazy AC-matching in a strategy language: rewriting rule and strategy application produce a lazy list of terms.
Lazy AC-Pattern Matching for Rewriting
Walid Belkhir
2012-04-01
Full Text Available We define a lazy pattern-matching mechanism modulo associativity and commutativity. The solutions of a pattern-matching problem are stored in a lazy list composed of a first substitution at the head and a non-evaluated object that encodes the remaining computations. We integrate the lazy AC-matching in a strategy language: rewriting rule and strategy application produce a lazy list of terms.
AN EVEN ODD MULTIPLE PATTERN MATCHING ALGORITHM
Raju Bhukya,
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Pattern matching plays an important role in various applications ranging from text searching in word processors to identification of functional and structural behavior in proteins and genes. Pattern matching is one of the fundamental areas in the field of computational biology. Currently research in life science area is producing large amount of genetic data. Due to this large and use full information can be gained by finding valuable information available from the genomic sequences. Many algorithms have been proposed but more efficient and robust methods are needed for the multiple pattern matching algorithms for better use. We introduce a new indexing technique called an Index based even odd multiple pattern matching, which gives very good performance when compared with some of the existing popular algorithms. The current technique avoids unnecessary DNA comparisons as a result the number of comparisons and CPC ratio gradually decreases and overall performance increases accordingly.
AN EVEN ODD MULTIPLE PATTERN MATCHING ALGORITHM
Raju Bhukya; DVLN Somayajulu
2011-01-01
Pattern matching plays an important role in various applications ranging from text searching in word processors to identification of functional and structural behavior in proteins and genes. Pattern matching is one of the fundamental areas in the field of computational biology. Currently research in life science area is producing large amount of genetic data. Due to this large and use full information can be gained by finding valuable information available from the genomic sequences. Many alg...
Design Pattern Mining Using Graph Matching
LI Qing-hua; ZHANG Zhi-xiang; BEN Ke-rong
2004-01-01
The identification of design pattern instances is important for program understanding and software maintenance. Aiming at the mining of design patterns in existing systems, this paper proposes a sub-graph isomorphism approach to discover several design patterns in a legacy system at a time. The attributed relational graph is used to describe design patterns and legacy systems. The sub-graph isomorphism approach consists of decomposition and composition process. During the decomposition process, graphs corresponding to the design patterns are decomposed into sub-graphs, some of which are graphs corresponding to the elemental design patterns. The composition process tries to get sub-graph isomorphism of the matched graph if sub-graph isomorphism of each sub-graph is obtained. Due to the common structures between design patterns, the proposed approach can reduce the matching times of entities and relations. Compared with the existing methods, the proposed algorithm is not linearly dependent on the number of design pattern graphs.
A review on compressed pattern matching
Surya Prakash Mishra
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Compressed pattern matching (CPM refers to the task of locating all the occurrences of a pattern (or set of patterns inside the body of compressed text. In this type of matching, pattern may or may not be compressed. CPM is very useful in handling large volume of data especially over the network. It has many applications in computational biology, where it is useful in finding similar trends in DNA sequences; intrusion detection over the networks, big data analytics etc. Various solutions have been provided by researchers where pattern is matched directly over the uncompressed text. Such solution requires lot of space and consumes lot of time when handling the big data. Various researchers have proposed the efficient solutions for compression but very few exist for pattern matching over the compressed text. Considering the future trend where data size is increasing exponentially day-by-day, CPM has become a desirable task. This paper presents a critical review on the recent techniques on the compressed pattern matching. The covered techniques includes: Word based Huffman codes, Word Based Tagged Codes; Wavelet Tree Based Indexing. We have presented a comparative analysis of all the techniques mentioned above and highlighted their advantages and disadvantages.
New multi-pattern matching algorithm
Liu Gongshen; Li Jianhua; Li Shenghong
2006-01-01
The traditional multiple pattern matching algorithm, deterministic finite state automata, is implemented by tree structure. A new algorithm is proposed by substituting sequential binary tree for traditional tree. It is proved by experiment that the algorithm has three features: its construction process is quick, its cost of memory is small. At the same time, its searching process is as quick as the traditional algorithm. The algorithm is suitable for the application which requires preprocessing the patterns dynamically.
Generating a Pattern Matching Compiler by Partial Evaluation
Jørgensen, Knud Jesper
1991-01-01
Datalogi, partial Evaluation, Compiling, denotational Semantics, Pattern Matching, Semantic directed Compiler Generation......Datalogi, partial Evaluation, Compiling, denotational Semantics, Pattern Matching, Semantic directed Compiler Generation...
A bayesian approach to deformed pattern matching of iris images.
Thornton, Jason; Savvides, Marios; Vijaya Kumar, B V K
2007-04-01
We describe a general probabilistic framework for matching patterns that experience in-plane nonlinear deformations, such as iris patterns. Given a pair of images, we derive a maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) estimate of the parameters of the relative deformation between them. Our estimation process accomplishes two things simultaneously: It normalizes for pattern warping and it returns a distortion-tolerant similarity metric which can be used for matching two nonlinearly deformed image patterns. The prior probability of the deformation parameters is specific to the pattern-type and, therefore, should result in more accurate matching than an arbitrary general distribution. We show that the proposed method is very well suited for handling iris biometrics, applying it to two databases of iris images which contain real instances of warped patterns. We demonstrate a significant improvement in matching accuracy using the proposed deformed Bayesian matching methodology. We also show that the additional computation required to estimate the deformation is relatively inexpensive, making it suitable for real-time applications.
Space Lower Bounds for Online Pattern Matching
Clifford, Raphael; Porat, Ely; Sach, Benjamin
2011-01-01
We present space lower bounds for online pattern matching under a number of different distance measures. Given a pattern of length m and a text that arrives one character at a time, the online pattern matching problem is to report the distance between the pattern and a sliding window of the text as soon as the new character arrives. We require that the correct answer is given at each position with constant probability. We give Omega(m) bit space lower bounds for L_1, L_2, L_\\infty, Hamming, edit and swap distances as well as for any algorithm that computes the cross-correlation/convolution. We then show a dichotomy between distance functions that have wildcard-like properties and those that do not. In the former case which includes, as an example, pattern matching with character classes, we give Omega(m) bit space lower bounds. For other distance functions, we show that there exist space bounds of Omega(log m) and O(log^2 m) bits. Finally we discuss space lower bounds for non-binary inputs and show how in som...
Pattern formation, logistics, and maximum path probability
Kirkaldy, J. S.
1985-05-01
The concept of pattern formation, which to current researchers is a synonym for self-organization, carries the connotation of deductive logic together with the process of spontaneous inference. Defining a pattern as an equivalence relation on a set of thermodynamic objects, we establish that a large class of irreversible pattern-forming systems, evolving along idealized quasisteady paths, approaches the stable steady state as a mapping upon the formal deductive imperatives of a propositional function calculus. In the preamble the classical reversible thermodynamics of composite systems is analyzed as an externally manipulated system of space partitioning and classification based on ideal enclosures and diaphragms. The diaphragms have discrete classification capabilities which are designated in relation to conserved quantities by descriptors such as impervious, diathermal, and adiabatic. Differentiability in the continuum thermodynamic calculus is invoked as equivalent to analyticity and consistency in the underlying class or sentential calculus. The seat of inference, however, rests with the thermodynamicist. In the transition to an irreversible pattern-forming system the defined nature of the composite reservoirs remains, but a given diaphragm is replaced by a pattern-forming system which by its nature is a spontaneously evolving volume partitioner and classifier of invariants. The seat of volition or inference for the classification system is thus transferred from the experimenter or theoretician to the diaphragm, and with it the full deductive facility. The equivalence relations or partitions associated with the emerging patterns may thus be associated with theorems of the natural pattern-forming calculus. The entropy function, together with its derivatives, is the vehicle which relates the logistics of reservoirs and diaphragms to the analog logistics of the continuum. Maximum path probability or second-order differentiability of the entropy in isolation are
High performance pattern matching on heterogeneous platform.
Soroushnia, Shima; Daneshtalab, Masoud; Plosila, Juha; Pahikkala, Tapio; Liljeberg, Pasi
2014-10-23
Pattern discovery is one of the fundamental tasks in bioinformatics and pattern recognition is a powerful technique for searching sequence patterns in the biological sequence databases. Fast and high performance algorithms are highly demanded in many applications in bioinformatics and computational molecular biology since the significant increase in the number of DNA and protein sequences expand the need for raising the performance of pattern matching algorithms. For this purpose, heterogeneous architectures can be a good choice due to their potential for high performance and energy efficiency. In this paper we present an efficient implementation of Aho-Corasick (AC) which is a well known exact pattern matching algorithm with linear complexity, and Parallel Failureless Aho-Corasick (PFAC) algorithm which is the massively parallelized version of AC algorithm without failure transitions, on a heterogeneous CPU/GPU architecture. We progressively redesigned the algorithms and data structures to fit on the GPU architecture. Our results on different protein sequence data sets show that the new implementation runs 15 times faster compared to the original implementation of the PFAC algorithm.
Multiple Pattern Matching Algorithm using Pair-count
Raju Bhukya; D. V. L. N. Somayajulu
2011-01-01
Pattern matching occurs in various applications, ranging from simple text searching in word processors to identification of common motifs in DNA sequences in computational biology. The problem of exact pattern matching has been well studied and a number of efficient algorithms already exist. However these exact pattern matching algorithms are of little help when they are applied to finding patterns in DNA sequences. Pattern matching in a DNA sequence or pattern searching from a large data bas...
Pattern Matching, Validity, and Conceptualization in Program Evaluation,
Trochim, Wilham M. K.
1985-01-01
Two quasiexperimental designs--nonequivalent dependent variable and reversed treatment designs--illustrate pattern matching logic as a basis for evaluation, examining college health services. Three pattern matches are significant: (1) program pattern match indicates implementation; (2) measurement match assesses test validity; and (3) effect…
Maximum Matchings of a Digraph Based on the Largest Geometric Multiplicity
Yunyun Yang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Matching theory is one of the most forefront issues of graph theory. Based on the largest geometric multiplicity, we develop an efficient approach to identify maximum matchings in a digraph. For a given digraph, it has been proved that the number of maximum matched nodes has close relationship with the largest geometric multiplicity of the transpose of the adjacency matrix. Moreover, through fundamental column transformations, we can obtain the matched nodes and related matching edges. In particular, when a digraph contains a cycle factor, the largest geometric multiplicity is equal to one. In this case, the maximum matching is a perfect matching and each node in the digraph is a matched node. The method is validated by an example.
Structural pattern matching of nonribosomal peptides
Leclère Valérie
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonribosomal peptides (NRPs, bioactive secondary metabolites produced by many microorganisms, show a broad range of important biological activities (e.g. antibiotics, immunosuppressants, antitumor agents. NRPs are mainly composed of amino acids but their primary structure is not always linear and can contain cycles or branchings. Furthermore, there are several hundred different monomers that can be incorporated into NRPs. The NORINE database, the first resource entirely dedicated to NRPs, currently stores more than 700 NRPs annotated with their monomeric peptide structure encoded by undirected labeled graphs. This opens a way to a systematic analysis of structural patterns occurring in NRPs. Such studies can investigate the functional role of some monomeric chains, or analyse NRPs that have been computationally predicted from the synthetase protein sequence. A basic operation in such analyses is the search for a given structural pattern in the database. Results We developed an efficient method that allows for a quick search for a structural pattern in the NORINE database. The method identifies all peptides containing a pattern substructure of a given size. This amounts to solving a variant of the maximum common subgraph problem on pattern and peptide graphs, which is done by computing cliques in an appropriate compatibility graph. Conclusion The method has been incorporated into the NORINE database, available at http://bioinfo.lifl.fr/norine. Less than one second is needed to search for a pattern in the entire database.
An Index Based Skip Search Multiple Pattern Matching Algorithm
Raju Bhukya; Balram Parmer,; Anand Kulkarni
2011-01-01
DNA Pattern matching, the problem of finding sub sequences within a long DNA sequence has many applications in computational biology. As the sequences can be long, matching can be an expensive operation, especially as approximate matching is allowed. Searching DNA related data is a common activity for molecular biologists. In this paper we explore the applicability of a new pattern matching technique called Index based Skip Search Multiple Pattern matching algorithm (ISMPM), for DNA sequences...
Manifold Matching for High-Dimensional Pattern Recognition
HOTTA, Seiji
2008-01-01
In this chapter manifold matching for high-dimensional pattern classification was described. The topics described in this chapter were summarized as follows: The meaning and effectiveness of manifold matching The similarity between various classifiers from the point of view of manifold matching Accuracy improvement for manifold matching Learning rules for manifold matching Experimental results on handwritten digit datasets showed that manifold matching achieved lower error rates than other cl...
Jun He; Xin Yao
2004-01-01
Most of works on the time complexity analysis of evolutionary algorithms have always focused on some artificial binary problems.The time complexity of the algorithms for combinatorial optimisation has not been well understood.This paper considers the time complexity of an evolutionary algorithm for a classical combinatorial optimisation problem,to find the maximum cardinality matching in a graph.It is shown that the evolutionary algorithm can produce a matching with nearly maximum cardinality in average polynomial time.
Minutiae matching using local pattern features
Jędryka, Marcin; Wawrzyniak, Zbigniew
2008-01-01
This paper concerns algorithms related to analysis of fingerprint images in area of minutiae matching. Proposed solutions make use of information about minutiae detected from a fingerprint as well as information about main first order singularities. The use of first order singularities as a reference point makes algorithm of minutiae matching more efficient and faster in execution. Proposed algorithms concern efficient detection of main singularity in a fingerprint as well as optimization of minutiae matching in polar coordinates using main singularity as a reference point. Minutiae matching algorithm is based on string matching using Levenstein distance. Detection of first order singularities is optimized using Poincare's index and analysis of directional image of a fingerprint. Proposed solutions showed to be efficient and fast in practical use. Implemented algorithms were tested on previously prepared fingerprint datasets.
Performance Evaluation of Full Search Equivalent Pattern Matching Algorithms.
Wanli Ouyang; Tombari, F; Mattoccia, S; Di Stefano, L; Wai-Kuen Cham
2012-01-01
Pattern matching is widely used in signal processing, computer vision, and image and video processing. Full search equivalent algorithms accelerate the pattern matching process and, in the meantime, yield exactly the same result as the full search. This paper proposes an analysis and comparison of state-of-the-art algorithms for full search equivalent pattern matching. Our intention is that the data sets and tests used in our evaluation will be a benchmark for testing future pattern matching algorithms, and that the analysis concerning state-of-the-art algorithms could inspire new fast algorithms. We also propose extensions of the evaluated algorithms and show that they outperform the original formulations.
Maximum super angle optimization method for array antenna pattern synthesis
Wu, Ji; Roederer, A. G
1991-01-01
Different optimization criteria related to antenna pattern synthesis are discussed. Based on the maximum criteria and vector space representation, a simple and efficient optimization method is presented for array and array fed reflector power pattern synthesis. A sector pattern synthesized by a 20...
High Performance Embedded System for Real-Time Pattern Matching
Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; The ATLAS collaboration; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Citraro, Saverio; Giannetti, Paola; Dell'Orso, Mauro
2016-01-01
In this paper we present an innovative and high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching. This system is based on the evolution of hardware and algorithms developed for the field of High Energy Physics (HEP) and more specifically for the execution of extremely fast pattern matching for tracking of particles produced by proton-proton collisions in hadron collider experiments. A miniaturised version of this complex system is being developed for pattern matching in generic image processing applications. The system works as a contour identifier able to extract the salient features of an image. It is based on the principles of cognitive image processing, which means that it executes fast pattern matching and data reduction mimicking the operation of the human brain. The pattern matching can be executed by a custom designed Associative Memory (AM) chip. The reference patterns are chosen by a complex training algorithm implemented on an FPGA device. Post processing algorithms (e.g. pixel clustering...
2-Jump DNA Search Multiple Pattern Matching Algorithm
Raju Bhukya; D. V. L. N. Somayajulu
2011-01-01
Pattern matching in a DNA sequence or searching a pattern from a large data base is a major research area in computational biology. To extract pattern match from a large sequence it takes more time, in order to reduce searching time we have proposed an approach that reduces the search time with accurate retrieval of the matched pattern in the sequence. As performance plays a major role in extracting patterns from a given DNA sequence or from a database independent of the size of the sequence....
Point pattern matching based on kernel partial least squares
Weidong Yan; Zheng Tian; Lulu Pan; Jinhuan Wen
2011-01-01
@@ Point pattern matching is an essential step in many image processing applications. This letter investigates the spectral approaches of point pattern matching, and presents a spectral feature matching algorithm based on kernel partial least squares (KPLS). Given the feature points of two images, we define position similarity matrices for the reference and sensed images, and extract the pattern vectors from the matrices using KPLS, which indicate the geometric distribution and the inner relationships of the feature points.Feature points matching are done using the bipartite graph matching method. Experiments conducted on both synthetic and real-world data demonstrate the robustness and invariance of the algorithm.%Point pattern matching is an essential step in many image processing applications. This letter investigates the spectral approaches of point pattern matching, and presents a spectral feature matching algorithm based on kernel partial least squares (KPLS). Given the feature points of two images, we define position similarity matrices for the reference and sensed images, and extract the pattern vectors from the matrices using KPLS, which indicate the geometric distribution and the inner relationships of the feature points.Feature points matching are done using the bipartite graph matching method. Experiments conducted on both synthetic and real-world data demonstrate the robustness and invariance of the algorithm.
Bibliographic Pattern Matching Using the ICL Distributed Array Processor.
Carroll, David M.; And Others
1988-01-01
Describes the use of a highly parallel array processor for pattern matching operations in a bibliographic retrieval system. The discussion covers the hardware and software features of the processor, the pattern matching algorithm used, and the results of experimental tests of the system. (37 references) (Author/CLB)
Prediction of interconnect delay variations using pattern matching
Chin, Eric Y.; Holwill, Juliet A.; Neureuther, Andrew R.
2007-03-01
An exploratory Process Variation Net Scanning (PVNS) approach to estimate interconnect delay variations is presented. It is shown that the geometrical response of lithographic nonidealities can be quickly predicted to first order with Pattern Matching. This concept can be extended to other process nonidealities by developing Maximum Lateral Impact Functions to capture the effects of variations in conductor sidewall angle and thickness from etch and CMP processes. The geometrical response for each variation can then be used to model the effective change in resistance and capacitance and perturb the corresponding values in the extracted netlist. The impact of PVNS is demonstrated using a 90nm digital design, and the runtime analysis indicates that this approach may potentially be twice as fast as traditional extraction. This allows for fast electrical analysis of independent process variations on different interconnect layers instead of traditional best and worst case corner analyses.
A thermoelectric generator using loop heat pipe and design match for maximum-power generation
Huang, Bin-Juine
2015-09-05
The present study focuses on the thermoelectric generator (TEG) using loop heat pipe (LHP) and design match for maximum-power generation. The TEG uses loop heat pipe, a passive cooling device, to dissipate heat without consuming power and free of noise. The experiments for a TEG with 4W rated power show that the LHP performs very well with overall thermal resistance 0.35 K W-1, from the cold side of TEG module to the ambient. The LHP is able to dissipate heat up to 110W and is maintenance free. The TEG design match for maximum-power generation, called “near maximum-power point operation (nMPPO)”, is studied to eliminate the MPPT (maximum-power point tracking controller). nMPPO is simply a system design which properly matches the output voltage of TEG with the battery. It is experimentally shown that TEG using design match for maximum-power generation (nMPPO) performs better than TEG with MPPT.
Multi-pattern Matching Methods Based on Numerical Computation
Lu Jun
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Multi-pattern matching methods based on numerical computation are advanced in this paper. Firstly it advanced the multiple patterns matching algorithm based on added information. In the process of accumulating of information, the select method of byte-accumulate operation will affect the collision odds , which means that the methods or bytes involved in the different matching steps should have greater differences as much as possible. In addition, it can use balanced binary tree to manage index to reduce the average searching times, and use the characteristics of a given pattern set by setting the collision field to eliminate collision further. In order to reduce the collision odds in the initial step, the information splicing method is advanced, which has greater value space than added information method, thus greatly reducing the initial collision odds. Multiple patterns matching methods based on numerical computation fits for large multi-pattern matching.
Fast Orthogonal Haar Transform Pattern Matching via Image Square Sum.
Li, Yujian; Li, Houjun; Cai, Zhi
2014-09-01
Although using image strip sum, an orthogonal Haar transform (OHT) pattern matching algorithm may have good performance, it requires three subtractions to calculate each Haar projection value on the sliding windows. By establishing a solid mathematical foundation for OHT, this paper based on the concept of image square sum, proposes a novel fast orthogonal Haar transform (FOHT) pattern matching algorithm, from which a Haar projection value can be obtained by only one subtraction. Thus, higher speed-ups can be achieved, while producing the same results with the full search pattern matching. A large number of experiments show that the speed-ups of FOHT are very competitive with OHT in most cases of matching one single pattern, and generally higher than OHT in all cases of matching multiple patterns, exceeding other high-level full search equivalent algorithms.
High performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching
Sotiropoulou, C.-L.; Luciano, P.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Citraro, S.; Giannetti, P.; Dell'Orso, M.
2017-02-01
In this paper we present an innovative and high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching. This system is based on the evolution of hardware and algorithms developed for the field of High Energy Physics and more specifically for the execution of extremely fast pattern matching for tracking of particles produced by proton-proton collisions in hadron collider experiments. A miniaturized version of this complex system is being developed for pattern matching in generic image processing applications. The system works as a contour identifier able to extract the salient features of an image. It is based on the principles of cognitive image processing, which means that it executes fast pattern matching and data reduction mimicking the operation of the human brain. The pattern matching can be executed by a custom designed Associative Memory chip. The reference patterns are chosen by a complex training algorithm implemented on an FPGA device. Post processing algorithms (e.g. pixel clustering) are also implemented on the FPGA. The pattern matching can be executed on a 2D or 3D space, on black and white or grayscale images, depending on the application and thus increasing exponentially the processing requirements of the system. We present the firmware implementation of the training and pattern matching algorithm, performance and results on a latest generation Xilinx Kintex Ultrascale FPGA device.
A Single Pattern Matching Algorithm Based on Character Frequency
无
2003-01-01
Based on the study of single pattern matching, MBF algorithm is proposed by imitating the string searching procedure of human. The algorithm preprocesses the pattern by using the idea of Quick Search algorithm and the already-matched pattern psefix and suffix information. In searching phase, the algorithm makes use of the!character using frequency and the continue-skip idea. The experiment shows that MBF algorithm is more efficient than other algorithms.
Multiple Pattern Matching Algorithm using Pair-count
Raju Bhukya
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Pattern matching occurs in various applications, ranging from simple text searching in word processors to identification of common motifs in DNA sequences in computational biology. The problem of exact pattern matching has been well studied and a number of efficient algorithms already exist. However these exact pattern matching algorithms are of little help when they are applied to finding patterns in DNA sequences. Pattern matching in a DNA sequence or pattern searching from a large data base is a major research area in computational biology. To extract pattern from a large sequence it takes more time, in order to reduce searching time we have proposed an approach that reduces the search time with accurate retrieval of the matched pattern from the given sequence of any size of a file. Executing patterns from a large DNA or protein data is a computationally intensive task. As performance plays a major role in extracting patterns from a given DNA sequence or from a large database independent of the size of the sequence. More efficient approaches related to multiple pattern matching techniques are becoming more important for finding the functional as well as the structural properties of the proteins and genes. One of the major problems in genomic field is to perform pattern comparison on DNA and protein sequences. In the current approach we explore a new technique which avoids unnecessary comparisons in the DNA sequence and gives the accurate retrieval of the pattern called a multiple pattern matching algorithm using pair count. The proposed technique gives very good performance related to DNA sequence analysis for querying of publicly available genome sequence data. By using this method the number of comparisons gradually decreases and comparison per character ratio of the proposed algorithm reduces accordingly when compared to the some of the existing popular methods. The experimental results show that there is considerable amount of performance
Rewrite Systems, Pattern Matching, and Code Generation
1988-06-09
iii 2 5 7 17 23 28 29 29 30 34 47 49 50 51 52 55 56 58 61 63 66 70 71 71 73 73...Transformations Quicn a bucn arbol se anima, buena sombra le cobija1 [Old Spanish Saying] 1 Trees arc hierarchical mathematical objects. Their...there are three nullary operators a, b, and c. The B-fsa is the same as in Figure 2.2. 50 Pattern Set: + + /\\ A * z X * 1\\ 1\\ XY YZ Sub
Assessing Risk in Chemical Plant with Pattern Matching
无
2002-01-01
This paper discusses potential application of fuzzy set theory, more specifically, pattern matching, in assessing risk in chemical plants. Risk factors have been evaluated using linguistic representations of the quantity of the hazardous substance involved, its frequency of interaction with the environment, severity of its impact and the uncertainty involved in its detection in advance. For each linguistic value there is a corresponding membership function ranging over a universe of discourse. The risk scenario created by a hazard/hazardous situation having highest degree of featural value is taken as the known pattern. Each sample pattern of hazard/hazardous situation with their known featural values is then matched with the known pattern. The concept of multifeature pattern matching based on fuzzy logic is used to derive the rank ordering of process hazards. In multifeature pattern recognition/matching, a sample pattern is compared to a number of known data patterns or a known pattern is compared to a number of sample data patterns. The process assesses which known pattern resembles most closely data sample using Wang's approaching degree method. A methodology has been developed and the same has been exemplified by presenting a case example with a limited number of hazards.
High Performance Embedded System for Real-Time Pattern Matching
Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; The ATLAS collaboration; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Citraro, Saverio; Giannetti, Paola; Dell'Orso, Mauro
2016-01-01
We present an innovative and high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching. This system is based on the evolution of hardware and algorithms developed for the field of High Energy Physics (HEP) and more specifically for the execution of extremely fast pattern matching for tracking of particles produced by proton-proton collisions in hadron collider experiments. A miniaturized version of this complex system is being developed for pattern matching in generic image processing applications. The design uses the flexibility of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) and the powerful Associative Memory Chip (ASIC) to achieve real-time performance. The system works as a contour identifier able to extract the salient features of an image. It is based on the principles of cognitive image processing, which means that it executes fast pattern matching and data reduction mimicking the operation of the human brain.
Maximum Entropy Threshold Segmentation for Target Matching Using Speeded-Up Robust Features
Mu Zhou
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a 2-dimensional (2D maximum entropy threshold segmentation (2DMETS based speeded-up robust features (SURF approach for image target matching. First of all, based on the gray level of each pixel and the average gray level of its neighboring pixels, we construct a 2D gray histogram. Second, by the target and background segmentation, we localize the feature points at the interest points which have the local extremum of box filter responses. Third, from the 2D Haar wavelet responses, we generate the 64-dimensional (64D feature point descriptor vectors. Finally, we perform the target matching according to the comparisons of the 64D feature point descriptor vectors. Experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively enhance the target matching performance, as well as preserving the real-time capacity.
Maximum Matchings in Random Bipartite Graphs and the Space Utilization of Cuckoo Hashtables
Frieze, Alan
2009-01-01
We study the the following question in Random Graphs. We are given two disjoint sets $L,R$ with $|L|=n=\\alpha m$ and $|R|=m$. We construct a random graph $G$ by allowing each $x\\in L$ to choose $d$ random neighbours in $R$. The question discussed is as to the size $\\mu(G)$ of the largest matching in $G$. When considered in the context of Cuckoo Hashing, one key question is as to when is $\\mu(G)=n$ whp? We answer this question exactly when $d$ is at least four. We also establish a precise threshold for when Phase 1 of the Karp-Sipser Greedy matching algorithm suffices to compute a maximum matching whp.
Betting on Illusory Patterns: Probability Matching in Habitual Gamblers.
Gaissmaier, Wolfgang; Wilke, Andreas; Scheibehenne, Benjamin; McCanney, Paige; Barrett, H Clark
2016-03-01
Why do people gamble? A large body of research suggests that cognitive distortions play an important role in pathological gambling. Many of these distortions are specific cases of a more general misperception of randomness, specifically of an illusory perception of patterns in random sequences. In this article, we provide further evidence for the assumption that gamblers are particularly prone to perceiving illusory patterns. In particular, we compared habitual gamblers to a matched sample of community members with regard to how much they exhibit the choice anomaly 'probability matching'. Probability matching describes the tendency to match response proportions to outcome probabilities when predicting binary outcomes. It leads to a lower expected accuracy than the maximizing strategy of predicting the most likely event on each trial. Previous research has shown that an illusory perception of patterns in random sequences fuels probability matching. So does impulsivity, which is also reported to be higher in gamblers. We therefore hypothesized that gamblers will exhibit more probability matching than non-gamblers, which was confirmed in a controlled laboratory experiment. Additionally, gamblers scored much lower than community members on the cognitive reflection task, which indicates higher impulsivity. This difference could account for the difference in probability matching between the samples. These results suggest that gamblers are more willing to bet impulsively on perceived illusory patterns.
Local Exact Pattern Matching for Non-Fixed RNA Structures.
Amit, Mika; Backofen, Rolf; Heyne, Steffen; Landau, Gad M; Möhl, Mathias; Otto, Christina; Will, Sebastian
2014-01-01
Detecting local common sequence-structure regions of RNAs is a biologically important problem. Detecting such regions allows biologists to identify functionally relevant similarities between the inspected molecules. We developed dynamic programming algorithms for finding common structure-sequence patterns between two RNAs. The RNAs are given by their sequence and a set of potential base pairs with associated probabilities. In contrast to prior work on local pattern matching of RNAs, we support the breaking of arcs. This allows us to add flexibility over matching only fixed structures; potentially matching only a similar subset of specified base pairs. We present an O(n(3)) algorithm for local exact pattern matching between two nested RNAs, and an O(n(3) log n) algorithm for one nested RNA and one bounded-unlimited RNA. In addition, an algorithm for approximate pattern matching is introduced that for two given nested RNAs and a number k, finds the maximal local pattern matching score between the two RNAs with at most k mismatches in O(n(3)k(2)) time. Finally, we present an O(n(3)) algorithm for finding the most similar subforest between two nested RNAs.
Lu Chunyan; Zou Huanxin; Zhao Jian; Zhou Shilin
2012-01-01
Most of the Point Pattern Matching (PPM) algorithm performs poorly when the noise of the point's position and outliers exist.This paper presents a novel and robust PPM algorithm which combined Point Pair Topological Characteristics (PPTC) and Spectral Matching (SM) together to solve the afore mentioned issues.In which PPTC,a new shape descriptor,is firstly proposed.A new comparability measurement based on PPTC is defined as the matching probability.Finally,the correct matching results are achieved by the spectral matching method.The synthetic data experiments show its robustness by comparing with the other state-of-art algorithms and the real world data experiments show its effectiveness.
Using maximum topology matching to explore differences in species distribution models
Poco, Jorge; Doraiswamy, Harish; Talbert, Marian K.; Morisette, Jeffrey; Silva, Claudio
2015-01-01
Species distribution models (SDM) are used to help understand what drives the distribution of various plant and animal species. These models are typically high dimensional scalar functions, where the dimensions of the domain correspond to predictor variables of the model algorithm. Understanding and exploring the differences between models help ecologists understand areas where their data or understanding of the system is incomplete and will help guide further investigation in these regions. These differences can also indicate an important source of model to model uncertainty. However, it is cumbersome and often impractical to perform this analysis using existing tools, which allows for manual exploration of the models usually as 1-dimensional curves. In this paper, we propose a topology-based framework to help ecologists explore the differences in various SDMs directly in the high dimensional domain. In order to accomplish this, we introduce the concept of maximum topology matching that computes a locality-aware correspondence between similar extrema of two scalar functions. The matching is then used to compute the similarity between two functions. We also design a visualization interface that allows ecologists to explore SDMs using their topological features and to study the differences between pairs of models found using maximum topological matching. We demonstrate the utility of the proposed framework through several use cases using different data sets and report the feedback obtained from ecologists.
Kangaroo – A pattern-matching program for biological sequences
Betel Doron
2002-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologists are often interested in performing a simple database search to identify proteins or genes that contain a well-defined sequence pattern. Many databases do not provide straightforward or readily available query tools to perform simple searches, such as identifying transcription binding sites, protein motifs, or repetitive DNA sequences. However, in many cases simple pattern-matching searches can reveal a wealth of information. We present in this paper a regular expression pattern-matching tool that was used to identify short repetitive DNA sequences in human coding regions for the purpose of identifying potential mutation sites in mismatch repair deficient cells. Results Kangaroo is a web-based regular expression pattern-matching program that can search for patterns in DNA, protein, or coding region sequences in ten different organisms. The program is implemented to facilitate a wide range of queries with no restriction on the length or complexity of the query expression. The program is accessible on the web at http://bioinfo.mshri.on.ca/kangaroo/ and the source code is freely distributed at http://sourceforge.net/projects/slritools/. Conclusion A low-level simple pattern-matching application can prove to be a useful tool in many research settings. For example, Kangaroo was used to identify potential genetic targets in a human colorectal cancer variant that is characterized by a high frequency of mutations in coding regions containing mononucleotide repeats.
Investigative Simulation: Towards Utilizing Graph Pattern Matching for Investigative Search
Hung, Benjamin W K
2016-01-01
This paper proposes the use of graph pattern matching for investigative graph search, which is the process of searching for and prioritizing persons of interest who may exhibit part or all of a pattern of suspicious behaviors or connections. While there are a variety of applications, our principal motivation is to aid law enforcement in the detection of homegrown violent extremists. We introduce investigative simulation, which consists of several necessary extensions to the existing dual simulation graph pattern matching scheme in order to make it appropriate for intelligence analysts and law enforcement officials. Specifically, we impose a categorical label structure on nodes consistent with the nature of indicators in investigations, as well as prune or complete search results to ensure sensibility and usefulness of partial matches to analysts. Lastly, we introduce a natural top-k ranking scheme that can help analysts prioritize investigative efforts. We demonstrate performance of investigative simulation o...
Typed and unambiguous pattern matching on strings using regular expressions
Brabrand, Claus; Thomsen, Jakob G.
2010-01-01
We show how to achieve typed and unambiguous declarative pattern matching on strings using regular expressions extended with a simple recording operator. We give a characterization of ambiguity of regular expressions that leads to a sound and complete static analysis. The analysis is capable...... of pinpointing all ambiguities in terms of the structure of the regular expression and report shortest ambiguous strings. We also show how pattern matching can be integrated into statically typed programming languages for deconstructing strings and reproducing typed and structured values. We validate our...... approach by giving a full implementation of the approach presented in this paper. The resulting tool, reg-exp-rec, adds typed and unambiguous pattern matching to Java in a stand-alone and non-intrusive manner. We evaluate the approach using several realistic examples....
ExpFinder: Finding experts by graph pattern matching
Fan, Wenfei; Wang, Xin; Wu, Yinghui
2013-01-01
We present ExpFinder, a system for finding experts in social networks based on graph pattern matching. We demonstrate (1) how ExpFinder identifies top-K experts in a social network by supporting bounded simulation of graph patterns, and by ranking the matches based on a metric for social impact; (2) how it copes with the sheer size of real-life social graphs by supporting incremental query evaluation and query preserving graph compression, and (3) how the GUI of ExpFinder interacts with users...
Emergency Response Transport Forecasting Using Historical Wind Field Pattern Matching.
Carter, Roger G.; Keislar, Robert E.
2000-03-01
Historical pattern matching, or analog forecasting, is used to generate short-term mesoscale transport forecasts for emergency response at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. A simple historical pattern-matching algorithm operating on a database from the spatially and temporally dense Eastern Idaho Mesonet is used to generate a wind field forecast, which then is input to an existing puff diffusion model. The forecasts are rated both by a team of meteorologists and by a computer scoring method. Over 60% of the forecasts are rated as acceptable. The forecasts also are compared with a persistence method, using both a subjective human evaluation and root-mean-square error calculations.
Computationally Secure Pattern Matching in the Presence of Malicious Adversaries
Hazay, Carmit; Toft, Tomas
2014-01-01
(n+m) communication and O(1) rounds using O(nm) computation. Then we treat secure approximate pattern matching. In this variant the matches may be approximated, i.e., have Hamming distance less than some threshold, τ. Our protocol requires O(nτ) communication in O(1) rounds using O(nm) computation. Third, we have......We propose a protocol for the problem of secure two-party pattern matching, where Alice holds a text t∈{0,1}∗ of length n, while Bob has a pattern p∈{0,1}∗ of length m. The goal is for Bob to (only) learn where his pattern occurs in Alice’s text, while Alice learns nothing. Private pattern matching......(n+m) group elements in a constant round complexity. This improves over previous work by Gennaro et al. (Public Key Cryptography, pp. 145–160, 2010) whose solution requires overhead of O(nm) group elements and exponentiations in O(m) rounds. In addition to the above, we propose a collection of protocols...
Revisiting Multiple Pattern Matching Algorithms for Multi-Core Architecture
Guang-Ming Tan; Ping Liu; Dong-Bo Bu; Yan-Bing Liu
2011-01-01
Due to the huge size of patterns to be searched,multiple pattern searching remains a challenge to several newly-arising applications like network intrusion detection.In this paper,we present an attempt to design efficient multiple pattern searching algorithms on multi-core architectures.We observe an important feature which indicates that the multiple pattern matching time mainly depends on the number and minimal length of patterns.The multi-core algorithm proposed in this paper leverages this feature to decompose pattern set so that the parallel execution time is minimized.We formulate the problem as an optimal decomposition and scheduling of a pattern set,then propose a heuristic algorithm,which takes advantage of dynamic programming and greedy algorithmic techniques,to solve the optimization problem.Experimental results suggest that our decomposition approach can increase the searching speed by more than 200% on a 4-core AMD Barcelona system.
PTree: pattern-based, stochastic search for maximum parsimony phylogenies
Ivan Gregor
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Phylogenetic reconstruction is vital to analyzing the evolutionary relationship of genes within and across populations of different species. Nowadays, with next generation sequencing technologies producing sets comprising thousands of sequences, robust identification of the tree topology, which is optimal according to standard criteria such as maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood or posterior probability, with phylogenetic inference methods is a computationally very demanding task. Here, we describe a stochastic search method for a maximum parsimony tree, implemented in a software package we named PTree. Our method is based on a new pattern-based technique that enables us to infer intermediate sequences efficiently where the incorporation of these sequences in the current tree topology yields a phylogenetic tree with a lower cost. Evaluation across multiple datasets showed that our method is comparable to the algorithms implemented in PAUP* or TNT, which are widely used by the bioinformatics community, in terms of topological accuracy and runtime. We show that our method can process large-scale datasets of 1,000–8,000 sequences. We believe that our novel pattern-based method enriches the current set of tools and methods for phylogenetic tree inference. The software is available under: http://algbio.cs.uni-duesseldorf.de/webapps/wa-download/.
Matching of Silicon Thin-Film Tandem Solar Cells for Maximum Power Output
C. Ulbrich
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We present a meaningful characterization method for tandem solar cells. The experimental method allows for optimizing the output power instead of the current. Furthermore, it enables the extraction of the approximate AM1.5g efficiency when working with noncalibrated spectra. Current matching of tandem solar cells under short-circuit condition maximizes the output current but is disadvantageous for the overall fill factor and as a consequence does not imply an optimization of the output power of the device. We apply the matching condition to the maximum power output; that is, a stack of solar cells is power matched if the power output of each subcell is maximal at equal subcell currents. The new measurement procedure uses additional light-emitting diodes as bias light in the JV characterization of tandem solar cells. Using a characterized reference tandem solar cell, such as a hydrogenated amorphous/microcrystalline silicon tandem, it is possible to extract the AM1.5g efficiency from tandems of the same technology also under noncalibrated spectra.
A geometric reasoning based algorithm for point pattern matching
徐文立; 张立华
2001-01-01
Point pattern matching (PPM) is an important topic in computer vision and pattern recognition. It can be widely used in many areas such as image registration, object recognition, motion detection, target tracking, autonomous navigation, and pose estimation. This paper discusses the incomplete matching problem of two point sets under Euclidean transformation. According to geometric reasoning, some definitions for matching clique, support point pair, support index set, and support index matrix, etc. are given. Based on the properties and theorems of them, a novel reasoning algorithm is presented, which searches for the optimal sOlLtion from top to bottom and could find out as many consistent corresponding point pairs as possible. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the new algorithm is very effective, and could be, under some conditions, applied to the PPM problem under other kind of transformations.
Typed and Unambiguous Pattern Matching on Strings using Regular Expressions
Brabrand, Claus; Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær
2010-01-01
We show how to achieve typed and unambiguous declarative pattern matching on strings using regular expressions extended with a simple recording operator. We give a characterization of ambiguity of regular expressions that leads to a sound and complete static analysis. The analysis is capable of......We show how to achieve typed and unambiguous declarative pattern matching on strings using regular expressions extended with a simple recording operator. We give a characterization of ambiguity of regular expressions that leads to a sound and complete static analysis. The analysis is...... capable of pinpointing all ambiguities in terms of the structure of the regular expression and report shortest ambiguous strings. We also show how pattern matching can be integrated into statically typed programming languages for deconstructing strings and reproducing typed and structured values. We validate our...... approach by giving a full implementation of the approach presented in this paper. The resulting tool, reg-exp-rec, adds typed and unambiguous pattern matching to Java in a stand-alone and non-intrusive manner. We evaluate the approach using several realistic examples....
Multi-field Pattern Matching based on Sparse Feature Sampling.
Wang, Zhongjie; Seidel, Hans-Peter; Weinkauf, Tino
2016-01-01
We present an approach to pattern matching in 3D multi-field scalar data. Existing pattern matching algorithms work on single scalar or vector fields only, yet many numerical simulations output multi-field data where only a joint analysis of multiple fields describes the underlying phenomenon fully. Our method takes this into account by bundling information from multiple fields into the description of a pattern. First, we extract a sparse set of features for each 3D scalar field using the 3D SIFT algorithm (Scale-Invariant Feature Transform). This allows for a memory-saving description of prominent features in the data with invariance to translation, rotation, and scaling. Second, the user defines a pattern as a set of SIFT features in multiple fields by e.g. brushing a region of interest. Third, we locate and rank matching patterns in the entire data set. Experiments show that our algorithm is efficient in terms of required memory and computational efforts.
Patterns of Movement in Foster Care: An Optimal Matching Analysis
Havlicek, Judy
2011-01-01
Placement instability remains a vexing problem for child welfare agencies across the country. This study uses child welfare administrative data to retrospectively follow the entire placement histories (birth to age 17.5) of 474 foster youth who reached the age of majority in the state of Illinois and to search for patterns in their movement through the child welfare system. Patterns are identified through optimal matching and hierarchical cluster analyses. Multiple logistic regression is used to analyze administrative and survey data in order to examine covariates related to patterns. Five distinct patterns of movement are differentiated: Late Movers, Settled with Kin, Community Care, Institutionalized, and Early Entry. These patterns suggest high but variable rates of movement. Implications for child welfare policy and service provision are discussed. PMID:20873020
A Simplified Pattern Match Algorithm for Star Identification
Lee, Michael H.
1996-01-01
A true pattern matching star algorithm similar in concept to the Van Bezooijen algorithm is implemented using an iterative approach. This approach allows for a more compact and simple implementation which can be easily adapted to be either an all-sky, no a priori algorithm or a follow on to a direct match algorithm to distinguish between ambiguous matches. Some simple analysis is shown to indicate the likelihood of mis-identifications. The performance of the algorithm for the all-sky, no a priori situation is detailed assuming he SKYMAP star catalog describes the true sky. The impact of errors and omissions in the SKYMAP catalog on performance are investigated. In addition, differing levels of noise in the star observations are assumed and results shown. The implications for possible implementation on-board spacecraft are discussed.
A novel hybrid-maximum neural network in stereo-matching process.
Laskowski, Lukasz
2013-01-01
In the present paper, the completely innovative architecture of artificial neural network based on Hopfield structure for solving a stereo-matching problem-hybrid neural network, consisting of the classical analog Hopfield neural network and the Maximum Neural Network-is described. The application of this kind of structure as a part of assistive device for visually impaired individuals is considered. The role of the analog Hopfield network is to find the attraction area of the global minimum, whereas Maximum Neural Network is finding accurate location of this minimum. The network presented here is characterized by an extremely high rate of work performance with the same accuracy as a classical Hopfield-like network, which makes it possible to use this kind of structure as a part of systems working in real time. The network considered here underwent experimental tests with the use of real stereo pictures as well as simulated stereo images. This enables error calculation and direct comparison with the classic analog Hopfield neural network as well as other networks proposed in the literature.
Segmented gray-code kernels for fast pattern matching.
Ouyang, Wanli; Zhang, Renqi; Cham, Wai-Kuen
2013-04-01
The gray-code kernels (GCK) family, which has Walsh Hadamard transform on sliding windows as a member, is a family of kernels that can perform image analysis efficiently using a fast algorithm, such as the GCK algorithm. The GCK has been successfully used for pattern matching. In this paper, we propose that the G4-GCK algorithm is more efficient than the previous algorithm in computing GCK. The G4-GCK algorithm requires four additions per pixel for three basis vectors independent of transform size and dimension. Based on the G4-GCK algorithm, we then propose the segmented GCK. By segmenting input data into L(s) parts, the SegGCK requires only four additions per pixel for 3L(s) basis vectors. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly accelerate the full-search equivalent pattern matching process and outperforms state-of-the-art methods.
Mixed pattern matching-based traffic abnormal behavior recognition.
Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming; Sheng, Victor S; Shi, Yujie; Zhao, Pengpeng
2014-01-01
A motion trajectory is an intuitive representation form in time-space domain for a micromotion behavior of moving target. Trajectory analysis is an important approach to recognize abnormal behaviors of moving targets. Against the complexity of vehicle trajectories, this paper first proposed a trajectory pattern learning method based on dynamic time warping (DTW) and spectral clustering. It introduced the DTW distance to measure the distances between vehicle trajectories and determined the number of clusters automatically by a spectral clustering algorithm based on the distance matrix. Then, it clusters sample data points into different clusters. After the spatial patterns and direction patterns learned from the clusters, a recognition method for detecting vehicle abnormal behaviors based on mixed pattern matching was proposed. The experimental results show that the proposed technical scheme can recognize main types of traffic abnormal behaviors effectively and has good robustness. The real-world application verified its feasibility and the validity.
Pattern matching in indeterminate and Arc-annotated sequences.
Aumi, Md Tanvir Islam; Moosa, Tanaeem M; Rahman, M Sohel
2013-08-01
In this paper, we present efficient algorithms for finding indeterminate Arc-Annotated patterns in indeterminate Arc-Annotated references. Our algorithms run in O(m+ (nm) w) time where n and m are respectively the length of our reference and pattern strings and w is the target machine word size. Here we have assumed the alphabet size to be constant, because, indeterminate Arc-Annotated sequences are used to model biological sequences. Clearly, for short patterns, our algorithms run in linear time and efficient algorithms for matching short patterns to reference genomes have huge applications in practical settings. We have also applied our algorithms to scan the ncRNAs without pseudoknots. We scanned three whole human chromosomes and it took only 2.5 - 4 minutes to scan one whole chromosome for an ncRNA family. Some relevant patents are discussed in.
Vehicle classification by pattern-matching gauge sensors
Huston, Dryver R.; Spillman, William B., Jr.; Claus, Richard O.; Arya, Vivek; Zabaronick, Noel
1996-05-01
This paper describes a method of using matched-pattern gage sensors that are embedded into highway pavements to classify vehicles, i.e. cars vs. trucks. The classification of vehicle type is an important technology for a variety of highway operations, e.g. traffic control, maintenance planning, weigh-in-motion, and the assignment of tolls. Vehicle classification schemes that are based on strip-crossing methods are not very robust due to the large variability of strip-crossing sequences. Visual methods still rely primarily on human identification. The method described here involves placing long gage length sensors in highway pavements. The spatial pattern of the sensor is configured so that it will match the wheel pattern of the type of vehicle that is being identified. Theoretical modeling shows that the signal received from the sensor is a cross-correlation function relating the wheel and sensor patterns in space and time. The sensor can be any one of a variety that transduce by integrating pressure along a length. The technique is demonstrated in the laboratory with PVDF and fiber optic sensors. Experimental results and computer simulations are presented as well as a discussion of the realistic possibility of using such a vehicle identification scheme under field conditions.
Using visual analytics model for pattern matching in surveillance data
Habibi, Mohammad S.
2013-03-01
In a persistent surveillance system huge amount of data is collected continuously and significant details are labeled for future references. In this paper a method to summarize video data as a result of identifying events based on these tagged information is explained, leading to concise description of behavior within a section of extended recordings. An efficient retrieval of various events thus becomes the foundation for determining a pattern in surveillance system observations, both in its extended and fragmented versions. The patterns consisting of spatiotemporal semantic contents are extracted and classified by application of video data mining on generated ontology, and can be matched based on analysts interest and rules set forth for decision making. The proposed extraction and classification method used in this paper uses query by example for retrieving similar events containing relevant features, and is carried out by data aggregation. Since structured data forms majority of surveillance information this Visual Analytics model employs KD-Tree approach to group patterns in variant space and time, thus making it convenient to identify and match any abnormal burst of pattern detected in a surveillance video. Several experimental video were presented to viewers to analyze independently and were compared with the results obtained in this paper to demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed technique.
Overlap maximum matching ratio (OMMR)：a new measure to evaluate overlaps of essential modules
Xiao-xia ZHANG; Qiang-hua XIAO; Bin LI; Sai HU; Hui-jun XIONG; Bi-hai ZHAO
2015-01-01
Protein complexes are the basic units of macro-molecular organizations and help us to understand the cell’s mechanism. The development of the yeast two-hybrid, tandem affinity purification, and mass spectrometry high-throughput proteomic techniques supplies a large amount of protein-protein interaction data, which make it possible to predict overlapping complexes through computational methods. Research shows that overlapping complexes can contribute to identifying essential proteins, which are necessary for the organism to survive and reproduce, and for life’s activities. Scholars pay more attention to the evaluation of protein complexes. However, few of them focus on predicted overlaps. In this paper, an evaluation criterion called overlap maximum matching ratio (OMMR) is proposed to analyze the similarity between the identified overlaps and the benchmark overlap modules. Comparison of essential proteins and gene ontology (GO) analysis are also used to assess the quality of overlaps. We perform a comprehensive comparison of serveral overlapping complexes prediction approaches, using three yeast protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. We focus on the analysis of overlaps identified by these algorithms. Experimental results indicate the important of overlaps and reveal the relationship between overlaps and identification of essential proteins.
Full-search-equivalent pattern matching with incremental dissimilarity approximations.
Tombari, Federico; Mattoccia, Stefano; Di Stefano, Luigi
2009-01-01
This paper proposes a novel method for fast pattern matching based on dissimilarity functions derived from the Lp norm, such as the Sum of Squared Differences (SSD) and the Sum of Absolute Differences (SAD). The proposed method is full-search equivalent, i.e. it yields the same results as the Full Search (FS) algorithm. In order to pursue computational savings the method deploys a succession of increasingly tighter lower bounds of the adopted Lp norm-based dissimilarity function. Such bounding functions allow for establishing a hierarchy of pruning conditions aimed at skipping rapidly those candidates that cannot satisfy the matching criterion. The paper includes an experimental comparison between the proposed method and other full-search equivalent approaches known in literature, which proves the remarkable computational efficiency of our proposal.
Attention modulates visual-tactile interaction in spatial pattern matching.
Florian Göschl
Full Text Available Factors influencing crossmodal interactions are manifold and operate in a stimulus-driven, bottom-up fashion, as well as via top-down control. Here, we evaluate the interplay of stimulus congruence and attention in a visual-tactile task. To this end, we used a matching paradigm requiring the identification of spatial patterns that were concurrently presented visually on a computer screen and haptically to the fingertips by means of a Braille stimulator. Stimulation in our paradigm was always bimodal with only the allocation of attention being manipulated between conditions. In separate blocks of the experiment, participants were instructed to (a focus on a single modality to detect a specific target pattern, (b pay attention to both modalities to detect a specific target pattern, or (c to explicitly evaluate if the patterns in both modalities were congruent or not. For visual as well as tactile targets, congruent stimulus pairs led to quicker and more accurate detection compared to incongruent stimulation. This congruence facilitation effect was more prominent under divided attention. Incongruent stimulation led to behavioral decrements under divided attention as compared to selectively attending a single sensory channel. Additionally, when participants were asked to evaluate congruence explicitly, congruent stimulation was associated with better performance than incongruent stimulation. Our results extend previous findings from audiovisual studies, showing that stimulus congruence also resulted in behavioral improvements in visuotactile pattern matching. The interplay of stimulus processing and attentional control seems to be organized in a highly flexible fashion, with the integration of signals depending on both bottom-up and top-down factors, rather than occurring in an 'all-or-nothing' manner.
Attention modulates visual-tactile interaction in spatial pattern matching.
Göschl, Florian; Engel, Andreas K; Friese, Uwe
2014-01-01
Factors influencing crossmodal interactions are manifold and operate in a stimulus-driven, bottom-up fashion, as well as via top-down control. Here, we evaluate the interplay of stimulus congruence and attention in a visual-tactile task. To this end, we used a matching paradigm requiring the identification of spatial patterns that were concurrently presented visually on a computer screen and haptically to the fingertips by means of a Braille stimulator. Stimulation in our paradigm was always bimodal with only the allocation of attention being manipulated between conditions. In separate blocks of the experiment, participants were instructed to (a) focus on a single modality to detect a specific target pattern, (b) pay attention to both modalities to detect a specific target pattern, or (c) to explicitly evaluate if the patterns in both modalities were congruent or not. For visual as well as tactile targets, congruent stimulus pairs led to quicker and more accurate detection compared to incongruent stimulation. This congruence facilitation effect was more prominent under divided attention. Incongruent stimulation led to behavioral decrements under divided attention as compared to selectively attending a single sensory channel. Additionally, when participants were asked to evaluate congruence explicitly, congruent stimulation was associated with better performance than incongruent stimulation. Our results extend previous findings from audiovisual studies, showing that stimulus congruence also resulted in behavioral improvements in visuotactile pattern matching. The interplay of stimulus processing and attentional control seems to be organized in a highly flexible fashion, with the integration of signals depending on both bottom-up and top-down factors, rather than occurring in an 'all-or-nothing' manner.
Pattern matching based active optical sorting of colloids/cells
Verma, R. S.; Dasgupta, R.; Ahlawat, S.; Kumar, N.; Uppal, A.; Gupta, P. K.
2013-08-01
We report active optical sorting of colloids/cells by employing a cross correlation based pattern matching technique for selection of the desired objects and thereafter sorting using dynamically controllable holographic optical traps. The problem of possible collision between the different sets of objects during sorting was avoided by raising one set of particles to a different plane. We also present the results obtained on using this approach for some representative applications such as sorting of silica particles of two different sizes, of closely packed colloids and of white blood cells and red blood cells from a mixture of the two.
Highly Parallelized Pattern Matching Execution for the ATLAS Experiment
Citraro, Saverio; The ATLAS collaboration
2015-01-01
The trigger system of the ATLAS experiment at LHC will extend its rejection capabilities during operations in 2015-2018 by introducing the Fast TracKer system (FTK). FTK is a hardware based system capable of finding charged particle tracks by analyzing hits in silicon detectors at the rate of 105 events per second. The core of track reconstruction is performed into two pipelined steps. At first step the candidate tracks are found by matching combination of low resolution hits to predefined patterns; then they are used in the second step to seed a more precise track fitting algorithm. The key FTK component is an Associative Memory (AM) system that is used to perform pattern matching with high degree of parallelism. The AM system implementation, the AM Serial Link Processor, is based on an extremely powerful network of 2 Gb/s serial links to sustain a huge traffic of data. We report on the design of the Serial Link Processor consisting of two types of boards, the Little Associative Memory Board (LAMB), a mezzan...
Highly Parallelized Pattern Matching Execution for the ATLAS Experiment
Citraro, Saverio; The ATLAS collaboration
2015-01-01
Abstract– The Associative Memory (AM) system of the Fast Tracker (FTK) processor has been designed to perform pattern matching using as input the data from the silicon tracker in the ATLAS experiment. The AM is the primary component of the FTK system and is designed using ASIC technology (the AM chip) to execute pattern matching with a high degree of parallelism. The FTK system finds track candidates at low resolution that are seeds for a full resolution track fitting. The AM system implementation is named “Serial Link Processor” and is based on an extremely powerful network of 2 Gb/s serial links to sustain a huge traffic of data. This paper reports on the design of the Serial Link Processor consisting of two types of boards, the Little Associative Memory Board (LAMB), a mezzanine where the AM chips are mounted, and the Associative Memory Board (AMB), a 9U VME motherboard which hosts four LAMB daughterboards. We also report on the performance of the prototypes (both hardware and firmware) produced and ...
Common mechanisms in apparent motion perception and visual pattern matching.
Larsen, Axel; Bundesen, Claus
2009-12-01
Common mechanisms in apparent motion perception and visual pattern matching. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 50, 526-534.There are close functional similarities between apparent motion perception and visual pattern matching. In particular, striking functional similarities have been demonstrated between perception of rigid objects in apparent motion and purely mental transformations of visual size and orientation used in comparisons of objects with respect to shape but regardless of size and orientation. In both cases, psychophysical data suggest that differences in visual size are resolved as differences in depth, such that transformation of size is done by translation in depth. Furthermore, the process of perceived or imagined translation appears to be stepwise additive such that a translation over a long distance consists of a sequence of smaller translations, the durations of these steps being additive. Both perceived and imagined rotation also appear to be stepwise additive, and combined transformations of size and orientation appear to be done by alternation of small steps of pure translation and small steps of pure rotation. The functional similarities suggest that common mechanisms underlie perception of apparent motion and purely mental transformations. In line with this suggestion, functional brain imaging has isolated neural structures in motion area MT used in mental transformation of size.
An Algorithm to Compute the Character Access Count Distribution for Pattern Matching Algorithms
Marschall, T.; Rahmann, S.
2011-01-01
We propose a framework for the exact probabilistic analysis of window-based pattern matching algorithms, such as Boyer--Moore, Horspool, Backward DAWG Matching, Backward Oracle Matching, and more. In particular, we develop an algorithm that efficiently computes the distribution of a pattern matching
Twig Pattern Matching Based on Compressed Path Labeling Scheme
NING Bo; WANG Guoren; DONG Ke
2007-01-01
Holistic twig query processing techniques based on region encoding have been developed to minimize the intermediate results, namely, those root-to-leaf path matches that are not in the final twig results. These algorithms have to scan all the streams of tags in query patterns. However, useless path matches cannot be completely avoided. TJFast which is based on the labeling scheme of Extended Dewey has been proposed to avoid useless intermediate results, and it only needs to access the labels of the leaf query nodes. However, it don't concern about the characteristics of elements with the same parent, and it has to merge join all the intermediate results which are evaluated during the first phrase. We propose a new labeling scheme to compress the XML elements which have the same characteristic. Based on the compressed path-labeled streams, a new novel holistic twig query algorithm named CPJoin is designed. Finally, implementation results are provided to show that CPJoin has good performance on both real and synthetic data.
Perfect Match: Biometrics and Body Patterning in a Networked World
Gillian Fuller
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Bodies are increasingly becoming collectively integrated into informational processes which are open to biotechnical forms of regulation. Biometrics, the use of body measurements such as retina scanning, face recognition and fingerprinting is now being uncontroversially introduced throughout the world under the aegis of security and efficient traffic management. Fields that once molded the individual through bodily confinement and observation are dispersing and converging into the regimes of logistics and control. This paper looks at the operations of biometrics to consider the biopolitical ramifications of body measurement as power is made operational by controlling movement via the haptic techniques of information architecture rather than the more familiar modes of discipline and panoptical vision machines. Biometrics is the perfect control for the networked individual as we divide across infinite planes and dimensions, reconfiguring endlessly to become pattern matches in expanding databases of everyday life.
pepgrep: A tool for peptide MS/MS pattern matching.
Chernukhin, Igor
2013-04-01
Typically, detection of protein sequences in collision-induced dissociation (CID) tandem MS (MS2) dataset is performed by mapping identified peptide ions back to protein sequence by using the protein database search (PDS) engine. Finding a particular peptide sequence of interest in CID MS2 records very often requires manual evaluation of the spectrum, regardless of whether the peptide-associated MS2 scan is identified by PDS algorithm or not. We have developed a compact cross-platform database-free command-line utility, pepgrep, which helps to find an MS2 fingerprint for a selected peptide sequence by pattern-matching of modelled MS2 data using Peptide-to-MS2 scoring algorithm. pepgrep can incorporate dozens of mass offsets corresponding to a variety of post-translational modifications (PTMs) into the algorithm. Decoy peptide sequences are used with the tested peptide sequence to reduce false-positive results. The engine is capable of screening an MS2 data file at a high rate when using a cluster computing environment. The matched MS2 spectrum can be displayed by using built-in graphical application programming interface (API) or optionally recorded to file. Using this algorithm, we were able to find extra peptide sequences in studied CID spectra that were missed by PDS identification. Also we found pepgrep especially useful for examining a CID of small fractions of peptides resulting from, for example, affinity purification techniques. The peptide sequences in such samples are less likely to be positively identified by using routine protein-centric algorithm implemented in PDS. The software is freely available at http://bsproteomics.essex.ac.uk:8080/data/download/pepgrep-1.4.tgz.
Peak alignment using wavelet pattern matching and differential evolution.
Zhang, Zhi-Min; Chen, Shan; Liang, Yi-Zeng
2011-01-30
Retention time shifts badly impair qualitative or quantitative results of chemometric analyses when entire chromatographic data are used. Hence, chromatograms should be aligned to perform further analysis. Being inspired and motivated by this purpose, a practical and handy peak alignment method (alignDE) is proposed, implemented in this research for one-way chromatograms, which basically consists of five steps: (1) chromatogram lengths equalization using linear interpolation; (2) accurate peak pattern matching by continuous wavelet transform (CWT) with the Mexican Hat and Haar wavelets as its mother wavelets; (3) flexible baseline fitting utilizing penalized least squares; (4) peak clustering when gap of two peaks is smaller than a certain threshold; (5) peak alignment using differential evolution (DE) to maximize linear correlation coefficient between reference signal and signal to be aligned. This method is demonstrated with both simulated chromatograms and real chromatograms, for example, chromatograms of fungal extracts and Red Peony Root obtained by HPLC-DAD. It is implemented in R language and available as open source software to a broad range of chromatograph users (http://code.google.com/p/alignde).
Dukka, Bahadur K C; Akutsu, Tatsuya; Tomita, Etsuji; Seki, Tomokazu; Fujiyama, Asao
2002-01-01
We developed maximum clique-based algorithms for spot matching for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis images, protein structure alignment and protein side-chain packing, where these problems are known to be NP-hard. Algorithms based on direct reductions to the maximum clique can find optimal solutions for instances of size (the number of points or residues) up to 50-150 using a standard PC. We also developed pre-processing techniques to reduce the sizes of graphs. Combined with some heuristics, many realistic instances can be solved approximately.
Point Pattern Matching Algorithm for Planar Point Sets under Euclidean Transform
Xiaoyun Wang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Point pattern matching is an important topic of computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, we propose a point pattern matching algorithm for two planar point sets under Euclidean transform. We view a point set as a complete graph, establish the relation between the point set and the complete graph, and solve the point pattern matching problem by finding congruent complete graphs. Experiments are conducted to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithm.
Maximum matching by convex quadratic programming based o an adverse graph conjecture
Pacheco, Maria F.; Cardoso, Domingos Moreira; Luz, Carlos J.
2012-01-01
In this talk, we describe a procedure for determining a maximum stable set in a graph with convex-$QP$ stability number (which is a graph whose stability number can be determined by solving a convex quadratic programming problem) unless there is a subgraph for which neither the optimal value of the convex quadratic program nor the least adjacency eigenvalue changes when the neighborhood of any vertex is deleted. Such a graph is called adverse. Assuming the trueness of the adver...
Pattern classification approaches to matching building polygons at multiple scales
Zhang, X; Zhao, X.; Molenaar, M.; Stoter, J.; Kraak M-J.; Ai, T.
2012-01-01
Matching of building polygons with different levels of detail is crucial in the maintenance and quality assessment of multi-representation databases. Two general problems need to be addressed in the matching process: (1) Which criteria are suitable? (2) How to effectively combine different criteria
Pattern classification approaches to matching building polygons at multiple scales
Zhang, X; Zhao, X.; Molenaar, M.; Stoter, J.; Kraak M-J.; Ai, T.
2012-01-01
Matching of building polygons with different levels of detail is crucial in the maintenance and quality assessment of multi-representation databases. Two general problems need to be addressed in the matching process: (1) Which criteria are suitable? (2) How to effectively combine different criteria
Smart templates for peak pattern matching with comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography.
Reichenbach, Stephen E; Carr, Peter W; Stoll, Dwight R; Tao, Qingping
2009-04-17
Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LCxLC) generates information-rich but complex peak patterns that require automated processing for rapid chemical identification and classification. This paper describes a powerful approach and specific methods for peak pattern matching to identify and classify constituent peaks in data from LCxLC and other multidimensional chemical separations. The approach records a prototypical pattern of peaks with retention times and associated metadata, such as chemical identities and classes, in a template. Then, the template pattern is matched to the detected peaks in subsequent data and the metadata are copied from the template to identify and classify the matched peaks. Smart Templates employ rule-based constraints (e.g., multispectral matching) to increase matching accuracy. Experimental results demonstrate Smart Templates, with the combination of retention-time pattern matching and multispectral constraints, are accurate and robust with respect to changes in peak patterns associated with variable chromatographic conditions.
Blalock Eric M
2007-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers using RNA expression microarrays in experimental designs with more than two treatment groups often identify statistically significant genes with ANOVA approaches. However, the ANOVA test does not discriminate which of the multiple treatment groups differ from one another. Thus, post hoc tests, such as linear contrasts, template correlations, and pairwise comparisons are used. Linear contrasts and template correlations work extremely well, especially when the researcher has a priori information pointing to a particular pattern/template among the different treatment groups. Further, all pairwise comparisons can be used to identify particular, treatment group-dependent patterns of gene expression. However, these approaches are biased by the researcher's assumptions, and some treatment-based patterns may fail to be detected using these approaches. Finally, different patterns may have different probabilities of occurring by chance, importantly influencing researchers' conclusions about a pattern and its constituent genes. Results We developed a four step, post hoc pattern matching (PPM algorithm to automate single channel gene expression pattern identification/significance. First, 1-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, coupled with post hoc 'all pairwise' comparisons are calculated for all genes. Second, for each ANOVA-significant gene, all pairwise contrast results are encoded to create unique pattern ID numbers. The # genes found in each pattern in the data is identified as that pattern's 'actual' frequency. Third, using Monte Carlo simulations, those patterns' frequencies are estimated in random data ('random' gene pattern frequency. Fourth, a Z-score for overrepresentation of the pattern is calculated ('actual' against 'random' gene pattern frequencies. We wrote a Visual Basic program (StatiGen that automates PPM procedure, constructs an Excel workbook with standardized graphs of overrepresented patterns, and lists of
Synoname: The Getty's New Approach to Pattern Matching for Personal Names.
Siegfried, Susan L.; Bernstein, Julie
1991-01-01
Describes "Synoname," the Getty Museum's computer program that matches varying versions of personal names for research purposes. Reports that the program uses an ordered algorithm sequence for pattern matching that includes both character- and word-matching techniques. Concludes that the technique can approach near-total accuracy at the…
Pattern Matching Compilation of Functions Defined in Context-Free Languages
陈海明; 董韫美
2001-01-01
LFC is a functional language based on recursive functions defined in context-free languages. In this paper, a new pattern matching algorithm for LFC is presented, which can represent a sequence of patterns as an integer by an encoding method. It is a rather simple method and produces efficient case-expressions for pattern matching definitions of LFC. The algorithm can also be used for other functional languages, but for nested patterns it may become complicated and further studies are needed.
Drory Retwitzer, Matan; Polishchuk, Maya; Churkin, Elena; Kifer, Ilona; Yakhini, Zohar; Barash, Danny
2015-07-01
Searching for RNA sequence-structure patterns is becoming an essential tool for RNA practitioners. Novel discoveries of regulatory non-coding RNAs in targeted organisms and the motivation to find them across a wide range of organisms have prompted the use of computational RNA pattern matching as an enhancement to sequence similarity. State-of-the-art programs differ by the flexibility of patterns allowed as queries and by their simplicity of use. In particular-no existing method is available as a user-friendly web server. A general program that searches for RNA sequence-structure patterns is RNA Structator. However, it is not available as a web server and does not provide the option to allow flexible gap pattern representation with an upper bound of the gap length being specified at any position in the sequence. Here, we introduce RNAPattMatch, a web-based application that is user friendly and makes sequence/structure RNA queries accessible to practitioners of various background and proficiency. It also extends RNA Structator and allows a more flexible variable gaps representation, in addition to analysis of results using energy minimization methods. RNAPattMatch service is available at http://www.cs.bgu.ac.il/rnapattmatch. A standalone version of the search tool is also available to download at the site.
Pattern matching and adaptive image segmentation applied to plant reproduction by tissue culture
Vazquez Rueda, Martin G.; Hahn, Federico
1999-03-01
This paper shows the results obtained in a system vision applied to plant reproduction by tissue culture using adaptive image segmentation and pattern matching algorithms, this analysis improves the number of tissue obtained and minimize errors, the image features of tissue are considered join to statistical analysis to determine the best match and results. Tests make on potato plants are used to present comparative results with original images processed with adaptive segmentation algorithm and non adaptive algorithms and pattern matching.
Pattern matching approach to pseudosymmetry problems in electron backscatter diffraction.
Nolze, Gert; Winkelmann, Aimo; Boyle, Alan P
2016-01-01
We demonstrate an approach to overcome Kikuchi pattern misindexing problems caused by crystallographic pseudosymmetry in electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements. Based on the quantitative comparison of experimentally measured Kikuchi patterns with dynamical electron diffraction simulations, the algorithm identifies the best-fit orientation from a set of pseudosymmetric candidates. Using measurements on framboidal pyrite (FeS2) as an example, we also show the improvement of the orientation precision using this approach.
Palm-Print Pattern Matching Based on Features Using Rabin-Karp for Person Identification
S. Kanchana
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Palm-print based individual identification is regarded as an effectual method for identifying persons with high confidence. Palm-print with larger inner surface of hand contains many features such as principle lines, ridges, minutiae points, singular points, and textures. Feature based pattern matching has faced the challenge that the spatial positional variations occur between the training and test samples. To perform effective palm-print features matching, Rabin-Karp Palm-Print Pattern Matching (RPPM method is proposed in this paper. With the objective of improving the accuracy of pattern matching, double hashing is employed in RPPM method. Multiple patterns of features are matched using the Aho-Corasick Multiple Feature matching procedure by locating the position of the features with finite set of bit values as an input text, improving the cumulative accuracy on hashing. Finally, a time efficient bit parallel ordering presents an efficient variation on matching the palm-print features of test and training samples with minimal time. Experiment is conducted on the factors such as pattern matching efficiency rate, time taken on multiple palm-print feature matching efficiency, and cumulative accuracy on hashing.
Palm-Print Pattern Matching Based on Features Using Rabin-Karp for Person Identification.
Kanchana, S; Balakrishnan, G
2015-01-01
Palm-print based individual identification is regarded as an effectual method for identifying persons with high confidence. Palm-print with larger inner surface of hand contains many features such as principle lines, ridges, minutiae points, singular points, and textures. Feature based pattern matching has faced the challenge that the spatial positional variations occur between the training and test samples. To perform effective palm-print features matching, Rabin-Karp Palm-Print Pattern Matching (RPPM) method is proposed in this paper. With the objective of improving the accuracy of pattern matching, double hashing is employed in RPPM method. Multiple patterns of features are matched using the Aho-Corasick Multiple Feature matching procedure by locating the position of the features with finite set of bit values as an input text, improving the cumulative accuracy on hashing. Finally, a time efficient bit parallel ordering presents an efficient variation on matching the palm-print features of test and training samples with minimal time. Experiment is conducted on the factors such as pattern matching efficiency rate, time taken on multiple palm-print feature matching efficiency, and cumulative accuracy on hashing.
The State of the Art in Graph-Based Pattern Matching
Gallagher, B
2006-03-30
The task of searching for patterns in graph-structured data has applications in such diverse areas as computer vision, biology, electronics, computer aided design, social networks, and intelligence analysis. As such, work on graph-based pattern matching spans a wide range of research communities. Due to variations in graph characteristics and problem requirements, graph-based pattern matching is not a single problem, but a set of related problems. This paper presents a survey of existing work on graph-based pattern matching, describing variations among graph matching problems, general and specific solution approaches, evaluation techniques, and directions for further research. An emphasis is given to techniques that apply to general graphs with semantic characteristics. The survey also discusses techniques for graph mining, an extension of the graph matching problem.
On pattern matching with k mismatches and few don't cares.
Nicolae, Marius; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar
2017-02-01
We consider the problem of pattern matching with k mismatches, where there can be don't care or wild card characters in the pattern. Specifically, given a pattern P of length m and a text T of length n, we want to find all occurrences of P in T that have no more than k mismatches. The pattern can have don't care characters, which match any character. Without don't cares, the best known algorithm for pattern matching with k mismatches has a runtime of [Formula: see text]. With don't cares in the pattern, the best deterministic algorithm has a runtime of O(nk polylog m). Therefore, there is an important gap between the versions with and without don't cares. In this paper we give an algorithm whose runtime increases with the number of don't cares. We define an island to be a maximal length substring of P that does not contain don't cares. Let q be the number of islands in P. We present an algorithm that runs in [Formula: see text] time. If the number of islands q is O(k) this runtime becomes [Formula: see text], which essentially matches the best known runtime for pattern matching with k mismatches without don't cares. If the number of islands q is O(k(2)), this algorithm is asymptotically faster than the previous best algorithm for pattern matching with k mismatches with don't cares in the pattern.
Vescovi, Jason D
2014-07-01
The aim of this study was to examine the impact of maximum sprint speed on peak and mean sprint speed during youth female field hockey matches. Two high-level female field hockey teams (U-17, n = 24, and U-21, n = 20) were monitored during a 4-game international test series using global position system technology and tested for maximum sprint speed. Dependent variables were compared using a 3-factor ANOVA (age group, position, and speed classification); effect sizes (Cohen d) and confidence limits were also calculated. Maximum sprint speed was similar between age groups and positions, with faster players having greater speed than slower players (29.3 ± 0.4 vs 27.2 ± 1.1 km/h). Overall, peak match speed in youth female field hockey players reaches approximately 90% of maximum sprint speed. Absolute peak match speed and mean sprint speed during matches were similar among the age groups (except match 1) and positions (except match 2); however, peak match speed was greater for faster players in matches 3 and 4. No differences were observed in the relative proportion for mean sprint speeds for age groups or positions, but slower players consistently displayed similar relative mean sprint speeds by using a greater proportion of their maximum sprint speed.
Fast Partial Evaluation of Pattern Matching in Strings
Ager, Mads Sig; Danvy, Olivier; Rohde, Henning Korsholm
2006-01-01
We show how to obtain all of Knuth, Morris, and Pratt's linear-time string matcher by specializing a quadratic-time string matcher with respect to a pattern string. Although it has been known for 15 years how to obtain this linear matcher by partial evaluation of a quadratic one, how to obtain...
Fast Partial Evaluation of Pattern Matching in Strings
Ager, Mads Sig; Danvy, Olivier; Rohde, Henning Korsholm
2003-01-01
We show how to obtain all of Knuth, Morris, and Pratt's linear-time string matcher by specializing a quadratic-time string matcher with respect to a pattern string. Although it has been known for 15 years how to obtain this linear matcher by partial evaluation of a quadratic one, how to obtain...
Fast Partial Evaluation of Pattern Matching in Strings
Ager, Mads Sig; Danvy, Olivier; Rohde, Henning Korsholm
2003-01-01
We show how to obtain all of Knuth, Morris, and Pratt's linear-time string matcher by partial evaluation of a quadratic-time string matcher with respect to a pattern string. Although it has been known for 15 years how to obtain this linear matcher by partial evaluation of a quadratic one, how...
Self-feedback electrically coupled spin-Hall oscillator array for pattern-matching operation
Kudo, Kiwamu; Morie, Takashi
2017-04-01
An oscillator array has been proposed for associative memory, in which the synchronization of multiple oscillators is utilized for pattern-matching operations. An input pattern is represented by a set of frequency shifts of the oscillators and the matching result is attributed to the degree of synchronization. Here, we propose an electrically coupled spin-Hall oscillator (SHO) array in which multiple SHOs exhibit synchronization by interacting with each other through self-feedback spin torques. We numerically demonstrate the pattern matching functionality of the proposed SHO array.
What makes a pattern? Matching decoding methods to data in multivariate pattern analysis.
Kragel, Philip A; Carter, R McKell; Huettel, Scott A
2012-01-01
Research in neuroscience faces the challenge of integrating information across different spatial scales of brain function. A promising technique for harnessing information at a range of spatial scales is multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. While the prevalence of MVPA has increased dramatically in recent years, its typical implementations for classification of mental states utilize only a subset of the information encoded in local fMRI signals. We review published studies employing multivariate pattern classification since the technique's introduction, which reveal an extensive focus on the improved detection power that linear classifiers provide over traditional analysis techniques. We demonstrate using simulations and a searchlight approach, however, that non-linear classifiers are capable of extracting distinct information about interactions within a local region. We conclude that for spatially localized analyses, such as searchlight and region of interest, multiple classification approaches should be compared in order to match fMRI analyses to the properties of local circuits.
A Vision Chip for Color Segmentation and Pattern Matching
Ralph Etienne-Cummings
2003-06-01
Full Text Available A 128(H ÃƒÂ— 64(V ÃƒÂ— RGB CMOS imager is integrated with region-of-interest selection, RGB-to-HSI transformation, HSI-based pixel segmentation, (36bins ÃƒÂ— 12bits-HSI histogramming, and sum-of-absolute-difference (SAD template matching. Thirty-two learned color templates are stored and compared to each image. The chip captures the R, G, and B images using in-pixel storage before passing the pixel content to a multiplying digital-to-analog converter (DAC for white balancing. The DAC can also be used to pipe in images for a PC. The color processing uses a biologically inspired color opponent representation and an analog lookup table to determine the Hue (H of each pixel. Saturation (S is computed using a loser-take-all circuit. Intensity (I is given by the sum of the color components. A histogram of the segments of the image, constructed by counting the number of pixels falling into 36 Hue intervals of 10 degrees, is stored on a chip and compared against the histograms of new segments using SAD comparisons. We demonstrate color-based image segmentation and object recognition with this chip. Running at 30 fps, it uses 1 mW. To our knowledge, this is the first chip that integrates imaging, color segmentation, and color-based object recognition at the focal plane.
Rai, Prakash; Padala, Chakradhar; Poon, Vincent; Saraph, Arundhati; Basha, Saleem; Kate, Sandesh; Tao, Kevin; Mogridge, Jeremy; Kane, Ravi S
2006-05-01
Numerous biological processes involve the recognition of a specific pattern of binding sites on a target protein or surface. Although ligands displayed by disordered scaffolds form stochastic rather than specific patterns, theoretical models predict that recognition will occur between patterns that are characterized by similar or "matched" statistics. Endowing synthetic biomimetic structures with statistical pattern matching capabilities may improve the specificity of sensors and resolution of separation processes. We demonstrate that statistical pattern matching enhances the potency of polyvalent therapeutics. We functionalized liposomes with an inhibitory peptide at different densities and observed a transition in potency at an interpeptide separation that matches the distance between ligand-binding sites on the heptameric component of anthrax toxin. Pattern-matched polyvalent liposomes inhibited anthrax toxin in vitro at concentrations four orders of magnitude lower than the corresponding monovalent peptide, and neutralized this toxin in vivo. Statistical pattern matching also enhanced the potency of polyvalent inhibitors of cholera toxin. This facile strategy should be broadly applicable to the detection and neutralization of toxins and pathogens.
Chang-Ku Kang
Full Text Available Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths' behavior on natural (a tree log and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature. We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual. This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis.
Dynamic and approximate pattern matching in 2D
Clifford, Raphaël; Fontaine, Allyx; Starikovskaya, Tatiana
2016-01-01
updates can be performed in O(log2 n) time and queries in O(log2 m) time. - We then consider a model where an update is a new 2D pattern and a query is a location in the text. For this setting we show that Hamming distance queries can be answered in O(log m + H) time, where H is the relevant Hamming...... distance. - Extending this work to allow approximation, we give an efficient algorithm which returns a (1+ε) approximation of the Hamming distance at a given location in O(ε−2 log2 m log log n) time. Finally, we consider a different setting inspired by previous work on locality sensitive hashing (LSH......). Given a threshold k and after building the 2D text index and receiving a 2D query pattern, we must output a location where the Hamming distance is at most (1 + ε)k as long as there exists a location where the Hamming distance is at most k. - For our LSH inspired 2D indexing problem, the text can...
A pattern-matching algorithm for two-dimensional coordinate lists. [for stellar positions
Groth, E. J.
1986-01-01
A pattern-matching algorithm for two-dimensional coordinate lists is described. The algorithm matches pairs of coordinates in two lists based on the triangles that can be formed from triplets of points in each list. The algorithm is insensitive to coordinate translation, rotation, magnification, or inversion and can tolerate random errors or distortions.
Fast Partial Evaluation of Pattern Matching in Strings
Ager, Mads Sig; Danvy, Olivier; Rohde, Henning Korsholm
2003-01-01
We show how to obtain all of Knuth, Morris, and Pratt's linear-time string matcher by specializing a quadratic-time string matcher with respect to a pattern string. Although it has been known for 15 years how to obtain this linear matcher by partial evaluation of a quadratic one, how to obtain...... it in linear time has remained an open problem. Obtaining a linear matcher by partial evaluation of a quadratic one is achieved by performing its backtracking at specialization time and memoizing its results. We show (1) how to rewrite the source matcher such that its static intermediate computations can...... be shared at specialization time and (2) how to extend the memoization capabilities of a partial evaluator to static functions. Such an extended partial evaluator, if its memoization is implemented efficiently, specializes the rewritten source matcher in linear time. Finally, we show that the method also...
Evaluation of Graph Pattern Matching Workloads in Graph Analysis Systems
Hong, Seokyong [North Carolina State University (NCSU), Raleigh; Lee, Sangkeun (Matt) [ORNL; Lim, Seung-Hwan [ORNL; Sukumar, Sreenivas Rangan [ORNL; Vatsavai, Raju [North Carolina State University (NCSU), Raleigh
2016-01-01
Graph analysis has emerged as a powerful method for data scientists to represent, integrate, query, and explore heterogeneous data sources. As a result, graph data management and mining became a popular area of research, and led to the development of plethora of systems in recent years. Unfortunately, the number of emerging graph analysis systems and the wide range of applications, coupled with a lack of apples-to-apples comparisons, make it difficult to understand the trade-offs between different systems and the graph operations for which they are designed. A fair comparison of these systems is a challenging task for the following reasons: multiple data models, non-standardized serialization formats, various query interfaces to users, and diverse environments they operate in. To address these key challenges, in this paper we present a new benchmark suite by extending the Lehigh University Benchmark (LUBM) to cover the most common capabilities of various graph analysis systems. We provide the design process of the benchmark, which generalizes the workflow for data scientists to conduct the desired graph analysis on different graph analysis systems. Equipped with this extended benchmark suite, we present performance comparison for nine subgraph pattern retrieval operations over six graph analysis systems, namely NetworkX, Neo4j, Jena, Titan, GraphX, and uRiKA. Through the proposed benchmark suite, this study reveals both quantitative and qualitative findings in (1) implications in loading data into each system; (2) challenges in describing graph patterns for each query interface; and (3) different sensitivity of each system to query selectivity. We envision that this study will pave the road for: (i) data scientists to select the suitable graph analysis systems, and (ii) data management system designers to advance graph analysis systems.
InSAR imagery pattern matching validation for landslide assessment
Serbulea, Manole-Stelian; Gogu, Radu; Teleaga, Delia; Marcel Manoli, Daniel; Priceputu, Adrian; Gaitanaru, Dragos Stefan; Ungureanu, Constantin; Anghel, Alexandra; Andronic, Adrian; Niculescu, Alexandru; Liviu Bugea, Adrian
2013-04-01
quantify the point displacement. The set of maps resulted from analysis show the displacement field of the landslides or the velocity-time diagrams, making this kind of information vital for early detection of changes in the landslide state of activity. Furthermore, the analysis of cumulative displacement maps in a quasi-continuous surface allows identification of a landslide characterized by different patterns, indicating partial activations or other site-specific surface processes. The research carried-out proposes calibrating pattern recognition algorithms by classical on-site monitoring such as topographical and inclinometrical surveys. The image processing provides information about the dynamics of vertical displacements of soil surface and can be used to identify both landslide type and horizontal geometry giving hints about the total displaced mass. This work was supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, Program for research - Space Technology and Advanced Research - STAR, project number 30/2012.
A multi-pattern hash-binary hybrid algorithm for URL matching in the HTTP protocol.
Zeng, Ping; Tan, Qingping; Meng, Xiankai; Shao, Zeming; Xie, Qinzheng; Yan, Ying; Cao, Wei; Xu, Jianjun
2017-01-01
In this paper, based on our previous multi-pattern uniform resource locator (URL) binary-matching algorithm called HEM, we propose an improved multi-pattern matching algorithm called MH that is based on hash tables and binary tables. The MH algorithm can be applied to the fields of network security, data analysis, load balancing, cloud robotic communications, and so on-all of which require string matching from a fixed starting position. Our approach effectively solves the performance problems of the classical multi-pattern matching algorithms. This paper explores ways to improve string matching performance under the HTTP protocol by using a hash method combined with a binary method that transforms the symbol-space matching problem into a digital-space numerical-size comparison and hashing problem. The MH approach has a fast matching speed, requires little memory, performs better than both the classical algorithms and HEM for matching fields in an HTTP stream, and it has great promise for use in real-world applications.
Spot Matching of 2-DE Images Using Distance, Intensity, and Pattern Information.
Xin, Hua-Mei; Zhu, Yuemin
2016-01-01
The analysis of a large number of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) images requires developing automatic methods. In such analyses, spot matching plays a fundamental role, in particular for the identification of proteins. We describe a simple and accurate method which allows to automatically and accurately match spots in 2-DE images. The method consists of simultaneously exploiting the distance between the spots, their intensity, and the pattern formed by their spatial configuration.
T. Sree Kala,
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Nowadays the organizations are facing the number of threats every day in the form of viruses and attack etc. Since many different mechanisms were preferred by organizations in the form of intrusion detection and prevention system to protect its organizations from these kinds of attacks. Intrusion Detection System (IDS is considered as a system integrated with intelligent subsystems. In this paper the signature based intrusion detection system is discussed. There are different pattern matching algorithms available to detect intrusion. Brute force and Knuth-Morris-Pratt are the single keyword pattern matching algorithms. If one or more occurrence of pattern present in the input text, then there is an intrusion and the intrusion alarm will be sent. The occurrence of false alarm will be high in intrusion detection. In this paper the string matching algorithm to reduce the percentage of false alarm will be discussed.
A fast Boyer-Moore type pattern matching algorithm for highly similar sequences.
Ben Nsira, Nadia; Lecroq, Thierry; Elloumi, Mourad
2015-01-01
In the last decade, biology and medicine have undergone a fundamental change: next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have enabled to obtain genomic sequences very quickly and at small costs compared to the traditional Sanger method. These NGS technologies have thus permitted to collect genomic sequences (genes, exomes or even full genomes) of individuals of the same species. These latter sequences are identical to more than 99%. There is thus a strong need for efficient algorithms for indexing and performing fast pattern matching in such specific sets of sequences. In this paper we propose a very efficient algorithm that solves the exact pattern matching problem in a set of highly similar DNA sequences where only the pattern can be pre-processed. This new algorithm extends variants of the Boyer-Moore exact string matching algorithm. Experimental results show that it exhibits the best performances in practice.
Fluctuating emg signals: investigating long-term effects of pattern matching algorithms.
Kaufmann, Paul; Englehart, Kevin; Platzner, Marco
2010-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the behavior of state-of-the-art pattern matching algorithms when applied to electromyographic data recorded during 21 days. To this end, we compare the five classification techniques k-nearest-neighbor, linear discriminant analysis, decision trees, artificial neural networks and support vector machines. We provide all classifiers with features extracted from electromyographic signals taken from forearm muscle contractions, and try to recognize ten different hand movements. The major result of our investigation is that the classification accuracy of initially trained pattern matching algorithms might degrade on subsequent data indicating variations in the electromyographic signals over time.
Design and Implementation of a Low Complex Pattern Matching Algorithm for Memory Based Computations
K.NIVEA
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Network intrusion detection system is used to inspect packet contents against thousands of predefined malicious or suspicious patterns. Because traditional software alone pattern matching approaches can no longer meet the high throughput of today’s networking, many hardware approaches are proposed to accelerate pattern matching. Among hardware approaches, memory-based architecture has attracted a lot of attention be- cause of its easy reconfigurability and scalability. In order to accommodate the increasing number of attack patterns and meet the throughput requirement of networks, a successful network intrusion detection system must have a memory-efficient pat-tern-matching algorithm and hardware design. In this paper, we propose a memory-efficient pattern-matching algorithm which can significantly reduce the memory requirement. For Snort rule sets, the new algorithm achieves 21% of memory reduction compared with the traditional Aho–Corasick algorithm. In addi-tion, we can gain 24% of memory reduction by integrating our approach to the bit-split algorithm which is the state-of-the-art memory-based approach.
PAMELA: Pattern Matching Engine with Limited-Time Update for NIDS/NIPS
Thinh, Tran Ngoc; Kittitornkun, Surin; Tomiyama, Shigenori
Several hardware-based pattern matching engines for network intrusion/prevention detection systems (NIDS/NIPSs) can achieve high throughput with less hardware resources. However, their flexibility to update new patterns is limited and still challenging. This paper describes a PAttern Matching Engine with Limited-time updAte (PAMELA) engine using a recently proposed hashing algorithm called Cuckoo Hashing. PAMELA features on-the-fly pattern updates without reconfiguration, more efficient hardware utilization, and higher performance compared with other works. First, we implement the improved parallel exact pattern matching with arbitrary length based on Cuckoo Hashing and linked-list technique. Second, while PAMELA is being updated with new attack patterns, both stack and FIFO are utilized to bound insertion time due to the drawback of Cuckoo Hashing and to avoid interruption of input data stream. Third, we extend the system for multi-character processing to achieve higher throughput. Our engine can accommodate the latest Snort rule-set, an open source NIDS/NIPS, and achieve the throughput up to 8.8 Gigabit per second while consuming the lowest amount of hardware. Compared to other approaches, ours is far more efficient than any other implemented on Xilinx FPGA architectures.
Liu, Haishan; Frishkoff, Gwen; Frank, Robert; Dou, Dejing
2012-09-01
In the present paper, we use data mining methods to address two challenges in the sharing and integration of data from electrophysiological (ERP) studies of human brain function. The first challenge, ERP metric matching, is to identify correspondences among distinct summary features ("metrics") in ERP datasets from different research labs. The second challenge, ERP pattern matching, is to align the ERP patterns or "components" in these datasets. We address both challenges within a unified framework. The utility of this framework is illustrated in a series of experiments using ERP datasets that are designed to simulate heterogeneities from three sources: (a) different groups of subjects with distinct simulated patterns of brain activity, (b) different measurement methods, i.e, alternative spatial and temporal metrics, and (c) different patterns, reflecting the use of alternative pattern analysis techniques. Unlike real ERP data, the simulated data are derived from known source patterns, providing a gold standard for evaluation of the proposed matching methods. Using this approach, we demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms well-known existing methods, because it utilizes cluster-based structure and thus achieves finer-grained representation of the multidimensional (spatial and temporal) attributes of ERP data.
Two-way Comparative Pattern Matching Algorithm Suitable for Chinese%适合中文的双向比较模式匹配算法
叶煜
2011-01-01
Some pattern matching algorithms were analyzed and,an algorithm,suitable for Chinese,based on KMP was proposed,that is two-way pattern matching algorithm.Based on KMP,characteristic-array was introduced into to record the positional information of end character which appears in the pattern string and further to get the maximum moving distance of the pattern and the least times of comparing during the process of pattern string＇s matching.Experimental results show that two-way pattern matching algorithm can effectively reduce the times of matching.%分析了几种常用的模式匹配算法,提出一种适合于中文的基于KMP的改进算法,即双向比较模式匹配算法.该算法以KMP算法为基础,引入特征数组以记录模式串尾字符在模式串中出现的位置信息,从而获得模式串在匹配过程中的最大移动距离和最少比较次数.实验结果表明,双向比较模式匹配算法可有效降低匹配次数.
Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin; Aabo, Thomas;
2013-01-01
We demonstrate the efficient generation of line patterns using matched-filtering Generalized Phase Contrast (mGPC). So far, the main emphasis of mGPC light addressing has been on the creation of rapidly reconfigurable focused spots. This has recently been extended to encoding extended line patter...
Length-Bounded Hybrid CPU/GPU Pattern Matching Algorithm for Deep Packet Inspection
Yi-Shan Lin
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Since frequent communication between applications takes place in high speed networks, deep packet inspection (DPI plays an important role in the network application awareness. The signature-based network intrusion detection system (NIDS contains a DPI technique that examines the incoming packet payloads by employing a pattern matching algorithm that dominates the overall inspection performance. Existing studies focused on implementing efficient pattern matching algorithms by parallel programming on software platforms because of the advantages of lower cost and higher scalability. Either the central processing unit (CPU or the graphic processing unit (GPU were involved. Our studies focused on designing a pattern matching algorithm based on the cooperation between both CPU and GPU. In this paper, we present an enhanced design for our previous work, a length-bounded hybrid CPU/GPU pattern matching algorithm (LHPMA. In the preliminary experiment, the performance and comparison with the previous work are displayed, and the experimental results show that the LHPMA can achieve not only effective CPU/GPU cooperation but also higher throughput than the previous method.
Michalski, Greg V.; Cousins, J. Bradley
2000-01-01
Used concept mapping and pattern matching in exploratory research to investigate differences in stakeholder perceptions of training results and evaluation. Group perceptions and the individual perceptions of 39 managers, product developers, and training professionals show that all stakeholder groups agreed reasonably well about the importance of…
GPUs for fast pattern matching in the RICH of the NA62 experiment
Lamanna, Gianluca; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Sozzi, Marco
2011-05-01
In rare decays experiments an effective online selection is a fundamental part of the data acquisition system (DAQ) in order to reduce both the quantity of data written on tape and the bandwidth requirements for the DAQ system. A multilevel architecture is commonly used to achieve a higher reduction factor, exploiting dedicated custom hardware and flexible software in standard computers. In this paper we discuss the possibility to use commercial video card processors (GPU) to build a fast and effective trigger system, both at hardware and software level. The computing power of the GPUs allows to design a real-time system in which trigger decisions are taken directly in the video processor with a defined maximum latency. This allows building lowest trigger levels based on standard off-the-shelf PCs with CPU and GPU (instead of the commonly adopted solutions based on custom electronics with FPGA or ASICs) with enhanced and high performance computation capabilities, resulting in high rejection power, high efficiency and simpler low level triggers. The ongoing work presented here shows the results achieved in the case of fast pattern matching in the RICH detector of the NA62 at CERN, aiming at measuring the Branching Ratio of the ultra rare decay K+→π+νν¯, is considered as use case, although the versatility and the customizability of this approach easily allow exporting the concept to different contexts. In particular the application is related to particle identification in the RICH detector of the NA62 experiment, where the rate of events to be analyzed will be around 10 MHz. The results obtained in lab tests are very encouraging to go towards a working prototype. Due to the use of off-the-shelf technology, in continuous development for other purposes (Video Games, image editing,…), the architecture described would be easily exported into other experiments, for building powerful, flexible and fully customizable trigger systems.
GPUs for fast pattern matching in the RICH of the NA62 experiment
Lamanna, Gianluca, E-mail: gianluca.lamanna@cern.c [CERN, 1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Collazuol, Gianmaria, E-mail: gianmaria.collazuol@cern.c [INFN Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Sozzi, Marco, E-mail: marco.sozzi@cern.c [University and INFN Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)
2011-05-21
In rare decays experiments an effective online selection is a fundamental part of the data acquisition system (DAQ) in order to reduce both the quantity of data written on tape and the bandwidth requirements for the DAQ system. A multilevel architecture is commonly used to achieve a higher reduction factor, exploiting dedicated custom hardware and flexible software in standard computers. In this paper we discuss the possibility to use commercial video card processors (GPU) to build a fast and effective trigger system, both at hardware and software level. The computing power of the GPUs allows to design a real-time system in which trigger decisions are taken directly in the video processor with a defined maximum latency. This allows building lowest trigger levels based on standard off-the-shelf PCs with CPU and GPU (instead of the commonly adopted solutions based on custom electronics with FPGA or ASICs) with enhanced and high performance computation capabilities, resulting in high rejection power, high efficiency and simpler low level triggers. The ongoing work presented here shows the results achieved in the case of fast pattern matching in the RICH detector of the NA62 at CERN, aiming at measuring the Branching Ratio of the ultra rare decay K{sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{nu}{nu}-bar, is considered as use case, although the versatility and the customizability of this approach easily allow exporting the concept to different contexts. In particular the application is related to particle identification in the RICH detector of the NA62 experiment, where the rate of events to be analyzed will be around 10 MHz. The results obtained in lab tests are very encouraging to go towards a working prototype. Due to the use of off-the-shelf technology, in continuous development for other purposes (Video Games, image editing,...), the architecture described would be easily exported into other experiments, for building powerful, flexible and fully customizable trigger systems.
A Simple, Fast, Filter-Based Algorithm for Approximate Circular Pattern Matching.
Azim, Md Aashikur Rahman; Iliopoulos, Costas S; Rahman, M Sohel; Samiruzzaman, M
2016-03-01
This paper deals with the approximate version of the circular pattern matching (ACPM) problem, which appears as an interesting problem in many biological contexts. The circular pattern matching problem consists in finding all occurrences of the rotations of a pattern P of length m in a text T of length n. In ACPM, we consider occurrences with k -mismatches under the Hamming distance model. In this paper, we present a simple and fast filter-based algorithm to solve the ACPM problem. We compare our algorithm with the state of the art algorithms and the results are found to be excellent. In particular, our algorithm runs almost twice as fast than the state of the art. Much of the efficiency of our algorithm can be attributed to its filters that are effective but extremely simple and lightweight.
Integrated memristor-MOS (M2) sensor for basic pattern matching applications.
Kavehei, Omid; Cho, Kyoung-Rok; Lee, Sang-Jin; Al-Sarawi, Said; Eshraghian, Kamran; Abbott, Derek
2013-05-01
This paper introduces an integrated sensor circuit based on an analog Memristor-MOS (M2) pattern matching building block that calculates the similarity/dissimilarity between two analog values. A new approach for a pulse-width modulation pixel image sensor compatible with the memristive-MOS matching structure is introduced allowing direct comparison between incoming and stored images. The pulsed-width encoded information from the pixels is forwarded to a matching circuitry that provides an anti-Gaussian-like comparison between the states of memristors. The non-volatile and multi-state memory characteristics of memristor, together with the related ability to be programmed at any one of the intermediate states between logic '1' and logic '0' brings us closer to the implementation of bio-machines that can eventually emulate human-like sensory functions.
Papa, Frank; And Others
1990-01-01
In this study an artificial intelligence assessment tool used disease-by-feature frequency estimates to create disease prototypes for nine common causes of acute chest pain. The tool then used each subject's prototypes and a pattern-recognition-based decision-making mechanism to diagnose 18 myocardial infarction cases. (MLW)
Prof. Nar Singh
2016-05-01
Full Text Available In area of video compression, Motion Estimation is one of the most important modules and play an important role to design and implementation of any the video encoder. It consumes more than 85% of video encoding time due to searching of a candidate block in the search window of the reference frame. Various block matching methods have been developed to minimize the search time. In this context, Adaptive Rood Pattern Search is one of the less expensive block matching methods, which is widely acceptable for better Motion Estimation in video data processing. In this paper we have proposed to optimize the macro block size used in adaptive rood pattern search method for improvement in motion estimation.
Efficient Design and Implementation of DFA Based Pattern Matching onHardware
Aakanksha Pandey
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Pattern matching is a crucial task in several critical network services such as intrusion detection. In this paper we present an efficient implementation of the DFA with optimized area and optimized memory by the introduction of state minimization. By using minimized DFA the clock frequency reduces to 40% of the original and the area also reduces to 30%. This optimized architecture of DFA is simulated and synthesized using VHDL on the Xilinx ISE 12.4.
A METHOD FOR SEMANTIC WEB SERVICE COMPOSITION BASED ON PATTERN MATCHING
Mogos, Andrei-Horia; Adina Magda FLOREA
2010-01-01
The composition of semantic web services is a very important and actual problem in the semantic web services research area. There are several semi-automatic approaches for this problem, but most of the results are related to automatic approaches. In this paper we present an automatic approach for the composition of semantic web services based on pattern matching. We consider a special type of semantic description, represented as a list of semantic descriptions corresponding to several semanti...
Receptive fields of locust brain neurons are matched to polarization patterns of the sky.
Bech, Miklós; Homberg, Uwe; Pfeiffer, Keram
2014-09-22
Many animals, including insects, are able to use celestial cues as a reference for spatial orientation and long-distance navigation [1]. In addition to direct sunlight, the chromatic gradient of the sky and its polarization pattern are suited to serve as orientation cues [2-5]. Atmospheric scattering of sunlight causes a regular pattern of E vectors in the sky, which are arranged along concentric circles around the sun [5, 6]. Although certain insects rely predominantly on sky polarization for spatial orientation [7], it has been argued that detection of celestial E vector orientation may not suffice to differentiate between solar and antisolar directions [8, 9]. We show here that polarization-sensitive (POL) neurons in the brain of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria can overcome this ambiguity. Extracellular recordings from POL units in the central complex and lateral accessory lobes revealed E vector tunings arranged in concentric circles within large receptive fields, matching the sky polarization pattern at certain solar positions. Modeling of neuronal responses under an idealized sky polarization pattern (Rayleigh sky) suggests that these "matched filter" properties allow locusts to unambiguously determine the solar azimuth by relying solely on the sky polarization pattern for compass navigation.
SONG Tian; WANG DongSheng; TANG ZhiZhong
2009-01-01
Pattern matching is one of the most performance-critical components for the content inspection based applications of network security, such as network intrusion detection and prevention. To keep up with the increasing speed network, this component needs to be accelerated by well designed custom coprocessor. This paper presents a paremeterized multilevel pattern matching architecture (MPM) which is used on FPGAs. To achieve less chip area, the architecture is designed based on the idea of selected character decoding (SCD) and multilevel method which are analyzed in detail. This paper also proposes an MPM generator that can generate RTL-level codes of MPM by giving a pattern set and predefined parameters. With the generator, the efficient MPM architecture can be generated and embedded to a total hardware solution. The third contribution is a mathematical model and formula to estimate the chip area for each MPM before it is generated, which is useful for choosing the proper type of FPGAs. One example MPM architecture is implemented by giving 1785 patterns of Snort on Xilinx Virtex 2 Pro FPGA.The results show that this MPM can achieve 4.3 Gbps throughput with 5 stages of pipelines and 0.22 slices per character, about one half chip area of the most area-efficient architecture in literature. Other results are given to show that MPM is also efficient for general random pattern sets. The performance of MPM can be scalable near linearly, potential for more than 100 Gbps throughput.
Data-Driven Engineering of Social Dynamics: Pattern Matching and Profit Maximization.
Huan-Kai Peng
Full Text Available In this paper, we define a new problem related to social media, namely, the data-driven engineering of social dynamics. More precisely, given a set of observations from the past, we aim at finding the best short-term intervention that can lead to predefined long-term outcomes. Toward this end, we propose a general formulation that covers two useful engineering tasks as special cases, namely, pattern matching and profit maximization. By incorporating a deep learning model, we derive a solution using convex relaxation and quadratic-programming transformation. Moreover, we propose a data-driven evaluation method in place of the expensive field experiments. Using a Twitter dataset, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our dynamics engineering approach for both pattern matching and profit maximization, and study the multifaceted interplay among several important factors of dynamics engineering, such as solution validity, pattern-matching accuracy, and intervention cost. Finally, the method we propose is general enough to work with multi-dimensional time series, so it can potentially be used in many other applications.
A pattern matching approach for the estimation of alignment between any two given DNA sequences.
Basu, K; Sriraam, N; Richard, R J A
2007-08-01
For a given DNA sequence, it is well known that pair wise alignment schemes are used to determine the similarity with the DNA sequences available in the databanks. The efficiency of the alignment decides the type of amino acids and its corresponding proteins. In order to evaluate the given DNA sequence for its proteomic identity, a pattern matching approach is proposed in this paper. A block based semi-global alignment scheme is introduced to determine the similarity between the DNA sequences (known and given). The two DNA sequences are divided into blocks of equal length and alignment is performed which minimizes the computational complexity. The efficiency of the alignment scheme is evaluated using the parameter, percentage of similarity (POS). Four essential DNA version of the amino acids that emphasize the importance of proteomic functionalities are chosen as patterns and matching is performed with the known and given DNA sequences to determine the similarity between them. The ratio of amino acid counts between the two sequences is estimated and the results are compared with that of the POS value. It is found from the experimental results that higher the POS value and the pattern matching higher are the similarity between the two DNA sequences. The optimal block is also identified based on the POS value and amino acids count.
Data-Driven Engineering of Social Dynamics: Pattern Matching and Profit Maximization.
Peng, Huan-Kai; Lee, Hao-Chih; Pan, Jia-Yu; Marculescu, Radu
2016-01-01
In this paper, we define a new problem related to social media, namely, the data-driven engineering of social dynamics. More precisely, given a set of observations from the past, we aim at finding the best short-term intervention that can lead to predefined long-term outcomes. Toward this end, we propose a general formulation that covers two useful engineering tasks as special cases, namely, pattern matching and profit maximization. By incorporating a deep learning model, we derive a solution using convex relaxation and quadratic-programming transformation. Moreover, we propose a data-driven evaluation method in place of the expensive field experiments. Using a Twitter dataset, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our dynamics engineering approach for both pattern matching and profit maximization, and study the multifaceted interplay among several important factors of dynamics engineering, such as solution validity, pattern-matching accuracy, and intervention cost. Finally, the method we propose is general enough to work with multi-dimensional time series, so it can potentially be used in many other applications.
Kentaro Inoue
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For visualizing large-scale biochemical network maps, it is important to calculate the coordinates of molecular nodes quickly and to enhance the understanding or traceability of them. The grid layout is effective in drawing compact, orderly, balanced network maps with node label spaces, but existing grid layout algorithms often require a high computational cost because they have to consider complicated positional constraints through the entire optimization process. RESULTS: We propose a hybrid grid layout algorithm that consists of a non-grid, fast layout (preprocessor algorithm and an approximate pattern matching algorithm that distributes the resultant preprocessed nodes on square grid points. To demonstrate the feasibility of the hybrid layout algorithm, it is characterized in terms of the calculation time, numbers of edge-edge and node-edge crossings, relative edge lengths, and F-measures. The proposed algorithm achieves outstanding performances compared with other existing grid layouts. CONCLUSIONS: Use of an approximate pattern matching algorithm quickly redistributes the laid-out nodes by fast, non-grid algorithms on the square grid points, while preserving the topological relationships among the nodes. The proposed algorithm is a novel use of the pattern matching, thereby providing a breakthrough for grid layout. This application program can be freely downloaded from http://www.cadlive.jp/hybridlayout/hybridlayout.html.
Pattern Recognition of High O3 Episodes in Forecasting Daily Maximum Ozone Levels
Jeong-Sook Heo
2004-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, a method was developed to diagnose ozone episodes exceeding environmental criteria (e.g., above 80 ppb on the basis of a multivariate statistical method and a fuzzy expert system. This method, being capable of characterizing the occurrence patterns of high-level ozone, was employed to forecast daily maximum ozone levels. The hourly data for both air pollutants and meteorological parameters, obtained both at the surface and at high elevation (500 hPa stations of Seoul City (1989-1996, were analyzed using this method. Through an application of the fuzzy expert system, the data sets were classified into 8 different types for common ozone episodes. In addition, the data sets were divided into patterns of 11 (Station A, 20 (Station B, 8 (Station C, and 10 (Station D for site-specific ozone episodes. The results of the analysis were successful in demonstrating that the method was sufficiently efficient to classify each class quantitatively with its own patterns of ozone pollution.
Feature-matching pattern-based support vector machines for robust peptide mass fingerprinting.
Li, Youyuan; Hao, Pei; Zhang, Siliang; Li, Yixue
2011-12-01
Peptide mass fingerprinting, regardless of becoming complementary to tandem mass spectrometry for protein identification, is still the subject of in-depth study because of its higher sample throughput, higher level of specificity for single peptides and lower level of sensitivity to unexpected post-translational modifications compared with tandem mass spectrometry. In this study, we propose, implement and evaluate a uniform approach using support vector machines to incorporate individual concepts and conclusions for accurate PMF. We focus on the inherent attributes and critical issues of the theoretical spectrum (peptides), the experimental spectrum (peaks) and spectrum (masses) alignment. Eighty-one feature-matching patterns derived from cleavage type, uniqueness and variable masses of theoretical peptides together with the intensity rank of experimental peaks were proposed to characterize the matching profile of the peptide mass fingerprinting procedure. We developed a new strategy including the participation of matched peak intensity redistribution to handle shared peak intensities and 440 parameters were generated to digitalize each feature-matching pattern. A high performance for an evaluation data set of 137 items was finally achieved by the optimal multi-criteria support vector machines approach, with 491 final features out of a feature vector of 35,640 normalized features through cross training and validating a publicly available "gold standard" peptide mass fingerprinting data set of 1733 items. Compared with the Mascot, MS-Fit, ProFound and Aldente algorithms commonly used for MS-based protein identification, the feature-matching patterns algorithm has a greater ability to clearly separate correct identifications and random matches with the highest values for sensitivity (82%), precision (97%) and F1-measure (89%) of protein identification. Several conclusions reached via this research make general contributions to MS-based protein identification. Firstly
Identifying designs from incomplete, fragmented cultural heritage objects by curve-pattern matching
Zhou, Jun; Yu, Haozhou; Smith, Karen; Wilder, Colin; Yu, Hongkai; Wang, Song
2017-01-01
The study of cultural heritage objects with embellished realistic and abstract designs made up of connected and intertwined curves crosscuts a number of related disciplines, including archaeology, art history, and heritage management. However, many objects, such as pottery sherds found in the archaeological record, are fragmentary, making the underlying complete designs unknowable at the scale of the sherd fragment. The challenge to reconstruct and study complete designs is stymied because (1) most fragmentary cultural heritage objects contain only a small portion of the underlying full design, (2) in the case of a stamping application, the same design may be applied multiple times with spatial overlap on one object, and (3) curve patterns detected on an object are usually incomplete and noisy. As a result, traditional curve-pattern matching algorithms, such as Chamfer matching, may perform poorly in identifying the underlying design. We develop a new partial-to-global curve matching algorithm to address these challenges and better identify the full design from a fragmented cultural heritage object. Specifically, we develop the algorithm to identify the designs of the carved wooden paddles of the Southeastern Woodlands from unearthed pottery sherds. A set of pottery sherds, curated at Georgia Southern University, are used to test the proposed algorithm, with promising results.
Frequency-domain nonlinear optics in two-dimensionally patterned quasi-phase-matching media
Phillips, C R; Gallmann, L; Keller, U
2015-01-01
Advances in the amplification and manipulation of ultrashort laser pulses has led to revolutions in several areas. Examples include chirped pulse amplification for generating high peak-power lasers, power-scalable amplification techniques, pulse shaping via modulation of spatially-dispersed laser pulses, and efficient frequency-mixing in quasi-phase-matched nonlinear crystals to access new spectral regions. In this work, we introduce and demonstrate a new platform for nonlinear optics which has the potential to combine all of these separate functionalities (pulse amplification, frequency transfer, and pulse shaping) into a single monolithic device. Moreover, our approach simultaneously offers solutions to the performance-limiting issues in the conventionally-used techniques, and supports scaling in power and bandwidth of the laser source. The approach is based on two-dimensional patterning of quasi-phase-matching gratings combined with optical parametric interactions involving spatially dispersed laser pulses...
Detecting network intrusions by data mining and variable-length sequence pattern matching
Tian Xinguang; Duan Miyi; Sun Chunlai; Liu Xin
2009-01-01
Anomaly detection has been an active research topic in the field of network intrusion detection for many years. A novel method is presented for anomaly detection based on system calls into the kernels of Unix or Linux systems. The method uses the data mining technique to model the normal behavior of a privileged program and uses a variable-length pattern matching algorithm to perform the comparison of the current behavior and historic normal behavior, which is more suitable for this problem than the fixed-length pattern matching algorithm proposed by Forrest et al. At the detection stage, the particularity of the audit data is taken into account, and two alternative schemes could be used to distinguish between normalities and intrusions. The method gives attention to both computational efficiency and detection accuracy and is especially applicable for on-line detection. The performance of the method is evaluated using the typical testing data set, and the results show that it is significantly better than the anomaly detection method based on hidden Markov models proposed by Yan et al. and the method based on fixed-length patterns proposed by Forrest and Hofmeyr. The novel method has been applied to practical hosted-based intrusion detection systems and achieved high detection performance.
钱菲; 袁春风
2012-01-01
术语定义抽取是信息抽取研究领域的重要内容之一.文中提出了一种结合硬模板匹配和软模板匹配技术的综合术语定义自动抽取方法.文中首先使用硬模板库对待抽取文本进行了初步的定义句匹配抽取.接着,通过使用基于N元语言模型的软模板匹配模型来计算待匹配文本中每个句子与软模板之间的匹配度,并通过设定匹配得分阈值来抽取定义句或过滤掉错误召回的非定义句.实验结果表明文中的术语定义抽取方法远远优于单纯的硬模板匹配或软模板匹配方法.%Definition extraction is an important topic in the field of information extraction. It proposes a definition extraction method based on both hard pattern matching and soft pattern matching. Firstly, conduct hard matching on candidate sentences and hard patterns. Secondly, n-gram based soft pattern matching model is used to get a matching score between the candidate sentence and the soft pattern. In the second step, an upper threshold is set to recall candidate sentences with a high matching score;A lower threshold is used to rule out some wrongly-recalled sentences by hard matching. The experimental results show that the proposed definition extraction method is far superior to both pure hard pattern matching and soft pattern matching method.
Dietary pattern analysis: a comparison between matched vegetarian and omnivorous subjects.
Clarys, Peter; Deriemaeker, Peter; Huybrechts, Inge; Hebbelinck, Marcel; Mullie, Patrick
2013-06-13
Dietary pattern analysis, based on the concept that foods eaten together are as important as a reductive methodology characterized by a single food or nutrient analysis, has emerged as an alternative approach to study the relation between nutrition and disease. The aim of the present study was to compare nutritional intake and the results of dietary pattern analysis in properly matched vegetarian and omnivorous subjects. Vegetarians (n = 69) were recruited via purposeful sampling and matched non-vegetarians (n = 69) with same age, gender, health and lifestyle characteristics were searched for via convenience sampling. Two dietary pattern analysis methods, the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) were calculated and analysed in function of the nutrient intake. Mean total energy intake was comparable between vegetarians and omnivorous subjects (p > 0.05). Macronutrient analysis revealed significant differences between the mean values for vegetarians and omnivorous subjects (absolute and relative protein and total fat intake were significantly lower in vegetarians, while carbohydrate and fibre intakes were significantly higher in vegetarians than in omnivorous subjects). The HEI and MDS were significantly higher for the vegetarians (HEI = 53.8.1 ± 11.2; MDS = 4.3 ± 1.3) compared to the omnivorous subjects (HEI = 46.4 ± 15.3; MDS = 3.8 ± 1.4). Our results indicate a more nutrient dense pattern, closer to the current dietary recommendations for the vegetarians compared to the omnivorous subjects. Both indexing systems were able to discriminate between the vegetarians and the non-vegetarians with higher scores for the vegetarian subjects.
Systems, methods and apparatus for pattern matching in procedure development and verification
Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Rash, James L. (Inventor); Rouff, Christopher A. (Inventor)
2011-01-01
Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which, in some embodiments, a formal specification is pattern-matched from scenarios, the formal specification is analyzed, and flaws in the formal specification are corrected. The systems, methods and apparatus may include pattern-matching an equivalent formal model from an informal specification. Such a model can be analyzed for contradictions, conflicts, use of resources before the resources are available, competition for resources, and so forth. From such a formal model, an implementation can be automatically generated in a variety of notations. The approach can improve the resulting implementation, which, in some embodiments, is provably equivalent to the procedures described at the outset, which in turn can improve confidence that the system reflects the requirements, and in turn reduces system development time and reduces the amount of testing required of a new system. Moreover, in some embodiments, two or more implementations can be "reversed" to appropriate formal models, the models can be combined, and the resulting combination checked for conflicts. Then, the combined, error-free model can be used to generate a new (single) implementation that combines the functionality of the original separate implementations, and may be more likely to be correct.
Wrigley, C W; Batey, I L; Bekes, F; Gore, P J; Margolis, J
1992-01-01
New precast microgels are described for use in quickly identifying seed of cereal varieties by determining protein composition within an hour. For example, gliadin proteins are extracted from crushed wheat grain, wheatmeal or flour with ethylene glycol (centrifugation not necessary) and 5 microliters extract is applied to a Micrograd gel (3-15% gel gradient) for ten minutes' electrophoresis at 300 volts in sodium lactate buffer (pH 3.1). Alternatively, precast gels are available for SDS gel electrophoresis for examining a different aspect of grain composition as a means of identification. To further expedite identification, software packages have been developed to match the protein pattern for an unknown sample against those of authentic samples, thus to provide quick and definite identity, based on electrophoretic banding, densitometer scan, HPLC profile, multiple antibody reaction or RFLP pattern (PatMatch program). Furthermore, the program WhatWheat offers advice on the best combination of methods to use for a specific task of identification.
Bettonviel A, E O; Brinkmans N, Y J; Russcher, Kris; Wardenaar, Floris C; Witard, Oliver C
2016-06-01
The nutritional status of elite soccer players across match, postmatch, training and rest days has not been defined. Recent evidence suggests the pattern of dietary protein intake impacts the daytime turnover of muscle proteins and, as such, influences muscle recovery. We assessed the nutritional status and daytime pattern of protein intake in senior professional and elite youth soccer players and compared findings against published recommendations. Fourteen senior professional (SP) and 15 youth elite (YP) soccer players from the Dutch premier division completed nutritional assessments using a 24-hr web-based recall method. Recall days consisted of a match, postmatch, rest, and training day. Daily energy intake over the 4-day period was similar between SP (2988 ± 583 kcal/day) and YP (2938 ± 465 kcal/day; p = .800). Carbohydrate intake over the combined 4-day period was lower in SP (4.7 ± 0.7 g·kg-1 BM·day-1) vs. YP (6.0 ± 1.5 g·kg-1 BM·day-1, p = .006) and SP failed to meet recommended carbohydrate intakes on match and training days. Conversely, recommended protein intakes were met for SP (1.9 ± 0.3 g·kg-1 BM·day-1) and YP (1.7 ± 0.4 g·kg-1 BM·day-1), with no differences between groups (p = .286). Accordingly, both groups met or exceeded recommended daily protein intakes on individual match, postmatch, rest and training days. A similar "balanced" daytime pattern of protein intake was observed in SP and YP. To conclude, SP increased protein intake on match and training days to a greater extent than YP, however at the expense of carbohydrate intake. The daytime distribution of protein intake for YP and SP aligned with current recommendations of a balanced protein meal pattern.
Yu-Qiong Wu; Yu- Qiang Gou; Jing Han; Ying-Yan Bi; Shi-Lan Feng; Fang-Di Hu; Chun- Ming Wang
2011-01-01
An approach was proposed to evaluate preparation technology by means of fingerprint-peak matching technology of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector （HPLC-DAD）. Similarity and hierarchical clustering analysis （HCA） were applied
Neural-Based Pattern Matching for Selection of Biophysical Model Meteorological Forcings
Coleman, A. M.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Li, H.; Venteris, E. R.; Skaggs, R. J.
2011-12-01
matching method using neural-network based Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) and GIS-based spatial modeling. This method pattern matches long-term mean monthly meteorology at an individual site to a series of CLIGEN stations within a user-defined proximal distance. The time-series data signatures of the selected stations are competed against one another using a SOM-generated similarity metric to determine the closest pattern match to the spatially distributed PRISM meteorology at the site of interest. This method overcomes issues with topographic dispersion of meteorology stations and existence of microclimates where the nearest meteorology station may not be the most representative.
Optimizing of large-number-patterns string matching algorithms based on definite-state automata
CHEN Xun-xun; FANG Bin-xing
2007-01-01
Because the small CACHE size of computers, the scanning speed of DFA based multi-pattern stringmatching algorithms slows down rapidly especially when the number of patterns is very large. For solving such problems, we cut down the scanning time of those algorithms (i.e. DFA based) by rearranging the states table and shrinking the DFA alphabet size. Both the methods can decrease the probability of large-scale random memory accessing and increase the probability of continuously memory accessing. Then the hitting rate of the CACHE is increased and the searching time of on the DFA is reduced. Shrinking the alphabet size of the DFA also reduces the storage complication. The AC + + algorithm, by optimizing the Aho-Corasick ( i. e. AC) algorithm using such methods, proves the theoretical analysis. And the experimentation results show that the scanning time of AC + + and the storage occupied is better than that of AC in most cases and the result is much attractive when the number of patterns is very large. Because DFA is a widely used base algorithm in may string matching algorithms, such as DAWG, SBOM etc. , the optimizing method discussed is significant in practice.
Patterned fabric defect detection via convolutional matching pursuit dual-dictionary
Jing, Junfeng; Fan, Xiaoting; Li, Pengfei
2016-05-01
Automatic patterned fabric defect detection is a promising technique for textile manufacturing due to its low cost and high efficiency. The applicability of most existing algorithms, however, is limited by their intensive computation. To overcome or alleviate the problem, this paper presents a convolutional matching pursuit (CMP) dual-dictionary algorithm for patterned fabric defect detection. A preprocessing with mean sampling is performed to eliminate the influence of background texture of fabric defects. Subsequently, a set of defect-free image blocks are selected as a sample set by sliding window. Dual-dictionary and sparse coefficiencies of the defect-free sample set are obtained via CMP and the K-singular value decomposition (K-SVD) based on a Gabor filter. Then we employ the defect-free and defective fabric image's projections onto the dual-dictionary as features for defect detection. Finally, the test results are determined by comparing the distance between the features to be measured. Experimental results reveal that the proposed algorithm is effective for patterned fabric defect detection and an acceptable average detection rate reaches by 94.2%.
Wang, Lynn T.; Schroeder, Uwe Paul; Woo, Youngtag; Zeng, Jia; Madhavan, Sriram; Capodieci, Luigi
2016-03-01
A pattern-based methodology for optimizing Self-Aligned Double Patterning (SADP)-compliant layout designs is developed based on detecting cut-induced hotspot patterns and replacing them with pre-characterized fixing solutions. A pattern library with predetermined fixing solutions is built. A pattern-based engine searches for matching patterns in the layout designs. When a match is found, the engine opportunistically replaces the detected pattern with a pre-characterized fixing solution, preserving only the design rule check-clean replacements. The methodology is demonstrated on a 10nm routed block. A small library of fourteen patterns reduced the number of cut-induced design rule check violations by 100% and lithography hotspots by 23%.
Wang, Lynn T.-N.; Schroeder, Uwe Paul; Madhavan, Sriram
2017-03-01
A pattern-based methodology for optimizing SADP-compliant layout designs is developed based on identifying cut mask patterns and replacing them with pre-characterized fixing solutions. A pattern-based library of difficult-tomanufacture cut patterns with pre-characterized fixing solutions is built. A pattern-based engine searches for matching patterns in the decomposed layouts. When a match is found, the engine opportunistically replaces the detected pattern with a pre-characterized fixing solution. The methodology was demonstrated on a 7nm routed metal2 block. A small library of 30 cut patterns increased the number of more manufacturable cuts by 38% and metal-via enclosure by 13% with a small parasitic capacitance impact of 0.3%.
Kim, HyunJin; Choi, Kang-Il; Choi, Sang-Il
2015-01-01
This paper proposes a memory-efficient bit-split string matching scheme for deep packet inspection (DPI). When the number of target patterns becomes large, the memory requirements of the string matching engine become a critical issue. The proposed string matching scheme reduces the memory requirements using the uniqueness of the target patterns in the deterministic finite automaton (DFA)-based bit-split string matching. The pattern grouping extracts a set of unique patterns from the target patterns. In the set of unique patterns, a pattern is not the suffix of any other patterns. Therefore, in the DFA constructed with the set of unique patterns, when only one pattern can be matched in an output state. In the bit-split string matching, multiple finite-state machine (FSM) tiles with several input bit groups are adopted in order to reduce the number of stored state transitions. However, the memory requirements for storing the matching vectors can be large because each bit in the matching vector is used to identify whether its own pattern is matched or not. In our research, the proposed pattern grouping is applied to the multiple FSM tiles in the bit-split string matching. For the set of unique patterns, the memory-based bit-split string matching engine stores only the pattern match index for each state to indicate the match with its own unique pattern. Therefore, the memory requirements are significantly decreased by not storing the matching vectors in the string matchers for the set of unique patterns. The experimental results show that the proposed string matching scheme can reduce the storage cost significantly compared to the previous bit-split string matching methods.
Vinga Susana
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chaos Game Representation (CGR is an iterated function that bijectively maps discrete sequences into a continuous domain. As a result, discrete sequences can be object of statistical and topological analyses otherwise reserved to numerical systems. Characteristically, CGR coordinates of substrings sharing an L-long suffix will be located within 2-L distance of each other. In the two decades since its original proposal, CGR has been generalized beyond its original focus on genomic sequences and has been successfully applied to a wide range of problems in bioinformatics. This report explores the possibility that it can be further extended to approach algorithms that rely on discrete, graph-based representations. Results The exploratory analysis described here consisted of selecting foundational string problems and refactoring them using CGR-based algorithms. We found that CGR can take the role of suffix trees and emulate sophisticated string algorithms, efficiently solving exact and approximate string matching problems such as finding all palindromes and tandem repeats, and matching with mismatches. The common feature of these problems is that they use longest common extension (LCE queries as subtasks of their procedures, which we show to have a constant time solution with CGR. Additionally, we show that CGR can be used as a rolling hash function within the Rabin-Karp algorithm. Conclusions The analysis of biological sequences relies on algorithmic foundations facing mounting challenges, both logistic (performance and analytical (lack of unifying mathematical framework. CGR is found to provide the latter and to promise the former: graph-based data structures for sequence analysis operations are entailed by numerical-based data structures produced by CGR maps, providing a unifying analytical framework for a diversity of pattern matching problems.
VIMALA C.
2015-05-01
Full Text Available In recent years, speech technology has become a vital part of our daily lives. Various techniques have been proposed for developing Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR system and have achieved great success in many applications. Among them, Template Matching techniques like Dynamic Time Warping (DTW, Statistical Pattern Matching techniques such as Hidden Markov Model (HMM and Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM, Machine Learning techniques such as Neural Networks (NN, Support Vector Machine (SVM, and Decision Trees (DT are most popular. The main objective of this paper is to design and develop a speaker-independent isolated speech recognition system for Tamil language using the above speech recognition techniques. The background of ASR system, the steps involved in ASR, merits and demerits of the conventional and machine learning algorithms and the observations made based on the experiments are presented in this paper. For the above developed system, highest word recognition accuracy is achieved with HMM technique. It offered 100% accuracy during training process and 97.92% for testing process.
A Hybrid CPU/GPU Pattern-Matching Algorithm for Deep Packet Inspection.
Chun-Liang Lee
Full Text Available The large quantities of data now being transferred via high-speed networks have made deep packet inspection indispensable for security purposes. Scalable and low-cost signature-based network intrusion detection systems have been developed for deep packet inspection for various software platforms. Traditional approaches that only involve central processing units (CPUs are now considered inadequate in terms of inspection speed. Graphic processing units (GPUs have superior parallel processing power, but transmission bottlenecks can reduce optimal GPU efficiency. In this paper we describe our proposal for a hybrid CPU/GPU pattern-matching algorithm (HPMA that divides and distributes the packet-inspecting workload between a CPU and GPU. All packets are initially inspected by the CPU and filtered using a simple pre-filtering algorithm, and packets that might contain malicious content are sent to the GPU for further inspection. Test results indicate that in terms of random payload traffic, the matching speed of our proposed algorithm was 3.4 times and 2.7 times faster than those of the AC-CPU and AC-GPU algorithms, respectively. Further, HPMA achieved higher energy efficiency than the other tested algorithms.
Linear time distances between fuzzy sets with applications to pattern matching and classification.
Lindblad, Joakim; Sladoje, Nataša
2014-01-01
We present four novel point-to-set distances defined for fuzzy or gray-level image data, two based on integration over α-cuts and two based on the fuzzy distance transform. We explore their theoretical properties. Inserting the proposed point-to-set distances in existing definitions of set-to-set distances, among which are the Hausdorff distance and the sum of minimal distances, we define a number of distances between fuzzy sets. These set distances are directly applicable for comparing gray-level images or fuzzy segmented objects, but also for detecting patterns and matching parts of images. The distance measures integrate shape and intensity/membership of observed entities, providing a highly applicable tool for image processing and analysis. Performance evaluation of derived set distances in real image processing tasks is conducted and presented. It is shown that the considered distances have a number of appealing theoretical properties and exhibit very good performance in template matching and object classification for fuzzy segmented images as well as when applied directly on gray-level intensity images. Examples include recognition of hand written digits and identification of virus particles. The proposed set distances perform excellently on the MNIST digit classification task, achieving the best reported error rate for classification using only rigid body transformations and a kNN classifier.
A Hybrid CPU/GPU Pattern-Matching Algorithm for Deep Packet Inspection.
Lee, Chun-Liang; Lin, Yi-Shan; Chen, Yaw-Chung
2015-01-01
The large quantities of data now being transferred via high-speed networks have made deep packet inspection indispensable for security purposes. Scalable and low-cost signature-based network intrusion detection systems have been developed for deep packet inspection for various software platforms. Traditional approaches that only involve central processing units (CPUs) are now considered inadequate in terms of inspection speed. Graphic processing units (GPUs) have superior parallel processing power, but transmission bottlenecks can reduce optimal GPU efficiency. In this paper we describe our proposal for a hybrid CPU/GPU pattern-matching algorithm (HPMA) that divides and distributes the packet-inspecting workload between a CPU and GPU. All packets are initially inspected by the CPU and filtered using a simple pre-filtering algorithm, and packets that might contain malicious content are sent to the GPU for further inspection. Test results indicate that in terms of random payload traffic, the matching speed of our proposed algorithm was 3.4 times and 2.7 times faster than those of the AC-CPU and AC-GPU algorithms, respectively. Further, HPMA achieved higher energy efficiency than the other tested algorithms.
Noh, Yun Hong; Jeong, Do Un
2014-07-15
In this paper, a packet generator using a pattern matching algorithm for real-time abnormal heartbeat detection is proposed. The packet generator creates a very small data packet which conveys sufficient crucial information for health condition analysis. The data packet envelopes real time ECG signals and transmits them to a smartphone via Bluetooth. An Android application was developed specifically to decode the packet and extract ECG information for health condition analysis. Several graphical presentations are displayed and shown on the smartphone. We evaluate the performance of abnormal heartbeat detection accuracy using the MIT/BIH Arrhythmia Database and real time experiments. The experimental result confirm our finding that abnormal heart beat detection is practically possible. We also performed data compression ratio and signal restoration performance evaluations to establish the usefulness of the proposed packet generator and the results were excellent.
Temporal and spatial patterns of zooplankton in the Chesapeake Bay turbidity maximum
M. R. Roman; D. V. Holliday; L. P. Sanford
2001-01-01
We measured the distribution of hydrographic parameters, currents, phytoplankton fluorescence, suspended sediments and zooplankton in axial transects through the Chesapeake Bay estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) seasonally...
Göschl, Florian; Friese, Uwe; Daume, Jonathan; König, Peter; Engel, Andreas K
2015-08-01
Coherent percepts emerge from the accurate combination of inputs from the different sensory systems. There is an ongoing debate about the neurophysiological mechanisms of crossmodal interactions in the brain, and it has been proposed that transient synchronization of neurons might be of central importance. Oscillatory activity in lower frequency ranges (pattern matching paradigm and analyzed oscillatory power in the theta- (4-7Hz), alpha- (8-13Hz) and beta-bands (13-30Hz). Employing the same physical stimuli, separate tasks of the experiment either required the detection of predefined targets in visual and tactile modalities or the explicit evaluation of crossmodal stimulus congruence. Analysis of the behavioral data showed benefits for congruent visuotactile stimulus combinations. Differences in oscillatory dynamics related to crossmodal congruence within the two tasks were observed in the beta-band for crossmodal target detection, as well as in the theta-band for congruence evaluation. Contrasting ongoing activity preceding visuotactile stimulation between the two tasks revealed differences in the alpha- and beta-bands. Source reconstruction of between-task differences showed prominent involvement of premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, somatosensory association cortex and the supramarginal gyrus. These areas not only exhibited more involvement in the pre-stimulus interval for target detection compared to congruence evaluation, but were also crucially involved in post-stimulus differences related to crossmodal stimulus congruence within the detection task. These results add to the increasing evidence that low frequency oscillations are functionally relevant for integration in distributed brain networks, as demonstrated for crossmodal interactions in visuotactile pattern matching in the current study.
Estimating and controlling the frequency of false matches between a peptide tandem mass spectrum and candidate peptide sequences is an issue pervading proteomics research. To solve this problem, we designed an unsupervised pattern recognition algorithm for detecting patterns with various lengths fr...
CHIMERA: Clustering of Heterogeneous Disease Effects via Distribution Matching of Imaging Patterns.
Dong, Aoyan; Honnorat, Nicolas; Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Davatzikos, Christos
2016-02-01
Many brain disorders and diseases exhibit heterogeneous symptoms and imaging characteristics. This heterogeneity is typically not captured by commonly adopted neuroimaging analyses that seek only a main imaging pattern when two groups need to be differentiated (e.g., patients and controls, or clinical progressors and non-progressors). We propose a novel probabilistic clustering approach, CHIMERA, modeling the pathological process by a combination of multiple regularized transformations from normal/control population to the patient population, thereby seeking to identify multiple imaging patterns that relate to disease effects and to better characterize disease heterogeneity. In our framework, normal and patient populations are considered as point distributions that are matched by a variant of the coherent point drift algorithm. We explain how the posterior probabilities produced during the MAP optimization of CHIMERA can be used for clustering the patients into groups and identifying disease subtypes. CHIMERA was first validated on a synthetic dataset and then on a clinical dataset mixing 317 control subjects and patients suffering from Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Parkison's Disease (PD). CHIMERA produced better clustering results compared to two standard clustering approaches. We further analyzed 390 T1 MRI scans from Alzheimer's patients. We discovered two main and reproducible AD subtypes displaying significant differences in cognitive performance.
Saarinen, Juha J.; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Evans, Alistair R.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Sibly, Richard M.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica; Uhen, Mark D.; Smith, Felisa A.
2014-01-01
There is accumulating evidence that macroevolutionary patterns of mammal evolution during the Cenozoic follow similar trajectories on different continents. This would suggest that such patterns are strongly determined by global abiotic factors, such as climate, or by basic eco-evolutionary processes such as filling of niches by specialization. The similarity of pattern would be expected to extend to the history of individual clades. Here, we investigate the temporal distribution of maximum size observed within individual orders globally and on separate continents. While the maximum size of individual orders of large land mammals show differences and comprise several families, the times at which orders reach their maximum size over time show strong congruence, peaking in the Middle Eocene, the Oligocene and the Plio-Pleistocene. The Eocene peak occurs when global temperature and land mammal diversity are high and is best explained as a result of niche expansion rather than abiotic forcing. Since the Eocene, there is a significant correlation between maximum size frequency and global temperature proxy. The Oligocene peak is not statistically significant and may in part be due to sampling issues. The peak in the Plio-Pleistocene occurs when global temperature and land mammal diversity are low, it is statistically the most robust one and it is best explained by global cooling. We conclude that the macroevolutionary patterns observed are a result of the interplay between eco-evolutionary processes and abiotic forcing. PMID:24741007
Saarinen, Juha J; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Evans, Alistair R; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Sibly, Richard M; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica; Uhen, Mark D; Smith, Felisa A
2014-06-07
There is accumulating evidence that macroevolutionary patterns of mammal evolution during the Cenozoic follow similar trajectories on different continents. This would suggest that such patterns are strongly determined by global abiotic factors, such as climate, or by basic eco-evolutionary processes such as filling of niches by specialization. The similarity of pattern would be expected to extend to the history of individual clades. Here, we investigate the temporal distribution of maximum size observed within individual orders globally and on separate continents. While the maximum size of individual orders of large land mammals show differences and comprise several families, the times at which orders reach their maximum size over time show strong congruence, peaking in the Middle Eocene, the Oligocene and the Plio-Pleistocene. The Eocene peak occurs when global temperature and land mammal diversity are high and is best explained as a result of niche expansion rather than abiotic forcing. Since the Eocene, there is a significant correlation between maximum size frequency and global temperature proxy. The Oligocene peak is not statistically significant and may in part be due to sampling issues. The peak in the Plio-Pleistocene occurs when global temperature and land mammal diversity are low, it is statistically the most robust one and it is best explained by global cooling. We conclude that the macroevolutionary patterns observed are a result of the interplay between eco-evolutionary processes and abiotic forcing.
Pleissner, K P; Hoffmann, F; Kriegel, K; Wenk, C; Wegner, S; Sahlström, A; Oswald, H; Alt, H; Fleck, E
1999-01-01
Protein spot identification in two-dimensional electrophoresis gels can be supported by the comparison of gel images accessible in different World Wide Web two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gel protein databases. The comparison may be performed either by visual cross-matching between gel images or by automatic recognition of similar protein spot patterns. A prerequisite for the automatic point pattern matching approach is the detection of protein spots yielding the x(s),y(s) coordinates and integrated spot intensities i(s). For this purpose an algorithm is developed based on a combination of hierarchical watershed transformation and feature extraction methods. This approach reduces the strong over-segmentation of spot regions normally produced by watershed transformation. Measures for the ellipticity and curvature are determined as features of spot regions. The resulting spot lists containing x(s),y(s),i(s)-triplets are calculated for a source as well as for a target gel image accessible in 2-DE gel protein databases. After spot detection a matching procedure is applied. Both the matching of a local pattern vs. a full 2-DE gel image and the global matching between full images are discussed. Preset slope and length tolerances of pattern edges serve as matching criteria. The local matching algorithm relies on a data structure derived from the incremental Delaunay triangulation of a point set and a two-step hashing technique. For the incremental construction of triangles the spot intensities are considered in decreasing order. The algorithm needs neither landmarks nor an a priori image alignment. A graphical user interface for spot detection and gel matching is written in the Java programming language for the Internet. The software package called CAROL (http://gelmatching.inf.fu-berlin.de) is realized in a client-server architecture.
Improved BM Pattern Matching Algorithm%一种改进的BM模式匹配算法
刘沛骞; 冯晶晶
2011-01-01
Considering the efficiency problem of the BM pattern matching algorithm, this paper proposes an improved BM pattern matching algorithm. Analyzing the character of it, if some continuous characters are not appearing in the model string, then the characters needn't to be compared, so this method changes the model string comparing order, and the matching efficiency of BM algorithm is enhanced. Experimental results show that the unproved BM pattern matching algorithm can effectively decrease the times of string matching and comparing, and get the good string matching efficiency.%针对BM模式匹配算法的效率问题,提出其改进算法.分析BM模式匹配算法的原理,若文本串中连续的几个字符不在模式字符串中出现,则不需要被比对,以此改变模式字符串的匹配顺序,提高算法的匹配效率.实验结果表明,改进的BM模式匹配算法可以有效地减少字符串的匹配次数和比对次数,能获得良好的字符串匹配效率.
Automatic marking by use of MRCC range pattern matching for advanced MDP
Salazar, D.; Moore, W.; Valadez, J.
2012-11-01
One step in MDP is the process of marking CD features via the jobdeck. These marks are usually further translated into specially formatted files used by optical metrology tools or CD SEM. There are various practices currently in use to accomplish the marking process, e.g.: by eye with a point and click GUI, by script using a list of known coordinates, by searching for a coordinate within a very limited neighborhood of a suspect coordinate, etc. However, all of these methods suffer from various shortcomings. They require extensive user intervention, or not all or enough marking places are found, or the coordinates that are supposed to be known are slightly off and cause mark placement scripts to fail, and so on.This paper details an approach using CATS MRCC-RPM, where a new pattern matching functionality is used to find locations suitable for mark placements. The location coordinates thus found are then passed to well known mark placing functionality to then place the marks.
Fast video shot boundary detection based on SVD and pattern matching.
Lu, Zhe-Ming; Shi, Yong
2013-12-01
Video shot boundary detection (SBD) is the first and essential step for content-based video management and structural analysis. Great efforts have been paid to develop SBD algorithms for years. However, the high computational cost in the SBD becomes a block for further applications such as video indexing, browsing, retrieval, and representation. Motivated by the requirement of the real-time interactive applications, a unified fast SBD scheme is proposed in this paper. We adopted a candidate segment selection and singular value decomposition (SVD) to speed up the SBD. Initially, the positions of the shot boundaries and lengths of gradual transitions are predicted using adaptive thresholds and most non-boundary frames are discarded at the same time. Only the candidate segments that may contain the shot boundaries are preserved for further detection. Then, for all frames in each candidate segment, their color histograms in the hue-saturation-value) space are extracted, forming a frame-feature matrix. The SVD is then performed on the frame-feature matrices of all candidate segments to reduce the feature dimension. The refined feature vector of each frame in the candidate segments is obtained as a new metric for boundary detection. Finally, cut and gradual transitions are identified using our pattern matching method based on a new similarity measurement. Experiments on TRECVID 2001 test data and other video materials show that the proposed scheme can achieve a high detection speed and excellent accuracy compared with recent SBD schemes.
Enhanced patterns of oriented edge magnitudes for face recognition and image matching.
Vu, Ngoc-Son; Caplier, Alice
2012-03-01
A good feature descriptor is desired to be discriminative, robust, and computationally inexpensive in both terms of time and storage requirement. In the domain of face recognition, these properties allow the system to quickly deliver high recognition results to the end user. Motivated by the recent feature descriptor called Patterns of Oriented Edge Magnitudes (POEM), which balances the three concerns, this paper aims at enhancing its performance with respect to all these criteria. To this end, we first optimize the parameters of POEM and then apply the whitened principal-component-analysis dimensionality reduction technique to get a more compact, robust, and discriminative descriptor. For face recognition, the efficiency of our algorithm is proved by strong results obtained on both constrained (Face Recognition Technology, FERET) and unconstrained (Labeled Faces in the Wild, LFW) data sets in addition with the low complexity. Impressively, our algorithm is about 30 times faster than those based on Gabor filters. Furthermore, by proposing an additional technique that makes our descriptor robust to rotation, we validate its efficiency for the task of image matching.
Explaining patterns in the school-to-work transition: An analysis using optimal matching.
Dorsett, Richard; Lucchino, Paolo
2014-12-01
This paper studies the school to work transition in the UK with the aim of achieving a richer understanding of individuals' trajectories in the five years after reaching school leaving age. By applying the technique of 'optimal matching' on data from 1991 to 2008, we group individuals' trajectories post-16, and identify a small number of distinct transition patterns. Our results suggest that while 9 out of 10 young people have generally positive experiences post-16, the remaining individuals exhibit a variety of histories that might warrant policy attention. We assess the extent to which characteristics at age 16 can predict which type of trajectory a young person will follow. Our analysis shows that, despite the apparent heterogeneity, virtually all at-risk trajectories are associated with a relatively small set of key 'risk factors': early pregnancy; low educational attainment and self-confidence; and disadvantaged family background. These characteristics are known to be strongly correlated across individuals and raise concerns about the degree of socio-economic polarisation in the transition from school to work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Park, Munhum; Allen, Robert
2010-09-01
Among a few previous attempts to model the outstanding echolocation capability of bats, the work by Saillant et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94, 2691-2712 (1993)] is, arguably, one of the most frequently referenced studies in which the predictions of spectrogram correlation and transformation (SCAT) model were compared to the results of relevant behavioral experiments. The SCAT model consists of cochlear, spectrogram correlation and spectrogram transformation blocks, where the latter two processes estimate the overall and the fine time delays between the animal's call and the echoes, given the neural representation of the acoustic signals generated by the cochlear block. This paper first provides a rigorous account of the spectrogram transformation (ST) block. By approximating the neural signals in analytic forms, many aspects of the ST block are explained and discussed in relation to the predictive scope of the model. Furthermore, based on these analytical arguments, the ST block is investigated from a different point of view, interpreted as a pattern-matching process which may operate at the high level of the animal's auditory pathway.
Lu, Qing; Jiang, Haiteng; Luo, Guoping; Han, Yinglin; Yao, Zhijian
2013-05-01
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) power topography may be useful for obtaining discriminative brain activity patterns that can distinguish depressed patients from healthy control subjects at the individual level. However, the application is still limited due to the lack of adequate analysis strategies to remove artifacts from the MEG signals. In this study, the multichannel matching pursuit (MMP) method was designed; in this technique, a linear decomposition method that provides components by iteratively reanalysing a residual signal after removing previously found components,. Forty-four subjects, half depressed patients and half healthy subjects, were recruited for MEG scanning whilst watching a video of sad faces. MMP was implemented to manage multichannel, multi-trial MEG signals. The representative post-MMP analysis signals were utilised to calculate the power topography over the whole brain and designed as inputs for a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. A statistically significant discriminative accuracy of 86% (p=0.002) after a permutation test was achieved. Comparing the system classification performance to that of the ensemble averaging method and the established Independent Component Analysis (ICA), we demonstrated the ability of MMP to represent critical MEG information and, in turn, to mark the abnormality of oscillatory activities under negative stimuli using images of sad faces.
Using pattern analysis matching to differentiate TBI and PTSD in a military sample.
Meyers, John E; Miller, Ronald M; Tuita, Alexa R R
2014-01-01
Distinguishing between traumatic brain injury (TBI) residuals and the effects of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during neuropsychological evaluation can be difficult because of significant overlap of symptom presentation. Using a standardized battery of tests, an artificial neural network was used to create an algorithm to perform pattern analysis matching (PAM) functions that can be used to assist with diagnosis. PAM analyzes a patient's neuropsychological data and provides a best fit classification, according to one of four groups: TBI, PTSD, malingering/invalid data, or "other" (depressed/anxious/postconcussion syndrome/normal). The original PAM was modeled on civilian data; the current study was undertaken using a database of 100 active-duty army service personnel who were referred for neuropsychological assessment in a military TBI clinic. The PAM classifications showed 90% overall accuracy when compared with clinicians' diagnoses. The PAM function is able to classify detailed neuropsychological profiles from a military population with a high degree of accuracy and is able to distinguish between TBI, PTSD, malingering/invalid data, or "other." PAM is a useful tool to help with clinical decision-making.
Andrulis, Mindaugas [Institute of Pathology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Bäuerle, Tobias [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Goldschmidt, Hartmut [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Delorme, Stefan [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Landgren, Ola [Multiple Myeloma Section, Metabolism Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda (United States); Schirmacher, Peter [Institute of Pathology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Hillengass, Jens, E-mail: jens.hillengass@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany)
2014-06-15
Objectives: To investigate how plasma cell infiltration patterns detected by MRI match the plasma cell distribution in bone marrow biopsy. Methods: We assessed 50 patients with monoclonal plasma cell disorders of all clinical stages. MRI infiltration pattern was compared with matched BM histology from the same anatomic region. Results: MRI revealed a minimal (n = 11, 22%), focal (n = 5, 10%), diffuse (n = 14, 28%) and mixed (n = 20, 40%) infiltration pattern. Diffuse MRI pattern was predominant in smoldering myeloma patients whereas the MRI patterns with “focal component” (i.e. focal and mixed) were most common in symptomatic myeloma (p < 0.01). In histology an interstitial (n = 13, 26%), nodular (n = 23, 46%) and packed marrow (n = 14, 28%) was found respectively. All three histological types of infiltration were observed in patients with diffuse and mixed MRI patterns. Minimal MRI pattern was found in all MGUS patients and was associated with an interstitial BM infiltration. In two patients with minimal MRI pattern an extensive micro-nodular BM infiltration was found in histology. Conclusions: Infiltration patterns in MRI represent different histological growth patterns of plasma cells, but the MRI resolution is not sufficient to visualize micro-nodular aggregates of plasma cells.
CERN. Geneva
2006-01-01
The flexible and modular design of the engine allows a broad spectrum of applications, ranging from high-end enterprise level network devices that need to match hundreds of thousands of patterns at speeds of tens of gigabits per second, to low-end dev...
Almutairi, Adel F; Gardner, Glenn E; McCarthy, Alexandra
2014-06-01
This paper reports on a study that demonstrates how to apply pattern matching as an analytical method in case-study research. Case-study design is appropriate for the investigation of highly-contextualized phenomena that occur within the social world. Case-study design is considered a pragmatic approach that permits employment of multiple methods and data sources in order to attain a rich understanding of the phenomenon under investigation. The findings from such multiple methods can be reconciled in case-study analysis, specifically through a pattern-matching technique. Although this technique is theoretically explained in the literature, there is scant guidance on how to apply the method practically when analyzing data. This paper demonstrates the steps taken during pattern matching in a completed case-study project that investigated the influence of cultural diversity in a multicultural nursing workforce on the quality and safety of patient care. The example highlighted in this paper contributes to the practical understanding of the pattern-matching process, and can also make a substantial contribution to case-study methods.
Network-level accident-mapping: Distance based pattern matching using artificial neural network.
Deka, Lipika; Quddus, Mohammed
2014-04-01
The objective of an accident-mapping algorithm is to snap traffic accidents onto the correct road segments. Assigning accidents onto the correct segments facilitate to robustly carry out some key analyses in accident research including the identification of accident hot-spots, network-level risk mapping and segment-level accident risk modelling. Existing risk mapping algorithms have some severe limitations: (i) they are not easily 'transferable' as the algorithms are specific to given accident datasets; (ii) they do not perform well in all road-network environments such as in areas of dense road network; and (iii) the methods used do not perform well in addressing inaccuracies inherent in and type of road environment. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new accident mapping algorithm based on the common variables observed in most accident databases (e.g. road name and type, direction of vehicle movement before the accident and recorded accident location). The challenges here are to: (i) develop a method that takes into account uncertainties inherent to the recorded traffic accident data and the underlying digital road network data, (ii) accurately determine the type and proportion of inaccuracies, and (iii) develop a robust algorithm that can be adapted for any accident set and road network of varying complexity. In order to overcome these challenges, a distance based pattern-matching approach is used to identify the correct road segment. This is based on vectors containing feature values that are common in the accident data and the network data. Since each feature does not contribute equally towards the identification of the correct road segments, an ANN approach using the single-layer perceptron is used to assist in "learning" the relative importance of each feature in the distance calculation and hence the correct link identification. The performance of the developed algorithm was evaluated based on a reference accident dataset from the UK confirming that
Research of new method for improve the rule pattern matching speed%一种提高模式匹配速度的新方法
王同军; 赵培君
2015-01-01
Based on the analyzing BM algorithm and some important improved algorithms, according to the characteristics of the first character only put forward a new pattern matching algorithm--BMX algorithm. The algorithm uses the uniqueness of the first character of pattern string, determine whether the next character in the pattern string and comparing the character and the first character of pattern string. The proposed algorithm makes the maximum displacement enhance to , the occurrence probability significantly improved. The results show that BMX algorithm can maximize the skip the bad character,greatly reduces the number of matching and compare the number of the characters, matching speed and efficiency is better than BM, BMH and BMHS algorithm.%在分析了经典的BM算法以及一些重要的改进算法的基础上，根据首字符唯一的特点提出了一种新的模式匹配算法--BMX算法。该算法利用模式串首字符的唯一性，通过判断文本串后一位是否在模式串中出现以及下一位字符和模式串首字符的比较，能使最大位移量提升到，出现概率也显著提高。实验结果表明，BMX算法能够最大限度地跳过坏字符，大大减少了匹配次数和字符的比较个数，加快了匹配速度，效率优于BM、BMH、BMHS等算法。
Tauson, A H; Chwalibog, André; Jakobsen, K
1998-01-01
Protein and energy metabolism in boars of different breeds, 10 each of Hampshire, Duroc and Danish Landrace was measured in balance and respiration experiments by means of indirect calorimetry in an open-air circulation system. Measurements were performed in four periods (Period I-IV) covering...... the body weight range from 25 to 100 kg. In order to achieve maximum protein retention (RP) a daily intake of digestible protein > 12 g/kg0.75 and metabolisable energy > 1100 kJ/kg0.75 was assumed to be necessary. Protein retention of Danish Landrace boars was inferior to that of Hampshire and Duroc boars...... in Periods III and IV, and therefore, 55 measurements on Hampshire and Duroc boars fulfilling the chosen criteria for digested protein and ME intake were used for calculation of maximum protein retention, giving the following significant quadratic relationship: RP [g/d] = 11.43.W0.75-0.144.W1.50 (n = 55, RSD...
Millán, María S.
2012-10-01
On the verge of the 50th anniversary of Vander Lugt’s formulation for pattern matching based on matched filtering and optical correlation, we acknowledge the very intense research activity developed in the field of correlation-based pattern recognition during this period of time. The paper reviews some domains that appeared as emerging fields in the last years of the 20th century and have been developed later on in the 21st century. Such is the case of three-dimensional (3D) object recognition, biometric pattern matching, optical security and hybrid optical-digital processors. 3D object recognition is a challenging case of multidimensional image recognition because of its implications in the recognition of real-world objects independent of their perspective. Biometric recognition is essentially pattern recognition for which the personal identification is based on the authentication of a specific physiological characteristic possessed by the subject (e.g. fingerprint, face, iris, retina, and multifactor combinations). Biometric recognition often appears combined with encryption-decryption processes to secure information. The optical implementations of correlation-based pattern recognition processes still rely on the 4f-correlator, the joint transform correlator, or some of their variants. But the many applications developed in the field have been pushing the systems for a continuous improvement of their architectures and algorithms, thus leading towards merged optical-digital solutions.
Naik, Ganesh R.; Kumar, Dinesh K.; Arjunan, Sridhar P.
2010-01-01
The presence of noise and cross-talk from closely located and simultaneously active muscles is exaggerated when the level of muscle contraction is very low. Due to this the current applications of surface electromyogram (sEMG) are infeasible and unreliable in pattern classification. This research reports a new technique of sEMG using Independent Component Analysis (ICA). The technique uses blind source separation (BSS) methods to classify the patterns of Myo-electrical signals during different Maximum Voluntary Contraction (MVCs) at different low level finger movements. The results of the experiments indicate that patterns using ICA of sEMG is a reliable (pMVC. The authors propose that ICA is a useful indicator of muscle properties and is a useful indicator of the level of muscle activity.
一种改进的BMHS模式匹配算法%An improved pattern matching algorithm of BMHS
张欢; 胡勇
2015-01-01
Pattern matching plays an important role in computer application. By analyzing BM, BMH, BMHS algorithm and their corresponding improved algorithms, a new improved algorithm(called DBMHS) based on BMHS is proposed. DBMHS takes full advantages of two ends string characters of pattern string, through comparing two ends character jump distance of pattern matching, jump distance is increased. The experiment results show that the improved algorithm significantly increases the jump distance of matching window, effectively improving the matching efficiency.%模式匹配在计算机应用中扮演着很重要的角色。通过分析BM，BMH和BMHS算法及相关改进算法，提出BMHS算法的改进算法(DBMHS)。该算法(DBMHS)充分利用模式串两端字符，通过比较模式串两端字符的跳转距离来实现更大距离的跳转。实验证明，改进后的算法显著增加了匹配窗口的跳转距离，有效地提高了匹配效率。
Abu Alhaija, Elham S J; Al Zo'ubi, Ibraheem A; Al Rousan, Mohammed E; Hammad, Mohammad M
2010-02-01
This study was carried out to record maximum occlusal bite force (MBF) in Jordanian students with three different facial types: short, average, and long, and to determine the effect of gender, type of functional occlusion, and the presence of premature contacts and parafunctional habits on MBF. Sixty dental students (30 males and 30 females) were divided into three equal groups based on the maxillomandibular planes angle (Max/Mand) and degree of anterior overlap: included short-faced students with a deep anterior overbite (Max/Mand or = 32 degrees). Their age ranged between 20 and 23 years. MBF was measured using a hydraulic occlusal force gauge. Occlusal factors, including the type of functional occlusion, the presence of premature contacts, and parafunctional habits, were recorded. Differences between groups were assessed using a t-test and analysis of variance. The average MBF in Jordanian adults was 573.42 +/- 140.18 N. Those with a short face had the highest MBF (679.60 +/- 117.46 N) while the long-face types had the lowest MBF (453.57 +/- 98.30 N; P < 0.001). The average MBF was 599.02 +/- 145.91 in males and 546.97 +/- 131.18 in females (P = 0.149). No gender differences were observed. The average MBF was higher in patients with premature contacts than those without, while it did not differ in subjects with different types of functional occlusion or in the presence of parafunctional habits.
Grossi Márcio L
2007-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertical facial pattern may be related to the direction of pull of the masticatory muscles, yet its effect on occlusal force and elastic deformation of the mandible still is unclear. This study tested whether the variation in vertical facial pattern is related to the variation in maximum occlusal force (MOF and medial mandibular flexure (MMF in 51 fully-dentate adults. Methods Data from cephalometric analysis according to the method of Ricketts were used to divide the subjects into three groups: Dolichofacial (n = 6, Mesofacial (n = 10 and Brachyfacial (n = 35. Bilateral MOF was measured using a cross-arch force transducer placed in the first molar region. For MMF, impressions of the mandibular occlusal surface were made in rest (R and in maximum opening (O positions. The impressions were scanned, and reference points were selected on the occlusal surface of the contralateral first molars. MMF was calculated by subtracting the intermolar distance in O from the intermolar distance in R. Data were analysed by ANCOVA (fixed factors: facial pattern, sex; covariate: body mass index (BMI; alpha = 0.05. Results No significant difference of MOF or MMF was found among the three facial patterns (P = 0.62 and P = 0.72, respectively. BMI was not a significant covariate for MOF or MMF (P > 0.05. Sex was a significant factor only for MOF (P = 0.007; males had higher MOF values than females. Conclusion These results suggest that MOF and MMF did not vary as a function of vertical facial pattern in this Brazilian sample.
Generalized Phase contrast and matched filtering for speckle‐free patterned illumination
Palima, Darwin; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Villangca, Mark Jayson
2013-01-01
Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) and matched‐filtering GPC use tandem diffractive phase elements on Fourier‐conjugate planes of a 4f optical processor to efficiently reshape incident light into a pattern that resembles the input phase modulation pattern. The synthesized patterns are inherently sp...... excitation, exhibits some robustness against light scattering and, hence, makes a promising tool for spatially precise targeting of deeper subsurface neurons using minimally speckled patterned illumination for multiphoton excitation....
Dynamic compensatory pattern matching in a fuzzy rule-based control system
Sun, Chuen-Tsai
1991-01-01
A dynamic compensatory matching procedure is suggested as a method to generate an aggregated measure for evaluating the appropriateness of rules for control systems. It is a dynamic weighted matching technique which takes into account incomplete information under real-time requirements. The initial weights of importance of variables are generated with a generalized neural network architecture and a gradient descent algorithm. An intuitive compensatory scheme based on correlations among input variables of training data is adopted so that the system is coherent to a noisy environment.
Diana, Barbara; Zurloni, Valentino; Elia, Massimiliano; Cavalera, Cesare M; Jonsson, Gudberg K; Anguera, M Teresa
2017-01-01
The influence of game location on performance has been widely examined in sport contexts. Concerning soccer, game-location affects positively the secondary and tertiary level of performance; however, there are fewer evidences about its effect on game structure (primary level of performance). This study aimed to detect the effect of game location on a primary level of performance in soccer. In particular, the objective was to reveal the hidden structures underlying the attack actions, in both home and away matches played by a top club (Serie A 2012/2013-First Leg). The methodological approach was based on systematic observation, supported by digital recordings and T-pattern analysis. Data were analyzed with THEME 6.0 software. A quantitative analysis, with nonparametric Mann-Whitney test and descriptive statistics, was carried out to test the hypotheses. A qualitative analysis on complex patterns was performed to get in-depth information on the game structure. This study showed that game tactics were significantly different, with home matches characterized by a more structured and varied game than away matches. In particular, a higher number of different patterns, with a higher level of complexity and including more unique behaviors was detected in home matches than in the away ones. No significant differences were found in the number of events coded per game between the two conditions. THEME software, and the corresponding T-pattern detection algorithm, enhance research opportunities by going further than frequency-based analyses, making this method an effective tool in supporting sport performance analysis and training.
Vegetation of Eurasia from the last glacial maximum to present: Key biogeographic patterns
Binney, Heather; Edwards, Mary; Macias-Fauria, Marc; Lozhkin, Anatoly; Anderson, Patricia; Kaplan, Jed O.; Andreev, Andrei; Bezrukova, Elena; Blyakharchuk, Tatiana; Jankovska, Vlasta; Khazina, Irina; Krivonogov, Sergey; Kremenetski, Konstantin; Nield, Jo; Novenko, Elena; Ryabogina, Natalya; Solovieva, Nadia; Willis, Kathy; Zernitskaya, Valentina
2017-02-01
Continental-scale estimates of vegetation cover, including land-surface properties and biogeographic trends, reflect the response of plant species to climate change over the past millennia. These estimates can help assess the effectiveness of simulations of climate change using forward and inverse modelling approaches. With the advent of transient and contiguous time-slice palaeoclimate simulations, vegetation datasets with similar temporal qualities are desirable. We collated fossil pollen records for the period 21,000-0 cal yr BP (kyr cal BP; calibrated ages) for Europe and Asia north of 40°N, using extant databases and new data; we filtered records for adequate dating and sorted the nomenclature to conform to a consistent yet extensive taxon list. From this database we extracted pollen spectra representing 1000-year time-slices from 21 kyr cal BP to present and used the biomization approach to define the most likely vegetation biome represented. Biomes were mapped for the 22 time slices, and key plant functional types (PFTs, the constituents of the biomes) were tracked though time. An error matrix and index of topographic complexity clearly showed that the accuracy of pollen-based biome assignments (when compared with modern vegetation) was negatively correlated with topographic complexity, but modern vegetation was nevertheless effectively mapped by the pollen, despite moderate levels of misclassification for most biomes. The pattern at 21 ka is of herb-dominated biomes across the whole region. From the onset of deglaciation (17-18 kyr cal BP), some sites in Europe record forest biomes, particularly the south, and the proportion of forest biomes gradually increases with time through 14 kyr cal BP. During the same period, forest biomes and steppe or tundra biomes are intermixed across the central Asian mountains, and forest biomes occur in coastal Pacific areas. These forest biome occurrences, plus a record of dated plant macrofossils, indicate that some tree
SimpLiFiCPM: A Simple and Lightweight Filter-Based Algorithm for Circular Pattern Matching.
Azim, Md Aashikur Rahman; Iliopoulos, Costas S; Rahman, M Sohel; Samiruzzaman, M
2015-01-01
This paper deals with the circular pattern matching (CPM) problem, which appears as an interesting problem in many biological contexts. CPM consists in finding all occurrences of the rotations of a pattern of length m in a text of length n. In this paper, we present SimpLiFiCPM (pronounced "Simplify CPM"), a simple and lightweight filter-based algorithm to solve the problem. We compare our algorithm with the state-of-the-art algorithms and the results are found to be excellent. Much of the speed of our algorithm comes from the fact that our filters are effective but extremely simple and lightweight.
Yonghui Zhang
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza A virus displays strong reassortment characteristics, which enable it to achieve adaptation in human infection. Surveying the reassortment and virulence of novel viruses is important in the prevention and control of an influenza pandemic. Meanwhile, studying the mechanism of reassortment may accelerate the development of anti-influenza strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA matching patterns of two pandemic H1N1 viruses (the 1918 and current 2009 strains and a highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1 were studied using a pseudotyped particle (pp system. Our data showed that four of the six chimeric HA/NA combinations could produce infectious pps, and that some of the chimeric pps had greater infectivity than did their ancestors, raising the possibility of reassortment among these viruses. The NA of H5N1 (A/Anhui/1/2005 could hardly reassort with the HAs of the two H1N1 viruses. Many biological characteristics of HA and NA, including infectivity, hemagglutinating ability, and NA activity, are dependent on their matching pattern. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest the existence of an interaction between HA and NA, and the HA NA matching pattern is critical for valid viral reassortment.
Intrusion Detection System Integration Pattern Matching Algorithm%入侵检测系统的融合模式匹配算法
翟玉梅; 魏衍君
2012-01-01
运用入侵检测系统的融合模式匹配算法取得待匹配的字符串集合的公共前缀与文本匹配,若为单模式匹配则匹配结束,若为多模式匹配则将文本被分割成的字符串集中的字符串分别与模式串匹配,该融合算法对单模式匹配和多模式匹配均提高了效率,识别了正文的大小写.%To use the integration of intrusion detection system pattern-matching algorithm obtain the public prefix of the string which is to be matched string. The public prefix match the text. If it is a single pattern-matching, the matching end; if it is a multi-pattern matching, the text split into multiple strings, each string is to matched with the pattern string, using the fusion algorithm, pattern matching pairs of single-and multi-pattern matching are more efficient, and can distinguish between uppercase and lowercase letters of text.
A Bioinformatics Approach for Detecting Repetitive Nested Motifs using Pattern Matching
Romero, José R.; Carballido, Jessica A.; Garbus, Ingrid; Echenique, Viviana C.; Ponzoni, Ignacio
2016-01-01
The identification of nested motifs in genomic sequences is a complex computational problem. The detection of these patterns is important to allow the discovery of transposable element (TE) insertions, incomplete reverse transcripts, deletions, and/or mutations. In this study, a de novo strategy for detecting patterns that represent nested motifs was designed based on exhaustive searches for pairs of motifs and combinatorial pattern analysis. These patterns can be grouped into three categories, motifs within other motifs, motifs flanked by other motifs, and motifs of large size. The methodology used in this study, applied to genomic sequences from the plant species Aegilops tauschii and Oryza sativa, revealed that it is possible to identify putative nested TEs by detecting these three types of patterns. The results were validated through BLAST alignments, which revealed the efficacy and usefulness of the new method, which is called Mamushka. PMID:27812277
Offering a New Approach for Approximate Pattern Matching in Example-Based Machine Translation
Reza Akbari
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this article, a new model is proposed in order to measure the degree of similarity between two sentences in machine translation based on example. The proposed model has applied genetic algorithm beside a new fitness function which is based on semantic load matching between the two sentences. Here, verbs are considered as the heart of a sentence because they are the main part of a sentence and carry the major part of the semantic load in the sentence; therefore more attention is paid to the verbs in the fitness function. It is noteworthy that the proposed model is largely dependent on the verbal part and the extracted synonyms from WordNet as well as the arrangement of words. The results are promising by precision and recall, indicating that the proposed method improves the quality of the retrieved matched sentences.
Alippi, A.; Biagioni, A.; Germano, M.; Passeri, D.
2008-06-01
Local probing of nonlinear generation of harmonic vibrations has been done on bone plate samples and the evaluation of the nonlinear term is derived from a limited number of cases of bovine thigh bones, that shows that a low level of nonlinearity is present in bone structures. This is consistent with the assumption that in low level nonlinear samples the distribution of harmonic vibrations matches the corresponding power distribution of the fundamental mode.
Thaís García PEREIRO
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Over the last decades the socio-demographic dynamics have experienced dramatic changes in Spain. One of them is linked with the recent arrival of important flows of foreign population and the consequences that such arrival could have in changing those dynamics, particularly in the union formation patterns and the marriage market. So, the aim of this paper is to examine trends in matching patterns by age and educational attainment of Spanish intermarriage, highlighting gender gaps. The data is drawn from the Spanish Marriage Register and the Labor Force Survey. Results show that intermarriage is not gender neutral. There is a peculiar pattern among Spanish men/Foreign women couples: have a higher incidence and are more age and educational heterogamous.
A fuzzy pattern matching method based on graph kernel for lithography hotspot detection
Nitta, Izumi; Kanazawa, Yuzi; Ishida, Tsutomu; Banno, Koji
2017-03-01
In advanced technology nodes, lithography hotspot detection has become one of the most significant issues in design for manufacturability. Recently, machine learning based lithography hotspot detection has been widely investigated, but it has trade-off between detection accuracy and false alarm. To apply machine learning based technique to the physical verification phase, designers require minimizing undetected hotspots to avoid yield degradation. They also need a ranking of similar known patterns with a detected hotspot to prioritize layout pattern to be corrected. To achieve high detection accuracy and to prioritize detected hotspots, we propose a novel lithography hotspot detection method using Delaunay triangulation and graph kernel based machine learning. Delaunay triangulation extracts features of hotspot patterns where polygons locate irregularly and closely one another, and graph kernel expresses inner structure of graphs. Additionally, our method provides similarity between two patterns and creates a list of similar training patterns with a detected hotspot. Experiments results on ICCAD 2012 benchmarks show that our method achieves high accuracy with allowable range of false alarm. We also show the ranking of the similar known patterns with a detected hotspot.
Tassin, Philippe; Van der Sande, Guy; Veretennicoff, Irina; Kockaert, Pascal; Tlidi, Mustapha
2009-05-25
We consider a degenerate optical parametric oscillator containing a left-handed material. We show that the inclusion of a left-handed material layer allows for controlling the strength and sign of the diffraction coefficient at either the pump or the signal frequency. Subsequently, we demonstrate the existence of stable dissipative structures without diffraction matching, i.e., without the usual relationship between the diffraction coefficients of the signal and pump fields. Finally, we investigate the size scaling of these light structures with decreasing diffraction strength.
Sandel, Brody Steven; Arge, Lars Allan; Svenning, J.-C.
Contemporary patterns of species distributions are influenced by both current and historical conditions. Historically unstable climates can lead to reductions in species richness, when species go extinct because they cannot track climate changes, when dispersal limitation causes species to fail...... to fully occupy suitable habitat, or when local diversification rates are depressed by local population extinctions and changing selective regimes. Locations with long-term climate instability should therefore show reduced species richness with small-ranged species particularly missing from the community....... We used a novel measure of climate stability, climate change velocity, which combines information on temporal and spatial gradients in climate to describe the rate at which a particular climate condition is moving over the surface of the Earth. Climate change velocity since the Last Glacial Maximum...
Efficient and Correct Stencil Computation via Pattern Matching and Static Typing
Orchard, Dominic; 10.4204/EPTCS.66.4
2011-01-01
Stencil computations, involving operations over the elements of an array, are a common programming pattern in scientific computing, games, and image processing. As a programming pattern, stencil computations are highly regular and amenable to optimisation and parallelisation. However, general-purpose languages obscure this regular pattern from the compiler, and even the programmer, preventing optimisation and obfuscating (in)correctness. This paper furthers our work on the Ypnos domain-specific language for stencil computations embedded in Haskell. Ypnos allows declarative, abstract specification of stencil computations, exposing the structure of a problem to the compiler and to the programmer via specialised syntax. In this paper we show the decidable safety guarantee that well-formed, well-typed Ypnos programs cannot index outside of array boundaries. Thus indexing in Ypnos is safe and run-time bounds checking can be eliminated. Program information is encoded as types, using the advanced type-system feature...
Ishikawa, Shinji; Hayasaki, Yoshio
2013-07-29
We propose a new method of optically reconstructing binary data formed by nanostructures with an elemental size several tens of nanometers smaller than the diffraction limit, implemented with an interference microscope and a complex-amplitude image pattern matching method. We examine the size dependency of the data reconstruction capacity using a light propagation simulation based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and the Fourier spatial frequency filtering method. We demonstrated that the readable size of the binary nanostructure depends on the magnitude of noise.
Spatio-temporal dynamics of global H5N1 outbreaks match bird migration patterns.
Si, Yali; Skidmore, Andrew K; Wang, Tiejun; de Boer, Willem F; Debba, Pravesh; Toxopeus, Albert G; Li, Lin; Prins, Herbert H T
2009-11-01
The global spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in poultry, wild birds and humans, poses a significant pandemic threat and a serious public health risk. An efficient surveillance and disease control system relies on the understanding of the dispersion patterns and spreading mechanisms of the virus. A space-time cluster analysis of H5N1 outbreaks was used to identify spatio-temporal patterns at a global scale and over an extended period of time. Potential mechanisms explaining the spread of the H5N1 virus, and the role of wild birds, were analyzed. Between December 2003 and December 2006, three global epidemic phases of H5N1 influenza were identified. These H5N1 outbreaks showed a clear seasonal pattern, with a high density of outbreaks in winter and early spring (i.e., October to March). In phase I and II only the East Asia Australian flyway was affected. During phase III, the H5N1 viruses started to appear in four other flyways: the Central Asian flyway, the Black Sea Mediterranean flyway, the East Atlantic flyway and the East Africa West Asian flyway. Six disease cluster patterns along these flyways were found to be associated with the seasonal migration of wild birds. The spread of the H5N1 virus, as demonstrated by the space-time clusters, was associated with the patterns of migration of wild birds. Wild birds may therefore play an important role in the spread of H5N1 over long distances. Disease clusters were also detected at sites where wild birds are known to overwinter and at times when migratory birds were present. This leads to the suggestion that wild birds may also be involved in spreading the H5N1 virus over short distances.
Spatio-temporal dynamics of global H5N1 outbreaks match bird migration patterns
Yali Si
2009-11-01
Full Text Available The global spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in poultry, wild birds and humans, poses a significant pandemic threat and a serious public health risk. An efficient surveillance and disease control system relies on the understanding of the dispersion patterns and spreading mechanisms of the virus. A space-time cluster analysis of H5N1 outbreaks was used to identify spatio-temporal patterns at a global scale and over an extended period of time. Potential mechanisms explaining the spread of the H5N1 virus, and the role of wild birds, were analyzed. Between December 2003 and December 2006, three global epidemic phases of H5N1 influenza were identified. These H5N1 outbreaks showed a clear seasonal pattern, with a high density of outbreaks in winter and early spring (i.e., October to March. In phase I and II only the East Asia Australian flyway was affected. During phase III, the H5N1 viruses started to appear in four other flyways: the Central Asian flyway, the Black Sea Mediterranean flyway, the East Atlantic flyway and the East Africa West Asian flyway. Six disease cluster patterns along these flyways were found to be associated with the seasonal migration of wild birds. The spread of the H5N1 virus, as demonstrated by the space-time clusters, was associated with the patterns of migration of wild birds. Wild birds may therefore play an important role in the spread of H5N1 over long distances. Disease clusters were also detected at sites where wild birds are known to overwinter and at times when migratory birds were present. This leads to the suggestion that wild birds may also be involved in spreading the H5N1 virus over short distances.
Highly Parallelized Pattern Matching Hardware for Fast Tracking at Hadron Colliders
Citraro, S.; Annovi, A.; Biesuz, N.; Giannetti, P.; Luciano, P.; Nasimi, H.; Piendibene, M.; Sotiropoulou, C.-L.; Volpi, G.
2016-04-01
A high-performance “pattern matching” implementation based on the Associative Memory (AM) system is presented. It is designed to solve the real-time hit-to-track association problem for particles produced in high-energy physics experiments at hadron colliders. The processing time of pattern recognition in CPU-based algorithms increases rapidly with the detector occupancy due to the limited computing power and input-output capacity of hardware available on the market. The AM system presented here solves the problem by being able to process even the most complex hadron collider events produced at a rate of 100 kHz with an average latency smaller than 10 μs. The board built for this goal is able to execute 12 petabyte comparisons per second, with peak power consumption below 250 W, uniformly distributed on the large area of the board.
Efficient and Correct Stencil Computation via Pattern Matching and Static Typing
Dominic Orchard
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Stencil computations, involving operations over the elements of an array, are a common programming pattern in scientific computing, games, and image processing. As a programming pattern, stencil computations are highly regular and amenable to optimisation and parallelisation. However, general-purpose languages obscure this regular pattern from the compiler, and even the programmer, preventing optimisation and obfuscating (incorrectness. This paper furthers our work on the Ypnos domain-specific language for stencil computations embedded in Haskell. Ypnos allows declarative, abstract specification of stencil computations, exposing the structure of a problem to the compiler and to the programmer via specialised syntax. In this paper we show the decidable safety guarantee that well-formed, well-typed Ypnos programs cannot index outside of array boundaries. Thus indexing in Ypnos is safe and run-time bounds checking can be eliminated. Program information is encoded as types, using the advanced type-system features of the Glasgow Haskell Compiler, with the safe-indexing invariant enforced at compile time via type checking.
Fletcher, Martyn; Liang, Bojian; Smith, Leslie; Knowles, Alastair; Jackson, Tom; Jessop, Mark; Austin, Jim
2008-10-01
In the study of information flow in the nervous system, component processes can be investigated using a range of electrophysiological and imaging techniques. Although data is difficult and expensive to produce, it is rarely shared and collaboratively exploited. The Code Analysis, Repository and Modelling for e-Neuroscience (CARMEN) project addresses this challenge through the provision of a virtual neuroscience laboratory: an infrastructure for sharing data, tools and services. Central to the CARMEN concept are federated CARMEN nodes, which provide: data and metadata storage, new, thirdparty and legacy services, and tools. In this paper, we describe the CARMEN project as well as the node infrastructure and an associated thick client tool for pattern visualisation and searching, the Signal Data Explorer (SDE). We also discuss new spike detection methods, which are central to the services provided by CARMEN. The SDE is a client application which can be used to explore data in the CARMEN repository, providing data visualization, signal processing and a pattern matching capability. It performs extremely fast pattern matching and can be used to search for complex conditions composed of many different patterns across the large datasets that are typical in neuroinformatics. Searches can also be constrained by specifying text based metadata filters. Spike detection services which use wavelet and morphology techniques are discussed, and have been shown to outperform traditional thresholding and template based systems. A number of different spike detection and sorting techniques will be deployed as services within the CARMEN infrastructure, to allow users to benchmark their performance against a wide range of reference datasets.
Ten Bosch, Quirine A; Singh, Brajendra K; Hassan, Muhammad R A; Chadee, Dave D; Michael, Edwin
2016-05-01
The epidemiology of dengue fever is characterized by highly seasonal, multi-annual fluctuations, and the irregular circulation of its four serotypes. It is believed that this behaviour arises from the interplay between environmental drivers and serotype interactions. The exact mechanism, however, is uncertain. Constraining mathematical models to patterns characteristic to dengue epidemiology offers a means for detecting such mechanisms. Here, we used a pattern-oriented modelling (POM) strategy to fit and assess a range of dengue models, driven by combinations of temporary cross protective-immunity, cross-enhancement, and seasonal forcing, on their ability to capture the main characteristics of dengue dynamics. We show that all proposed models reproduce the observed dengue patterns across some part of the parameter space. Which model best supports the dengue dynamics is determined by the level of seasonal forcing. Further, when tertiary and quaternary infections are allowed, the inclusion of temporary cross-immunity alone is strongly supported, but the addition of cross-enhancement markedly reduces the parameter range at which dengue dynamics are produced, irrespective of the strength of seasonal forcing. The implication of these structural uncertainties on predicted vulnerability to control is also discussed. With ever expanding spread of dengue, greater understanding of dengue dynamics and control efforts (e.g. a near-future vaccine introduction) has become critically important. This study highlights the capacity of multi-level pattern-matching modelling approaches to offer an analytic tool for deeper insights into dengue epidemiology and control.
Hamby, James E; Norris, Stephen; Petraco, Nicholas D K
2016-01-01
Over a period of 21 years, a number of fired GLOCK cartridge cases have been evaluated. A total of 1632 GLOCK firearms were used to generate a sample of the same size. Our research hypothesis was that no cartridge cases fired from different 9-mm semiautomatic GLOCK pistols would be mistaken as coming from the same gun. Using optical comparison microscopy, two separate experiments were carried out to test this hypothesis. A subsample of 617 test-fired cases were subjected to algorithmic comparison by the Integrated Ballistics Identification System (IBIS). The second experiment subjected the full set of 1632 cases to manual comparisons using traditional pattern matching. None of the cartridge cases were "matched" by either of these two experiments. Using these empirical findings, an established Bayesian probability model was used to estimate the chance that a 9-mm cartridge case, fired from a GLOCK, could be mistaken as coming from the same firearm when in fact it did not (i.e., the random match probability).
GPUs for fast pattern matching in the RICH of the NA62 experiment
Lamanna, G; Sozzi, M
2011-01-01
In rare decays experiments an effective online selection is a fundamental part of the data acquisition system (DAQ) in order to reduce both the quantity of data written on tape and the bandwidth requirements for the DAQ system. A multilevel architecture is commonly used to achieve a higher reduction factor, exploiting dedicated custom hardware and flexible software in standard computers. In this paper we discuss the possibility to use commercial video card processors (GPU) to build a fast and effective trigger system, both at hardware and software level. The computing power of the GPUs allows to design a real-time system in which trigger decisions are taken directly in the video processor with a defined maximum latency. This allows building lowest trigger levels based on standard off-the-shelf PCs with CPU and GPU (instead of the commonly adopted solutions based on custom electronics with FPGA or ASICs) with enhanced and high performance computation capabilities, resulting in high rejection power, high effici...
Jason D Hipp
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Historically, effective clinical utilization of image analysis and pattern recognition algorithms in pathology has been hampered by two critical limitations: 1 the availability of digital whole slide imagery data sets and 2 a relative domain knowledge deficit in terms of application of such algorithms, on the part of practicing pathologists. With the advent of the recent and rapid adoption of whole slide imaging solutions, the former limitation has been largely resolved. However, with the expectation that it is unlikely for the general cohort of contemporary pathologists to gain advanced image analysis skills in the short term, the latter problem remains, thus underscoring the need for a class of algorithm that has the concurrent properties of image domain (or organ system independence and extreme ease of use, without the need for specialized training or expertise. Results: In this report, we present a novel, general case pattern recognition algorithm, Spatially Invariant Vector Quantization (SIVQ, that overcomes the aforementioned knowledge deficit. Fundamentally based on conventional Vector Quantization (VQ pattern recognition approaches, SIVQ gains its superior performance and essentially zero-training workflow model from its use of ring vectors, which exhibit continuous symmetry, as opposed to square or rectangular vectors, which do not. By use of the stochastic matching properties inherent in continuous symmetry, a single ring vector can exhibit as much as a millionfold improvement in matching possibilities, as opposed to conventional VQ vectors. SIVQ was utilized to demonstrate rapid and highly precise pattern recognition capability in a broad range of gross and microscopic use-case settings. Conclusion: With the performance of SIVQ observed thus far, we find evidence that indeed there exist classes of image analysis/pattern recognition algorithms suitable for deployment in settings where pathologists alone can effectively
Application of star identification using pattern matching to space ground systems at GSFC
Fink, D.; Shoup, D.
1994-01-01
This paper reports the application of pattern recognition techniques for star identification based on those proposed by Van Bezooijen to space ground systems for near-real-time attitude determination. A prototype was developed using these algorithms, which was used to assess the suitability of these techniques for support of the X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE), Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS), and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) missions. Experience with the prototype was used to refine specifications for the operational system. Different geometry tests appropriate to the mission requirements of XTE, SWAS, and SOHO were adopted. The applications of these techniques to upcoming mission support of XTE, SWAS, and SOHO are discussed.
Pattern matching in high energy physics by using neural network and genetic algorithm
Castellano, M G; Bevilacqua, V; Nappi, E
2000-01-01
In this paper two different approaches to provide information from events by high energy physics experiments are shown. Usually the representations produced in such experiments are spot-composed and the classical algorithms to be needed for data analysis are time consuming. For this reason the possibility to speed up pattern recognition tasks by soft computing approach with parallel algorithms has been investigated. The first scheme shown in the following is a two-layer neural network with forward connections, the second one consists of an evolutionary algorithm with elitistic strategy and mutation and cross-over adaptive probability. Test results of these approaches have been carried out analysing a set of images produced by an optical ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector at CERN. (10 refs).
Oehlmann, Sandra; Geyer, Tobias; Licha, Tobias; Sauter, Martin
2014-05-01
Distributive numerical simulations are an effective, process-based method for predicting groundwater resources and quality. They are based on conceptual hydrogeological models that characterize the properties of the catchment area and aquifer. Karst systems play an important role in water supply worldwide. Conceptual models are however difficult to build because of the highly developed heterogeneity of the systems. The geometry and properties of highly conductive karst conduits are generally unknown and difficult to characterize with field experiments. Due to these uncertainties numerical models of karst areas usually cannot simulate the hydraulic head distribution in the area, spring discharge and tracer breakthrough curves simultaneously on catchment scale. Especially in complex hydrogeological systems, this approach would reduce model ambiguity, which is prerequisite to predict groundwater resources and pollution risks. In this work, a distributive numerical groundwater flow and transport model was built for a highly heterogeneous karst aquifer in south-western Germany. For this aim, a solute transport interface for one-dimensional pipes was implemented in the software Comsol Multiphysics® and coupled to the standard three-dimensional solute transport interface for domains. The model was calibrated and hydraulic parameters could be obtained. The simulation was matched to the steady-state hydraulic head distribution in the model area, the spring discharge of several springs and the transport velocities of two tracer tests. Furthermore, other measured parameters such as hydraulic conductivity of the fissured matrix and the maximal karst conduit volume were available for model calibration. Parameter studies were performed for several karst conduit geometries to analyze their influence in a large-scale heterogeneous karst system. Results show that it is not only possible to derive a consistent flow and transport model for a 150 km2 karst area to be employed as a
一种海量规则模式匹配方法%A Kind of Pattern Matching Method of Mass Rules
张桂刚
2012-01-01
Based on requirement of a large sale of rules information processing, a pattern matching methods of mass rules was proposed. Mass rule pattern matching based algorithms steps and all kind of rule nodes' matching processing methods were researched in order to improve processing efficiency. Finally, mass rules pattern matching methods' characteristics were summarized. Mass rules pattern matching methods extended the existing mass rules pattern matching processing pattern and proposed new processing method. Comparative results show that the method has good effect%基于各种海量规则信息处理的需求,提出了一种海量规则模式匹配方法.设计了海量规则模式匹配方法的基本算法步骤,研究了各种规则节点的匹配处理方法.最后总结了海量规则模式匹配方法的特点.海量规则模式匹配算法部分拓展了现有规则匹配处理模式,提出了新的匹配处理方法.对比结果表明,该方法具有较好的效果.
Natural Examples of Olivine Lattice Preferred Orientation Patterns With a Flow-Normal a-Axis Maximum
Mizukami, T.; Wallis, S.; Yamamoto, J.
2004-12-01
Olivine lattice preferred orientation (LPO) due to ductile deformation is one of the main causes of mechanical anisotropy in the upper mantle and the patterns are useful to infer the direction of mantle flow from the seismic anisotropy in various settings. In subduction zones the mantle anisotropy near subduction boundaries suggests that olivine a-axes are arranged roughly perpendicular to plate motion. This anisotropy has been attributed to localized subduction-normal flow, applying a common type of olivine LPO with a `flow-parallel' a-axis maximum to the mantle. However, a recent deformational experiment provides an alternative interpretation that the B-type LPO with a `flow-normal' a-axis maximum can be developed in water-rich mantle above subducting slab. We document the widespread occurrence of B-type LPO in the Higashi-akaishi peridotite body, SW Japan, and examine the physical conditions in which it was formed. Our structural studies define four deformational phases in the Higashi-akaishi body (D1-D4) that are related to the tectonic evolution in the Cretaceous subduction zone at the Eurasian margin. The main deformational stage, D2, is associated with dynamic recrystallization of olivine to form porphyroclastic microstructure consisting of clear olivine neoblasts and porphyroclasts with abundant micro-inclusions. Parallel alginment of olivine neoblasts defines a stretching lineation (L2) and tectonic foliation (S2) and the D2 olivine LPO is identified as the B-type fabric with a-axes normal to L2, b-axes normal to S2 and c-axes parallel to L2. Micro-Raman spectroscopic analyses reveal that the syn-D2 micro-inclusions include hydrous minerals such as serpentine, indicating water-rich conditions for the D2 deformation. Garnet-orthopyroxene geothermobarometry applied to the D2 garnet peridotite reveals that the D2 stage was associated with the almost isothermal burial (700-800C, 2-3GPa). These D2 physical conditions in which the B-type LPO was formed are
Currier, Joseph M; McDermott, Ryon C; Sims, Brook M
This study examined patterns of professional and nontraditional help-seeking in a national sample of veterans from 57 colleges/universities and demographically matched students from the same institutions who had not served in the US Armed Forces. In total, 945 veterans and 2835 demographically matched nonveteran students from the same 4-year institutions completed assessments of help-seeking intentions and behaviors from professional, religious and informal sources in the Healthy Minds Study between 2011 and 2015. Drawing on bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models, equal ratios of these samples (2:1) did not endorse professional help-seeking intentions or behaviors. When compared to nonveteran students, veterans had greater intentions for religious help-seeking but were less likely to seek help from family/friends. Nearly half of depressed veterans who had not utilized services had also not sought help from any religious or informal sources. Unmet mental health needs might interfere with the success of a sizeable contingent of veterans pursuing new vocational goals. Community-based programs that can educate and/or equip nontraditional sources of support in veterans' naturally occurring relationships might offset these concerns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chinta Someswara Rao
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Next generation sequencing (NGS technologies have been rapidly applied in biomedical and biological research in recent years. To provide the comprehensive NGS resource for the research, in this paper , we have considered 10 loci/codi/repeats TAGA, TCAT, GAAT, AGAT, AGAA, GATA, TATC, CTTT, TCTG and TCTA. Then we developed the NGS Tandem Repeat Database (TandemRepeatDB for all the chromosomes of Homo sapiens, Callithrix jacchus, Chlorocebus sabaeus, Gorilla gorilla, Macaca fascicularis, Macaca mulatta, Nomascus leucogenys, Pan troglodytes, Papio anubis and Pongo abelii genome data sets for all those locis. We find the successive occurence frequency for all the above 10 SSR (simple sequence repeats in the above genome data sets on a chromosome-by-chromosome basis with multiple pattern 2° shaft multicore string matching.
Someswara Rao, Chinta; Raju, S. Viswanadha
2016-01-01
Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have been rapidly applied in biomedical and biological research in recent years. To provide the comprehensive NGS resource for the research, in this paper , we have considered 10 loci/codi/repeats TAGA, TCAT, GAAT, AGAT, AGAA, GATA, TATC, CTTT, TCTG and TCTA. Then we developed the NGS Tandem Repeat Database (TandemRepeatDB) for all the chromosomes of Homo sapiens, Callithrix jacchus, Chlorocebus sabaeus, Gorilla gorilla, Macaca fascicularis, Macaca mulatta, Nomascus leucogenys, Pan troglodytes, Papio anubis and Pongo abelii genome data sets for all those locis. We find the successive occurence frequency for all the above 10 SSR (simple sequence repeats) in the above genome data sets on a chromosome-by-chromosome basis with multiple pattern 2° shaft multicore string matching. PMID:26981434
Someswara Rao, Chinta; Raju, S Viswanadha
2016-03-01
Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have been rapidly applied in biomedical and biological research in recent years. To provide the comprehensive NGS resource for the research, in this paper , we have considered 10 loci/codi/repeats TAGA, TCAT, GAAT, AGAT, AGAA, GATA, TATC, CTTT, TCTG and TCTA. Then we developed the NGS Tandem Repeat Database (TandemRepeatDB) for all the chromosomes of Homo sapiens, Callithrix jacchus, Chlorocebus sabaeus, Gorilla gorilla, Macaca fascicularis, Macaca mulatta, Nomascus leucogenys, Pan troglodytes, Papio anubis and Pongo abelii genome data sets for all those locis. We find the successive occurence frequency for all the above 10 SSR (simple sequence repeats) in the above genome data sets on a chromosome-by-chromosome basis with multiple pattern 2° shaft multicore string matching.
Wang Huai-Chun
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The covarion hypothesis of molecular evolution holds that selective pressures on a given amino acid or nucleotide site are dependent on the identity of other sites in the molecule that change throughout time, resulting in changes of evolutionary rates of sites along the branches of a phylogenetic tree. At the sequence level, covarion-like evolution at a site manifests as conservation of nucleotide or amino acid states among some homologs where the states are not conserved in other homologs (or groups of homologs. Covarion-like evolution has been shown to relate to changes in functions at sites in different clades, and, if ignored, can adversely affect the accuracy of phylogenetic inference. Results PROCOV (protein covarion analysis is a software tool that implements a number of previously proposed covarion models of protein evolution for phylogenetic inference in a maximum likelihood framework. Several algorithmic and implementation improvements in this tool over previous versions make computationally expensive tree searches with covarion models more efficient and analyses of large phylogenomic data sets tractable. PROCOV can be used to identify covarion sites by comparing the site likelihoods under the covarion process to the corresponding site likelihoods under a rates-across-sites (RAS process. Those sites with the greatest log-likelihood difference between a 'covarion' and an RAS process were found to be of functional or structural significance in a dataset of bacterial and eukaryotic elongation factors. Conclusion Covarion models implemented in PROCOV may be especially useful for phylogenetic estimation when ancient divergences between sequences have occurred and rates of evolution at sites are likely to have changed over the tree. It can also be used to study lineage-specific functional shifts in protein families that result in changes in the patterns of site variability among subtrees.
A Multiple Pattern Matching Algorithm Based on Sequential Binary Tree%基于有序二叉树的多模式匹配算法
胡佩华; 王永成; 刘功申
2002-01-01
By analyzing the multiple pattern matching algorithm based on tree structure, a multiple pattern matching algorithm based on sequential binary tree is proposed in this paper. It is proved by experiment that the algorithm has three features: its constructing process is quick. Its cost of memory is small. At the same time, its searching process is as quickly as the traditional algorithm. The algorithm proposed in this paper is suit for the application whose pattern set is changing dynamically, that is to say, it is suit for the application whose automata must be constructed dynamically. So, the algorithm has a good application prospect.
The Research of Improved Matching Algorithm of String Pattern%字符串模式匹配算法的研究及改进
毕智超
2013-01-01
String pattern matching is an important string operations.Based on the simple pattern matching BF algorithm and KMP algorithm are analyzed,on this basis,seek out an improved algorithm is simple and practical,easy to understand string pattern matching.The results show that the improved algorithm can reduce the times of comparing pattern matching in character and number of attempts,to improve the efficiency of pattern matching.%串的模式匹配是一种重要的串运算。本文首先对朴素的模式匹配BF算法与KMP算法进行了分析，在此基础上寻求出一种简单实用、易于理解的字符串模式匹配改进算法。结果表明改进算法能减少模式匹配中字符的比较次数和尝试次数，提高模式匹配的效率。
Boxed Permutation Pattern Matching
Amit, Mika; Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge
2016-01-01
the goal is to only find the boxed subsequences of T that are order-isomorphic to P. This problem was introduced by Bruner and Lackner who showed that it can be solved in O(n3) time. Cho et al. [CPM 2015] gave an O(n2m) time algorithm and improved it to O(n2 logm). In this paper we present a solution...
Heuristic Algorithm for Approximate Pattern Matching Problem%求解近似模式匹配的启发式算法
黄国林; 郭丹; 胡学钢
2013-01-01
研究了带有灵活通配符和长度约束的近似模式匹配问题(approximate pattern matching with wildcards and length constraint,APMWL)；为避免文本字符重复使用造成解的指数级增长,引入了一次性使用原则one_off条件,提出了一种后向构造编辑距离矩阵的BAPM(backward approximate pattern matching)算法.该算法在one_off条件、灵活通配符和长度约束条件的基础上,可同时处理插入、替换和删除三种编辑操作.与同类算法Sail_Approx进行实验对比,结果表明BAPM算法获取解的平均增长率可达18.99%,具备良好的解优势.%This paper studies APMWL (approximate pattern matching with wildcards and length constraint) problem. In order to avoid the exponential growth of matching patterns, the paper introduces the one_off condition, and proposes a heuristic algorithm BAPM (backward approximate pattern matching) which constructing the edit distance matrix backwardly. Based on one_off condition, flexible wildcards and length constraint, BAPM can simultaneously process three edit operations, namely insertion, replacement and deletion. The experimental results show that BAPM has a significant advantage on matching solutions compared with Sail-Approx, and the average improvement rate of matching is up to 18.99%.
Miyamoto, Naoki; Ishikawa, Masayori; Bengua, Gerard; Sutherland, Kenneth; Suzuki, Ryusuke; Kimura, Suguru; Shimizu, Shinichi; Onimaru, Rikiya; Shirato, Hiroki
2011-08-07
In the real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system, fluoroscopy is used to determine the real-time position of internal fiducial markers. The pattern recognition score (PRS) ranging from 0 to 100 is computed by a template pattern matching technique in order to determine the marker position on the fluoroscopic image. The PRS depends on the quality of the fluoroscopic image. However, the fluoroscopy parameters such as tube voltage, current and exposure duration are selected manually and empirically in the clinical situation. This may result in an unnecessary imaging dose from the fluoroscopy or loss of the marker because of too much or insufficient x-ray exposure. In this study, a novel optimization method is proposed in order to minimize the fluoroscopic dose while keeping the image quality usable for marker tracking. The PRS can be predicted in a region where the marker appears to move in the fluoroscopic image by the proposed method. The predicted PRS can be utilized to judge whether the marker can be tracked with accuracy. In this paper, experiments were performed to show the feasibility of the PRS prediction method under various conditions. The predicted PRS showed good agreement with the measured PRS. The root mean square error between the predicted PRS and the measured PRS was within 1.44. An experiment using a motion controller and an anthropomorphic chest phantom was also performed in order to imitate a clinical fluoroscopy situation. The result shows that the proposed prediction method is expected to be applicable in a real clinical situation.
Coutinho, Y. A.; Rooney, S. C. K.; Payton, E. J.
2017-03-01
Grain size data from electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) maps are often reported as the mean of the circle equivalent diameters of the measured grain areas. Circle equivalent diameters are not directly comparable to the lineal intercept measurements more historically common for grain size characterization in analog optical microscopy. While the value of mean lineal intercept is the same in 2D and 3D for a given probe direction, the mean 2D circle equivalent section diameter is not directly related to any 3D property. Estimation of mean lineal intercept from circle equivalent diameter is usually carried out by again assuming feature circularity, despite the obvious corners that are inherent to grains from the requirements of space filling. A direct conversion between section areas and lineal intercepts can be performed if the grain perimeters are known. In the present work, a novel pattern matching library approach is investigated for measurement of grain perimeters using simulated 2D EBSD maps. The results are compared to alternative approaches for perimeter measurement and assessed with respect to spatial resolution, grain size distribution parameters, and relevant ASTM and ISO measurement standards. The benefits and drawbacks of each approach are discussed. Empirical estimators for conversion between lineal intercept, circle equivalent diameter, and ASTM grain size number are presented.
Research on the point pattern matching method based on the Laplace spectral%基于Laplace谱的点模式匹配方法研究
鲍新雪; 王晓红
2015-01-01
点模式匹配涉及诸多研究应用领域，是一个重要而基础的问题，对点模式匹配问题研究的技术方法也多种多样。利用特征点的空间信息，研究基于Laplace谱的点模式匹配方法，首先对特征点构建的图进行Laplace矩阵构建，通过对L aplace矩阵进行的奇异值分解获取匹配矩阵，实现图像匹配。实验研究表明，该匹配算法能够减轻计算负担，缓解传统的基于图像局部灰度信息匹配速度慢、效果不理想的问题，具有很好的匹配效果。%Point pattern matching is a basic and important problem involving many applied research fields . The methods which focus on the problem of point pattern matching remain various .This paper uses the spatial information of feature points , and studies the point pattern match method based on Laplace spectrum .First ,it constructs the Laplace matrix of the figure constructed by feature points ,then ,does the singular value decomposition of Laplace matrix to obtain the matching matrix ,and achieves the image matching .The experiment results show , the matching method not only can reduce the computational burden ,but alleviate the problems of slow speed and the ineffective image matching based on local gray level information ,w hich has good matching effect .
Multithreaded Implementation of Hybrid String Matching Algorithm
Akhtar Rasool
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Reading and taking reference from many books and articles, and then analyzing the Navies algorithm, Boyer Moore algorithm and Knuth Morris Pratt (KMP algorithm and a variety of improved algorithms, summarizes various advantages and disadvantages of the pattern matching algorithms. And on this basis, a new algorithm – Multithreaded Hybrid algorithm is introduced. The algorithm refers to Boyer Moore algorithm, KMP algorithm and the thinking of improved algorithms. Utilize the last character of the string, the next character and the method to compare from side to side, and then advance a new hybrid pattern matching algorithm. And it adjusted the comparison direction and the order of the comparison to make the maximum moving distance of each time to reduce the pattern matching time. The algorithm reduces the comparison number and greatlyreduces the moving number of the pattern and improves the matching efficiency. Multithreaded implementation of hybrid, pattern matching algorithm performs the parallel string searching on different text data by executing a number of threads simultaneously. This approach is advantageous from all other string-pattern matching algorithm in terms of time complexity. This again improves the overall string matching efficiency.
基于坏字符序检测的快速模式匹配算法%QUICK PATTERN MATCHING ALGORITHM BASED ON BAD CHARACTER SEQUENCE CHECKING
王浩; 张霖
2012-01-01
提出一种基于坏字符序检测的快速模式匹配算法( BCSBM).该算法利用相邻字符序列在模式串中不出现的概率较单字符高的特性,基于好字符和坏字符序表实现字符匹配过程的“跳跃”.BCSBM算法显著减少了匹配窗口内字符的匹配次数,同时增大了匹配窗口的平均移动距离.算法的实际测试效率较高,在文本或模式串相对较长的情况下该算法的效率提高明显.%The paper introduces BCSBM algorithm based on bad characters sequence checking. BCSBM algorithm takes advantages of the less probability of the presence of an adjacent character sequence than that of a single character within a pattern string, and realizes the jumping of the character matching process according to good characters and bad character sequences. BCSBM algorithm significantly reduces the times of character matching inside the matching window while increases the average movement distance of the matching window. Ab tested in reality, the algorithm* s efficiency is higher than other pattern matching algorithms, especially when there are longer texts or pattern strings.
Takemura, Shunsuke; Kobayashi, Manabu; Yoshimoto, Kazuo
2016-10-01
Frequency-dependent model of the apparent radiation pattern has been extensively incorporated into engineering and scientific applications for high-frequency seismic waves, but distance-dependent properties have not yet been fully taken into account. We investigated the unified characteristics of frequency and distance dependences in both apparent P- and S-wave radiation patterns during local crustal earthquakes. Observed distortions of the apparent P- and S-wave radiation patterns could be simply modeled by using a function of the normalized hypocentral distance, which is a product of the wave number and hypocentral distance. This behavior suggests that major cause of distortion of the apparent radiation pattern is seismic wave scattering and diffraction within the heterogeneous crust. On the basis of observed normalized hypocentral distance dependency, we proposed a method for prediction of spatial distributions of maximum P- and S-wave amplitudes. Our method incorporating normalized hypocentral distance dependence of the apparent radiation pattern reproduced the observed spatial distributions of maximum P- and S-wave amplitudes over a wide frequency and distance ranges successfully.[Figure not available: see fulltext.
Paulo Henrique Siqueira
2004-08-01
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é mostrar a aplicação do Algoritmo do Matching de peso máximo, na elaboração de jornadas de trabalho para motoristas e cobradores de ônibus. Este problema deve ser resolvido levando-se em consideração o maior aproveitamento possível das tabelas de horários, com o objetivo de minimizar o número de funcionários, de horas extras e de horas ociosas. Desta forma, os custos das companhias de transporte público são minimizados. Na primeira fase do trabalho, supondo-se que as tabelas de horários já estejam divididas em escalas de curta e de longa duração, as escalas de curta duração são combinadas para a formação da jornada diária de trabalho de um funcionário. Esta combinação é feita com o Algoritmo do Matching de peso máximo, no qual as escalas são representadas por vértices de um grafo, e o peso máximo é atribuído às combinações de escalas que não formam horas extras e horas ociosas. Na segunda fase, uma jornada de final de semana é designada para cada jornada semanal de dias úteis. Por meio destas duas fases, as jornadas semanais de trabalho para motoristas e cobradores de ônibus podem ser construídas com custo mínimo. A terceira e última fase deste trabalho consiste na designação das jornadas semanais de trabalho para cada motorista e cobrador de ônibus, considerando-se suas preferências. O Algoritmo do Matching de peso máximo é utilizado para esta fase também. Este trabalho foi aplicado em três empresas de transporte público da cidade de Curitiba - PR, nas quais os algoritmos utilizados anteriormente eram heurísticos, baseados apenas na experiência do encarregado por esta tarefa.The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the maximum weight Matching Algorithm can be applied to schedule the workdays of bus drivers and bus fare collectors. This scheduling should be based on the best possible use of timetables in order to minimize the number of employees, overtime and
Pattern Matching Method of Complex Event for RFID Data Processing%面向RFID数据处理的复杂事件模式匹配方法
戚湧; 胡军; 李千目
2013-01-01
RFID数据具有不确定性,复杂事件处理技术将RFID数据看作不同类型的事件,从事件流中检测符合特定匹配模式的复杂事件.概率事件流分为多项概率事件流和单项概率事件流；针对多项概率事件流,提出NFA-MMG模式匹配方法,亦即使用多个有向无环图结合自动机实现模式匹配.针对单项概率事件流,提出NFA-Tree模式匹配方法,亦即使用匹配树结合自动机实现模式匹配；并提出改进的NFA-Tree方法,即基于概率阈值进行过滤,提高结果过滤效率.实验结果验证了上述模式匹配方法的性能优势.%RFID data is generally uncertain. Complex event processing (CEP) treats the data as different types of e-vents,queries sequence of events in which match specific patterns of sequence are defined by high-level application from the event stream. Event stream is divided into multiple alternative event stream and single alternatives event stream. NFA-MMG pattern matching method for multiple alternatives event stream was proposed. The method uses combination of directed acyclic graph and automatic machines to achieve complex event pattern matching on the uncertain data. NFA-Tree pattern matching method for single alternatives event stream with the use of matching tree and automatic machines on uncertain data was proposed. The NFA-Tree algorithm was improved by pruning the matching tree to improve the efficiency of query optimization, which filters the results of the match situation based on probability threshold. The complex event processing system prototype uncertain data was developmented to realize the above algorithm, and the experiment examines the validation and performance of the algorithms.
Sandel, Brody Steven; Arge, Lars Allan; Svenning, J.-C.
Contemporary patterns of species distributions are influenced by both current and historical conditions. Historically unstable climates can lead to reductions in species richness, when species go extinct because they cannot track climate changes, when dispersal limitation causes species to fail...... to fully occupy suitable habitat, or when local diversification rates are depressed by local population extinctions and changing selective regimes. Locations with long-term climate instability should therefore show reduced species richness with small-ranged species particularly missing from the community...... is likely to be a more biologically meaningful measure of climate stability than the previously used simple climate anomaly, because it scales climate change relative to local variation in climate, capturing the potential for topographic refuges to buffer species from climate change. We tested...
Muckenhuber, Stefan; Sandven, Stein
2017-08-01
An open-source sea ice drift algorithm for Sentinel-1 SAR imagery is introduced based on the combination of feature tracking and pattern matching. Feature tracking produces an initial drift estimate and limits the search area for the consecutive pattern matching, which provides small- to medium-scale drift adjustments and normalised cross-correlation values. The algorithm is designed to combine the two approaches in order to benefit from the respective advantages. The considered feature-tracking method allows for an efficient computation of the drift field and the resulting vectors show a high degree of independence in terms of position, length, direction and rotation. The considered pattern-matching method, on the other hand, allows better control over vector positioning and resolution. The preprocessing of the Sentinel-1 data has been adjusted to retrieve a feature distribution that depends less on SAR backscatter peak values. Applying the algorithm with the recommended parameter setting, sea ice drift retrieval with a vector spacing of 4 km on Sentinel-1 images covering 400 km × 400 km, takes about 4 min on a standard 2.7 GHz processor with 8 GB memory. The corresponding recommended patch size for the pattern-matching step that defines the final resolution of each drift vector is 34 × 34 pixels (2.7 × 2.7 km). To assess the potential performance after finding suitable search restrictions, calculated drift results from 246 Sentinel-1 image pairs have been compared to buoy GPS data, collected in 2015 between 15 January and 22 April and covering an area from 80.5 to 83.5° N and 12 to 27° E. We found a logarithmic normal distribution of the displacement difference with a median at 352.9 m using HV polarisation and 535.7 m using HH polarisation. All software requirements necessary for applying the presented sea ice drift algorithm are open-source to ensure free implementation and easy distribution.
Saveljev, Vladimir; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Lee, Hyoung; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Byoungho
2016-02-08
The amplitude of the moiré patterns is estimated in relation to the opening ratio in line gratings and square grids. The theory is developed; the experimental measurements are performed. The minimum and the maximum of the amplitude are found. There is a good agreement between the theoretical and experimental data. This is additionally confirmed by the visual observation. The results can be applied to the image quality improvement in autostereoscopic 3D displays, to the measurements, and to the moiré displays.
基于Snort的模式匹配算法比较%Comparison of Several Pattern Matching Algorithms Based on Snort
王敏杰; 朱连轩
2011-01-01
The string pattern matching algorithm is the key for intrusion detection. Several algorithms including BM, BMG, AC and AC-BM algorithm are discussed, the running time and memory consumption of these for algorithms are measured by snort-based pattern matching algorithm on the snort intrusion detection system. The results show that AC and AC-BM are faster than BM and BMG on the large number of pattern, but on the small number of pattern, the opposite result can be obtained .%字符串模式匹配算法是入侵检测的的关键,为了测试BM,BMG,AC,AC-BM四种算法性能,基于Snort的模式匹配算法在Snort入侵检测系统下测量了四种算法的运行时间和内存消耗.实验结果表明当模式数量较大时AC,AC-BM算法运行时间小于BM和BMG算法,但内存消耗相对较大；当模式数量较少时,BM和BMG算法优于AC,AC-BM算法.
Plummer, MD
1986-01-01
This study of matching theory deals with bipartite matching, network flows, and presents fundamental results for the non-bipartite case. It goes on to study elementary bipartite graphs and elementary graphs in general. Further discussed are 2-matchings, general matching problems as linear programs, the Edmonds Matching Algorithm (and other algorithmic approaches), f-factors and vertex packing.
王浩; 张权益; 方宝富; 方帅
2013-01-01
Robot emotion modeling is a hot issue in emotion robot research.Based on the emotion psychology knowledge,a dynamic emotion transfer model of the emotion robot is presented with different personalities under different external stimulation.The influences of personality and external stimulation are discussed.The emotion model based on state space is used to describe the emotion states of robot.The emotion transfer process is simulated by hidden Markov model (HMM) process.However,the HMM process can only work out the current probability of the emotion state.To get the concrete emotion state,the maximum similarity matching emotion transfer model based on mapping between state space and probability space is proposed.Firstly,the current emotion probability is calculated by HMM process.Then,the current concrete emotion state is obtained by maximum similarity matching.Different personalities and can be built by adjusting the parameters of the model.The proposed model simulates the transformation process effectively.The experimental results show that the emotion transfer process simulated by the proposed model corresponds with the general rules of human emotion transformation.stimulation%机器人情感建模是研究情感机器人的热点问题.文中以情感心理学知识为基础,模拟具有不同个性的情感机器人在外界刺激作用下情感动态变化的过程,研究个性和外界刺激对情感转移过程的影响.采用基于状态空间的情感空间模型来描述机器人的情感状态,并用HMM过程来模拟情感状态的转移过程.但HMM过程只能求得当前情感状态的概率,为得到具体的情感状态,文中提出一种基于状态空间与概率空间映射的极大相似度匹配的情感转移模型.首先利用HMM过程计算出当前情感概率,然后通过极大相似度匹配来得到转移后具体的情感状态.通过调节模型参数来模拟不同个性和外界刺激,该模型能有效模拟情感状态变化过
改进的KR模式匹配算法的研究与实现%On Implementation of Improved Karp-Rabin Pattern Matching Algorighmic
巫喜红
2016-01-01
文章在详细分析KR匹配算法的基础上，提出了改进的I_KR算法.I_KR算法的改进之处：一是采用2次Hash函数的方法在计算T的子串的散列值之后，马上与P的散列值进行比较；二是采用双向并行方式进行匹配.为了分析 I_KR算法的性能，从不同文本串和模式串角度，在匹配次数和比较的字符个数方面对 I_KR算法进行实验.实验结果表明，I_KR算法能够极大地减少匹配次数，缩短匹配时间，有效地提高模式匹配速度.%An improved Karp-Rabin (I_KR)algorithm has been promoted in this paper for string matching based on the detailed analysis of Karp-Rabin (KR)algorithm.The improvements of I_KR algorithm are in two ways:one is that,after the hashed value of the T'substrings,two times Hash functions has been used,which is compared with the hashed value of the P;the other is that bidirectional parallel is used when matching.To analyze the performance of the I_KR algorithm,some experiments have been done from some aspects which are matched times and compared characters'numbers through the number of dif-ferent text strings and pattern strings.The experimental results show the I_KR algorithm can reduce the times of matching and shorten the time of matching.The I_KR algorithm enhances the algorithm's speed effectively.
Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Aabo, Thomas; Palima, Darwin
2013-01-01
as a combination of Generalized Phase Contrast and phase-only correlation. Such an analysis makes it convenient to optimize an mGPC system for different setup conditions. Results showing binary-only phase generation of dynamic spot arrays and line patterns are presented. © 201 Optical Society of America...
Hierarchical model of matching
Pedrycz, Witold; Roventa, Eugene
1992-01-01
The issue of matching two fuzzy sets becomes an essential design aspect of many algorithms including fuzzy controllers, pattern classifiers, knowledge-based systems, etc. This paper introduces a new model of matching. Its principal features involve the following: (1) matching carried out with respect to the grades of membership of fuzzy sets as well as some functionals defined on them (like energy, entropy,transom); (2) concepts of hierarchies in the matching model leading to a straightforward distinction between 'local' and 'global' levels of matching; and (3) a distributed character of the model realized as a logic-based neural network.
Leonardo W. T. Silva
2014-08-01
Full Text Available In launching operations, Rocket Tracking Systems (RTS process the trajectory data obtained by radar sensors. In order to improve functionality and maintenance, radars can be upgraded by replacing antennas with parabolic reflectors (PRs with phased arrays (PAs. These arrays enable the electronic control of the radiation pattern by adjusting the signal supplied to each radiating element. However, in projects of phased array radars (PARs, the modeling of the problem is subject to various combinations of excitation signals producing a complex optimization problem. In this case, it is possible to calculate the problem solutions with optimization methods such as genetic algorithms (GAs. For this, the Genetic Algorithm with Maximum-Minimum Crossover (GA-MMC method was developed to control the radiation pattern of PAs. The GA-MMC uses a reconfigurable algorithm with multiple objectives, differentiated coding and a new crossover genetic operator. This operator has a different approach from the conventional one, because it performs the crossover of the fittest individuals with the least fit individuals in order to enhance the genetic diversity. Thus, GA-MMC was successful in more than 90% of the tests for each application, increased the fitness of the final population by more than 20% and reduced the premature convergence.
Caetano, Tiberio S; Cheng, Li; Le, Quoc V; Smola, Alex J
2008-01-01
As a fundamental problem in pattern recognition, graph matching has applications in a variety of fields, from computer vision to computational biology. In graph matching, patterns are modeled as graphs and pattern recognition amounts to finding a correspondence between the nodes of different graphs. Many formulations of this problem can be cast in general as a quadratic assignment problem, where a linear term in the objective function encodes node compatibility and a quadratic term encodes edge compatibility. The main research focus in this theme is about designing efficient algorithms for approximately solving the quadratic assignment problem, since it is NP-hard. In this paper we turn our attention to a different question: how to estimate compatibility functions such that the solution of the resulting graph matching problem best matches the expected solution that a human would manually provide. We present a method for learning graph matching: the training examples are pairs of graphs and the `labels' are ma...
Chen, Cunjian; Ross, Arun
2013-05-01
Researchers in face recognition have been using Gabor filters for image representation due to their robustness to complex variations in expression and illumination. Numerous methods have been proposed to model the output of filter responses by employing either local or global descriptors. In this work, we propose a novel but simple approach for encoding Gradient information on Gabor-transformed images to represent the face, which can be used for identity, gender and ethnicity assessment. Extensive experiments on the standard face benchmark FERET (Visible versus Visible), as well as the heterogeneous face dataset HFB (Near-infrared versus Visible), suggest that the matching performance due to the proposed descriptor is comparable against state-of-the-art descriptor-based approaches in face recognition applications. Furthermore, the same feature set is used in the framework of a Collaborative Representation Classification (CRC) scheme for deducing soft biometric traits such as gender and ethnicity from face images in the AR, Morph and CAS-PEAL databases.
Wu-Manber Multi-pattern Matching Algorithm Based on CUDA%基于CUDA的Wu-Manber多模式匹配算法
马计; 王国平; 杨明
2012-01-01
Multi-pattern matching is a basic problem in computer science and used in many fields,in some cases,also the most time-consuming. GPU has more parallel computing capabilities than the CPU. With the introduction of CUD A,GPU computing for general purpose parallel programming becomes easier. This paper proposes Wu-Manber multi-pattern matching algorithm based on the CUD A,and evaluating the implementations we have achieved speedups up to 10 faster than the sequential implementations.%多模式匹配是计算机科学中最基本的问题,其应用在许多领域,在一些情形下也是比较耗时的.GPU拥有比CPU更强的并行计算能力,随着CUDA架构的推出,GPU用于通用计算领域的并行编程工作变得更加轻松.实现了基于CUDA架构的Wu-Manber多模式匹配算法,实验结果表明,相比传统串行算法而言,本文的实现获得了10倍以上的加速.
一种用于深层网接口集成的模式匹配方法%Pattern Matching Method for Deep Web Interface Integration
陈丽君; 林怀忠
2012-01-01
By anglicizing the limitations of existing evidence theory method for Deep Web interface integration, a Deep Web pattern matching method based on concept word and semantic heterogeneity model is proposed. The method preprocesses pattern through extracting concept word, discriminates and combines group attributes to convert m: n complex matching into 1 : 1 simple matching for improving implement efficiency. By introducing instance into semantic heterogeneity model, the problem of mining semantic heterogeneity synonymy attributes is resolved by computing, synthetic evaluating, and selecting similarity values of attribute features. Experimental results indicate that compared with evidence theory method, the efficiency and accuracy of the method is improved obviously.%针对已有证据理论(DS)方法在深层网接口集成方面的局限性,设计一种基于概念词与语义异构模型的深层网模式匹配方法.通过提取概念词对概念词模型进行预处理,识别并组合成组属性,使m∶n的复杂匹配转变为1∶1的简单匹配,提高系统执行速度.在语义异构模型中引入属性实例,将挖掘语义异构的同义属性问题,转化为对属性间各特征相似值的计算、综合评测和选取问题.实验结果表明,该方法在匹配效率和准确率上较DS方法有较大改进.
A Boyer-Moore Approach to Degenerate Pattern Matching%基于BM方法的退化模式匹配算法
林劼; 林舒晔
2012-01-01
退化模式匹配问题在生物信息学中具有重要应用意义,但由于该问题的计算复杂度高,现有的算法均难以在实际中应用.在分析退化模式的特点以及经典的Boyer-Moore (BM)算法的基础上,提出基于BM算法框架解决退化模式匹配问题的方法.在计算偏移数组的预处理过程中,定义兼容规则并计算偏移数组,并将其应用在查找阶段,提高退化模式的匹配速度.在平均情况下,该算法提供了线性的模式匹配速度,在实际应用中得到良好的效果.%Degenerated pattern matching problem has important applications in biology sequences, however, due to the computational complexity of the problem, no existing algorithms can be used in practice. After analyzing the characteristics of degenerated pattern matching problem and classical Boyer-Moore (BM) algorithm, it proposes a practical BM based algorithm to tackle the problem. In the pre-process of computing shift arrays, the algorithm defines comparable rules and arrays, and uses them in the searching phase to improve the matching speed. In average case, the algorithm provides a linear time complexity which can be efficiently used in practice.
S. Oehlmann
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Assessing the hydraulic parameters of karst aquifers is a challenge due to their high degree of heterogeneity. The unknown parameter field generally leads to a high ambiguity for flow and transport calibration in numerical models of karst aquifers. In this study, a distributive numerical model was built for the simulation of groundwater flow and solute transport in a highly heterogeneous karst aquifer in south western Germany. Therefore, an interface for the simulation of solute transport in one-dimensional pipes was implemented into the software Comsol Multiphysics® and coupled to the three-dimensional solute transport interface for continuum domains. For reducing model ambiguity, the simulation was matched for steady-state conditions to the hydraulic head distribution in the model area, the spring discharge of several springs and the transport velocities of two tracer tests. Furthermore, other measured parameters such as the hydraulic conductivity of the fissured matrix and the maximal karst conduit volume were available for model calibration. Parameter studies were performed for several karst conduit geometries to analyse the influence of the respective geometric and hydraulic parameters and develop a calibration approach in a large-scale heterogeneous karst system. Results show that it is not only possible to derive a consistent flow and transport model for a 150 km2 karst area, but that the combined use of groundwater flow and transport parameters greatly reduces model ambiguity. The approach provides basic information about the conduit network not accessible for direct geometric measurements. The conduit network volume for the main karst spring in the study area could be narrowed down to approximately 100 000 m3.
Johanna Assies
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA composition of (nerve cell membranes may be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. Studies so far, focussed mainly on omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs. In the present study, saturated fatty acids (SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs and PUFAs of the omega-3, -6 and -9 series in plasma and erythrocytes of patients with recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD-R were compared with controls. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out a case-control study. The sample consisted of 137 patients with MDD-R and 65 matched non-depressed controls. In plasma and erythrocytes of patients with MDD-R the concentrations of most of the SFAs and MUFAs, and additionally erythrocyte PUFAs, all with a chain length > 20 carbon (C atoms, were significantly lower than in the controls. In contrast, the concentrations of most of the shorter chain members (< or = 18C of the SFAs and MUFAs were significantly higher in the patients. Estimated activities of several elongases in plasma of patients were significantly altered, whereas delta-9 desaturase activity for C14:0 and C18:0 was significantly higher. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The fatty acid status of patients with MDD-R not only differs with regard to omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs, but also concerns other fatty acids. These alterations may be due to: differences in diet, changes in synthesizing enzyme activities, higher levels of chronic (oxidative stress but may also result from adaptive strategies by providing protection against enhanced oxidative stress and production of free radicals.
Stefan Wolfgang Grötzinger
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Reliable functional annotation of genomic data is the key-step in the discovery of novel enzymes. Intrinsic sequencing data quality problems of single amplified genomes (SAGs and poor homology of novel extremophile’s genomes pose significant challenges for the attribution of functions to the coding sequences identified. The anoxic deep-sea brine pools of the Red Sea are a promising source of novel enzymes with unique evolutionary adaptation. Sequencing data from Red Sea brine pool cultures and SAGs are annotated and stored in the INDIGO data warehouse. Low sequence homology of annotated genes (no similarity for 35% of these genes may translate into false positives when searching for specific functions. The Profile & Pattern Matching (PPM strategy described here was developed to eliminate false positive annotations of enzyme function before progressing to labor-intensive hyper-saline gene expression and characterization. It utilizes InterPro-derived Gene Ontology (GO-terms (which represent enzyme function profiles and annotated relevant PROSITE IDs (which are linked to an amino acid consensus pattern. The PPM algorithm was tested on 15 protein families, which were selected based on scientific and commercial potential. An initial list of 2,577 E.C. numbers was translated into 171 GO-terms and 49 consensus patterns. A subset of INDIGO-sequences consisting of 58 SAGs from six different taxons of bacteria and archaea were selected from 6 different brine pool environments. Those SAGs code for 74,516 genes, which were independently scanned for the GO-terms (profile filter and PROSITE IDs (pattern filter. Following stringent reliability filtering, the non-redundant hits (106 profile hits and 147 pattern hits are classified as reliable, if at least two relevant descriptors (GO-terms and/or consensus patterns are present. Scripts for annotation, as well as for the PPM algorithm, are available through the INDIGO website.
Grötzinger, Stefan W.
2014-04-07
Reliable functional annotation of genomic data is the key-step in the discovery of novel enzymes. Intrinsic sequencing data quality problems of single amplified genomes (SAGs) and poor homology of novel extremophile\\'s genomes pose significant challenges for the attribution of functions to the coding sequences identified. The anoxic deep-sea brine pools of the Red Sea are a promising source of novel enzymes with unique evolutionary adaptation. Sequencing data from Red Sea brine pool cultures and SAGs are annotated and stored in the Integrated Data Warehouse of Microbial Genomes (INDIGO) data warehouse. Low sequence homology of annotated genes (no similarity for 35% of these genes) may translate into false positives when searching for specific functions. The Profile and Pattern Matching (PPM) strategy described here was developed to eliminate false positive annotations of enzyme function before progressing to labor-intensive hyper-saline gene expression and characterization. It utilizes InterPro-derived Gene Ontology (GO)-terms (which represent enzyme function profiles) and annotated relevant PROSITE IDs (which are linked to an amino acid consensus pattern). The PPM algorithm was tested on 15 protein families, which were selected based on scientific and commercial potential. An initial list of 2577 enzyme commission (E.C.) numbers was translated into 171 GO-terms and 49 consensus patterns. A subset of INDIGO-sequences consisting of 58 SAGs from six different taxons of bacteria and archaea were selected from six different brine pool environments. Those SAGs code for 74,516 genes, which were independently scanned for the GO-terms (profile filter) and PROSITE IDs (pattern filter). Following stringent reliability filtering, the non-redundant hits (106 profile hits and 147 pattern hits) are classified as reliable, if at least two relevant descriptors (GO-terms and/or consensus patterns) are present. Scripts for annotation, as well as for the PPM algorithm, are available
Grötzinger, Stefan W; Alam, Intikhab; Ba Alawi, Wail; Bajic, Vladimir B; Stingl, Ulrich; Eppinger, Jörg
2014-01-01
Reliable functional annotation of genomic data is the key-step in the discovery of novel enzymes. Intrinsic sequencing data quality problems of single amplified genomes (SAGs) and poor homology of novel extremophile's genomes pose significant challenges for the attribution of functions to the coding sequences identified. The anoxic deep-sea brine pools of the Red Sea are a promising source of novel enzymes with unique evolutionary adaptation. Sequencing data from Red Sea brine pool cultures and SAGs are annotated and stored in the Integrated Data Warehouse of Microbial Genomes (INDIGO) data warehouse. Low sequence homology of annotated genes (no similarity for 35% of these genes) may translate into false positives when searching for specific functions. The Profile and Pattern Matching (PPM) strategy described here was developed to eliminate false positive annotations of enzyme function before progressing to labor-intensive hyper-saline gene expression and characterization. It utilizes InterPro-derived Gene Ontology (GO)-terms (which represent enzyme function profiles) and annotated relevant PROSITE IDs (which are linked to an amino acid consensus pattern). The PPM algorithm was tested on 15 protein families, which were selected based on scientific and commercial potential. An initial list of 2577 enzyme commission (E.C.) numbers was translated into 171 GO-terms and 49 consensus patterns. A subset of INDIGO-sequences consisting of 58 SAGs from six different taxons of bacteria and archaea were selected from six different brine pool environments. Those SAGs code for 74,516 genes, which were independently scanned for the GO-terms (profile filter) and PROSITE IDs (pattern filter). Following stringent reliability filtering, the non-redundant hits (106 profile hits and 147 pattern hits) are classified as reliable, if at least two relevant descriptors (GO-terms and/or consensus patterns) are present. Scripts for annotation, as well as for the PPM algorithm, are available
Hsiao, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Cheng-Ying; Huang, Li-Chuan; Lin, Guan-Jhong; Lien, Der-Hsien; Huang, Jian-Jang; He, Jr-Hau
2014-03-07
Syringe-like ZnO nanorods (NRs) were fabricated on InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) by a hydrothermal method. Without sacrificing the electrical performances of LEDs, syringe-like NRs can enhance light extraction capability by 10.5% at 20 mA and shape the radiation profile with a view angle collimated from 136° to 121°. By performing optical experiments and simulation, it is found that the superior light extraction efficiency with a more collimated radiation pattern is attributed to the waveguiding effect of NRs and the mitigation of abrupt index change by the tapered ends of syringe-like ZnO NRs. This work demonstrates the importance of the nanostructure morphology in LED performances and provides the architecture design guidelines of nanostructures to a variety of optical devices.
Kinkhabwala, Ali
2013-01-01
The most fundamental problem in statistics is the inference of an unknown probability distribution from a finite number of samples. For a specific observed data set, answers to the following questions would be desirable: (1) Estimation: Which candidate distribution provides the best fit to the observed data?, (2) Goodness-of-fit: How concordant is this distribution with the observed data?, and (3) Uncertainty: How concordant are other candidate distributions with the observed data? A simple unified approach for univariate data that addresses these traditionally distinct statistical notions is presented called "maximum fidelity". Maximum fidelity is a strict frequentist approach that is fundamentally based on model concordance with the observed data. The fidelity statistic is a general information measure based on the coordinate-independent cumulative distribution and critical yet previously neglected symmetry considerations. An approximation for the null distribution of the fidelity allows its direct conversi...
一种基于模板匹配的语音识别算法%A speech recognition algorithms based on pattern matching
聂晓飞; 赵禹; 詹庆才
2011-01-01
Speech recognition is an important research direction of Speech signal processing, which is related to physiology, psychology, linguistics, computer science and signal processing and many other fields. It is widely used in control, communications, digital products and other industries. This article describes a simple speech recognition algorithm. The main processes include pre-processing, endpoint detection, extraction of feature value and pattern matching. The amplitude is the standard in endpoint detection. The critical Eigen Value is used as eigenvector. DTW algorithm is used in pattern matching. Main design idea is to get the voice signal and match it with the stored pattern. A hardware system with TMS32OVCS402 chip as the core is used to implement this algorithm.%语音识别是语音信号处理的一个重要研究方向，涉及到生理学、心理学、语言学、计算机科学以及信号处理等诸多领域，广泛应用于控制、通信、消费品等行业。文中介绍了一种简单的语音识别算法。该算法主要流程包括预处理、端点检测、提取特征值、模式匹配4个过程，其中端点检测以幅值为标准，特征值采用临界带特征矢量，模板匹配采用DTW算法。主要设计思想是将得到的语音信号和已经存储的模板进行匹配。实践上用TMS320VC5402芯片为核心的系统硬件来实现这个算法。
PMTree:一种高效的事件流模式匹配方法%PMTree: An Efficient Pattern Matching Method for Event Stream Processing
程苏珺; 王永剑; 孟由; 程振东; 栾钟治; 钱德沛
2012-01-01
复杂事件处理技术从多个持续事件流中分析并提取满足特定模式的事件序列.高吞吐率场景下,如何快速准确地识别事件序列是复杂事件处理技术中一个非常重要的问题.现在事件流的模式匹配方法——NFA、Petri网、有向图等——存在语义描述能力不足、部分算子实现代价高等缺陷.针对这一现状,设计并实现了一种基于树的模式匹配方法——PMTree.PMTree定义了事件模型及相应事件算子,将事件序列映射为树节点,同时将时间窗口约束及谓词约束等放置在相应节点,这些树节点连接成一棵PMTree来支持实时的事件筛选与过滤.进一步研究了PMTree构建过程中的优化策略,并提出了开销模型以及优化构建算法,以尽可能减少模式匹配开销.实验结果表明,相同测试条件下基于PMTree实现的复杂事件处理引擎Cesar吞吐率是基于NFA实现的开源引擎Esper的3～6倍,并且在不同事件量或事件序列复杂度下性能表现稳定.%Complex event processing technique focuses on analyzing and extracting the event sequence of the specific pattern from the continuous event streams. Under the high-throughput situations, how to recognize the event sequence quickly and accurately has become an important problem. The state-of-the-art pattern matching methods, I. E. NFA, Petri and DAG, have shortcomings in the expressive ability and high cost to support some requirements. To deal with this situation, we propose a tree-based pattern matching method PMTree. PMTree defines event model and corresponding event relation operator, maps event pattern to the specific nodes in PMTree, applies time/predicate constraints on these nodes, and at last joins them to build a PMTree. We study the optimization strategies in the tree construction which can reduce the pattern matching cost and search the optimal combination of tree nodes, providing a cost model and an optimization algorithm. Experiments
Pluskal, Tomáš; Uehara, Taisuke; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro
2012-05-15
Mass spectrometry is commonly applied to qualitatively and quantitatively profile small molecules, such as peptides, metabolites, or lipids. Modern mass spectrometers provide accurate measurements of mass-to-charge ratios of ions, with errors as low as 1 ppm. Even such high mass accuracy, however, is not sufficient to determine the unique chemical formula of each ion, and additional algorithms are necessary. Here we present a universal software tool for predicting chemical formulas from high-resolution mass spectrometry data, developed within the MZmine 2 framework. The tool is based on the use of a combination of heuristic techniques, including MS/MS fragmentation analysis and isotope pattern matching. The performance of the tool was evaluated using a real metabolomic data set obtained with the Orbitrap MS detector. The true formula was correctly determined as the highest-ranking candidate for 79% of the tested compounds. The novel isotope pattern-scoring algorithm outperformed a previously published method in 64% of the tested Orbitrap spectra. The software described in this manuscript is freely available and its source code can be accessed within the MZmine 2 source code repository.
Caetano, Tibério S; McAuley, Julian J; Cheng, Li; Le, Quoc V; Smola, Alex J
2009-06-01
As a fundamental problem in pattern recognition, graph matching has applications in a variety of fields, from computer vision to computational biology. In graph matching, patterns are modeled as graphs and pattern recognition amounts to finding a correspondence between the nodes of different graphs. Many formulations of this problem can be cast in general as a quadratic assignment problem, where a linear term in the objective function encodes node compatibility and a quadratic term encodes edge compatibility. The main research focus in this theme is about designing efficient algorithms for approximately solving the quadratic assignment problem, since it is NP-hard. In this paper we turn our attention to a different question: how to estimate compatibility functions such that the solution of the resulting graph matching problem best matches the expected solution that a human would manually provide. We present a method for learning graph matching: the training examples are pairs of graphs and the 'labels' are matches between them. Our experimental results reveal that learning can substantially improve the performance of standard graph matching algorithms. In particular, we find that simple linear assignment with such a learning scheme outperforms Graduated Assignment with bistochastic normalisation, a state-of-the-art quadratic assignment relaxation algorithm.
Gang Li
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Vertical patterns of early summer chlorophyll a (Chl a concentration from the Indian Ocean are presented, as well as the variations of depth and size-fractioned Chl a in the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM. A total of 38 stations were investigated from 12 April to 5 May 2011, with 8 discrete-depth samples (7 fixed and 1 variable at real DCM measured at each station. Depth-integrated Chl a concentration (∑Chl a varied from 11.5 to 26.8 mg m−2, whereas Chl a content at DCM ranged from 0.17 to 0.57 μg L−1 with picophytoplankton (<3 μm accounting for 82% to 93%. The DCM depth varied from 55.6 to 91 m and shoaled latitudinally to northward. Moreover, our results indicated that the ∑Chl a could be underestimated by up to 9.3% with a routine sampling protocol of collecting samples only at 7 fixed depths as the real DCM was missed. The underestimation was negatively correlated to the DCM depth when it varied from 55.6 to 71.3 m (r=−0.63, P<0.05 but positively correlated when it ranged from 75.8 to 91 m (r=0.68, P<0.01. This indicates that in the Indian Ocean the greater the departure of the DCM from 75 m depth, the greater the underestimation of integrated Chl a concentration that could occur if the real DCM is missed.
Topics in combinatorial pattern matching
Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel
Problem. Given m documents of total length n, we consider the problem of finding a longest string common to at least d ≥ 2 of the documents. This problem is known as the longest common substring (LCS) problem and has a classic O(n) space and O(n) time solution (Weiner [FOCS’73], Hui [CPM’92]). However...
Multi-pattern Matching Based on KMP Algorithm for SCT System%面向涉密检查系统的基于KMP思想的多模式匹配算法
郝春媚; 杨榆
2013-01-01
模式匹配算法是涉密检查系统搜索引擎中的主要算法。在分析比较常用模式匹配算法基础上，提出了一种基于KMP算法跳跃思想的多模式匹配算法。该算法可兼容多模式匹配情况和单模式匹配情况，引入多维数组存储模式集并对模式集进行简单排序处理以简化后续操作，引入棋盘表记录各模式串的最大跳跃距离及模式串间跳跃距离。实验结果表明，该算法易于实现，并能有效提高匹配速度，对海量数据检索，有较好的时间和空间性能。%Pattern matching is the essential part of Secret Checking Tool. We presented an improved multi-pattern matching algorithm based on the idea of KMP algorithm after analyzing some classic pattern matching algorithms. The new algorithm applied to multi-pattern matching and single pattern matching. It adopts pattern matrix to hold patterns which have been sorted by and adopts skip matrix to record the next location of moving. Experimental results proved that the new algorithm is easy to implement and can enhance the speed of matching effectively, having better time complexity and space complexity.
Kremser, S.; Bodeker, G. E.; Lewis, J.
2014-01-01
A Climate Pattern-Scaling Model (CPSM) that simulates global patterns of climate change, for a prescribed emissions scenario, is described. A CPSM works by quantitatively establishing the statistical relationship between a climate variable at a specific location (e.g. daily maximum surface temperature, Tmax) and one or more predictor time series (e.g. global mean surface temperature, Tglobal) - referred to as the "training" of the CPSM. This training uses a regression model to derive fit coefficients that describe the statistical relationship between the predictor time series and the target climate variable time series. Once that relationship has been determined, and given the predictor time series for any greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, the change in the climate variable of interest can be reconstructed - referred to as the "application" of the CPSM. The advantage of using a CPSM rather than a typical atmosphere-ocean global climate model (AOGCM) is that the predictor time series required by the CPSM can usually be generated quickly using a simple climate model (SCM) for any prescribed GHG emissions scenario and then applied to generate global fields of the climate variable of interest. The training can be performed either on historical measurements or on output from an AOGCM. Using model output from 21st century simulations has the advantage that the climate change signal is more pronounced than in historical data and therefore a more robust statistical relationship is obtained. The disadvantage of using AOGCM output is that the CPSM training might be compromised by any AOGCM inadequacies. For the purposes of exploring the various methodological aspects of the CPSM approach, AOGCM output was used in this study to train the CPSM. These investigations of the CPSM methodology focus on monthly mean fields of daily temperature extremes (Tmax and Tmin). The methodological aspects of the CPSM explored in this study include (1) investigation of the advantage
OCPM:一种数据流上复合模式的在线匹配方法%OCPM:An Online Composite Pattern Matching Method over Data Streams
巨程; 李红燕; 李菲菲; 曲强
2011-01-01
Sequential data segments in data streams are highly valuable in many areas, they support abundant semantics and have complicated forms. Matching these segments need real - time processing. This paper presents an online composite pattern matching method over data streams (OCPM). To support complex forms of target pattern, OCPM identify invariant segment as basic pattern. Pattern matching operators are defined over basic patterns. Based on basic patterns, target pattern is generated after the operation. To accomplish the pattern matching efficiently, pattern matching operator tree (PMOTree) is created based on target pattern. Data segments are then recognized as basic patterns and flow into leaf nodes. Later matching procedures are operated according to the types of nodes in PMOTree. From the perspective of recall ratio, precision ratio and processing efficiency, the experimental results on real datasets of medical streams show that OCPM is feasible and effective.%连续数据波段在数据流中具有很高的领域价值,它们能表达丰富的含义,因此形式非常复杂,其匹配识别过程也具有实时性的要求.针对这些特点及要求,这里提出了一种数据流上的复合模式在线匹配方法(OCPM).为了支持匹配目标的复杂形式,该方法用基模式刻画连续波段中的相对不变的基本波段,在基模式上定义操作符集,基模式通过操作符的复合运算生成目标模式.为了高效完成目标匹配,算法针对目标模式构建操作符树(PMOTree).操作符树的叶节点把数据流波段识别为基模式,然后根据树中不同类型节点对应的处理算法,自底向上完成目标模式的匹配.实验采用真实场景中的医疗数据流,通过对查全率、查准率和匹配效率的实验结果分析,证明了OCPM方法具有可行性与实用性.
Wenzel, A; Richards, A; Heidmann, J
2010-12-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of undergraduate dental students to match simulated ante- and post-mortem radiographs in human skulls with experts as controls for the 1)number of post-mortem images needed for a match, 2)accuracy of the matches, and 3)time spent for a match. A film bitewing was recorded in each side of 51 dentate dry human skulls (a.m.-images) and digital images of the teeth were recorded using a sensor (p.m.-images). 102 correctly matching and 102 non-matching image pairs were constructed. Ten students and three experts scored the image pairs as: certain match, certain non-match, or uncertain. None of the experts but half of the students made false positive scores. Half of the students performed just as accurately as the experts. All students (except one who made 8 FPs) asked for more p.m.-images than did the experts before deciding on a match, however, all students, but one, also spent less time per image pair than did the experts before deciding on a match (Ppattern recognition and thus help in the decision on who might be included as part of a forensic dental team when extra help is needed.
One-Match and All-Match Categories for Keywords Matching in Chatbot
Abbas S. Lokman
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: Artificial intelligence chatbot is a technology that makes interactions between men and machines using natural language possible. From literature of chatbots keywords/pattern matching techniques, potential issues for improvement had been discovered. The discovered issues are in the context of keywords arrangement for matching precedence and keywords variety for matching flexibility. Approach: Combining previous techniques/mechanisms with some additional adjustment, new technique to be used for keywords matching process is proposed. Using newly developed chatbot named ViDi (abbreviation for Virtual Diabetes physician which is a chatbot for diabetes education activity as a testing medium, the proposed technique named One-Match and All-Match Categories (OMAMC is being used to test the creation of possible keywords surrounding one sample input sentence. The result for possible keywords created by this technique then being compared to possible keywords created by previous chatbots techniques surrounding the same sample sentence in matching precedence and matching flexibility context. Results: OMAMC technique is found to be improving previous matching techniques in matching precedence and flexibility context. This improvement is seen to be useful for shortening matching time and widening matching flexibility within the chatbots keywords matching process. Conclusion: OMAMC for keywords matching in chatbot is shown to be an improvement over previous techniques in the context of keywords arrangement for matching precedence and keywords variety for matching flexibility.
Freitas, Ayres; Plehn, Tilman
2016-01-01
Effective Lagrangians are a useful tool for a data-driven approach to physics beyond the Standard Model at the LHC. However, for the new physics scales accessible at the LHC, the effective operator expansion is only relatively slowly converging at best. For tree-level processes, it has been found that the agreement between the effective Lagrangian and a range of UV-complete models depends sensitively on the appropriate definition of the matching. We extend this analysis to the one-loop level, which is relevant for electroweak precision data and Higgs decay to photons. We show that near the scale of electroweak symmetry breaking the validity of the effective theory description can be systematically improved through an appropriate matching procedure. In particular, we find a significant increase in accuracy when including suitable terms suppressed by the Higgs vacuum expectation value in the matching.
郑颖楠; 王俊平; 张霞
2011-01-01
A new method which can linearize the nonlinear internal impedance was proposed. Based on the concept of dynamic equivalent impedance error, the engineering significance of dynamic equivalent impedance matching and the validity of dynamic equivalent impedance error control method were discussed. According to the thought of equivalent impedance matching, the self-optimizing maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control structure and algorithm in the photovoltaic power generation were developed, which can be achieved by digital. The experimental results show that the dynamic equivalent impedance matching algorithm has more obvious advantages, compared with the classic MPPT control algorithms.%提出1种非线性内阻抗的线性化处理方法.基于动态等效阻抗误差的概念,论述动态等效阻抗适配的L程意义:阐述动态等效阻抗误差控制的有效性.根据等效阻抗适配思想,构造出数字实现的光伏发电最大功率点跟踪(maximum power point tracking,MPPT)自寻优控制系统结构和算法.最后的实验结果证明,与几种经典MPPT控制算法相比,动态等效阻抗匹配控制算法具有更明显的优点.
唐君; 杨云
2014-01-01
为了提高计算机网络入侵检测的效率和性能，采用多模式匹配算法来实现入侵检测。首先对网络入侵检测模型进行了分析，接着对多模式匹配算法基本定义进行阐述，提出了典型多模式匹配算法最后进行实例仿真，并从匹配时间和内存消耗两个方面对常见的三种多模式匹配算法性能进行了分析比较，实验证明，多模式匹配算法适用于计算机网络入侵检测，具有一定的研究价值。%In order to improve the efficiency and performance of network intrusion detection, the paper uses multiple pattern matching algorithms to realize the intrusion detection. Firstly, the paper analyzes the network intrusion detection model, and then elaborates the basic definition of multiple pattern matching algorithm, puts forward the typical multiple pattern matching algorithm, finally carries out the instance simulation, and compares the performances of the common three multi-ple matching algorithms from the two aspects of matching time and memory consumption, experiments show that multiple pattern matching algorithm is suitable for computer network intrusion detection, which has certain research value.
面向骨干网NIDS的细粒度并行多模式匹配方法%Fine-grained Parallel Multi-pattern Matching for Backbone Network NIDS
邵宗有; 刘兴奎; 刘新春; 孙凝晖
2013-01-01
As the network bandwidth continuously increases, the network security has been seriously threatened by malicious behaviors and risks. Network intrusion detection system (NIDS) is one of the efficient measures to cope with intrusion threats and protect information security, which employs pattern matching techniques to analyze incoming packets and detect potential threats. However,pattern matching is such a compute-intensive task that most current techniques can't meet the demand of NIDS for backbone networks over lOGbps speed. We proposed a novel Bloom filter based approach for pattern matching,called PBPM (Parallel-Bloom-filter-based multi-Pattern Matching). PBPM employs multiple copies of the same Bloom filter to carry out parallel matching on different positions of the input text at the same time. The fine-grained parallel approach is able to skip multiple characters per clock when implemented on FPGAs,dramatically improving pattern matching performance. Experimental results on the rule set from Snort 2. 9 show that the throughput of PBPM exceeds more than 20Gbps.%随着网络带宽的快速增长,互联网正面临着日益严重的安全威胁.网络入侵检测系统(NIDS)利用模式匹配等技术对网络报文进行分析和检测,是防范网络威胁、保护网络安全的一种有效手段.但模式匹配消耗巨大的计算量,现有的技术难以满足10Gbps以上骨干网络NIDS的需求.提出了基于Bloom filter的细粒度并行模式匹配技术PBPM(Parallel-Bloom-filter-based multi-Pattern Matching),PBPM利用多个相同的Bloom filter分别从输入文本的不同位置处并行匹配,每个周期可完成多个字符的匹配,显著提高了匹配速率.详细讨论了在FPGA上的实现方式,在Snort 2.9规则集上的测试结果表明,PBPM能够提供超过20Gbps的模式匹配需求.
Oehlschlägel, Jens
2007-01-01
Cluster matching by permuting cluster labels is important in many clustering contexts such as cluster validation and cluster ensemble techniques. The classic approach is to minimize the euclidean distance between two cluster solutions which induces inappropriate stability in certain settings. Therefore, we present the truematch algorithm that introduces two improvements best explained in the crisp case. First, instead of maximizing the trace of the cluster crosstable, we propose to maximize a chi-square transformation of this crosstable. Thus, the trace will not be dominated by the cells with the largest counts but by the cells with the most non-random observations, taking into account the marginals. Second, we suggest a probabilistic component in order to break ties and to make the matching algorithm truly random on random data. The truematch algorithm is designed as a building block of the truecluster framework and scales in polynomial time. First simulation results confirm that the truematch algorithm give...
Middle matching mining algorithm
GUO Ping; CHEN Li
2003-01-01
A new algorithm for fast discovery of sequential patterns to solve the problems of too many candidate sets made by SPADE is presented, which is referred to as middle matching algorithm. Experiments on a large customer transaction database consisting of customer_id, transaction time, and transaction items demonstrate that the proposed algorithm performs better than SPADE attributed to its philosophy to generate a candidate set by matching two sequences in the middle place so as to reduce the number of the candidate sets.
Convex hull sequence method using graph spectra in image point pattern matching%图像点模式匹配的一种凸包序列的图谱方法
刘文静; 田铮; 张朝阳
2011-01-01
利用点集的凸包具有仿射不变性和局部可控性,针对图谱方法难以精确匹配旋转角度较大图像的问题,提出了图像点模式匹配的一种凸包序列的图谱方法,使得匹配在图像旋转角度较大的情形下仍具有稳定性.构建图像特征点集新的图模型(凸包),利用改进的图谱方法对凸包进行匹配,并减小原始特征点集,迭代上述过程,通过构造凸包序列,自特征点集的外围到内部逐步匹配,得到较精确的匹配对.实现基于凸包序列的图谱方法的图像点模式匹配.实验结果表明,该方法不但能精确匹配旋转角度较小的图像,而且对于旋转角度大的图像以及多光谱图像匹配精度也较高.%Aiming at the exact matching problem of larger rotation image, which is difficult to be solved by graph spectra method,a convex hull sequence method using graph spectra in the image point pattern matching is presented,which makes use of the local controllability and affine invariance of the convex hull.It makes the matching still stable in the case of larger image rotation angles.The new graph model of the image feature point set (convex hull) is built, the graph spectral method to match the convex hull is used,and the original feature point set is reduced.In order to get more accurate matching pairs, apply the iterative method, from the exterior of the feature point set to the interior to match through construction of the convex hull sequence.lt achieves image point pattern matching using the graph spectral method based on convex hull sequence.The experimental results show that this method not only can accurately match the images of the smaller rotation,but also its matching accuracy is high for the images of a larger rotation angle and multi-spectral images.
桂存兵; 刘洋; 何业军
2013-01-01
为实现光伏发电应用中LCC谐振电路的最大功率点跟踪(MPPT),首先,基于傅里叶级数的动态相量法对LCC谐振电路建立了稳态数学模型.然后,基于阻抗匹配的思想,在其数学模型的基础上提出了一种以开关频率为控制变量的MPPT阻抗匹配方法.最后,根据已有文献提供的最大功率点测量矩阵为依据进行了仿真和实验,通过仿真和实验结果验证了这种阻抗匹配方法的正确性.与其它几种经典的MPPT算法比较,验证了以阻抗匹配思想为基础的MPPT方法有明显的优点.%In order to realize the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of the series-parallel resonant converter ( LCC) with capacitive output filter in the photovoltaic power generation, firstly, based on Fourier series, a steady-state mathematical model of the LCC resonant circuit is established using dynamic phasor. Then, according to the thought of equivalent impedance matching, a MPPT algorithm is obtained based on the mathematical model of LCC converter. Finally, in terms of measurement matrix of the maximum power which has been provided by the existing literatures, this method of equivalent impedance matching is verified by the results of simulation and experiment. Compared with the classic MPPT algorithm, the MPPT algorithm which accords to the thought of equivalent impedance matching has more obvious advantages.
A Study of Aesthetic Effects on Color Matching Patterns in Modern Fashion Design%浅谈时装色彩搭配模式的审美效果
陈璞
2014-01-01
“服装给人的第一印象就是色彩”，这足以说明服饰服装色彩搭配在行业设计中的重要性。本文在研究现代时装设计中色彩搭配组合的基础上，进行有机的归纳整理，提出对照、强调、分隔、渐变和混合等五种配色模式，抛砖引玉，旨在为服装设计从业人员提供参考，同时，引导普通消费者了解服装色彩搭配知识，提升时尚认识和鉴赏审美能力。%The saying “Color is the first impression given by clothes” shows the importance of color matching in fashion design. Based on the study and summary of color matching patterns in modern fashion design, this paper tries to provide references to fashion designers by bringing up five color matching patterns, i.e. Contrast Color Coordination, Accent Color Coordination, Separation Color Coordination, Gradation Color Coordination and Complex Color Coordination. Meanwhile this paper also aims to improve fashion taste and aesthetic judgment of customers by providing basic knowledge of color matching.
Dynamic Matchings in Convex Bipartite Graphs
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Georgiadis, Loukas; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt
2007-01-01
We consider the problem of maintaining a maximum matching in a convex bipartite graph G = (V,E) under a set of update operations which includes insertions and deletions of vertices and edges. It is not hard to show that it is impossible to maintain an explicit representation of a maximum matching...
Hwang, Eui Jin; Park, Chang Min; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Hyungjin; Goo, Jin Mo
2016-04-01
The purpose of the present study was to compare the frequency of microscopic invasions, disease-free-survival (DFS), and the frequency and pattern of disease recurrence between stage I pulmonary adenocarcinomas appearing as solid nodules and those appearing as part-solid ground-glass nodules (GGNs) after matching their solid parts' size (D(solid)) and patients' age. Among 501 patients who underwent curative surgery for stage I pulmonary adenocarcinomas between 2003 and 2011, 172 patients (86 with solid nodules [M: F = 36: 50; mean age, 62.8 years] and 86 with part-solid GGNs [M:F = 30:56; mean age, 63.0 years]) matched for D(solid) and patients' age were included. DFS, frequency of microscopic invasions, recurrence, and recurrence pattern were compared between the two groups. No significant difference was observed in the frequency of microscopic invasions between the two groups (visceral pleural invasion, 30.23% vs. 29.07%, P = 0.867; lymphatic invasion, 5.81% vs. 3.49%, P = 0.720; vascular invasion, 1.16% vs. 0%, P = 1.000; solid nodules vs. part-slid GGNs, respectively) and DFS (estimated 5-year DFS, 83.6% vs. 81.9%, P = 0.744; solid nodules vs. part-slid GGNs, respectively). As for recurrence and recurrence pattern, there were no significant differences between the solid nodule group (14/86), and part-solid GGN group (12/86) (P = 0.670). Lung parenchymal nodules were the most frequent pattern of disease recurrence in both groups, followed by pleural seeding. In conclusion, after matching D(solid) and patients' age, there was no significant difference in the frequency of microscopic invasions, DFS, and the frequency and pattern of recurrence between stage I pulmonary adenocarcinomas appearing as solid nodules and part-solid GGNs.
Lek, E; Fairclough, D V; Hall, N G; Hesp, S A; Potter, I C
2012-11-01
The size and age data and patterns of growth of three abundant, reef-dwelling and protogynous labrid species (Coris auricularis, Notolabrus parilus and Ophthalmolepis lineolata) in waters off Perth at c. 32° S and in the warmer waters of the Jurien Bay Marine Park (JBMP) at c. 30° S on the lower west coast of Australia are compared. Using data for the top 10% of values and a randomization procedure, the maximum total length (L(T) ) and mass of each species and the maximum age of the first two species were estimated to be significantly greater off Perth than in the JBMP (all P 0.05). These latitudinal trends, thus, typically conform to those frequently exhibited by fish species and the predictions of the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE). While, in terms of mass, the instantaneous growth rates of each species were similar at both latitudes during early life, they were greater at the higher latitude throughout the remainder and thus much of life, which is broadly consistent with the MTE. When expressed in terms of L(T), however, instantaneous growth rates did not exhibit consistent latitudinal trends across all three species. The above trends with mass, together with those for reproductive variables, demonstrate that a greater amount of energy is directed into somatic growth and gonadal development by each of these species at the higher latitude. The consistency of the direction of the latitudinal trends for maximum body size and age and pattern of growth across all three species implies that each species is responding in a similar manner to differences between the environmental characteristics, such as temperature, at those two latitudes. The individual maximum L(T), mass and age and pattern of growth of O. lineolata at a higher and thus cooler latitude on the eastern Australian coast are consistent with the latitudinal trends exhibited by those characteristics for this species in the two western Australian localities. The implications of using mass rather than
Claesson, Anders
2010-01-01
We show that there are n! matchings on 2n points without, so called, left (neighbor) nestings. We also define a set of naturally labeled (2+2)-free posets, and show that there are n! such posets on n elements. Our work was inspired by Bousquet-M\\'elou, Claesson, Dukes and Kitaev [arXiv:0806.0666]. They gave bijections between four classes of combinatorial objects: matchings with no neighbor nestings (due to Stoimenow), unlabeled (2+2)-free posets, permutations avoiding a specific pattern, and so called ascent sequences. We believe that certain statistics on our matchings and posets could generalize the work of Bousquet-M\\'elou et al.\\ and we make a conjecture to that effect. We also identify natural subsets of matchings and posets that are equinumerous to the class of unlabeled (2+2)-free posets. We give bijections that show the equivalence of (neighbor) restrictions on nesting arcs with (neighbor) restrictions on crossing arcs. These bijections are thought to be of independent interest. One of the bijections...
Regularized maximum correntropy machine
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2015-02-12
In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.
Gadda, Davide; Vannucchi, Letizia; Niccolai, Franco; Neri, Anna T.; Carmignani, Luca; Pacini, Patrizio [Ospedale del Ceppo, U.O. Radiodiagnostica, Pistoia (Italy)
2005-12-01
Maximum intensity projections reconstructions from 2.5 mm unenhanced multidetector computed tomography axial slices were obtained from 49 patients within the first 6 h of anterior-circulation cerebral strokes to identify different patterns of the dense artery sign and their prognostic implications for location and extent of the infarcted areas. The dense artery sign was found in 67.3% of cases. Increased density of the whole M1 segment with extension to M2 of the middle cerebral artery was associated with a wider extension of cerebral infarcts in comparison to M1 segment alone or distal M1 and M2. A dense sylvian branch of the middle cerebral artery pattern was associated with a more restricted extension of infarct territory. We found 62.5% of patients without a demonstrable dense artery to have a limited peripheral cortical or capsulonuclear lesion. In patients with a 7-10 points on the Alberta Stroke Early Programme Computed Tomography Score and a dense proximal MCA in the first hours of ictus the mean decrease in the score between baseline and follow-up was 5.09{+-}1.92 points. In conclusion, maximum intensity projections from thin-slice images can be quickly obtained from standard computed tomography datasets using a multidetector scanner and are useful in identifying and correctly localizing the dense artery sign, with prognostic implications for the entity of cerebral damage. (orig.)
王敏; 黄心汉; 魏武; 李炜
2001-01-01
A method of characters in vehicle number-plate using pattern match and neural networks is presented. This method integrates the advantages of pattern match and neural networks recognizing characters in vehicle number-plate. It can be used to solve at the same time the problem that only pattern match or neural network is difficult to recognize the characters. The recognition rate can be improved with the recognition time reduced and the adaptable ability of recognition method increased. The experimental results show that, for a vehicle number-plate, recognition rate of characters is more than 90% and the recognition time of characters is less than 1.2 second by using this method. It is obvious that this method is of more effective recognition ability than other methods.%提出了一种基于模板匹配和神经网络的车牌识别方法.该方法集成了模板匹配识别车牌字符和神经网络识别车牌字符的优势，可有效地提高车牌字符的识别率、识别速度和识别系统的泛化能力.实验结果表明：大多数情况下，该方法的识别率超过90?%，识别时间不超过1?200?ms，能有效地识别各种车牌中的字符，满足实际系统的要求.
Amy Hillier; Hirsch, Jana A.
2013-01-01
Increasing research has focused on the built food environment and nutrition-related outcomes, yet what constitutes a food environment and how this environment influences individual behavior still remain unclear. This study assesses whether travel mode and distance to food shopping venues differ among individuals in varying food environments and whether individual- and household-level factors are associated with food shopping patterns. Fifty neighbors who share a traditionally defined food env...
夏加宽; 李文瑞; 何新; 张健
2015-01-01
为获得热声发电系统最大电能输出和声功捕获，该文以横向磁通永磁直线发电机为例，采用力–电类比法建立热声发电系统等效模型，研究电磁力、次级速度与阻抗之间的关系，推导热声发电系统等效阻尼的表达式，并分析电抗对等效阻尼的影响。在此基础上，基于最大电能输出进行阻抗匹配，并采用相量法分析阻抗匹配对机械谐振条件的影响，推导出谐振弹簧劲度系数表达式。最后，通过直线振荡系统实验平台验证阻抗匹配及弹簧谐振劲度系数理论推导的准确性，为热声发电系统直线发电机的设计提供理论指导。%In order to obtain maximum captured acoustic and electric power output of thermoacoustic electric generation systems (TAEGS), an electro-mechanical analogic model was built using an appropriate transverse flux PM linear machine (TFPMLM). The relationship among electromagnetic force, velocity of mover and reactance was analyzed, and expression of TAEGS equivalent damping was deduced. The effect of the reactance on equivalent damping was analyzed, and the parameter of reactance was deduced for getting impedance matching. The influence of impedance matching on conditions of mechanical resonance was researched using phasor diagram. Expression of the spring stiffness factor was deduced. Experimental results through a linear oscillatory platform verify the validity of the impedance matching and theoretically derivate equivalent resonance stiffness factor. The achievements in this paper provide theoretical guidance for the linear generator design of TAEGS.
Amy Hillier
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Increasing research has focused on the built food environment and nutrition-related outcomes, yet what constitutes a food environment and how this environment influences individual behavior still remain unclear. This study assesses whether travel mode and distance to food shopping venues differ among individuals in varying food environments and whether individual- and household-level factors are associated with food shopping patterns. Fifty neighbors who share a traditionally defined food environment (25 in an unfavorable environment and 25 in a favorable environment were surveyed using a mix of close- and open-ended survey questions. Food shopping patterns were mapped using Geographic Information Systems (GIS. Stores visited were beyond the 0.5-mile (805 meters radius traditionally used to represent the extent of an individual’s food environment in an urban area. We found no significant difference in shopping frequency or motivating factor behind store choice between the groups. No differences existed between the two groups for big food shopping trips. For small trips, individuals in the favorable food environment traveled shorter distances and were more likely to walk than drive. Socioeconomic status, including car ownership, education, and income influenced distance traveled. These findings highlight the complexities involved in the study and measurement of food environments.
Hirsch, Jana A; Hillier, Amy
2013-01-14
Increasing research has focused on the built food environment and nutrition-related outcomes, yet what constitutes a food environment and how this environment influences individual behavior still remain unclear. This study assesses whether travel mode and distance to food shopping venues differ among individuals in varying food environments and whether individual- and household-level factors are associated with food shopping patterns. Fifty neighbors who share a traditionally defined food environment (25 in an unfavorable environment and 25 in a favorable environment) were surveyed using a mix of close- and open-ended survey questions. Food shopping patterns were mapped using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Stores visited were beyond the 0.5-mile (805 meters) radius traditionally used to represent the extent of an individual's food environment in an urban area. We found no significant difference in shopping frequency or motivating factor behind store choice between the groups. No differences existed between the two groups for big food shopping trips. For small trips, individuals in the favorable food environment traveled shorter distances and were more likely to walk than drive. Socioeconomic status, including car ownership, education, and income influenced distance traveled. These findings highlight the complexities involved in the study and measurement of food environments.
Costello, Kevin; Tripathi, Pushkar
2012-01-01
We consider the following stochastic optimization problem first introduced by Chen et al. in \\cite{chen}. We are given a vertex set of a random graph where each possible edge is present with probability p_e. We do not know which edges are actually present unless we scan/probe an edge. However whenever we probe an edge and find it to be present, we are constrained to picking the edge and both its end points are deleted from the graph. We wish to find the maximum matching in this model. We compare our results against the optimal omniscient algorithm that knows the edges of the graph and present a 0.573 factor algorithm using a novel sampling technique. We also prove that no algorithm can attain a factor better than 0.898 in this model.
Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.
2000-01-01
This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from...
Chance, William W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rice, David C. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tsao, Anne S. [Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Fontanilla, Hiral P. [Princeton Radiation Oncology, Monroe Township, New Jersey (United States); Liao, Zhongxing; Chang, Joe Y.; Tang, Chad; Pan, Hubert Y.; Welsh, James W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mehran, Reza J. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gomez, Daniel R., E-mail: dgomez@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)
2015-01-01
Purpose: To investigate safety, efficacy, and recurrence after hemithoracic intensity modulated radiation therapy after pleurectomy/decortication (PD-IMRT) and after extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP-IMRT). Methods and Materials: In 2009-2013, 24 patients with mesothelioma underwent PD-IMRT to the involved hemithorax to a dose of 45 Gy, with an optional integrated boost; 22 also received chemotherapy. Toxicity was scored with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0. Pulmonary function was compared at baseline, after surgery, and after IMRT. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), time to locoregional failure, and time to distant metastasis. Failures were in-field, marginal, or out of field. Outcomes were compared with those of 24 patients, matched for age, nodal status, performance status, and chemotherapy, who had received EPP-IMRT. Results: Median follow-up time was 12.2 months. Grade 3 toxicity rates were 8% skin and 8% pulmonary. Pulmonary function declined from baseline to after surgery (by 21% for forced vital capacity, 16% for forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and 19% for lung diffusion of carbon monoxide [P for all = .01]) and declined still further after IMRT (by 31% for forced vital capacity [P=.02], 25% for forced expiratory volume in 1 second [P=.01], and 30% for lung diffusion of carbon monoxide [P=.01]). The OS and PFS rates were 76% and 67%, respectively, at 1 year and 56% and 34% at 2 years. Median OS (28.4 vs 14.2 months, P=.04) and median PFS (16.4 vs 8.2 months, P=.01) favored PD-IMRT versus EPP-IMRT. No differences were found in grade 4-5 toxicity (0 of 24 vs 3 of 24, P=.23), median time to locoregional failure (18.7 months vs not reached, P not calculable), or median time to distant metastasis (18.8 vs 11.8 months, P=.12). Conclusions: Hemithoracic intensity modulated radiation therapy after pleurectomy/decortication produced little high-grade toxicity but
Clothing Matching for Visually Impaired Persons.
Yuan, Shuai; Tian, Yingli; Arditi, Aries
2011-01-01
Matching clothes is a challenging task for many blind people. In this paper, we present a proof of concept system to solve this problem. The system consists of 1) a camera connected to a computer to perform pattern and color matching process; 2) speech commands for system control and configuration; and 3) audio feedback to provide matching results for both color and patterns of clothes. This system can handle clothes in deficient color without any pattern, as well as clothing with multiple colors and complex patterns to aid both blind and color deficient people. Furthermore, our method is robust to variations of illumination, clothing rotation and wrinkling. To evaluate the proposed prototype, we collect two challenging databases including clothes without any pattern, or with multiple colors and different patterns under different conditions of lighting and rotation. Results reported here demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed clothing matching system.
Ade, Jack; Fitzpatrick, John; Bradley, Paul S
2016-12-01
This study aimed to translate movement patterns, technical skills and tactical actions associated with high-intensity efforts into metrics that could potentially be used to construct position-specific conditioning drills. A total of 20 individual English Premier League players' high-intensity running profiles were observed multiple times (n = 100) using a computerised tracking system. Data were analysed using a novel high-intensity movement programme across five positions (centre back [CB], full-back [FB], central midfielder [CM], wide midfielder [WM] and centre forward [CF]). High-intensity efforts in contact with the ball and the average speed of efforts were greater in WMs than CBs, CMs and CFs (effect sizes [ES]: 0.9-2.1, P WMs produced more repeated efforts than CBs and CMs (ES: 0.6-1.3, P WMs executed more tricks post effort than CBs and CMs (ES: 1.2-1.3, P WMs performed more crosses post effort than other positions (ES: 1.1-2.0, P WMs (ES: 0.9-1.4, P WMs (ES: 0.9-1.1, P < 0.01). The data demonstrate unique high-intensity trends in and out of possession that could assist practitioners when devising position-specific drills.
Sankaranarayanan, Preethi; Schomay, Theodore E.; Aiello, Katherine A.; Alter, Orly
2015-01-01
The number of large-scale high-dimensional datasets recording different aspects of a single disease is growing, accompanied by a need for frameworks that can create one coherent model from multiple tensors of matched columns, e.g., patients and platforms, but independent rows, e.g., probes. We define and prove the mathematical properties of a novel tensor generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD), which can simultaneously find the similarities and dissimilarities, i.e., patterns of varying relative significance, between any two such tensors. We demonstrate the tensor GSVD in comparative modeling of patient- and platform-matched but probe-independent ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV) tumor, mostly high-grade, and normal DNA copy-number profiles, across each chromosome arm, and combination of two arms, separately. The modeling uncovers previously unrecognized patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent co-occurring copy-number alterations (CNAs). We find, first, and validate that each of the patterns across only 7p and Xq, and the combination of 6p+12p, is correlated with a patient’s prognosis, is independent of the tumor’s stage, the best predictor of OV survival to date, and together with stage makes a better predictor than stage alone. Second, these patterns include most known OV-associated CNAs that map to these chromosome arms, as well as several previously unreported, yet frequent focal CNAs. Third, differential mRNA, microRNA, and protein expression consistently map to the DNA CNAs. A coherent picture emerges for each pattern, suggesting roles for the CNAs in OV pathogenesis and personalized therapy. In 6p+12p, deletion of the p21-encoding CDKN1A and p38-encoding MAPK14 and amplification of RAD51AP1 and KRAS encode for human cell transformation, and are correlated with a cell’s immortality, and a patient’s shorter survival time. In 7p, RPA3 deletion and POLD2 amplification are correlated with DNA stability, and a longer survival. In Xq
Preethi Sankaranarayanan
Full Text Available The number of large-scale high-dimensional datasets recording different aspects of a single disease is growing, accompanied by a need for frameworks that can create one coherent model from multiple tensors of matched columns, e.g., patients and platforms, but independent rows, e.g., probes. We define and prove the mathematical properties of a novel tensor generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD, which can simultaneously find the similarities and dissimilarities, i.e., patterns of varying relative significance, between any two such tensors. We demonstrate the tensor GSVD in comparative modeling of patient- and platform-matched but probe-independent ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV tumor, mostly high-grade, and normal DNA copy-number profiles, across each chromosome arm, and combination of two arms, separately. The modeling uncovers previously unrecognized patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent co-occurring copy-number alterations (CNAs. We find, first, and validate that each of the patterns across only 7p and Xq, and the combination of 6p+12p, is correlated with a patient's prognosis, is independent of the tumor's stage, the best predictor of OV survival to date, and together with stage makes a better predictor than stage alone. Second, these patterns include most known OV-associated CNAs that map to these chromosome arms, as well as several previously unreported, yet frequent focal CNAs. Third, differential mRNA, microRNA, and protein expression consistently map to the DNA CNAs. A coherent picture emerges for each pattern, suggesting roles for the CNAs in OV pathogenesis and personalized therapy. In 6p+12p, deletion of the p21-encoding CDKN1A and p38-encoding MAPK14 and amplification of RAD51AP1 and KRAS encode for human cell transformation, and are correlated with a cell's immortality, and a patient's shorter survival time. In 7p, RPA3 deletion and POLD2 amplification are correlated with DNA stability, and a longer survival
Lynn, Ke-Shiuan; Chen, Chen-Chun; Lih, T Mamie; Cheng, Cheng-Wei; Su, Wan-Chih; Chang, Chun-Hao; Cheng, Chia-Ying; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Chen, Yu-Ju; Sung, Ting-Yi
2015-02-17
Glycosylation is a highly complex modification influencing the functions and activities of proteins. Interpretation of intact glycopeptide spectra is crucial but challenging. In this paper, we present a mass spectrometry-based automated glycopeptide identification platform (MAGIC) to identify peptide sequences and glycan compositions directly from intact N-linked glycopeptide collision-induced-dissociation spectra. The identification of the Y1 (peptideY0 + GlcNAc) ion is critical for the correct analysis of unknown glycoproteins, especially without prior knowledge of the proteins and glycans present in the sample. To ensure accurate Y1-ion assignment, we propose a novel algorithm called Trident that detects a triplet pattern corresponding to [Y0, Y1, Y2] or [Y0-NH3, Y0, Y1] from the fragmentation of the common trimannosyl core of N-linked glycopeptides. To facilitate the subsequent peptide sequence identification by common database search engines, MAGIC generates in silico spectra by overwriting the original precursor with the naked peptide m/z and removing all of the glycan-related ions. Finally, MAGIC computes the glycan compositions and ranks them. For the model glycoprotein horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and a 5-glycoprotein mixture, a 2- to 31-fold increase in the relative intensities of the peptide fragments was achieved, which led to the identification of 7 tryptic glycopeptides from HRP and 16 glycopeptides from the mixture via Mascot. In the HeLa cell proteome data set, MAGIC processed over a thousand MS(2) spectra in 3 min on a PC and reported 36 glycopeptides from 26 glycoproteins. Finally, a remarkable false discovery rate of 0 was achieved on the N-glycosylation-free Escherichia coli data set. MAGIC is available at http://ms.iis.sinica.edu.tw/COmics/Software_MAGIC.html .
On String Matching with Mismatches
Marius Nicolae
2015-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider several variants of the pattern matching with mismatches problem. In particular, given a text \\(T=t_1 t_2\\cdots t_n\\ and a pattern \\(P=p_1p_2\\cdots p_m\\, we investigate the following problems: (1 pattern matching with mismatches: for every \\(i, 1\\leq i \\leq n-m+1\\ output, the distance between \\(P\\ and \\(t_i t_{i+1}\\cdots t_{i+m-1}\\; and (2 pattern matching with \\(k\\ mismatches: output those positions \\(i\\ where the distance between \\(P\\ and \\(t_i t_{i+1}\\cdots t_{i+m-1}\\ is less than a given threshold \\(k\\. The distance metric used is the Hamming distance. We present some novel algorithms and techniques for solving these problems. We offer deterministic, randomized and approximation algorithms. We consider variants of these problems where there could be wild cards in either the text or the pattern or both. We also present an experimental evaluation of these algorithms. The source code is available at http://www.engr.uconn.edu/\\(\\sim\\man09004/kmis.zip.
Face Recognition (Patterns Matching & Bio-Metrics
Jignesh Dhirubhai Hirapara
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Government agencies are investing a considerable amount of resources into improving security systems as result of recent terrorist events that dangerously exposed flaws and weaknesses in today’s safety mechanisms. Badge or password-based authentication procedures are too easy to hack. Biometrics represents a valid alternative but they suffer of drawbacks as well. Iris scanning, for example, is very reliable but too intrusive; fingerprints are socially accepted, but not applicable to non-con sentient people. On the other hand, face recognition represents a good compromise between what’s socially acceptable and what’s reliable, even when operating under controlled conditions. In last decade, many algorithms based on linear/nonlinear methods, neural networks, wavelets, etc. have been proposed. Nevertheless, Face Recognition Vendor Test 2002 shown that most of these approaches encountered problems in outdoor conditions. This lowered their reliability compared to state of the art biometrics.
String matching with variable length gaps
Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel
2012-01-01
We consider string matching with variable length gaps. Given a string T and a pattern P consisting of strings separated by variable length gaps (arbitrary strings of length in a specified range), the problem is to find all ending positions of substrings in T that match P. This problem is a basic...
Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.; Steenfelt, Agnete
2000-01-01
This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from an ordinary non-spatial factor analysis, and they are interpreted in a geological context. It is demonstrated that MAF analysis contrary to ordinary non-spatial factor analysis gives an objective discrimina...
Statistics of polarisation matching
Naus, H.W.L.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.
2014-01-01
The reception of electromagnetic signals depends on the polarisation matching of the transmitting and receiving antenna. The practical matching differs from the theoretical one because of the noise deterioration of the transmitted and eventually received electromagnetic field. In other applications,
吴旭婧; 许勇; 张亚楠
2015-01-01
With the widely application of the Wireless Sensor Network( WSN) ,the security problem is more and more prominent. The distribution and management of WSN receive more and more attention. This paper proposes a key pre-distribution scheme which matches patterns according to the fingerprint identification by dividing the network after collecting the deployment information. The scheme divides the network into several domains,and the seed pool is divided into multiple sub-seed pools relatively. Nodes select seeds from relative areas to generate patterns and texts, and use fingerprint function values as communication keys when match successfully. The performance and security analysis shows that the scheme can substantially improve a network’ s connectivity and reduce storage consumption compared with the traditional random key pre-distribution scheme.%随着无线传感器网络( WSN)的广泛应用,其安全问题尤其突出,WSN的密钥分配和管理受到越来越多研究者的重视。通过收集节点的部署信息对区域进行划分,提出一种根据指纹识别进行模式匹配的密钥预分配方案。该方案将网络划分成多个较小区域,同时将密钥种子池分成多个与其对应的子密钥种子池。节点通过挑选相应区域内种子生成模式和文本,根据匹配成功时生成的指纹函数值建立通信密钥。安全性分析结果表明,与传统的随机密钥预分配方案相比,该方案具有较高的网络连通率及较低的存储能耗。
A Maximum Resonant Set of Polyomino Graphs
Zhang Heping
2016-05-01
Full Text Available A polyomino graph P is a connected finite subgraph of the infinite plane grid such that each finite face is surrounded by a regular square of side length one and each edge belongs to at least one square. A dimer covering of P corresponds to a perfect matching. Different dimer coverings can interact via an alternating cycle (or square with respect to them. A set of disjoint squares of P is a resonant set if P has a perfect matching M so that each one of those squares is M-alternating. In this paper, we show that if K is a maximum resonant set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching. We further prove that the maximum forcing number of a polyomino graph is equal to the cardinality of a maximum resonant set. This confirms a conjecture of Xu et al. [26]. We also show that if K is a maximal alternating set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching.
Matching Through Position Auctions
Terence Johnson
2009-01-01
This paper studies how an intermediary should design two-sided matching markets when agents are privately informed about their quality as a partner and can make payments to the intermediary. Using a mechanism design approach, I derive sufficient conditions for assortative matching to be profit- or welfare-maximizing, and then show how to implement the optimal match and payments through two-sided position auctions. This sharpens our understanding of intermediated matching markets by clarifying...
Maximum mutual information regularized classification
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2014-09-07
In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.
Template Matching on Parallel Architectures,
1985-07-01
memory. The processors run asynchronously. Thus according to Hynn’s categories the Butterfl . is a MIMD machine. The processors of the Butterfly are...Generalized Butterfly Architecture This section describes timings for pattern matching on the generalized Butterfl .. Ihe implementations on the Butterfly...these algorithms. Thus the best implementation of the techniques on the generalized Butterfl % are the same as the implementation on the real Butterfly
李垚; 张兴旺; 方炎明
2016-01-01
小叶栎(Quercus chenii)是华东植物区系的代表树种，具有很高的生态、经济价值。为重建冰期以来小叶栎地理分布格局的变迁历史、了解环境因子对潜在地理分布的制约机制，为小叶栎种质资源保护和管理提供科学依据，该研究基于55条分布记录和8个环境变量，利用MaxEnt模型模拟小叶栎在末次盛冰期、全新世中期、现代和2070年(温室气体排放情景为典型浓度目标8.5)的潜在分布区，利用多元环境相似度面和最不相似变量分析探讨气候变迁过程中环境异常区域和引起潜在地理分布改变的关键因素，综合应用贡献率及置换重要值比较、Jackknife检验评估制约现代地理分布的主要因子，采用响应曲线确定环境变量的适宜区间。研究结果表明：MaxEnt模型的预测准确度极高，受试者工作特征曲线下的面积(AUC值)达0.9869±0.0045；现代高度适宜区在安徽南部、浙江西部、江西东北部和湖北东部；影响小叶栎地理分布的主要气候因子为气温和降水量，气温更重要；最干季平均气温可能是制约小叶栎向北分布的关键因素；末次盛冰期时，小叶栎高度适宜区位于东海大陆架内；全新世中期适宜分布区轮廓已与现代近似；2070年适宜分布区向北移，高度适宜区面积增大，与末次盛冰期、全新世中期和现代相比，这一时期的气候异常程度最高。气温季节变化和降水季节变化可能是引起地理分布变迁的重要气候因素。%Aims Quercus chenii is a representative species of the flora in East China, with high ecological and economic values. Here, we aim to simulate the changes in the distribution pattern of this tree species following the Last Gla-cial Maximum (LGM) and to explore how climatic factors constrain the potential distribution, so as to provide scientific basis for protection and management of the germplasm resources in Q
Best matching theory & applications
Moghaddam, Mohsen
2017-01-01
Mismatch or best match? This book demonstrates that best matching of individual entities to each other is essential to ensure smooth conduct and successful competitiveness in any distributed system, natural and artificial. Interactions must be optimized through best matching in planning and scheduling, enterprise network design, transportation and construction planning, recruitment, problem solving, selective assembly, team formation, sensor network design, and more. Fundamentals of best matching in distributed and collaborative systems are explained by providing: § Methodical analysis of various multidimensional best matching processes § Comprehensive taxonomy, comparing different best matching problems and processes § Systematic identification of systems’ hierarchy, nature of interactions, and distribution of decision-making and control functions § Practical formulation of solutions based on a library of best matching algorithms and protocols, ready for direct applications and apps development. Design...
Matching Parasitic Antenna for Single RF MIMO
Han, Bo; Kalis, A; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth
2012-01-01
Single RF MIMO communication emerges a novel low cost communication method which does not consume as much power as the conventional MIMO. The implementation of such single RF MIMO system is done by mapping the weighting factors to the polarizations or the radiation patterns of the antennas....... In order to have such performance, an antenna with rich pattern modes is required by the system, thus the ESPAR antenna is investigated. The critical part on such antenna is parasitic element impedance matching. Unlike the conventional smith-chart matching method which assumes the minimal resistance...... is zero and with goal of 50 ohm or 75 ohm matching, matching on such parasitic antenna will adopt negative value as well. This paper presents a matching network with controllable impedance even to the range of negative values....
Impedance-matched Marx generators
W. A. Stygar
2017-04-01
Full Text Available We have conceived a new class of prime-power sources for pulsed-power accelerators: impedance-matched Marx generators (IMGs. The fundamental building block of an IMG is a brick, which consists of two capacitors connected electrically in series with a single switch. An IMG comprises a single stage or several stages distributed axially and connected in series. Each stage is powered by a single brick or several bricks distributed azimuthally within the stage and connected in parallel. The stages of a multistage IMG drive an impedance-matched coaxial transmission line with a conical center conductor. When the stages are triggered sequentially to launch a coherent traveling wave along the coaxial line, the IMG achieves electromagnetic-power amplification by triggered emission of radiation. Hence a multistage IMG is a pulsed-power analogue of a laser. To illustrate the IMG approach to prime power, we have developed conceptual designs of two ten-stage IMGs with LC time constants on the order of 100 ns. One design includes 20 bricks per stage, and delivers a peak electrical power of 1.05 TW to a matched-impedance 1.22-Ω load. The design generates 113 kV per stage and has a maximum energy efficiency of 89%. The other design includes a single brick per stage, delivers 68 GW to a matched-impedance 19-Ω load, generates 113 kV per stage, and has a maximum energy efficiency of 90%. For a given electrical-power-output time history, an IMG is less expensive and slightly more efficient than a linear transformer driver, since an IMG does not use ferromagnetic cores.
王瑞莹; 邱亮
2012-01-01
基于流数据处理技术的关联分析方法要求有一个快速、高效的模式匹配引擎,模式匹配算法是引擎实现的关键。针对传统多模式匹配算法的缺点,在对AC算法和Wu-Manber算法进行充分研究的基础上,提出了一种能增加了字符匹配跳转距离,减少匹配次数的新的多模式匹配算法——AC-WMN算法,并对该算法进行了性能测试和分析。实验证明该算法能够有效提高模式匹配的处理速度和效率。%The correlation analysis method based on flow data processing technology requires a fast, efficient pattern-matching engine, pattern matching algorithm is the key to the engine to achieve. Match the shortcomings of the algorithm on the basis of the AC algorithm and Wu-Manber algorithm adequately studied, an increase in the characters match the jump distance, to reduce the matching number of new multi-pattern matching algorithm for the traditional muhi-mode-AC-WMN algorithm and the algorithm performance testing and analysis Experiments show that the algorithm can improve the processing speed and efficiency of pattern matching.
Maximum likely scale estimation
Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo
2005-01-01
A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...
Maximum information photoelectron metrology
Hockett, P; Wollenhaupt, M; Baumert, T
2015-01-01
Photoelectron interferograms, manifested in photoelectron angular distributions (PADs), are a high-information, coherent observable. In order to obtain the maximum information from angle-resolved photoionization experiments it is desirable to record the full, 3D, photoelectron momentum distribution. Here we apply tomographic reconstruction techniques to obtain such 3D distributions from multiphoton ionization of potassium atoms, and fully analyse the energy and angular content of the 3D data. The PADs obtained as a function of energy indicate good agreement with previous 2D data and detailed analysis [Hockett et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 223001 (2014)] over the main spectral features, but also indicate unexpected symmetry-breaking in certain regions of momentum space, thus revealing additional continuum interferences which cannot otherwise be observed. These observations reflect the presence of additional ionization pathways and, most generally, illustrate the power of maximum information measurements of th...
Gal, Avigdor
2011-01-01
Schema matching is the task of providing correspondences between concepts describing the meaning of data in various heterogeneous, distributed data sources. Schema matching is one of the basic operations required by the process of data and schema integration, and thus has a great effect on its outcomes, whether these involve targeted content delivery, view integration, database integration, query rewriting over heterogeneous sources, duplicate data elimination, or automatic streamlining of workflow activities that involve heterogeneous data sources. Although schema matching research has been o
E. J. Farrell
1987-01-01
Full Text Available Explicit recurrences are derived for the matching polynomials of the basic types of hexagonal cacti, the linear cactus and the star cactus and also for an associated graph, called the hexagonal crown. Tables of the polynomials are given for each type of graph. Explicit formulae are then obtained for the number of defect-d matchings in the graphs, for various values of d. In particular, formulae are derived for the number of perfect matchings in all three types of graphs. Finally, results are given for the total number of matchings in the graphs.
Maximum Likelihood Associative Memories
Gripon, Vincent; Rabbat, Michael
2013-01-01
Associative memories are structures that store data in such a way that it can later be retrieved given only a part of its content -- a sort-of error/erasure-resilience property. They are used in applications ranging from caches and memory management in CPUs to database engines. In this work we study associative memories built on the maximum likelihood principle. We derive minimum residual error rates when the data stored comes from a uniform binary source. Second, we determine the minimum amo...
Maximum likely scale estimation
Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo
2005-01-01
A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and....../or having different derivative orders. Although the principle is applicable to a wide variety of image models, the main focus here is on the Brownian model and its use for scale selection in natural images. Furthermore, in the examples provided, the simplifying assumption is made that the behavior...... of the measurements is completely characterized by all moments up to second order....
Ontology Matching Across Domains
2010-05-01
matching include GMO [1], Anchor-Prompt [2], and Similarity Flooding [3]. GMO is an iterative structural matcher, which uses RDF bipartite graphs to...AFRL under contract# FA8750-09-C-0058. References [1] Hu, W., Jian, N., Qu, Y., Wang, Y., “ GMO : a graph matching for ontologies”, in: Proceedings of
Theiler, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
Following an analogous distinction in statistical hypothesis testing, we investigate variants of machine learning where the training set comes in matched pairs. We demonstrate that even conventional classifiers can exhibit improved performance when the input data has a matched-pair structure. Online algorithms, in particular, converge quicker when the data is presented in pairs. In some scenarios (such as the weak signal detection problem), matched pairs can be generated from independent samples, with the effect not only doubling the nominal size of the training set, but of providing the structure that leads to better learning. A family of 'dipole' algorithms is introduced that explicitly takes advantage of matched-pair structure in the input data and leads to further performance gains. Finally, we illustrate the application of matched-pair learning to chemical plume detection in hyperspectral imagery.
F. TopsÃƒÂ¸e
2001-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over
Jain, Anil K; Feng, Jianjiang
2011-01-01
Latent fingerprint identification is of critical importance to law enforcement agencies in identifying suspects: Latent fingerprints are inadvertent impressions left by fingers on surfaces of objects. While tremendous progress has been made in plain and rolled fingerprint matching, latent fingerprint matching continues to be a difficult problem. Poor quality of ridge impressions, small finger area, and large nonlinear distortion are the main difficulties in latent fingerprint matching compared to plain or rolled fingerprint matching. We propose a system for matching latent fingerprints found at crime scenes to rolled fingerprints enrolled in law enforcement databases. In addition to minutiae, we also use extended features, including singularity, ridge quality map, ridge flow map, ridge wavelength map, and skeleton. We tested our system by matching 258 latents in the NIST SD27 database against a background database of 29,257 rolled fingerprints obtained by combining the NIST SD4, SD14, and SD27 databases. The minutiae-based baseline rank-1 identification rate of 34.9 percent was improved to 74 percent when extended features were used. In order to evaluate the relative importance of each extended feature, these features were incrementally used in the order of their cost in marking by latent experts. The experimental results indicate that singularity, ridge quality map, and ridge flow map are the most effective features in improving the matching accuracy.
Optimal Packed String Matching
Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany
2011-01-01
In the packed string matching problem, each machine word accommodates – characters, thus an n-character text occupies n/– memory words. We extend the Crochemore-Perrin constantspace O(n)-time string matching algorithm to run in optimal O(n/–) time and even in real-time, achieving a factor – speedup...... over traditional algorithms that examine each character individually. Our solution can be efficiently implemented, unlike prior theoretical packed string matching work. We adapt the standard RAM model and only use its AC0 instructions (i.e., no multiplication) plus two specialized AC0 packed string...
Infographic explaining NCI-COG Pediatric MATCH, a cancer treatment clinical trial for children and adolescents, from 1 to 21 years of age, that is testing the use of precision medicine for pediatric cancers.
Data Matching Imputation System
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The DMIS dataset is a flat file record of the matching of several data set collections. Primarily it consists of VTRs, dealer records, Observer data in conjunction...
Brooks, Martin; And Others
1983-01-01
The Cognitive Levels Matching Project trains teachers to guide students' skill acquisition and problem-solving processes by assessing students' cognitive levels and adapting their teaching materials accordingly. (MLF)
Equalized near maximum likelihood detector
2012-01-01
This paper presents new detector that is used to mitigate intersymbol interference introduced by bandlimited channels. This detector is named equalized near maximum likelihood detector which combines nonlinear equalizer and near maximum likelihood detector. Simulation results show that the performance of equalized near maximum likelihood detector is better than the performance of nonlinear equalizer but worse than near maximum likelihood detector.
Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John
2005-01-01
A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].
Indexing Volumetric Shapes with Matching and Packing.
Koes, David Ryan; Camacho, Carlos J
2015-04-01
We describe a novel algorithm for bulk-loading an index with high-dimensional data and apply it to the problem of volumetric shape matching. Our matching and packing algorithm is a general approach for packing data according to a similarity metric. First an approximate k-nearest neighbor graph is constructed using vantage-point initialization, an improvement to previous work that decreases construction time while improving the quality of approximation. Then graph matching is iteratively performed to pack related items closely together. The end result is a dense index with good performance. We define a new query specification for shape matching that uses minimum and maximum shape constraints to explicitly specify the spatial requirements of the desired shape. This specification provides a natural language for performing volumetric shape matching and is readily supported by the geometry-based similarity search (GSS) tree, an indexing structure that maintains explicit representations of volumetric shape. We describe our implementation of a GSS tree for volumetric shape matching and provide a comprehensive evaluation of parameter sensitivity, performance, and scalability. Compared to previous bulk-loading algorithms, we find that matching and packing can construct a GSS-tree index in the same amount of time that is denser, flatter, and better performing, with an observed average performance improvement of 2X.
Partial fingerprint matching based on SIFT Features
Ms. S.Malathi,
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Fingerprints are being extensively used for person identification in a number of commercial, civil, and forensic applications. The current Fingerprint matching technology is quite mature for matching full prints, matching partial fingerprints still needs lots of improvement. Most of the current fingerprint identification systems utilize features that are based on minutiae points and ridge patterns. The major challenges faced in partial fingerprint matching are the absence of sufficient minutiae features and other structures such as core and delta. However, this technology suffers from the problem of handling incomplete prints and often discards any partial fingerprints obtained. Recent research has begun to delve into the problems of latent or partial fingerprints. In this paper we present a novel approach for partial fingerprint matching scheme based on SIFT(Scale Invariant Feature Transform features and matching is achieved using a modified point matching process. Using Neurotechnology database, we demonstrate that the proposed method exhibits an improved performance when matching full print against partial print.
Approaches for Stereo Matching
Takouhi Ozanian
1995-04-01
Full Text Available This review focuses on the last decade's development of the computational stereopsis for recovering three-dimensional information. The main components of the stereo analysis are exposed: image acquisition and camera modeling, feature selection, feature matching and disparity interpretation. A brief survey is given of the well known feature selection approaches and the estimation parameters for this selection are mentioned. The difficulties in identifying correspondent locations in the two images are explained. Methods as to how effectively to constrain the search for correct solution of the correspondence problem are discussed, as are strategies for the whole matching process. Reasons for the occurrence of matching errors are considered. Some recently proposed approaches, employing new ideas in the modeling of stereo matching in terms of energy minimization, are described. Acknowledging the importance of computation time for real-time applications, special attention is paid to parallelism as a way to achieve the required level of performance. The development of trinocular stereo analysis as an alternative to the conventional binocular one, is described. Finally a classification based on the test images for verification of the stereo matching algorithms, is supplied.
Bellahsene, Zohra; Rahm, Erhard
2011-01-01
Requiring heterogeneous information systems to cooperate and communicate has now become crucial, especially in application areas like e-business, Web-based mash-ups and the life sciences. Such cooperating systems have to automatically and efficiently match, exchange, transform and integrate large data sets from different sources and of different structure in order to enable seamless data exchange and transformation. The book edited by Bellahsene, Bonifati and Rahm provides an overview of the ways in which the schema and ontology matching and mapping tools have addressed the above requirements
Hartelius, Karsten; Carstensen, Jens Michael
2003-01-01
A method for locating distorted grid structures in images is presented. The method is based on the theories of template matching and Bayesian image restoration. The grid is modeled as a deformable template. Prior knowledge of the grid is described through a Markov random field (MRF) model which...... nodes and the arc prior models variations in row and column spacing across the grid. Grid matching is done by placing an initial rough grid over the image and applying an ensemble annealing scheme to maximize the posterior distribution of the grid. The method can be applied to noisy images with missing...
The optimal polarizations for achieving maximum contrast in radar images
Swartz, A. A.; Yueh, H. A.; Kong, J. A.; Novak, L. M.; Shin, R. T.
1988-01-01
There is considerable interest in determining the optimal polarizations that maximize contrast between two scattering classes in polarimetric radar images. A systematic approach is presented for obtaining the optimal polarimetric matched filter, i.e., that filter which produces maximum contrast between two scattering classes. The maximization procedure involves solving an eigenvalue problem where the eigenvector corresponding to the maximum contrast ratio is an optimal polarimetric matched filter. To exhibit the physical significance of this filter, it is transformed into its associated transmitting and receiving polarization states, written in terms of horizontal and vertical vector components. For the special case where the transmitting polarization is fixed, the receiving polarization which maximizes the contrast ratio is also obtained. Polarimetric filtering is then applies to synthetic aperture radar images obtained from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It is shown, both numerically and through the use of radar imagery, that maximum image contrast can be realized when data is processed with the optimal polarimeter matched filter.
Tutte sets in graphs II: The complexity of finding maximum Tutte sets
Bauer, D.; Broersma, Haitze J.; Kahl, N.; Morgana, A.; Schmeichel, E.; Surowiec, T.
2007-01-01
A well-known formula of Tutte and Berge expresses the size of a maximum matching in a graph $G$ in terms of what is usually called the deficiency. A subset $X$ of $V(G)$ for which this deficiency is attained is called a Tutte set of $G$. While much is known about maximum matchings, less is known
Zhou, Feng; de la Torre, Fernando
2015-11-19
Graph matching (GM) is a fundamental problem in computer science, and it plays a central role to solve correspondence problems in computer vision. GM problems that incorporate pairwise constraints can be formulated as a quadratic assignment problem (QAP). Although widely used, solving the correspondence problem through GM has two main limitations: (1) the QAP is NP-hard and difficult to approximate; (2) GM algorithms do not incorporate geometric constraints between nodes that are natural in computer vision problems. To address aforementioned problems, this paper proposes factorized graph matching (FGM). FGM factorizes the large pairwise affinity matrix into smaller matrices that encode the local structure of each graph and the pairwise affinity between edges. Four are the benefits that follow from this factorization: (1) There is no need to compute the costly (in space and time) pairwise affinity matrix; (2) The factorization allows the use of a path-following optimization algorithm, that leads to improved optimization strategies and matching performance; (3) Given the factorization, it becomes straight-forward to incorporate geometric transformations (rigid and non-rigid) to the GM problem. (4) Using a matrix formulation for the GM problem and the factorization, it is easy to reveal commonalities and differences between different GM methods. The factorization also provides a clean connection with other matching algorithms such as iterative closest point; Experimental results on synthetic and real databases illustrate how FGM outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms for GM. The code is available at http://humansensing.cs.cmu.edu/fgm.
彭硕
2002-01-01
It was a Saturday morning, our school football team was going to have a match with the No. 28 Middle Schooh They were really a strong team. But we weren't afraid of them. We had many mare good players on our team, so we were stronger than ever before.
Herrnstein, R. J.
1979-01-01
The matching law for reinforced behavior solves a differential equation relating infinitesimal changes in behavior to infinitesimal changes in reinforcement. The equation expresses plausible conceptions of behavior and reinforcement, yields a simple nonlinear operator model for acquisition, and suggests a alternative to the economic law of…
'Wiggle matching' radiocarbon dates
Ramsey, CB; van der Plicht, J; Weninger, B
2001-01-01
This paper covers three different methods of matching radiocarbon dates to the 'wiggles' of the calibration curve in those situations where the age difference between the C-14 dates is known. These methods are most often applied to tree-ring sequences. The simplest approach is to use a classical Chi
Matching Supernovae to Galaxies
Kohler, Susanna
2016-12-01
developed a new automated algorithm for matching supernovae to their host galaxies. Their work builds on currently existing algorithms and makes use of information about the nearby galaxies, accounts for the uncertainty of the match, and even includes a machine learning component to improve the matching accuracy.Gupta and collaborators test their matching algorithm on catalogs of galaxies and simulated supernova events to quantify how well the algorithm is able to accurately recover the true hosts.Successful MatchingThe matching algorithms accuracy (purity) as a function of the true supernova-host separation, the supernova redshift, the true hosts brightness, and the true hosts size. [Gupta et al. 2016]The authors find that when the basic algorithm is run on catalog data, it matches supernovae to their hosts with 91% accuracy. Including the machine learning component, which is run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy of the matching to 97%.The encouraging results of this work which was intended as a proof of concept suggest that methods similar to this could prove very practical for tackling future survey data. And the method explored here has use beyond matching just supernovae to their host galaxies: it could also be applied to other extragalactic transients, such as gamma-ray bursts, tidal disruption events, or electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational-wave detections.CitationRavi R. Gupta et al 2016 AJ 152 154. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/6/154
[Propensity score matching in SPSS].
Huang, Fuqiang; DU, Chunlin; Sun, Menghui; Ning, Bing; Luo, Ying; An, Shengli
2015-11-01
To realize propensity score matching in PS Matching module of SPSS and interpret the analysis results. The R software and plug-in that could link with the corresponding versions of SPSS and propensity score matching package were installed. A PS matching module was added in the SPSS interface, and its use was demonstrated with test data. Score estimation and nearest neighbor matching was achieved with the PS matching module, and the results of qualitative and quantitative statistical description and evaluation were presented in the form of a graph matching. Propensity score matching can be accomplished conveniently using SPSS software.
Maximum phonation time: variability and reliability.
Speyer, Renée; Bogaardt, Hans C A; Passos, Valéria Lima; Roodenburg, Nel P H D; Zumach, Anne; Heijnen, Mariëlle A M; Baijens, Laura W J; Fleskens, Stijn J H M; Brunings, Jan W
2010-05-01
The objective of the study was to determine maximum phonation time reliability as a function of the number of trials, days, and raters in dysphonic and control subjects. Two groups of adult subjects participated in this reliability study: a group of outpatients with functional or organic dysphonia versus a group of healthy control subjects matched by age and gender. Over a period of maximally 6 weeks, three video recordings were made of five subjects' maximum phonation time trials. A panel of five experts were responsible for all measurements, including a repeated measurement of the subjects' first recordings. Patients showed significantly shorter maximum phonation times compared with healthy controls (on average, 6.6 seconds shorter). The averaged interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) over all raters per trial for the first day was 0.998. The averaged reliability coefficient per rater and per trial for repeated measurements of the first day's data was 0.997, indicating high intrarater reliability. The mean reliability coefficient per day for one trial was 0.939. When using five trials, the reliability increased to 0.987. The reliability over five trials for a single day was 0.836; for 2 days, 0.911; and for 3 days, 0.935. To conclude, the maximum phonation time has proven to be a highly reliable measure in voice assessment. A single rater is sufficient to provide highly reliable measurements.
Communication Complexity of Approximate Matching in Distributed Graphs
Huang, Zengfeng; Radunović, Božidar; Vojnović, Milan
n this paper we consider the communication complexity of approximation algorithms for maximum matching in a graph in the message-passing model of distributed computation. The input graph consists of n vertices and edges partitioned over a set of k sites. The output is an α - approximate maximum m...
Impedance matching between ventricle and load.
Piene, H
1984-01-01
Impedance matching in the cardiovascular system is discussed in light of two models of ventricle and load: a Thevenin equivalent consisting of a hydromotive pressure source and an internal, source resistance and compliance in parallel; and a time-varying compliance filled from a constant pressure source and ejecting into a load of three components, a central resistor, a compliance, and a peripheral resistance. According to the Thevenin analog, the energy source and the load are matched when the load resistance is T/t times the internal source resistance (T is total cycle length, t is systolic time interval). Both from this model and from the variable compliance model it appears that optimum matching between source and load depends on the compliance of the Windkessel, as low compliance shifts the matching load resistance to a low value. Animal experiments (isolated cat hearts) indicated that both left and right ventricles at normal loads work close to their maxima of output hydraulic power, and, according to experiments in the right ventricle, maximum power output is related to load resistance and compliance as predicted by the above models. From an experimentally determined relationship among instantaneous ventricular pressure and volume (right ventricle of isolated cat hearts), an optimum load impedance was calculated on the basis of the assumption that the ratio between stroke work and static, potential energy developed in the ventricular cavity is maximum. The optimum load impedance found by this procedure closely resembles the normal input impedance of the cat lung vessel bed.
Resurgence matches quantization
Couso-Santamaría, Ricardo; Mariño, Marcos; Schiappa, Ricardo
2017-04-01
The quest to find a nonperturbative formulation of topological string theory has recently seen two unrelated developments. On the one hand, via quantization of the mirror curve associated to a toric Calabi–Yau background, it has been possible to give a nonperturbative definition of the topological-string partition function. On the other hand, using techniques of resurgence and transseries, it has been possible to extend the string (asymptotic) perturbative expansion into a transseries involving nonperturbative instanton sectors. Within the specific example of the local {{{P}}2} toric Calabi–Yau threefold, the present work shows how the Borel–Padé–Écalle resummation of this resurgent transseries, alongside occurrence of Stokes phenomenon, matches the string-theoretic partition function obtained via quantization of the mirror curve. This match is highly non-trivial, given the unrelated nature of both nonperturbative frameworks, signaling at the existence of a consistent underlying structure.
Resurgence Matches Quantization
Couso-Santamaría, Ricardo; Schiappa, Ricardo
2016-01-01
The quest to find a nonperturbative formulation of topological string theory has recently seen two unrelated developments. On the one hand, via quantization of the mirror curve associated to a toric Calabi-Yau background, it has been possible to give a nonperturbative definition of the topological-string partition function. On the other hand, using techniques of resurgence and transseries, it has been possible to extend the string (asymptotic) perturbative expansion into a transseries involving nonperturbative instanton sectors. Within the specific example of the local P2 toric Calabi-Yau threefold, the present work shows how the Borel-Pade-Ecalle resummation of this resurgent transseries, alongside occurrence of Stokes phenomenon, matches the string-theoretic partition function obtained via quantization of the mirror curve. This match is highly non-trivial, given the unrelated nature of both nonperturbative frameworks, signaling at the existence of a consistent underlying structure.
Bordenave, Charles; Salez, Justin
2011-01-01
We prove that the local weak convergence of a sequence of graphs is enough to guarantee the convergence of their normalized matching numbers. The limiting quantity is described by a local recursion defined on the weak limit of the graph sequence. However, this recursion may admit several solutions, implying non-trivial long-range dependencies between the edges of a largest matching. We overcome this lack of correlation decay by introducing a perturbative parameter called the temperature, which we let progressively go to zero. When the local weak limit is a unimodular Galton-Watson tree, the recursion simplifies into a distributional equation, resulting into an explicit formula that considerably extends the well-known one by Karp and Sipser for Erd\\"os-R\\'enyi random graphs.
Characteristic Evolution and Matching
Winicour Jeffrey
2005-12-01
Full Text Available I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial value problem. Progress is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to 2D axisymmetric codes that accurately simulate the oscillations and gravitational collapse of relativistic stars and to current 3D codes that provide pieces of a binary black hole spacetime. A prime application of characteristic evolution is to compute waveforms via Cauchy-characteristic matching, which is also reviewed.
Bengtsson, Håkan; Ekstrand, Jan; Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin
2013-07-01
Player activities in soccer matches are influenced by the match result and match venue. It is not known whether injury rates are influenced by these factors. To investigate whether there are associations between injury rates and the match result, venue, and type of competition in male soccer. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Twenty-six professional clubs from 10 countries were followed prospectively during 9 seasons (2001-2002 to 2009-2010). All matches, and injuries occurring in these matches, were registered by the team's medical staff. An injury was registered if it resulted in player absence from training or matches. Information about match result, venue, and type of competition for all reported matches was gathered by the authors from online databases. Injury rates in matches with varying match characteristics were compared by use of generalized estimating equations. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. A total of 2738 injuries during 6010 matches were registered. There were no associations between odds of 1 injury occurrence and match result or type of competition, whereas the odds were decreased in matches played away compared with home matches (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-0.99). The odds of 2 or more injury occurrences in a match were increased in matches resulting in a draw (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.15-1.69) or loss (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.38-1.98) compared with matches won and were decreased in other cup matches compared with league matches (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.39-0.84) and in matches played away compared with home matches (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.60-0.82). Finally, injuries with more than 1 week's absence occurred more frequently in Champions League matches compared with league matches both for matches with 1 injury (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.09-1.45) and matches with 2 or more injuries (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.13-2.20). The odds of 2 or more injury occurrences in professional soccer were higher in matches resulting in a loss or a draw compared
A multicast dynamic wavelength assignment algorithm based on matching degree
WU Qi-wu; ZHOU Xian-wei; WANG Jian-ping; YIN Zhi-hong; ZHANG Long
2009-01-01
The wavelength assignment with multiple multicast requests in fixed routing WDM network is studied. A new multicast dynamic wavelength assignment algorithm is presented based on matching degree. First, the wavelength matching degree between available wavelengths and multicast routing trees is introduced into the algorithm. Then, the wavelength assign-ment is translated into the maximum weight matching in bipartite graph, and this matching problem is solved by using an extended Kuhn-Munkres algorithm. The simulation results prove that the overall optimal wavelength assignment scheme is obtained in polynomial time. At the same time, the proposed algorithm can reduce the connecting blocking probability and improve the system resource utilization.
Weigelt, Britta; Geyer, Felipe C; Natrajan, Rachael; Lopez-Garcia, Maria A; Ahmad, Amar S; Savage, Kay; Kreike, Bas; Reis-Filho, Jorge S
2010-01-01
Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is the most frequent special type of breast cancer. The majority of these tumours are of low histological grade, express hormone receptors, and lack HER2 expression. The pleomorphic variant of ILCs (PLCs) is characterized by atypical cells with pleomorphic nuclei and is reported to have an aggressive clinical behaviour. Expression profiling studies have demonstrated that classic ILCs preferentially display a luminal phenotype, whereas PLCs may be of luminal, HER2 or molecular apocrine subtypes. The aims of this study were two-fold: to determine the transcriptomic characteristics of lobular carcinomas and to define the genome-wide transcriptomic differences between classic ILCs and PLCs. To define the transcriptomic characteristics of ILCs, minimizing the impact of histological grade and molecular subtype on the analysis, we subjected a series of grade- and molecular subtype-matched ILCs and invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs) to genome-wide gene expression profiling using oligonucleotide microarrays. Hierarchical clustering analysis demonstrated that ILCs formed a separate cluster and a supervised analysis revealed that 5.8% of the transcriptionally regulated genes were significantly differentially expressed in ILCs compared to grade- and molecular subtype-matched IDCs. ILCs displayed down-regulation of E-cadherin and of genes related to actin cytoskeleton remodelling, protein ubiquitin, DNA repair, cell adhesion, TGF-beta signalling; and up-regulation of transcription factors/immediate early genes, lipid/prostaglandin biosynthesis genes, and cell migration-associated genes. Supervised analysis of classic ILCs and PLCs demonstrated that less than 0.1% of genes were significantly differentially expressed between these tumour subtypes. Our results demonstrate that ILCs differ from grade- and molecular subtype-matched IDCs in the expression of genes related to cell adhesion, cell-to-cell signalling, and actin cytoskeleton signalling
1997-01-01
Apfel's excellent match: This series of photos shows a water drop containing a surfactant (Triton-100) as it experiences a complete cycle of superoscillation on U.S. Microgravity Lab-2 (USML-2; October 1995). The time in seconds appears under the photos. The figures above the photos are the oscillation shapes predicted by a numerical model. The time shown with the predictions is nondimensional. Robert Apfel (Yale University) used the Drop Physics Module on USML-2 to explore the effect of surfactants on liquid drops. Apfel's research of surfactants may contribute to improvements in a variety of industrial processes, including oil recovery and environmental cleanup.
Alba Avilés, Manuel
2015-01-01
WhereIsTheMatch is a very ambitious project that consists of developing my own social network mobile app for Android. This app is focused on easily finding people and places to play sports. The main idea of this project is create a first step to a final product and my own developing style. I knew from the beginning that this would be a very hard and a very demanding task because of the several areas that are involved in the development of a mobile app, such as database implementation, interfa...
On the query complexity of finding a local maximum point
Rastsvelaev, A.L.; Beklemishev, L.D.
2008-01-01
We calculate the minimal number of queries sufficient to find a local maximum point of a functiun on a discrete interval for a model with M parallel queries, M≥1. Matching upper and lower bounds are obtained. The bounds are formulated in terms of certain Fibonacci type sequences of numbers.
Hanlon, R.T.; Chiao, C.-C.; Mäthger, L.M.; Barbosa, A.; Buresch, K.C.; Chubb, C
2008-01-01
Individual cuttlefish, octopus and squid have the versatile capability to use body patterns for background matching and disruptive coloration. We define—qualitatively and quantitatively—the chief characteristics of the three major body pattern types used for camouflage by cephalopods: uniform and mottle patterns for background matching, and disruptive patterns that primarily enhance disruptiveness but aid background matching as well. There is great variation within each of the three body patt...
Generalized Orthogonal Matching Pursuit
Wang, Jian; Shim, Byonghyo
2011-01-01
As a greedy algorithm to recover sparse signals from compressed measurements, the orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm has received much attention in recent years. In this paper, we introduce an extension of the orthogonal matching pursuit (gOMP) for pursuing efficiency in reconstructing sparse signals. Our approach, henceforth referred to as generalized OMP (gOMP), is literally a generalization of the OMP in the sense that multiple indices are identified per iteration. Owing to the selection of multiple "correct" indices, the gOMP algorithm is finished with much smaller number of iterations compared to the OMP. We show that the gOMP can perfectly reconstruct any $K$-sparse signals ($K > 1$), provided that the sensing matrix satisfies the RIP with $\\delta_{NK} < \\frac{\\sqrt{N}}{\\sqrt{K} + 2 \\sqrt{N}}$. We also demonstrate by empirical simulations that the gOMP has excellent recovery performance comparable to $\\ell_1$-minimization technique with fast processing speed and competitive computational com...
Body Weight and Matching with a Physically Attractive Romantic Partner
Carmalt, Julie H.; Cawley, John; Joyner, Kara; Sobal, Jeffery
2008-01-01
Matching and attribute trade are two perspectives used to explain mate selection. We investigated patterns of matching and trade, focusing on obesity, using Add Health Romantic Pair data (N = 1,405 couples). Obese individuals, relative to healthy weight individuals, were less likely to have physically attractive partners, with this disadvantage…
Anatomy Ontology Matching Using Markov Logic Networks
Chunhua Li
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The anatomy of model species is described in ontologies, which are used to standardize the annotations of experimental data, such as gene expression patterns. To compare such data between species, we need to establish relationships between ontologies describing different species. Ontology matching is a kind of solutions to find semantic correspondences between entities of different ontologies. Markov logic networks which unify probabilistic graphical model and first-order logic provide an excellent framework for ontology matching. We combine several different matching strategies through first-order logic formulas according to the structure of anatomy ontologies. Experiments on the adult mouse anatomy and the human anatomy have demonstrated the effectiveness of proposed approach in terms of the quality of result alignment.
Experimental study on prediction model for maximum rebound ratio
LEI Wei-dong; TENG Jun; A.HEFNY; ZHAO Jian; GUAN Jiong
2007-01-01
The proposed prediction model for estimating the maximum rebound ratio was applied to a field explosion test, Mandai test in Singapore.The estimated possible maximum Deak particle velocities(PPVs)were compared with the field records.Three of the four available field-recorded PPVs lie exactly below the estimated possible maximum values as expected.while the fourth available field-recorded PPV lies close to and a bit higher than the estimated maximum possible PPV The comparison results show that the predicted PPVs from the proposed prediction model for the maximum rebound ratio match the field.recorded PPVs better than those from two empirical formulae.The very good agreement between the estimated and field-recorded values validates the proposed prediction model for estimating PPV in a rock mass with a set of ipints due to application of a two dimensional compressional wave at the boundary of a tunnel or a borehole.
Use of Hyperspectral Imagery to Assess Cryptic Color Matching in Sargassum Associated Crabs.
Russell, Brandon J; Dierssen, Heidi M
2015-01-01
Mats of the pelagic macroalgae Sargassum represent a complex environment for the study of marine camouflage at the air-sea interface. Endemic organisms have convergently evolved similar colors and patterns, but quantitative assessments of camouflage strategies are lacking. Here, spectral camouflage of two crab species (Portunus sayi and Planes minutus) was assessed using hyperspectral imagery (HSI). Crabs matched Sargassum reflectance across blue and green wavelengths (400-550 nm) and diverged at longer wavelengths. Maximum discrepancy was observed in the far-red (i.e., 675 nm) where Chlorophyll a absorption occurred in Sargassum and not the crabs. In a quantum catch color model, both crabs showed effective color matching against blue/green sensitive dichromat fish, but were still discernible to tetrachromat bird predators that have visual sensitivity to far red wavelengths. The two species showed opposing trends in background matching with relation to body size. Variation in model parameters revealed that discrimination of crab and background was impacted by distance from the predator, and the ratio of cone cell types for bird predators. This is one of the first studies to detail background color matching in this unique, challenging ecosystem at the air-sea interface.
Martínez-Castilla, Pastora; Burt, Michael; Borgatti, Renato; Gagliardi, Chiara
2015-01-01
In this study both the matching and developmental trajectories approaches were used to clarify questions that remain open in the literature on facial emotion recognition in Williams syndrome (WS) and Down syndrome (DS). The matching approach showed that individuals with WS or DS exhibit neither proficiency for the expression of happiness nor specific impairments for negative emotions. Instead, they present the same pattern of emotion recognition as typically developing (TD) individuals. Thus, the better performance on the recognition of positive compared to negative emotions usually reported in WS and DS is not specific of these populations but seems to represent a typical pattern. Prior studies based on the matching approach suggested that the development of facial emotion recognition is delayed in WS and atypical in DS. Nevertheless, and even though performance levels were lower in DS than in WS, the developmental trajectories approach used in this study evidenced that not only individuals with DS but also those with WS present atypical development in facial emotion recognition. Unlike in the TD participants, where developmental changes were observed along with age, in the WS and DS groups, the development of facial emotion recognition was static. Both individuals with WS and those with DS reached an early maximum developmental level due to cognitive constraints.
History matching through dynamic decision-making.
Cavalcante, Cristina C B; Maschio, Célio; Santos, Antonio Alberto; Schiozer, Denis; Rocha, Anderson
2017-01-01
History matching is the process of modifying the uncertain attributes of a reservoir model to reproduce the real reservoir performance. It is a classical reservoir engineering problem and plays an important role in reservoir management since the resulting models are used to support decisions in other tasks such as economic analysis and production strategy. This work introduces a dynamic decision-making optimization framework for history matching problems in which new models are generated based on, and guided by, the dynamic analysis of the data of available solutions. The optimization framework follows a 'learning-from-data' approach, and includes two optimizer components that use machine learning techniques, such as unsupervised learning and statistical analysis, to uncover patterns of input attributes that lead to good output responses. These patterns are used to support the decision-making process while generating new, and better, history matched solutions. The proposed framework is applied to a benchmark model (UNISIM-I-H) based on the Namorado field in Brazil. Results show the potential the dynamic decision-making optimization framework has for improving the quality of history matching solutions using a substantial smaller number of simulations when compared with a previous work on the same benchmark.
A Fast Generic Sequence Matching Algorithm
Musser, David R
2008-01-01
A string matching -- and more generally, sequence matching -- algorithm is presented that has a linear worst-case computing time bound, a low worst-case bound on the number of comparisons (2n), and sublinear average-case behavior that is better than that of the fastest versions of the Boyer-Moore algorithm. The algorithm retains its efficiency advantages in a wide variety of sequence matching problems of practical interest, including traditional string matching; large-alphabet problems (as in Unicode strings); and small-alphabet, long-pattern problems (as in DNA searches). Since it is expressed as a generic algorithm for searching in sequences over an arbitrary type T, it is well suited for use in generic software libraries such as the C++ Standard Template Library. The algorithm was obtained by adding to the Knuth-Morris-Pratt algorithm one of the pattern-shifting techniques from the Boyer-Moore algorithm, with provision for use of hashing in this technique. In situations in which a hash function or random a...
Characteristic Evolution and Matching
Winicour Jeffrey
2009-04-01
Full Text Available I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial value problem. Progress is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to 2D axisymmetric codes that accurately simulate the oscillations and gravitational collapse of relativistic stars and to current 3D codes that provide pieces of a binary black hole spacetime. Cauchy codes have now been successful at simulating all aspects of the binary black hole problem inside an artificially constructed outer boundary. A prime application of characteristic evolution is to eliminate the role of this artificial outer boundary via Cauchy-characteristic matching, by which the radiated waveform can be computed at null infinity. Progress in this direction is discussed.
Naama Goren-Inbar
Full Text Available Cylindrical objects made usually of fired clay but sometimes of stone were found at the Yarmukian Pottery Neolithic sites of Sha'ar HaGolan and Munhata (first half of the 8(th millennium BP in the Jordan Valley. Similar objects have been reported from other Near Eastern Pottery Neolithic sites. Most scholars have interpreted them as cultic objects in the shape of phalli, while others have referred to them in more general terms as "clay pestles," "clay rods," and "cylindrical clay objects." Re-examination of these artifacts leads us to present a new interpretation of their function and to suggest a reconstruction of their technology and mode of use. We suggest that these objects were components of fire drills and consider them the earliest evidence of a complex technology of fire ignition, which incorporates the cylindrical objects in the role of matches.
Goren-Inbar, Naama; Freikman, Michael; Garfinkel, Yosef; Goring-Morris, A Nigel; Goring-Morris, Nigel A; Grosman, Leore
2012-01-01
Cylindrical objects made usually of fired clay but sometimes of stone were found at the Yarmukian Pottery Neolithic sites of Sha'ar HaGolan and Munhata (first half of the 8(th) millennium BP) in the Jordan Valley. Similar objects have been reported from other Near Eastern Pottery Neolithic sites. Most scholars have interpreted them as cultic objects in the shape of phalli, while others have referred to them in more general terms as "clay pestles," "clay rods," and "cylindrical clay objects." Re-examination of these artifacts leads us to present a new interpretation of their function and to suggest a reconstruction of their technology and mode of use. We suggest that these objects were components of fire drills and consider them the earliest evidence of a complex technology of fire ignition, which incorporates the cylindrical objects in the role of matches.
Fast Legendre moment computation for template matching
Li, Bing C.
2017-05-01
Normalized cross correlation (NCC) based template matching is insensitive to intensity changes and it has many applications in image processing, object detection, video tracking and pattern recognition. However, normalized cross correlation implementation is computationally expensive since it involves both correlation computation and normalization implementation. In this paper, we propose Legendre moment approach for fast normalized cross correlation implementation and show that the computational cost of this proposed approach is independent of template mask sizes which is significantly faster than traditional mask size dependent approaches, especially for large mask templates. Legendre polynomials have been widely used in solving Laplace equation in electrodynamics in spherical coordinate systems, and solving Schrodinger equation in quantum mechanics. In this paper, we extend Legendre polynomials from physics to computer vision and pattern recognition fields, and demonstrate that Legendre polynomials can help to reduce the computational cost of NCC based template matching significantly.
Optimizing Transmission Line Matching Circuits
Novak, S.
1996-01-01
When designing transmission line matching circuits, there exist often overlooked, additional, not much used, degree of choice in the selection of the transmission line impedance. In this work are presented results of CAD analysis for the two element transmission line matching networks, demonstrating that selecting matching circuits transmission lines with higher impedance, than usually used 50 or 75 ohms, can in most cases substantially decrease the physical dimension of the final matching ci...
OECD Maximum Residue Limit Calculator
With the goal of harmonizing the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the OECD has developed an MRL Calculator. View the calculator.
Vividness Effects: A Resource-Matching Perspective.
Keller, Punam Anand; Block, Lauren G
1997-01-01
The authors present a resource-matching perspective to explain the relationship between vividness and persuasion. Three experiments confirm the predicted inverted-U relationship between resource allocation and persuasion for vivid information, and a positive linear relationship between resource allocation and persuasion for nonvivid information when vivid information is less resource demanding than nonvivid information. This persuasion pattern is reversed in experiment 4, where nonvivid infor...
Intuitionistic Fuzzy Automaton for Approximate String Matching
K.M. Ravi
2014-03-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces an intuitionistic fuzzy automaton model for computing the similarity between pairs of strings. The model details the possible edit operations needed to transform any input (observed string into a target (pattern string by providing a membership and non-membership value between them. In the end, an algorithm is given for approximate string matching and the proposed model computes the similarity and dissimilarity between the pair of strings leading to better approximation.
Transfers and Exchange-Stability in Two-Sided Matching Problems
Lazarova, E.A.; Borm, P.E.M.; Estevez, A.
2014-01-01
In this paper we consider one-to-many matching problems where the preferences of the agents involved are represented by monetary reward functions. We characterize Pareto optimal matchings by means of contractually exchange stability and matchings of maximum total reward by means of compensation exch
An HLA matched donor! An HLA matched donor? What do you mean by: HLA matched donor?
van Rood, J J; Oudshoorn, M
1998-07-01
The term 'an HLA matched donor' is in general used without giving exact information on the level of resolution of the HLA typing. This can lead to misunderstandings. A proposal is formulated to agree on using six match categories according to the HLA typing technique used to indicate the level of confidence of the matching.
Characteristic Evolution and Matching
Jeffrey Winicour
2012-01-01
Full Text Available I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial-value problem. Progress in characteristic evolution is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to 2D-axisymmetric codes that accurately simulate the oscillations and gravitational collapse of relativistic stars and to current 3D codes that provide pieces of a binary black-hole spacetime. Cauchy codes have now been successful at simulating all aspects of the binary black-hole problem inside an artificially constructed outer boundary. A prime application of characteristic evolution is to extend such simulations to null infinity where the waveform from the binary inspiral and merger can be unambiguously computed. This has now been accomplished by Cauchy-characteristic extraction, where data for the characteristic evolution is supplied by Cauchy data on an extraction worldtube inside the artificial outer boundary. The ultimate application of characteristic evolution is to eliminate the role of this outer boundary by constructing a global solution via Cauchy-characteristic matching. Progress in this direction is discussed.
Jiang, Nan; Dang, Yijie; Wang, Jian
2016-09-01
Quantum image processing (QIP) means the quantum-based methods to speed up image processing algorithms. Many quantum image processing schemes claim that their efficiency is theoretically higher than their corresponding classical schemes. However, most of them do not consider the problem of measurement. As we all know, measurement will lead to collapse. That is to say, executing the algorithm once, users can only measure the final state one time. Therefore, if users want to regain the results (the processed images), they must execute the algorithms many times and then measure the final state many times to get all the pixels' values. If the measurement process is taken into account, whether or not the algorithms are really efficient needs to be reconsidered. In this paper, we try to solve the problem of measurement and give a quantum image matching algorithm. Unlike most of the QIP algorithms, our scheme interests only one pixel (the target pixel) instead of the whole image. It modifies the probability of pixels based on Grover's algorithm to make the target pixel to be measured with higher probability, and the measurement step is executed only once. An example is given to explain the algorithm more vividly. Complexity analysis indicates that the quantum scheme's complexity is O(2n) in contradistinction to the classical scheme's complexity O(2^{2n+2m}), where m and n are integers related to the size of images.
Maximum margin Bayesian network classifiers.
Pernkopf, Franz; Wohlmayr, Michael; Tschiatschek, Sebastian
2012-03-01
We present a maximum margin parameter learning algorithm for Bayesian network classifiers using a conjugate gradient (CG) method for optimization. In contrast to previous approaches, we maintain the normalization constraints on the parameters of the Bayesian network during optimization, i.e., the probabilistic interpretation of the model is not lost. This enables us to handle missing features in discriminatively optimized Bayesian networks. In experiments, we compare the classification performance of maximum margin parameter learning to conditional likelihood and maximum likelihood learning approaches. Discriminative parameter learning significantly outperforms generative maximum likelihood estimation for naive Bayes and tree augmented naive Bayes structures on all considered data sets. Furthermore, maximizing the margin dominates the conditional likelihood approach in terms of classification performance in most cases. We provide results for a recently proposed maximum margin optimization approach based on convex relaxation. While the classification results are highly similar, our CG-based optimization is computationally up to orders of magnitude faster. Margin-optimized Bayesian network classifiers achieve classification performance comparable to support vector machines (SVMs) using fewer parameters. Moreover, we show that unanticipated missing feature values during classification can be easily processed by discriminatively optimized Bayesian network classifiers, a case where discriminative classifiers usually require mechanisms to complete unknown feature values in the data first.
Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery
Chih-Yuan Tseng
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.
Communication Complexity of Approximate Matching in Distributed Graphs
Huang, Zengfeng; Radunović, Božidar; Vojnović, Milan;
n this paper we consider the communication complexity of approximation algorithms for maximum matching in a graph in the message-passing model of distributed computation. The input graph consists of n vertices and edges partitioned over a set of k sites. The output is an α - approximate maximum...... matching in the input graph which has to be reported by one of the sites. We show a lower bound on the communication complexity ofΩ(α2kn) and show that it is tight up to poly-logarithmic factors. This lower bound also applies to other combinatorial problems on graphs in the message-passing computation...
A simple approach for maximum heat recovery calculations
Jezowski, J. (Wroclaw Technical Univ. (PL). Inst. of Chemical Engineering and Heating Equipment); Friedler, F. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Egyetem (HU). Research Inst. for Technical Chmeistry)
1992-04-01
This paper addresses the problem of calculating the maximum heat energy recovery for a given set of process streams. Simple, straightforward algorithms of calculations are presented that account for tasks with multiple utilities, forbidden matches and nonpoint utilities. A new way of applying the so-called dual-stream approach to reduce utility usage for tasks with forbidden matches is also given in this paper. The calculation methods do not require computer programs and mathematical programming application. They give the user a proper insight into a problem to understand heat integration as well as to recognize options and traps in heat exchanger network synthesis. (author).
The maximum rate of mammal evolution
Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.
2012-03-01
How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.
The maximum rate of mammal evolution
Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.
2012-01-01
How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461
The maximum rate of mammal evolution.
Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D
2012-03-13
How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.
Most Recent Match Queries in On-Line Suffix Trees
Larsson, N. Jesper
2014-01-01
A suffix tree is able to efficiently locate a pattern in an indexed string, but not in general the most recent copy of the pattern in an online stream, which is desirable in some applications. We study the most general version of the problem of locating a most recent match: supporting queries...
Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.
1985-01-01
Discusses a series of experiments performed by Thomas Hope in 1805 which show the temperature at which water has its maximum density. Early data cast into a modern form as well as guidelines and recent data collected from the author provide background for duplicating Hope's experiments in the classroom. (JN)
Abolishing the maximum tension principle
Dabrowski, Mariusz P
2015-01-01
We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension $F_{max} = c^2/4G$ represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.
Abolishing the maximum tension principle
Mariusz P. Da̧browski
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension Fmax=c4/4G represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.
Matching theory for wireless networks
Han, Zhu; Saad, Walid
2017-01-01
This book provides the fundamental knowledge of the classical matching theory problems. It builds up the bridge between the matching theory and the 5G wireless communication resource allocation problems. The potentials and challenges of implementing the semi-distributive matching theory framework into the wireless resource allocations are analyzed both theoretically and through implementation examples. Academics, researchers, engineers, and so on, who are interested in efficient distributive wireless resource allocation solutions, will find this book to be an exceptional resource. .
Nearly identical BFC expressions and identical OFC expressions for Matching and Clique
Manyem, Prabhu
2011-01-01
Consider ordered structures. We show that the expressions for the BFC (Basic feasible constraint) for Maximum Clique and Maximum Matching are nearly identical universal Horn sentences. The expressions for the OFC (objective function constraint) for the two problems are exactly identical. This is in spite of the fact that one of the problems is known to be NP-complete and the other one is known to be in P. It gets better when we compare Maximum Matching and Maximum Independent Set; the BFC and OFC turn out to be exactly the same. From this, we conclude that Maximum Matching can be expressed in ESO Logic with a first order part that is universal Horn, \\bf{if and only if} we can do the same for Maximum Independent Set and Maximum Clique.
Maximum Genus of Strong Embeddings
Er-ling Wei; Yan-pei Liu; Han Ren
2003-01-01
The strong embedding conjecture states that any 2-connected graph has a strong embedding on some surface. It implies the circuit double cover conjecture: Any 2-connected graph has a circuit double cover.Conversely, it is not true. But for a 3-regular graph, the two conjectures are equivalent. In this paper, a characterization of graphs having a strong embedding with exactly 3 faces, which is the strong embedding of maximum genus, is given. In addition, some graphs with the property are provided. More generally, an upper bound of the maximum genus of strong embeddings of a graph is presented too. Lastly, it is shown that the interpolation theorem is true to planar Halin graph.
On the Implementation of Dynamic Patterns
Balabonski, Thibaut
2011-01-01
The evaluation mechanism of pattern matching with dynamic patterns is modelled in the Pure Pattern Calculus by one single meta-rule. This contribution presents a refinement which narrows the gap between the abstract calculus and its implementation. A calculus is designed to allow reasoning on matching algorithms. The new calculus is proved to be confluent, and to simulate the original Pure Pattern Calculus. A family of new, matching-driven, reduction strategies is proposed.
Remizov, Ivan D
2009-01-01
In this note, we represent a subdifferential of a maximum functional defined on the space of all real-valued continuous functions on a given metric compact set. For a given argument, $f$ it coincides with the set of all probability measures on the set of points maximizing $f$ on the initial compact set. This complete characterization lies in the heart of several important identities in microeconomics, such as Roy's identity, Sheppard's lemma, as well as duality theory in production and linear programming.
Austin, Damien J; Kelly, Stephen J
2013-01-01
The current use of tracking technology in the form of global positioning systems allows for a greater analysis of locomotor activities occurring in games and a larger volume of games when compared with time-motion analysis. Therefore, the aim of this study is to be the first to analyze the physiological demands of forwards and backs throughout the entirety of an Australian professional rugby league season. The movement patterns of 185 players from a professional rugby league club were recorded during 28 National Rugby League games played in Australia during the 2010 season. The players were clustered into 2 positional groups, backs and forwards. Maximum match-play time recorded was 99 minutes and 50 seconds in a semifinal game recorded for both a forward and back. The mean total distances covered in a game for forwards and backs were 5,964 ± 696 and 7,628 ± 744 m, respectively (p 18 km·h(-1)) was 23 ± 4 and for forwards and significantly higher backs with 35 ± 8 (p < 0.05). The maximum work rate in a 10-minute block of match play was 115 and 120 m·min(-1) of play for forwards and backs, respectively. Understanding the physiological demands of a sport is important for coaches to deliver athletes optimal training programs that elicit appropriate and specific physiological adaptation. The differences in locomotor activities, which occur between positions, need to be accounted for when developing training programs.
An Implementation of the Frequency Matching Method
Lange, Katrine; Frydendall, Jan; Hansen, Thomas Mejer
During the last decade multiple-point statistics has become in-creasingly popular as a tool for incorporating complex prior infor-mation when solving inverse problems in geosciences. A variety of methods have been proposed but often the implementation of these is not straightforward. One of these......During the last decade multiple-point statistics has become in-creasingly popular as a tool for incorporating complex prior infor-mation when solving inverse problems in geosciences. A variety of methods have been proposed but often the implementation of these is not straightforward. One...... of these methods is the recently proposed Frequency Matching method to compute the maximum a posteriori model of an inverse problem where multiple-point statistics, learned from a training image, is used to formulate a closed form expression for an a priori probability density function. This paper discusses...... aspects of the implementation of the Fre-quency Matching method and the techniques adopted to make it com-putationally feasible also for large-scale inverse problems. The source code is publicly available at GitHub and this paper also provides an example of how to apply the Frequency Matching method...
Maximum Likelihood Sequence Detection Receivers for Nonlinear Optical Channels
2015-01-01
The space-time whitened matched filter (ST-WMF) maximum likelihood sequence detection (MLSD) architecture has been recently proposed (Maggio et al., 2014). Its objective is reducing implementation complexity in transmissions over nonlinear dispersive channels. The ST-WMF-MLSD receiver (i) drastically reduces the number of states of the Viterbi decoder (VD) and (ii) offers a smooth trade-off between performance and complexity. In this work the ST-WMF-MLSD receiver is investigated in detail. We...
The Testability of Maximum Magnitude
Clements, R.; Schorlemmer, D.; Gonzalez, A.; Zoeller, G.; Schneider, M.
2012-12-01
Recent disasters caused by earthquakes of unexpectedly large magnitude (such as Tohoku) illustrate the need for reliable assessments of the seismic hazard. Estimates of the maximum possible magnitude M at a given fault or in a particular zone are essential parameters in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), but their accuracy remains untested. In this study, we discuss the testability of long-term and short-term M estimates and the limitations that arise from testing such rare events. Of considerable importance is whether or not those limitations imply a lack of testability of a useful maximum magnitude estimate, and whether this should have any influence on current PSHA methodology. We use a simple extreme value theory approach to derive a probability distribution for the expected maximum magnitude in a future time interval, and we perform a sensitivity analysis on this distribution to determine if there is a reasonable avenue available for testing M estimates as they are commonly reported today: devoid of an appropriate probability distribution of their own and estimated only for infinite time (or relatively large untestable periods). Our results imply that any attempt at testing such estimates is futile, and that the distribution is highly sensitive to M estimates only under certain optimal conditions that are rarely observed in practice. In the future we suggest that PSHA modelers be brutally honest about the uncertainty of M estimates, or must find a way to decrease its influence on the estimated hazard.
Alternative Multiview Maximum Entropy Discrimination.
Chao, Guoqing; Sun, Shiliang
2016-07-01
Maximum entropy discrimination (MED) is a general framework for discriminative estimation based on maximum entropy and maximum margin principles, and can produce hard-margin support vector machines under some assumptions. Recently, the multiview version of MED multiview MED (MVMED) was proposed. In this paper, we try to explore a more natural MVMED framework by assuming two separate distributions p1( Θ1) over the first-view classifier parameter Θ1 and p2( Θ2) over the second-view classifier parameter Θ2 . We name the new MVMED framework as alternative MVMED (AMVMED), which enforces the posteriors of two view margins to be equal. The proposed AMVMED is more flexible than the existing MVMED, because compared with MVMED, which optimizes one relative entropy, AMVMED assigns one relative entropy term to each of the two views, thus incorporating a tradeoff between the two views. We give the detailed solving procedure, which can be divided into two steps. The first step is solving our optimization problem without considering the equal margin posteriors from two views, and then, in the second step, we consider the equal posteriors. Experimental results on multiple real-world data sets verify the effectiveness of the AMVMED, and comparisons with MVMED are also reported.
Chen, Jincan; Yan, Zijun; Wu, Liqing
1996-06-01
Considering a thermoelectric generator as a heat engine cycle, the general differential equations of the temperature field inside thermoelectric elements are established by means of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. These equations are used to study the influence of heat leak, Joule's heat, and Thomson heat on the performance of the thermoelectric generator. New expressions are derived for the power output and the efficiency of the thermoelectric generator. The maximum power output is calculated and the optimal matching condition of load is determined. The maximum efficiency is discussed by a representative numerical example. The aim of this research is to provide some novel conclusions and redress some errors existing in a related investigation.
Matching conditions in relativistic astrophysics
Quevedo, Hernando
2012-01-01
We present an exact electrovacuum solution of Einstein-Maxwell equations with infinite sets of multipole moments which can be used to describe the exterior gravitational field of a rotating charged mass distribution. We show that in the special case of a slowly rotating and slightly deformed body, the exterior solution can be matched to an interior solution belonging to the Hartle-Thorne family of approximate solutions. To search for exact interior solutions, we propose to use the derivatives of the curvature eigenvalues to formulate a $C^3-$matching condition from which the minimum radius can be derived at which the matching of interior and exterior spacetimes can be carried out. We prove the validity of the $C^3-$matching in the particular case of a static mass with a quadrupole moment. The corresponding interior solution is obtained numerically and the matching with the exterior solution gives as a result the minimum radius of the mass configuration.
MUSCLE DAMAGE AFTER A TENNIS MATCH IN YOUNG PLAYERS
R.V. Gomes
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The present study investigated changes in indirect markers of muscle damage following a simulated tennis match play using nationally ranked young (17.6 ± 1.4 years male tennis players. Ten young athletes played a 3-hour simulated match play on outdoor red clay courts following the International Tennis Federation rules. Muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase activity (CK, serum myoglobin concentration (Mb, one repetition maximum (1RM squat strength, and squat jump (SJ and counter movement jump (CMJ heights were assessed before, immediately after, and 24 and 48 h after the simulated match play. All parameters were also evaluated in a non-exercised group (control group. A small increase in the indirect markers of muscle damage (muscle soreness, CK and Mb was detected at 24-48 hours post-match (p<0.05. A marked acute decrement in neuromuscular performance (1RM squat strength: -35.2 ± 10.4%, SJ: -7.0 ± 6.0%, CMJ: -10.0 ± 6.3% was observed immediately post-match (p<0.05. At 24 h post-match, the 1RM strength and jump heights were not significantly different from the baseline values. However, several players showed a decrease of these measures at 24 h after the match play. The simulated tennis match play induced mild muscle damage in young players. Coaches could monitor changes in the indirect markers of muscle damage to assess athletes’ recovery status during training and competition.
Mode matching in second order susceptibility metamaterials
Héron, Sébastien; Haïdar, Riad
2016-01-01
We present an effective model for a subwavelength periodically patterned metallic layer, its cavities being filled with a nonlinear dielectric material, which accounts for both the linear and second order behavior. The effective non linear susceptibility for the homogenized layer is driven by the nonlinearity of the dielectric material and by the geometrical parameters, thus leading to much higher susceptibility than existing materials. This leads to a huge enhancement of non linear processes when used together with resonances. Furthermore, multiple resonances are taking place in the metallic cavities, and we investigate the mode matching situations for frequency conversion processes and show how it enhances further their efficiency.
Cacti with maximum Kirchhoff index
Wang, Wen-Rui; Pan, Xiang-Feng
2015-01-01
The concept of resistance distance was first proposed by Klein and Randi\\'c. The Kirchhoff index $Kf(G)$ of a graph $G$ is the sum of resistance distance between all pairs of vertices in $G$. A connected graph $G$ is called a cactus if each block of $G$ is either an edge or a cycle. Let $Cat(n;t)$ be the set of connected cacti possessing $n$ vertices and $t$ cycles, where $0\\leq t \\leq \\lfloor\\frac{n-1}{2}\\rfloor$. In this paper, the maximum kirchhoff index of cacti are characterized, as well...
Generic maximum likely scale selection
Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo
2007-01-01
The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...... on second order moments of multiple measurements outputs at a fixed location. These measurements, which reflect local image structure, consist in the cases considered here of Gaussian derivatives taken at several scales and/or having different derivative orders....
Statistical methods for history matching
Johansen, Kent
Denne afhandling beskriver statistiske metoder til history matching af olieproduktion. History matching er en vigtig del af driften af et oliefelt og er ofte forbundet med problemer relateret til kompleksiteten af reservoiret og selve størrelsen af reservoirsimuleringsmodellen. Begrebet history m...... history matching metode. Den foreslåede metode forsøger at forbedre konvergensen af traditionel probability perturbation ved at inkludere kvalitativ gradient information.......Denne afhandling beskriver statistiske metoder til history matching af olieproduktion. History matching er en vigtig del af driften af et oliefelt og er ofte forbundet med problemer relateret til kompleksiteten af reservoiret og selve størrelsen af reservoirsimuleringsmodellen. Begrebet history...... matching dækker over arbejdsprocessen, hvor de fysiske parametre i en reservoirsimuleringsmodel bliver justeret således, at en simulering af olieproduktionen stemmer overens med egentlige målte produktionsdata. Mange history matching metoder er baseret på et geostatistisk fundament, hvilket også gør sig...
Poor Textural Image Matching Based on Graph Theory
Chen, Shiyu; Yuan, Xiuxiao; Yuan, Wei; Cai, Yang
2016-06-01
Image matching lies at the heart of photogrammetry and computer vision. For poor textural images, the matching result is affected by low contrast, repetitive patterns, discontinuity or occlusion, few or homogeneous textures. Recently, graph matching became popular for its integration of geometric and radiometric information. Focused on poor textural image matching problem, it is proposed an edge-weight strategy to improve graph matching algorithm. A series of experiments have been conducted including 4 typical landscapes: Forest, desert, farmland, and urban areas. And it is experimentally found that our new algorithm achieves better performance. Compared to SIFT, doubled corresponding points were acquired, and the overall recall rate reached up to 68%, which verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the algorithm.
2010-10-01
...) Wax “Vesta” matches are matches that can be ignited by friction either on a prepared surface or on a solid surface. (c) Safety matches and wax “Vesta” matches must be tightly packed in securely closed... packaging with any material other than safety matches or wax “Vesta” matches, which must be packed...
MATCHING IN INFORMAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS.
Eeckhout, Jan; Munshi, Kaivan
2010-09-01
This paper analyzes an informal financial institution that brings heterogeneous agents together in groups. We analyze decentralized matching into these groups, and the equilibrium composition of participants that consequently arises. We find that participants sort remarkably well across the competing groups, and that they re-sort immediately following an unexpected exogenous regulatory change. These findings suggest that the competitive matching model might have applicability and bite in other settings where matching is an important equilibrium phenomenon. (JEL: O12, O17, G20, D40).
Economics and Maximum Entropy Production
Lorenz, R. D.
2003-04-01
Price differentials, sales volume and profit can be seen as analogues of temperature difference, heat flow and work or entropy production in the climate system. One aspect in which economic systems exhibit more clarity than the climate is that the empirical and/or statistical mechanical tendency for systems to seek a maximum in production is very evident in economics, in that the profit motive is very clear. Noting the common link between 1/f noise, power laws and Self-Organized Criticality with Maximum Entropy Production, the power law fluctuations in security and commodity prices is not inconsistent with the analogy. There is an additional thermodynamic analogy, in that scarcity is valued. A commodity concentrated among a few traders is valued highly by the many who do not have it. The market therefore encourages via prices the spreading of those goods among a wider group, just as heat tends to diffuse, increasing entropy. I explore some empirical price-volume relationships of metals and meteorites in this context.
Spectral feature matching based on partial least squares
Weidong Yan; Zheng Tian; Lulu Pan; Mingtao Ding
2009-01-01
We investigate the spectral approaches to the problem of point pattern matching, and present a spectral feature descriptors based on partial least square (PLS). Given keypoints of two images, we define the position similarity matrices respectively, and extract the spectral features from the matrices by PLS, which indicate geometric distribution and inner relationships of the keypoints. Then the keypoints matching is done by bipartite graph matching. The experiments on both synthetic and real-world data corroborate the robustness and invariance of the algorithm.
Trends in Correlation-Based Pattern Recognition and Tracking in Forward-Looking Infrared Imagery
Alam, Mohammad S.; Bhuiyan, Sharif M. A.
2014-01-01
In this paper, we review the recent trends and advancements on correlation-based pattern recognition and tracking in forward-looking infrared (FLIR) imagery. In particular, we discuss matched filter-based correlation techniques for target detection and tracking which are widely used for various real time applications. We analyze and present test results involving recently reported matched filters such as the maximum average correlation height (MACH) filter and its variants, and distance classifier correlation filter (DCCF) and its variants. Test results are presented for both single/multiple target detection and tracking using various real-life FLIR image sequences. PMID:25061840
Approximate Matching of Hierarchial Data
Augsten, Nikolaus
The goal of this thesis is to design, develop, and evaluate new methods for the approximate matching of hierarchical data represented as labeled trees. In approximate matching scenarios two items should be matched if they are similar. Computing the similarity between labeled trees is hard...... as in addition to the data values also the structure must be considered. A well-known measure for comparing trees is the tree edit distance. It is computationally expensive and leads to a prohibitively high run time. Our solution for the approximate matching of hierarchical data are pq-grams. The pq...... formally proof that the pq-gram index can be incrementally updated based on the log of edit operations without reconstructing intermediate tree versions. The incremental update is independent of the data size and scales to a large number of changes in the data. We introduce windowed pq...
Matched Spectral Filter Imager Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — OPTRA proposes the development of an imaging spectrometer for greenhouse gas and volcanic gas imaging based on matched spectral filtering and compressive imaging....
Improved bounds for stochastic matching
Li, Jian
2010-01-01
In this paper we study stochastic matching problems that are motivated by applications in online dating and kidney exchange programs. We consider two probing models: edge probing and matching probing. Our main result is an algorithm that finds a matching-probing strategy attaining a small constant approximation ratio. An interesting aspect of our approach is that we compare the cost our solution to the best edge-probing strategy. Thus, we indirectly show that the best matching-probing strategy is only a constant factor away from the best edge-probing strategy. Even though our algorithm has a slightly worse approximation ratio than a greedy algorithm for edge-probing strategies, we show that the two algorithms can be combined to get improved approximations.
Objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality
Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan
2015-01-01
We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. The upper bound is attained if and only if the object is transparent for fields of one handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e. helicity preservation upon scattering, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal scatterers to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal scatterers. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar scatterers or as material constitutive relations. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: A twofold resonantly enhanced and background free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle independent helicity filtering glasses.
The strong maximum principle revisited
Pucci, Patrizia; Serrin, James
In this paper we first present the classical maximum principle due to E. Hopf, together with an extended commentary and discussion of Hopf's paper. We emphasize the comparison technique invented by Hopf to prove this principle, which has since become a main mathematical tool for the study of second order elliptic partial differential equations and has generated an enormous number of important applications. While Hopf's principle is generally understood to apply to linear equations, it is in fact also crucial in nonlinear theories, such as those under consideration here. In particular, we shall treat and discuss recent generalizations of the strong maximum principle, and also the compact support principle, for the case of singular quasilinear elliptic differential inequalities, under generally weak assumptions on the quasilinear operators and the nonlinearities involved. Our principal interest is in necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of both principles; in exposing and simplifying earlier proofs of corresponding results; and in extending the conclusions to wider classes of singular operators than previously considered. The results have unexpected ramifications for other problems, as will develop from the exposition, e.g. two point boundary value problems for singular quasilinear ordinary differential equations (Sections 3 and 4); the exterior Dirichlet boundary value problem (Section 5); the existence of dead cores and compact support solutions, i.e. dead cores at infinity (Section 7); Euler-Lagrange inequalities on a Riemannian manifold (Section 9); comparison and uniqueness theorems for solutions of singular quasilinear differential inequalities (Section 10). The case of p-regular elliptic inequalities is briefly considered in Section 11.
Influence of a Prolonged Tennis Match Play on Serve Biomechanics.
Martin, Caroline; Bideau, Benoit; Delamarche, Paul; Kulpa, Richard
2016-01-01
The aim of this study was to quantify kinematic, kinetic and performance changes that occur in the serve throughout a prolonged tennis match play. Serves of eight male advanced tennis players were recorded with a motion capture system before, at mid-match, and after a 3-hour tennis match. Before and after each match, electromyographic data of 8 upper limb muscles obtained during isometric maximal voluntary contraction were compared to determine the presence of muscular fatigue. Vertical ground reaction forces, rating of perceived exertion, ball speed, and ball impact height were measured. Kinematic and upper limb kinetic variables were computed. The results show decrease in mean power frequency values for several upper limb muscles that is an indicator of local muscular fatigue. Decreases in serve ball speed, ball impact height, maximal angular velocities and an increase in rating of perceived exertion were also observed between the beginning and the end of the match. With fatigue, the majority of the upper limb joint kinetics decreases at the end of the match. No change in timing of maximal angular velocities was observed between the beginning and the end of the match. A prolonged tennis match play may induce fatigue in upper limb muscles, which decrease performance and cause changes in serve maximal angular velocities and joint kinetics. The consistency in timing of maximal angular velocities suggests that advanced tennis players are able to maintain the temporal pattern of their serve technique, in spite of the muscular fatigue development.
Induced optical metric in the non-impedance-matched media
Mousavi, S. A.; Roknizadeh, R.; Sahebdivan, S.
2016-11-01
In non-magnetic anisotropic media, the behavior of electromagnetic waves depends on the polarization and direction of the incident light. Therefore, to tame the unwanted wave responses such as polarization dependent reflections, the artificial impedance-matched media are suggested to be used in optical devices like invisibility cloak or super lenses. Nevertheless, developing the impedance-matched media is far from trivial in practice. In this paper, we are comparing the samples of both impedance-matched and non-impedance-matched (non-magnetic) media regarding their electromagnetic response in constructing a well-defined optical metric. In the case of similar anisotropic patterns, we show that the optical metric in an impedance-matched medium for unpolarized light is the same as the optical metric of an electrical birefringent medium when the extraordinary mode is concerned. By comparing the eikonal equation in an empty curved space-time and its counterparts in the medium, we have shown that a non-impedance-matched medium can resemble an optical metric for a particular polarization. As an example of non-impedance-matched materials, we are studying a medium with varying optical axis profile. We show that such a medium can be an alternative to impedance-matched materials in various optical devices.
The Logical Basis of Evaluation Order and Pattern-Matching
2009-04-17
traditional way of expressing the identity coercion interpretation is that subtyping is witnessed by η-expansion, as was discussed for example by Brandt and...proprieta delle forme βη-normali nel λK-calculus. Pubblicazioni 696, Instituto per le Applicazioni del Calcolo, Roma, 1968. Michael Brandt and Fritz...cps transform and its semantics. Information and Computation, 188(2):241–283, 2004. Gerhard Gentzen. Untersuchungen über das Logische Schließen
Computationally Secure Pattern Matching in the Presence of Malicious Adversaries
Hazay, Carmit; Toft, Tomas
2010-01-01
simulation in the presence of malicious, polynomial-time adversaries (assuming that ElGamal encryption is semantically secure) and exhibits computation and communication costs of O(n + m) in a constant round complexity. In addition to the above, we propose a collection of protocols for variations...
A probabilistic approach to pattern matching in the continuous domain.
Keren, Daniel; Werman, Michael; Feinberg, Joshua
2012-10-01
The goal of this paper is to solve the following basic problem: Given discrete noisy samples from a continuous signal, compute the probability distribution of its distance from a fixed template. As opposed to the typical restoration problem, which considers a single optimal signal, the computation of the entire probability distribution necessitates integrating over the entire signal space. To achieve this, we apply path integration techniques. The problem is studied in one and two dimensions, and an accurate solution as well as an efficient approximation scheme are provided.
Vision-based adaptive cruise control using pattern matching
Kanjee, R
2013-10-01
Full Text Available -vehicle system was modelled and tested. All vehicle parameters were estimated based on actual physical characteristics and performance of the University of Johannesburg’s hybrid electric vehicle. A. Modelling the Vehicle The vehicle model used is derived from... input generated by the control system does not directly induce a traction force on the car tires. In an electric vehicle, the throttle position is processed by the engine controller and is mapped proportionally to the motor’s angular velocity. For our...
Local Search Approaches in Stable Matching Problems
Toby Walsh
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The stable marriage (SM problem has a wide variety of practical applications, ranging from matching resident doctors to hospitals, to matching students to schools or, more generally, to any two-sided market. In the classical formulation, n men and n women express their preferences (via a strict total order over the members of the other sex. Solving an SM problem means finding a stable marriage where stability is an envy-free notion: no man and woman who are not married to each other would both prefer each other to their partners or to being single. We consider both the classical stable marriage problem and one of its useful variations (denoted SMTI (Stable Marriage with Ties and Incomplete lists where the men and women express their preferences in the form of an incomplete preference list with ties over a subset of the members of the other sex. Matchings are permitted only with people who appear in these preference lists, and we try to find a stable matching that marries as many people as possible. Whilst the SM problem is polynomial to solve, the SMTI problem is NP-hard. We propose to tackle both problems via a local search approach, which exploits properties of the problems to reduce the size of the neighborhood and to make local moves efficiently. We empirically evaluate our algorithm for SM problems by measuring its runtime behavior and its ability to sample the lattice of all possible stable marriages. We evaluate our algorithm for SMTI problems in terms of both its runtime behavior and its ability to find a maximum cardinality stable marriage. Experimental results suggest that for SM problems, the number of steps of our algorithm grows only as O(n log(n, and that it samples very well the set of all stable marriages. It is thus a fair and efficient approach to generate stable marriages. Furthermore, our approach for SMTI problems is able to solve large problems, quickly returning stable matchings of large and often optimal size, despite the
Robust Face Recognition through Local Graph Matching
Ehsan Fazl-Ersi
2007-09-01
Full Text Available A novel face recognition method is proposed, in which face images are represented by a set of local labeled graphs, each containing information about the appearance and geometry of a 3-tuple of face feature points, extracted using Local Feature Analysis (LFA technique. Our method automatically learns a model set and builds a graph space for each individual. A two-stage method for optimal matching between the graphs extracted from a probe image and the trained model graphs is proposed. The recognition of each probe face image is performed by assigning it to the trained individual with the maximum number of references. Our approach achieves perfect result on the ORL face set and an accuracy rate of 98.4% on the FERET face set, which shows the superiority of our method over all considered state-of-the-art methods. I
A. J. Perez-Diaz
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Fingerprint verification is the most important step in the fingerprint-based biometric systems. The matching score islinked to the chance of identifying a person. Nowadays, two fingerprint matching methods are the most popular: thecorrelation-based method and the minutiae-based method. In this work, three biometric systems were evaluated:Neurotechnology Verifinger 6.0 Extended, Innovatrics IDKit SDK and Griaule Fingerprint SDK 2007. The evaluationwas performed according to the experiments of the Fingerprint Verification Competition (FVC. The influence of thefingerprint rotation degrees on false match rate (FMR and false non-match rate (FNMR was evaluated. The resultsshowed that the FMR values increase as rotation degrees increase too, meanwhile, the FNMR values decrease.Experimental results demonstrate that Verifinger SDK shows good performance on false non-match testing, with anFNMR mean of 7%, followed by IDKit SDK (6.71% ~ 13.66% and Fingerprint SDK (50%. However, Fingerprint SDKdemonstrates a better performance on false match testing, with an FMR mean of ~0%, followed by Verifinger SDK(7.62% - 9% and IDKit SDK (above 28%. As result of the experiments, Verifinger SDK had, in general, the bestperformance. Subsequently, we calculated the regression functions to predict the behavior of FNMR and FMR fordifferent threshold values with different rotation degrees.
Understanding Y haplotype matching probability.
Brenner, Charles H
2014-01-01
The Y haplotype population-genetic terrain is better explored from a fresh perspective rather than by analogy with the more familiar autosomal ideas. For haplotype matching probabilities, versus for autosomal matching probabilities, explicit attention to modelling - such as how evolution got us where we are - is much more important while consideration of population frequency is much less so. This paper explores, extends, and explains some of the concepts of "Fundamental problem of forensic mathematics - the evidential strength of a rare haplotype match". That earlier paper presented and validated a "kappa method" formula for the evidential strength when a suspect matches a previously unseen haplotype (such as a Y-haplotype) at the crime scene. Mathematical implications of the kappa method are intuitive and reasonable. Suspicions to the contrary raised in rest on elementary errors. Critical to deriving the kappa method or any sensible evidential calculation is understanding that thinking about haplotype population frequency is a red herring; the pivotal question is one of matching probability. But confusion between the two is unfortunately institutionalized in much of the forensic world. Examples make clear why (matching) probability is not (population) frequency and why uncertainty intervals on matching probabilities are merely confused thinking. Forensic matching calculations should be based on a model, on stipulated premises. The model inevitably only approximates reality, and any error in the results comes only from error in the model, the inexactness of the approximation. Sampling variation does not measure that inexactness and hence is not helpful in explaining evidence and is in fact an impediment. Alternative haplotype matching probability approaches that various authors have considered are reviewed. Some are based on no model and cannot be taken seriously. For the others, some evaluation of the models is discussed. Recent evidence supports the adequacy of
Matching illumination of solid objects.
Pont, Sylvia C; Koenderink, Jan J
2007-04-01
The appearance of objects is determined by their surface reflectance and roughness and by the light field. Conversely, human observers might derive properties of the light field from the appearance of objects. The inverse problem has no unique solution, so perceptual interactions between reflectance, roughness, and lightfield are to be expected. In two separate experiments, we tested whether observers are able to match the illumination of spheres under collimated illumination only (matching of illumination direction) and under more or less diffuse illumination (matching of illumination direction and directedness of the beam). We found that observers are quite able to match collimated illumination directions of two rendered Lambertian spheres. Matching of the collimated beam directions of a Lambertian sphere and that of a real object with arbitrary reflectance and roughness properties resulted in similar results for the azimuthal angle, but in higher variance for the polar angle. Translucent objects and a tennis ball were found to be systematic outliers. If the directedness of the beam was also varied, the direction settings showed larger variance for more diffuse illumination. The directedness settings showed an overall quite large variance and, interestingly, interacted with the polar angle settings. We discuss possible photometrical mechanisms behind these effects.
Maximum entropy production in daisyworld
Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.
2012-05-01
Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.
Maximum stellar iron core mass
F W Giacobbe
2003-03-01
An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is described in this paper. The method employed depends, in part, upon an estimate of the true relativistic mass increase experienced by electrons within a highly compressed iron core, just prior to core collapse, and is signiﬁcantly different from a more typical Chandrasekhar mass limit approach. This technique produced a maximum stellar iron core mass value of 2.69 × 1030 kg (1.35 solar masses). This mass value is very near to the typical mass values found for neutron stars in a recent survey of actual neutron star masses. Although slightly lower and higher neutron star masses may also be found, lower mass neutron stars are believed to be formed as a result of enhanced iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large stars. And, higher mass neutron stars are likely to be formed as a result of fallback or accretion of additional matter after an initial collapse event involving an iron core having a mass no greater than 2.69 × 1030 kg.
2011-01-10
...: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure Using Record Evidence, and... facilities of their responsibilities, under Federal integrity management (IM) regulations, to perform... system, especially when calculating Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) or Maximum Operating...
Approximating Graphic TSP by Matchings
Mömke, Tobias
2011-01-01
We present a framework for approximating the metric TSP based on a novel use of matchings. Traditionally, matchings have been used to add edges in order to make a given graph Eulerian, whereas our approach also allows for the removal of certain edges leading to a decreased cost. For the TSP on graphic metrics (graph-TSP), the approach yields a 1.461-approximation algorithm with respect to the Held-Karp lower bound. For graph-TSP restricted to a class of graphs that contains degree three bounded and claw-free graphs, we show that the integrality gap of the Held-Karp relaxation matches the conjectured ratio 4/3. The framework allows for generalizations in a natural way and also leads to a 1.586-approximation algorithm for the traveling salesman path problem on graphic metrics where the start and end vertices are prespecified.
The Sherpa Maximum Likelihood Estimator
Nguyen, D.; Doe, S.; Evans, I.; Hain, R.; Primini, F.
2011-07-01
A primary goal for the second release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is to include X-ray sources with as few as 5 photon counts detected in stacked observations of the same field, while maintaining acceptable detection efficiency and false source rates. Aggressive source detection methods will result in detection of many false positive source candidates. Candidate detections will then be sent to a new tool, the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE), to evaluate the likelihood that a detection is a real source. MLE uses the Sherpa modeling and fitting engine to fit a model of a background and source to multiple overlapping candidate source regions. A background model is calculated by simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in multiple background regions. This model is used to determine the quality of the fit statistic for a background-only hypothesis in the potential source region. The statistic for a background-plus-source hypothesis is calculated by adding a Gaussian source model convolved with the appropriate Chandra point spread function (PSF) and simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in each observation in the stack. Since a candidate source may be located anywhere in the field of view of each stacked observation, a different PSF must be used for each observation because of the strong spatial dependence of the Chandra PSF. The likelihood of a valid source being detected is a function of the two statistics (for background alone, and for background-plus-source). The MLE tool is an extensible Python module with potential for use by the general Chandra user.
Vestige: Maximum likelihood phylogenetic footprinting
Maxwell Peter
2005-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic footprinting is the identification of functional regions of DNA by their evolutionary conservation. This is achieved by comparing orthologous regions from multiple species and identifying the DNA regions that have diverged less than neutral DNA. Vestige is a phylogenetic footprinting package built on the PyEvolve toolkit that uses probabilistic molecular evolutionary modelling to represent aspects of sequence evolution, including the conventional divergence measure employed by other footprinting approaches. In addition to measuring the divergence, Vestige allows the expansion of the definition of a phylogenetic footprint to include variation in the distribution of any molecular evolutionary processes. This is achieved by displaying the distribution of model parameters that represent partitions of molecular evolutionary substitutions. Examination of the spatial incidence of these effects across regions of the genome can identify DNA segments that differ in the nature of the evolutionary process. Results Vestige was applied to a reference dataset of the SCL locus from four species and provided clear identification of the known conserved regions in this dataset. To demonstrate the flexibility to use diverse models of molecular evolution and dissect the nature of the evolutionary process Vestige was used to footprint the Ka/Ks ratio in primate BRCA1 with a codon model of evolution. Two regions of putative adaptive evolution were identified illustrating the ability of Vestige to represent the spatial distribution of distinct molecular evolutionary processes. Conclusion Vestige provides a flexible, open platform for phylogenetic footprinting. Underpinned by the PyEvolve toolkit, Vestige provides a framework for visualising the signatures of evolutionary processes across the genome of numerous organisms simultaneously. By exploiting the maximum-likelihood statistical framework, the complex interplay between mutational
Oflazer, K
1996-01-01
This paper presents an efficient algorithm for retrieving from a database of trees, all trees that match a given query tree approximately, that is, within a certain error tolerance. It has natural language processing applications in searching for matches in example-based translation systems, and retrieval from lexical databases containing entries of complex feature structures. The algorithm has been implemented on SparcStations, and for large randomly generated synthetic tree databases (some having tens of thousands of trees) it can associatively search for trees with a small error, in a matter of tenths of a second to few seconds.
Rethinking the Match: A Proposal for Modern Match-Making.
Ray, Chris; Bishop, Steven E; Dow, Alan W
2017-06-27
Since the 1950s, the National Resident Matching Program, or "the Match," has governed the placement of medical students into residencies. The Match was created to protect students in an era when residency positions outnumbered applicants and hospitals pressured students early in their academic careers to commit to a residency position. Now, however, applicants outnumber positions, applicants are applying to increasing numbers of programs, and the costs of the Match for applicants and programs are high. Meanwhile, medical education is evolving toward a competency-based approach, a U.S. physician shortage is predicted, and some researchers describe a "July effect"-worse clinical outcomes correlated with the mass entry of new residents.Against this background, the authors argue for adopting a more modern, free-market approach to residency match-making that might better suit the needs of applicants, programs, and the public. They propose allowing students who have been identified by their medical schools as having achieved graduation-level competency to apply to residency programs at any point during the year. Residency programs would set their own application timetables and extend offers in an ongoing fashion. Students, counseled by their schools, would accept or decline offers as desired. The authors argue this approach would better support competency-based education while allowing applicants and programs more choice regarding how they engage and adapt within the selection process. The approach's staggered start times for new residents might attenuate the July effect and improve outcomes for patients. Medical students might also enter and thereby complete residency earlier, increasing the physician workforce.
On a constructive characterization of a class of trees related to pairs of disjoint matchings
Kamalian, R R
2007-01-01
For a graph consider the pairs of disjoint matchings which union contains as many edges as possible, and define a parameter $\\alpha$ which eqauls the cardinality of the largest matching in those pairs. Also, define $\\betta$ to be the cardinality of a maximum matching of the graph. We give a constructive characterization of trees which satisfy the $\\alpha=\\betta$ equality. The proof of our main theorem is based on a new decomposition algorithm obtained for trees.
Relaxation matching algorithm for moving photogrammetry
Guo, Lei; Liu, Ke; Miao, Yinxiao; Zhu, Jigui
2015-02-01
Moving photogrammetry is an application of close range photogrammetry in industrial measurement to realize threedimensional coordinate measurement within large-scale volume. This paper describes an approach of relaxation matching algorithm applicable to moving photogrammetry according to the characteristics of accurate matching result of different measuring images. This method uses neighborhood matching support to improve the matching rate after coarse matching based on epipolar geometry constraint and precise matching using three images. It reflects the overall matching effect of all points, that means when a point is matched correctly, the matching results of those points round it must be correct. So for one point considered, the matching results of points round it are calculated to judge whether its result is correct. Analysis indicates that relaxation matching can eliminate the mismatching effectively and acquire 100% rate of correct matching. It will play a very important role in moving photogrammetry to ensure the following implement of ray bundle adjustment.
An Analysis of the Matching Hypothesis in Networks
Jia, Tao; Szymanski, Boleslaw; Korniss, Gyorgy
2015-01-01
The matching hypothesis in social psychology claims that people are more likely to form a committed relationship with someone equally attractive. Previous works on stochastic models of human mate choice process indicate that patterns supporting the matching hypothesis could occur even when similarity is not the primary consideration in seeking partners. Yet, most if not all of these works concentrate on fully-connected systems. Here we extend the analysis to networks. Our results indicate that the correlation of the couple's attractiveness grows monotonically with the increased average degree and decreased degree diversity of the network. This correlation is lower in sparse networks than in fully-connected systems, because in the former less attractive individuals who find partners are likely to be coupled with ones who are more attractive than them. The chance of failing to be matched decreases exponentially with both the attractiveness and the degree. The matching hypothesis may not hold when the degree-att...
Template matching techniques in computer vision theory and practice
Brunelli, Roberto
2009-01-01
The detection and recognition of objects in images is a key research topic in the computer vision community. Within this area, face recognition and interpretation has attracted increasing attention owing to the possibility of unveiling human perception mechanisms, and for the development of practical biometric systems. This book and the accompanying website, focus on template matching, a subset of object recognition techniques of wide applicability, which has proved to be particularly effective for face recognition applications. Using examples from face processing tasks throughout the book to illustrate more general object recognition approaches, Roberto Brunelli: examines the basics of digital image formation, highlighting points critical to the task of template matching;presents basic and advanced template matching techniques, targeting grey-level images, shapes and point sets;discusses recent pattern classification paradigms from a template matching perspective;illustrates the development of a real fac...
The Exact String Matching Problem: a Comprehensive Experimental Evaluation
Faro, Simone
2010-01-01
This paper addresses the online exact string matching problem which consists in finding all occurrences of a given pattern p in a text t. It is an extensively studied problem in computer science, mainly due to its direct applications to such diverse areas as text, image and signal processing, speech analysis and recognition, data compression, information retrieval, computational biology and chemistry. Since 1970 more than 80 string matching algorithms have been proposed, and more than 50% of them in the last ten years. In this note we present a comprehensive list of all string matching algorithms and present experimental results in order to compare them from a practical point of view. From our experimental evaluation it turns out that the performance of the algorithms are quite different for different alphabet sizes and pattern length.
Fleet matching performance for multiple registration measurement tools
Beyer, D.; Bläsing, C.; Boehm, K.; Heisig, S.; Seidel, D.
2013-09-01
Currently semiconductor industry drives the 193nm lithography to its limits, using techniques like double exposure, double patterning, mask-source optimisation and inverse lithography. These requirements trend to full in-die measurement capability of photomask metrology for registration. Especially, overlay becomes more and more critical and must be ensured on every die. For this, Carl Zeiss SMS has developed the next generation photomask registration and overlay metrology tool PROVE which is already well established in the market. To ensure in-die measurement capability, sophisticated image analysis methods based on 2D correlations have been developed. A key component for registration tool users is the cross site manufacturing flexibility given by the matching capability of all its metrology tools. Therefore all PROVE tools offer a tool matching procedure based on 2D Golden Grid references. In this paper we first review the optimal length standard and golden grid matching procedures of modern registration metrology tools. Systematic errors in fleet matching based on illumination differences, thermal expansionbased issues or line width roughness are addressed. The tool matching performance of PROVE tools is demonstrated by comparing up to 7 different tools. All tools are well within accuracy and long-term repeatability specification which considerably reduces the statistical error contribution of the tool matching performance. For grid matched tools the final cross tool registration error is shown to be below 1nm.
Towards optimal packed string matching
Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany
2014-01-01
In the packed string matching problem, it is assumed that each machine word can accommodate up to α characters, thus an n-character string occupies n/α memory words.(a) We extend the Crochemore–Perrin constant-space O(n)-time string-matching algorithm to run in optimal O(n/α) time and even in real......-time, achieving a factor α speedup over traditional algorithms that examine each character individually. Our macro-level algorithm only uses the standard AC0 instructions of the word-RAM model (i.e. no integer multiplication) plus two specialized micro-level AC0 word-size packed-string instructions. The main word...... matching work.(b) We also consider the complexity of the packed string matching problem in the classical word-RAM model in the absence of the specialized micro-level instructions wssm and wslm. We propose micro-level algorithms for the theoretically efficient emulation using parallel algorithms techniques...
Matchings with Externalities and Attitudes
Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal;
2013-01-01
Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real-life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas ...
Fuzzy private matching (extended abstract)
Chmielewski, L.; Hoepman, J.H.
2008-01-01
In the private matching problem, a client and a server each hold a set of n input elements. The client wants to privately compute the intersection of these two sets: he learns which elements he has in common with the server (and nothing more), while the server gains no information at all. In certain
An Implementation of Bigraph Matching
Glenstrup, Arne John; Damgaard, Troels Christoffer; Birkedal, Lars
We describe a provably sound and complete matching algorithm for bigraphical reactive systems. The algorithm has been implemented in our BPL Tool, a first implementation of bigraphical reactive systems. We describe the tool and present a concrete example of how it can be used to simulate a model...
PENENTUAN MATCHING MAKSIMUM PADA GRAF BIPARTIT BERBOBOT MENGGUNAKAN METODE HUNGARIAN
Muchammad Abrori
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Matching is a part of graph theory that discuss to make a pair, that can be used to solve many problems; one of them is the assignment problem. The assignment problem is to make a pair problem for n as the employees and for n as the duties, therefore each employee gets one duty, and each duty is given exactly for each employee. The assignment problem can be solved by determining the matching in weighted bipartite graph through Hungarian Method. It can be determined from the alternating tree of a formed edge. If there is augmenting path, that augmenting path is used to form the more number of matching. If the formed path is alternating path, therefore the process is labeling the new node until finding the augmenting vertices. This matching is called as the perfect matching with the number of maximum weighed side in weighted bipartite graphs. The result matching is the solution for the assignment problem by giving an employee with a duty.
Relativistic Stars in Starobinsky gravity matched asymptotic expansion
Arapoğlu, Savaş; Ekşi, K Yavuz
2016-01-01
We study the structure of relativistic stars in $\\mathcal{R}+\\alpha \\mathcal{R}^{2}$ theory using the method of matched asymptotic expansion to handle the higher order derivatives in field equations arising from the higher order curvature term. We find solutions, parametrized by $\\alpha$, for uniform density stars matching to the Schwarzschild solution outside the star. We obtain the mass-radius relations and study the dependence of maximum mass on $\\alpha$. We find that $M_{\\max} \\propto \\alpha^{-3/2}$ for values of $\\alpha$ larger than $10~{\\rm km^2}$. For each $\\alpha$ the maximum mass configuration has the biggest compactness parameter ($\\eta = GM/Rc^2$) and we argue that the general relativistic stellar configuration corresponding to $\\alpha=0$ is the most compact among these.
Hanlon, R T; Chiao, C-C; Mäthger, L M; Barbosa, A; Buresch, K C; Chubb, C
2009-02-27
Individual cuttlefish, octopus and squid have the versatile capability to use body patterns for background matching and disruptive coloration. We define--qualitatively and quantitatively--the chief characteristics of the three major body pattern types used for camouflage by cephalopods: uniform and mottle patterns for background matching, and disruptive patterns that primarily enhance disruptiveness but aid background matching as well. There is great variation within each of the three body pattern types, but by defining their chief characteristics we lay the groundwork to test camouflage concepts by correlating background statistics with those of the body pattern. We describe at least three ways in which background matching can be achieved in cephalopods. Disruptive patterns in cuttlefish possess all four of the basic components of 'disruptiveness', supporting Cott's hypotheses, and we provide field examples of disruptive coloration in which the body pattern contrast exceeds that of the immediate surrounds. Based upon laboratory testing as well as thousands of images of camouflaged cephalopods in the field (a sample is provided on a web archive), we note that size, contrast and edges of background objects are key visual cues that guide cephalopod camouflage patterning. Mottle and disruptive patterns are frequently mixed, suggesting that background matching and disruptive mechanisms are often used in the same pattern.
Teaching identity matching of braille characters to beginning braille readers.
Toussaint, Karen A; Scheithauer, Mindy C; Tiger, Jeffrey H; Saunders, Kathryn J
2017-04-01
We taught three children with visual impairments to make tactile discriminations of the braille alphabet within a matching-to-sample format. That is, we presented participants with a braille character as a sample stimulus, and they selected the matching stimulus from a three-comparison array. In order to minimize participant errors, we initially arranged braille characters into training sets in which there was a maximum difference in the number of dots comprising the target and nontarget comparison stimuli. As participants mastered these discriminations, we increased the similarity between target and nontarget comparisons (i.e., an approximation of stimulus fading). All three participants' accuracy systematically increased following the introduction of this identity-matching procedure. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Partial match queries in random quadtrees
Broutin, Nicolas; Sulzbach, Henning
2011-01-01
We consider the problem of recovering items matching a partially specified pattern in multidimensional trees (quad trees and k-d trees). We assume the traditional model where the data consist of independent and uniform points in the unit square. For this model, in a structure on $n$ points, it is known that the number of nodes $C_n(\\xi)$ to visit in order to report the items matching an independent and uniformly on $[0,1]$ random query $\\xi$ satisfies $\\Ec{C_n(\\xi)}\\sim \\kappa n^{\\beta}$, where $\\kappa$ and $\\beta$ are explicit constants. We develop an approach based on the analysis of the cost $C_n(x)$ of any fixed query $x\\in [0,1]$, and give precise estimates for the variance and limit distribution of the cost $C_n(x)$. Our results permit to describe a limit process for the costs $C_n(x)$ as $x$ varies in $[0,1]$; one of the consequences is that $E{\\max_{x\\in [0,1]} C_n(x)} \\sim \\gamma n^\\beta$.
Enhanced double patterning decomposition using lines encoding
Khaled M. Soradi
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Double patterning photolithography (DPL is considered one of the best solutions used for enabling 32 nm/22 nm technology. In this paper, we propose a new technique for double patterning post decomposition conflict resolution. The algorithm is based on lines positions encoding followed by code pattern matching. Experimental results show that the usage of encoded patterns decreases the time needed for pattern matching and increases the matching accuracy. The overall manual problem solution time is reduced to about 1%.
Matching of equivalent field regions
Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Rengarajan, S.B.
2005-01-01
screen, having the same homogeneous medium on both sides and an impressed current on one aide, an alternative procedure is relevant. We make use of the fact that in the aperture the tangential component of the magnetic field due to the induced currents in the screen is zero. The use of such a procedure......In aperture problems, integral equations for equivalent currents are often found by enforcing matching of equivalent fields. The enforcement is made in the aperture surface region adjoining the two volumes on each side of the aperture. In the case of an aperture in a planar perfectly conducting...... shows that equivalent currents can be found by a consideration of only one of the two volumes into which the aperture plane divides the space. Furthermore, from a consideration of an automatic matching at the aperture, additional information about tangential as well as normal field components...
Monetary Exchange with Multilateral Matching
Julien, Benoît; Kennes, John; King, Ian
the results with Kiyotaki and Wright (1993), Trejos and Wright (1995), and Lagos and Wright (2005) respectively. We find that the multilateral matching setting generates very simple and intuitive equilibrium allocations that are similar to those in the other papers, but which have important differences....... Finally, analysis of the case of divisible goods and money can be performed without the assumption of large families (as in Shi (1997)) or the day and night structure of Lagos and Wright (2005)....
Duplicate-based Schema Matching
Bilke, Alexander
2007-01-01
Die Integration unabhängig voneinander entwickelter Datenquellen stellt uns vor viele Probleme, die das Ergebnis verschiedener Arten von Heterogenität sind. Eine der größten Herausforderungen ist Schema Matching: der halb-automatische Prozess, in dem semantische Beziehungen zwischen Attributen in heterogenen Schemata erkannt werden. Verschiedene Lösungen, die Schemainformationen ausnutzen oder spezifische Eigenschaften aus Attributwerten extrahieren, wurden in der Literatur beschrieben. In di...
Spurring Innovation with Matching Grants
2015-01-01
Matching grants are one of the most common tools used in private sector development programs in developing countries and have been included in more than 60 World Bank projects totaling over US$1.2 billion, funding over 100,000 micro, small and medium enterprises. The Enterprise Revitalization and Employment Pilot (EREP) was designed as a two year pilot project aimed at improving firm capab...
Matching Games with Additive Externalities
Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal
2012-01-01
Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas......, optimistic, and pessimistic behaviour, and provide both computational hardness results and polynomial-time algorithms for computing stable outcomes....
Efficient Fingerprint Matching Algorithm for Integrated Circuit Cards
Jian-Wei Yang; Li-Feng Liu; Tian-Zi Jiang
2004-01-01
Fingerprint matching is a crucial step in fingerprint identification.Recently,a variety of algorithms for this issue have been developed.Each of them is application situation specific and has its advantages and disadvantages.It is highly desired to develop an efficient fingerprint verification technology for Integrated Circuit(IC)Cards or chips.IC cards have some special characteristics,such as very small storage space and slow processing speed,which hinder the use of most fingerprint matching algorithms in such situations.In order to solve this problem,the paper presents an improved minutia-pattern(minutiae-based)matching algorithm by employing the orientation field of the fingerprint as a new feature.Our algorithm not only inherits the advantages of the general minutia-pattern matching algorithms,but also overcomes their disadvantages.Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can greatly improve the performance of fingerprint matching in both accuracy and efficiency,and it is very suitable for applications in IC cards.
A novel method for multi-angle SAR image matching
Li Dapeng
2015-01-01
Multi-angle synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image matching is very challenging, because the same object may cause different backscattering patterns, heavily depending on the radar incident angle. A technique based on the relations between the invariant positions of ground targets among the reference and sensed images is proposed to accommodate the nonmatching patterns. It involves a target extraction using wavelet coefficient fusion, as well as a geometric voting matching routine for searching the matched control points (CPs) in the reference and sensed images, respec-tively. To accelerate the speed of the search, a robust, rapidly corresponding CPs determination strategy is exploited by utilizing the global spatial transformation model, as well as a procedure of outlier removal to ensure the desired accuracy. Meanwhile, the positions of the matched point pairs are relocated using mutual information. The final warping of the images according to the CPs is performed by using a polynomial function. The results show the possibility of matching multi-angle SAR images in general cases.
32 CFR 806b.50 - Computer matching.
2010-07-01
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computer matching. 806b.50 Section 806b.50... PROGRAM Disclosing Records to Third Parties § 806b.50 Computer matching. Computer matching programs... on forms used in applying for benefits. Coordinate computer matching statements on forms with...
Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution
吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生
2003-01-01
Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.
Image Segmentation, Registration, Compression, and Matching
Yadegar, Jacob; Wei, Hai; Yadegar, Joseph; Ray, Nilanjan; Zabuawala, Sakina
2011-01-01
A novel computational framework was developed of a 2D affine invariant matching exploiting a parameter space. Named as affine invariant parameter space (AIPS), the technique can be applied to many image-processing and computer-vision problems, including image registration, template matching, and object tracking from image sequence. The AIPS is formed by the parameters in an affine combination of a set of feature points in the image plane. In cases where the entire image can be assumed to have undergone a single affine transformation, the new AIPS match metric and matching framework becomes very effective (compared with the state-of-the-art methods at the time of this reporting). No knowledge about scaling or any other transformation parameters need to be known a priori to apply the AIPS framework. An automated suite of software tools has been created to provide accurate image segmentation (for data cleaning) and high-quality 2D image and 3D surface registration (for fusing multi-resolution terrain, image, and map data). These tools are capable of supporting existing GIS toolkits already in the marketplace, and will also be usable in a stand-alone fashion. The toolkit applies novel algorithmic approaches for image segmentation, feature extraction, and registration of 2D imagery and 3D surface data, which supports first-pass, batched, fully automatic feature extraction (for segmentation), and registration. A hierarchical and adaptive approach is taken for achieving automatic feature extraction, segmentation, and registration. Surface registration is the process of aligning two (or more) data sets to a common coordinate system, during which the transformation between their different coordinate systems is determined. Also developed here are a novel, volumetric surface modeling and compression technique that provide both quality-guaranteed mesh surface approximations and compaction of the model sizes by efficiently coding the geometry and connectivity
Maximum Power from a Solar Panel
Michael Miller
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.
Radiation engineering of optical antennas for maximum field enhancement.
Seok, Tae Joon; Jamshidi, Arash; Kim, Myungki; Dhuey, Scott; Lakhani, Amit; Choo, Hyuck; Schuck, Peter James; Cabrini, Stefano; Schwartzberg, Adam M; Bokor, Jeffrey; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wu, Ming C
2011-07-13
Optical antennas have generated much interest in recent years due to their ability to focus optical energy beyond the diffraction limit, benefiting a broad range of applications such as sensitive photodetection, magnetic storage, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. To achieve the maximum field enhancement for an optical antenna, parameters such as the antenna dimensions, loading conditions, and coupling efficiency have been previously studied. Here, we present a framework, based on coupled-mode theory, to achieve maximum field enhancement in optical antennas through optimization of optical antennas' radiation characteristics. We demonstrate that the optimum condition is achieved when the radiation quality factor (Q(rad)) of optical antennas is matched to their absorption quality factor (Q(abs)). We achieve this condition experimentally by fabricating the optical antennas on a dielectric (SiO(2)) coated ground plane (metal substrate) and controlling the antenna radiation through optimizing the dielectric thickness. The dielectric thickness at which the matching condition occurs is approximately half of the quarter-wavelength thickness, typically used to achieve constructive interference, and leads to ∼20% higher field enhancement relative to a quarter-wavelength thick dielectric layer.
Predicting the Outcome of NBA Playoffs Based on the Maximum Entropy Principle
Ge Cheng; Zhenyu Zhang; Moses Ntanda Kyebambe; Nasser Kimbugwe
2016-01-01
Predicting the outcome of National Basketball Association (NBA) matches poses a challenging problem of interest to the research community as well as the general public. In this article, we formalize the problem of predicting NBA game results as a classification problem and apply the principle of Maximum Entropy to construct an NBA Maximum Entropy (NBAME) model that fits to discrete statistics for NBA games, and then predict the outcomes of NBA playoffs using the model. Our results reveal that...
Compressed Subsequence Matching and Packed Tree Coloring
Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge; Gørtz, Inge Li
2017-01-01
We present a new algorithm for subsequence matching in grammar compressed strings. Given a grammar of size n compressing a string of size N and a pattern string of size m over an alphabet of size \\(\\sigma \\), our algorithm uses \\(O(n+\\frac{n\\sigma }{w})\\) space and \\(O(n+\\frac{n\\sigma }{w}+m\\log N......\\log w\\cdot occ)\\) or \\(O(n+\\frac{n\\sigma }{w}\\log w+m\\log N\\cdot occ)\\) time. Here w is the word size and occ is the number of minimal occurrences of the pattern. Our algorithm uses less space than previous algorithms and is also faster for \\(occ=o(\\frac{n}{\\log N})\\) occurrences. The algorithm uses...... a new data structure that allows us to efficiently find the next occurrence of a given character after a given position in a compressed string. This data structure in turn is based on a new data structure for the tree color problem, where the node colors are packed in bit strings....
Matching polytopes and Specht modules
Liu, Ricky Ini
2009-01-01
We prove that the dimension of the Specht module of a forest $G$ is the same as the normalized volume of the matching polytope of $G$. We also associate to $G$ a symmetric function $s_G$ (analogous to the Schur symmetric function $s_\\lambda$ for a partition $\\lambda$) and investigate its combinatorial and representation-theoretic properties in relation to the Specht module and Schur module of $G$. We then use this to define notions of standard and semistandard tableaux for forests.
Modeling Architectural Patterns Using Architectural Primitives
Zdun, Uwe; Avgeriou, Paris
2005-01-01
Architectural patterns are a key point in architectural documentation. Regrettably, there is poor support for modeling architectural patterns, because the pattern elements are not directly matched by elements in modeling languages, and, at the same time, patterns support an inherent variability that
Modeling Architectural Patterns Using Architectural Primitives
Zdun, Uwe; Avgeriou, Paris
2005-01-01
Architectural patterns are a key point in architectural documentation. Regrettably, there is poor support for modeling architectural patterns, because the pattern elements are not directly matched by elements in modeling languages, and, at the same time, patterns support an inherent variability that
Activity and recovery profiles of state-of-origin and national rugby league match-play.
Gabbett, Tim J
2015-03-01
State-of-Origin is the highest standard of rugby league competition played anywhere in the world. This study investigated the activity profiles of State-of-Origin and compared them against regular National Rugby League (NRL) fixture matches. Video footage from State-of-Origin and NRL matches were coded for activity and recovery cycles. Time when the ball was continuously in play was considered activity, whereas any stoppages during matches were considered recovery. Ball-in-play periods in matches of different playing standards were analyzed by comparing State-of-Origin matches, NRL matches (with representative players available), and NRL matches (with representative players unavailable). The mean, maximum, and total ball-in-play time of State-of-Origin matches were longer than NRL matches (effect size [ES] ≥ 0.75) with and without the availability of representative players. State-of-Origin matches were associated with a greater proportion (ES ≥ 1.54) of long duration (46-300 seconds) ball-in-play periods, and a smaller proportion (ES ≥ 1.69) of short duration (rugby league players to perform prolonged passages of high-intensity exercise during match-play.
How long do centenarians survive? Life expectancy and maximum lifespan.
Modig, K; Andersson, T; Vaupel, J; Rau, R; Ahlbom, A
2017-08-01
The purpose of this study was to explore the pattern of mortality above the age of 100 years. In particular, we aimed to examine whether Scandinavian data support the theory that mortality reaches a plateau at particularly old ages. Whether the maximum length of life increases with time was also investigated. The analyses were based on individual level data on all Swedish and Danish centenarians born from 1870 to 1901; in total 3006 men and 10 963 women were included. Birth cohort-specific probabilities of dying were calculated. Exact ages were used for calculations of maximum length of life. Whether maximum age changed over time was analysed taking into account increases in cohort size. The results confirm that there has not been any improvement in mortality amongst centenarians in the past 30 years and that the current rise in life expectancy is driven by reductions in mortality below the age of 100 years. The death risks seem to reach a plateau of around 50% at the age 103 years for men and 107 years for women. Despite the rising life expectancy, the maximum age does not appear to increase, in particular after accounting for the increasing number of individuals of advanced age. Mortality amongst centenarians is not changing despite improvements at younger ages. An extension of the maximum lifespan and a sizeable extension of life expectancy both require reductions in mortality above the age of 100 years. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.
Hopp, C. J.; Savage, M. K.; Townend, J.; Sherburn, S.
2016-12-01
Monitoring patterns in local microseismicity gives clues to the existence and location of subsurface structures. In the context of a geothermal reservoir, subsurface structures often indicate areas of high permeability and are vitally important in understanding fluid flow within the geothermal resource. Detecting and locating microseismic events within an area of power generation, however, is often challenging due to high levels of noise associated with nearby power plant infrastructure. In this situation, matched filter detection improves drastically upon standard earthquake detection techniques, specifically when events are likely induced by fluid injection and are therefore near-repeating. Using an earthquake catalog of 637 events which occurred between 1 January and 18 November 2015 as our initial dataset, we implemented a matched filtering routine for the Mighty River Power (MRP) geothermal fields at Rotokawa and Ngatamariki, central North Island, New Zealand. We detected nearly 21,000 additional events across both geothermal fields, a roughly 30-fold increase from the original catalog. On average, each of the 637 template events detected 45 additional events throughout the study period, with a maximum number of additional detections for a single template of 359. Cumulative detection rates for all template events, in general, do not mimic large scale changes in injection rates within the fields, however we do see indications of an increase in detection rate associated with power plant shutdown at Ngatamariki. Locations of detected events follow established patterns of historic seismicity at both Ngatamariki and Rotokawa. One large cluster of events persists in the southeastern portion of Rotokawa and is likely bounded to the northwest by a known fault dividing the injection and production sections of the field. Two distinct clusters of microseismicity occur in the North and South of Ngatamariki, the latter appearing to coincide with a structure dividing the
The inverse maximum dynamic flow problem
BAGHERIAN; Mehri
2010-01-01
We consider the inverse maximum dynamic flow (IMDF) problem.IMDF problem can be described as: how to change the capacity vector of a dynamic network as little as possible so that a given feasible dynamic flow becomes a maximum dynamic flow.After discussing some characteristics of this problem,it is converted to a constrained minimum dynamic cut problem.Then an efficient algorithm which uses two maximum dynamic flow algorithms is proposed to solve the problem.
Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors
Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)
2014-06-15
Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.
Hybrid Schema Matching for Deep Web
Chen, Kerui; Zuo, Wanli; He, Fengling; Chen, Yongheng
Schema matching is the process of identifying semantic mappings, or correspondences, between two or more schemas. Schema matching is a first step and critical part of data integration. For schema matching of deep web, most researches only interested in query interface, while rarely pay attention to abundant schema information contained in query result pages. This paper proposed a mixed schema matching technique, which combines attributes that appeared in query structures and query results of different data sources, and mines the matched schemas inside. Experimental results prove the effectiveness of this method for improving the accuracy of schema matching.
Reducing the likelihood of long tennis matches.
Barnett, Tristan; Alan, Brown; Pollard, Graham
2006-01-01
Long matches can cause problems for tournaments. For example, the starting times of subsequent matches can be substantially delayed causing inconvenience to players, spectators, officials and television scheduling. They can even be seen as unfair in the tournament setting when the winner of a very long match, who may have negative aftereffects from such a match, plays the winner of an average or shorter length match in the next round. Long matches can also lead to injuries to the participating players. One factor that can lead to long matches is the use of the advantage set as the fifth set, as in the Australian Open, the French Open and Wimbledon. Another factor is long rallies and a greater than average number of points per game. This tends to occur more frequently on the slower surfaces such as at the French Open. The mathematical method of generating functions is used to show that the likelihood of long matches can be substantially reduced by using the tiebreak game in the fifth set, or more effectively by using a new type of game, the 50-40 game, throughout the match. Key PointsThe cumulant generating function has nice properties for calculating the parameters of distributions in a tennis matchA final tiebreaker set reduces the length of matches as currently being used in the US OpenA new 50-40 game reduces the length of matches whilst maintaining comparable probabilities for the better player to win the match.
Maximum likelihood estimation for Cox's regression model under nested case-control sampling
Scheike, Thomas Harder; Juul, Anders
2004-01-01
-like growth factor I was associated with ischemic heart disease. The study was based on a population of 3784 Danes and 231 cases of ischemic heart disease where controls were matched on age and gender. We illustrate the use of the MLE for these data and show how the maximum likelihood framework can be used...
Generalised maximum entropy and heterogeneous technologies
Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.
1999-01-01
Generalised maximum entropy methods are used to estimate a dual model of production on panel data of Dutch cash crop farms over the period 1970-1992. The generalised maximum entropy approach allows a coherent system of input demand and output supply equations to be estimated for each farm in the sam
20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.
2010-04-01
... month on one person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family maximum used to adjust the social security overall minimum rate is based on the employee's Overall..., when any of the persons entitled to benefits on the insured individual's compensation would, except...
The maximum rotation of a galactic disc
Bottema, R
1997-01-01
The observed stellar velocity dispersions of galactic discs show that the maximum rotation of a disc is on average 63% of the observed maximum rotation. This criterion can, however, not be applied to small or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies because such systems show, in general, a continuously
Monetary Exchange with Multilateral Matching
Julien, Benoît; Kennes, John; King, Ian
. In particular, surplus maximization can be achieved in this setting, in equilibrium, with a positive money supply. Moreover, with flexible prices and directed search, the first best allocation can be attained through price posting or through auctions with lotteries, but not through auctions without lotteries......This paper analyzes monetary exchange in a search model allowing for multilateral matches to be formed, according to a standard urn-ballprocess. We consider three physical environments: indivisible goods and money, divisible goods and indivisible money, and divisible goods and money. We compare....... Finally, analysis of the case of divisible goods and money can be performed without the assumption of large families (as in Shi (1997)) or the day and night structure of Lagos and Wright (2005)....
Matching conditions on capillary ripples
Rodriguez, Aresky H.; Marin Antuna, J.; Rodriguez Coppola, H. [Universidad de La Habana, La Habana (Cuba)
2001-12-01
The physics of the oscillatory motion in the interface between two immiscible viscous fluids is presented based on a detailed analysis of the matching conditions. These conditions are almost completely derived from the dynamical equations of the system. This unusual approach in graduated courses in hydrodynamics, is proposed as an alternative. The role of viscosity in the modes of oscillation of the interface is also clearly shown. [Spanish] Se explica la fisica de las oscilaciones de la interfase de dos fluidos viscosos no miscibles a partir del analisis detallado de las condiciones de empalme que se derivan casi completamente del sistema de ecuaciones dinamicas que lo rigen. Ese enfoque, no habitual en los cursos de doctorado de esta materia, se propone como alternativa para estos cursos. Se explica tambien de forma clara el posible papel de la viscosidad en los modos de oscilacion de la interfase.
Making Palm Print Matching Mobile
Fang, Li; Chian, Cheng Shao
2009-01-01
With the growing importance of personal identification and authentication in todays highly advanced world where most business and personal tasks are being replaced by electronic means, the need for a technology that is able to uniquely identify an individual and has high fraud resistance see the rise of biometric technologies. Making biometric based solution mobile is a promising trend. A new RST invariant square based palm print ROI extraction method was successfully implemented and integrated into the current application suite. A new set of palm print image database captured using embedded cameras in mobile phone was created to test its robustness. Comparing to those extraction methods that are based on boundary tracking of the overall hand shape that has limitation of being unable to process palm print images that has one or more fingers closed, the system can now effectively handle the segmentation of palm print images with varying finger positioning. The high flexibility makes palm print matching mobile ...
Memory Efficient String Matching Algorithm for Network Intrusion Management System
无
2007-01-01
As the core algorithm and the most time consuming part of almost every modern network intrusion management system (NIMS), string matching is essential for the inspection of network flows at the line speed. This paper presents a memory and time efficient string matching algorithm specifically designed for NIMS on commodity processors. Modifications of the Aho-Corasick (AC) algorithm based on the distribution characteristics of NIMS patterns drastically reduce the memory usage without sacrificing speed in software implementations. In tests on the Snort pattern set and traces that represent typical NIMS workloads, the Snort performance was enhanced 1.48%-20% compared to other well-known alternatives with an automaton size reduction of 4.86-6.11 compared to the standard AC implementation. The results show that special characteristics of the NIMS can be used into a very effective method to optimize the algorithm design.
Duality of Maximum Entropy and Minimum Divergence
Shinto Eguchi
2014-06-01
Full Text Available We discuss a special class of generalized divergence measures by the use of generator functions. Any divergence measure in the class is separated into the difference between cross and diagonal entropy. The diagonal entropy measure in the class associates with a model of maximum entropy distributions; the divergence measure leads to statistical estimation via minimization, for arbitrarily giving a statistical model. The dualistic relationship between the maximum entropy model and the minimum divergence estimation is explored in the framework of information geometry. The model of maximum entropy distributions is characterized to be totally geodesic with respect to the linear connection associated with the divergence. A natural extension for the classical theory for the maximum likelihood method under the maximum entropy model in terms of the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy is given. We discuss the duality in detail for Tsallis entropy as a typical example.
Genetic Programming Framework for Fingerprint Matching
Ismail, Ismail A; Abd-ElWahid, Mohammed A; ElKafrawy, Passent M; Nasef, Mohammed M
2009-01-01
A fingerprint matching is a very difficult problem. Minutiae based matching is the most popular and widely used technique for fingerprint matching. The minutiae points considered in automatic identification systems are based normally on termination and bifurcation points. In this paper we propose a new technique for fingerprint matching using minutiae points and genetic programming. The goal of this paper is extracting the mathematical formula that defines the minutiae points.
Sample evaluation of ontology-matching systems
Hage, W.R. van; Isaac, A.; Aleksovski, Z.
2007-01-01
Ontology matching exists to solve practical problems. Hence, methodologies to find and evaluate solutions for ontology matching should be centered on practical problems. In this paper we propose two statistically-founded evaluation techniques to assess ontology-matching performance that are based on
Sample evaluation of ontology-matching systems
Hage, W.R. van; Isaac, A.; Aleksovski, Z.
2007-01-01
Ontology matching exists to solve practical problems. Hence, methodologies to find and evaluate solutions for ontology matching should be centered on practical problems. In this paper we propose two statistically-founded evaluation techniques to assess ontology-matching performance that are based on
DEFICIENT CUBIC SPLINES WITH AVERAGE SLOPE MATCHING
V. B. Das; A. Kumar
2005-01-01
We obtain a deficient cubic spline function which matches the functions with certain area matching over a greater mesh intervals, and also provides a greater flexibility in replacing area matching as interpolation. We also study their convergence properties to the interpolating functions.
Fast and compact regular expression matching
Bille, Philip; Farach-Colton, Martin
2008-01-01
We study 4 problems in string matching, namely, regular expression matching, approximate regular expression matching, string edit distance, and subsequence indexing, on a standard word RAM model of computation that allows logarithmic-sized words to be manipulated in constant time. We show how...
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Match credit. 92.221 Section 92.221... INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program Requirements Matching Contribution Requirement § 92.221 Match credit. (a) When credit is given. Contributions are credited on a fiscal year basis at the time the...
Connections between the matching and chromatic polynomials
E. J. Farrell
1992-01-01
Full Text Available The main results established are (i a connection between the matching and chromatic polynomials and (ii a formula for the matching polynomial of a general complement of a subgraph of a graph. Some deductions on matching and chromatic equivalence and uniqueness are made.
Concerns on Monotonic Imbalance Bounding Matching Methods
Yatracos, Yannis G.
2013-01-01
Concerns are expressed for the Monotonic Imbalance Bounding (MIB) property (Iacus et al. 2011) and for MIB matching because i) the definition of the MIB property leads to inconsistencies and the nature of the imbalance measure is not clearly defined, ii) MIB property does not generalize Equal Percent Bias Reducing (EPBR) property, iii) MIB matching does not provide statistical information available with EPBR matching.
13 CFR 130.450 - Matching funds.
2010-01-01
... in the budget proposal. Cash sources shall be identified by name and account. All applicants must... received by the SBDC during the budget period, as long as the total Cash Match provided by the SBDC is 50... to the total amount of SBA funding. At least 50% of the Matching Funds must be Cash Match....