WorldWideScience

Sample records for maximum pattern matching

  1. Polytypic pattern matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, J.T.

    1995-01-01

    The pattern matching problem can be informally specified as follows: given a pattern and a text, find all occurrences of the pattern in the text. The pattern and the text may both be lists, or they may both be trees, or they may both be multi-dimensional arrays, etc. This paper describes a general

  2. Characterizing graphs of maximum matching width at most 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Jisu; Ok, Seongmin; Suh, Geewon

    2017-01-01

    The maximum matching width is a width-parameter that is de ned on a branch-decomposition over the vertex set of a graph. The size of a maximum matching in the bipartite graph is used as a cut-function. In this paper, we characterize the graphs of maximum matching width at most 2 using the minor o...

  3. Pattern recognition and string matching

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Xiuzhen

    2002-01-01

    The research and development of pattern recognition have proven to be of importance in science, technology, and human activity. Many useful concepts and tools from different disciplines have been employed in pattern recognition. Among them is string matching, which receives much theoretical and practical attention. String matching is also an important topic in combinatorial optimization. This book is devoted to recent advances in pattern recognition and string matching. It consists of twenty eight chapters written by different authors, addressing a broad range of topics such as those from classifica­ tion, matching, mining, feature selection, and applications. Each chapter is self-contained, and presents either novel methodological approaches or applications of existing theories and techniques. The aim, intent, and motivation for publishing this book is to pro­ vide a reference tool for the increasing number of readers who depend upon pattern recognition or string matching in some way. This includes student...

  4. Fuzzy automata and pattern matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setzer, C. B.; Warsi, N. A.

    1986-01-01

    A wide-ranging search for articles and books concerned with fuzzy automata and syntactic pattern recognition is presented. A number of survey articles on image processing and feature detection were included. Hough's algorithm is presented to illustrate the way in which knowledge about an image can be used to interpret the details of the image. It was found that in hand generated pictures, the algorithm worked well on following the straight lines, but had great difficulty turning corners. An algorithm was developed which produces a minimal finite automaton recognizing a given finite set of strings. One difficulty of the construction is that, in some cases, this minimal automaton is not unique for a given set of strings and a given maximum length. This algorithm compares favorably with other inference algorithms. More importantly, the algorithm produces an automaton with a rigorously described relationship to the original set of strings that does not depend on the algorithm itself.

  5. A review on compressed pattern matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Prakash Mishra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Compressed pattern matching (CPM refers to the task of locating all the occurrences of a pattern (or set of patterns inside the body of compressed text. In this type of matching, pattern may or may not be compressed. CPM is very useful in handling large volume of data especially over the network. It has many applications in computational biology, where it is useful in finding similar trends in DNA sequences; intrusion detection over the networks, big data analytics etc. Various solutions have been provided by researchers where pattern is matched directly over the uncompressed text. Such solution requires lot of space and consumes lot of time when handling the big data. Various researchers have proposed the efficient solutions for compression but very few exist for pattern matching over the compressed text. Considering the future trend where data size is increasing exponentially day-by-day, CPM has become a desirable task. This paper presents a critical review on the recent techniques on the compressed pattern matching. The covered techniques includes: Word based Huffman codes, Word Based Tagged Codes; Wavelet Tree Based Indexing. We have presented a comparative analysis of all the techniques mentioned above and highlighted their advantages and disadvantages.

  6. Pattern formation, logistics, and maximum path probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkaldy, J. S.

    1985-05-01

    The concept of pattern formation, which to current researchers is a synonym for self-organization, carries the connotation of deductive logic together with the process of spontaneous inference. Defining a pattern as an equivalence relation on a set of thermodynamic objects, we establish that a large class of irreversible pattern-forming systems, evolving along idealized quasisteady paths, approaches the stable steady state as a mapping upon the formal deductive imperatives of a propositional function calculus. In the preamble the classical reversible thermodynamics of composite systems is analyzed as an externally manipulated system of space partitioning and classification based on ideal enclosures and diaphragms. The diaphragms have discrete classification capabilities which are designated in relation to conserved quantities by descriptors such as impervious, diathermal, and adiabatic. Differentiability in the continuum thermodynamic calculus is invoked as equivalent to analyticity and consistency in the underlying class or sentential calculus. The seat of inference, however, rests with the thermodynamicist. In the transition to an irreversible pattern-forming system the defined nature of the composite reservoirs remains, but a given diaphragm is replaced by a pattern-forming system which by its nature is a spontaneously evolving volume partitioner and classifier of invariants. The seat of volition or inference for the classification system is thus transferred from the experimenter or theoretician to the diaphragm, and with it the full deductive facility. The equivalence relations or partitions associated with the emerging patterns may thus be associated with theorems of the natural pattern-forming calculus. The entropy function, together with its derivatives, is the vehicle which relates the logistics of reservoirs and diaphragms to the analog logistics of the continuum. Maximum path probability or second-order differentiability of the entropy in isolation are

  7. On Tree Pattern Matching by Pushdown Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Flouri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tree pattern matching is an important operation in Computer Science on which a number of tasks such as mechanical theorem proving, term-rewriting, symbolic computation and non-procedural programming languages are based on. Work has begun on a systematic approach to the construction of tree pattern matchers by deterministic pushdown automata which read subject trees in prefix notation. The method is analogous to the construction of string pattern matchers: for given patterns, a non-deterministic pushdown automaton is created and then it is determinised. In this first paper, we present the proposed non-deterministic pushdown automaton which will serve as a basis for the determinisation process, and prove its correctness. 

  8. Rewrite Systems, Pattern Matching, and Code Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-09

    fmd a local set L’ which includes L and define the transformation on L’ instead of on L. 11 The straightforward way to define tree transformations...Proposition 2.19 Both B-ftt and T-ftt include: REL relabelings FTA (t ,t) such that t e RECOG HOM homomorphisms LHOM linear homomorphisms The capabilities...fsa for the set of the structures of the original pattern set. The LB-fsa IS used to fmd the structural subpatterns matching a: each node of the

  9. Structural pattern matching of nonribosomal peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leclère Valérie

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonribosomal peptides (NRPs, bioactive secondary metabolites produced by many microorganisms, show a broad range of important biological activities (e.g. antibiotics, immunosuppressants, antitumor agents. NRPs are mainly composed of amino acids but their primary structure is not always linear and can contain cycles or branchings. Furthermore, there are several hundred different monomers that can be incorporated into NRPs. The NORINE database, the first resource entirely dedicated to NRPs, currently stores more than 700 NRPs annotated with their monomeric peptide structure encoded by undirected labeled graphs. This opens a way to a systematic analysis of structural patterns occurring in NRPs. Such studies can investigate the functional role of some monomeric chains, or analyse NRPs that have been computationally predicted from the synthetase protein sequence. A basic operation in such analyses is the search for a given structural pattern in the database. Results We developed an efficient method that allows for a quick search for a structural pattern in the NORINE database. The method identifies all peptides containing a pattern substructure of a given size. This amounts to solving a variant of the maximum common subgraph problem on pattern and peptide graphs, which is done by computing cliques in an appropriate compatibility graph. Conclusion The method has been incorporated into the NORINE database, available at http://bioinfo.lifl.fr/norine. Less than one second is needed to search for a pattern in the entire database.

  10. Sequential pattern recognition by maximum conditional informativity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grim, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2014), s. 39-45 ISSN 0167-8655 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02652S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S Keywords : Multivariate statistics * Statistical pattern recognition * Sequential decision making * Product mixtures * EM algorithm * Shannon information Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Sci ence Impact factor: 1.551, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/RO/grim-0428565.pdf

  11. Maximum super angle optimization method for array antenna pattern synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Ji; Roederer, A. G

    1991-01-01

    Different optimization criteria related to antenna pattern synthesis are discussed. Based on the maximum criteria and vector space representation, a simple and efficient optimization method is presented for array and array fed reflector power pattern synthesis. A sector pattern synthesized by a 2...

  12. Computationally Secure Pattern Matching in the Presence of Malicious Adversaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazay, Carmit; Toft, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    for important variations of the secure pattern matching problem that are significantly more efficient than the current state of art solutions: First, we deal with secure pattern matching with wildcards. In this variant the pattern may contain wildcards that match both 0 and 1. Our protocol requires O......We propose a protocol for the problem of secure two-party pattern matching, where Alice holds a text t∈{0,1}∗ of length n, while Bob has a pattern p∈{0,1}∗ of length m. The goal is for Bob to (only) learn where his pattern occurs in Alice’s text, while Alice learns nothing. Private pattern matching...... is an important problem that has many applications in the area of DNA search, computational biology and more. Our construction guarantees full simulation in the presence of malicious, polynomial-time adversaries (assuming the hardness of DDH assumption) and exhibits computation and communication costs of O...

  13. High Performance Embedded System for Real-Time Pattern Matching

    CERN Document Server

    Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; The ATLAS collaboration; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Citraro, Saverio; Giannetti, Paola; Dell'Orso, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present an innovative and high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching. This system is based on the evolution of hardware and algorithms developed for the field of High Energy Physics (HEP) and more specifically for the execution of extremely fast pattern matching for tracking of particles produced by proton-proton collisions in hadron collider experiments. A miniaturised version of this complex system is being developed for pattern matching in generic image processing applications. The system works as a contour identifier able to extract the salient features of an image. It is based on the principles of cognitive image processing, which means that it executes fast pattern matching and data reduction mimicking the operation of the human brain. The pattern matching can be executed by a custom designed Associative Memory (AM) chip. The reference patterns are chosen by a complex training algorithm implemented on an FPGA device. Post processing algorithms (e.g. pixel clustering...

  14. A thermoelectric generator using loop heat pipe and design match for maximum-power generation

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2015-09-05

    The present study focuses on the thermoelectric generator (TEG) using loop heat pipe (LHP) and design match for maximum-power generation. The TEG uses loop heat pipe, a passive cooling device, to dissipate heat without consuming power and free of noise. The experiments for a TEG with 4W rated power show that the LHP performs very well with overall thermal resistance 0.35 K W-1, from the cold side of TEG module to the ambient. The LHP is able to dissipate heat up to 110W and is maintenance free. The TEG design match for maximum-power generation, called “near maximum-power point operation (nMPPO)”, is studied to eliminate the MPPT (maximum-power point tracking controller). nMPPO is simply a system design which properly matches the output voltage of TEG with the battery. It is experimentally shown that TEG using design match for maximum-power generation (nMPPO) performs better than TEG with MPPT.

  15. Statistical density modification using local pattern matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2003-01-01

    Statistical density modification can make use of local patterns of density found in protein structures to improve crystallographic phases. A method for improving crystallographic phases is presented that is based on the preferential occurrence of certain local patterns of electron density in macromolecular electron-density maps. The method focuses on the relationship between the value of electron density at a point in the map and the pattern of density surrounding this point. Patterns of density that can be superimposed by rotation about the central point are considered equivalent. Standard templates are created from experimental or model electron-density maps by clustering and averaging local patterns of electron density. The clustering is based on correlation coefficients after rotation to maximize the correlation. Experimental or model maps are also used to create histograms relating the value of electron density at the central point to the correlation coefficient of the density surrounding this point with each member of the set of standard patterns. These histograms are then used to estimate the electron density at each point in a new experimental electron-density map using the pattern of electron density at points surrounding that point and the correlation coefficient of this density to each of the set of standard templates, again after rotation to maximize the correlation. The method is strengthened by excluding any information from the point in question from both the templates and the local pattern of density in the calculation. A function based on the origin of the Patterson function is used to remove information about the electron density at the point in question from nearby electron density. This allows an estimation of the electron density at each point in a map, using only information from other points in the process. The resulting estimates of electron density are shown to have errors that are nearly independent of the errors in the original map using

  16. High performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotiropoulou, C.-L.; Luciano, P.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Citraro, S.; Giannetti, P.; Dell'Orso, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present an innovative and high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching. This system is based on the evolution of hardware and algorithms developed for the field of High Energy Physics and more specifically for the execution of extremely fast pattern matching for tracking of particles produced by proton–proton collisions in hadron collider experiments. A miniaturized version of this complex system is being developed for pattern matching in generic image processing applications. The system works as a contour identifier able to extract the salient features of an image. It is based on the principles of cognitive image processing, which means that it executes fast pattern matching and data reduction mimicking the operation of the human brain. The pattern matching can be executed by a custom designed Associative Memory chip. The reference patterns are chosen by a complex training algorithm implemented on an FPGA device. Post processing algorithms (e.g. pixel clustering) are also implemented on the FPGA. The pattern matching can be executed on a 2D or 3D space, on black and white or grayscale images, depending on the application and thus increasing exponentially the processing requirements of the system. We present the firmware implementation of the training and pattern matching algorithm, performance and results on a latest generation Xilinx Kintex Ultrascale FPGA device. - Highlights: • A high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching is proposed. • It is based on a system developed for High Energy Physics experiment triggers. • It mimics the operation of the human brain (cognitive image processing). • The process can be executed on 2D and 3D, black and white or grayscale images. • The implementation uses FPGAs and custom designed associative memory (AM) chips.

  17. High performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotiropoulou, C.-L., E-mail: c.sotiropoulou@cern.ch [University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN-Pisa Section, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Luciano, P. [University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Gaetano di Biasio 43, Cassino 03043 (Italy); INFN-Pisa Section, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Gkaitatzis, S. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Citraro, S. [University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN-Pisa Section, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Giannetti, P. [INFN-Pisa Section, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dell' Orso, M. [University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN-Pisa Section, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2017-02-11

    In this paper we present an innovative and high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching. This system is based on the evolution of hardware and algorithms developed for the field of High Energy Physics and more specifically for the execution of extremely fast pattern matching for tracking of particles produced by proton–proton collisions in hadron collider experiments. A miniaturized version of this complex system is being developed for pattern matching in generic image processing applications. The system works as a contour identifier able to extract the salient features of an image. It is based on the principles of cognitive image processing, which means that it executes fast pattern matching and data reduction mimicking the operation of the human brain. The pattern matching can be executed by a custom designed Associative Memory chip. The reference patterns are chosen by a complex training algorithm implemented on an FPGA device. Post processing algorithms (e.g. pixel clustering) are also implemented on the FPGA. The pattern matching can be executed on a 2D or 3D space, on black and white or grayscale images, depending on the application and thus increasing exponentially the processing requirements of the system. We present the firmware implementation of the training and pattern matching algorithm, performance and results on a latest generation Xilinx Kintex Ultrascale FPGA device. - Highlights: • A high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching is proposed. • It is based on a system developed for High Energy Physics experiment triggers. • It mimics the operation of the human brain (cognitive image processing). • The process can be executed on 2D and 3D, black and white or grayscale images. • The implementation uses FPGAs and custom designed associative memory (AM) chips.

  18. High Performance Embedded System for Real-Time Pattern Matching

    CERN Document Server

    Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; The ATLAS collaboration; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Citraro, Saverio; Giannetti, Paola; Dell'Orso, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    We present an innovative and high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching. This system is based on the evolution of hardware and algorithms developed for the field of High Energy Physics (HEP) and more specifically for the execution of extremely fast pattern matching for tracking of particles produced by proton-proton collisions in hadron collider experiments. A miniaturized version of this complex system is being developed for pattern matching in generic image processing applications. The design uses the flexibility of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) and the powerful Associative Memory Chip (ASIC) to achieve real-time performance. The system works as a contour identifier able to extract the salient features of an image. It is based on the principles of cognitive image processing, which means that it executes fast pattern matching and data reduction mimicking the operation of the human brain.

  19. Sleep patterns and match performance in elite Australian basketball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Craig; Gordon, Brett; Custovic, Edhem; Stanger, Jonathan; Kingsley, Michael

    2017-08-01

    To assess sleep patterns and associations between sleep and match performance in elite Australian female basketball players. Prospective cohort study. Seventeen elite female basketball players were monitored across two consecutive in-season competitions (30 weeks). Total sleep time and sleep efficiency were determined using triaxial accelerometers for Baseline, Pre-match, Match-day and Post-match timings. Match performance was determined using the basketball efficiency statistic (EFF). The effects of match schedule (Regular versus Double-Header; Home versus Away) and sleep on EFF were assessed. The Double-Header condition changed the pattern of sleep when compared with the Regular condition (F (3,48) =3.763, P=0.017), where total sleep time Post-match was 11% less for Double-Header (mean±SD; 7.2±1.4h) compared with Regular (8.0±1.3h; P=0.007). Total sleep time for Double-Header was greater Pre-match (8.2±1.7h) compared with Baseline (7.1±1.6h; P=0.022) and Match-day (7.3±1.5h; P=0.007). Small correlations existed between sleep metrics at Pre-match and EFF for pooled data (r=-0.39 to -0.22; P≥0.238). Relationships between total sleep time and EFF ranged from moderate negative to large positive correlations for individual players (r=-0.37 to 0.62) and reached significance for one player (r=0.60; P=0.025). Match schedule can affect the sleep patterns of elite female basketball players. A large degree of inter-individual variability existed in the relationship between sleep and match performance; nevertheless, sleep monitoring might assist in the optimisation of performance for some athletes. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Betting on Illusory Patterns: Probability Matching in Habitual Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaissmaier, Wolfgang; Wilke, Andreas; Scheibehenne, Benjamin; McCanney, Paige; Barrett, H Clark

    2016-03-01

    Why do people gamble? A large body of research suggests that cognitive distortions play an important role in pathological gambling. Many of these distortions are specific cases of a more general misperception of randomness, specifically of an illusory perception of patterns in random sequences. In this article, we provide further evidence for the assumption that gamblers are particularly prone to perceiving illusory patterns. In particular, we compared habitual gamblers to a matched sample of community members with regard to how much they exhibit the choice anomaly 'probability matching'. Probability matching describes the tendency to match response proportions to outcome probabilities when predicting binary outcomes. It leads to a lower expected accuracy than the maximizing strategy of predicting the most likely event on each trial. Previous research has shown that an illusory perception of patterns in random sequences fuels probability matching. So does impulsivity, which is also reported to be higher in gamblers. We therefore hypothesized that gamblers will exhibit more probability matching than non-gamblers, which was confirmed in a controlled laboratory experiment. Additionally, gamblers scored much lower than community members on the cognitive reflection task, which indicates higher impulsivity. This difference could account for the difference in probability matching between the samples. These results suggest that gamblers are more willing to bet impulsively on perceived illusory patterns.

  1. Using maximum topology matching to explore differences in species distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poco, Jorge; Doraiswamy, Harish; Talbert, Marian; Morisette, Jeffrey; Silva, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDM) are used to help understand what drives the distribution of various plant and animal species. These models are typically high dimensional scalar functions, where the dimensions of the domain correspond to predictor variables of the model algorithm. Understanding and exploring the differences between models help ecologists understand areas where their data or understanding of the system is incomplete and will help guide further investigation in these regions. These differences can also indicate an important source of model to model uncertainty. However, it is cumbersome and often impractical to perform this analysis using existing tools, which allows for manual exploration of the models usually as 1-dimensional curves. In this paper, we propose a topology-based framework to help ecologists explore the differences in various SDMs directly in the high dimensional domain. In order to accomplish this, we introduce the concept of maximum topology matching that computes a locality-aware correspondence between similar extrema of two scalar functions. The matching is then used to compute the similarity between two functions. We also design a visualization interface that allows ecologists to explore SDMs using their topological features and to study the differences between pairs of models found using maximum topological matching. We demonstrate the utility of the proposed framework through several use cases using different data sets and report the feedback obtained from ecologists.

  2. Computing Maximum Cardinality Matchings in Parallel on Bipartite Graphs via Tree-Grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azad, Ariful; Buluc, Aydn; Pothen, Alex

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to obtain high performance when computing matchings on parallel processors because matching algorithms explicitly or implicitly search for paths in the graph, and when these paths become long, there is little concurrency. In spite of this limitation, we present a new algorithm and its shared-memory parallelization that achieves good performance and scalability in computing maximum cardinality matchings in bipartite graphs. This algorithm searches for augmenting paths via specialized breadth-first searches (BFS) from multiple source vertices, hence creating more parallelism than single source algorithms. Algorithms that employ multiple-source searches cannot discard a search tree once no augmenting path is discovered from the tree, unlike algorithms that rely on single-source searches. We describe a novel tree-grafting method that eliminates most of the redundant edge traversals resulting from this property of multiple-source searches. We also employ the recent direction-optimizing BFS algorithm as a subroutine to discover augmenting paths faster. Our algorithm compares favorably with the current best algorithms in terms of the number of edges traversed, the average augmenting path length, and the number of iterations. Here, we provide a proof of correctness for our algorithm. Our NUMA-aware implementation is scalable to 80 threads of an Intel multiprocessor and to 240 threads on an Intel Knights Corner coprocessor. On average, our parallel algorithm runs an order of magnitude faster than the fastest algorithms available. The performance improvement is more significant on graphs with small matching number.

  3. Kangaroo – A pattern-matching program for biological sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betel Doron

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologists are often interested in performing a simple database search to identify proteins or genes that contain a well-defined sequence pattern. Many databases do not provide straightforward or readily available query tools to perform simple searches, such as identifying transcription binding sites, protein motifs, or repetitive DNA sequences. However, in many cases simple pattern-matching searches can reveal a wealth of information. We present in this paper a regular expression pattern-matching tool that was used to identify short repetitive DNA sequences in human coding regions for the purpose of identifying potential mutation sites in mismatch repair deficient cells. Results Kangaroo is a web-based regular expression pattern-matching program that can search for patterns in DNA, protein, or coding region sequences in ten different organisms. The program is implemented to facilitate a wide range of queries with no restriction on the length or complexity of the query expression. The program is accessible on the web at http://bioinfo.mshri.on.ca/kangaroo/ and the source code is freely distributed at http://sourceforge.net/projects/slritools/. Conclusion A low-level simple pattern-matching application can prove to be a useful tool in many research settings. For example, Kangaroo was used to identify potential genetic targets in a human colorectal cancer variant that is characterized by a high frequency of mutations in coding regions containing mononucleotide repeats.

  4. PTree: pattern-based, stochastic search for maximum parsimony phylogenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Gregor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic reconstruction is vital to analyzing the evolutionary relationship of genes within and across populations of different species. Nowadays, with next generation sequencing technologies producing sets comprising thousands of sequences, robust identification of the tree topology, which is optimal according to standard criteria such as maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood or posterior probability, with phylogenetic inference methods is a computationally very demanding task. Here, we describe a stochastic search method for a maximum parsimony tree, implemented in a software package we named PTree. Our method is based on a new pattern-based technique that enables us to infer intermediate sequences efficiently where the incorporation of these sequences in the current tree topology yields a phylogenetic tree with a lower cost. Evaluation across multiple datasets showed that our method is comparable to the algorithms implemented in PAUP* or TNT, which are widely used by the bioinformatics community, in terms of topological accuracy and runtime. We show that our method can process large-scale datasets of 1,000–8,000 sequences. We believe that our novel pattern-based method enriches the current set of tools and methods for phylogenetic tree inference. The software is available under: http://algbio.cs.uni-duesseldorf.de/webapps/wa-download/.

  5. PTree: pattern-based, stochastic search for maximum parsimony phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, Ivan; Steinbrück, Lars; McHardy, Alice C

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic reconstruction is vital to analyzing the evolutionary relationship of genes within and across populations of different species. Nowadays, with next generation sequencing technologies producing sets comprising thousands of sequences, robust identification of the tree topology, which is optimal according to standard criteria such as maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood or posterior probability, with phylogenetic inference methods is a computationally very demanding task. Here, we describe a stochastic search method for a maximum parsimony tree, implemented in a software package we named PTree. Our method is based on a new pattern-based technique that enables us to infer intermediate sequences efficiently where the incorporation of these sequences in the current tree topology yields a phylogenetic tree with a lower cost. Evaluation across multiple datasets showed that our method is comparable to the algorithms implemented in PAUP* or TNT, which are widely used by the bioinformatics community, in terms of topological accuracy and runtime. We show that our method can process large-scale datasets of 1,000-8,000 sequences. We believe that our novel pattern-based method enriches the current set of tools and methods for phylogenetic tree inference. The software is available under: http://algbio.cs.uni-duesseldorf.de/webapps/wa-download/.

  6. PATTERN CLASSIFICATION APPROACHES TO MATCHING BUILDING POLYGONS AT MULTIPLE SCALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Matching of building polygons with different levels of detail is crucial in the maintenance and quality assessment of multi-representation databases. Two general problems need to be addressed in the matching process: (1 Which criteria are suitable? (2 How to effectively combine different criteria to make decisions? This paper mainly focuses on the second issue and views data matching as a supervised pattern classification. Several classifiers (i.e. decision trees, Naive Bayes and support vector machines are evaluated for the matching task. Four criteria (i.e. position, size, shape and orientation are used to extract information for these classifiers. Evidence shows that these classifiers outperformed the weighted average approach.

  7. A new taxonomy of sublinear keyword pattern matching algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleophas, L.G.W.A.; Watson, B.W.; Zwaan, G.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents a new taxonomy of sublinear (multiple) keyword pattern matching algorithms. Based on an earlier taxonomy by Watson and Zwaan [WZ96, WZ95], this new taxonomy includes not only suffix-based algorithms related to the Boyer-Moore, Commentz-Walter and Fan-Su algorithms, but

  8. Using Maximum Entropy to Find Patterns in Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sophia; Hockenberry, Adam; Lancichinetti, Andrea; Jewett, Michael; Amaral, Luis

    The existence of over- and under-represented sequence motifs in genomes provides evidence of selective evolutionary pressures on biological mechanisms such as transcription, translation, ligand-substrate binding, and host immunity. To accurately identify motifs and other genome-scale patterns of interest, it is essential to be able to generate accurate null models that are appropriate for the sequences under study. There are currently no tools available that allow users to create random coding sequences with specified amino acid composition and GC content. Using the principle of maximum entropy, we developed a method that generates unbiased random sequences with pre-specified amino acid and GC content. Our method is the simplest way to obtain maximally unbiased random sequences that are subject to GC usage and primary amino acid sequence constraints. This approach can also be easily be expanded to create unbiased random sequences that incorporate more complicated constraints such as individual nucleotide usage or even di-nucleotide frequencies. The ability to generate correctly specified null models will allow researchers to accurately identify sequence motifs which will lead to a better understanding of biological processes. National Institute of General Medical Science, Northwestern University Presidential Fellowship, National Science Foundation, David and Lucile Packard Foundation, Camille Dreyfus Teacher Scholar Award.

  9. Attention Modulates Visual-Tactile Interaction in Spatial Pattern Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göschl, Florian; Engel, Andreas K.; Friese, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Factors influencing crossmodal interactions are manifold and operate in a stimulus-driven, bottom-up fashion, as well as via top-down control. Here, we evaluate the interplay of stimulus congruence and attention in a visual-tactile task. To this end, we used a matching paradigm requiring the identification of spatial patterns that were concurrently presented visually on a computer screen and haptically to the fingertips by means of a Braille stimulator. Stimulation in our paradigm was always bimodal with only the allocation of attention being manipulated between conditions. In separate blocks of the experiment, participants were instructed to (a) focus on a single modality to detect a specific target pattern, (b) pay attention to both modalities to detect a specific target pattern, or (c) to explicitly evaluate if the patterns in both modalities were congruent or not. For visual as well as tactile targets, congruent stimulus pairs led to quicker and more accurate detection compared to incongruent stimulation. This congruence facilitation effect was more prominent under divided attention. Incongruent stimulation led to behavioral decrements under divided attention as compared to selectively attending a single sensory channel. Additionally, when participants were asked to evaluate congruence explicitly, congruent stimulation was associated with better performance than incongruent stimulation. Our results extend previous findings from audiovisual studies, showing that stimulus congruence also resulted in behavioral improvements in visuotactile pattern matching. The interplay of stimulus processing and attentional control seems to be organized in a highly flexible fashion, with the integration of signals depending on both bottom-up and top-down factors, rather than occurring in an ‘all-or-nothing’ manner. PMID:25203102

  10. Attention modulates visual-tactile interaction in spatial pattern matching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Göschl

    Full Text Available Factors influencing crossmodal interactions are manifold and operate in a stimulus-driven, bottom-up fashion, as well as via top-down control. Here, we evaluate the interplay of stimulus congruence and attention in a visual-tactile task. To this end, we used a matching paradigm requiring the identification of spatial patterns that were concurrently presented visually on a computer screen and haptically to the fingertips by means of a Braille stimulator. Stimulation in our paradigm was always bimodal with only the allocation of attention being manipulated between conditions. In separate blocks of the experiment, participants were instructed to (a focus on a single modality to detect a specific target pattern, (b pay attention to both modalities to detect a specific target pattern, or (c to explicitly evaluate if the patterns in both modalities were congruent or not. For visual as well as tactile targets, congruent stimulus pairs led to quicker and more accurate detection compared to incongruent stimulation. This congruence facilitation effect was more prominent under divided attention. Incongruent stimulation led to behavioral decrements under divided attention as compared to selectively attending a single sensory channel. Additionally, when participants were asked to evaluate congruence explicitly, congruent stimulation was associated with better performance than incongruent stimulation. Our results extend previous findings from audiovisual studies, showing that stimulus congruence also resulted in behavioral improvements in visuotactile pattern matching. The interplay of stimulus processing and attentional control seems to be organized in a highly flexible fashion, with the integration of signals depending on both bottom-up and top-down factors, rather than occurring in an 'all-or-nothing' manner.

  11. PTree: pattern-based, stochastic search for maximum parsimony phylogenies

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor, Ivan; Steinbr?ck, Lars; McHardy, Alice C.

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic reconstruction is vital to analyzing the evolutionary relationship of genes within and across populations of different species. Nowadays, with next generation sequencing technologies producing sets comprising thousands of sequences, robust identification of the tree topology, which is optimal according to standard criteria such as maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood or posterior probability, with phylogenetic inference methods is a computationally very demanding task. Here, we ...

  12. Highly Parallelized Pattern Matching Execution for the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Citraro, Saverio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The trigger system of the ATLAS experiment at LHC will extend its rejection capabilities during operations in 2015-2018 by introducing the Fast TracKer system (FTK). FTK is a hardware based system capable of finding charged particle tracks by analyzing hits in silicon detectors at the rate of 105 events per second. The core of track reconstruction is performed into two pipelined steps. At first step the candidate tracks are found by matching combination of low resolution hits to predefined patterns; then they are used in the second step to seed a more precise track fitting algorithm. The key FTK component is an Associative Memory (AM) system that is used to perform pattern matching with high degree of parallelism. The AM system implementation, the AM Serial Link Processor, is based on an extremely powerful network of 2 Gb/s serial links to sustain a huge traffic of data. We report on the design of the Serial Link Processor consisting of two types of boards, the Little Associative Memory Board (LAMB), a mezzan...

  13. Highly Parallelized Pattern Matching Execution for the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Citraro, Saverio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Abstract– The Associative Memory (AM) system of the Fast Tracker (FTK) processor has been designed to perform pattern matching using as input the data from the silicon tracker in the ATLAS experiment. The AM is the primary component of the FTK system and is designed using ASIC technology (the AM chip) to execute pattern matching with a high degree of parallelism. The FTK system finds track candidates at low resolution that are seeds for a full resolution track fitting. The AM system implementation is named “Serial Link Processor” and is based on an extremely powerful network of 2 Gb/s serial links to sustain a huge traffic of data. This paper reports on the design of the Serial Link Processor consisting of two types of boards, the Little Associative Memory Board (LAMB), a mezzanine where the AM chips are mounted, and the Associative Memory Board (AMB), a 9U VME motherboard which hosts four LAMB daughterboards. We also report on the performance of the prototypes (both hardware and firmware) produced and ...

  14. Optimizing Fukushima Emissions Through Pattern Matching and Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, D. D.; Simpson, M. D.; Philip, C. S.; Baskett, R.

    2017-12-01

    Hazardous conditions during the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident hindered direct observations of the emissions of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. A wide range of emissions are estimated from bottom-up studies using reactor inventories and top-down approaches based on inverse modeling. We present a new inverse modeling estimate of cesium-137 emitted from the Fukushima NPP. Our estimate considers weather uncertainty through a large ensemble of Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations and uses the FLEXPART atmospheric dispersion model to transport and deposit cesium. The simulations are constrained by observations of the spatial distribution of cumulative cesium deposited on the surface of Japan through April 2, 2012. Multiple spatial metrics are used to quantify differences between observed and simulated deposition patterns. In order to match the observed pattern, we use a multi-objective genetic algorithm to optimize the time-varying emissions. We find that large differences with published bottom-up estimates are required to explain the observations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. The effect of football matches on crime patterns in Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Struse, Simon Planells; Montolio, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Given the actual debate, in many European countries, about the need for public administrations to raise their revenues through taxing the crime externalities generated by some private leisure activities, this article analyzes the effect of football matches on crime focusing both on property crimes and interpersonal violent crimes. Our aim is to determine up to what extent a private leisure activity, such as football matches, induces negative crime externalities to the whole society. Using dat...

  16. RNAPattMatch: a web server for RNA sequence/structure motif detection based on pattern matching with flexible gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drory Retwitzer, Matan; Polishchuk, Maya; Churkin, Elena; Kifer, Ilona; Yakhini, Zohar; Barash, Danny

    2015-01-01

    Searching for RNA sequence-structure patterns is becoming an essential tool for RNA practitioners. Novel discoveries of regulatory non-coding RNAs in targeted organisms and the motivation to find them across a wide range of organisms have prompted the use of computational RNA pattern matching as an enhancement to sequence similarity. State-of-the-art programs differ by the flexibility of patterns allowed as queries and by their simplicity of use. In particular—no existing method is available as a user-friendly web server. A general program that searches for RNA sequence-structure patterns is RNA Structator. However, it is not available as a web server and does not provide the option to allow flexible gap pattern representation with an upper bound of the gap length being specified at any position in the sequence. Here, we introduce RNAPattMatch, a web-based application that is user friendly and makes sequence/structure RNA queries accessible to practitioners of various background and proficiency. It also extends RNA Structator and allows a more flexible variable gaps representation, in addition to analysis of results using energy minimization methods. RNAPattMatch service is available at http://www.cs.bgu.ac.il/rnapattmatch. A standalone version of the search tool is also available to download at the site. PMID:25940619

  17. Rotation and scale change invariant point pattern relaxation matching by the Hopfield neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Nong; Zhang, Tianxu

    1997-12-01

    Relaxation matching is one of the most relevant methods for image matching. The original relaxation matching technique using point patterns is sensitive to rotations and scale changes. We improve the original point pattern relaxation matching technique to be invariant to rotations and scale changes. A method that makes the Hopfield neural network perform this matching process is discussed. An advantage of this is that the relaxation matching process can be performed in real time with the neural network's massively parallel capability to process information. Experimental results with large simulated images demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the method to perform point patten relaxation matching invariant to rotations and scale changes and the method to perform this matching by the Hopfield neural network. In addition, we show that the method presented can be tolerant to small random error.

  18. Maximum power output and load matching of a phosphoric acid fuel cell-thermoelectric generator hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohang; Wang, Yuan; Cai, Ling; Zhou, Yinghui

    2015-10-01

    Based on the current models of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) and thermoelectric generators (TGs), a new hybrid system is proposed, in which the effects of multi-irreversibilities resulting from the activation, concentration, and ohmic overpotentials in the PAFC, Joule heat and heat leak in the TG, finite-rate heat transfer between the TG and the heat reservoirs, and heat leak from the PAFC to the environment are taken into account. Expressions for the power output and efficiency of the PAFC, TG, and hybrid system are analytically derived and directly used to discuss the performance characteristics of the hybrid system. The optimal relationship between the electric currents in the PAFC and TG is obtained. The maximum power output is numerically calculated. It is found that the maximum power output density of the hybrid system will increase about 150 Wm-2, compared with that of a single PAFC. The problem how to optimally match the load resistances of two subsystems is discussed. Some significant results for practical hybrid systems are obtained.

  19. What makes a pattern? Matching decoding methods to data in multivariate pattern analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A Kragel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Research in neuroscience faces the challenge of integrating information across different spatial scales of brain function. A promising technique for harnessing information at a range of spatial scales is multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data. While the prevalence of MVPA has increased dramatically in recent years, its typical implementations for classification of mental states utilize only a subset of the information encoded in local fMRI signals. We review published studies employing multivariate pattern classification since the technique’s introduction, which reveal an extensive focus on the improved detection power that linear classifiers provide over traditional analysis techniques. We demonstrate using simulations and a searchlight approach, however, that nonlinear classifiers are capable of extracting distinct information about interactions within a local region. We conclude that for spatially localized analyses, such as searchlight and region of interest, multiple classification approaches should be compared in order to match fMRI analyses to the properties of local circuits.

  20. Rating Algorithm for Pronunciation of English Based on Audio Feature Pattern Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing internationalization of China, language communication has become an important channel for us to adapt to the political and economic environment. How to improve English learners’ language learning efficiency in limited conditions has turned into a problem demanding prompt solution at present. This paper applies two pronunciation patterns according to the actual needs of English pronunciation rating: to-be-evaluated pronunciation pattern and standard pronunciation pattern. It will translate the patterns into English pronunciation rating results through European distance. Besides, this paper will introduce the design philosophy of the whole algorithm in combination with CHMM matching pattern. Each link of the CHMM pattern will be given selective analysis while a contrast experiment between the CHMM matching pattern and the other two patterns will be conducted. From the experiment results, it can be concluded that CHMM pattern is the best option.

  1. A Vision Chip for Color Segmentation and Pattern Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Etienne-Cummings

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A 128(H × 64(V × RGB CMOS imager is integrated with region-of-interest selection, RGB-to-HSI transformation, HSI-based pixel segmentation, (36bins × 12bits-HSI histogramming, and sum-of-absolute-difference (SAD template matching. Thirty-two learned color templates are stored and compared to each image. The chip captures the R, G, and B images using in-pixel storage before passing the pixel content to a multiplying digital-to-analog converter (DAC for white balancing. The DAC can also be used to pipe in images for a PC. The color processing uses a biologically inspired color opponent representation and an analog lookup table to determine the Hue (H of each pixel. Saturation (S is computed using a loser-take-all circuit. Intensity (I is given by the sum of the color components. A histogram of the segments of the image, constructed by counting the number of pixels falling into 36 Hue intervals of 10 degrees, is stored on a chip and compared against the histograms of new segments using SAD comparisons. We demonstrate color-based image segmentation and object recognition with this chip. Running at 30 fps, it uses 1 mW. To our knowledge, this is the first chip that integrates imaging, color segmentation, and color-based object recognition at the focal plane.

  2. Cryptically patterned moths perceive bark structure when choosing body orientations that match wing color pattern to the bark pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ku Kang

    Full Text Available Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths' behavior on natural (a tree log and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature. We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual. This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis.

  3. Cryptically patterned moths perceive bark structure when choosing body orientations that match wing color pattern to the bark pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang-Ku; Moon, Jong-Yeol; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G

    2013-01-01

    Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i) whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii) what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths' behavior on natural (a tree log) and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature). We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel) to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual). This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis.

  4. Effects of variability in probable maximum precipitation patterns on flood losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zischg, Andreas Paul; Felder, Guido; Weingartner, Rolf; Quinn, Niall; Coxon, Gemma; Neal, Jeffrey; Freer, Jim; Bates, Paul

    2018-05-01

    The assessment of the impacts of extreme floods is important for dealing with residual risk, particularly for critical infrastructure management and for insurance purposes. Thus, modelling of the probable maximum flood (PMF) from probable maximum precipitation (PMP) by coupling hydrological and hydraulic models has gained interest in recent years. Herein, we examine whether variability in precipitation patterns exceeds or is below selected uncertainty factors in flood loss estimation and if the flood losses within a river basin are related to the probable maximum discharge at the basin outlet. We developed a model experiment with an ensemble of probable maximum precipitation scenarios created by Monte Carlo simulations. For each rainfall pattern, we computed the flood losses with a model chain and benchmarked the effects of variability in rainfall distribution with other model uncertainties. The results show that flood losses vary considerably within the river basin and depend on the timing and superimposition of the flood peaks from the basin's sub-catchments. In addition to the flood hazard component, the other components of flood risk, exposure, and vulnerability contribute remarkably to the overall variability. This leads to the conclusion that the estimation of the probable maximum expectable flood losses in a river basin should not be based exclusively on the PMF. Consequently, the basin-specific sensitivities to different precipitation patterns and the spatial organization of the settlements within the river basin need to be considered in the analyses of probable maximum flood losses.

  5. Fast Partial Evaluation of Pattern Matching in Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ager, Mads Sig; Danvy, Olivier; Rohde, Henning Korsholm

    2006-01-01

    We show how to obtain all of Knuth, Morris, and Pratt's linear-time string matcher by specializing a quadratic-time string matcher with respect to a pattern string. Although it has been known for 15 years how to obtain this linear matcher by partial evaluation of a quadratic one, how to obtain...... it in linear time has remained an open problem. Obtaining a linear matcher by partial evaluation of a quadratic one is achieved by performing its backtracking at specialization time and memoizing its results. We show (1) how to rewrite the source matcher such that its static intermediate computations can...... be shared at specialization time and (2) how to extend the memoization capabilities of a partial evaluator to static functions. Such an extended partial evaluator, if its memoization is implemented efficiently, specializes the rewritten source matcher in linear time. Finally, we show that the method also...

  6. Fast Partial Evaluation of Pattern Matching in Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ager, Mads Sig; Danvy, Olivier; Rohde, Henning Korsholm

    2003-01-01

    We show how to obtain all of Knuth, Morris, and Pratt's linear-time string matcher by specializing a quadratic-time string matcher with respect to a pattern string. Although it has been known for 15 years how to obtain this linear matcher by partial evaluation of a quadratic one, how to obtain...... it in linear time has remained an open problem. Obtaining a linear matcher by partial evaluation of a quadratic one is achieved by performing its backtracking at specialization time and memoizing its results. We show (1) how to rewrite the source matcher such that its static intermediate computations can...... be shared at specialization time and (2) how to extend the memoization capabilities of a partial evaluator to static functions. Such an extended partial evaluator, if its memoization is implemented efficiently, specializes the rewritten source matcher in linear time. Finally, we show that the method also...

  7. Fast Partial Evaluation of Pattern Matching in Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ager, Mads Sig; Danvy, Olivier; Rohde, Henning Korsholm

    2003-01-01

    We show how to obtain all of Knuth, Morris, and Pratt's linear-time string matcher by partial evaluation of a quadratic-time string matcher with respect to a pattern string. Although it has been known for 15 years how to obtain this linear matcher by partial evaluation of a quadratic one, how...... to obtain it in linear time has remained an open problem.Obtaining a linear matcher by partial evaluation of a quadratic one is achieved by performing its backtracking at specialization time and memoizing its results. We show (1) how to rewrite the source matcher such that its static intermediate...... computations can be shared at specialization time and (2) how to extend the memoization capabilities of a partial evaluator to static functions. Such an extended partial evaluator, if its memoization is implemented efficiently, specializes the rewritten source matcher in linear time....

  8. Fan fault diagnosis based on symmetrized dot pattern analysis and image matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaogang; Liu, Haixiao; Zhu, Hao; Wang, Songling

    2016-07-01

    To detect the mechanical failure of fans, a new diagnostic method based on the symmetrized dot pattern (SDP) analysis and image matching is proposed. Vibration signals of 13 kinds of running states are acquired on a centrifugal fan test bed and reconstructed by the SDP technique. The SDP pattern templates of each running state are established. An image matching method is performed to diagnose the fault. In order to improve the diagnostic accuracy, the single template, multiple templates and clustering fault templates are used to perform the image matching.

  9. A multi-pattern hash-binary hybrid algorithm for URL matching in the HTTP protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zeng

    Full Text Available In this paper, based on our previous multi-pattern uniform resource locator (URL binary-matching algorithm called HEM, we propose an improved multi-pattern matching algorithm called MH that is based on hash tables and binary tables. The MH algorithm can be applied to the fields of network security, data analysis, load balancing, cloud robotic communications, and so on-all of which require string matching from a fixed starting position. Our approach effectively solves the performance problems of the classical multi-pattern matching algorithms. This paper explores ways to improve string matching performance under the HTTP protocol by using a hash method combined with a binary method that transforms the symbol-space matching problem into a digital-space numerical-size comparison and hashing problem. The MH approach has a fast matching speed, requires little memory, performs better than both the classical algorithms and HEM for matching fields in an HTTP stream, and it has great promise for use in real-world applications.

  10. Stochastic modelling of the monthly average maximum and minimum temperature patterns in India 1981-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimha Murthy, K. V.; Saravana, R.; Vijaya Kumar, K.

    2018-04-01

    The paper investigates the stochastic modelling and forecasting of monthly average maximum and minimum temperature patterns through suitable seasonal auto regressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model for the period 1981-2015 in India. The variations and distributions of monthly maximum and minimum temperatures are analyzed through Box plots and cumulative distribution functions. The time series plot indicates that the maximum temperature series contain sharp peaks in almost all the years, while it is not true for the minimum temperature series, so both the series are modelled separately. The possible SARIMA model has been chosen based on observing autocorrelation function (ACF), partial autocorrelation function (PACF), and inverse autocorrelation function (IACF) of the logarithmic transformed temperature series. The SARIMA (1, 0, 0) × (0, 1, 1)12 model is selected for monthly average maximum and minimum temperature series based on minimum Bayesian information criteria. The model parameters are obtained using maximum-likelihood method with the help of standard error of residuals. The adequacy of the selected model is determined using correlation diagnostic checking through ACF, PACF, IACF, and p values of Ljung-Box test statistic of residuals and using normal diagnostic checking through the kernel and normal density curves of histogram and Q-Q plot. Finally, the forecasting of monthly maximum and minimum temperature patterns of India for the next 3 years has been noticed with the help of selected model.

  11. Maximum-entropy networks pattern detection, network reconstruction and graph combinatorics

    CERN Document Server

    Squartini, Tiziano

    2017-01-01

    This book is an introduction to maximum-entropy models of random graphs with given topological properties and their applications. Its original contribution is the reformulation of many seemingly different problems in the study of both real networks and graph theory within the unified framework of maximum entropy. Particular emphasis is put on the detection of structural patterns in real networks, on the reconstruction of the properties of networks from partial information, and on the enumeration and sampling of graphs with given properties.  After a first introductory chapter explaining the motivation, focus, aim and message of the book, chapter 2 introduces the formal construction of maximum-entropy ensembles of graphs with local topological constraints. Chapter 3 focuses on the problem of pattern detection in real networks and provides a powerful way to disentangle nontrivial higher-order structural features from those that can be traced back to simpler local constraints. Chapter 4 focuses on the problem o...

  12. A Boyer-Moore (or Watson-Watson) type algorithm for regular tree pattern matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watson, B.W.; Aarts, E.H.L.; Eikelder, ten H.M.M.; Hemerik, C.; Rem, M.

    1995-01-01

    In this chapter, I outline a new algorithm for regular tree pattern matching. The existence of this algorithm was first mentioned in the statements accompanying my dissertation, [2]. In order to avoid repeating the material in my dissertation, it is assumed that the reader is familiar with Chapters

  13. Length-Bounded Hybrid CPU/GPU Pattern Matching Algorithm for Deep Packet Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Shan Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since frequent communication between applications takes place in high speed networks, deep packet inspection (DPI plays an important role in the network application awareness. The signature-based network intrusion detection system (NIDS contains a DPI technique that examines the incoming packet payloads by employing a pattern matching algorithm that dominates the overall inspection performance. Existing studies focused on implementing efficient pattern matching algorithms by parallel programming on software platforms because of the advantages of lower cost and higher scalability. Either the central processing unit (CPU or the graphic processing unit (GPU were involved. Our studies focused on designing a pattern matching algorithm based on the cooperation between both CPU and GPU. In this paper, we present an enhanced design for our previous work, a length-bounded hybrid CPU/GPU pattern matching algorithm (LHPMA. In the preliminary experiment, the performance and comparison with the previous work are displayed, and the experimental results show that the LHPMA can achieve not only effective CPU/GPU cooperation but also higher throughput than the previous method.

  14. Two related algorithms for root-to-frontier tree pattern matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleophas, L.G.W.A.; Hemerik, C.; Zwaan, G.

    2006-01-01

    Tree pattern matching (TPM) algorithms on ordered, ranked trees play an important role in applications such as compilers and term rewriting systems. Many TPM algorithms appearing in the literature are based on tree automata. For efficiency, these automata should be deterministic, yet deterministic

  15. GPUs for fast pattern matching in the RICH of the NA62 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamanna, Gianluca; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Sozzi, Marco

    2011-01-01

    In rare decays experiments an effective online selection is a fundamental part of the data acquisition system (DAQ) in order to reduce both the quantity of data written on tape and the bandwidth requirements for the DAQ system. A multilevel architecture is commonly used to achieve a higher reduction factor, exploiting dedicated custom hardware and flexible software in standard computers. In this paper we discuss the possibility to use commercial video card processors (GPU) to build a fast and effective trigger system, both at hardware and software level. The computing power of the GPUs allows to design a real-time system in which trigger decisions are taken directly in the video processor with a defined maximum latency. This allows building lowest trigger levels based on standard off-the-shelf PCs with CPU and GPU (instead of the commonly adopted solutions based on custom electronics with FPGA or ASICs) with enhanced and high performance computation capabilities, resulting in high rejection power, high efficiency and simpler low level triggers. The ongoing work presented here shows the results achieved in the case of fast pattern matching in the RICH detector of the NA62 at CERN, aiming at measuring the Branching Ratio of the ultra rare decay K + →π + νν-bar, is considered as use case, although the versatility and the customizability of this approach easily allow exporting the concept to different contexts. In particular the application is related to particle identification in the RICH detector of the NA62 experiment, where the rate of events to be analyzed will be around 10 MHz. The results obtained in lab tests are very encouraging to go towards a working prototype. Due to the use of off-the-shelf technology, in continuous development for other purposes (Video Games, image editing,...), the architecture described would be easily exported into other experiments, for building powerful, flexible and fully customizable trigger systems.

  16. GPUs for fast pattern matching in the RICH of the NA62 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamanna, Gianluca, E-mail: gianluca.lamanna@cern.c [CERN, 1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Collazuol, Gianmaria, E-mail: gianmaria.collazuol@cern.c [INFN Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Sozzi, Marco, E-mail: marco.sozzi@cern.c [University and INFN Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-05-21

    In rare decays experiments an effective online selection is a fundamental part of the data acquisition system (DAQ) in order to reduce both the quantity of data written on tape and the bandwidth requirements for the DAQ system. A multilevel architecture is commonly used to achieve a higher reduction factor, exploiting dedicated custom hardware and flexible software in standard computers. In this paper we discuss the possibility to use commercial video card processors (GPU) to build a fast and effective trigger system, both at hardware and software level. The computing power of the GPUs allows to design a real-time system in which trigger decisions are taken directly in the video processor with a defined maximum latency. This allows building lowest trigger levels based on standard off-the-shelf PCs with CPU and GPU (instead of the commonly adopted solutions based on custom electronics with FPGA or ASICs) with enhanced and high performance computation capabilities, resulting in high rejection power, high efficiency and simpler low level triggers. The ongoing work presented here shows the results achieved in the case of fast pattern matching in the RICH detector of the NA62 at CERN, aiming at measuring the Branching Ratio of the ultra rare decay K{sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{nu}{nu}-bar, is considered as use case, although the versatility and the customizability of this approach easily allow exporting the concept to different contexts. In particular the application is related to particle identification in the RICH detector of the NA62 experiment, where the rate of events to be analyzed will be around 10 MHz. The results obtained in lab tests are very encouraging to go towards a working prototype. Due to the use of off-the-shelf technology, in continuous development for other purposes (Video Games, image editing,...), the architecture described would be easily exported into other experiments, for building powerful, flexible and fully customizable trigger systems.

  17. Post-decomposition optimizations using pattern matching and rule-based clustering for multi-patterning technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lynn T.-N.; Madhavan, Sriram

    2018-03-01

    A pattern matching and rule-based polygon clustering methodology with DFM scoring is proposed to detect decomposition-induced manufacturability detractors and fix the layout designs prior to manufacturing. A pattern matcher scans the layout for pre-characterized patterns from a library. If a pattern were detected, rule-based clustering identifies the neighboring polygons that interact with those captured by the pattern. Then, DFM scores are computed for the possible layout fixes: the fix with the best score is applied. The proposed methodology was applied to two 20nm products with a chip area of 11 mm2 on the metal 2 layer. All the hotspots were resolved. The number of DFM spacing violations decreased by 7-15%.

  18. PATTERNS OF THE MAXIMUM RAINFALL AMOUNTS REGISTERED IN 24 HOURS WITHIN THE OLTENIA PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA VLĂDUŢ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of the maximum rainfall amounts registered in 24 hours within the Oltenia Plain. The present study aims at rendering the main features of the maximum rainfall amounts registered in 24 h within the Oltenia Plain. We used 30-year time series (1980-2009 for seven meteorological stations. Generally, the maximum amounts in 24 h display the same pattern as the monthly mean amounts, namely higher values in the interval May-October. In terms of mean values, the highest amounts are registered in the western and northern extremity of the plain. The maximum values generally exceed 70 mm at all meteorological stations: D.T. Severin, 224 mm, July 1999; Slatina, 104.8 mm, August 2002; Caracal, 92.2 m, July 1991; Bechet, 80.8 mm, July 2006; Craiova, 77.6 mm, April 2003. During the cold season, there was noticed a greater uniformity all over the plain, due to the cyclonic origin of rainfalls compared to the warm season, when thermal convection is quite active and it triggers local showers. In order to better emphasize the peculiarities of this parameter, we have calculated the frequency on different value classes (eight classes, as well as the probability of appearance of different amounts. Thus, it resulted that the highest frequency (25-35% is held by the first two classes of values (0-10 mm; 10.1-20 mm. The lowest frequency is registered in case of the amounts of more than 100 mm, which generally display a probability of occurrence of less than 1% and only in the western and eastern extremities of the plain.

  19. Effects of Pattern Matching, Pattern Discrimination, and Experience in the Development of Diagnostic Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Frank; And Others

    1990-01-01

    In this study an artificial intelligence assessment tool used disease-by-feature frequency estimates to create disease prototypes for nine common causes of acute chest pain. The tool then used each subject's prototypes and a pattern-recognition-based decision-making mechanism to diagnose 18 myocardial infarction cases. (MLW)

  20. Receptive fields of locust brain neurons are matched to polarization patterns of the sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Miklós; Homberg, Uwe; Pfeiffer, Keram

    2014-09-22

    Many animals, including insects, are able to use celestial cues as a reference for spatial orientation and long-distance navigation [1]. In addition to direct sunlight, the chromatic gradient of the sky and its polarization pattern are suited to serve as orientation cues [2-5]. Atmospheric scattering of sunlight causes a regular pattern of E vectors in the sky, which are arranged along concentric circles around the sun [5, 6]. Although certain insects rely predominantly on sky polarization for spatial orientation [7], it has been argued that detection of celestial E vector orientation may not suffice to differentiate between solar and antisolar directions [8, 9]. We show here that polarization-sensitive (POL) neurons in the brain of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria can overcome this ambiguity. Extracellular recordings from POL units in the central complex and lateral accessory lobes revealed E vector tunings arranged in concentric circles within large receptive fields, matching the sky polarization pattern at certain solar positions. Modeling of neuronal responses under an idealized sky polarization pattern (Rayleigh sky) suggests that these "matched filter" properties allow locusts to unambiguously determine the solar azimuth by relying solely on the sky polarization pattern for compass navigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Data-Driven Engineering of Social Dynamics: Pattern Matching and Profit Maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huan-Kai; Lee, Hao-Chih; Pan, Jia-Yu; Marculescu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we define a new problem related to social media, namely, the data-driven engineering of social dynamics. More precisely, given a set of observations from the past, we aim at finding the best short-term intervention that can lead to predefined long-term outcomes. Toward this end, we propose a general formulation that covers two useful engineering tasks as special cases, namely, pattern matching and profit maximization. By incorporating a deep learning model, we derive a solution using convex relaxation and quadratic-programming transformation. Moreover, we propose a data-driven evaluation method in place of the expensive field experiments. Using a Twitter dataset, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our dynamics engineering approach for both pattern matching and profit maximization, and study the multifaceted interplay among several important factors of dynamics engineering, such as solution validity, pattern-matching accuracy, and intervention cost. Finally, the method we propose is general enough to work with multi-dimensional time series, so it can potentially be used in many other applications.

  2. Application of approximate pattern matching in two dimensional spaces to grid layout for biochemical network maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kentaro; Shimozono, Shinichi; Yoshida, Hideaki; Kurata, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    For visualizing large-scale biochemical network maps, it is important to calculate the coordinates of molecular nodes quickly and to enhance the understanding or traceability of them. The grid layout is effective in drawing compact, orderly, balanced network maps with node label spaces, but existing grid layout algorithms often require a high computational cost because they have to consider complicated positional constraints through the entire optimization process. We propose a hybrid grid layout algorithm that consists of a non-grid, fast layout (preprocessor) algorithm and an approximate pattern matching algorithm that distributes the resultant preprocessed nodes on square grid points. To demonstrate the feasibility of the hybrid layout algorithm, it is characterized in terms of the calculation time, numbers of edge-edge and node-edge crossings, relative edge lengths, and F-measures. The proposed algorithm achieves outstanding performances compared with other existing grid layouts. Use of an approximate pattern matching algorithm quickly redistributes the laid-out nodes by fast, non-grid algorithms on the square grid points, while preserving the topological relationships among the nodes. The proposed algorithm is a novel use of the pattern matching, thereby providing a breakthrough for grid layout. This application program can be freely downloaded from http://www.cadlive.jp/hybridlayout/hybridlayout.html.

  3. Application of approximate pattern matching in two dimensional spaces to grid layout for biochemical network maps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Inoue

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For visualizing large-scale biochemical network maps, it is important to calculate the coordinates of molecular nodes quickly and to enhance the understanding or traceability of them. The grid layout is effective in drawing compact, orderly, balanced network maps with node label spaces, but existing grid layout algorithms often require a high computational cost because they have to consider complicated positional constraints through the entire optimization process. RESULTS: We propose a hybrid grid layout algorithm that consists of a non-grid, fast layout (preprocessor algorithm and an approximate pattern matching algorithm that distributes the resultant preprocessed nodes on square grid points. To demonstrate the feasibility of the hybrid layout algorithm, it is characterized in terms of the calculation time, numbers of edge-edge and node-edge crossings, relative edge lengths, and F-measures. The proposed algorithm achieves outstanding performances compared with other existing grid layouts. CONCLUSIONS: Use of an approximate pattern matching algorithm quickly redistributes the laid-out nodes by fast, non-grid algorithms on the square grid points, while preserving the topological relationships among the nodes. The proposed algorithm is a novel use of the pattern matching, thereby providing a breakthrough for grid layout. This application program can be freely downloaded from http://www.cadlive.jp/hybridlayout/hybridlayout.html.

  4. Data-Driven Engineering of Social Dynamics: Pattern Matching and Profit Maximization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Kai Peng

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define a new problem related to social media, namely, the data-driven engineering of social dynamics. More precisely, given a set of observations from the past, we aim at finding the best short-term intervention that can lead to predefined long-term outcomes. Toward this end, we propose a general formulation that covers two useful engineering tasks as special cases, namely, pattern matching and profit maximization. By incorporating a deep learning model, we derive a solution using convex relaxation and quadratic-programming transformation. Moreover, we propose a data-driven evaluation method in place of the expensive field experiments. Using a Twitter dataset, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our dynamics engineering approach for both pattern matching and profit maximization, and study the multifaceted interplay among several important factors of dynamics engineering, such as solution validity, pattern-matching accuracy, and intervention cost. Finally, the method we propose is general enough to work with multi-dimensional time series, so it can potentially be used in many other applications.

  5. Data-Driven Engineering of Social Dynamics: Pattern Matching and Profit Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huan-Kai; Lee, Hao-Chih; Pan, Jia-Yu; Marculescu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we define a new problem related to social media, namely, the data-driven engineering of social dynamics. More precisely, given a set of observations from the past, we aim at finding the best short-term intervention that can lead to predefined long-term outcomes. Toward this end, we propose a general formulation that covers two useful engineering tasks as special cases, namely, pattern matching and profit maximization. By incorporating a deep learning model, we derive a solution using convex relaxation and quadratic-programming transformation. Moreover, we propose a data-driven evaluation method in place of the expensive field experiments. Using a Twitter dataset, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our dynamics engineering approach for both pattern matching and profit maximization, and study the multifaceted interplay among several important factors of dynamics engineering, such as solution validity, pattern-matching accuracy, and intervention cost. Finally, the method we propose is general enough to work with multi-dimensional time series, so it can potentially be used in many other applications. PMID:26771830

  6. Robust real-time pattern matching using bayesian sequential hypothesis testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pele, Ofir; Werman, Michael

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes a method for robust real time pattern matching. We first introduce a family of image distance measures, the "Image Hamming Distance Family". Members of this family are robust to occlusion, small geometrical transforms, light changes and non-rigid deformations. We then present a novel Bayesian framework for sequential hypothesis testing on finite populations. Based on this framework, we design an optimal rejection/acceptance sampling algorithm. This algorithm quickly determines whether two images are similar with respect to a member of the Image Hamming Distance Family. We also present a fast framework that designs a near-optimal sampling algorithm. Extensive experimental results show that the sequential sampling algorithm performance is excellent. Implemented on a Pentium 4 3 GHz processor, detection of a pattern with 2197 pixels, in 640 x 480 pixel frames, where in each frame the pattern rotated and was highly occluded, proceeds at only 0.022 seconds per frame.

  7. A novel iris patterns matching algorithm of weighted polar frequency correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weijie; Jiang, Linhua

    2014-11-01

    Iris recognition is recognized as one of the most accurate techniques for biometric authentication. In this paper, we present a novel correlation method - Weighted Polar Frequency Correlation(WPFC) - to match and evaluate two iris images, actually it can also be used for evaluating the similarity of any two images. The WPFC method is a novel matching and evaluating method for iris image matching, which is complete different from the conventional methods. For instance, the classical John Daugman's method of iris recognition uses 2D Gabor wavelets to extract features of iris image into a compact bit stream, and then matching two bit streams with hamming distance. Our new method is based on the correlation in the polar coordinate system in frequency domain with regulated weights. The new method is motivated by the observation that the pattern of iris that contains far more information for recognition is fine structure at high frequency other than the gross shapes of iris images. Therefore, we transform iris images into frequency domain and set different weights to frequencies. Then calculate the correlation of two iris images in frequency domain. We evaluate the iris images by summing the discrete correlation values with regulated weights, comparing the value with preset threshold to tell whether these two iris images are captured from the same person or not. Experiments are carried out on both CASIA database and self-obtained images. The results show that our method is functional and reliable. Our method provides a new prospect for iris recognition system.

  8. Dietary pattern analysis: a comparison between matched vegetarian and omnivorous subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarys, Peter; Deriemaeker, Peter; Huybrechts, Inge; Hebbelinck, Marcel; Mullie, Patrick

    2013-06-13

    Dietary pattern analysis, based on the concept that foods eaten together are as important as a reductive methodology characterized by a single food or nutrient analysis, has emerged as an alternative approach to study the relation between nutrition and disease. The aim of the present study was to compare nutritional intake and the results of dietary pattern analysis in properly matched vegetarian and omnivorous subjects. Vegetarians (n = 69) were recruited via purposeful sampling and matched non-vegetarians (n = 69) with same age, gender, health and lifestyle characteristics were searched for via convenience sampling. Two dietary pattern analysis methods, the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) were calculated and analysed in function of the nutrient intake. Mean total energy intake was comparable between vegetarians and omnivorous subjects (p > 0.05). Macronutrient analysis revealed significant differences between the mean values for vegetarians and omnivorous subjects (absolute and relative protein and total fat intake were significantly lower in vegetarians, while carbohydrate and fibre intakes were significantly higher in vegetarians than in omnivorous subjects). The HEI and MDS were significantly higher for the vegetarians (HEI = 53.8.1 ± 11.2; MDS = 4.3 ± 1.3) compared to the omnivorous subjects (HEI = 46.4 ± 15.3; MDS = 3.8 ± 1.4). Our results indicate a more nutrient dense pattern, closer to the current dietary recommendations for the vegetarians compared to the omnivorous subjects. Both indexing systems were able to discriminate between the vegetarians and the non-vegetarians with higher scores for the vegetarian subjects.

  9. Crack displacement sensing and measurement in concrete using circular grating moire fringes and pattern matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, H. M.; Yen, K. S.; Ratnam, M. M.

    2008-09-01

    The moire method has been extensively studied in the past and applied in various engineering applications. Several techniques are available for generating the moire fringes in these applications, which include moire interferometry, projection moire, shadow moire, moire deflectometry etc. Most of these methods use the superposition of linear gratings to generate the moire patterns. The use of non-linear gratings, such as circular, radial and elongated gratings has received less attention from the research community. The potential of non-linear gratings in engineering measurement has been realized in a limited number of applications, such as rotation measurement, measurement of linear displacement, measurement of expansion coefficients of materials and measurement of strain distribution. In this work, circular gratings of different pitch were applied to the sensing and measurement of crack displacement in concrete structures. Gratings of pitch 0.50 mm and 0.55 mm were generated using computer software and attached to two overlapping acrylic plates that were bonded to either side of the crack. The resulting moire patterns were captured using a standard digital camera and compared with a set of reference patterns generated using a precision positioning stage. Using several image pre-processing stages, such as filtering and morphological operations, and pattern matching the magnitude displacements along two orthogonal axes can be detected with a resolution of 0.05 mm.

  10. Grip-Pattern Verification for Smart Gun Based on Maximum-Pairwise Comparison and Mean-Template Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shang, X.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2008-01-01

    In our biometric verification system of a smart gun, the rightful user of a gun is authenticated by grip-pattern recognition. In this work verification will be done using two types of comparison methods, respectively. One is mean-template comparison, where the matching score between a test image and

  11. Nutritional Status and Daytime Pattern of Protein Intake on Match, Post-Match, Rest and Training Days in Senior Professional and Youth Elite Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettonviel A, E O; Brinkmans N, Y J; Russcher, Kris; Wardenaar, Floris C; Witard, Oliver C

    2016-06-01

    The nutritional status of elite soccer players across match, postmatch, training and rest days has not been defined. Recent evidence suggests the pattern of dietary protein intake impacts the daytime turnover of muscle proteins and, as such, influences muscle recovery. We assessed the nutritional status and daytime pattern of protein intake in senior professional and elite youth soccer players and compared findings against published recommendations. Fourteen senior professional (SP) and 15 youth elite (YP) soccer players from the Dutch premier division completed nutritional assessments using a 24-hr web-based recall method. Recall days consisted of a match, postmatch, rest, and training day. Daily energy intake over the 4-day period was similar between SP (2988 ± 583 kcal/day) and YP (2938 ± 465 kcal/day; p = .800). Carbohydrate intake over the combined 4-day period was lower in SP (4.7 ± 0.7 g·kg-1 BM·day-1) vs. YP (6.0 ± 1.5 g·kg-1 BM·day-1, p = .006) and SP failed to meet recommended carbohydrate intakes on match and training days. Conversely, recommended protein intakes were met for SP (1.9 ± 0.3 g·kg-1 BM·day-1) and YP (1.7 ± 0.4 g·kg-1 BM·day-1), with no differences between groups (p = .286). Accordingly, both groups met or exceeded recommended daily protein intakes on individual match, postmatch, rest and training days. A similar "balanced" daytime pattern of protein intake was observed in SP and YP. To conclude, SP increased protein intake on match and training days to a greater extent than YP, however at the expense of carbohydrate intake. The daytime distribution of protein intake for YP and SP aligned with current recommendations of a balanced protein meal pattern.

  12. Pattern Matching Framework to Estimate the Urgency of Off-Normal Situations in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jin Soo; Park, Sang Jun; Heo, Gyun Young [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Kyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyo Jin; Park, Soon Yeol [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, Yeonggwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    According to power plant operators, it was said that they could quite well recognize off-normal situations from an incipient stage and also anticipate the possibility of upcoming trips in case of skilled operators, even though it is difficult to clarify the cause of the off-normal situation. From the interview, we could assure the feasibility of two assumptions for the diagnosis of off-normal conditions: One is that we can predict whether an accidental shutdown happens or not if we observe the early stage when an off-normal starts to grow. The other is the observation at the early stage can provide the remaining time to a trip as well as the cause of such an off-normal situation. For this purpose, the development of on-line monitoring systems using various data processing techniques in nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been the subject of increasing attention and becomes important contributor to improve performance and economics. Many of studies have suggested the diagnostic methodologies. One of representative methods was to use the distance discrimination as a similarity measure, for example, such as the Euclidean distance. A variety of artificial intelligence techniques such as a neural network have been developed as well. In addition, some of these methodologies were to reduce the data dimensions for more effectively work. While sharing the same motivation with the previous achievements, this study proposed non-parametric pattern matching techniques to reduce the uncertainty in pursuance of selection of models and modeling processes. This could be characterized by the following two aspects: First, for overcoming considering only a few typical scenarios in the most of the studies, this study is getting the entire sets of off-normal situations which are anticipated in NPPs, which are created by a full-scope simulator. Second, many of the existing researches adopted the process of forming a diagnosis model which is so-called a training technique or a parametric

  13. Pattern Matching Framework to Estimate the Urgency of Off-Normal Situations in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jin Soo; Park, Sang Jun; Heo, Gyun Young; Park, Jin Kyun; Kim, Hyo Jin; Park, Soon Yeol

    2010-01-01

    According to power plant operators, it was said that they could quite well recognize off-normal situations from an incipient stage and also anticipate the possibility of upcoming trips in case of skilled operators, even though it is difficult to clarify the cause of the off-normal situation. From the interview, we could assure the feasibility of two assumptions for the diagnosis of off-normal conditions: One is that we can predict whether an accidental shutdown happens or not if we observe the early stage when an off-normal starts to grow. The other is the observation at the early stage can provide the remaining time to a trip as well as the cause of such an off-normal situation. For this purpose, the development of on-line monitoring systems using various data processing techniques in nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been the subject of increasing attention and becomes important contributor to improve performance and economics. Many of studies have suggested the diagnostic methodologies. One of representative methods was to use the distance discrimination as a similarity measure, for example, such as the Euclidean distance. A variety of artificial intelligence techniques such as a neural network have been developed as well. In addition, some of these methodologies were to reduce the data dimensions for more effectively work. While sharing the same motivation with the previous achievements, this study proposed non-parametric pattern matching techniques to reduce the uncertainty in pursuance of selection of models and modeling processes. This could be characterized by the following two aspects: First, for overcoming considering only a few typical scenarios in the most of the studies, this study is getting the entire sets of off-normal situations which are anticipated in NPPs, which are created by a full-scope simulator. Second, many of the existing researches adopted the process of forming a diagnosis model which is so-called a training technique or a parametric

  14. GPUs for fast triggering and pattern matching at the CERN experiment NA62

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamanna, Gianluca; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Sozzi, Marco

    2011-01-01

    In rare decays experiments an effective trigger is crucial to reduce both the quantity of data written on tape and the bandwidth requirements for the DAQ (Data Acquisition) system. A multilevel architecture is commonly used to achieve a higher reduction factor, exploiting dedicated custom hardware and flexible software in standard computers. In this paper we discuss the possibility to use commercial video card processors (GPU) to build a fast and effective trigger system, both at hardware and software level. The case of fast pattern matching in the RICH detector of the NA62 experiment at CERN aiming at measuring the Branching Ratio of the ultra rare decay K + →π + νν-bar is considered as use case although the versatility and the customizability of this approach easily allow exporting the concept to different contexts.

  15. ISOLATED SPEECH RECOGNITION SYSTEM FOR TAMIL LANGUAGE USING STATISTICAL PATTERN MATCHING AND MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIMALA C.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, speech technology has become a vital part of our daily lives. Various techniques have been proposed for developing Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR system and have achieved great success in many applications. Among them, Template Matching techniques like Dynamic Time Warping (DTW, Statistical Pattern Matching techniques such as Hidden Markov Model (HMM and Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM, Machine Learning techniques such as Neural Networks (NN, Support Vector Machine (SVM, and Decision Trees (DT are most popular. The main objective of this paper is to design and develop a speaker-independent isolated speech recognition system for Tamil language using the above speech recognition techniques. The background of ASR system, the steps involved in ASR, merits and demerits of the conventional and machine learning algorithms and the observations made based on the experiments are presented in this paper. For the above developed system, highest word recognition accuracy is achieved with HMM technique. It offered 100% accuracy during training process and 97.92% for testing process.

  16. A Hybrid CPU/GPU Pattern-Matching Algorithm for Deep Packet Inspection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Liang Lee

    Full Text Available The large quantities of data now being transferred via high-speed networks have made deep packet inspection indispensable for security purposes. Scalable and low-cost signature-based network intrusion detection systems have been developed for deep packet inspection for various software platforms. Traditional approaches that only involve central processing units (CPUs are now considered inadequate in terms of inspection speed. Graphic processing units (GPUs have superior parallel processing power, but transmission bottlenecks can reduce optimal GPU efficiency. In this paper we describe our proposal for a hybrid CPU/GPU pattern-matching algorithm (HPMA that divides and distributes the packet-inspecting workload between a CPU and GPU. All packets are initially inspected by the CPU and filtered using a simple pre-filtering algorithm, and packets that might contain malicious content are sent to the GPU for further inspection. Test results indicate that in terms of random payload traffic, the matching speed of our proposed algorithm was 3.4 times and 2.7 times faster than those of the AC-CPU and AC-GPU algorithms, respectively. Further, HPMA achieved higher energy efficiency than the other tested algorithms.

  17. Improved peak detection in mass spectrum by incorporating continuous wavelet transform-based pattern matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Pan; Kibbe, Warren A; Lin, Simon M

    2006-09-01

    A major problem for current peak detection algorithms is that noise in mass spectrometry (MS) spectra gives rise to a high rate of false positives. The false positive rate is especially problematic in detecting peaks with low amplitudes. Usually, various baseline correction algorithms and smoothing methods are applied before attempting peak detection. This approach is very sensitive to the amount of smoothing and aggressiveness of the baseline correction, which contribute to making peak detection results inconsistent between runs, instrumentation and analysis methods. Most peak detection algorithms simply identify peaks based on amplitude, ignoring the additional information present in the shape of the peaks in a spectrum. In our experience, 'true' peaks have characteristic shapes, and providing a shape-matching function that provides a 'goodness of fit' coefficient should provide a more robust peak identification method. Based on these observations, a continuous wavelet transform (CWT)-based peak detection algorithm has been devised that identifies peaks with different scales and amplitudes. By transforming the spectrum into wavelet space, the pattern-matching problem is simplified and in addition provides a powerful technique for identifying and separating the signal from the spike noise and colored noise. This transformation, with the additional information provided by the 2D CWT coefficients can greatly enhance the effective signal-to-noise ratio. Furthermore, with this technique no baseline removal or peak smoothing preprocessing steps are required before peak detection, and this improves the robustness of peak detection under a variety of conditions. The algorithm was evaluated with SELDI-TOF spectra with known polypeptide positions. Comparisons with two other popular algorithms were performed. The results show the CWT-based algorithm can identify both strong and weak peaks while keeping false positive rate low. The algorithm is implemented in R and will be

  18. The Nature, Function, and Impact of Inmate Communication Patterns in a Maximum Security Prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhis, Patricia

    To determine the areas in which communication affects prison environments and prison inmates, interviews were conducted with 21 adult male inmates shortly after their admission into a federal maximum security institution. The interviews were semistructured, addressing such issues as (1) perceptions of fellow inmates and staff; (2) additional…

  19. A Data-Driven Modeling Strategy for Smart Grid Power Quality Coupling Assessment Based on Time Series Pattern Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces a data-driven modeling strategy for smart grid power quality (PQ coupling assessment based on time series pattern matching to quantify the influence of single and integrated disturbance among nodes in different pollution patterns. Periodic and random PQ patterns are constructed by using multidimensional frequency-domain decomposition for all disturbances. A multidimensional piecewise linear representation based on local extreme points is proposed to extract the patterns features of single and integrated disturbance in consideration of disturbance variation trend and severity. A feature distance of pattern (FDP is developed to implement pattern matching on univariate PQ time series (UPQTS and multivariate PQ time series (MPQTS to quantify the influence of single and integrated disturbance among nodes in the pollution patterns. Case studies on a 14-bus distribution system are performed and analyzed; the accuracy and applicability of the FDP in the smart grid PQ coupling assessment are verified by comparing with other time series pattern matching methods.

  20. Effects of countermovement depth on kinematic and kinetic patterns of maximum vertical jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic, Radivoj; Jakovljevic, Sasa; Jaric, Slobodan

    2015-04-01

    Although maximum height (H(max)), muscle force (F), and power output (P), have been routinely obtained from maximum vertical jumps for various purposes, a possible role of the countermovement depth (H(cmd)) on the same variables remains largely unexplored. Here we hypothesized that (1) the optimum H(cmd) for maximizing H(max) exists, while (2) an increase in H(cmd) would be associated with a decrease in both F and P. Professional male basketball players (N=11) preformed maximum countermovement jumps with and without arm swing while varying H(cmd)±25 cm from its preferred value. Although regression models revealed a presence of optimum H(cmd) for maximizing H(max), H(max) revealed only small changes within a wide range of H(cmd). The preferred H(cmd) was markedly below its optimum value (p vertical jumps should be taken with caution since both of them could be markedly confounded by H(cmd). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Oscillatory signatures of crossmodal congruence effects: An EEG investigation employing a visuotactile pattern matching paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göschl, Florian; Friese, Uwe; Daume, Jonathan; König, Peter; Engel, Andreas K

    2015-08-01

    Coherent percepts emerge from the accurate combination of inputs from the different sensory systems. There is an ongoing debate about the neurophysiological mechanisms of crossmodal interactions in the brain, and it has been proposed that transient synchronization of neurons might be of central importance. Oscillatory activity in lower frequency ranges (congruence. Analysis of the behavioral data showed benefits for congruent visuotactile stimulus combinations. Differences in oscillatory dynamics related to crossmodal congruence within the two tasks were observed in the beta-band for crossmodal target detection, as well as in the theta-band for congruence evaluation. Contrasting ongoing activity preceding visuotactile stimulation between the two tasks revealed differences in the alpha- and beta-bands. Source reconstruction of between-task differences showed prominent involvement of premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, somatosensory association cortex and the supramarginal gyrus. These areas not only exhibited more involvement in the pre-stimulus interval for target detection compared to congruence evaluation, but were also crucially involved in post-stimulus differences related to crossmodal stimulus congruence within the detection task. These results add to the increasing evidence that low frequency oscillations are functionally relevant for integration in distributed brain networks, as demonstrated for crossmodal interactions in visuotactile pattern matching in the current study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Infiltration patterns in monoclonal plasma cell disorders: correlation of magnetic resonance imaging with matched bone marrow histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrulis, Mindaugas [Institute of Pathology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Bäuerle, Tobias [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Goldschmidt, Hartmut [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Delorme, Stefan [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Landgren, Ola [Multiple Myeloma Section, Metabolism Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda (United States); Schirmacher, Peter [Institute of Pathology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Hillengass, Jens, E-mail: jens.hillengass@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Objectives: To investigate how plasma cell infiltration patterns detected by MRI match the plasma cell distribution in bone marrow biopsy. Methods: We assessed 50 patients with monoclonal plasma cell disorders of all clinical stages. MRI infiltration pattern was compared with matched BM histology from the same anatomic region. Results: MRI revealed a minimal (n = 11, 22%), focal (n = 5, 10%), diffuse (n = 14, 28%) and mixed (n = 20, 40%) infiltration pattern. Diffuse MRI pattern was predominant in smoldering myeloma patients whereas the MRI patterns with “focal component” (i.e. focal and mixed) were most common in symptomatic myeloma (p < 0.01). In histology an interstitial (n = 13, 26%), nodular (n = 23, 46%) and packed marrow (n = 14, 28%) was found respectively. All three histological types of infiltration were observed in patients with diffuse and mixed MRI patterns. Minimal MRI pattern was found in all MGUS patients and was associated with an interstitial BM infiltration. In two patients with minimal MRI pattern an extensive micro-nodular BM infiltration was found in histology. Conclusions: Infiltration patterns in MRI represent different histological growth patterns of plasma cells, but the MRI resolution is not sufficient to visualize micro-nodular aggregates of plasma cells.

  3. Infiltration patterns in monoclonal plasma cell disorders: correlation of magnetic resonance imaging with matched bone marrow histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrulis, Mindaugas; Bäuerle, Tobias; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Delorme, Stefan; Landgren, Ola; Schirmacher, Peter; Hillengass, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate how plasma cell infiltration patterns detected by MRI match the plasma cell distribution in bone marrow biopsy. Methods: We assessed 50 patients with monoclonal plasma cell disorders of all clinical stages. MRI infiltration pattern was compared with matched BM histology from the same anatomic region. Results: MRI revealed a minimal (n = 11, 22%), focal (n = 5, 10%), diffuse (n = 14, 28%) and mixed (n = 20, 40%) infiltration pattern. Diffuse MRI pattern was predominant in smoldering myeloma patients whereas the MRI patterns with “focal component” (i.e. focal and mixed) were most common in symptomatic myeloma (p < 0.01). In histology an interstitial (n = 13, 26%), nodular (n = 23, 46%) and packed marrow (n = 14, 28%) was found respectively. All three histological types of infiltration were observed in patients with diffuse and mixed MRI patterns. Minimal MRI pattern was found in all MGUS patients and was associated with an interstitial BM infiltration. In two patients with minimal MRI pattern an extensive micro-nodular BM infiltration was found in histology. Conclusions: Infiltration patterns in MRI represent different histological growth patterns of plasma cells, but the MRI resolution is not sufficient to visualize micro-nodular aggregates of plasma cells

  4. CERN Computing Colloquia Spring Series: IT Security - A High-Performance Pattern Matching Engine for Intrusion Detection

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    The flexible and modular design of the engine allows a broad spectrum of applications, ranging from high-end enterprise level network devices that need to match hundreds of thousands of patterns at speeds of tens of gigabits per second, to low-end dev...

  5. Two tree-formation methods for fast pattern search using nearest-neighbour and nearest-centroid matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schomaker, Lambertus; Mangalagiu, D.; Vuurpijl, Louis; Weinfeld, M.; Schomaker, Lambert; Vuurpijl, Louis

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes tree­based classification of character images, comparing two methods of tree formation and two methods of matching: nearest neighbor and nearest centroid. The first method, Preprocess Using Relative Distances (PURD) is a tree­based reorganization of a flat list of patterns,

  6. Advanced optical correlation and digital methods for pattern matching—50th anniversary of Vander Lugt matched filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, María S.

    2012-10-01

    On the verge of the 50th anniversary of Vander Lugt’s formulation for pattern matching based on matched filtering and optical correlation, we acknowledge the very intense research activity developed in the field of correlation-based pattern recognition during this period of time. The paper reviews some domains that appeared as emerging fields in the last years of the 20th century and have been developed later on in the 21st century. Such is the case of three-dimensional (3D) object recognition, biometric pattern matching, optical security and hybrid optical-digital processors. 3D object recognition is a challenging case of multidimensional image recognition because of its implications in the recognition of real-world objects independent of their perspective. Biometric recognition is essentially pattern recognition for which the personal identification is based on the authentication of a specific physiological characteristic possessed by the subject (e.g. fingerprint, face, iris, retina, and multifactor combinations). Biometric recognition often appears combined with encryption-decryption processes to secure information. The optical implementations of correlation-based pattern recognition processes still rely on the 4f-correlator, the joint transform correlator, or some of their variants. But the many applications developed in the field have been pushing the systems for a continuous improvement of their architectures and algorithms, thus leading towards merged optical-digital solutions.

  7. Advanced optical correlation and digital methods for pattern matching—50th anniversary of Vander Lugt matched filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millán, María S

    2012-01-01

    On the verge of the 50th anniversary of Vander Lugt’s formulation for pattern matching based on matched filtering and optical correlation, we acknowledge the very intense research activity developed in the field of correlation-based pattern recognition during this period of time. The paper reviews some domains that appeared as emerging fields in the last years of the 20th century and have been developed later on in the 21st century. Such is the case of three-dimensional (3D) object recognition, biometric pattern matching, optical security and hybrid optical–digital processors. 3D object recognition is a challenging case of multidimensional image recognition because of its implications in the recognition of real-world objects independent of their perspective. Biometric recognition is essentially pattern recognition for which the personal identification is based on the authentication of a specific physiological characteristic possessed by the subject (e.g. fingerprint, face, iris, retina, and multifactor combinations). Biometric recognition often appears combined with encryption–decryption processes to secure information. The optical implementations of correlation-based pattern recognition processes still rely on the 4f-correlator, the joint transform correlator, or some of their variants. But the many applications developed in the field have been pushing the systems for a continuous improvement of their architectures and algorithms, thus leading towards merged optical–digital solutions. (review article)

  8. Analytical maximum-likelihood method to detect patterns in real networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squartini, Tiziano; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2011-01-01

    In order to detect patterns in real networks, randomized graph ensembles that preserve only part of the topology of an observed network are systematically used as fundamental null models. However, the generation of them is still problematic. Existing approaches are either computationally demanding and beyond analytic control or analytically accessible but highly approximate. Here, we propose a solution to this long-standing problem by introducing a fast method that allows one to obtain expectation values and standard deviations of any topological property analytically, for any binary, weighted, directed or undirected network. Remarkably, the time required to obtain the expectation value of any property analytically across the entire graph ensemble is as short as that required to compute the same property using the adjacency matrix of the single original network. Our method reveals that the null behavior of various correlation properties is different from what was believed previously, and is highly sensitive to the particular network considered. Moreover, our approach shows that important structural properties (such as the modularity used in community detection problems) are currently based on incorrect expressions, and provides the exact quantities that should replace them.

  9. Loading pattern optimization with maximum utilization of discharging fuel employing adaptively constrained discontinuous penalty function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, T. K.; Joo, H. G.; Kim, C. H.

    2010-01-01

    In order to find the most economical loading pattern (LP) considering multi-cycle fuel loading, multi-objective fuel LP optimization problems are examined by employing an adaptively constrained discontinuous penalty function (ACDPF) method. This is an improved method to simplify the complicated acceptance logic of the original DPF method in that the stochastic effects caused by the different random number sequence can be reduced. The effectiveness of the multi-objective simulated annealing (SA) algorithm employing ACDPF is examined for the reload core LP of Cycle 4 of Yonggwang Nuclear Unit 4. Several optimization runs are performed with different numbers of objectives consisting of cycle length and average burnup of fuels to be discharged or reloaded. The candidate LPs obtained from the multi-objective optimization runs turn out to be better than the reference LP in the aspects of cycle length and utilization of given fuels. It is note that the proposed ACDPF based MOSA algorithm can be a practical method to obtain an economical LP considering multi-cycle fuel loading. (authors)

  10. Network-level accident-mapping: Distance based pattern matching using artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Lipika; Quddus, Mohammed

    2014-04-01

    The objective of an accident-mapping algorithm is to snap traffic accidents onto the correct road segments. Assigning accidents onto the correct segments facilitate to robustly carry out some key analyses in accident research including the identification of accident hot-spots, network-level risk mapping and segment-level accident risk modelling. Existing risk mapping algorithms have some severe limitations: (i) they are not easily 'transferable' as the algorithms are specific to given accident datasets; (ii) they do not perform well in all road-network environments such as in areas of dense road network; and (iii) the methods used do not perform well in addressing inaccuracies inherent in and type of road environment. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new accident mapping algorithm based on the common variables observed in most accident databases (e.g. road name and type, direction of vehicle movement before the accident and recorded accident location). The challenges here are to: (i) develop a method that takes into account uncertainties inherent to the recorded traffic accident data and the underlying digital road network data, (ii) accurately determine the type and proportion of inaccuracies, and (iii) develop a robust algorithm that can be adapted for any accident set and road network of varying complexity. In order to overcome these challenges, a distance based pattern-matching approach is used to identify the correct road segment. This is based on vectors containing feature values that are common in the accident data and the network data. Since each feature does not contribute equally towards the identification of the correct road segments, an ANN approach using the single-layer perceptron is used to assist in "learning" the relative importance of each feature in the distance calculation and hence the correct link identification. The performance of the developed algorithm was evaluated based on a reference accident dataset from the UK confirming that

  11. A pattern-matched Twitter analysis of US cancer-patient sentiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crannell, W Christian; Clark, Eric; Jones, Chris; James, Ted A; Moore, Jesse

    2016-12-01

    Twitter has been recognized as an important source of organic sentiment and opinion. This study aimed to (1) characterize the content of tweets authored by the United States cancer patients; and (2) use patient tweets to compute the average happiness of cancer patients for each cancer diagnosis. A large sample of English tweets from March 2014 through December 2014 was obtained from Twitter. Using regular expression software pattern matching, the tweets were filtered by cancer diagnosis. For each cancer-specific tweetset, individual patients were extracted, and the content of the tweet was categorized. The patients' Twitter identification numbers were used to gather all tweets for each patient, and happiness values for patient tweets were calculated using a quantitative hedonometric analysis. The most frequently tweeted cancers were breast (n = 15,421, 11% of total cancer tweets), lung (n = 2928, 2.0%), prostate (n = 1036, 0.7%), and colorectal (n = 773, 0.5%). Patient tweets pertained to the treatment course (n = 73, 26%), diagnosis (n = 65, 23%), and then surgery and/or biopsy (n = 42, 15%). Computed happiness values for each cancer diagnosis revealed higher average happiness values for thyroid (h_avg = 6.1625), breast (h_avg = 6.1485), and lymphoma (h_avg = 6.0977) cancers and lower average happiness values for pancreatic (h_avg = 5.8766), lung (h_avg = 5.8733), and kidney (h_avg = 5.8464) cancers. The study confirms that patients are expressing themselves openly on social media about their illness and that unique cancer diagnoses are correlated with varying degrees of happiness. Twitter can be employed as a tool to identify patient needs and as a means to gauge the cancer patient experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Movement patterns and muscle damage during simulated rugby sevens matches in National team players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lucas A; Nakamura, Fábio Y; Moraes, José E; Kitamura, Katia; Ramos, Solange P; Loturco, Irineu

    2017-02-23

    The aim of this study was to analyze the match performance (i.e., distance covered in different intensities), signs of muscle damage (assessed by means of creatine kinase [CK] activity and rate of force development [RFD]), and neuromuscular fatigue (using linear sprint and vertical jump performances) following three single-day simulated matches performed by rugby sevens players from the Brazilian National Team. Ten male rugby sevens players (25.2 ± 3.6 years; 88.7 ± 7.1 kg; 182.2 ± 6.3 cm) participated in this study. On the day prior to the matches, the athletes performed a 40-m sprint, a vertical jump assessment and a maximal isometric force test. In the morning of the match day, blood samples were collected to analyze the CK activity. Afterwards, three simulated rugby sevens' matches were performed with 2-h intermission periods. The match performance (encompassing total distance and distance covered in different velocity ranges and body loads [BL]) were obtained from global positioning system units. The statistical analysis was performed by using a mixed model approach and the effect sizes (ES) of the differences. The statistical significance level was set at P0.8) and significant (P< 0.05) reductions were demonstrated in the total distance and BL when comparing the 2 with the 1 halves. Decrements in the explosive force capacity (assessed by means of RFD) and the squat jump were noticed (ES varying from 0.55 to 1.14; P< 0.05). The CK activity increased after the matches (ES = 1.29; P< 0.05). The rugby sevens players were able to maintain the physical performance across three successive matches simulating the first day of a tournament. The augmented CK activity and the decreases in the squat jump and RFD suggest that increased levels of muscle damage were experienced on the day after the matches. Therefore, the technical staff are encouraged to implement recovery strategies and planned substitutions during multi-day tournaments in order to reduce the impact of

  13. How Game Location Affects Soccer Performance: T-Pattern Analysis of Attack Actions in Home and Away Matches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Diana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of game location on performance has been widely examined in sport contexts. Concerning soccer, game-location affects positively the secondary and tertiary level of performance; however, there are fewer evidences about its effect on game structure (primary level of performance. This study aimed to detect the effect of game location on a primary level of performance in soccer. In particular, the objective was to reveal the hidden structures underlying the attack actions, in both home and away matches played by a top club (Serie A 2012/2013—First Leg. The methodological approach was based on systematic observation, supported by digital recordings and T-pattern analysis. Data were analyzed with THEME 6.0 software. A quantitative analysis, with nonparametric Mann–Whitney test and descriptive statistics, was carried out to test the hypotheses. A qualitative analysis on complex patterns was performed to get in-depth information on the game structure. This study showed that game tactics were significantly different, with home matches characterized by a more structured and varied game than away matches. In particular, a higher number of different patterns, with a higher level of complexity and including more unique behaviors was detected in home matches than in the away ones. No significant differences were found in the number of events coded per game between the two conditions. THEME software, and the corresponding T-pattern detection algorithm, enhance research opportunities by going further than frequency-based analyses, making this method an effective tool in supporting sport performance analysis and training.

  14. How Game Location Affects Soccer Performance: T-Pattern Analysis of Attack Actions in Home and Away Matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Barbara; Zurloni, Valentino; Elia, Massimiliano; Cavalera, Cesare M; Jonsson, Gudberg K; Anguera, M Teresa

    2017-01-01

    The influence of game location on performance has been widely examined in sport contexts. Concerning soccer, game-location affects positively the secondary and tertiary level of performance; however, there are fewer evidences about its effect on game structure (primary level of performance). This study aimed to detect the effect of game location on a primary level of performance in soccer. In particular, the objective was to reveal the hidden structures underlying the attack actions, in both home and away matches played by a top club (Serie A 2012/2013-First Leg). The methodological approach was based on systematic observation, supported by digital recordings and T-pattern analysis. Data were analyzed with THEME 6.0 software. A quantitative analysis, with nonparametric Mann-Whitney test and descriptive statistics, was carried out to test the hypotheses. A qualitative analysis on complex patterns was performed to get in-depth information on the game structure. This study showed that game tactics were significantly different, with home matches characterized by a more structured and varied game than away matches. In particular, a higher number of different patterns, with a higher level of complexity and including more unique behaviors was detected in home matches than in the away ones. No significant differences were found in the number of events coded per game between the two conditions. THEME software, and the corresponding T-pattern detection algorithm, enhance research opportunities by going further than frequency-based analyses, making this method an effective tool in supporting sport performance analysis and training.

  15. Neuraminidase and hemagglutinin matching patterns of a highly pathogenic avian and two pandemic H1N1 influenza A viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza A virus displays strong reassortment characteristics, which enable it to achieve adaptation in human infection. Surveying the reassortment and virulence of novel viruses is important in the prevention and control of an influenza pandemic. Meanwhile, studying the mechanism of reassortment may accelerate the development of anti-influenza strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA matching patterns of two pandemic H1N1 viruses (the 1918 and current 2009 strains and a highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1 were studied using a pseudotyped particle (pp system. Our data showed that four of the six chimeric HA/NA combinations could produce infectious pps, and that some of the chimeric pps had greater infectivity than did their ancestors, raising the possibility of reassortment among these viruses. The NA of H5N1 (A/Anhui/1/2005 could hardly reassort with the HAs of the two H1N1 viruses. Many biological characteristics of HA and NA, including infectivity, hemagglutinating ability, and NA activity, are dependent on their matching pattern. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest the existence of an interaction between HA and NA, and the HA NA matching pattern is critical for valid viral reassortment.

  16. Generalized Phase contrast and matched filtering for speckle‐free patterned illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Villangca, Mark Jayson

    2013-01-01

    Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) and matched‐filtering GPC use tandem diffractive phase elements on Fourier‐conjugate planes of a 4f optical processor to efficiently reshape incident light into a pattern that resembles the input phase modulation pattern. The synthesized patterns are inherently...... to optically trap and mechanically manipulate microparticles, GPC has also been applied for laser beamshaping, optical phase cryptography, and greyscale image projection. Recent reports from our collaborators highlight that GPC‐based spatial lightshaping, when combined with temporal focusing and multiphoton...... excitation, exhibits some robustness against light scattering and, hence, makes a promising tool for spatially precise targeting of deeper subsurface neurons using minimally speckled patterned illumination for multiphoton excitation....

  17. Exploring the impact of climate variability during the Last Glacial Maximum on the pattern of human occupation of Iberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Ariane; Levavasseur, Guillaume; James, Patrick M A; Guiducci, Dario; Izquierdo, Manuel Arturo; Bourgeon, Lauriane; Kageyama, Masa; Ramstein, Gilles; Vrac, Mathieu

    2014-08-01

    The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was a global climate event, which had significant repercussions for the spatial distribution and demographic history of prehistoric populations. In Eurasia, the LGM coincides with a potential bottleneck for modern humans and may mark the divergence date for Asian and European populations (Keinan et al., 2007). In this research, the impact of climate variability on human populations in the Iberian Peninsula during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is examined with the aid of downscaled high-resolution (16 × 16 km) numerical climate experiments. Human sensitivity to short time-scale (inter-annual) climate variability during this key time period, which follows the initial modern human colonisation of Eurasia and the extinction of the Neanderthals, is tested using the spatial distribution of archaeological sites. Results indicate that anatomically modern human populations responded to small-scale spatial patterning in climate variability, specifically inter-annual variability in precipitation levels as measured by the standard precipitation index. Climate variability at less than millennial scale, therefore, is shown to be an important component of ecological risk, one that played a role in regulating the spatial behaviour of prehistoric human populations and consequently affected their social networks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pattern formation without diffraction matching in optical parametric oscillators with a metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassin, Philippe; Van der Sande, Guy; Veretennicoff, Irina; Kockaert, Pascal; Tlidi, Mustapha

    2009-05-25

    We consider a degenerate optical parametric oscillator containing a left-handed material. We show that the inclusion of a left-handed material layer allows for controlling the strength and sign of the diffraction coefficient at either the pump or the signal frequency. Subsequently, we demonstrate the existence of stable dissipative structures without diffraction matching, i.e., without the usual relationship between the diffraction coefficients of the signal and pump fields. Finally, we investigate the size scaling of these light structures with decreasing diffraction strength.

  19. Towards optimal packed string matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany

    2014-01-01

    -size string-matching instruction wssm is available in contemporary commodity processors. The other word-size maximum-suffix instruction wslm is only required during the pattern pre-processing. Benchmarks show that our solution can be efficiently implemented, unlike some prior theoretical packed string...

  20. Spatial-temporal changes of maximum and minimum temperatures in the Wei River Basin, China: Changing patterns, causes and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Saiyan; Huang, Shengzhi; Xie, Yangyang; Huang, Qiang; Leng, Guoyong; Hou, Beibei; Zhang, Ying; Wei, Xiu

    2018-05-01

    Due to the important role of temperature in the global climate system and energy cycles, it is important to investigate the spatial-temporal change patterns, causes and implications of annual maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures. In this study, the Cloud model were adopted to fully and accurately analyze the changing patterns of annual Tmax and Tmin from 1958 to 2008 by quantifying their mean, uniformity, and stability in the Wei River Basin (WRB), a typical arid and semi-arid region in China. Additionally, the cross wavelet analysis was applied to explore the correlations among annual Tmax and Tmin and the yearly sunspots number, Arctic Oscillation, Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and soil moisture with an aim to determine possible causes of annual Tmax and Tmin variations. Furthermore, temperature-related impacts on vegetation cover and precipitation extremes were also examined. Results indicated that: (1) the WRB is characterized by increasing trends in annual Tmax and Tmin, with a more evident increasing trend in annual Tmin, which has a higher dispersion degree and is less uniform and stable than annual Tmax; (2) the asymmetric variations of Tmax and Tmin can be generally explained by the stronger effects of solar activity (primarily), large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns, and soil moisture on annual Tmin than on annual Tmax; and (3) increasing annual Tmax and Tmin have exerted strong influences on local precipitation extremes, in terms of their duration, intensity, and frequency in the WRB. This study presents new analyses of Tmax and Tmin in the WRB, and the findings may help guide regional agricultural production and water resources management.

  1. Spatio-temporal dynamics of global H5N1 outbreaks match bird migration patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Si

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The global spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in poultry, wild birds and humans, poses a significant pandemic threat and a serious public health risk. An efficient surveillance and disease control system relies on the understanding of the dispersion patterns and spreading mechanisms of the virus. A space-time cluster analysis of H5N1 outbreaks was used to identify spatio-temporal patterns at a global scale and over an extended period of time. Potential mechanisms explaining the spread of the H5N1 virus, and the role of wild birds, were analyzed. Between December 2003 and December 2006, three global epidemic phases of H5N1 influenza were identified. These H5N1 outbreaks showed a clear seasonal pattern, with a high density of outbreaks in winter and early spring (i.e., October to March. In phase I and II only the East Asia Australian flyway was affected. During phase III, the H5N1 viruses started to appear in four other flyways: the Central Asian flyway, the Black Sea Mediterranean flyway, the East Atlantic flyway and the East Africa West Asian flyway. Six disease cluster patterns along these flyways were found to be associated with the seasonal migration of wild birds. The spread of the H5N1 virus, as demonstrated by the space-time clusters, was associated with the patterns of migration of wild birds. Wild birds may therefore play an important role in the spread of H5N1 over long distances. Disease clusters were also detected at sites where wild birds are known to overwinter and at times when migratory birds were present. This leads to the suggestion that wild birds may also be involved in spreading the H5N1 virus over short distances.

  2. Neural network based pattern matching and spike detection tools and services--in the CARMEN neuroinformatics project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Martyn; Liang, Bojian; Smith, Leslie; Knowles, Alastair; Jackson, Tom; Jessop, Mark; Austin, Jim

    2008-10-01

    In the study of information flow in the nervous system, component processes can be investigated using a range of electrophysiological and imaging techniques. Although data is difficult and expensive to produce, it is rarely shared and collaboratively exploited. The Code Analysis, Repository and Modelling for e-Neuroscience (CARMEN) project addresses this challenge through the provision of a virtual neuroscience laboratory: an infrastructure for sharing data, tools and services. Central to the CARMEN concept are federated CARMEN nodes, which provide: data and metadata storage, new, thirdparty and legacy services, and tools. In this paper, we describe the CARMEN project as well as the node infrastructure and an associated thick client tool for pattern visualisation and searching, the Signal Data Explorer (SDE). We also discuss new spike detection methods, which are central to the services provided by CARMEN. The SDE is a client application which can be used to explore data in the CARMEN repository, providing data visualization, signal processing and a pattern matching capability. It performs extremely fast pattern matching and can be used to search for complex conditions composed of many different patterns across the large datasets that are typical in neuroinformatics. Searches can also be constrained by specifying text based metadata filters. Spike detection services which use wavelet and morphology techniques are discussed, and have been shown to outperform traditional thresholding and template based systems. A number of different spike detection and sorting techniques will be deployed as services within the CARMEN infrastructure, to allow users to benchmark their performance against a wide range of reference datasets.

  3. Patterns of somatic alterations between matched primary and metastatic colorectal tumors characterized by whole-genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tao; Cho, Yong Beom; Wang, Kai; Huang, Donghui; Hong, Hye Kyung; Choi, Yoon-La; Ko, Young Hyeh; Nam, Do-Hyun; Jin, Juyoun; Yang, Heekyoung; Fernandez, Julio; Deng, Shibing; Rejto, Paul A; Lee, Woo Yong; Mao, Mao

    2014-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) patients have poor prognosis after formation of distant metastasis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which genetic changes facilitate metastasis is critical for the development of targeted therapeutic strategies aimed at controlling disease progression while minimizing toxic side effects. A comprehensive portrait of somatic alterations in CRC and the changes between primary and metastatic tumors has yet to be developed. We performed whole genome sequencing of two primary CRC tumors and their matched liver metastases. By comparing to matched germline DNA, we catalogued somatic alterations at multiple scales, including single nucleotide variations, small insertions and deletions, copy number aberrations and structural variations in both the primary and matched metastasis. We found that the majority of these somatic alterations are present in both sites. Despite the overall similarity, several de novo alterations in the metastases were predicted to be deleterious, in genes including FBXW7, DCLK1 and FAT2, which might contribute to the initiation and progression of distant metastasis. Through careful examination of the mutation prevalence among tumor cells at each site, we also proposed distinct clonal evolution patterns between primary and metastatic tumors in the two cases. These results suggest that somatic alterations may play an important role in driving the development of colorectal cancer metastasis and present challenges and opportunities when considering the choice of treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pattern Matching for Volcano Status Assessment: what monitoring data alone can say about Mt. Etna activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannavo, F.; Cannata, A.; Cassisi, C.

    2017-12-01

    The importance of assessing the ongoing status of active volcanoes is crucial not only for exposures to the local population but due to possible presence of tephra also for airline traffic. Adequately monitoring of active volcanoes, hence, plays a key role for civil protection purposes. In last decades, in order to properly monitor possible threats, continuous measuring networks have been designed and deployed on most of potentially hazardous volcanos. Nevertheless, at the present, volcano real-time surveillance is basically delegated to one or more human experts in volcanology, who interpret data coming from different kind of monitoring networks using their experience and non-measurable information (e.g. information from the field) to infer the volcano status. In some cases, raw data are used in some models to obtain more clues on the ongoing activity. In the last decades, with the development of volcano monitoring networks, huge amount of data of different geophysical, geochemical and volcanological types have been collected and stored in large databases. Having such big data sets with many examples of volcanic activity allows us to study volcano monitoring from a machine learning perspective. Thus, exploiting opportunities offered by the abundance of volcano monitoring time-series data we can try to address the following questions: Are the monitored parameters sufficient to discriminate the volcano status? Is it possible to infer/distinguish the volcano status only from the multivariate patterns of measurements? Are all the kind of measurements in the pattern equally useful for status assessment? How accurate would be an automatic system of status inference based only on pattern recognition of data? Here we present preliminary results of the data analysis we performed on a set of data and activity covering the period 2011-2017 at Mount Etna (Italy). In the considered period, we had 52 events of lava fountaining and long periods of Strombolian activity. We

  5. Estimation of subcriticality and fuel concentration by using 'pattern matching' of neutron flux distribution under non uniformed system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishitani, Kazuki; Yamane, Yoshihiro

    1999-01-01

    In nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, monitoring the spatial profile of neutron flux to infer subcriticality and distribution of fuel concentration using detectors such as PSPC, is very beneficial in sight of criticality safety. In this paper a method of subcriticality and fuel concentration estimation which is supposed to use under non-uniformed system is proposed. Its basic concept is the pattern matching between measured neutron flux distribution and beforehand calculated one. In any kind of subcriticality estimation, we can regard that measured neutron counts put any kind of black box, and then this black box outputs subcriticality. We proposed the use of artificial neural network or 'pattern matching' as black box which have no theoretical clear base. These method are wholly based on the calculated value as recently advancement of computer code accuracy for criticality safety. The most difference between indirect bias estimation method and our method is that our new approach target are the unknown non-uniform system. (J.P.N.)

  6. Investigation of cortical thickness abnormalities in lithium-free adults with bipolar type I disorder using cortical pattern matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foland-Ross, Lara C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Madsen, Sarah K.; Shen, Jim K.; Penfold, Conor; Ahlf, Kyle; Rasser, Paul E.; Fischer, Jeffrey; Yang, Yilan; Townsend, Jennifer; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Altshuler, Lori L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Several lines of evidence implicate gray matter abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex in patients with bipolar disorder. Findings however, have been largely inconsistent across studies. Differences in patients’ medication status or mood state, or the application of traditional volumetric methods that are insensitive to subtle neuroanatomic differences may have contributed to these inconsistent findings. Given this, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in conjunction with cortical pattern matching methods to assess cortical thickness abnormalities in euthymic bipolar subjects who were not treated with lithium. Method Sixty-five subjects, including 34 lithium-free euthymic subjects with bipolar (type I) disorder and 31 healthy subjects were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Data were processed to measure cortical gray matter thickness. Cortical pattern matching methods associated homologous brain regions across subjects. Spatially normalized thickness maps were analyzed to assess illness effects and associations with clinical variables. Results Relative to healthy subjects, euthymic bipolar I subjects had significantly thinner gray matter in bilateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann Areas 11, 10, 8 and 44) and left anterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann Areas 24/32). Additionally, thinning in these regions was more pronounced in patients with a history of psychosis. No areas of thicker cortex were detected in bipolar subjects versus healthy subjects. Conclusions Using a technique that is highly sensitive to subtle neuroanatomic differences, significant regional cortical thinning was found in euthymic subjects with bipolar disorder. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:21285139

  7. GPUs for fast pattern matching in the RICH of the NA62 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lamanna, G; Sozzi, M

    2011-01-01

    In rare decays experiments an effective online selection is a fundamental part of the data acquisition system (DAQ) in order to reduce both the quantity of data written on tape and the bandwidth requirements for the DAQ system. A multilevel architecture is commonly used to achieve a higher reduction factor, exploiting dedicated custom hardware and flexible software in standard computers. In this paper we discuss the possibility to use commercial video card processors (GPU) to build a fast and effective trigger system, both at hardware and software level. The computing power of the GPUs allows to design a real-time system in which trigger decisions are taken directly in the video processor with a defined maximum latency. This allows building lowest trigger levels based on standard off-the-shelf PCs with CPU and GPU (instead of the commonly adopted solutions based on custom electronics with FPGA or ASICs) with enhanced and high performance computation capabilities, resulting in high rejection power, high effici...

  8. Improving the Pattern Reproducibility of Multiple-Point-Based Prior Models Using Frequency Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordua, Knud Skou; Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Some multiple-point-based sampling algorithms, such as the snesim algorithm, rely on sequential simulation. The conditional probability distributions that are used for the simulation are based on statistics of multiple-point data events obtained from a training image. During the simulation, data...... events with zero probability in the training image statistics may occur. This is handled by pruning the set of conditioning data until an event with non-zero probability is found. The resulting probability distribution sampled by such algorithms is a pruned mixture model. The pruning strategy leads...... to a probability distribution that lacks some of the information provided by the multiple-point statistics from the training image, which reduces the reproducibility of the training image patterns in the outcome realizations. When pruned mixture models are used as prior models for inverse problems, local re...

  9. PROCOV: maximum likelihood estimation of protein phylogeny under covarion models and site-specific covarion pattern analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Huai-Chun

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The covarion hypothesis of molecular evolution holds that selective pressures on a given amino acid or nucleotide site are dependent on the identity of other sites in the molecule that change throughout time, resulting in changes of evolutionary rates of sites along the branches of a phylogenetic tree. At the sequence level, covarion-like evolution at a site manifests as conservation of nucleotide or amino acid states among some homologs where the states are not conserved in other homologs (or groups of homologs. Covarion-like evolution has been shown to relate to changes in functions at sites in different clades, and, if ignored, can adversely affect the accuracy of phylogenetic inference. Results PROCOV (protein covarion analysis is a software tool that implements a number of previously proposed covarion models of protein evolution for phylogenetic inference in a maximum likelihood framework. Several algorithmic and implementation improvements in this tool over previous versions make computationally expensive tree searches with covarion models more efficient and analyses of large phylogenomic data sets tractable. PROCOV can be used to identify covarion sites by comparing the site likelihoods under the covarion process to the corresponding site likelihoods under a rates-across-sites (RAS process. Those sites with the greatest log-likelihood difference between a 'covarion' and an RAS process were found to be of functional or structural significance in a dataset of bacterial and eukaryotic elongation factors. Conclusion Covarion models implemented in PROCOV may be especially useful for phylogenetic estimation when ancient divergences between sequences have occurred and rates of evolution at sites are likely to have changed over the tree. It can also be used to study lineage-specific functional shifts in protein families that result in changes in the patterns of site variability among subtrees.

  10. Continuous Acetylsalicylic Acid Treatment Does Not Influence Bleeding Pattern or Outcome of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Matched-Pair Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Markus; Won, Sae-Yeon; Wagner, Marlies; Brawanski, Nina; Dinc, Nazife; Kashefiolasl, Sepide; Seifert, Volker; Konczalla, Juergen

    2018-05-01

    Demographic changes are leading to an aging society with a growing number of patients with cardiovascular diseases, relying on antiplatelet drugs like acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Although antiplatelet agents are suspected to be protective not only in the cardiologic but in the neurovascular field, the alteration of the coagulating process could have a major impact on the course and outcome after rupture of intracranial aneurysms. Between June 1999 and December 2014, 1422 patients were treated for aneurysmal SAH in our institution, 144 (10.1%) with continuous ASA at the time of aneurysm rupture. A matched-pair analysis was performed. The rate of patients with continuous ASA treatment while rupture of the aneurysm is rising significantly (P bleeding pattern. Outcome was not different in the matched-pair analysis. There was no statistical difference in treatment related-complication rates of microsurgical and endovascular procedures. Therefore, ASA use should not influence treatment decision of the ruptured aneurysm. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fixed-pattern noise correction method based on improved moment matching for a TDI CMOS image sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiangtao; Nie, Huafeng; Nie, Kaiming; Jin, Weimin

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, an improved moment matching method based on a spatial correlation filter (SCF) and bilateral filter (BF) is proposed to correct the fixed-pattern noise (FPN) of a time-delay-integration CMOS image sensor (TDI-CIS). First, the values of row FPN (RFPN) and column FPN (CFPN) are estimated and added to the original image through SCF and BF, respectively. Then the filtered image will be processed by an improved moment matching method with a moving window. Experimental results based on a 128-stage TDI-CIS show that, after correcting the FPN in the image captured under uniform illumination, the standard deviation of row mean vector (SDRMV) decreases from 5.6761 LSB to 0.1948 LSB, while the standard deviation of the column mean vector (SDCMV) decreases from 15.2005 LSB to 13.1949LSB. In addition, for different images captured by different TDI-CISs, the average decrease of SDRMV and SDCMV is 5.4922/2.0357 LSB, respectively. Comparative experimental results indicate that the proposed method can effectively correct the FPNs of different TDI-CISs while maintaining image details without any auxiliary equipment.

  12. Recurrence quantification analysis of extremes of maximum and minimum temperature patterns for different climate scenarios in the Mesochora catchment in Central-Western Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagoulia, Dionysia; Vlahogianni, Eleni I.

    2018-06-01

    A methodological framework based on nonlinear recurrence analysis is proposed to examine the historical data evolution of extremes of maximum and minimum daily mean areal temperature patterns over time under different climate scenarios. The methodology is based on both historical data and atmospheric General Circulation Model (GCM) produced climate scenarios for the periods 1961-2000 and 2061-2100 which correspond to 1 × CO2 and 2 × CO2 scenarios. Historical data were derived from the actual daily observations coupled with atmospheric circulation patterns (CPs). The dynamics of the temperature was reconstructed in the phase-space from the time series of temperatures. The statistically comparing different temperature patterns were based on some discriminating statistics obtained by the Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA). Moreover, the bootstrap method of Schinkel et al. (2009) was adopted to calculate the confidence bounds of RQA parameters based on a structural preserving resampling. The overall methodology was implemented to the mountainous Mesochora catchment in Central-Western Greece. The results reveal substantial similarities between the historical maximum and minimum daily mean areal temperature statistical patterns and their confidence bounds, as well as the maximum and minimum temperature patterns in evolution under the 2 × CO2 scenario. A significant variability and non-stationary behaviour characterizes all climate series analyzed. Fundamental differences are produced from the historical and maximum 1 × CO2 scenarios, the maximum 1 × CO2 and minimum 1 × CO2 scenarios, as well as the confidence bounds for the two CO2 scenarios. The 2 × CO2 scenario reflects the strongest shifts in intensity, duration and frequency in temperature patterns. Such transitions can help the scientists and policy makers to understand the effects of extreme temperature changes on water resources, economic development, and health of ecosystems and hence to proceed to

  13. Human Identification by Cross-Correlation and Pattern Matching of Personalized Heartbeat: Influence of ECG Leads and Reference Database Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekova, Irena; Krasteva, Vessela; Schmid, Ramun

    2018-01-27

    Human identification (ID) is a biometric task, comparing single input sample to many stored templates to identify an individual in a reference database. This paper aims to present the perspectives of personalized heartbeat pattern for reliable ECG-based identification. The investigations are using a database with 460 pairs of 12-lead resting electrocardiograms (ECG) with 10-s durations recorded at time-instants T1 and T2 > T1 + 1 year. Intra-subject long-term ECG stability and inter-subject variability of personalized PQRST (500 ms) and QRS (100 ms) patterns is quantified via cross-correlation, amplitude ratio and pattern matching between T1 and T2 using 7 features × 12-leads. Single and multi-lead ID models are trained on the first 230 ECG pairs. Their validation on 10, 20, ... 230 reference subjects (RS) from the remaining 230 ECG pairs shows: (i) two best single-lead ID models using lead II for a small population RS = (10-140) with identification accuracy AccID = (89.4-67.2)% and aVF for a large population RS = (140-230) with AccID = (67.2-63.9)%; (ii) better performance of the 6-lead limb vs. the 6-lead chest ID model-(91.4-76.1)% vs. (90.9-70)% for RS = (10-230); (iii) best performance of the 12-lead ID model-(98.4-87.4)% for RS = (10-230). The tolerable reference database size, keeping AccID > 80%, is RS = 30 in the single-lead ID scenario (II); RS = 50 (6 chest leads); RS = 100 (6 limb leads), RS > 230-maximal population in this study (12-lead ECG).

  14. Outsourced pattern matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faust, Sebastian; Hazay, Carmit; Venturi, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    In secure delegatable computation, computationally weak devices (or clients) wish to outsource their computation and data to an untrusted server in the cloud. While most earlier work considers the general question of how to securely outsource any computation to the cloud server, we focus...... that contain confidential data (e.g., health related data about patient history). Our constructions offer simulation-based security in the presence of semi-honest and malicious adversaries (in the random oracle model) and limit the communication in the query phase to O(m) bits plus the number of occurrences...

  15. Boxed Permutation Pattern Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amit, Mika; Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge

    2016-01-01

    the goal is to only find the boxed subsequences of T that are order-isomorphic to P. This problem was introduced by Bruner and Lackner who showed that it can be solved in O(n3) time. Cho et al. [CPM 2015] gave an O(n2m) time algorithm and improved it to O(n2 logm). In this paper we present a solution...

  16. Effects of the Maximum Luminance in a Medical-grade Liquid-crystal Display on the Recognition Time of a Test Pattern: Observer Performance Using Landolt Rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Yasuhiro; Matsuyama, Michinobu; Ikeda, Ryuji; Hashida, Masahiro

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to measure the recognition time of the test pattern and to investigate the effects of the maximum luminance in a medical-grade liquid-crystal display (LCD) on the recognition time. Landolt rings as signals of the test pattern were used with four random orientations, one on each of the eight gray-scale steps. Ten observers input the orientation of the gap on the Landolt rings using cursor keys on the keyboard. The recognition times were automatically measured from the display of the test pattern on the medical-grade LCD to the input of the orientation of the gap in the Landolt rings. The maximum luminance in this study was set to one of four values (100, 170, 250, and 400 cd/m(2)), for which the corresponding recognition times were measured. As a result, the average recognition times for each observer with maximum luminances of 100, 170, 250, and 400 cd/m(2) were found to be 3.96 to 7.12 s, 3.72 to 6.35 s, 3.53 to 5.97 s, and 3.37 to 5.98 s, respectively. The results indicate that the observer's recognition time is directly proportional to the luminance of the medical-grade LCD. Therefore, it is evident that the maximum luminance of the medical-grade LCD affects the test pattern recognition time.

  17. Specific Patterns of Emotion Recognition from Faces in Children with ASD: Results of a Cross-Modal Matching Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Ofer; Gordon, Ilanit; Fichman, Keren; Keinan, Giora

    2018-01-01

    Children with ASD show emotion recognition difficulties, as part of their social communication deficits. We examined facial emotion recognition (FER) in intellectually disabled children with ASD and in younger typically developing (TD) controls, matched on mental age. Our emotion-matching paradigm employed three different modalities: facial, vocal…

  18. Uma proposta de solução para o problema da construção de escalas de motoristas e cobradores de ônibus por meio do algoritmo do matching de peso máximo A proposed solution for bus driver and fare collector scheduling problems using the maximum weight matching algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Siqueira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é mostrar a aplicação do Algoritmo do Matching de peso máximo, na elaboração de jornadas de trabalho para motoristas e cobradores de ônibus. Este problema deve ser resolvido levando-se em consideração o maior aproveitamento possível das tabelas de horários, com o objetivo de minimizar o número de funcionários, de horas extras e de horas ociosas. Desta forma, os custos das companhias de transporte público são minimizados. Na primeira fase do trabalho, supondo-se que as tabelas de horários já estejam divididas em escalas de curta e de longa duração, as escalas de curta duração são combinadas para a formação da jornada diária de trabalho de um funcionário. Esta combinação é feita com o Algoritmo do Matching de peso máximo, no qual as escalas são representadas por vértices de um grafo, e o peso máximo é atribuído às combinações de escalas que não formam horas extras e horas ociosas. Na segunda fase, uma jornada de final de semana é designada para cada jornada semanal de dias úteis. Por meio destas duas fases, as jornadas semanais de trabalho para motoristas e cobradores de ônibus podem ser construídas com custo mínimo. A terceira e última fase deste trabalho consiste na designação das jornadas semanais de trabalho para cada motorista e cobrador de ônibus, considerando-se suas preferências. O Algoritmo do Matching de peso máximo é utilizado para esta fase também. Este trabalho foi aplicado em três empresas de transporte público da cidade de Curitiba - PR, nas quais os algoritmos utilizados anteriormente eram heurísticos, baseados apenas na experiência do encarregado por esta tarefa.The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the maximum weight Matching Algorithm can be applied to schedule the workdays of bus drivers and bus fare collectors. This scheduling should be based on the best possible use of timetables in order to minimize the number of employees, overtime and

  19. Matching theory

    CERN Document Server

    Plummer, MD

    1986-01-01

    This study of matching theory deals with bipartite matching, network flows, and presents fundamental results for the non-bipartite case. It goes on to study elementary bipartite graphs and elementary graphs in general. Further discussed are 2-matchings, general matching problems as linear programs, the Edmonds Matching Algorithm (and other algorithmic approaches), f-factors and vertex packing.

  20. Foods Served in Child Care Facilities Participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program: Menu Match and Agreement with the New Meal Patterns and Best Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Jayna M; Cullen, Karen W

    2018-02-20

    To assess the agreement of posted menus with foods served to 3- to 5-year-old children attending federal Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)-enrolled facilities, and the degree to which the facilities met the new meal patterns and best practices. On-site observations and menu coding. Nine early care and education centers. Agreement of posted menus with foods served, and comparison of foods served and consumed with the new CACFP meal guidelines and best practices. Data were compiled for each meal (breakfast, lunch, and snacks). Frequencies and percentages of agreement with the posted menu (coded matches, substitutions, additions, and omissions) were calculated for each food component in the CACFP menu guidelines. Menu total match was created by summing the menu match plus acceptable substitutions. Menus were compared with the new CACFP meal guidelines and best practices. The match between the posted menus and foods actually served to children at breakfast, lunch, and snack was high when the acceptable menu substitutions were considered (approximately 94% to 100% total match). Comparing the menus with the new meal guidelines and best practices, the 1 guideline that was fully implemented was serving only unflavored, low-fat, or 1% milk; fruit and vegetable guidelines were partially met; fruit juice was not served often, nor were legumes; the guideline for 1 whole grain-rich serving/d was not met; and regular beef and full-fat cheese products were commonly served. Early care and education centers enrolled in CACFP provided meals that met the current CACFP guidelines. Some menu improvements are needed for the centers to meet the new guidelines and best practices. Copyright © 2018 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Matched filtering Generalized Phase Contrast using binary phase for dynamic spot- and line patterns in biophotonics and structured lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Aabo, Thomas; Palima, Darwin

    2013-01-01

    as a combination of Generalized Phase Contrast and phase-only correlation. Such an analysis makes it convenient to optimize an mGPC system for different setup conditions. Results showing binary-only phase generation of dynamic spot arrays and line patterns are presented. © 201 Optical Society of America...

  2. Genetic Algorithm with Maximum-Minimum Crossover (GA-MMC) Applied in Optimization of Radiation Pattern Control of Phased-Array Radars for Rocket Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leonardo W. T.; Barros, Vitor F.; Silva, Sandro G.

    2014-01-01

    In launching operations, Rocket Tracking Systems (RTS) process the trajectory data obtained by radar sensors. In order to improve functionality and maintenance, radars can be upgraded by replacing antennas with parabolic reflectors (PRs) with phased arrays (PAs). These arrays enable the electronic control of the radiation pattern by adjusting the signal supplied to each radiating element. However, in projects of phased array radars (PARs), the modeling of the problem is subject to various combinations of excitation signals producing a complex optimization problem. In this case, it is possible to calculate the problem solutions with optimization methods such as genetic algorithms (GAs). For this, the Genetic Algorithm with Maximum-Minimum Crossover (GA-MMC) method was developed to control the radiation pattern of PAs. The GA-MMC uses a reconfigurable algorithm with multiple objectives, differentiated coding and a new crossover genetic operator. This operator has a different approach from the conventional one, because it performs the crossover of the fittest individuals with the least fit individuals in order to enhance the genetic diversity. Thus, GA-MMC was successful in more than 90% of the tests for each application, increased the fitness of the final population by more than 20% and reduced the premature convergence. PMID:25196013

  3. Local gradient Gabor pattern (LGGP) with applications in face recognition, cross-spectral matching, and soft biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cunjian; Ross, Arun

    2013-05-01

    Researchers in face recognition have been using Gabor filters for image representation due to their robustness to complex variations in expression and illumination. Numerous methods have been proposed to model the output of filter responses by employing either local or global descriptors. In this work, we propose a novel but simple approach for encoding Gradient information on Gabor-transformed images to represent the face, which can be used for identity, gender and ethnicity assessment. Extensive experiments on the standard face benchmark FERET (Visible versus Visible), as well as the heterogeneous face dataset HFB (Near-infrared versus Visible), suggest that the matching performance due to the proposed descriptor is comparable against state-of-the-art descriptor-based approaches in face recognition applications. Furthermore, the same feature set is used in the framework of a Collaborative Representation Classification (CRC) scheme for deducing soft biometric traits such as gender and ethnicity from face images in the AR, Morph and CAS-PEAL databases.

  4. Mining a database of single amplified genomes from Red Sea brine pool extremophiles—improving reliability of gene function prediction using a profile and pattern matching algorithm (PPMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grötzinger, Stefan W.; Alam, Intikhab; Ba Alawi, Wail; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Stingl, Ulrich; Eppinger, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Reliable functional annotation of genomic data is the key-step in the discovery of novel enzymes. Intrinsic sequencing data quality problems of single amplified genomes (SAGs) and poor homology of novel extremophile's genomes pose significant challenges for the attribution of functions to the coding sequences identified. The anoxic deep-sea brine pools of the Red Sea are a promising source of novel enzymes with unique evolutionary adaptation. Sequencing data from Red Sea brine pool cultures and SAGs are annotated and stored in the Integrated Data Warehouse of Microbial Genomes (INDIGO) data warehouse. Low sequence homology of annotated genes (no similarity for 35% of these genes) may translate into false positives when searching for specific functions. The Profile and Pattern Matching (PPM) strategy described here was developed to eliminate false positive annotations of enzyme function before progressing to labor-intensive hyper-saline gene expression and characterization. It utilizes InterPro-derived Gene Ontology (GO)-terms (which represent enzyme function profiles) and annotated relevant PROSITE IDs (which are linked to an amino acid consensus pattern). The PPM algorithm was tested on 15 protein families, which were selected based on scientific and commercial potential. An initial list of 2577 enzyme commission (E.C.) numbers was translated into 171 GO-terms and 49 consensus patterns. A subset of INDIGO-sequences consisting of 58 SAGs from six different taxons of bacteria and archaea were selected from six different brine pool environments. Those SAGs code for 74,516 genes, which were independently scanned for the GO-terms (profile filter) and PROSITE IDs (pattern filter). Following stringent reliability filtering, the non-redundant hits (106 profile hits and 147 pattern hits) are classified as reliable, if at least two relevant descriptors (GO-terms and/or consensus patterns) are present. Scripts for annotation, as well as for the PPM algorithm, are available

  5. Mining a database of single amplified genomes from Red Sea brine pool extremophiles – Improving reliability of gene function prediction using a profile and pattern matching algorithm (PPMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Wolfgang Grötzinger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reliable functional annotation of genomic data is the key-step in the discovery of novel enzymes. Intrinsic sequencing data quality problems of single amplified genomes (SAGs and poor homology of novel extremophile’s genomes pose significant challenges for the attribution of functions to the coding sequences identified. The anoxic deep-sea brine pools of the Red Sea are a promising source of novel enzymes with unique evolutionary adaptation. Sequencing data from Red Sea brine pool cultures and SAGs are annotated and stored in the INDIGO data warehouse. Low sequence homology of annotated genes (no similarity for 35% of these genes may translate into false positives when searching for specific functions. The Profile & Pattern Matching (PPM strategy described here was developed to eliminate false positive annotations of enzyme function before progressing to labor-intensive hyper-saline gene expression and characterization. It utilizes InterPro-derived Gene Ontology (GO-terms (which represent enzyme function profiles and annotated relevant PROSITE IDs (which are linked to an amino acid consensus pattern. The PPM algorithm was tested on 15 protein families, which were selected based on scientific and commercial potential. An initial list of 2,577 E.C. numbers was translated into 171 GO-terms and 49 consensus patterns. A subset of INDIGO-sequences consisting of 58 SAGs from six different taxons of bacteria and archaea were selected from 6 different brine pool environments. Those SAGs code for 74,516 genes, which were independently scanned for the GO-terms (profile filter and PROSITE IDs (pattern filter. Following stringent reliability filtering, the non-redundant hits (106 profile hits and 147 pattern hits are classified as reliable, if at least two relevant descriptors (GO-terms and/or consensus patterns are present. Scripts for annotation, as well as for the PPM algorithm, are available through the INDIGO website.

  6. Mining a database of single amplified genomes from Red Sea brine pool extremophiles-improving reliability of gene function prediction using a profile and pattern matching algorithm (PPMA).

    KAUST Repository

    Grötzinger, Stefan W.

    2014-04-07

    Reliable functional annotation of genomic data is the key-step in the discovery of novel enzymes. Intrinsic sequencing data quality problems of single amplified genomes (SAGs) and poor homology of novel extremophile\\'s genomes pose significant challenges for the attribution of functions to the coding sequences identified. The anoxic deep-sea brine pools of the Red Sea are a promising source of novel enzymes with unique evolutionary adaptation. Sequencing data from Red Sea brine pool cultures and SAGs are annotated and stored in the Integrated Data Warehouse of Microbial Genomes (INDIGO) data warehouse. Low sequence homology of annotated genes (no similarity for 35% of these genes) may translate into false positives when searching for specific functions. The Profile and Pattern Matching (PPM) strategy described here was developed to eliminate false positive annotations of enzyme function before progressing to labor-intensive hyper-saline gene expression and characterization. It utilizes InterPro-derived Gene Ontology (GO)-terms (which represent enzyme function profiles) and annotated relevant PROSITE IDs (which are linked to an amino acid consensus pattern). The PPM algorithm was tested on 15 protein families, which were selected based on scientific and commercial potential. An initial list of 2577 enzyme commission (E.C.) numbers was translated into 171 GO-terms and 49 consensus patterns. A subset of INDIGO-sequences consisting of 58 SAGs from six different taxons of bacteria and archaea were selected from six different brine pool environments. Those SAGs code for 74,516 genes, which were independently scanned for the GO-terms (profile filter) and PROSITE IDs (pattern filter). Following stringent reliability filtering, the non-redundant hits (106 profile hits and 147 pattern hits) are classified as reliable, if at least two relevant descriptors (GO-terms and/or consensus patterns) are present. Scripts for annotation, as well as for the PPM algorithm, are available

  7. Ring-enhancement pattern on contrast-enhanced CT predicts adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaoka, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Mizuno, Nobumasa; Hara, Kazuo; Hijioka, Susumu; Tajika, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ishihara, Makoto; Ogura, Takeshi; Obayashi, Tomohiko; Shinagawa, Akihide; Sakaguchi, Masafumi; Yamaura, Hidekazu; Kato, Mina; Niwa, Yasumasa; Yamao, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas (ASC) is a rare malignant neoplasm of the pancreas, exhibiting both glandular and squamous differentiation. However, little is known about its imaging features. This study examined the imaging features of pancreatic ASC. We evaluated images of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). As controls, solid pancreatic neoplasms matched in a 2:1 ratio to ASC cases for age, sex and tumor location were also evaluated. Twenty-three ASC cases were examined, and 46 solid pancreatic neoplasms (43 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, two pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and one acinar cell carcinoma) were matched as controls. Univariate analysis demonstrated significant differences in the outline and vascularity of tumors on contrast-enhanced CT in the ASC and control groups (P outline, cystic changes, and the ring-enhancement pattern on contrast-enhanced CT were seen to have significant predictive powers by stepwise forward logistic regression analysis (P = 0.044, P = 0.010, and P = 0.001, respectively). Of the three, the ring-enhancement pattern was the most useful, and its predictive diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for diagnosis of ASC were 65.2%, 89.6%, 75.0% and 84.3%, respectively. These results demonstrate that presence of the ring-enhancement pattern on contrast-enhanced CT is the most useful predictive factor for ASC. Copyright © 2014 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Topics in combinatorial pattern matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    Problem. Given m documents of total length n, we consider the problem of finding a longest string common to at least d ≥ 2 of the documents. This problem is known as the longest common substring (LCS) problem and has a classic O(n) space and O(n) time solution (Weiner [FOCS’73], Hui [CPM’92]). However...

  9. Matching Message Design and Depressed Cognition: An Exploration of Attention Patterns for Gain- and Loss-Framed Depression Help-Seeking Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueck, Jennifer A

    2017-07-01

    Although disproportionally affected by depression, most depressed college students do not seek the help they need. Research has recently uncovered the potential negative effects of depression help-seeking messages if depressed cognition is not considered in the health message design process. It is unclear if depression determines whether and how individuals pay attention to gain- and loss-framed depression help-seeking messages-a mechanism that has significant implications for the strategic planning of health communication interventions. In order to enable the effective matching of message design and audience features, this study investigated attention patterns for gain (n = 75)- and loss (n = 78)-framed depression help-seeking messages using eye-tracking technology and self-report measures. The results confirmed that depression is a characteristic of risk avoidance and negative cognition. Depressed participants tended to pay more attention to disease information that was placed in a loss-framed rather than a gain-framed depression help-seeking message. Using negative message framing strategies for health messages seeking to educate about depression symptoms might therefore be a useful persuasive strategy-particularly when disseminated to vulnerable populations affected by depression. Furthermore, the present study emphasizes the effective use of eye-tracking technology in communication research.

  10. Matching Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... brochures What Every Patient Needs to Know Living Donation Multiple Listing Visit UNOS Store Learn more How organs are matched How to become a living donor ...

  11. The radio emission pattern of air showers as measured with LOFAR—a tool for the reconstruction of the energy and the shower maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelles, A.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, Gia

    2015-01-01

    The pattern of the radio emission of air showers is finely sampled with the Low-Frequency ARray (LOFAR). A set of 382 measured air showers is used to test a fast, analytic parameterization of the distribution of pulse powers. Using this parameterization we are able to reconstruct the shower axis and

  12. Controls on seasonal patterns of maximum ecosystem carbon uptake and canopy-scale photosynthetic light response: contributions from both temperature and photoperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoy, Paul C; Trowbridge, Amy M; Bauerle, William L

    2014-02-01

    Most models of photosynthetic activity assume that temperature is the dominant control over physiological processes. Recent studies have found, however, that photoperiod is a better descriptor than temperature of the seasonal variability of photosynthetic physiology at the leaf scale. Incorporating photoperiodic control into global models consequently improves their representation of the seasonality and magnitude of atmospheric CO2 concentration. The role of photoperiod versus that of temperature in controlling the seasonal variability of photosynthetic function at the canopy scale remains unexplored. We quantified the seasonal variability of ecosystem-level light response curves using nearly 400 site years of eddy covariance data from over eighty Free Fair-Use sites in the FLUXNET database. Model parameters describing maximum canopy CO2 uptake and the initial slope of the light response curve peaked after peak temperature in about 2/3 of site years examined, emphasizing the important role of temperature in controlling seasonal photosynthetic function. Akaike's Information Criterion analyses indicated that photoperiod should be included in models of seasonal parameter variability in over 90% of the site years investigated here, demonstrating that photoperiod also plays an important role in controlling seasonal photosynthetic function. We also performed a Granger causality analysis on both gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) and GEP normalized by photosynthetic photon flux density (GEP n ). While photoperiod Granger-caused GEP and GEP n in 99 and 92% of all site years, respectively, air temperature Granger-caused GEP in a mere 32% of site years but Granger-caused GEP n in 81% of all site years. Results demonstrate that incorporating photoperiod may be a logical step toward improving models of ecosystem carbon uptake, but not at the expense of including enzyme kinetic-based temperature constraints on canopy-scale photosynthesis.

  13. Dynamic Matchings in Convex Bipartite Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Georgiadis, Loukas; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt

    2007-01-01

    We consider the problem of maintaining a maximum matching in a convex bipartite graph G = (V,E) under a set of update operations which includes insertions and deletions of vertices and edges. It is not hard to show that it is impossible to maintain an explicit representation of a maximum matching...

  14. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yunji; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  15. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2015-02-12

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  16. Computing solutions for matching games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biró, Péter; Kern, Walter; Paulusma, Daniël

    2012-01-01

    A matching game is a cooperative game (N, v) defined on a graph G = (N, E) with an edge weighting w : E → R+. The player set is N and the value of a coalition S ⊆ N is defined as the maximum weight of a matching in the subgraph induced by S. First we present an O(nm+n2 log n) algorithm that tests if

  17. Multidetector computed tomography of the head in acute stroke: predictive value of different patterns of the dense artery sign revealed by maximum intensity projection reformations for location and extent of the infarcted area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadda, Davide; Vannucchi, Letizia; Niccolai, Franco; Neri, Anna T.; Carmignani, Luca; Pacini, Patrizio [Ospedale del Ceppo, U.O. Radiodiagnostica, Pistoia (Italy)

    2005-12-01

    Maximum intensity projections reconstructions from 2.5 mm unenhanced multidetector computed tomography axial slices were obtained from 49 patients within the first 6 h of anterior-circulation cerebral strokes to identify different patterns of the dense artery sign and their prognostic implications for location and extent of the infarcted areas. The dense artery sign was found in 67.3% of cases. Increased density of the whole M1 segment with extension to M2 of the middle cerebral artery was associated with a wider extension of cerebral infarcts in comparison to M1 segment alone or distal M1 and M2. A dense sylvian branch of the middle cerebral artery pattern was associated with a more restricted extension of infarct territory. We found 62.5% of patients without a demonstrable dense artery to have a limited peripheral cortical or capsulonuclear lesion. In patients with a 7-10 points on the Alberta Stroke Early Programme Computed Tomography Score and a dense proximal MCA in the first hours of ictus the mean decrease in the score between baseline and follow-up was 5.09{+-}1.92 points. In conclusion, maximum intensity projections from thin-slice images can be quickly obtained from standard computed tomography datasets using a multidetector scanner and are useful in identifying and correctly localizing the dense artery sign, with prognostic implications for the entity of cerebral damage. (orig.)

  18. Incidental Prophylactic Nodal Irradiation and Patterns of Nodal Relapse in Inoperable Early Stage NSCLC Patients Treated With SBRT: A Case-Matched Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lao, Louis [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Hope, Andrew J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Maganti, Manjula [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Brade, Anthony; Bezjak, Andrea; Saibishkumar, Elantholi P.; Giuliani, Meredith; Sun, Alexander [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cho, B. C. John, E-mail: john.cho@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Reported rates of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) nodal failure following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) are lower than those reported in the surgical series when matched for stage. We hypothesized that this effect was due to incidental prophylactic nodal irradiation. Methods and Materials: A prospectively collected group of medically inoperable early stage NSCLC patients from 2004 to 2010 was used to identify cases with nodal relapses. Controls were matched to cases, 2:1, controlling for tumor volume (ie, same or greater) and tumor location (ie, same lobe). Reference (normalized to equivalent dose for 2-Gy fractions [EQD2]) point doses at the ipsilateral hilum and carina, demographic data, and clinical outcomes were extracted from the medical records. Univariate conditional logistical regression analyses were performed with variables of interest. Results: Cases and controls were well matched except for size. The controls, as expected, had larger gross tumor volumes (P=.02). The mean ipsilateral hilar doses were 9.6 Gy and 22.4 Gy for cases and controls, respectively (P=.014). The mean carinal doses were 7.0 Gy and 9.2 Gy, respectively (P=.13). Mediastinal nodal relapses, with and without ipsilateral hilar relapse, were associated with mean ipsilateral hilar doses of 3.6 Gy and 19.8 Gy, respectively (P=.01). The conditional density plot appears to demonstrate an inverse dose-effect relationship between ipsilateral hilar normalized total dose and risk of ipsilateral hilar relapse. Conclusions: Incidental hilar dose greater than 20 Gy is significantly associated with fewer ipsilateral hilar relapses in inoperable early stage NSCLC patients treated with SBRT.

  19. Incidental Prophylactic Nodal Irradiation and Patterns of Nodal Relapse in Inoperable Early Stage NSCLC Patients Treated With SBRT: A Case-Matched Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lao, Louis; Hope, Andrew J.; Maganti, Manjula; Brade, Anthony; Bezjak, Andrea; Saibishkumar, Elantholi P.; Giuliani, Meredith; Sun, Alexander; Cho, B. C. John

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Reported rates of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) nodal failure following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) are lower than those reported in the surgical series when matched for stage. We hypothesized that this effect was due to incidental prophylactic nodal irradiation. Methods and Materials: A prospectively collected group of medically inoperable early stage NSCLC patients from 2004 to 2010 was used to identify cases with nodal relapses. Controls were matched to cases, 2:1, controlling for tumor volume (ie, same or greater) and tumor location (ie, same lobe). Reference (normalized to equivalent dose for 2-Gy fractions [EQD2]) point doses at the ipsilateral hilum and carina, demographic data, and clinical outcomes were extracted from the medical records. Univariate conditional logistical regression analyses were performed with variables of interest. Results: Cases and controls were well matched except for size. The controls, as expected, had larger gross tumor volumes (P=.02). The mean ipsilateral hilar doses were 9.6 Gy and 22.4 Gy for cases and controls, respectively (P=.014). The mean carinal doses were 7.0 Gy and 9.2 Gy, respectively (P=.13). Mediastinal nodal relapses, with and without ipsilateral hilar relapse, were associated with mean ipsilateral hilar doses of 3.6 Gy and 19.8 Gy, respectively (P=.01). The conditional density plot appears to demonstrate an inverse dose-effect relationship between ipsilateral hilar normalized total dose and risk of ipsilateral hilar relapse. Conclusions: Incidental hilar dose greater than 20 Gy is significantly associated with fewer ipsilateral hilar relapses in inoperable early stage NSCLC patients treated with SBRT

  20. Foods served in child care facilities participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program: Menu match and agreement with the new meal patterns and best practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to assess the agreement of posted menus with foods served to 3- to 5-year-old children attending federal Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)-enrolled facilities, and the degree to which the facilities met the new meal patterns and best practices. On-site observations and menu...

  1. Maximum Parsimony on Phylogenetic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic networks are generalizations of phylogenetic trees, that are used to model evolutionary events in various contexts. Several different methods and criteria have been introduced for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Maximum Parsimony is a character-based approach that infers a phylogenetic tree by minimizing the total number of evolutionary steps required to explain a given set of data assigned on the leaves. Exact solutions for optimizing parsimony scores on phylogenetic trees have been introduced in the past. Results In this paper, we define the parsimony score on networks as the sum of the substitution costs along all the edges of the network; and show that certain well-known algorithms that calculate the optimum parsimony score on trees, such as Sankoff and Fitch algorithms extend naturally for networks, barring conflicting assignments at the reticulate vertices. We provide heuristics for finding the optimum parsimony scores on networks. Our algorithms can be applied for any cost matrix that may contain unequal substitution costs of transforming between different characters along different edges of the network. We analyzed this for experimental data on 10 leaves or fewer with at most 2 reticulations and found that for almost all networks, the bounds returned by the heuristics matched with the exhaustively determined optimum parsimony scores. Conclusion The parsimony score we define here does not directly reflect the cost of the best tree in the network that displays the evolution of the character. However, when searching for the most parsimonious network that describes a collection of characters, it becomes necessary to add additional cost considerations to prefer simpler structures, such as trees over networks. The parsimony score on a network that we describe here takes into account the substitution costs along the additional edges incident on each reticulate vertex, in addition to the substitution costs along the other edges which are

  2. Approximate maximum parsimony and ancestral maximum likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Noga; Chor, Benny; Pardi, Fabio; Rapoport, Anat

    2010-01-01

    We explore the maximum parsimony (MP) and ancestral maximum likelihood (AML) criteria in phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Both problems are NP-hard, so we seek approximate solutions. We formulate the two problems as Steiner tree problems under appropriate distances. The gist of our approach is the succinct characterization of Steiner trees for a small number of leaves for the two distances. This enables the use of known Steiner tree approximation algorithms. The approach leads to a 16/9 approximation ratio for AML and asymptotically to a 1.55 approximation ratio for MP.

  3. Maximum permissible dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This chapter presents a historic overview of the establishment of radiation guidelines by various national and international agencies. The use of maximum permissible dose and maximum permissible body burden limits to derive working standards is discussed

  4. Exploring the Role of the Food Environment on Food Shopping Patterns in Philadelphia, PA, USA: A Semiquantitative Comparison of Two Matched Neighborhood Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Hillier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing research has focused on the built food environment and nutrition-related outcomes, yet what constitutes a food environment and how this environment influences individual behavior still remain unclear. This study assesses whether travel mode and distance to food shopping venues differ among individuals in varying food environments and whether individual- and household-level factors are associated with food shopping patterns. Fifty neighbors who share a traditionally defined food environment (25 in an unfavorable environment and 25 in a favorable environment were surveyed using a mix of close- and open-ended survey questions. Food shopping patterns were mapped using Geographic Information Systems (GIS. Stores visited were beyond the 0.5-mile (805 meters radius traditionally used to represent the extent of an individual’s food environment in an urban area. We found no significant difference in shopping frequency or motivating factor behind store choice between the groups. No differences existed between the two groups for big food shopping trips. For small trips, individuals in the favorable food environment traveled shorter distances and were more likely to walk than drive. Socioeconomic status, including car ownership, education, and income influenced distance traveled. These findings highlight the complexities involved in the study and measurement of food environments.

  5. Exploring the role of the food environment on food shopping patterns in Philadelphia, PA, USA: a semiquantitative comparison of two matched neighborhood groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jana A; Hillier, Amy

    2013-01-14

    Increasing research has focused on the built food environment and nutrition-related outcomes, yet what constitutes a food environment and how this environment influences individual behavior still remain unclear. This study assesses whether travel mode and distance to food shopping venues differ among individuals in varying food environments and whether individual- and household-level factors are associated with food shopping patterns. Fifty neighbors who share a traditionally defined food environment (25 in an unfavorable environment and 25 in a favorable environment) were surveyed using a mix of close- and open-ended survey questions. Food shopping patterns were mapped using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Stores visited were beyond the 0.5-mile (805 meters) radius traditionally used to represent the extent of an individual's food environment in an urban area. We found no significant difference in shopping frequency or motivating factor behind store choice between the groups. No differences existed between the two groups for big food shopping trips. For small trips, individuals in the favorable food environment traveled shorter distances and were more likely to walk than drive. Socioeconomic status, including car ownership, education, and income influenced distance traveled. These findings highlight the complexities involved in the study and measurement of food environments.

  6. Optimal background matching camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalis, Constantine; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Gibson, David P; Cuthill, Innes C

    2017-07-12

    Background matching is the most familiar and widespread camouflage strategy: avoiding detection by having a similar colour and pattern to the background. Optimizing background matching is straightforward in a homogeneous environment, or when the habitat has very distinct sub-types and there is divergent selection leading to polymorphism. However, most backgrounds have continuous variation in colour and texture, so what is the best solution? Not all samples of the background are likely to be equally inconspicuous, and laboratory experiments on birds and humans support this view. Theory suggests that the most probable background sample (in the statistical sense), at the size of the prey, would, on average, be the most cryptic. We present an analysis, based on realistic assumptions about low-level vision, that estimates the distribution of background colours and visual textures, and predicts the best camouflage. We present data from a field experiment that tests and supports our predictions, using artificial moth-like targets under bird predation. Additionally, we present analogous data for humans, under tightly controlled viewing conditions, searching for targets on a computer screen. These data show that, in the absence of predator learning, the best single camouflage pattern for heterogeneous backgrounds is the most probable sample. © 2017 The Authors.

  7. Techniques Used in String Matching for Network Security

    OpenAIRE

    Jamuna Bhandari

    2014-01-01

    String matching also known as pattern matching is one of primary concept for network security. In this area the effectiveness and efficiency of string matching algorithms is important for applications in network security such as network intrusion detection, virus detection, signature matching and web content filtering system. This paper presents brief review on some of string matching techniques used for network security.

  8. Charge pattern matching as a ‘fuzzy’ mode of molecular recognition for the functional phase separations of intrinsically disordered proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Brady, Jacob P.; Forman-Kay, Julie D.; Chan, Hue Sun

    2017-11-01

    Biologically functional liquid-liquid phase separation of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) is driven by interactions encoded by their amino acid sequences. Little is currently known about the molecular recognition mechanisms for distributing different IDP sequences into various cellular membraneless compartments. Pertinent physics was addressed recently by applying random-phase-approximation (RPA) polymer theory to electrostatics, which is a major energetic component governing IDP phase properties. RPA accounts for charge patterns and thus has advantages over Flory-Huggins (FH) and Overbeek-Voorn mean-field theories. To make progress toward deciphering the phase behaviors of multiple IDP sequences, the RPA formulation for one IDP species plus solvent is hereby extended to treat polyampholyte solutions containing two IDP species plus solvent. The new formulation generally allows for binary coexistence of two phases, each containing a different set of volume fractions ({φ }1,{φ }2) for the two different IDP sequences. The asymmetry between the two predicted coexisting phases with regard to their {φ }1/{φ }2 ratios for the two sequences increases with increasing mismatch between their charge patterns. This finding points to a multivalent, stochastic, ‘fuzzy’ mode of molecular recognition that helps populate various IDP sequences differentially into separate phase compartments. An intuitive illustration of this trend is provided by FH models, whereby a hypothetical case of ternary coexistence is also explored. Augmentations of the present RPA theory with a relative permittivity {ɛ }{{r}}(φ ) that depends on IDP volume fraction φ ={φ }1+{φ }2 lead to higher propensities to phase separate, in line with the case with one IDP species we studied previously. Notably, the cooperative, phase-separation-enhancing effects predicted by the prescriptions for {ɛ }{{r}}(φ ) we deem physically plausible are much more prominent than that entailed by common

  9. Hemithoracic Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy After Pleurectomy/Decortication for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Toxicity, Patterns of Failure, and a Matched Survival Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chance, William W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rice, David C. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tsao, Anne S. [Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Fontanilla, Hiral P. [Princeton Radiation Oncology, Monroe Township, New Jersey (United States); Liao, Zhongxing; Chang, Joe Y.; Tang, Chad; Pan, Hubert Y.; Welsh, James W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mehran, Reza J. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gomez, Daniel R., E-mail: dgomez@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate safety, efficacy, and recurrence after hemithoracic intensity modulated radiation therapy after pleurectomy/decortication (PD-IMRT) and after extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP-IMRT). Methods and Materials: In 2009-2013, 24 patients with mesothelioma underwent PD-IMRT to the involved hemithorax to a dose of 45 Gy, with an optional integrated boost; 22 also received chemotherapy. Toxicity was scored with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0. Pulmonary function was compared at baseline, after surgery, and after IMRT. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), time to locoregional failure, and time to distant metastasis. Failures were in-field, marginal, or out of field. Outcomes were compared with those of 24 patients, matched for age, nodal status, performance status, and chemotherapy, who had received EPP-IMRT. Results: Median follow-up time was 12.2 months. Grade 3 toxicity rates were 8% skin and 8% pulmonary. Pulmonary function declined from baseline to after surgery (by 21% for forced vital capacity, 16% for forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and 19% for lung diffusion of carbon monoxide [P for all = .01]) and declined still further after IMRT (by 31% for forced vital capacity [P=.02], 25% for forced expiratory volume in 1 second [P=.01], and 30% for lung diffusion of carbon monoxide [P=.01]). The OS and PFS rates were 76% and 67%, respectively, at 1 year and 56% and 34% at 2 years. Median OS (28.4 vs 14.2 months, P=.04) and median PFS (16.4 vs 8.2 months, P=.01) favored PD-IMRT versus EPP-IMRT. No differences were found in grade 4-5 toxicity (0 of 24 vs 3 of 24, P=.23), median time to locoregional failure (18.7 months vs not reached, P not calculable), or median time to distant metastasis (18.8 vs 11.8 months, P=.12). Conclusions: Hemithoracic intensity modulated radiation therapy after pleurectomy/decortication produced little high-grade toxicity but

  10. Plasma focus matching conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M.; Elkhalafawy, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    A snow-plough and slug models have been used to obtain the optimum matching conditions of the plasma in the focus. The dimensions of the plasma focus device are, inner electrode radius = 2 cm, outer electrode radius = 5.5 cm, and its length = 8 cm. It was found that the maximum magnetic energy of 12.26 kJ has to be delivered to plasma focus whose density is 10 19 /cm 3 at focusing time of 2.55 μs and with total external inductance of 24.2 n H. The same method is used to evaluate the optimum matching conditions for the previous coaxial discharge system which had inner electrode radius = 1.6 cm, outer electrode radius = 3.3 cm and its length = 31.5 cm. These conditions are charging voltage = 12 kV, capacity of the condenser bank = 430 μf, plasma focus density = 10 19 /cm 3 focusing time = 8 μs and total external inductance = 60.32 n H.3 fig., 2 tab

  11. Tensor GSVD of Patient- and Platform-Matched Tumor and Normal DNA Copy-Number Profiles Uncovers Chromosome Arm-Wide Patterns of Tumor-Exclusive Platform-Consistent Alterations Encoding for Cell Transformation and Predicting Ovarian Cancer Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Preethi; Schomay, Theodore E.; Aiello, Katherine A.; Alter, Orly

    2015-01-01

    The number of large-scale high-dimensional datasets recording different aspects of a single disease is growing, accompanied by a need for frameworks that can create one coherent model from multiple tensors of matched columns, e.g., patients and platforms, but independent rows, e.g., probes. We define and prove the mathematical properties of a novel tensor generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD), which can simultaneously find the similarities and dissimilarities, i.e., patterns of varying relative significance, between any two such tensors. We demonstrate the tensor GSVD in comparative modeling of patient- and platform-matched but probe-independent ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV) tumor, mostly high-grade, and normal DNA copy-number profiles, across each chromosome arm, and combination of two arms, separately. The modeling uncovers previously unrecognized patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent co-occurring copy-number alterations (CNAs). We find, first, and validate that each of the patterns across only 7p and Xq, and the combination of 6p+12p, is correlated with a patient’s prognosis, is independent of the tumor’s stage, the best predictor of OV survival to date, and together with stage makes a better predictor than stage alone. Second, these patterns include most known OV-associated CNAs that map to these chromosome arms, as well as several previously unreported, yet frequent focal CNAs. Third, differential mRNA, microRNA, and protein expression consistently map to the DNA CNAs. A coherent picture emerges for each pattern, suggesting roles for the CNAs in OV pathogenesis and personalized therapy. In 6p+12p, deletion of the p21-encoding CDKN1A and p38-encoding MAPK14 and amplification of RAD51AP1 and KRAS encode for human cell transformation, and are correlated with a cell’s immortality, and a patient’s shorter survival time. In 7p, RPA3 deletion and POLD2 amplification are correlated with DNA stability, and a longer survival. In Xq

  12. Tensor GSVD of patient- and platform-matched tumor and normal DNA copy-number profiles uncovers chromosome arm-wide patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent alterations encoding for cell transformation and predicting ovarian cancer survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Sankaranarayanan

    Full Text Available The number of large-scale high-dimensional datasets recording different aspects of a single disease is growing, accompanied by a need for frameworks that can create one coherent model from multiple tensors of matched columns, e.g., patients and platforms, but independent rows, e.g., probes. We define and prove the mathematical properties of a novel tensor generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD, which can simultaneously find the similarities and dissimilarities, i.e., patterns of varying relative significance, between any two such tensors. We demonstrate the tensor GSVD in comparative modeling of patient- and platform-matched but probe-independent ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV tumor, mostly high-grade, and normal DNA copy-number profiles, across each chromosome arm, and combination of two arms, separately. The modeling uncovers previously unrecognized patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent co-occurring copy-number alterations (CNAs. We find, first, and validate that each of the patterns across only 7p and Xq, and the combination of 6p+12p, is correlated with a patient's prognosis, is independent of the tumor's stage, the best predictor of OV survival to date, and together with stage makes a better predictor than stage alone. Second, these patterns include most known OV-associated CNAs that map to these chromosome arms, as well as several previously unreported, yet frequent focal CNAs. Third, differential mRNA, microRNA, and protein expression consistently map to the DNA CNAs. A coherent picture emerges for each pattern, suggesting roles for the CNAs in OV pathogenesis and personalized therapy. In 6p+12p, deletion of the p21-encoding CDKN1A and p38-encoding MAPK14 and amplification of RAD51AP1 and KRAS encode for human cell transformation, and are correlated with a cell's immortality, and a patient's shorter survival time. In 7p, RPA3 deletion and POLD2 amplification are correlated with DNA stability, and a longer survival

  13. On Tree-Constrained Matchings and Generalizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Canzar (Stefan); K. Elbassioni; G.W. Klau (Gunnar); J. Mestre

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractWe consider the following \\textsc{Tree-Constrained Bipartite Matching} problem: Given two rooted trees $T_1=(V_1,E_1)$, $T_2=(V_2,E_2)$ and a weight function $w: V_1\\times V_2 \\mapsto \\mathbb{R}_+$, find a maximum weight matching $\\mathcal{M}$ between nodes of the two trees, such that

  14. On solution concepts for matching games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biro, Peter; Kern, Walter; Paulusma, Daniël; Kratochvil, J.; Li, A.; Fiala, J.; Kolman, P.

    A matching game is a cooperative game $(N,v)$ defined on a graph $G = (N,E)$ with an edge weighting $\\omega : E \\to {\\Bbb R}_+$ . The player set is $N$ and the value of a coalition $S \\subseteq  N$ is defined as the maximum weight of a matching in the subgraph induced by $S$. First we present an

  15. LCLS Maximum Credible Beam Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.

    2005-01-01

    The maximum credible beam power is defined as the highest credible average beam power that the accelerator can deliver to the point in question, given the laws of physics, the beam line design, and assuming all protection devices have failed. For a new accelerator project, the official maximum credible beam power is determined by project staff in consultation with the Radiation Physics Department, after examining the arguments and evidence presented by the appropriate accelerator physicist(s) and beam line engineers. The definitive parameter becomes part of the project's safety envelope. This technical note will first review the studies that were done for the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SSRL, where a photoinjector similar to the one proposed for the LCLS is being tested. In Section 3 the maximum charge out of the gun for a single rf pulse is calculated. In Section 4, PARMELA simulations are used to track the beam from the gun to the end of the photoinjector. Finally in Section 5 the beam through the matching section and injected into Linac-1 is discussed

  16. Maximum speed of dewetting on a fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Tak Shing; Gueudre, Thomas; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus

    2011-01-01

    A solid object can be coated by a nonwetting liquid since a receding contact line cannot exceed a critical speed. We theoretically investigate this forced wetting transition for axisymmetric menisci on fibers of varying radii. First, we use a matched asymptotic expansion and derive the maximum speed

  17. Maximum Acceleration Recording Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Coarsely digitized maximum levels recorded in blown fuses. Circuit feeds power to accelerometer and makes nonvolatile record of maximum level to which output of accelerometer rises during measurement interval. In comparison with inertia-type single-preset-trip-point mechanical maximum-acceleration-recording devices, circuit weighs less, occupies less space, and records accelerations within narrower bands of uncertainty. In comparison with prior electronic data-acquisition systems designed for same purpose, circuit simpler, less bulky, consumes less power, costs and analysis of data recorded in magnetic or electronic memory devices. Circuit used, for example, to record accelerations to which commodities subjected during transportation on trucks.

  18. Maximum Quantum Entropy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Jae-Hoon; Han, Myung Joon

    2018-01-01

    Maximum entropy method for analytic continuation is extended by introducing quantum relative entropy. This new method is formulated in terms of matrix-valued functions and therefore invariant under arbitrary unitary transformation of input matrix. As a result, the continuation of off-diagonal elements becomes straightforward. Without introducing any further ambiguity, the Bayesian probabilistic interpretation is maintained just as in the conventional maximum entropy method. The applications o...

  19. Maximum power demand cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.

    1998-01-01

    The charging for a service is a supplier's remuneration for the expenses incurred in providing it. There are currently two charges for electricity: consumption and maximum demand. While no problem arises about the former, the issue is more complicated for the latter and the analysis in this article tends to show that the annual charge for maximum demand arbitrarily discriminates among consumer groups, to the disadvantage of some [it

  20. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  1. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Shiguang; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  2. A Maximum Resonant Set of Polyomino Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Heping

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A polyomino graph P is a connected finite subgraph of the infinite plane grid such that each finite face is surrounded by a regular square of side length one and each edge belongs to at least one square. A dimer covering of P corresponds to a perfect matching. Different dimer coverings can interact via an alternating cycle (or square with respect to them. A set of disjoint squares of P is a resonant set if P has a perfect matching M so that each one of those squares is M-alternating. In this paper, we show that if K is a maximum resonant set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching. We further prove that the maximum forcing number of a polyomino graph is equal to the cardinality of a maximum resonant set. This confirms a conjecture of Xu et al. [26]. We also show that if K is a maximal alternating set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching.

  3. Maximum likely scale estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...

  4. Robust Maximum Association Estimators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Alfons (Andreas); C. Croux (Christophe); P. Filzmoser (Peter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe maximum association between two multivariate variables X and Y is defined as the maximal value that a bivariate association measure between one-dimensional projections αX and αY can attain. Taking the Pearson correlation as projection index results in the first canonical correlation

  5. Stinging Insect Matching Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Kids ▸ Stinging Insect Matching Game Share | Stinging Insect Matching Game Stinging insects can ruin summer fun for those who are ... the difference between the different kinds of stinging insects in order to keep your summer safe and ...

  6. Maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enslin, J.H.R.

    1990-01-01

    A well engineered renewable remote energy system, utilizing the principal of Maximum Power Point Tracking can be m ore cost effective, has a higher reliability and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. This paper reports that a high-efficient power electronic converter, for converting the output voltage of a solar panel, or wind generator, to the required DC battery bus voltage has been realized. The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the input source under varying input and output parameters. Maximum power point tracking for relative small systems is achieved by maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor based algorithm. Through practical field measurements it is shown that a minimum input source saving of 15% on 3-5 kWh/day systems can easily be achieved. A total cost saving of at least 10-15% on the capital cost of these systems are achievable for relative small rating Remote Area Power Supply systems. The advantages at larger temperature variations and larger power rated systems are much higher. Other advantages include optimal sizing and system monitor and control

  7. Best matching theory & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moghaddam, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Mismatch or best match? This book demonstrates that best matching of individual entities to each other is essential to ensure smooth conduct and successful competitiveness in any distributed system, natural and artificial. Interactions must be optimized through best matching in planning and scheduling, enterprise network design, transportation and construction planning, recruitment, problem solving, selective assembly, team formation, sensor network design, and more. Fundamentals of best matching in distributed and collaborative systems are explained by providing: § Methodical analysis of various multidimensional best matching processes § Comprehensive taxonomy, comparing different best matching problems and processes § Systematic identification of systems’ hierarchy, nature of interactions, and distribution of decision-making and control functions § Practical formulation of solutions based on a library of best matching algorithms and protocols, ready for direct applications and apps development. Design...

  8. Matching Students to Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Trifunovic

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the problem of matching students to schools by using different matching mechanisms. This market is specific since public schools are free and the price mechanism cannot be used to determine the optimal allocation of children in schools. Therefore, it is necessary to use different matching algorithms that mimic the market mechanism and enable us to determine the core of the cooperative game. In this paper, we will determine that it is possible to apply cooperative game theory in matching problems. This review paper is based on illustrative examples aiming to compare matching algorithms in terms of the incentive compatibility, stability and efficiency of the matching. In this paper we will present some specific problems that may occur in matching, such as improving the quality of schools, favoring minority students, the limited length of the list of preferences and generating strict priorities from weak priorities.

  9. Impedance-matched Marx generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Stygar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We have conceived a new class of prime-power sources for pulsed-power accelerators: impedance-matched Marx generators (IMGs. The fundamental building block of an IMG is a brick, which consists of two capacitors connected electrically in series with a single switch. An IMG comprises a single stage or several stages distributed axially and connected in series. Each stage is powered by a single brick or several bricks distributed azimuthally within the stage and connected in parallel. The stages of a multistage IMG drive an impedance-matched coaxial transmission line with a conical center conductor. When the stages are triggered sequentially to launch a coherent traveling wave along the coaxial line, the IMG achieves electromagnetic-power amplification by triggered emission of radiation. Hence a multistage IMG is a pulsed-power analogue of a laser. To illustrate the IMG approach to prime power, we have developed conceptual designs of two ten-stage IMGs with LC time constants on the order of 100 ns. One design includes 20 bricks per stage, and delivers a peak electrical power of 1.05 TW to a matched-impedance 1.22-Ω load. The design generates 113 kV per stage and has a maximum energy efficiency of 89%. The other design includes a single brick per stage, delivers 68 GW to a matched-impedance 19-Ω load, generates 113 kV per stage, and has a maximum energy efficiency of 90%. For a given electrical-power-output time history, an IMG is less expensive and slightly more efficient than a linear transformer driver, since an IMG does not use ferromagnetic cores.

  10. Impedance-matched Marx generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stygar, W. A.; LeChien, K. R.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Savage, M. E.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Austin, K. N.; Breden, E. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Hutsel, B. T.; Lewis, S. A.; McKee, G. R.; Moore, J. K.; Mulville, T. D.; Muron, D. J.; Reisman, D. B.; Sceiford, M. E.; Wisher, M. L.

    2017-04-01

    We have conceived a new class of prime-power sources for pulsed-power accelerators: impedance-matched Marx generators (IMGs). The fundamental building block of an IMG is a brick, which consists of two capacitors connected electrically in series with a single switch. An IMG comprises a single stage or several stages distributed axially and connected in series. Each stage is powered by a single brick or several bricks distributed azimuthally within the stage and connected in parallel. The stages of a multistage IMG drive an impedance-matched coaxial transmission line with a conical center conductor. When the stages are triggered sequentially to launch a coherent traveling wave along the coaxial line, the IMG achieves electromagnetic-power amplification by triggered emission of radiation. Hence a multistage IMG is a pulsed-power analogue of a laser. To illustrate the IMG approach to prime power, we have developed conceptual designs of two ten-stage IMGs with L C time constants on the order of 100 ns. One design includes 20 bricks per stage, and delivers a peak electrical power of 1.05 TW to a matched-impedance 1.22 -Ω load. The design generates 113 kV per stage and has a maximum energy efficiency of 89%. The other design includes a single brick per stage, delivers 68 GW to a matched-impedance 19 -Ω load, generates 113 kV per stage, and has a maximum energy efficiency of 90%. For a given electrical-power-output time history, an IMG is less expensive and slightly more efficient than a linear transformer driver, since an IMG does not use ferromagnetic cores.

  11. Maximum entropy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponman, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    For some years now two different expressions have been in use for maximum entropy image restoration and there has been some controversy over which one is appropriate for a given problem. Here two further entropies are presented and it is argued that there is no single correct algorithm. The properties of the four different methods are compared using simple 1D simulations with a view to showing how they can be used together to gain as much information as possible about the original object. (orig.)

  12. The last glacial maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P.U.; Dyke, A.S.; Shakun, J.D.; Carlson, A.E.; Clark, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; McCabe, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level ???14.5 ka.

  13. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Topsøe

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over

  14. Probable maximum flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L.

    1991-11-01

    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility

  15. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. We review the need for such methods in data analysis and show, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. We conclude with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  16. Solar maximum observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    The successful retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite by Shuttle astronauts in April 1984 permitted continuance of solar flare observations that began in 1980. The SMM carries a soft X ray polychromator, gamma ray, UV and hard X ray imaging spectrometers, a coronagraph/polarimeter and particle counters. The data gathered thus far indicated that electrical potentials of 25 MeV develop in flares within 2 sec of onset. X ray data show that flares are composed of compressed magnetic loops that have come too close together. Other data have been taken on mass ejection, impacts of electron beams and conduction fronts with the chromosphere and changes in the solar radiant flux due to sunspots. 13 references

  17. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. The author reviews the need for such methods in data analysis and shows, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. He concludes with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  18. Functional Maximum Autocorrelation Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2005-01-01

    MAF outperforms the functional PCA in concentrating the interesting' spectra/shape variation in one end of the eigenvalue spectrum and allows for easier interpretation of effects. Conclusions. Functional MAF analysis is a useful methods for extracting low dimensional models of temporally or spatially......Purpose. We aim at data where samples of an underlying function are observed in a spatial or temporal layout. Examples of underlying functions are reflectance spectra and biological shapes. We apply functional models based on smoothing splines and generalize the functional PCA in......\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{ramsay97} to functional maximum autocorrelation factors (MAF)\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{switzer85,larsen2001d}. We apply the method to biological shapes as well as reflectance spectra. {\\$\\backslash\\$bf Methods}. MAF seeks linear combination of the original variables that maximize autocorrelation between...

  19. Optimal Packed String Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany

    2011-01-01

    In the packed string matching problem, each machine word accommodates – characters, thus an n-character text occupies n/– memory words. We extend the Crochemore-Perrin constantspace O(n)-time string matching algorithm to run in optimal O(n/–) time and even in real-time, achieving a factor – speed...

  20. Ontology Matching Across Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    matching include GMO [1], Anchor-Prompt [2], and Similarity Flooding [3]. GMO is an iterative structural matcher, which uses RDF bipartite graphs to...AFRL under contract# FA8750-09-C-0058. References [1] Hu, W., Jian, N., Qu, Y., Wang, Y., “ GMO : a graph matching for ontologies”, in: Proceedings of

  1. Solar maximum mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.

    1981-01-01

    By understanding the sun, astrophysicists hope to expand this knowledge to understanding other stars. To study the sun, NASA launched a satellite on February 14, 1980. The project is named the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). The satellite conducted detailed observations of the sun in collaboration with other satellites and ground-based optical and radio observations until its failure 10 months into the mission. The main objective of the SMM was to investigate one aspect of solar activity: solar flares. A brief description of the flare mechanism is given. The SMM satellite was valuable in providing information on where and how a solar flare occurs. A sequence of photographs of a solar flare taken from SMM satellite shows how a solar flare develops in a particular layer of the solar atmosphere. Two flares especially suitable for detailed observations by a joint effort occurred on April 30 and May 21 of 1980. These flares and observations of the flares are discussed. Also discussed are significant discoveries made by individual experiments

  2. Quantum learning and universal quantum matching machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Masahide; Carlini, Alberto

    2002-01-01

    Suppose that three kinds of quantum systems are given in some unknown states vertical bar f> xN , vertical bar g 1 > xK , and vertical bar g 2 > xK , and we want to decide which template state vertical bar g 1 > or vertical bar g 2 >, each representing the feature of the pattern class C 1 or C 2 , respectively, is closest to the input feature state vertical bar f>. This is an extension of the pattern matching problem into the quantum domain. Assuming that these states are known a priori to belong to a certain parametric family of pure qubit systems, we derive two kinds of matching strategies. The first one is a semiclassical strategy that is obtained by the natural extension of conventional matching strategies and consists of a two-stage procedure: identification (estimation) of the unknown template states to design the classifier (learning process to train the classifier) and classification of the input system into the appropriate pattern class based on the estimated results. The other is a fully quantum strategy without any intermediate measurement, which we might call as the universal quantum matching machine. We present the Bayes optimal solutions for both strategies in the case of K=1, showing that there certainly exists a fully quantum matching procedure that is strictly superior to the straightforward semiclassical extension of the conventional matching strategy based on the learning process

  3. Pediatric MATCH Infographic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infographic explaining NCI-COG Pediatric MATCH, a cancer treatment clinical trial for children and adolescents, from 1 to 21 years of age, that is testing the use of precision medicine for pediatric cancers.

  4. Data Matching Imputation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The DMIS dataset is a flat file record of the matching of several data set collections. Primarily it consists of VTRs, dealer records, Observer data in conjunction...

  5. Magnetic safety matches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindén, J.; Lindberg, M.; Greggas, A.; Jylhävuori, N.; Norrgrann, H.; Lill, J. O.

    2017-07-01

    In addition to the main ingredients; sulfur, potassium chlorate and carbon, ordinary safety matches contain various dyes, glues etc, giving the head of the match an even texture and appealing color. Among the common reddish-brown matches there are several types, which after ignition can be attracted by a strong magnet. Before ignition the match head is generally not attracted by the magnet. An elemental analysis based on proton-induced x-ray emission was performed to single out iron as the element responsible for the observed magnetism. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used for identifying the various types of iron-compounds, present before and after ignition, responsible for the macroscopic magnetism: Fe2O3 before and Fe3O4 after. The reaction was verified by mixing the main chemicals in the match-head with Fe2O3 in glue and mounting the mixture on a match stick. The ash residue after igniting the mixture was magnetic.

  6. Latent palmprint matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K; Feng, Jianjiang

    2009-06-01

    The evidential value of palmprints in forensic applications is clear as about 30 percent of the latents recovered from crime scenes are from palms. While biometric systems for palmprint-based personal authentication in access control type of applications have been developed, they mostly deal with low-resolution (about 100 ppi) palmprints and only perform full-to-full palmprint matching. We propose a latent-to-full palmprint matching system that is needed in forensic applications. Our system deals with palmprints captured at 500 ppi (the current standard in forensic applications) or higher resolution and uses minutiae as features to be compatible with the methodology used by latent experts. Latent palmprint matching is a challenging problem because latent prints lifted at crime scenes are of poor image quality, cover only a small area of the palm, and have a complex background. Other difficulties include a large number of minutiae in full prints (about 10 times as many as fingerprints), and the presence of many creases in latents and full prints. A robust algorithm to reliably estimate the local ridge direction and frequency in palmprints is developed. This facilitates the extraction of ridge and minutiae features even in poor quality palmprints. A fixed-length minutia descriptor, MinutiaCode, is utilized to capture distinctive information around each minutia and an alignment-based minutiae matching algorithm is used to match two palmprints. Two sets of partial palmprints (150 live-scan partial palmprints and 100 latent palmprints) are matched to a background database of 10,200 full palmprints to test the proposed system. Despite the inherent difficulty of latent-to-full palmprint matching, rank-1 recognition rates of 78.7 and 69 percent, respectively, were achieved in searching live-scan partial palmprints and latent palmprints against the background database.

  7. Approaches for Stereo Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takouhi Ozanian

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the last decade's development of the computational stereopsis for recovering three-dimensional information. The main components of the stereo analysis are exposed: image acquisition and camera modeling, feature selection, feature matching and disparity interpretation. A brief survey is given of the well known feature selection approaches and the estimation parameters for this selection are mentioned. The difficulties in identifying correspondent locations in the two images are explained. Methods as to how effectively to constrain the search for correct solution of the correspondence problem are discussed, as are strategies for the whole matching process. Reasons for the occurrence of matching errors are considered. Some recently proposed approaches, employing new ideas in the modeling of stereo matching in terms of energy minimization, are described. Acknowledging the importance of computation time for real-time applications, special attention is paid to parallelism as a way to achieve the required level of performance. The development of trinocular stereo analysis as an alternative to the conventional binocular one, is described. Finally a classification based on the test images for verification of the stereo matching algorithms, is supplied.

  8. Tutte sets in graphs II: The complexity of finding maximum Tutte sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, D.; Broersma, Haitze J.; Kahl, N.; Morgana, A.; Schmeichel, E.; Surowiec, T.

    2007-01-01

    A well-known formula of Tutte and Berge expresses the size of a maximum matching in a graph $G$ in terms of what is usually called the deficiency. A subset $X$ of $V(G)$ for which this deficiency is attained is called a Tutte set of $G$. While much is known about maximum matchings, less is known

  9. Matching games: the least core and the nucleolus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, Walter; Paulusma, Daniël

    2003-01-01

    A matching game is a cooperative game defined by a graph G = (N, E). The player set is N and the value of a coalition S ⫅ N is defined as the size of a maximum matching in the subgraph induced by S. We show that the nucleolus of such games can be computed efficiently. The result is based on an

  10. Dewey Concentration Match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Giving students a chance to associate numbers with subjects can be useful in speeding their location of desired print or nonprint materials and helping students feel independent when browsing. A matching game for helping students learn the Dewey numbers is presented. Instructions for the library media specialist or teacher, instructions for…

  11. Matched-Filter Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Tabatabaei

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional infrared thermography techniques, including pulsed and lock-in thermography, have shown great potential for non-destructive evaluation of broad spectrum of materials, spanning from metals to polymers to biological tissues. However, performance of these techniques is often limited due to the diffuse nature of thermal wave fields, resulting in an inherent compromise between inspection depth and depth resolution. Recently, matched-filter thermography has been introduced as a means for overcoming this classic limitation to enable depth-resolved subsurface thermal imaging and improving axial/depth resolution. This paper reviews the basic principles and experimental results of matched-filter thermography: first, mathematical and signal processing concepts related to matched-fileting and pulse compression are discussed. Next, theoretical modeling of thermal-wave responses to matched-filter thermography using two categories of pulse compression techniques (linear frequency modulation and binary phase coding are reviewed. Key experimental results from literature demonstrating the maintenance of axial resolution while inspecting deep into opaque and turbid media are also presented and discussed. Finally, the concept of thermal coherence tomography for deconvolution of thermal responses of axially superposed sources and creation of depth-selective images in a diffusion-wave field is reviewed.

  12. Bayesian grid matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2003-01-01

    A method for locating distorted grid structures in images is presented. The method is based on the theories of template matching and Bayesian image restoration. The grid is modeled as a deformable template. Prior knowledge of the grid is described through a Markov random field (MRF) model which r...

  13. Is Matching Innate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C. R.; King, Adam Philip; Gottlieb, Daniel; Balci, Fuat; Papachristos, Efstathios B.; Szalecki, Matthew; Carbone, Kimberly S.

    2007-01-01

    Experimentally naive mice matched the proportions of their temporal investments (visit durations) in two feeding hoppers to the proportions of the food income (pellets per unit session time) derived from them in three experiments that varied the coupling between the behavioral investment and food income, from no coupling to strict coupling.…

  14. Matching Supernovae to Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    developed a new automated algorithm for matching supernovae to their host galaxies. Their work builds on currently existing algorithms and makes use of information about the nearby galaxies, accounts for the uncertainty of the match, and even includes a machine learning component to improve the matching accuracy.Gupta and collaborators test their matching algorithm on catalogs of galaxies and simulated supernova events to quantify how well the algorithm is able to accurately recover the true hosts.Successful MatchingThe matching algorithms accuracy (purity) as a function of the true supernova-host separation, the supernova redshift, the true hosts brightness, and the true hosts size. [Gupta et al. 2016]The authors find that when the basic algorithm is run on catalog data, it matches supernovae to their hosts with 91% accuracy. Including the machine learning component, which is run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy of the matching to 97%.The encouraging results of this work which was intended as a proof of concept suggest that methods similar to this could prove very practical for tackling future survey data. And the method explored here has use beyond matching just supernovae to their host galaxies: it could also be applied to other extragalactic transients, such as gamma-ray bursts, tidal disruption events, or electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational-wave detections.CitationRavi R. Gupta et al 2016 AJ 152 154. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/6/154

  15. [Propensity score matching in SPSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fuqiang; DU, Chunlin; Sun, Menghui; Ning, Bing; Luo, Ying; An, Shengli

    2015-11-01

    To realize propensity score matching in PS Matching module of SPSS and interpret the analysis results. The R software and plug-in that could link with the corresponding versions of SPSS and propensity score matching package were installed. A PS matching module was added in the SPSS interface, and its use was demonstrated with test data. Score estimation and nearest neighbor matching was achieved with the PS matching module, and the results of qualitative and quantitative statistical description and evaluation were presented in the form of a graph matching. Propensity score matching can be accomplished conveniently using SPSS software.

  16. Half-width at half-maximum, full-width at half-maximum analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    addition to the well-defined parameter full-width at half-maximum (FWHM). The distribution of ... optical side-lobes in the diffraction pattern resulting in steep central maxima [6], reduc- tion of effects of ... and broad central peak. The idea of.

  17. Credal Networks under Maximum Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasiewicz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We apply the principle of maximum entropy to select a unique joint probability distribution from the set of all joint probability distributions specified by a credal network. In detail, we start by showing that the unique joint distribution of a Bayesian tree coincides with the maximum entropy model of its conditional distributions. This result, however, does not hold anymore for general Bayesian networks. We thus present a new kind of maximum entropy models, which are computed sequentially. ...

  18. Robust matching for voice recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Alan; Bahler, L.; Porter, J.; Blais, P.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes an automated method of comparing a voice sample of an unknown individual with samples from known speakers in order to establish or verify the individual's identity. The method is based on a statistical pattern matching approach that employs a simple training procedure, requires no human intervention (transcription, work or phonetic marketing, etc.), and makes no assumptions regarding the expected form of the statistical distributions of the observations. The content of the speech material (vocabulary, grammar, etc.) is not assumed to be constrained in any way. An algorithm is described which incorporates frame pruning and channel equalization processes designed to achieve robust performance with reasonable computational resources. An experimental implementation demonstrating the feasibility of the concept is described.

  19. Adaptive Discrete Hypergraph Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junchi; Li, Changsheng; Li, Yin; Cao, Guitao

    2018-02-01

    This paper addresses the problem of hypergraph matching using higher-order affinity information. We propose a solver that iteratively updates the solution in the discrete domain by linear assignment approximation. The proposed method is guaranteed to converge to a stationary discrete solution and avoids the annealing procedure and ad-hoc post binarization step that are required in several previous methods. Specifically, we start with a simple iterative discrete gradient assignment solver. This solver can be trapped in an -circle sequence under moderate conditions, where is the order of the graph matching problem. We then devise an adaptive relaxation mechanism to jump out this degenerating case and show that the resulting new path will converge to a fixed solution in the discrete domain. The proposed method is tested on both synthetic and real-world benchmarks. The experimental results corroborate the efficacy of our method.

  20. Electromagnetic wave matching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a matching device capable of increasing an efficiency of combining beams of electromagnetic waves outputted from an output window of a gyrotron which is expected for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor and an electromagnetic wave transmission system as high as possible. Namely, an electromagnetic wave matching device reflects beams of electromagnetic waves incident from an inlet by a plurality of phase correction mirrors and combines them to an external transmission system through an exit. In this case, the phase correction mirrors change the phase of the beams of electromagnetic waves incident to the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection mirrors. Then, the beams of electromagnetic waves outputted, for example, from a gyrotron can properly be shaped as desired for the intensity and the phase. As a result, combination efficiency with the transmission system can be increased. (I.S.)

  1. Adaptive Unscented Kalman Filter using Maximum Likelihood Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmoudi, Zeinab; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Madsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an adaptive unscented Kalman filter (UKF) by tuning the measurement noise covariance. We use the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and the covariance matching (CM) method to estimate the noise covariance. The multi-step prediction errors generated...

  2. Matching with transfer matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Alvarez, R.; Velasco, V.R.; Garcia-Moliner, F.; Rodriguez-Coppola, H.

    1987-10-01

    An ABC configuration - which corresponds to various systems of physical interest, such as a barrier or a quantum well - is studied by combining a surface Green function matching analysis of the entire system with a description of the intermediate (B) region in terms of a transfer matrix in the sense of Mora et al. (1985). This hybrid approach proves very useful when it is very difficult to construct the corresponding Green function G B . An application is made to the calculation of quantised subband levels in a parabolic quantum well. Further possibilities of extension of this approach are pointed out. (author). 27 refs, 1 tab

  3. Coaxial pulse matching transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledenev, V.V.; Khimenko, L.T.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a coaxial pulse matching transformer with comparatively simple design, increased mechanical strength, and low stray inductance. The transformer design makes it easy to change the turns ratio. The circuit of the device and an expression for the current multiplication factor are presented; experiments confirm the efficiency of the transformer. Apparatus with a coaxial transformer for producing high-power pulsed magnetic fields is designed (current pulses of 1-10 MA into a load and a natural frequency of 100 kHz)

  4. Matching energy sources to demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, A.

    1979-01-01

    Diagrams show the current pattern of energy usage in Scotland; primary energy inputs; the various classes of user; the disposition of input energy in terms of useful and waste energy; an energy flow diagram showing the proportions of primary fuels taken by the various user groups and the proportions of useful energy derived by each. Within the S.S.E.B. area, installed capacity and maximum demand are shown for the present and projected future to the year 2000. A possible energy flow diagram for Scotland in 1996 is shown. The more efficient use of energy is discussed, with particular reference to the use of electricity. The primary energy inputs considered are oil, coal, nuclear, hydro and gas. (U.K.)

  5. Anatomy Ontology Matching Using Markov Logic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of model species is described in ontologies, which are used to standardize the annotations of experimental data, such as gene expression patterns. To compare such data between species, we need to establish relationships between ontologies describing different species. Ontology matching is a kind of solutions to find semantic correspondences between entities of different ontologies. Markov logic networks which unify probabilistic graphical model and first-order logic provide an excellent framework for ontology matching. We combine several different matching strategies through first-order logic formulas according to the structure of anatomy ontologies. Experiments on the adult mouse anatomy and the human anatomy have demonstrated the effectiveness of proposed approach in terms of the quality of result alignment.

  6. Body Weight and Matching with a Physically Attractive Romantic Partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmalt, Julie H.; Cawley, John; Joyner, Kara; Sobal, Jeffery

    2008-01-01

    Matching and attribute trade are two perspectives used to explain mate selection. We investigated patterns of matching and trade, focusing on obesity, using Add Health Romantic Pair data (N = 1,405 couples). Obese individuals, relative to healthy weight individuals, were less likely to have physically attractive partners, with this disadvantage…

  7. Different patterns in the risk of newly developed fatty liver and lipid changes with tamoxifen versus aromatase inhibitors in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer: A propensity score-matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Namki; Yoon, Han Gyul; Seo, Da Hea; Park, Seho; Kim, Seung Il; Sohn, Joo Hyuk; Rhee, Yumie

    2017-09-01

    Management of metabolic complications of long-term adjuvant endocrine therapy in early breast cancer remained an unmet need. We aimed to compare the effects of tamoxifen (TMX) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) on the risk of fatty liver in conjunction with longitudinal changes in the serum lipid parameters. Among 1203 subjects who were taking adjuvant TMX or AI (anastrozole or letrozole) without fatty liver at baseline, those taking TMX or AI were 1:1 matched on the propensity score. The primary outcome was newly developed fatty liver detected on annual liver ultrasonography. Among 328 matched subjects (mean age 53.5 years, body mass index 22.9 kg/m 2 ), 62 cases of fatty liver in the TMX group and 41 cases in the AI group were detected in a total of 987.4 person-years. The incidence rate of fatty liver was higher in the TMX group than in the AI group (128.7 versus 81.1 per 1000 person-years, P = 0.021), particularly within the first 2 years of therapy. TMX was associated with an increased 5-year risk of newly developed fatty liver (adjusted hazard ratio 1.61, P = 0.030) compared with AI independent of obesity and cholesterol level. Subjects who developed fatty liver had higher triglycerides (TGs) and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level at baseline than those without, which was sustained during follow-up despite the serum cholesterol-lowering effect of TMX. TMX independently increased the 5-year risk of newly developed fatty liver compared with AI in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. Our findings suggest the need for considering the risk of fatty liver as a different adverse event profile between AI and TMX, particularly in patients with obesity, high TGs and low HDL-C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Job Searchers, Job Matches and the Elasticity of Matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, L.; van Ours, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper stresses the importance of a specification of the matching function in which the measure of job matches corresponds to the measure of job searchers. In many empirical studies on the matching function this requirement has not been fulfilled because it is difficult to find information about

  9. Maximum entropy decomposition of quadrupole mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, U. von; Dose, V.; Golan, A.

    2004-01-01

    We present an information-theoretic method called generalized maximum entropy (GME) for decomposing mass spectra of gas mixtures from noisy measurements. In this GME approach to the noisy, underdetermined inverse problem, the joint entropies of concentration, cracking, and noise probabilities are maximized subject to the measured data. This provides a robust estimation for the unknown cracking patterns and the concentrations of the contributing molecules. The method is applied to mass spectroscopic data of hydrocarbons, and the estimates are compared with those received from a Bayesian approach. We show that the GME method is efficient and is computationally fast

  10. Kinetics of matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, T A; Gallistel, C R

    1994-01-01

    Rats responded on concurrent variable interval schedules of brain stimulation reward in 2-trial sessions. Between trials, there was a 16-fold reversal in the relative rate of reward. In successive, narrow time windows, the authors compared the ratio of the times spent on the 2 levers to the ratio of the rewards received. Time-allocation ratios tracked wide, random fluctuations in the reward ratio. The adjustment to the midsession reversal in relative rate of reward was largely completed within 1 interreward interval on the leaner schedule. Both results were unaffected by a 16-fold change in the combined rates of reward. The large, rapid, scale-invariant shifts in time-allocation ratios that underlie matching behavior imply that the subjective relative rate of reward can be determined by a very few of the most recent interreward intervals and that this estimate can directly determine the ratio of the expected stay durations.

  11. Electromagnetic wave matching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides an electromagnetic wave matching capable of reducing a cost for the transmission system in a system of using electromagnetic waves for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor. Namely, incident electromagnetic waves are reflected by using a plurality of phase correction mirrors. The reflected electromagnetic waves are connected to an external transmission system through an exit. The phase correction mirrors have such a shape to receive a plurality of beam-like electromagnetic waves and output electromagnetic waves by the number different from the number of the received electromagnetic wave beams having a predetermined distribution. Further, at least two of the phase correction mirrors have such a shape to change the phase of the electromagnetic waves beams incident to the reflection surface of the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection surface. Then, the cost for transmission system can greatly be reduced. (I.S.)

  12. Facial emotion recognition in Williams syndrome and Down syndrome: A matching and developmental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Castilla, Pastora; Burt, Michael; Borgatti, Renato; Gagliardi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    In this study both the matching and developmental trajectories approaches were used to clarify questions that remain open in the literature on facial emotion recognition in Williams syndrome (WS) and Down syndrome (DS). The matching approach showed that individuals with WS or DS exhibit neither proficiency for the expression of happiness nor specific impairments for negative emotions. Instead, they present the same pattern of emotion recognition as typically developing (TD) individuals. Thus, the better performance on the recognition of positive compared to negative emotions usually reported in WS and DS is not specific of these populations but seems to represent a typical pattern. Prior studies based on the matching approach suggested that the development of facial emotion recognition is delayed in WS and atypical in DS. Nevertheless, and even though performance levels were lower in DS than in WS, the developmental trajectories approach used in this study evidenced that not only individuals with DS but also those with WS present atypical development in facial emotion recognition. Unlike in the TD participants, where developmental changes were observed along with age, in the WS and DS groups, the development of facial emotion recognition was static. Both individuals with WS and those with DS reached an early maximum developmental level due to cognitive constraints.

  13. Use of Hyperspectral Imagery to Assess Cryptic Color Matching in Sargassum Associated Crabs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon J Russell

    Full Text Available Mats of the pelagic macroalgae Sargassum represent a complex environment for the study of marine camouflage at the air-sea interface. Endemic organisms have convergently evolved similar colors and patterns, but quantitative assessments of camouflage strategies are lacking. Here, spectral camouflage of two crab species (Portunus sayi and Planes minutus was assessed using hyperspectral imagery (HSI. Crabs matched Sargassum reflectance across blue and green wavelengths (400-550 nm and diverged at longer wavelengths. Maximum discrepancy was observed in the far-red (i.e., 675 nm where Chlorophyll a absorption occurred in Sargassum and not the crabs. In a quantum catch color model, both crabs showed effective color matching against blue/green sensitive dichromat fish, but were still discernible to tetrachromat bird predators that have visual sensitivity to far red wavelengths. The two species showed opposing trends in background matching with relation to body size. Variation in model parameters revealed that discrimination of crab and background was impacted by distance from the predator, and the ratio of cone cell types for bird predators. This is one of the first studies to detail background color matching in this unique, challenging ecosystem at the air-sea interface.

  14. Comparison of the Physical and Technical Demands of Cricket Players During Training and Match-Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Will; Duffield, Rob; Crowther, Rian; Beakley, David; Blanch, Peter; Dascombe, Ben J

    2018-03-01

    Vickery, W, Duffield, R, Crowther, R, Beakley, D, Blanch, P, and Dascombe, BJ. Comparison of the physical and technical demands of cricket players during training and match-play. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 821-829, 2018-This study aimed to determine which training method (net-based sessions or center-wicket simulations) currently used in national level and U19 male players cricket provided a more physical and technical match-specific training response. The heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, and movement patterns of 42 male cricket players were measured across the various training and match formats. Video analysis was coded retrospectively to quantify technical loads based on the cricket skills performed. Magnitude-based inferences were based on the standardization of effect and presented with ±90% confidence intervals. Regardless of playing position, differences in physiological demands between training modes and match-play were unclear, with the exception of higher heart rates in fielders during traditional net sessions (mean heart rate: d = -2.7 [-4.7 to -0.7]; 75% of maximum heart rate: d = -1.7 [-3.2 to -0.2]). Typically, the movement demands of center-wicket simulations were similar or greater than match-play, which was most evident in the distance traveled at a high intensity within each playing position (batsmen: d = 6.4 [3.7-9.2]; medium-fast bowlers: d = 1.71 [0.1-3.3]; spin bowlers: d = 6.5 [0.01-13.0]; fielders: d = 0.8 [-0.2 to 1.7]). The technical demands of traditional net cricket training exceeded that of a typical match for each playing position. Specifically, fast bowlers delivered a greater number of balls during net-bowling compared with a match (d = -2.2 [-3.6 to 0.9]). In conclusion, center-wicket simulations more closely matched the physical demands of a One-Day match within batsmen and spin bowlers, whereas traditional cricket training often exceeded match-specific demands.

  15. Quantity precommitment and price matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    We revisit the question of whether price matching is anti-competitive in a capacity constrained duopoly setting. We show that the effect of price matching depends on capacity. Specifically, price matching has no effect when capacity is relatively low, but it benefits the firms when capacity...... is relatively high. Interestingly, when capacity is in an intermediate range, price matching benefits only the small firm but does not affect the large firm in any way. Therefore, one has to consider capacity seriously when evaluating if price matching is anti-competitive. If the firms choose their capacities...... simultaneously before pricing decisions, then the effect of price matching is either pro-competitive or ambiguous. We show that if the cost of capacity is high, then price matching can only (weakly) decrease the market price. On the other hand, if the cost of capacity is low, then the effect of price matching...

  16. Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yuan Tseng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.

  17. Iris Matching Based on Personalized Weight Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenbo; Sun, Zhenan; Tan, Tieniu

    2011-09-01

    Iris recognition typically involves three steps, namely, iris image preprocessing, feature extraction, and feature matching. The first two steps of iris recognition have been well studied, but the last step is less addressed. Each human iris has its unique visual pattern and local image features also vary from region to region, which leads to significant differences in robustness and distinctiveness among the feature codes derived from different iris regions. However, most state-of-the-art iris recognition methods use a uniform matching strategy, where features extracted from different regions of the same person or the same region for different individuals are considered to be equally important. This paper proposes a personalized iris matching strategy using a class-specific weight map learned from the training images of the same iris class. The weight map can be updated online during the iris recognition procedure when the successfully recognized iris images are regarded as the new training data. The weight map reflects the robustness of an encoding algorithm on different iris regions by assigning an appropriate weight to each feature code for iris matching. Such a weight map trained by sufficient iris templates is convergent and robust against various noise. Extensive and comprehensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed personalized iris matching strategy achieves much better iris recognition performance than uniform strategies, especially for poor quality iris images.

  18. Spatial competition with intermediated matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raalte, C.L.J.P.; Webers, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper analyzes the spatial competition in commission fees between two match makers. These match makers serve as middlemen between buyers and sellers who are located uniformly on a circle. The profits of the match makers are determined by their respective market sizes. A limited willingness to

  19. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    60, No. 3. — journal of. March 2003 physics pp. 415–422. Maximum stellar iron core mass. F W GIACOBBE. Chicago Research Center/American Air Liquide ... iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large .... thermal equilibrium velocities will tend to be non-relativistic.

  20. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs

  1. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore

  2. A portable storage maximum thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayart, Gerard.

    1976-01-01

    A clinical thermometer storing the voltage corresponding to the maximum temperature in an analog memory is described. End of the measurement is shown by a lamp switch out. The measurement time is shortened by means of a low thermal inertia platinum probe. This portable thermometer is fitted with cell test and calibration system [fr

  3. Organizations must match assets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carley, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    The unprofitable state of the Canadian oil industry, the adverse economic environment, the difficulty of finding capital, and the diminishing resources of conventional lighter crude oil make it necessary for Canadian oil companies to match their organizations and their financing to their assets. This is illustrated according to the experience of Saskoil, a Saskatchewan oil and gas company. An increasing production of oil and natural gas, and an increasing amount of new oil production as heavy oil, led to organizational changes such as the purchase of an asphalt plant to provide the company with downstream experience, establishing a working group to explore and develop heavy oil resources, and forming a company to manage non-core assets. The latter company, Pasqua Resources, manages assets such as small properties and ownership interests in order to increase the operating efficiency of Saskoil. Pasqua provides Saskoil with a corporate and organizational vehicle to accommodate partnerships and joint venture capital invested in property purchase opportunities, and to manage any of Saskoil's divestiture activities

  4. Neutron spectra unfolding with maximum entropy and maximum likelihood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shikoh; Tsunoda, Toshiharu

    1989-01-01

    A new unfolding theory has been established on the basis of the maximum entropy principle and the maximum likelihood method. This theory correctly embodies the Poisson statistics of neutron detection, and always brings a positive solution over the whole energy range. Moreover, the theory unifies both problems of overdetermined and of underdetermined. For the latter, the ambiguity in assigning a prior probability, i.e. the initial guess in the Bayesian sense, has become extinct by virtue of the principle. An approximate expression of the covariance matrix for the resultant spectra is also presented. An efficient algorithm to solve the nonlinear system, which appears in the present study, has been established. Results of computer simulation showed the effectiveness of the present theory. (author)

  5. A thermoelectric generator using loop heat pipe and design match for maximum-power generation

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine; Hsu, Po-Chien; Tsai, Rung-Je; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    of noise. The experiments for a TEG with 4W rated power show that the LHP performs very well with overall thermal resistance 0.35 K W-1, from the cold side of TEG module to the ambient. The LHP is able to dissipate heat up to 110W and is maintenance free

  6. DOE Matching Grant Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoukalas, L.

    2002-01-01

    Funding used to support a portion of the Nuclear Engineering Educational Activities. Upgrade of teaching labs, student support to attend professional conferences, salary support for graduate students. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded Purdue University School of Nuclear Engineering during the period of five academic years covered in this report starting in the academic year 1996-97 and ending in the academic year 2000-2001. The total amount of funding for the grant received from DOE is $416K. In the 1990's, Nuclear Engineering Education in the US experienced a significant slow down. Student enrollment, research support, number of degrees at all levels (BS, MS, and PhD), number of accredited programs, University Research and Training Reactors, all went through a decline to alarmingly low levels. Several departments closed down, while some were amalgamated with other academic units (Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, etc). The School of Nuclear Engineering at Purdue University faced a major challenge when in the mid 90's our total undergraduate enrollment for the Sophomore, Junior and Senior Years dropped in the low 30's. The DOE Matching Grant program greatly strengthened Purdue's commitment to the Nuclear Engineering discipline and has helped to dramatically improve our undergraduate and graduate enrollment, attract new faculty and raise the School of Nuclear Engineering status within the University and in the National scene (our undergraduate enrollment has actually tripled and stands at an all time high of over 90 students; total enrollment currently exceeds 110 students). In this final technical report we outline and summarize how the grant was expended at Purdue University

  7. Geodesic acoustic eigenmode for tokamak equilibrium with maximum of local GAM frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakhin, V.P. [NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sorokina, E.A., E-mail: sorokina.ekaterina@gmail.com [NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-01-24

    The geodesic acoustic eigenmode for tokamak equilibrium with the maximum of local GAM frequency is found analytically in the frame of MHD model. The analysis is based on the asymptotic matching technique.

  8. On Maximum Entropy and Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gresele

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Maximum entropy is a powerful concept that entails a sharp separation between relevant and irrelevant variables. It is typically invoked in inference, once an assumption is made on what the relevant variables are, in order to estimate a model from data, that affords predictions on all other (dependent variables. Conversely, maximum entropy can be invoked to retrieve the relevant variables (sufficient statistics directly from the data, once a model is identified by Bayesian model selection. We explore this approach in the case of spin models with interactions of arbitrary order, and we discuss how relevant interactions can be inferred. In this perspective, the dimensionality of the inference problem is not set by the number of parameters in the model, but by the frequency distribution of the data. We illustrate the method showing its ability to recover the correct model in a few prototype cases and discuss its application on a real dataset.

  9. Maximum Water Hammer Sensitivity Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jalil Emadi; Abbas Solemani

    2011-01-01

    Pressure waves and Water Hammer occur in a pumping system when valves are closed or opened suddenly or in the case of sudden failure of pumps. Determination of maximum water hammer is considered one of the most important technical and economical items of which engineers and designers of pumping stations and conveyance pipelines should take care. Hammer Software is a recent application used to simulate water hammer. The present study focuses on determining significance of ...

  10. Maximum Gene-Support Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Shan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomes and genes diversify during evolution; however, it is unclear to what extent genes still retain the relationship among species. Model species for molecular phylogenetic studies include yeasts and viruses whose genomes were sequenced as well as plants that have the fossil-supported true phylogenetic trees available. In this study, we generated single gene trees of seven yeast species as well as single gene trees of nine baculovirus species using all the orthologous genes among the species compared. Homologous genes among seven known plants were used for validation of the finding. Four algorithms—maximum parsimony (MP, minimum evolution (ME, maximum likelihood (ML, and neighbor-joining (NJ—were used. Trees were reconstructed before and after weighting the DNA and protein sequence lengths among genes. Rarely a gene can always generate the “true tree” by all the four algorithms. However, the most frequent gene tree, termed “maximum gene-support tree” (MGS tree, or WMGS tree for the weighted one, in yeasts, baculoviruses, or plants was consistently found to be the “true tree” among the species. The results provide insights into the overall degree of divergence of orthologous genes of the genomes analyzed and suggest the following: 1 The true tree relationship among the species studied is still maintained by the largest group of orthologous genes; 2 There are usually more orthologous genes with higher similarities between genetically closer species than between genetically more distant ones; and 3 The maximum gene-support tree reflects the phylogenetic relationship among species in comparison.

  11. Most Recent Match Queries in On-Line Suffix Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, N. Jesper

    2014-01-01

    A suffix tree is able to efficiently locate a pattern in an indexed string, but not in general the most recent copy of the pattern in an online stream, which is desirable in some applications. We study the most general version of the problem of locating a most recent match: supporting queries...

  12. Matching theory for wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Zhu; Saad, Walid

    2017-01-01

    This book provides the fundamental knowledge of the classical matching theory problems. It builds up the bridge between the matching theory and the 5G wireless communication resource allocation problems. The potentials and challenges of implementing the semi-distributive matching theory framework into the wireless resource allocations are analyzed both theoretically and through implementation examples. Academics, researchers, engineers, and so on, who are interested in efficient distributive wireless resource allocation solutions, will find this book to be an exceptional resource. .

  13. Probability matching and strategy availability

    OpenAIRE

    J. Koehler, Derek; Koehler, Derek J.; James, Greta

    2010-01-01

    Findings from two experiments indicate that probability matching in sequential choice arises from an asymmetry in strategy availability: The matching strategy comes readily to mind, whereas a superior alternative strategy, maximizing, does not. First, compared with the minority who spontaneously engage in maximizing, the majority of participants endorse maximizing as superior to matching in a direct comparison when both strategies are described. Second, when the maximizing strategy is brought...

  14. An Incentive Theory of Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Alessio J. G.; Merkl, Christian; Snower, Dennis J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the labour market matching process by distinguishing its two component stages: the contact stage, in which job searchers make contact with employers and the selection stage, in which they decide whether to match. We construct a theoretical model explaining two-sided selection through microeconomic incentives. Firms face adjustment costs in responding to heterogeneous variations in the characteristics of workers and jobs. Matches and separations are described through firms'...

  15. Generic maximum likely scale selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    in this work is on applying this selection principle under a Brownian image model. This image model provides a simple scale invariant prior for natural images and we provide illustrative examples of the behavior of our scale estimation on such images. In these illustrative examples, estimation is based......The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...

  16. Extreme Maximum Land Surface Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1992-09-01

    There are numerous reports in the literature of observations of land surface temperatures. Some of these, almost all made in situ, reveal maximum values in the 50°-70°C range, with a few, made in desert regions, near 80°C. Consideration of a simplified form of the surface energy balance equation, utilizing likely upper values of absorbed shortwave flux (1000 W m2) and screen air temperature (55°C), that surface temperatures in the vicinity of 90°-100°C may occur for dry, darkish soils of low thermal conductivity (0.1-0.2 W m1 K1). Numerical simulations confirm this and suggest that temperature gradients in the first few centimeters of soil may reach 0.5°-1°C mm1 under these extreme conditions. The study bears upon the intrinsic interest of identifying extreme maximum temperatures and yields interesting information regarding the comfort zone of animals (including man).

  17. DOE Matching Grant Program; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr Marvin Adams

    2002-01-01

    OAK 270 - The DOE Matching Grant Program provided$50,000.00 to the Dept of N.E. at TAMU, matching a gift of$50,000.00 from TXU Electric. The$100,000.00 total was spent on scholarships, departmental labs, and computing network

  18. Matching score based face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, B.J.; Beumer, G.M.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate face registration is of vital importance to the performance of a face recognition algorithm. We propose a new method: matching score based face registration, which searches for optimal alignment by maximizing the matching score output of a classifier as a function of the different

  19. Platform pricing in matching markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goos, M.; van Cayseele, P.; Willekens, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a simple model of monopoly platform pricing accounting for two pertinent features of matching markets. 1) The trading process is characterized by search and matching frictions implying limits to positive cross-side network effects and the presence of own-side congestion.

  20. Statistical methods for history matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kent

    Denne afhandling beskriver statistiske metoder til history matching af olieproduktion. History matching er en vigtig del af driften af et oliefelt og er ofte forbundet med problemer relateret til kompleksiteten af reservoiret og selve størrelsen af reservoirsimuleringsmodellen. Begrebet history m...

  1. Role model and prototype matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkegaard, Eva; Ulriksen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    ’ meetings with the role models affected their thoughts concerning STEM students and attending university. The regular self-to-prototype matching process was shown in real-life role-models meetings to be extended to a more complex three-way matching process between students’ self-perceptions, prototype...

  2. An Implementation of the Frequency Matching Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Katrine; Frydendall, Jan; Hansen, Thomas Mejer

    During the last decade multiple-point statistics has become in-creasingly popular as a tool for incorporating complex prior infor-mation when solving inverse problems in geosciences. A variety of methods have been proposed but often the implementation of these is not straightforward. One of these......During the last decade multiple-point statistics has become in-creasingly popular as a tool for incorporating complex prior infor-mation when solving inverse problems in geosciences. A variety of methods have been proposed but often the implementation of these is not straightforward. One...... of these methods is the recently proposed Frequency Matching method to compute the maximum a posteriori model of an inverse problem where multiple-point statistics, learned from a training image, is used to formulate a closed form expression for an a priori probability density function. This paper discusses...... aspects of the implementation of the Fre-quency Matching method and the techniques adopted to make it com-putationally feasible also for large-scale inverse problems. The source code is publicly available at GitHub and this paper also provides an example of how to apply the Frequency Matching method...

  3. Efficient line matching with homography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Dai, Yuxing; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach to line matching based on homography. The basic idea is to use cheaply obtainable matched points to boost the similarity between two images. Two types of homography method, which are estimated by direct linear transformation, transform images and extract their similar parts, laying a foundation for the use of optical flow tracking. The merit of the similarity is that rapid matching can be achieved by regionalizing line segments and local searching. For multiple homography estimation that can perform better than one global homography, we introduced the rank-one modification method of singular value decomposition to reduce the computation cost. The proposed approach results in point-to-point matches, which can be utilized with state-of-the-art point-match-based structures from motion (SfM) frameworks seamlessly. The outstanding performance and feasible robustness of our approach are demonstrated in this paper.

  4. Haptic spatial matching in near peripersonal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaas, Amanda L; Mier, Hanneke I van

    2006-04-01

    Research has shown that haptic spatial matching at intermanual distances over 60 cm is prone to large systematic errors. The error pattern has been explained by the use of reference frames intermediate between egocentric and allocentric coding. This study investigated haptic performance in near peripersonal space, i.e. at intermanual distances of 60 cm and less. Twelve blindfolded participants (six males and six females) were presented with two turn bars at equal distances from the midsagittal plane, 30 or 60 cm apart. Different orientations (vertical/horizontal or oblique) of the left bar had to be matched by adjusting the right bar to either a mirror symmetric (/ \\) or parallel (/ /) position. The mirror symmetry task can in principle be performed accurately in both an egocentric and an allocentric reference frame, whereas the parallel task requires an allocentric representation. Results showed that parallel matching induced large systematic errors which increased with distance. Overall error was significantly smaller in the mirror task. The task difference also held for the vertical orientation at 60 cm distance, even though this orientation required the same response in both tasks, showing a marked effect of task instruction. In addition, men outperformed women on the parallel task. Finally, contrary to our expectations, systematic errors were found in the mirror task, predominantly at 30 cm distance. Based on these findings, we suggest that haptic performance in near peripersonal space might be dominated by different mechanisms than those which come into play at distances over 60 cm. Moreover, our results indicate that both inter-individual differences and task demands affect task performance in haptic spatial matching. Therefore, we conclude that the study of haptic spatial matching in near peripersonal space might reveal important additional constraints for the specification of adequate models of haptic spatial performance.

  5. The urology residency matching program in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichman, J M; Anderson, K D; Dorough, M M; Stein, C R; Optenberg, S A; Thompson, I M

    2000-06-01

    We evaluate behaviors and attitudes among resident applicants and program directors related to the American Urological Association (AUA) residency matching program and recommend changes to improve the match. Written questionnaires were mailed to 519 resident applicants and 112 program directors after the 1999 American Urological Association match. Subjects were asked about their observations, behaviors and opinions towards the match. Questionnaires were returned by 230 resident applicants and 94 program directors (44% and 83% response rates, respectively.) Of the resident applicants 75% spent $1,001 to $5,000 for interviewing. Of the program directors 47% recalled that applicants asked how programs would rank the applicant and 61% of applicants recalled that program directors asked applicants how they would rank programs. Dishonesty was acknowledged by 31% of program directors and 44% of resident applicants. Of program directors 82% thought applicants "lied", while 67% of applicants thought that programs "lied" (quotations indicate questionnaire language). Participants characterized their own dishonesty as "just playing the game" or they "did not feel badly." Of program directors 81% and of applicants 61% were "skeptical" or "did not believe" when informed they were a "high" or "number 1" selection. Being asked about marital status was recalled by 91% of male and 100% of female (p = 0. 02), if they had children by 53% of male and 67% of female, (p = 0. 03), and intent to have children by 25% of male and 62% of female (p match code rules frequently. Program directors and resident applicants are skeptical of each other. Patterns of faculty behavior differ based on applicant gender. Interviews are costly for applicants. We recommend that 1) programs adopt policies to enhance fairness, 2) applications be filed electronically, 3) programs assist resident applicants with interview accommodation to reduce financial burden and 4) a post-interview code of limited or

  6. The match-to-match variation of match-running in elite female soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewin, Joshua; Meylan, César; Varley, Matthew C; Cronin, John

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the match-to-match variation of match-running in elite female soccer players utilising GPS, using full-match and rolling period analyses. Longitudinal study. Elite female soccer players (n=45) from the same national team were observed during 55 international fixtures across 5 years (2012-2016). Data was analysed using a custom built MS Excel spreadsheet as full-matches and using a rolling 5-min analysis period, for all players who played 90-min matches (files=172). Variation was examined using co-efficient of variation and 90% confidence limits, calculated following log transformation. Total distance per minute exhibited the smallest variation when both the full-match and peak 5-min running periods were examined (CV=6.8-7.2%). Sprint-efforts were the most variable during a full-match (CV=53%), whilst high-speed running per minute exhibited the greatest variation in the post-peak 5-min period (CV=143%). Peak running periods were observed as slightly more variable than full-match analyses, with the post-peak period very-highly variable. Variability of accelerations (CV=17%) and Player Load (CV=14%) was lower than that of high-speed actions. Positional differences were also present, with centre backs exhibiting the greatest variation in high-speed movements (CV=41-65%). Practitioners and researchers should account for within player variability when examining match performances. Identification of peak running periods should be used to assist worst case scenarios. Whilst micro-sensor technology should be further examined as to its viable use within match-analyses. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. MUSCLE DAMAGE AFTER A TENNIS MATCH IN YOUNG PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Gomes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated changes in indirect markers of muscle damage following a simulated tennis match play using nationally ranked young (17.6 ± 1.4 years male tennis players. Ten young athletes played a 3-hour simulated match play on outdoor red clay courts following the International Tennis Federation rules. Muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase activity (CK, serum myoglobin concentration (Mb, one repetition maximum (1RM squat strength, and squat jump (SJ and counter movement jump (CMJ heights were assessed before, immediately after, and 24 and 48 h after the simulated match play. All parameters were also evaluated in a non-exercised group (control group. A small increase in the indirect markers of muscle damage (muscle soreness, CK and Mb was detected at 24-48 hours post-match (p<0.05. A marked acute decrement in neuromuscular performance (1RM squat strength: -35.2 ± 10.4%, SJ: -7.0 ± 6.0%, CMJ: -10.0 ± 6.3% was observed immediately post-match (p<0.05. At 24 h post-match, the 1RM strength and jump heights were not significantly different from the baseline values. However, several players showed a decrease of these measures at 24 h after the match play. The simulated tennis match play induced mild muscle damage in young players. Coaches could monitor changes in the indirect markers of muscle damage to assess athletes’ recovery status during training and competition.

  8. System for memorizing maximum values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1992-08-01

    The invention discloses a system capable of memorizing maximum sensed values. The system includes conditioning circuitry which receives the analog output signal from a sensor transducer. The conditioning circuitry rectifies and filters the analog signal and provides an input signal to a digital driver, which may be either linear or logarithmic. The driver converts the analog signal to discrete digital values, which in turn triggers an output signal on one of a plurality of driver output lines n. The particular output lines selected is dependent on the converted digital value. A microfuse memory device connects across the driver output lines, with n segments. Each segment is associated with one driver output line, and includes a microfuse that is blown when a signal appears on the associated driver output line.

  9. Remarks on the maximum luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Ikeda, Taishi; Moore, Christopher J.; Yoo, Chul-Moon

    2018-04-01

    The quest for fundamental limitations on physical processes is old and venerable. Here, we investigate the maximum possible power, or luminosity, that any event can produce. We show, via full nonlinear simulations of Einstein's equations, that there exist initial conditions which give rise to arbitrarily large luminosities. However, the requirement that there is no past horizon in the spacetime seems to limit the luminosity to below the Planck value, LP=c5/G . Numerical relativity simulations of critical collapse yield the largest luminosities observed to date, ≈ 0.2 LP . We also present an analytic solution to the Einstein equations which seems to give an unboundedly large luminosity; this will guide future numerical efforts to investigate super-Planckian luminosities.

  10. Scintillation counter, maximum gamma aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumim, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  11. Speed-up Template Matching through Integral Image based Weak Classifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, t.; Toet, A.

    2014-01-01

    Template matching is a widely used pattern recognition method, especially in industrial inspection. However, the computational costs of traditional template matching increase dramatically with both template-and scene imagesize. This makes traditional template matching less useful for many (e.g.

  12. POOR TEXTURAL IMAGE MATCHING BASED ON GRAPH THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Image matching lies at the heart of photogrammetry and computer vision. For poor textural images, the matching result is affected by low contrast, repetitive patterns, discontinuity or occlusion, few or homogeneous textures. Recently, graph matching became popular for its integration of geometric and radiometric information. Focused on poor textural image matching problem, it is proposed an edge-weight strategy to improve graph matching algorithm. A series of experiments have been conducted including 4 typical landscapes: Forest, desert, farmland, and urban areas. And it is experimentally found that our new algorithm achieves better performance. Compared to SIFT, doubled corresponding points were acquired, and the overall recall rate reached up to 68%, which verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the algorithm.

  13. Matching by Monotonic Tone Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Gyorgy

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, a novel dissimilarity measure called Matching by Monotonic Tone Mapping (MMTM) is proposed. The MMTM technique allows matching under non-linear monotonic tone mappings and can be computed efficiently when the tone mappings are approximated by piecewise constant or piecewise linear functions. The proposed method is evaluated in various template matching scenarios involving simulated and real images, and compared to other measures developed to be invariant to monotonic intensity transformations. The results show that the MMTM technique is a highly competitive alternative of conventional measures in problems where possible tone mappings are close to monotonic.

  14. MATCHING IN INFORMAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckhout, Jan; Munshi, Kaivan

    2010-09-01

    This paper analyzes an informal financial institution that brings heterogeneous agents together in groups. We analyze decentralized matching into these groups, and the equilibrium composition of participants that consequently arises. We find that participants sort remarkably well across the competing groups, and that they re-sort immediately following an unexpected exogenous regulatory change. These findings suggest that the competitive matching model might have applicability and bite in other settings where matching is an important equilibrium phenomenon. (JEL: O12, O17, G20, D40).

  15. Trends in Correlation-Based Pattern Recognition and Tracking in Forward-Looking Infrared Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad S.; Bhuiyan, Sharif M. A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we review the recent trends and advancements on correlation-based pattern recognition and tracking in forward-looking infrared (FLIR) imagery. In particular, we discuss matched filter-based correlation techniques for target detection and tracking which are widely used for various real time applications. We analyze and present test results involving recently reported matched filters such as the maximum average correlation height (MACH) filter and its variants, and distance classifier correlation filter (DCCF) and its variants. Test results are presented for both single/multiple target detection and tracking using various real-life FLIR image sequences. PMID:25061840

  16. Toward Practical Secure Stable Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riazi M. Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Stable Matching (SM algorithm has been deployed in many real-world scenarios including the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP and financial applications such as matching of suppliers and consumers in capital markets. Since these applications typically involve highly sensitive information such as the underlying preference lists, their current implementations rely on trusted third parties. This paper introduces the first provably secure and scalable implementation of SM based on Yao’s garbled circuit protocol and Oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our scheme can securely compute a stable match for 8k pairs four orders of magnitude faster than the previously best known method. We achieve this by introducing a compact and efficient sub-linear size circuit. We even further decrease the computation cost by three orders of magnitude by proposing a novel technique to avoid unnecessary iterations in the SM algorithm. We evaluate our implementation for several problem sizes and plan to publish it as open-source.

  17. Probability matching and strategy availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Derek J; James, Greta

    2010-09-01

    Findings from two experiments indicate that probability matching in sequential choice arises from an asymmetry in strategy availability: The matching strategy comes readily to mind, whereas a superior alternative strategy, maximizing, does not. First, compared with the minority who spontaneously engage in maximizing, the majority of participants endorse maximizing as superior to matching in a direct comparison when both strategies are described. Second, when the maximizing strategy is brought to their attention, more participants subsequently engage in maximizing. Third, matchers are more likely than maximizers to base decisions in other tasks on their initial intuitions, suggesting that they are more inclined to use a choice strategy that comes to mind quickly. These results indicate that a substantial subset of probability matchers are victims of "underthinking" rather than "overthinking": They fail to engage in sufficient deliberation to generate a superior alternative to the matching strategy that comes so readily to mind.

  18. Maximum entropy and Bayesian methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.R.; Erickson, G.J.; Neudorfer, P.O.

    1992-01-01

    Bayesian probability theory and Maximum Entropy methods are at the core of a new view of scientific inference. These 'new' ideas, along with the revolution in computational methods afforded by modern computers allow astronomers, electrical engineers, image processors of any type, NMR chemists and physicists, and anyone at all who has to deal with incomplete and noisy data, to take advantage of methods that, in the past, have been applied only in some areas of theoretical physics. The title workshops have been the focus of a group of researchers from many different fields, and this diversity is evident in this book. There are tutorial and theoretical papers, and applications in a very wide variety of fields. Almost any instance of dealing with incomplete and noisy data can be usefully treated by these methods, and many areas of theoretical research are being enhanced by the thoughtful application of Bayes' theorem. Contributions contained in this volume present a state-of-the-art overview that will be influential and useful for many years to come

  19. Individual Biometric Identification Using Multi-Cycle Electrocardiographic Waveform Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonki Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The electrocardiogram (ECG waveform conveys information regarding the electrical property of the heart. The patterns vary depending on the individual heart characteristics. ECG features can be potentially used for biometric recognition. This study presents a new method using the entire ECG waveform pattern for matching and demonstrates that the approach can potentially be employed for individual biometric identification. Multi-cycle ECG signals were assessed using an ECG measuring circuit, and three electrodes can be patched on the wrists or fingers for considering various measurements. For biometric identification, our-fold cross validation was used in the experiments for assessing how the results of a statistical analysis will generalize to an independent data set. Four different pattern matching algorithms, i.e., cosine similarity, cross correlation, city block distance, and Euclidean distances, were tested to compare the individual identification performances with a single channel of ECG signal (3-wire ECG. To evaluate the pattern matching for biometric identification, the ECG recordings for each subject were partitioned into training and test set. The suggested method obtained a maximum performance of 89.9% accuracy with two heartbeats of ECG signals measured on the wrist and 93.3% accuracy with three heartbeats for 55 subjects. The performance rate with ECG signals measured on the fingers improved up to 99.3% with two heartbeats and 100% with three heartbeats of signals for 20 subjects.

  20. Individual Biometric Identification Using Multi-Cycle Electrocardiographic Waveform Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonki; Kim, Seulgee; Kim, Daeeun

    2018-03-28

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) waveform conveys information regarding the electrical property of the heart. The patterns vary depending on the individual heart characteristics. ECG features can be potentially used for biometric recognition. This study presents a new method using the entire ECG waveform pattern for matching and demonstrates that the approach can potentially be employed for individual biometric identification. Multi-cycle ECG signals were assessed using an ECG measuring circuit, and three electrodes can be patched on the wrists or fingers for considering various measurements. For biometric identification, our-fold cross validation was used in the experiments for assessing how the results of a statistical analysis will generalize to an independent data set. Four different pattern matching algorithms, i.e., cosine similarity, cross correlation, city block distance, and Euclidean distances, were tested to compare the individual identification performances with a single channel of ECG signal (3-wire ECG). To evaluate the pattern matching for biometric identification, the ECG recordings for each subject were partitioned into training and test set. The suggested method obtained a maximum performance of 89.9% accuracy with two heartbeats of ECG signals measured on the wrist and 93.3% accuracy with three heartbeats for 55 subjects. The performance rate with ECG signals measured on the fingers improved up to 99.3% with two heartbeats and 100% with three heartbeats of signals for 20 subjects.

  1. Probability Matching, Fast and Slow

    OpenAIRE

    Koehler, Derek J.; James, Greta

    2014-01-01

    A prominent point of contention among researchers regarding the interpretation of probability-matching behavior is whether it represents a cognitively sophisticated, adaptive response to the inherent uncertainty of the tasks or settings in which it is observed, or whether instead it represents a fundamental shortcoming in the heuristics that support and guide human decision making. Put crudely, researchers disagree on whether probability matching is "smart" or "dumb." Here, we consider eviden...

  2. Matching games with partial information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureti, Paolo; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2003-06-01

    We analyze different ways of pairing agents in a bipartite matching problem, with regard to its scaling properties and to the distribution of individual “satisfactions”. Then we explore the role of partial information and bounded rationality in a generalized Marriage Problem, comparing the benefits obtained by self-searching and by a matchmaker. Finally we propose a modified matching game intended to mimic the way consumers’ information makes firms to enhance the quality of their products in a competitive market.

  3. Vision-based adaptive cruise control using pattern matching

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kanjee, R

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available input generated by the control system does not directly induce a traction force on the car tires. In an electric vehicle, the throttle position is processed by the engine controller and is mapped proportionally to the motor’s angular velocity. For our... simulation, this mapping was obtained from the manufacturer’s datasheet of the electric motor controller being used in the hybrid car. The manufacturer also supplies a speed-torque curve. An approximate equation was obtained using a linear curve fitting...

  4. Computationally Secure Pattern Matching in the Presence of Malicious Adversaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazay, Carmit; Toft, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    simulation in the presence of malicious, polynomial-time adversaries (assuming that ElGamal encryption is semantically secure) and exhibits computation and communication costs of O(n + m) in a constant round complexity. In addition to the above, we propose a collection of protocols for variations...

  5. The Logical Basis of Evaluation Order and Pattern-Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-17

    various people in the 1930s, particularly Wittgenstein (“It is what is regarded as the justification of an assertion that constitutes the sense of the...assertion” [ Wittgenstein , 1974, I,§40]), and Brouwer-Heyting-Kolmogorov in their interpretations of intuitionistic logic [Heyting, 1974, Kolmogorov, 1932...Technical Report CMU-CS-02-101, Department of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, 2002. Revised May 2003. Ludwig Wittgenstein

  6. Maximum entropy principal for transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilich, F.; Da Silva, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  7. Poor textural image tie point matching via graph theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiuxiao; Chen, Shiyu; Yuan, Wei; Cai, Yang

    2017-07-01

    Feature matching aims to find corresponding points to serve as tie points between images. Robust matching is still a challenging task when input images are characterized by low contrast or contain repetitive patterns, occlusions, or homogeneous textures. In this paper, a novel feature matching algorithm based on graph theory is proposed. This algorithm integrates both geometric and radiometric constraints into an edge-weighted (EW) affinity tensor. Tie points are then obtained by high-order graph matching. Four pairs of poor textural images covering forests, deserts, bare lands, and urban areas are tested. For comparison, three state-of-the-art matching techniques, namely, scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT), speeded up robust features (SURF), and features from accelerated segment test (FAST), are also used. The experimental results show that the matching recall obtained by SIFT, SURF, and FAST varies from 0 to 35% in different types of poor textures. However, through the integration of both geometry and radiometry and the EW strategy, the recall obtained by the proposed algorithm is better than 50% in all four image pairs. The better matching recall improves the number of correct matches, dispersion, and positional accuracy.

  8. Influence of a Prolonged Tennis Match Play on Serve Biomechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Martin

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantify kinematic, kinetic and performance changes that occur in the serve throughout a prolonged tennis match play. Serves of eight male advanced tennis players were recorded with a motion capture system before, at mid-match, and after a 3-hour tennis match. Before and after each match, electromyographic data of 8 upper limb muscles obtained during isometric maximal voluntary contraction were compared to determine the presence of muscular fatigue. Vertical ground reaction forces, rating of perceived exertion, ball speed, and ball impact height were measured. Kinematic and upper limb kinetic variables were computed. The results show decrease in mean power frequency values for several upper limb muscles that is an indicator of local muscular fatigue. Decreases in serve ball speed, ball impact height, maximal angular velocities and an increase in rating of perceived exertion were also observed between the beginning and the end of the match. With fatigue, the majority of the upper limb joint kinetics decreases at the end of the match. No change in timing of maximal angular velocities was observed between the beginning and the end of the match. A prolonged tennis match play may induce fatigue in upper limb muscles, which decrease performance and cause changes in serve maximal angular velocities and joint kinetics. The consistency in timing of maximal angular velocities suggests that advanced tennis players are able to maintain the temporal pattern of their serve technique, in spite of the muscular fatigue development.

  9. 76 FR 5235 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA Internal Match)-Match Number 1014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ...; Computer Matching Program (SSA Internal Match)--Match Number 1014 AGENCY: Social Security Administration... regarding protections for such persons. The Privacy Act, as amended, regulates the use of computer matching....C. 552a, as amended, and the provisions of the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988...

  10. Local Search Approaches in Stable Matching Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Walsh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The stable marriage (SM problem has a wide variety of practical applications, ranging from matching resident doctors to hospitals, to matching students to schools or, more generally, to any two-sided market. In the classical formulation, n men and n women express their preferences (via a strict total order over the members of the other sex. Solving an SM problem means finding a stable marriage where stability is an envy-free notion: no man and woman who are not married to each other would both prefer each other to their partners or to being single. We consider both the classical stable marriage problem and one of its useful variations (denoted SMTI (Stable Marriage with Ties and Incomplete lists where the men and women express their preferences in the form of an incomplete preference list with ties over a subset of the members of the other sex. Matchings are permitted only with people who appear in these preference lists, and we try to find a stable matching that marries as many people as possible. Whilst the SM problem is polynomial to solve, the SMTI problem is NP-hard. We propose to tackle both problems via a local search approach, which exploits properties of the problems to reduce the size of the neighborhood and to make local moves efficiently. We empirically evaluate our algorithm for SM problems by measuring its runtime behavior and its ability to sample the lattice of all possible stable marriages. We evaluate our algorithm for SMTI problems in terms of both its runtime behavior and its ability to find a maximum cardinality stable marriage. Experimental results suggest that for SM problems, the number of steps of our algorithm grows only as O(n log(n, and that it samples very well the set of all stable marriages. It is thus a fair and efficient approach to generate stable marriages. Furthermore, our approach for SMTI problems is able to solve large problems, quickly returning stable matchings of large and often optimal size, despite the

  11. Last Glacial Maximum Salinity Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, K.; Spivack, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that salinity can be reconstructed from sediment porewater. The goal of our study is to reconstruct high precision salinity during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Salinity is usually determined at high precision via conductivity, which requires a larger volume of water than can be extracted from a sediment core, or via chloride titration, which yields lower than ideal precision. It has been demonstrated for water column samples that high precision density measurements can be used to determine salinity at the precision of a conductivity measurement using the equation of state of seawater. However, water column seawater has a relatively constant composition, in contrast to porewater, where variations from standard seawater composition occur. These deviations, which affect the equation of state, must be corrected for through precise measurements of each ion's concentration and knowledge of apparent partial molar density in seawater. We have developed a density-based method for determining porewater salinity that requires only 5 mL of sample, achieving density precisions of 10-6 g/mL. We have applied this method to porewater samples extracted from long cores collected along a N-S transect across the western North Atlantic (R/V Knorr cruise KN223). Density was determined to a precision of 2.3x10-6 g/mL, which translates to salinity uncertainty of 0.002 gms/kg if the effect of differences in composition is well constrained. Concentrations of anions (Cl-, and SO4-2) and cations (Na+, Mg+, Ca+2, and K+) were measured. To correct salinities at the precision required to unravel LGM Meridional Overturning Circulation, our ion precisions must be better than 0.1% for SO4-/Cl- and Mg+/Na+, and 0.4% for Ca+/Na+, and K+/Na+. Alkalinity, pH and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon of the porewater were determined to precisions better than 4% when ratioed to Cl-, and used to calculate HCO3-, and CO3-2. Apparent partial molar densities in seawater were

  12. Matching faces with emotional expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng eChen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available There is some evidence that faces with a happy expression are recognized better than faces with other expressions. However, little is known about whether this happy face advantage also applies to perceptual face matching, and whether similar differences exist among other expressions. Using a sequential matching paradigm, we systematically compared the effects of seven basic facial expressions on identity recognition. Identity matching was quickest when a pair of faces had an identical happy/sad/neutral expression, poorer when they had a fearful/surprise/angry expression, and poorest when they had a disgust expression. Faces with a happy/sad/fear/surprise expression were matched faster than those with an anger/disgust expression when the second face in a pair had a neutral expression. These results demonstrate that effects of facial expression on identity recognition are not limited to happy faces when a learned face is immediately tested. The results suggest different influences of expression in perceptual matching and long-term recognition memory.

  13. The Kent Face Matching Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fysh, Matthew C; Bindemann, Markus

    2018-05-01

    This study presents the Kent Face Matching Test (KFMT), which comprises 200 same-identity and 20 different-identity pairs of unfamiliar faces. Each face pair consists of a photograph from a student ID card and a high-quality portrait that was taken at least three months later. The test is designed to complement existing resources for face-matching research, by providing a more ecologically valid stimulus set that captures the natural variability that can arise in a person's appearance over time. Two experiments are presented to demonstrate that the KFMT provides a challenging measure of face matching but correlates with established tests. Experiment 1 compares a short version of this test with the optimized Glasgow Face Matching Test (GFMT). In Experiment 2, a longer version of the KFMT, with infrequent identity mismatches, is correlated with performance on the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) and the Cambridge Face Perception Test (CFPT). The KFMT is freely available for use in face-matching research. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  14. A Phase Matching, Adiabatic Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemery, Francois [Hamburg U.; Flöttmann, Klaus [DESY; Kärtner, Franz [CFEL, Hamburg; Piot, Philippe [Northern Illinois U.

    2017-05-01

    Tabletop accelerators are a thing of the future. Reducing their size will require scaling down electromagnetic wavelengths; however, without correspondingly high field gradients, particles will be more susceptible to phase-slippage – especially at low energy. We investigate how an adiabatically-tapered dielectric-lined waveguide could maintain phase-matching between the accelerating mode and electron bunch. We benchmark our simple model with CST and implement it into ASTRA; finally we provide a first glimpse into the beam dynamics in a phase-matching accelerator.

  15. Mix-and-match holography

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Yifan

    2017-11-22

    Computational caustics and light steering displays offer a wide range of interesting applications, ranging from art works and architectural installations to energy efficient HDR projection. In this work we expand on this concept by encoding several target images into pairs of front and rear phase-distorting surfaces. Different target holograms can be decoded by mixing and matching different front and rear surfaces under specific geometric alignments. Our approach, which we call mix-and-match holography, is made possible by moving from a refractive caustic image formation process to a diffractive, holographic one. This provides the extra bandwidth that is required to multiplex several images into pairing surfaces.

  16. Two-dimensional maximum entropy image restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brolley, J.E.; Lazarus, R.B.; Suydam, B.R.; Trussell, H.J.

    1977-07-01

    An optical check problem was constructed to test P LOG P maximum entropy restoration of an extremely distorted image. Useful recovery of the original image was obtained. Comparison with maximum a posteriori restoration is made. 7 figures

  17. The complexity of the matching-cut problem for planar graphs and other graph classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsma, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    The Matching-Cut problem is the problem to decide whether a graph has an edge cut that is also a matching. Previously this problem was studied under the name of the Decomposable Graph Recognition problem, and proved to be -complete when restricted to graphs with maximum degree four. In this paper it

  18. Physical match performance of youth football players in relation to physical capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebelo, António; Brito, João; Seabra, André

    2014-01-01

    competitive matches per player. Distance covered during the match was 6311±948 (range: 4435-8098) m, of which 12% were high-intensity activities (HIA; 759±437 [374-2062] m), and 5% was backwards running (309±205 [12-776] m). Mean match HR was 168±12 (140-187) bpm, corresponding to 85% (69-91) of maximum HR...

  19. Template matching techniques in computer vision theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Brunelli, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The detection and recognition of objects in images is a key research topic in the computer vision community.  Within this area, face recognition and interpretation has attracted increasing attention owing to the possibility of unveiling human perception mechanisms, and for the development of practical biometric systems. This book and the accompanying website, focus on template matching, a subset of object recognition techniques of wide applicability, which has proved to be particularly effective for face recognition applications. Using examples from face processing tasks throughout the book to illustrate more general object recognition approaches, Roberto Brunelli: examines the basics of digital image formation, highlighting points critical to the task of template matching;presents basic and  advanced template matching techniques, targeting grey-level images, shapes and point sets;discusses recent pattern classification paradigms from a template matching perspective;illustrates the development of a real fac...

  20. Template matching via densities on the roto-translation group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, E.; Loog, M.; Romeny, B. ter Haar; Duits, R.

    2018-01-01

    We propose a template matching method for the detection of 2D image objects that are characterized by orientation patterns. Our method is based on data representations via orientation scores, which are functions on the space of positions and orientations, and which are obtained via a wavelet-type

  1. Rotation-invariant fingerprint matching using radon and DCT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sangita Bharkad

    2017-11-20

    Nov 20, 2017 ... [6] Bazen A and Gerez S 2003 Fingerprint matching by thin- plate spline modeling of elastic deformations. Pattern. Recogn. 36(8): 1859–1867. [7] Jain A, Hong L and Bolle R 1997 On-line fingerprint veri- fication. IEEE Trans.

  2. Canonical Skeletons for Shape Matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eede, M. van; Macrini, D.; Telea, A.; Sminchisescu, C.; Dickinson, S.

    2006-01-01

    Skeletal representations of 2-D shape, including shock graphs, have become increasingly popular for shape matching and object recognition. However, it is well known that skeletal structure can be unstable under minor boundary deformation, part articulation, and minor shape deformation (due to, for

  3. Matching Games with Additive Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal

    2012-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas ...

  4. Monetary Exchange with Multilateral Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julien, Benoît; Kennes, John; King, Ian

    the results with Kiyotaki and Wright (1993), Trejos and Wright (1995), and Lagos and Wright (2005) respectively. We find that the multilateral matching setting generates very simple and intuitive equilibrium allocations that are similar to those in the other papers, but which have important differences...

  5. An Implementation of Bigraph Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenstrup, Arne John; Damgaard, Troels Christoffer; Birkedal, Lars

    We describe a provably sound and complete matching algorithm for bigraphical reactive systems. The algorithm has been implemented in our BPL Tool, a first implementation of bigraphical reactive systems. We describe the tool and present a concrete example of how it can be used to simulate a model...

  6. Myocardium tracking via matching distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ayed, Ismail; Li, Shuo; Ross, Ian; Islam, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate automatic myocardium tracking in cardiac Magnetic Resonance (MR) sequences using global distribution matching via level-set curve evolution. Rather than relying on the pixelwise information as in existing approaches, distribution matching compares intensity distributions, and consequently, is well-suited to the myocardium tracking problem. Starting from a manual segmentation of the first frame, two curves are evolved in order to recover the endocardium (inner myocardium boundary) and the epicardium (outer myocardium boundary) in all the frames. For each curve, the evolution equation is sought following the maximization of a functional containing two terms: (1) a distribution matching term measuring the similarity between the non-parametric intensity distributions sampled from inside and outside the curve to the model distributions of the corresponding regions estimated from the previous frame; (2) a gradient term for smoothing the curve and biasing it toward high gradient of intensity. The Bhattacharyya coefficient is used as a similarity measure between distributions. The functional maximization is obtained by the Euler-Lagrange ascent equation of curve evolution, and efficiently implemented via level-set. The performance of the proposed distribution matching was quantitatively evaluated by comparisons with independent manual segmentations approved by an experienced cardiologist. The method was applied to ten 2D mid-cavity MR sequences corresponding to ten different subjects. Although neither shape prior knowledge nor curve coupling were used, quantitative evaluation demonstrated that the results were consistent with manual segmentations. The proposed method compares well with existing methods. The algorithm also yields a satisfying reproducibility. Distribution matching leads to a myocardium tracking which is more flexible and applicable than existing methods because the algorithm uses only the current data, i.e., does not

  7. Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生

    2003-01-01

    Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.

  8. Cephalopod dynamic camouflage: bridging the continuum between background matching and disruptive coloration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, R.T.; Chiao, C.-C.; Mäthger, L.M.; Barbosa, A.; Buresch, K.C.; Chubb, C.

    2008-01-01

    Individual cuttlefish, octopus and squid have the versatile capability to use body patterns for background matching and disruptive coloration. We define—qualitatively and quantitatively—the chief characteristics of the three major body pattern types used for camouflage by cephalopods: uniform and mottle patterns for background matching, and disruptive patterns that primarily enhance disruptiveness but aid background matching as well. There is great variation within each of the three body pattern types, but by defining their chief characteristics we lay the groundwork to test camouflage concepts by correlating background statistics with those of the body pattern. We describe at least three ways in which background matching can be achieved in cephalopods. Disruptive patterns in cuttlefish possess all four of the basic components of ‘disruptiveness’, supporting Cott's hypotheses, and we provide field examples of disruptive coloration in which the body pattern contrast exceeds that of the immediate surrounds. Based upon laboratory testing as well as thousands of images of camouflaged cephalopods in the field (a sample is provided on a web archive), we note that size, contrast and edges of background objects are key visual cues that guide cephalopod camouflage patterning. Mottle and disruptive patterns are frequently mixed, suggesting that background matching and disruptive mechanisms are often used in the same pattern. PMID:19008200

  9. Maximum Power from a Solar Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Miller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.

  10. Maximum discharge rate of liquid-vapor mixtures from vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, F.J.

    1975-09-01

    A discrepancy exists in theoretical predictions of the two-phase equilibrium discharge rate from pipes attached to vessels. Theory which predicts critical flow data in terms of pipe exit pressure and quality severely overpredicts flow rates in terms of vessel fluid properties. This study shows that the discrepancy is explained by the flow pattern. Due to decompression and flashing as fluid accelerates into the pipe entrance, the maximum discharge rate from a vessel is limited by choking of a homogeneous bubbly mixture. The mixture tends toward a slip flow pattern as it travels through the pipe, finally reaching a different choked condition at the pipe exit

  11. 78 FR 73195 - Privacy Act of 1974: CMS Computer Matching Program Match No. 2013-01; HHS Computer Matching...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... 1974: CMS Computer Matching Program Match No. 2013-01; HHS Computer Matching Program Match No. 1312 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS... Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended, this notice announces the renewal of a CMP that CMS plans...

  12. An accurate algorithm to match imperfectly matched images for lung tumor detection without markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozario, Timothy; Bereg, Sergey; Yan, Yulong; Chiu, Tsuicheng; Liu, Honghuan; Kearney, Vasant; Jiang, Lan; Mao, Weihua

    2015-05-08

    In order to locate lung tumors on kV projection images without internal markers, digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) are created and compared with projection images. However, lung tumors always move due to respiration and their locations change on projection images while they are static on DRRs. In addition, global image intensity discrepancies exist between DRRs and projections due to their different image orientations, scattering, and noises. This adversely affects comparison accuracy. A simple but efficient comparison algorithm is reported to match imperfectly matched projection images and DRRs. The kV projection images were matched with different DRRs in two steps. Preprocessing was performed in advance to generate two sets of DRRs. The tumors were removed from the planning 3D CT for a single phase of planning 4D CT images using planning contours of tumors. DRRs of background and DRRs of tumors were generated separately for every projection angle. The first step was to match projection images with DRRs of background signals. This method divided global images into a matrix of small tiles and similarities were evaluated by calculating normalized cross-correlation (NCC) between corresponding tiles on projections and DRRs. The tile configuration (tile locations) was automatically optimized to keep the tumor within a single projection tile that had a bad matching with the corresponding DRR tile. A pixel-based linear transformation was determined by linear interpolations of tile transformation results obtained during tile matching. The background DRRs were transformed to the projection image level and subtracted from it. The resulting subtracted image now contained only the tumor. The second step was to register DRRs of tumors to the subtracted image to locate the tumor. This method was successfully applied to kV fluoro images (about 1000 images) acquired on a Vero (BrainLAB) for dynamic tumor tracking on phantom studies. Radiation opaque markers were

  13. The calculation of maximum permissible exposure levels for laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozer, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    The maximum permissible exposure data of the revised standard BS 4803 are presented as a set of decision charts which ensure that the user automatically takes into account such details as pulse length and pulse pattern, limiting angular subtense, combinations of multiple wavelength and/or multiple pulse lengths, etc. The two decision charts given are for the calculation of radiation hazards to skin and eye respectively. (author)

  14. Matching of equivalent field regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Rengarajan, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    In aperture problems, integral equations for equivalent currents are often found by enforcing matching of equivalent fields. The enforcement is made in the aperture surface region adjoining the two volumes on each side of the aperture. In the case of an aperture in a planar perfectly conducting...... screen, having the same homogeneous medium on both sides and an impressed current on one aide, an alternative procedure is relevant. We make use of the fact that in the aperture the tangential component of the magnetic field due to the induced currents in the screen is zero. The use of such a procedure...... shows that equivalent currents can be found by a consideration of only one of the two volumes into which the aperture plane divides the space. Furthermore, from a consideration of an automatic matching at the aperture, additional information about tangential as well as normal field components...

  15. University Reactor Matching Grants Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Valentine; Farzad Rahnema; Said Abdel-Khalik

    2003-01-01

    During the 2002 Fiscal year, funds from the DOE matching grant program, along with matching funds from the industrial sponsors, have been used to support research in the area of thermal-hydraulics. Both experimental and numerical research projects have been performed. Experimental research focused on two areas: (1) Identification of the root cause mechanism for axial offset anomaly in pressurized water reactors under prototypical reactor conditions, and (2) Fluid dynamic aspects of thin liquid film protection schemes for inertial fusion reactor chambers. Numerical research focused on two areas: (1) Multi-fluid modeling of both two-phase and two-component flows for steam conditioning and mist cooling applications, and (2) Modeling of bounded Rayleigh-Taylor instability with interfacial mass transfer and fluid injection through a porous wall simulating the ''wetted wall'' protection scheme in inertial fusion reactor chambers. Details of activities in these areas are given

  16. Mix-and-match holography

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Yifan; Dun, Xiong; Sun, Qilin; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    target images into pairs of front and rear phase-distorting surfaces. Different target holograms can be decoded by mixing and matching different front and rear surfaces under specific geometric alignments. Our approach, which we call mixWe derive a detailed image formation model for the setting of holographic projection displays, as well as a multiplexing method based on a combination of phase retrieval methods and complex matrix factorization. We demonstrate several application scenarios in both simulation and physical prototypes.

  17. A spot-matching method using cumulative frequency matrix in 2D gel images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chan-Myeong; Park, Joon-Ho; Chang, Chu-Seok; Ryoo, Myung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    A new method for spot matching in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis images using a cumulative frequency matrix is proposed. The method improves on the weak points of the previous method called ‘spot matching by topological patterns of neighbour spots’. It accumulates the frequencies of neighbour spot pairs produced through the entire matching process and determines spot pairs one by one in order of higher frequency. Spot matching by frequencies of neighbour spot pairs shows a fairly better performance. However, it can give researchers a hint for whether the matching results can be trustworthy or not, which can save researchers a lot of effort for verification of the results. PMID:26019609

  18. Transit Matching for International Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilligan, K.; Whitaker, M.; Oakberg, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 the U.S. Department of Energy / National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Non-proliferation and International Security (NIS) supported a study of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) processes and procedures for ensuring that shipments of nuclear material correspond to (match) their receipts (i.e., transit matching). Under Comprehensive Safeguards Agreements, Member States are obliged to declare such information within certain time frames. Nuclear weapons states voluntarily declare such information under INFCIRC/207. This study was funded by the NIS Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) Concepts and Approaches program. Oak Ridge National Laboratory led the research, which included collaboration with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the U.S. Nuclear Material Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS), and the IAEA Section for Declared Information Analysis within the Department of Safeguards. The project studied the current transit matching methodologies, identified current challenges (e.g., level of effort and timeliness), and suggested improvements. This paper presents the recommendations that resulted from the study and discussions with IAEA staff. In particular, it includes a recommendation to collaboratively develop a set of best reporting practices for nuclear weapons states under INFCIRC/207. (author)

  19. A maximum likelihood framework for protein design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Hervé

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of protein design is to predict amino-acid sequences compatible with a given target structure. Traditionally envisioned as a purely thermodynamic question, this problem can also be understood in a wider context, where additional constraints are captured by learning the sequence patterns displayed by natural proteins of known conformation. In this latter perspective, however, we still need a theoretical formalization of the question, leading to general and efficient learning methods, and allowing for the selection of fast and accurate objective functions quantifying sequence/structure compatibility. Results We propose a formulation of the protein design problem in terms of model-based statistical inference. Our framework uses the maximum likelihood principle to optimize the unknown parameters of a statistical potential, which we call an inverse potential to contrast with classical potentials used for structure prediction. We propose an implementation based on Markov chain Monte Carlo, in which the likelihood is maximized by gradient descent and is numerically estimated by thermodynamic integration. The fit of the models is evaluated by cross-validation. We apply this to a simple pairwise contact potential, supplemented with a solvent-accessibility term, and show that the resulting models have a better predictive power than currently available pairwise potentials. Furthermore, the model comparison method presented here allows one to measure the relative contribution of each component of the potential, and to choose the optimal number of accessibility classes, which turns out to be much higher than classically considered. Conclusion Altogether, this reformulation makes it possible to test a wide diversity of models, using different forms of potentials, or accounting for other factors than just the constraint of thermodynamic stability. Ultimately, such model-based statistical analyses may help to understand the forces

  20. Image Segmentation, Registration, Compression, and Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadegar, Jacob; Wei, Hai; Yadegar, Joseph; Ray, Nilanjan; Zabuawala, Sakina

    2011-01-01

    A novel computational framework was developed of a 2D affine invariant matching exploiting a parameter space. Named as affine invariant parameter space (AIPS), the technique can be applied to many image-processing and computer-vision problems, including image registration, template matching, and object tracking from image sequence. The AIPS is formed by the parameters in an affine combination of a set of feature points in the image plane. In cases where the entire image can be assumed to have undergone a single affine transformation, the new AIPS match metric and matching framework becomes very effective (compared with the state-of-the-art methods at the time of this reporting). No knowledge about scaling or any other transformation parameters need to be known a priori to apply the AIPS framework. An automated suite of software tools has been created to provide accurate image segmentation (for data cleaning) and high-quality 2D image and 3D surface registration (for fusing multi-resolution terrain, image, and map data). These tools are capable of supporting existing GIS toolkits already in the marketplace, and will also be usable in a stand-alone fashion. The toolkit applies novel algorithmic approaches for image segmentation, feature extraction, and registration of 2D imagery and 3D surface data, which supports first-pass, batched, fully automatic feature extraction (for segmentation), and registration. A hierarchical and adaptive approach is taken for achieving automatic feature extraction, segmentation, and registration. Surface registration is the process of aligning two (or more) data sets to a common coordinate system, during which the transformation between their different coordinate systems is determined. Also developed here are a novel, volumetric surface modeling and compression technique that provide both quality-guaranteed mesh surface approximations and compaction of the model sizes by efficiently coding the geometry and connectivity

  1. Hyperspectral imaging of cuttlefish camouflage indicates good color match in the eyes of fish predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Wickiser, J Kenneth; Allen, Justine J; Genter, Brock; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-05-31

    Camouflage is a widespread phenomenon throughout nature and an important antipredator tactic in natural selection. Many visual predators have keen color perception, and thus camouflage patterns should provide some degree of color matching in addition to other visual factors such as pattern, contrast, and texture. Quantifying camouflage effectiveness in the eyes of the predator is a challenge from the perspectives of both biology and optical imaging technology. Here we take advantage of hyperspectral imaging (HSI), which records full-spectrum light data, to simultaneously visualize color match and pattern match in the spectral and the spatial domains, respectively. Cuttlefish can dynamically camouflage themselves on any natural substrate and, despite their colorblindness, produce body patterns that appear to have high-fidelity color matches to the substrate when viewed directly by humans or with RGB images. Live camouflaged cuttlefish on natural backgrounds were imaged using HSI, and subsequent spectral analysis revealed that most reflectance spectra of individual cuttlefish and substrates were similar, rendering the color match possible. Modeling color vision of potential di- and trichromatic fish predators of cuttlefish corroborated the spectral match analysis and demonstrated that camouflaged cuttlefish show good color match as well as pattern match in the eyes of fish predators. These findings (i) indicate the strong potential of HSI technology to enhance studies of biological coloration and (ii) provide supporting evidence that cuttlefish can produce color-coordinated camouflage on natural substrates despite lacking color vision.

  2. Predicting the Outcome of NBA Playoffs Based on the Maximum Entropy Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Ge Cheng; Zhenyu Zhang; Moses Ntanda Kyebambe; Nasser Kimbugwe

    2016-01-01

    Predicting the outcome of National Basketball Association (NBA) matches poses a challenging problem of interest to the research community as well as the general public. In this article, we formalize the problem of predicting NBA game results as a classification problem and apply the principle of Maximum Entropy to construct an NBA Maximum Entropy (NBAME) model that fits to discrete statistics for NBA games, and then predict the outcomes of NBA playoffs using the model. Our results reveal that...

  3. Robust point matching via vector field consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiayi Ma; Ji Zhao; Jinwen Tian; Yuille, Alan L; Zhuowen Tu

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we propose an efficient algorithm, called vector field consensus, for establishing robust point correspondences between two sets of points. Our algorithm starts by creating a set of putative correspondences which can contain a very large number of false correspondences, or outliers, in addition to a limited number of true correspondences (inliers). Next, we solve for correspondence by interpolating a vector field between the two point sets, which involves estimating a consensus of inlier points whose matching follows a nonparametric geometrical constraint. We formulate this a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation of a Bayesian model with hidden/latent variables indicating whether matches in the putative set are outliers or inliers. We impose nonparametric geometrical constraints on the correspondence, as a prior distribution, using Tikhonov regularizers in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. MAP estimation is performed by the EM algorithm which by also estimating the variance of the prior model (initialized to a large value) is able to obtain good estimates very quickly (e.g., avoiding many of the local minima inherent in this formulation). We illustrate this method on data sets in 2D and 3D and demonstrate that it is robust to a very large number of outliers (even up to 90%). We also show that in the special case where there is an underlying parametric geometrical model (e.g., the epipolar line constraint) that we obtain better results than standard alternatives like RANSAC if a large number of outliers are present. This suggests a two-stage strategy, where we use our nonparametric model to reduce the size of the putative set and then apply a parametric variant of our approach to estimate the geometric parameters. Our algorithm is computationally efficient and we provide code for others to use it. In addition, our approach is general and can be applied to other problems, such as learning with a badly corrupted training data set.

  4. How long do centenarians survive? Life expectancy and maximum lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modig, K; Andersson, T; Vaupel, J; Rau, R; Ahlbom, A

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the pattern of mortality above the age of 100 years. In particular, we aimed to examine whether Scandinavian data support the theory that mortality reaches a plateau at particularly old ages. Whether the maximum length of life increases with time was also investigated. The analyses were based on individual level data on all Swedish and Danish centenarians born from 1870 to 1901; in total 3006 men and 10 963 women were included. Birth cohort-specific probabilities of dying were calculated. Exact ages were used for calculations of maximum length of life. Whether maximum age changed over time was analysed taking into account increases in cohort size. The results confirm that there has not been any improvement in mortality amongst centenarians in the past 30 years and that the current rise in life expectancy is driven by reductions in mortality below the age of 100 years. The death risks seem to reach a plateau of around 50% at the age 103 years for men and 107 years for women. Despite the rising life expectancy, the maximum age does not appear to increase, in particular after accounting for the increasing number of individuals of advanced age. Mortality amongst centenarians is not changing despite improvements at younger ages. An extension of the maximum lifespan and a sizeable extension of life expectancy both require reductions in mortality above the age of 100 years. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  5. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  6. Application of four different football match analysis systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randers, Morten B; Mujika, Inigo; Hewitt, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Using a video-based time-motion analysis system, a semi-automatic multiple-camera system, and two commercially available GPS systems (GPS-1; 5 Hz and GPS-2; 1 Hz), we compared activity pattern and fatigue development in the same football match. Twenty football players competing in the Spanish...... a football game and can be used to study game-induced fatigue. Rather large between-system differences were present in the determination of the absolute distances covered, meaning that any comparisons of results between different match analysis systems should be done with caution....

  7. Compressed Subsequence Matching and Packed Tree Coloring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2017-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for subsequence matching in grammar compressed strings. Given a grammar of size n compressing a string of size N and a pattern string of size m over an alphabet of size \\(\\sigma \\), our algorithm uses \\(O(n+\\frac{n\\sigma }{w})\\) space and \\(O(n+\\frac{n\\sigma }{w}+m\\log N\\log...... w\\cdot occ)\\) or \\(O(n+\\frac{n\\sigma }{w}\\log w+m\\log N\\cdot occ)\\) time. Here w is the word size and occ is the number of minimal occurrences of the pattern. Our algorithm uses less space than previous algorithms and is also faster for \\(occ=o(\\frac{n}{\\log N})\\) occurrences. The algorithm uses...... a new data structure that allows us to efficiently find the next occurrence of a given character after a given position in a compressed string. This data structure in turn is based on a new data structure for the tree color problem, where the node colors are packed in bit strings....

  8. Matchings with Externalities and Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal

    2013-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real-life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas ...... where agents take different attitudes when reasoning about the actions of others. In particular, we study optimistic, neutral and pessimistic attitudes and provide both computational hardness results and polynomial-time algorithms for computing stable outcomes....

  9. Modeling Architectural Patterns Using Architectural Primitives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zdun, Uwe; Avgeriou, Paris

    2005-01-01

    Architectural patterns are a key point in architectural documentation. Regrettably, there is poor support for modeling architectural patterns, because the pattern elements are not directly matched by elements in modeling languages, and, at the same time, patterns support an inherent variability that

  10. Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2009-01-01

    boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...

  11. Modelling maximum canopy conductance and transpiration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is much current interest in predicting the maximum amount of water that can be transpired by Eucalyptus trees. It is possible that industrial waste water may be applied as irrigation water to eucalypts and it is important to predict the maximum transpiration rates of these plantations in an attempt to dispose of this ...

  12. An Efficient Algorithm for the Maximum Distance Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Assunta Grün

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient algorithms for temporal reasoning are essential in knowledge-based systems. This is central in many areas of Artificial Intelligence including scheduling, planning, plan recognition, and natural language understanding. As such, scalability is a crucial consideration in temporal reasoning. While reasoning in the interval algebra is NP-complete, reasoning in the less expressive point algebra is tractable. In this paper, we explore an extension to the work of Gerevini and Schubert which is based on the point algebra. In their seminal framework, temporal relations are expressed as a directed acyclic graph partitioned into chains and supported by a metagraph data structure, where time points or events are represented by vertices, and directed edges are labelled with < or ≤. They are interested in fast algorithms for determining the strongest relation between two events. They begin by developing fast algorithms for the case where all points lie on a chain. In this paper, we are interested in a generalization of this, namely we consider the problem of finding the maximum ``distance'' between two vertices in a chain ; this problem arises in real world applications such as in process control and crew scheduling. We describe an O(n time preprocessing algorithm for the maximum distance problem on chains. It allows queries for the maximum number of < edges between two vertices to be answered in O(1 time. This matches the performance of the algorithm of Gerevini and Schubert for determining the strongest relation holding between two vertices in a chain.

  13. The galaxy clustering crisis in abundance matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Duncan; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Zentner, Andrew R.; Lange, Johannes U.; Jiang, Fangzhou; Villarreal, Antonio

    2018-06-01

    Galaxy clustering on small scales is significantly underpredicted by sub-halo abundance matching (SHAM) models that populate (sub-)haloes with galaxies based on peak halo mass, Mpeak. SHAM models based on the peak maximum circular velocity, Vpeak, have had much better success. The primary reason for Mpeak-based models fail is the relatively low abundance of satellite galaxies produced in these models compared to those based on Vpeak. Despite success in predicting clustering, a simple Vpeak-based SHAM model results in predictions for galaxy growth that are at odds with observations. We evaluate three possible remedies that could `save' mass-based SHAM: (1) SHAM models require a significant population of `orphan' galaxies as a result of artificial disruption/merging of sub-haloes in modern high-resolution dark matter simulations; (2) satellites must grow significantly after their accretion; and (3) stellar mass is significantly affected by halo assembly history. No solution is entirely satisfactory. However, regardless of the particulars, we show that popular SHAM models based on Mpeak cannot be complete physical models as presented. Either Vpeak truly is a better predictor of stellar mass at z ˜ 0 and it remains to be seen how the correlation between stellar mass and Vpeak comes about, or SHAM models are missing vital component(s) that significantly affect galaxy clustering.

  14. Analysis of shots on target and goals scored in soccer matches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics and patterns of shots on target and goals scored during the 2012-European Championship. The broadcasted matches were recorded and converted into electronic video files for a computerbased analysis. This quantitative study examined 31 matches of the ...

  15. Reducing the likelihood of long tennis matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Tristan; Alan, Brown; Pollard, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Long matches can cause problems for tournaments. For example, the starting times of subsequent matches can be substantially delayed causing inconvenience to players, spectators, officials and television scheduling. They can even be seen as unfair in the tournament setting when the winner of a very long match, who may have negative aftereffects from such a match, plays the winner of an average or shorter length match in the next round. Long matches can also lead to injuries to the participating players. One factor that can lead to long matches is the use of the advantage set as the fifth set, as in the Australian Open, the French Open and Wimbledon. Another factor is long rallies and a greater than average number of points per game. This tends to occur more frequently on the slower surfaces such as at the French Open. The mathematical method of generating functions is used to show that the likelihood of long matches can be substantially reduced by using the tiebreak game in the fifth set, or more effectively by using a new type of game, the 50-40 game, throughout the match. Key PointsThe cumulant generating function has nice properties for calculating the parameters of distributions in a tennis matchA final tiebreaker set reduces the length of matches as currently being used in the US OpenA new 50-40 game reduces the length of matches whilst maintaining comparable probabilities for the better player to win the match.

  16. MXLKID: a maximum likelihood parameter identifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavel, D.T.

    1980-07-01

    MXLKID (MaXimum LiKelihood IDentifier) is a computer program designed to identify unknown parameters in a nonlinear dynamic system. Using noisy measurement data from the system, the maximum likelihood identifier computes a likelihood function (LF). Identification of system parameters is accomplished by maximizing the LF with respect to the parameters. The main body of this report briefly summarizes the maximum likelihood technique and gives instructions and examples for running the MXLKID program. MXLKID is implemented LRLTRAN on the CDC7600 computer at LLNL. A detailed mathematical description of the algorithm is given in the appendices. 24 figures, 6 tables

  17. Ontology Matching with Semantic Verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Mary, Yves R; Shironoshita, E Patrick; Kabuka, Mansur R

    2009-09-01

    ASMOV (Automated Semantic Matching of Ontologies with Verification) is a novel algorithm that uses lexical and structural characteristics of two ontologies to iteratively calculate a similarity measure between them, derives an alignment, and then verifies it to ensure that it does not contain semantic inconsistencies. In this paper, we describe the ASMOV algorithm, and then present experimental results that measure its accuracy using the OAEI 2008 tests, and that evaluate its use with two different thesauri: WordNet, and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). These results show the increased accuracy obtained by combining lexical, structural and extensional matchers with semantic verification, and demonstrate the advantage of using a domain-specific thesaurus for the alignment of specialized ontologies.

  18. Fast matching of sensor data with manual observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Biswas; Maniyeri, Jayachandran; Louis, Shue; Philip, Yap Lin Kiat

    2009-01-01

    In systems and trials concerning wearable sensors and devices used for medical data collection, the validation of sensor data with respect to manual observations is very important. However, this is often problematic because of feigned behavior, errors in manual recording (misclassification), gaps in recording (missing readings), missed observations and timing mismatch between manual observations and sensor data due to a difference in time granularity. Using sleep activity pattern monitoring as an example we present a fast algorithm for matching sensor data with manual observations. Major components include a) signal analysis to classify states of sleep activity pattern, b) matching of states with Sleep Diary (SD) and c) automated detection of anomalies and reconciliation of mismatches between the SD and the sensor data.

  19. Using crosswell data to enhance history matching

    KAUST Repository

    Ravanelli, Fabio M.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    of the reality. This problem is mitigated by conditioning the model with data through data assimilation, a process known in the oil industry as history matching. Several recent advances are being used to improve history matching reliability, notably the use

  20. Maximum neutron flux in thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugar, P.V.

    1968-12-01

    Direct approach to the problem is to calculate spatial distribution of fuel concentration if the reactor core directly using the condition of maximum neutron flux and comply with thermal limitations. This paper proved that the problem can be solved by applying the variational calculus, i.e. by using the maximum principle of Pontryagin. Mathematical model of reactor core is based on the two-group neutron diffusion theory with some simplifications which make it appropriate from maximum principle point of view. Here applied theory of maximum principle are suitable for application. The solution of optimum distribution of fuel concentration in the reactor core is obtained in explicit analytical form. The reactor critical dimensions are roots of a system of nonlinear equations and verification of optimum conditions can be done only for specific examples

  1. Maximum allowable load on wheeled mobile manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibnejad Korayem, M.; Ghariblu, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a computational technique for finding the maximum allowable load of mobile manipulator during a given trajectory. The maximum allowable loads which can be achieved by a mobile manipulator during a given trajectory are limited by the number of factors; probably the dynamic properties of mobile base and mounted manipulator, their actuator limitations and additional constraints applied to resolving the redundancy are the most important factors. To resolve extra D.O.F introduced by the base mobility, additional constraint functions are proposed directly in the task space of mobile manipulator. Finally, in two numerical examples involving a two-link planar manipulator mounted on a differentially driven mobile base, application of the method to determining maximum allowable load is verified. The simulation results demonstrates the maximum allowable load on a desired trajectory has not a unique value and directly depends on the additional constraint functions which applies to resolve the motion redundancy

  2. Maximum phytoplankton concentrations in the sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, G.A.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A simplification of plankton dynamics using coagulation theory provides predictions of the maximum algal concentration sustainable in aquatic systems. These predictions have previously been tested successfully against results from iron fertilization experiments. We extend the test to data collect...

  3. Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

    1993-01-01

    Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.

  4. A multiscale approach to mutual information matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluim, J.P.W.; Maintz, J.B.A.; Viergever, M.A.; Hanson, K.M.

    1998-01-01

    Methods based on mutual information have shown promising results for matching of multimodal brain images. This paper discusses a multiscale approach to mutual information matching, aiming for an acceleration of the matching process while considering the accuracy and robustness of the method. Scaling

  5. Connections between the matching and chromatic polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Farrell

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The main results established are (i a connection between the matching and chromatic polynomials and (ii a formula for the matching polynomial of a general complement of a subgraph of a graph. Some deductions on matching and chromatic equivalence and uniqueness are made.

  6. Database crime to crime match rate calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckleton, John; Bright, Jo-Anne; Walsh, Simon J

    2009-06-01

    Guidance exists on how to count matches between samples in a crime sample database but we are unable to locate a definition of how to estimate a match rate. We propose a method that does not proceed from the match counting definition but which has a strong logic.

  7. Linear Time Local Approximation Algorithm for Maximum Stable Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Király

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider a two-sided market under incomplete preference lists with ties, where the goal is to find a maximum size stable matching. The problem is APX-hard, and a 3/2-approximation was given by McDermid [1]. This algorithm has a non-linear running time, and, more importantly needs global knowledge of all preference lists. We present a very natural, economically reasonable, local, linear time algorithm with the same ratio, using some ideas of Paluch [2]. In this algorithm every person make decisions using only their own list, and some information asked from members of these lists (as in the case of the famous algorithm of Gale and Shapley. Some consequences to the Hospitals/Residents problem are also discussed.

  8. A silicon pad shower maximum detector for a Shashlik calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvsvaag, S.J.; Maeland, O.A.; Klovning, A.

    1995-01-01

    The new luminosity monitor of the DELPHI detector, STIC (Small angle TIle Calorimeter), was built using a Shashlik technique. This technique does not provide longitudinal sampling of the showers, which limits the measurement of the direction of the incident particles and the e-π separation. For these reasons STIC was equipped with a Silicon Pad Shower Maximum Detector (SPSMD). In order to match the silicon detectors to the Shashlick read out by wavelength shifter (WLS) fibers, the silicon wafers had to be drilled with a precision better than 10μm without damaging the active area of the detectors. This paper describes the SPSMD with emphasis on the fabrication techniques and on the components used. Some preliminary results of the detector performance from data taken with a 45GeV electron beam at CERN are presented. (orig.)

  9. Efficient Aho-Corasick String Matching on Emerging Multicore Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste; Secchi, Simone; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel

    2013-12-12

    String matching algorithms are critical to several scientific fields. Beside text processing and databases, emerging applications such as DNA protein sequence analysis, data mining, information security software, antivirus, ma- chine learning, all exploit string matching algorithms [3]. All these applica- tions usually process large quantity of textual data, require high performance and/or predictable execution times. Among all the string matching algorithms, one of the most studied, especially for text processing and security applica- tions, is the Aho-Corasick algorithm. 1 2 Book title goes here Aho-Corasick is an exact, multi-pattern string matching algorithm which performs the search in a time linearly proportional to the length of the input text independently from pattern set size. However, depending on the imple- mentation, when the number of patterns increase, the memory occupation may raise drastically. In turn, this can lead to significant variability in the performance, due to the memory access times and the caching effects. This is a significant concern for many mission critical applications and modern high performance architectures. For example, security applications such as Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDS), must be able to scan network traffic against very large dictionaries in real time. Modern Ethernet links reach up to 10 Gbps, and malicious threats are already well over 1 million, and expo- nentially growing [28]. When performing the search, a NIDS should not slow down the network, or let network packets pass unchecked. Nevertheless, on the current state-of-the-art cache based processors, there may be a large per- formance variability when dealing with big dictionaries and inputs that have different frequencies of matching patterns. In particular, when few patterns are matched and they are all in the cache, the procedure is fast. Instead, when they are not in the cache, often because many patterns are matched and the caches are

  10. A maximum power point tracking algorithm for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelatury, Sudarshan R.; Gray, Robert

    2013-05-01

    The voltage and current characteristic of a photovoltaic (PV) cell is highly nonlinear and operating a PV cell for maximum power transfer has been a challenge for a long time. Several techniques have been proposed to estimate and track the maximum power point (MPP) in order to improve the overall efficiency of a PV panel. A strategic use of the mean value theorem permits obtaining an analytical expression for a point that lies in a close neighborhood of the true MPP. But hitherto, an exact solution in closed form for the MPP is not published. This problem can be formulated analytically as a constrained optimization, which can be solved using the Lagrange method. This method results in a system of simultaneous nonlinear equations. Solving them directly is quite difficult. However, we can employ a recursive algorithm to yield a reasonably good solution. In graphical terms, suppose the voltage current characteristic and the constant power contours are plotted on the same voltage current plane, the point of tangency between the device characteristic and the constant power contours is the sought for MPP. It is subject to change with the incident irradiation and temperature and hence the algorithm that attempts to maintain the MPP should be adaptive in nature and is supposed to have fast convergence and the least misadjustment. There are two parts in its implementation. First, one needs to estimate the MPP. The second task is to have a DC-DC converter to match the given load to the MPP thus obtained. Availability of power electronics circuits made it possible to design efficient converters. In this paper although we do not show the results from a real circuit, we use MATLAB to obtain the MPP and a buck-boost converter to match the load. Under varying conditions of load resistance and irradiance we demonstrate MPP tracking in case of a commercially available solar panel MSX-60. The power electronics circuit is simulated by PSIM software.

  11. Geographic Trends in the Plastic Surgery Match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Jason; Lin, Ines C; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The integrated plastic surgery match is among the most competitive residency matches in recent years. Although previous studies have correlated applicant characteristics with successful match outcomes, none have comprehensively investigated the role of geography in the match. This study elucidates regional biases in the match. Plastic surgery residents who matched during 2011-2015 were eligible for study inclusion. Names of residents were obtained from official residency program websites and cross-referenced with data obtained from the Student Doctor Network. For each resident, region of residency program and medical school were compared. From 67 programs, 622 residents were identified. Most graduated from US medical schools (97.9%). A total of 94 residents matched at a home institution (15.1%). Half of the residents matched in the same region as their medical school (48.9%). Programs in the South matched the greatest number of residents from the same region (60.8%), whereas West programs matched the least (30.8%, p < 0.001). No regional differences existed regarding residents matching at their home institution (p = 0.268). More women matched at West programs (43.1%) versus East programs (30.6%, p < 0.05). A significant number of residents matched at their home institution. Roughly, half matched at a program in the same region as their medical school. Whether this regional phenomenon stems from applicant or program factors remains unknown. Yet, given the limited number of interviews and the high costs of interviewing, applicants and programs can use these data to help optimize the match process. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Twenty-five years of maximum-entropy principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, J. N.

    1983-04-01

    The strengths and weaknesses of the maximum entropy principle (MEP) are examined and some challenging problems that remain outstanding at the end of the first quarter century of the principle are discussed. The original formalism of the MEP is presented and its relationship to statistical mechanics is set forth. The use of MEP for characterizing statistical distributions, in statistical inference, nonlinear spectral analysis, transportation models, population density models, models for brand-switching in marketing and vote-switching in elections is discussed. Its application to finance, insurance, image reconstruction, pattern recognition, operations research and engineering, biology and medicine, and nonparametric density estimation is considered.

  13. Using machine learning to assess covariate balance in matching studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel; Yarnold, Paul R

    2016-12-01

    In order to assess the effectiveness of matching approaches in observational studies, investigators typically present summary statistics for each observed pre-intervention covariate, with the objective of showing that matching reduces the difference in means (or proportions) between groups to as close to zero as possible. In this paper, we introduce a new approach to distinguish between study groups based on their distributions of the covariates using a machine-learning algorithm called optimal discriminant analysis (ODA). Assessing covariate balance using ODA as compared with the conventional method has several key advantages: the ability to ascertain how individuals self-select based on optimal (maximum-accuracy) cut-points on the covariates; the application to any variable metric and number of groups; its insensitivity to skewed data or outliers; and the use of accuracy measures that can be widely applied to all analyses. Moreover, ODA accepts analytic weights, thereby extending the assessment of covariate balance to any study design where weights are used for covariate adjustment. By comparing the two approaches using empirical data, we are able to demonstrate that using measures of classification accuracy as balance diagnostics produces highly consistent results to those obtained via the conventional approach (in our matched-pairs example, ODA revealed a weak statistically significant relationship not detected by the conventional approach). Thus, investigators should consider ODA as a robust complement, or perhaps alternative, to the conventional approach for assessing covariate balance in matching studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Image matching navigation based on fuzzy information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玉龙; 吴伟仁; 田金文; 柳健

    2003-01-01

    In conventional image matching methods, the image matching process is mostly based on image statistic information. One aspect neglected by all these methods is that there is much fuzzy information contained in these images. A new fuzzy matching algorithm based on fuzzy similarity for navigation is presented in this paper. Because the fuzzy theory is of the ability of making good description of the fuzzy information contained in images, the image matching method based on fuzzy similarity would look forward to producing good performance results. Experimental results using matching algorithm based on fuzzy information also demonstrate its reliability and practicability.

  15. Best Practices for NPT Transit Matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilligan, Kimberly V.; Whitaker, J. Michael; Oakberg, John A.; Snow, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Transit matching is the process for relating or matching reports of shipments and receipts submitted to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Transit matching is a component used by the IAEA in drawing safeguards conclusions and performing investigative analysis. Transit matching is part of IAEA safeguards activities and the State evaluation process, and it is included in the annual Safeguards Implementation Report (SIR). Annually, the IAEA currently receives reports of ~900,000 nuclear material transactions, of which ~500,000 are for domestic and foreign transfers. Of these the IAEA software can automatically match (i.e., machine match) about 95% of the domestic transfers and 25% of the foreign transfers. Given the increasing demands upon IAEA resources, it is highly desirable for the machine-matching process to match as many transfers as possible. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have conducted an investigation funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration through the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative to identify opportunities to strengthen IAEA transit matching. Successful matching, and more specifically machine matching, is contingent on quality data from the reporting States. In February 2016, ORNL hosted representatives from three States, the IAEA, and Euratom to share results from past studies and to discuss the processes, policies, and procedures associated with State reporting for transit matching. Drawing on each entity's experience and knowledge, ORNL developed a best practices document to be shared with the international safeguards community to strengthen transit matching. This paper shares the recommendations that resulted from this strategic meeting and the next steps being taken to strengthen transit matching.

  16. Probabilistic seismic history matching using binary images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davolio, Alessandra; Schiozer, Denis Jose

    2018-02-01

    Currently, the goal of history-matching procedures is not only to provide a model matching any observed data but also to generate multiple matched models to properly handle uncertainties. One such approach is a probabilistic history-matching methodology based on the discrete Latin Hypercube sampling algorithm, proposed in previous works, which was particularly efficient for matching well data (production rates and pressure). 4D seismic (4DS) data have been increasingly included into history-matching procedures. A key issue in seismic history matching (SHM) is to transfer data into a common domain: impedance, amplitude or pressure, and saturation. In any case, seismic inversions and/or modeling are required, which can be time consuming. An alternative to avoid these procedures is using binary images in SHM as they allow the shape, rather than the physical values, of observed anomalies to be matched. This work presents the incorporation of binary images in SHM within the aforementioned probabilistic history matching. The application was performed with real data from a segment of the Norne benchmark case that presents strong 4D anomalies, including softening signals due to pressure build up. The binary images are used to match the pressurized zones observed in time-lapse data. Three history matchings were conducted using: only well data, well and 4DS data, and only 4DS. The methodology is very flexible and successfully utilized the addition of binary images for seismic objective functions. Results proved the good convergence of the method in few iterations for all three cases. The matched models of the first two cases provided the best results, with similar well matching quality. The second case provided models presenting pore pressure changes according to the expected dynamic behavior (pressurized zones) observed on 4DS data. The use of binary images in SHM is relatively new with few examples in the literature. This work enriches this discussion by presenting a new

  17. Best Practices for NPT Transit Matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilligan, Kimberly V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Whitaker, J. Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Oakberg, John A. [Tetra Tech, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Snow, Catherine [Sno Consulting, LLC, Sandy, UT (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Transit matching is the process for relating or matching reports of shipments and receipts submitted to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Transit matching is a component used by the IAEA in drawing safeguards conclusions and performing investigative analysis. Transit matching is part of IAEA safeguards activities and the State evaluation process, and it is included in the annual Safeguards Implementation Report (SIR). Annually, the IAEA currently receives reports of ~900,000 nuclear material transactions, of which ~500,000 are for domestic and foreign transfers. Of these the IAEA software can automatically match (i.e., machine match) about 95% of the domestic transfers and 25% of the foreign transfers. Given the increasing demands upon IAEA resources, it is highly desirable for the machine-matching process to match as many transfers as possible. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have conducted an investigation funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration through the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative to identify opportunities to strengthen IAEA transit matching. Successful matching, and more specifically machine matching, is contingent on quality data from the reporting States. In February 2016, ORNL hosted representatives from three States, the IAEA, and Euratom to share results from past studies and to discuss the processes, policies, and procedures associated with State reporting for transit matching. Drawing on each entity's experience and knowledge, ORNL developed a best practices document to be shared with the international safeguards community to strengthen transit matching. This paper shares the recommendations that resulted from this strategic meeting and the next steps being taken to strengthen transit matching.

  18. Dinosaur Metabolism and the Allometry of Maximum Growth Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhrvold, Nathan P

    2016-01-01

    The allometry of maximum somatic growth rate has been used in prior studies to classify the metabolic state of both extant vertebrates and dinosaurs. The most recent such studies are reviewed, and their data is reanalyzed. The results of allometric regressions on growth rate are shown to depend on the choice of independent variable; the typical choice used in prior studies introduces a geometric shear transformation that exaggerates the statistical power of the regressions. The maximum growth rates of extant groups are found to have a great deal of overlap, including between groups with endothermic and ectothermic metabolism. Dinosaur growth rates show similar overlap, matching the rates found for mammals, reptiles and fish. The allometric scaling of growth rate with mass is found to have curvature (on a log-log scale) for many groups, contradicting the prevailing view that growth rate allometry follows a simple power law. Reanalysis shows that no correlation between growth rate and basal metabolic rate (BMR) has been demonstrated. These findings drive a conclusion that growth rate allometry studies to date cannot be used to determine dinosaur metabolism as has been previously argued.

  19. Dinosaur Metabolism and the Allometry of Maximum Growth Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhrvold, Nathan P.

    2016-01-01

    The allometry of maximum somatic growth rate has been used in prior studies to classify the metabolic state of both extant vertebrates and dinosaurs. The most recent such studies are reviewed, and their data is reanalyzed. The results of allometric regressions on growth rate are shown to depend on the choice of independent variable; the typical choice used in prior studies introduces a geometric shear transformation that exaggerates the statistical power of the regressions. The maximum growth rates of extant groups are found to have a great deal of overlap, including between groups with endothermic and ectothermic metabolism. Dinosaur growth rates show similar overlap, matching the rates found for mammals, reptiles and fish. The allometric scaling of growth rate with mass is found to have curvature (on a log-log scale) for many groups, contradicting the prevailing view that growth rate allometry follows a simple power law. Reanalysis shows that no correlation between growth rate and basal metabolic rate (BMR) has been demonstrated. These findings drive a conclusion that growth rate allometry studies to date cannot be used to determine dinosaur metabolism as has been previously argued. PMID:27828977

  20. Maximum gravitational redshift of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.L.; Teukolsky, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    The stability of uniformly rotating, cold white dwarfs is examined in the framework of the Parametrized Post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism of Will and Nordtvedt. The maximum central density and gravitational redshift of a white dwarf are determined as functions of five of the nine PPN parameters (γ, β, zeta 2 , zeta 3 , and zeta 4 ), the total angular momentum J, and the composition of the star. General relativity predicts that the maximum redshifts is 571 km s -1 for nonrotating carbon and helium dwarfs, but is lower for stars composed of heavier nuclei. Uniform rotation can increase the maximum redshift to 647 km s -1 for carbon stars (the neutronization limit) and to 893 km s -1 for helium stars (the uniform rotation limit). The redshift distribution of a larger sample of white dwarfs may help determine the composition of their cores

  1. Maximum entropy analysis of EGRET data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohl, M.; Strong, A.W.

    1997-01-01

    EGRET data are usually analysed on the basis of the Maximum-Likelihood method \\cite{ma96} in a search for point sources in excess to a model for the background radiation (e.g. \\cite{hu97}). This method depends strongly on the quality of the background model, and thus may have high systematic unce...... uncertainties in region of strong and uncertain background like the Galactic Center region. Here we show images of such regions obtained by the quantified Maximum-Entropy method. We also discuss a possible further use of MEM in the analysis of problematic regions of the sky....

  2. The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find...

  3. Shower maximum detector for SDC calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernwein, J.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype for the SDC end-cap (EM) calorimeter complete with a pre-shower and a shower maximum detector was tested in beams of electrons and Π's at CERN by an SDC subsystem group. The prototype was manufactured from scintillator tiles and strips read out with 1 mm diameter wave-length shifting fibers. The design and construction of the shower maximum detector is described, and results of laboratory tests on light yield and performance of the scintillator-fiber system are given. Preliminary results on energy and position measurements with the shower max detector in the test beam are shown. (authors). 4 refs., 5 figs

  4. Topics in Bayesian statistics and maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Cicuttin, A.; Cerdeira, A.; Stanciulescu, C.

    1998-12-01

    Notions of Bayesian decision theory and maximum entropy methods are reviewed with particular emphasis on probabilistic inference and Bayesian modeling. The axiomatic approach is considered as the best justification of Bayesian analysis and maximum entropy principle applied in natural sciences. Particular emphasis is put on solving the inverse problem in digital image restoration and Bayesian modeling of neural networks. Further topics addressed briefly include language modeling, neutron scattering, multiuser detection and channel equalization in digital communications, genetic information, and Bayesian court decision-making. (author)

  5. Density estimation by maximum quantum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, R.N.; Wallstrom, T.; Martz, H.F.

    1993-01-01

    A new Bayesian method for non-parametric density estimation is proposed, based on a mathematical analogy to quantum statistical physics. The mathematical procedure is related to maximum entropy methods for inverse problems and image reconstruction. The information divergence enforces global smoothing toward default models, convexity, positivity, extensivity and normalization. The novel feature is the replacement of classical entropy by quantum entropy, so that local smoothing is enforced by constraints on differential operators. The linear response of the estimate is proportional to the covariance. The hyperparameters are estimated by type-II maximum likelihood (evidence). The method is demonstrated on textbook data sets

  6. Nonsymmetric entropy and maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengshi

    2009-01-01

    Under the frame of a statistical model, the concept of nonsymmetric entropy which generalizes the concepts of Boltzmann's entropy and Shannon's entropy, is defined. Maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle is proved. Some important distribution laws such as power law, can be derived from this principle naturally. Especially, nonsymmetric entropy is more convenient than other entropy such as Tsallis's entropy in deriving power laws.

  7. Maximum potential preventive effect of hip protectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schoor, N.M.; Smit, J.H.; Bouter, L.M.; Veenings, B.; Asma, G.B.; Lips, P.T.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the maximum potential preventive effect of hip protectors in older persons living in the community or homes for the elderly. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Emergency departments in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Hip fracture patients aged 70 and older who

  8. Maximum gain of Yagi-Uda arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, J.H.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Nilsson, E.

    1971-01-01

    Numerical optimisation techniques have been used to find the maximum gain of some specific parasitic arrays. The gain of an array of infinitely thin, equispaced dipoles loaded with arbitrary reactances has been optimised. The results show that standard travelling-wave design methods are not optimum....... Yagi–Uda arrays with equal and unequal spacing have also been optimised with experimental verification....

  9. correlation between maximum dry density and cohesion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    represents maximum dry density, signifies plastic limit and is liquid limit. Researchers [6, 7] estimate compaction parameters. Aside from the correlation existing between compaction parameters and other physical quantities there are some other correlations that have been investigated by other researchers. The well-known.

  10. Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2015-03-01

    The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.

  11. The maximum-entropy method in superspace

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Smaalen, S.; Palatinus, Lukáš; Schneider, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 59, - (2003), s. 459-469 ISSN 0108-7673 Grant - others:DFG(DE) XX Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : maximum-entropy method, * aperiodic crystals * electron density Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.558, year: 2003

  12. Achieving maximum sustainable yield in mixed fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulrich, Clara; Vermard, Youen; Dolder, Paul J.; Brunel, Thomas; Jardim, Ernesto; Holmes, Steven J.; Kempf, Alexander; Mortensen, Lars O.; Poos, Jan Jaap; Rindorf, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Achieving single species maximum sustainable yield (MSY) in complex and dynamic fisheries targeting multiple species (mixed fisheries) is challenging because achieving the objective for one species may mean missing the objective for another. The North Sea mixed fisheries are a representative example

  13. 5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... maximum stipend established under this section. (e) A trainee at a non-Federal hospital, clinic, or medical or dental laboratory who is assigned to a Federal hospital, clinic, or medical or dental... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Student...

  14. Minimal length, Friedmann equations and maximum density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awad, Adel [Center for Theoretical Physics, British University of Egypt,Sherouk City 11837, P.O. Box 43 (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University,Cairo, 11566 (Egypt); Ali, Ahmed Farag [Centre for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,Sheikh Zayed, 12588, Giza (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University,Benha, 13518 (Egypt)

    2014-06-16

    Inspired by Jacobson’s thermodynamic approach, Cai et al. have shown the emergence of Friedmann equations from the first law of thermodynamics. We extend Akbar-Cai derivation http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.75.084003 of Friedmann equations to accommodate a general entropy-area law. Studying the resulted Friedmann equations using a specific entropy-area law, which is motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), reveals the existence of a maximum energy density closed to Planck density. Allowing for a general continuous pressure p(ρ,a) leads to bounded curvature invariants and a general nonsingular evolution. In this case, the maximum energy density is reached in a finite time and there is no cosmological evolution beyond this point which leaves the big bang singularity inaccessible from a spacetime prospective. The existence of maximum energy density and a general nonsingular evolution is independent of the equation of state and the spacial curvature k. As an example we study the evolution of the equation of state p=ωρ through its phase-space diagram to show the existence of a maximum energy which is reachable in a finite time.

  15. Self-Similar Spin Images for Point Cloud Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Daniel

    based on the concept of self-similarity to aid in the scale and feature matching steps. An open problem in fusion is how best to extract features from two point clouds and then perform feature-based matching. The proposed approach for this matching step is the use of local self-similarity as an invariant measure to match features. In particular, the proposed approach is to combine the concept of local self-similarity with a well-known feature descriptor, Spin Images, and thereby define "Self-Similar Spin Images". This approach is then extended to the case of matching two points clouds in very different coordinate systems (e.g., a geo-referenced Lidar point cloud and stereo-image derived point cloud without geo-referencing). The use of Self-Similar Spin Images is again applied to address this problem by introducing a "Self-Similar Keyscale" that matches the spatial scales of two point clouds. Another open problem is how best to detect changes in content between two point clouds. A method is proposed to find changes between two point clouds by analyzing the order statistics of the nearest neighbors between the two clouds, and thereby define the "Nearest Neighbor Order Statistic" method. Note that the well-known Hausdorff distance is a special case as being just the maximum order statistic. Therefore, by studying the entire histogram of these nearest neighbors it is expected to yield a more robust method to detect points that are present in one cloud but not the other. This approach is applied at multiple resolutions. Therefore, changes detected at the coarsest level will yield large missing targets and at finer levels will yield smaller targets.

  16. Fractional Order Element Based Impedance Matching

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa

    2014-06-24

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to fractional order element based impedance matching. In one embodiment, a method includes aligning a traditional Smith chart (|.alpha.|=1) with a fractional order Smith chart (|.alpha.|.noteq.1). A load impedance is located on the traditional Smith chart and projected onto the fractional order Smith chart. A fractional order matching element is determined by transitioning along a matching circle of the fractional order Smith chart based at least in part upon characteristic line impedance. In another embodiment, a system includes a fractional order impedance matching application executed in a computing device. The fractional order impedance matching application includes logic that obtains a first set of Smith chart coordinates at a first order, determines a second set of Smith chart coordinates at a second order, and determines a fractional order matching element from the second set of Smith chart coordinates.

  17. Fast and compact regular expression matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Farach-Colton, Martin

    2008-01-01

    We study 4 problems in string matching, namely, regular expression matching, approximate regular expression matching, string edit distance, and subsequence indexing, on a standard word RAM model of computation that allows logarithmic-sized words to be manipulated in constant time. We show how...... to improve the space and/or remove a dependency on the alphabet size for each problem using either an improved tabulation technique of an existing algorithm or by combining known algorithms in a new way....

  18. Matching fields and lattice points of simplices

    OpenAIRE

    Loho, Georg; Smith, Ben

    2018-01-01

    We show that the Chow covectors of a linkage matching field define a bijection of lattice points and we demonstrate how one can recover the linkage matching field from this bijection. This resolves two open questions from Sturmfels & Zelevinsky (1993) on linkage matching fields. For this, we give an explicit construction that associates a bipartite incidence graph of an ordered partition of a common set to all lattice points in a dilated simplex. Given a triangulation of a product of two simp...

  19. Online Job Search and Matching Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Mang

    2012-01-01

    The Internet has fundamentally changed the way workers and firms are matched on the job market. Compared to newspapers and other traditional employment resources, online job boards presumably lead to better matches by providing a wider choice of job advertisements and more sophisticated methods for finding suitable vacancies. This study investigates the association of online job search and matching quality using individual-level data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). My results sho...

  20. Polyhedral patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui; Tang, Chengcheng; Vaxman, Amir; Wonka, Peter; Pottmann, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    We study the design and optimization of polyhedral patterns, which are patterns of planar polygonal faces on freeform surfaces. Working with polyhedral patterns is desirable in architectural geometry and industrial design. However, the classical

  1. Matching and correlation computations in stereoscopic depth perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Takahiro; Tanabe, Seiji; Fujita, Ichiro

    2011-03-02

    A fundamental task of the visual system is to infer depth by using binocular disparity. To encode binocular disparity, the visual cortex performs two distinct computations: one detects matched patterns in paired images (matching computation); the other constructs the cross-correlation between the images (correlation computation). How the two computations are used in stereoscopic perception is unclear. We dissociated their contributions in near/far discrimination by varying the magnitude of the disparity across separate sessions. For small disparity (0.03°), subjects performed at chance level to a binocularly opposite-contrast (anti-correlated) random-dot stereogram (RDS) but improved their performance with the proportion of contrast-matched (correlated) dots. For large disparity (0.48°), the direction of perceived depth reversed with an anti-correlated RDS relative to that for a correlated one. Neither reversed nor normal depth was perceived when anti-correlation was applied to half of the dots. We explain the decision process as a weighted average of the two computations, with the relative weight of the correlation computation increasing with the disparity magnitude. We conclude that matching computation dominates fine depth perception, while both computations contribute to coarser depth perception. Thus, stereoscopic depth perception recruits different computations depending on the disparity magnitude.

  2. Anomalous dispersion enhanced Cerenkov phase-matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalczyk, T.C.; Singer, K.D. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics; Cahill, P.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The authors report on a scheme for phase-matching second harmonic generation in polymer waveguides based on the use of anomalous dispersion to optimize Cerenkov phase matching. They have used the theoretical results of Hashizume et al. and Onda and Ito to design an optimum structure for phase-matched conversion. They have found that the use of anomalous dispersion in the design results in a 100-fold enhancement in the calculated conversion efficiency. This technique also overcomes the limitation of anomalous dispersion phase-matching which results from absorption at the second harmonic. Experiments are in progress to demonstrate these results.

  3. The Gastroenterology Fellowship Match: A Decade Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Robert J; Triadafilopoulos, George; Limsui, David

    2017-06-01

    Following a period of uncertainty and disorganization, the gastroenterology (GI) national leadership decided to reinstitute the fellowship match (the Match) under the auspices of the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP) in 2006. Although it has now been a decade since the rebirth of the Match, there have been limited data published regarding progress made. In this piece, we discuss reasons for the original collapse of the GI Match, including most notably a perceived oversupply of GI physicians and a poor job market. We discuss the negative impacts the absence of the Match had on programs and on applicants, as well as the impetus to reorganize the Match under the NRMP. We then utilize data published annually by the NRMP to demonstrate that in the decade since its rebirth, the GI Match has been remarkably successful in terms of attracting the participation of applicants and programs. We show that previous misguided concerns of an oversupply of GI physicians were not realized, and that GI fellowship positions remain highly competitive for internal medicine applicants. Finally, we discuss possible implications of recent changes in the healthcare landscape on the GI Match.

  4. Maximum concentrations at work and maximum biologically tolerable concentration for working materials 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The meaning of the term 'maximum concentration at work' in regard of various pollutants is discussed. Specifically, a number of dusts and smokes are dealt with. The valuation criteria for maximum biologically tolerable concentrations for working materials are indicated. The working materials in question are corcinogeneous substances or substances liable to cause allergies or mutate the genome. (VT) [de

  5. 75 FR 43840 - Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalties for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ...-17530; Notice No. 2] RIN 2130-ZA03 Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum... remains at $250. These adjustments are required by the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990...

  6. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified. (paper)

  7. Maximum-entropy description of animal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Chris H; Subaşı, Yiğit; Calabrese, Justin M

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic.

  8. Pareto versus lognormal: a maximum entropy test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

    2011-08-01

    It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

  9. Maximum likelihood estimation for integrated diffusion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltazar-Larios, Fernando; Sørensen, Michael

    We propose a method for obtaining maximum likelihood estimates of parameters in diffusion models when the data is a discrete time sample of the integral of the process, while no direct observations of the process itself are available. The data are, moreover, assumed to be contaminated...... EM-algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in the diffusion model. As part of the algorithm, we use a recent simple method for approximate simulation of diffusion bridges. In simulation studies for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the CIR process the proposed method works...... by measurement errors. Integrated volatility is an example of this type of observations. Another example is ice-core data on oxygen isotopes used to investigate paleo-temperatures. The data can be viewed as incomplete observations of a model with a tractable likelihood function. Therefore we propose a simulated...

  10. A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibert, Yann

    2015-09-01

    We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope.

  11. Maximum parsimony on subsets of taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Mareike; Thatte, Bhalchandra D

    2009-09-21

    In this paper we investigate mathematical questions concerning the reliability (reconstruction accuracy) of Fitch's maximum parsimony algorithm for reconstructing the ancestral state given a phylogenetic tree and a character. In particular, we consider the question whether the maximum parsimony method applied to a subset of taxa can reconstruct the ancestral state of the root more accurately than when applied to all taxa, and we give an example showing that this indeed is possible. A surprising feature of our example is that ignoring a taxon closer to the root improves the reliability of the method. On the other hand, in the case of the two-state symmetric substitution model, we answer affirmatively a conjecture of Li, Steel and Zhang which states that under a molecular clock the probability that the state at a single taxon is a correct guess of the ancestral state is a lower bound on the reconstruction accuracy of Fitch's method applied to all taxa.

  12. Impact of a soccer match on the cardiac autonomic control of referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boullosa, Daniel Alexandre; Abreu, Laurinda; Tuimil, José Luis; Leicht, Anthony Scott

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a soccer match on the cardiac autonomic control of heart rate (HR) in soccer referees. Sixteen Spanish regional and third division referees (11 males: 26 ± 7 years, 74.4 ± 4.1 kg, 178 ± 3 cm, Yo-Yo IR1 ~600-1,560 m; 5 females: 22 ± 3 years, 59.3 ± 4.8 kg, 158 ± 8 cm, Yo-Yo IR1 ~200-520 m) participated with 24-h HR recordings measured with a Polar RS800 during a rest and a match day. Autonomic control of HR was assessed from HR variability (HRV) analysis. Inclusion of a soccer match (92.5% spent at >75% maximum HR) reduced pre-match (12:00-17:00 hours; small to moderate), post-match (19:00-00:00 hours; moderate to almost perfect), and night-time (00:00-05:00 hours; small to moderate) HRV. Various moderate-to-large correlations were detected between resting HRV and the rest-to-match day difference in HRV. The rest-to-match day differences of low and high-frequency bands ratio (LF/HF) and HR in the post-match period were moderately correlated with time spent at different exercise intensities. Yo-Yo IR1 performance was highly correlated with jump capacity and peak lactate, but not with any HRV parameter. These results suggest that a greater resting HRV may allow referees to tolerate stresses during a match day with referees who spent more time at higher intensities during matches exhibiting a greater LF/HF increment in the post-match period. The relationship between match activities, [Formula: see text] and HR recovery kinetics in referees and team sport athletes of different competitive levels remains to be clarified.

  13. MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC STATION MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Elzein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present an alternative maximum power point tracking, MPPT, algorithm for a photovoltaic module, PVM, to produce the maximum power, Pmax, using the optimal duty ratio, D, for different types of converters and load matching.We present a state-based approach to the design of the maximum power point tracker for a stand-alone photovoltaic power generation system. The system under consideration consists of a solar array with nonlinear time-varying characteristics, a step-up converter with appropriate filter.The proposed algorithm has the advantages of maximizing the efficiency of the power utilization, can be integrated to other MPPT algorithms without affecting the PVM performance, is excellent for Real-Time applications and is a robust analytical method, different from the traditional MPPT algorithms which are more based on trial and error, or comparisons between present and past states. The procedure to calculate the optimal duty ratio for a buck, boost and buck-boost converters, to transfer the maximum power from a PVM to a load, is presented in the paper. Additionally, the existence and uniqueness of optimal internal impedance, to transfer the maximum power from a photovoltaic module using load matching, is proved.

  14. Maximum entropy analysis of liquid diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root, J.H.; Egelstaff, P.A.; Nickel, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    A maximum entropy method for reducing truncation effects in the inverse Fourier transform of structure factor, S(q), to pair correlation function, g(r), is described. The advantages and limitations of the method are explored with the PY hard sphere structure factor as model input data. An example using real data on liquid chlorine, is then presented. It is seen that spurious structure is greatly reduced in comparison to traditional Fourier transform methods. (author)

  15. Individual Module Maximum Power Point Tracking for a Thermoelectric Generator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadstrup, Casper; Chen, Min; Schaltz, Erik

    Thermo Electric Generator (TEG) modules are often connected in a series and/or parallel system in order to match the TEG system voltage with the load voltage. However, in order to be able to control the power production of the TEG system a DC/DC converter is inserted between the TEG system...... and the load. The DC/DC converter is under the control of a Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) which insures that the TEG system produces the maximum possible power to the load. However, if the conditions, e.g. temperature, health, etc., of the TEG modules are different each TEG module will not produce its...

  16. Automatic maximum entropy spectral reconstruction in NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobli, Mehdi; Maciejewski, Mark W.; Gryk, Michael R.; Hoch, Jeffrey C.

    2007-01-01

    Developments in superconducting magnets, cryogenic probes, isotope labeling strategies, and sophisticated pulse sequences together have enabled the application, in principle, of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy to biomolecular systems approaching 1 megadalton. In practice, however, conventional approaches to NMR that utilize the fast Fourier transform, which require data collected at uniform time intervals, result in prohibitively lengthy data collection times in order to achieve the full resolution afforded by high field magnets. A variety of approaches that involve nonuniform sampling have been proposed, each utilizing a non-Fourier method of spectrum analysis. A very general non-Fourier method that is capable of utilizing data collected using any of the proposed nonuniform sampling strategies is maximum entropy reconstruction. A limiting factor in the adoption of maximum entropy reconstruction in NMR has been the need to specify non-intuitive parameters. Here we describe a fully automated system for maximum entropy reconstruction that requires no user-specified parameters. A web-accessible script generator provides the user interface to the system

  17. maximum neutron flux at thermal nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugar, P.

    1968-10-01

    Since actual research reactors are technically complicated and expensive facilities it is important to achieve savings by appropriate reactor lattice configurations. There is a number of papers, and practical examples of reactors with central reflector, dealing with spatial distribution of fuel elements which would result in higher neutron flux. Common disadvantage of all the solutions is that the choice of best solution is done starting from the anticipated spatial distributions of fuel elements. The weakness of these approaches is lack of defined optimization criteria. Direct approach is defined as follows: determine the spatial distribution of fuel concentration starting from the condition of maximum neutron flux by fulfilling the thermal constraints. Thus the problem of determining the maximum neutron flux is solving a variational problem which is beyond the possibilities of classical variational calculation. This variational problem has been successfully solved by applying the maximum principle of Pontrjagin. Optimum distribution of fuel concentration was obtained in explicit analytical form. Thus, spatial distribution of the neutron flux and critical dimensions of quite complex reactor system are calculated in a relatively simple way. In addition to the fact that the results are innovative this approach is interesting because of the optimization procedure itself [sr

  18. Scanless multitarget-matching multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junpeng Qiu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the combination of a reflective blazed grating and a reflective phase-only diffractive spatial light modulator (SLM, scanless multitarget-matching multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy (SMTM-MPM was achieved. The SLM shaped an incoming mode-locked, near-infrared Ti:sapphire laser beam into an excitation pattern with addressable shapes and sizes that matched the samples of interest in the field of view. Temporal and spatial focusing were simultaneously realized by combining an objective lens and a blazed grating. The fluorescence signal from illuminated areas was recorded by a two-dimensional sCMOS camera. Compared with a conventional temporal focusing multiphoton microscope, our microscope achieved effective use of the laser power and decreased photodamage with higher axial resolution.

  19. Matching of Tore Supra ICRH antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladurelle, L.; Beaumont, B.; Kuus, H.; Lombard, G.

    1994-01-01

    An automatic matching method is described for Tore Supra ICRH antennas based on impedance variations seen at their feed points. Error signals derived from directional voltage and phase measurements in the feeder allow to control the matching capacitors values for optimal power transmission. (author) 5 refs.; 9 figs

  20. DOE/Industry Matching Grant Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, John C.

    2003-01-01

    For the academic year 2001-2002, the Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences received $50,000 of industrial contributions, matched by a DOE grant of $35,000. We used the combined DOE/Industry Matching Grant of $85,000 toward (a) undergraduate merit scholarships and research support, (b) graduate student support, and (c) partial support of a research scientist

  1. Object-based connectedness facilitates matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, A.R.; Lier, R.J. van

    2003-01-01

    In two matching tasks, participants had to match two images of object pairs. Image-based (113) connectedness refers to connectedness between the objects in an image. Object-based (OB) connectedness refers to connectedness between the interpreted objects. In Experiment 1, a monocular depth cue

  2. Equilibrium and matching under price controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herings, P.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers a one-to-one matching with contracts model in the presence of price controls. This set-up contains two important streams in the matching literature, those with and those without monetary transfers, as special cases and allows for intermediate cases with some restrictions on the

  3. Competence Matching Tool - Explanations and Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herder, Eelco; Kärger, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    Herder, E., Kärger, P. (2009) Competence Matching Tool - Explanations and Implementation. The document contains the technical specification of the competence matching tool. The tool can be found at http://tencompetence.cvs.sourceforge.net/viewvc/tencompetence/wp7/CompetenceMatcher/ and the location

  4. Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Anjos, António; AL-Tam, Faroq; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This ar...

  5. Local Stereo Matching Using Adaptive Local Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damjanovic, S.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    We propose a new dense local stereo matching framework for gray-level images based on an adaptive local segmentation using a dynamic threshold. We define a new validity domain of the fronto-parallel assumption based on the local intensity variations in the 4-neighborhood of the matching pixel. The

  6. Gender differences in game responses during badminton match play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; de la Aleja Tellez, Jose G; Moya-Ramon, Manuel; Cabello-Manrique, David; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate possible gender differences in match play activity pattern [rally duration, rest time between rallies, effective playing time, and strokes performed during a rally] and exercise intensity (heart rate [HR], blood lactate [La], and subjective ratings of perceived exertion [RPE]) during 9 simulated badminton matches in male (n = 8) and female (n = 8) elite junior (16.0 ± 1.4 years) players. Results showed significant differences (all p 0.05; ES = -0.33 to 0.08) were observed between female or male players in average HR (174 ± 7 vs. 170 ± 9 b·min(-1)), %HRmax (89.2 ± 4.0% vs. 85.9 ± 4.3%), La (2.5 ± 1.3 vs. 3.2 ± 1.8 mmol·L(-1)), and RPE values (14.2 ± 1.9 vs. 14.6 ± 1.8) during match play, although male players spent more time (moderate effect sizes) at intensities between 81 and 90% HRmax (35.3 ± 17.9 vs. 25.3 ± 13.6; p < 0.05; ES = 0.64) in the second game. There seemed to be a trend toward an increased playing intensity (i.e., higher HR, La, and RPE) from the first to the second game, highlighting the higher exercise intensity experienced during the last part of the match. The clear between-gender differences in activity patterns induced only slightly different physiological responses.

  7. Technical performance and match-to-match variation in elite football teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyou; Gómez, Miguel-Angel; Gonçalves, Bruno; Sampaio, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that match-to-match variation adds important information to performance descriptors in team sports, as it helps measure how players fine-tune their tactical behaviours and technical actions to the extreme dynamical environments. The current study aims to identify the differences in technical performance of players from strong and weak teams and to explore match-to-match variation of players' technical match performance. Performance data of all the 380 matches of season 2012-2013 in the Spanish First Division Professional Football League were analysed. Twenty-one performance-related match actions and events were chosen as variables in the analyses. Players' technical performance profiles were established by unifying count values of each action or event of each player per match into the same scale. Means of these count values of players from Top3 and Bottom3 teams were compared and plotted into radar charts. Coefficient of variation of each match action or event within a player was calculated to represent his match-to-match variation of technical performance. Differences in the variation of technical performances of players across different match contexts (team and opposition strength, match outcome and match location) were compared. All the comparisons were achieved by the magnitude-based inferences. Results showed that technical performances differed between players of strong and weak teams from different perspectives across different field positions. Furthermore, the variation of the players' technical performance is affected by the match context, with effects from team and opposition strength greater than effects from match location and match outcome.

  8. Maximum surgical blood ordering schedules for revision lower limb arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Devendra; Challand, Christopher; Clarke, Andrew; Keenan, Jonathan

    2011-05-01

    Effective utilisation of blood products is fundamental. The introduction of maximum surgical blood ordering schedules (MSBOS) for operations has been shown to improve transfusion services. A retrospective analysis was undertaken to establish an evidence-based MSBOS for revision total hip replacement (THR) and total knee revision (TKR). The impact of this schedule on blood conservation was analysed. A retrospective analysis was undertaken on 397 patients who underwent revision THR and TKR over a 4-year period. The cross-match-to-transfusion ratio (CTR) and transfusion index (TI) were calculated. A MSBOS protocol was created based on the TIs and its' impact on transfusion services was assessed prospectively on 125 patients by comparing CTRs. In revision THR, TI was 1.19 for elective cases, 1.55 for emergency cases and 2.35 for infected cases. There was no difference in TI for revisions of cemented and uncemented components. Single component THR revision required less transfusion. In revision TKR, TI was 0.31 for elective cases, 2.0 for emergency cases and 1.23 for cases with infection. The introduction of the MSBOS protocol had resulted in a considerable improvement in blood ordering. Reductions in the CTR were seen for all types of revision surgery, but most evident in elective revision THR (3.24-2.18) and elective revision TKR (7.95-1.2). Analysis confirmed that excessive cross-matching occurred for revision lower limb arthroplasty. The introduction of our MSBOS protocol promoted blood conservation and compliance with established national guidelines.

  9. Stereo Matching Based On Election Campaign Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Qing Hua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stereo matching is one of the significant problems in the study of the computer vision. By getting the distance information through pixels, it is possible to reproduce a three-dimensional stereo. In this paper, the edges are the primitives for matching, the grey values of the edges and the magnitude and direction of the edge gradient were figured out as the properties of the edge feature points, according to the constraints for stereo matching, the energy function was built for finding the route minimizing by election campaign optimization algorithm during the process of stereo matching was applied to this problem the energy function. Experiment results show that this algorithm is more stable and it can get the matching result with better accuracy.

  10. Fiber cavities with integrated mode matching optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Gurpreet Kaur; Takahashi, Hiroki; Podoliak, Nina; Horak, Peter; Keller, Matthias

    2017-07-17

    In fiber based Fabry-Pérot Cavities (FFPCs), limited spatial mode matching between the cavity mode and input/output modes has been the main hindrance for many applications. We have demonstrated a versatile mode matching method for FFPCs. Our novel design employs an assembly of a graded-index and large core multimode fiber directly spliced to a single mode fiber. This all-fiber assembly transforms the propagating mode of the single mode fiber to match with the mode of a FFPC. As a result, we have measured a mode matching of 90% for a cavity length of ~400 μm. This is a significant improvement compared to conventional FFPCs coupled with just a single mode fiber, especially at long cavity lengths. Adjusting the parameters of the assembly, the fundamental cavity mode can be matched with the mode of almost any single mode fiber, making this approach highly versatile and integrable.

  11. Semantic Data Matching: Principles and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Russell; Doan, Thao; Schweiger, Tom

    Automated and real-time management of customer relationships requires robust and intelligent data matching across widespread and diverse data sources. Simple string matching algorithms, such as dynamic programming, can handle typographical errors in the data, but are less able to match records that require contextual and experiential knowledge. Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) (Berry et al. ; Deerwester et al. is a machine intelligence technique that can match data based upon higher order structure, and is able to handle difficult problems, such as words that have different meanings but the same spelling, are synonymous, or have multiple meanings. Essentially, the technique matches records based upon context, or mathematically quantifying when terms occur in the same record.

  12. Evaluation of goal kicking performance in international rugby union matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Hopkins, Will G

    2015-03-01

    Goal kicking is an important element in rugby but has been the subject of minimal research. To develop and apply a method to describe the on-field pattern of goal-kicking and rank the goal kicking performance of players in international rugby union matches. Longitudinal observational study. A generalized linear mixed model was used to analyze goal-kicking performance in a sample of 582 international rugby matches played from 2002 to 2011. The model adjusted for kick distance, kick angle, a rating of the importance of each kick, and venue-related conditions. Overall, 72% of the 6769 kick attempts were successful. Forty-five percent of points scored during the matches resulted from goal kicks, and in 5.7% of the matches the result of the match hinged on the outcome of a kick attempt. There was an extremely large decrease in success with increasing distance (odds ratio for two SD distance 0.06, 90% confidence interval 0.05-0.07) and a small decrease with increasingly acute angle away from the mid-line of the goal posts (odds ratio for 2 SD angle, 0.44, 0.39-0.49). Differences between players were typically small (odds ratio for 2 between-player SD 0.53, 0.45-0.65). The generalized linear mixed model with its random-effect solutions provides a tool for ranking the performance of goal kickers in rugby. This modelling approach could be applied to other performance indicators in rugby and in other sports in which discrete outcomes are measured repeatedly on players or teams. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Towards a Next-Generation Catalogue Cross-Match Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineau, F.; Boch, T.; Derriere, S.; Arches Consortium

    2015-09-01

    We have been developing in the past several catalogue cross-match tools. On one hand the CDS XMatch service (Pineau et al. 2011), able to perform basic but very efficient cross-matches, scalable to the largest catalogues on a single regular server. On the other hand, as part of the European project ARCHES1, we have been developing a generic and flexible tool which performs potentially complex multi-catalogue cross-matches and which computes probabilities of association based on a novel statistical framework. Although the two approaches have been managed so far as different tracks, the need for next generation cross-match services dealing with both efficiency and complexity is becoming pressing with forthcoming projects which will produce huge high quality catalogues. We are addressing this challenge which is both theoretical and technical. In ARCHES we generalize to N catalogues the candidate selection criteria - based on the chi-square distribution - described in Pineau et al. (2011). We formulate and test a number of Bayesian hypothesis which necessarily increases dramatically with the number of catalogues. To assign a probability to each hypotheses, we rely on estimated priors which account for local densities of sources. We validated our developments by comparing the theoretical curves we derived with the results of Monte-Carlo simulations. The current prototype is able to take into account heterogeneous positional errors, object extension and proper motion. The technical complexity is managed by OO programming design patterns and SQL-like functionalities. Large tasks are split into smaller independent pieces for scalability. Performances are achieved resorting to multi-threading, sequential reads and several tree data-structures. In addition to kd-trees, we account for heterogeneous positional errors and object's extension using M-trees. Proper-motions are supported using a modified M-tree we developed, inspired from Time Parametrized R-trees (TPR

  14. The Interaction Between Schema Matching and Record Matching in Data Integration

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Binbin; Li, Zhixu; Zhang, Xiangliang; Liu, An; Liu, Guanfeng; Zheng, Kai; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Xiaofang

    2016-01-01

    Schema Matching (SM) and Record Matching (RM) are two necessary steps in integrating multiple relational tables of different schemas, where SM unifies the schemas and RM detects records referring to the same real-world entity. The two processes have

  15. Distortion analysis on binary representation of minutiae based fingerprint matching for match-on-card

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mlambo, CS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The fingerprint matching on the smart card has long been developed and recognized faster method than fingerprint matching on a computer or large capacity systems. There has been much research and activities concerned with improving the accuracy...

  16. Maximum power operation of interacting molecular motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golubeva, Natalia; Imparato, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    , as compared to the non-interacting system, in a wide range of biologically compatible scenarios. We furthermore consider the case where the motor-motor interaction directly affects the internal chemical cycle and investigate the effect on the system dynamics and thermodynamics.......We study the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of different traffic models for kinesin which are relevant in biological and experimental contexts. We find that motor-motor interactions play a fundamental role by enhancing the thermodynamic efficiency at maximum power of the motors...

  17. Maximum entropy method in momentum density reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzynski, L.; Holas, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) is applied to the reconstruction of the 3-dimensional electron momentum density distributions observed through the set of Compton profiles measured along various crystallographic directions. It is shown that the reconstruction of electron momentum density may be reliably carried out with the aid of simple iterative algorithm suggested originally by Collins. A number of distributions has been simulated in order to check the performance of MEM. It is shown that MEM can be recommended as a model-free approach. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig

  18. On the maximum drawdown during speculative bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotundo, Giulia; Navarra, Mauro

    2007-08-01

    A taxonomy of large financial crashes proposed in the literature locates the burst of speculative bubbles due to endogenous causes in the framework of extreme stock market crashes, defined as falls of market prices that are outlier with respect to the bulk of drawdown price movement distribution. This paper goes on deeper in the analysis providing a further characterization of the rising part of such selected bubbles through the examination of drawdown and maximum drawdown movement of indices prices. The analysis of drawdown duration is also performed and it is the core of the risk measure estimated here.

  19. Multi-Channel Maximum Likelihood Pitch Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a method for multi-channel pitch estimation is proposed. The method is a maximum likelihood estimator and is based on a parametric model where the signals in the various channels share the same fundamental frequency but can have different amplitudes, phases, and noise characteristics....... This essentially means that the model allows for different conditions in the various channels, like different signal-to-noise ratios, microphone characteristics and reverberation. Moreover, the method does not assume that a certain array structure is used but rather relies on a more general model and is hence...

  20. Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastea, S

    2009-01-27

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

  1. Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M

    2014-04-01

    We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter.

  2. Maximum Temperature Detection System for Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankiewicz, Maciej; Kos, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    The paper describes structure and measurement results of the system detecting present maximum temperature on the surface of an integrated circuit. The system consists of the set of proportional to absolute temperature sensors, temperature processing path and a digital part designed in VHDL. Analogue parts of the circuit where designed with full-custom technique. The system is a part of temperature-controlled oscillator circuit - a power management system based on dynamic frequency scaling method. The oscillator cooperates with microprocessor dedicated for thermal experiments. The whole system is implemented in UMC CMOS 0.18 μm (1.8 V) technology.

  3. Maximum entropy PDF projection: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggenstoss, Paul M.

    2017-06-01

    We review maximum entropy (MaxEnt) PDF projection, a method with wide potential applications in statistical inference. The method constructs a sampling distribution for a high-dimensional vector x based on knowing the sampling distribution p(z) of a lower-dimensional feature z = T (x). Under mild conditions, the distribution p(x) having highest possible entropy among all distributions consistent with p(z) may be readily found. Furthermore, the MaxEnt p(x) may be sampled, making the approach useful in Monte Carlo methods. We review the theorem and present a case study in model order selection and classification for handwritten character recognition.

  4. Multiperiod Maximum Loss is time unit invariant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Raimund M; Breuer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Time unit invariance is introduced as an additional requirement for multiperiod risk measures: for a constant portfolio under an i.i.d. risk factor process, the multiperiod risk should equal the one period risk of the aggregated loss, for an appropriate choice of parameters and independent of the portfolio and its distribution. Multiperiod Maximum Loss over a sequence of Kullback-Leibler balls is time unit invariant. This is also the case for the entropic risk measure. On the other hand, multiperiod Value at Risk and multiperiod Expected Shortfall are not time unit invariant.

  5. Maximum a posteriori decoder for digital communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altes, Richard A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A system and method for decoding by identification of the most likely phase coded signal corresponding to received data. The present invention has particular application to communication with signals that experience spurious random phase perturbations. The generalized estimator-correlator uses a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator to generate phase estimates for correlation with incoming data samples and for correlation with mean phases indicative of unique hypothesized signals. The result is a MAP likelihood statistic for each hypothesized transmission, wherein the highest value statistic identifies the transmitted signal.

  6. Improved Maximum Parsimony Models for Phylogenetic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Iersel, Leo; Jones, Mark; Scornavacca, Celine

    2018-05-01

    Phylogenetic networks are well suited to represent evolutionary histories comprising reticulate evolution. Several methods aiming at reconstructing explicit phylogenetic networks have been developed in the last two decades. In this article, we propose a new definition of maximum parsimony for phylogenetic networks that permits to model biological scenarios that cannot be modeled by the definitions currently present in the literature (namely, the "hardwired" and "softwired" parsimony). Building on this new definition, we provide several algorithmic results that lay the foundations for new parsimony-based methods for phylogenetic network reconstruction.

  7. Ancestral sequence reconstruction with Maximum Parsimony

    OpenAIRE

    Herbst, Lina; Fischer, Mareike

    2017-01-01

    One of the main aims in phylogenetics is the estimation of ancestral sequences based on present-day data like, for instance, DNA alignments. One way to estimate the data of the last common ancestor of a given set of species is to first reconstruct a phylogenetic tree with some tree inference method and then to use some method of ancestral state inference based on that tree. One of the best-known methods both for tree inference as well as for ancestral sequence inference is Maximum Parsimony (...

  8. Envelope matching for enhanced backward Raman amplification by using self-ionizing plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z. M.; Zhang, B.; Hong, W.; Teng, J.; He, S. K.; Gu, Y. Q.; Yu, M. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Backward Raman amplification (BRA) in plasmas has been promoted as a means for generating ultrapowerful laser pulses. For the purpose of achieving the maximum intensities over the shortest distances, an envelope matching between the seed pulse and the amplification gain is required, i.e., the seed pulse propagates at the same velocity with the gain such that the peak of the seed pulse can always enjoy the maximum gain. However, such an envelope matching is absent in traditional BRA because in the latter the amplification gain propagates at superluminous velocity while the seed pulse propagates at the group velocity, which is less than the speed of light. It is shown here that, by using self-ionizing plasmas, the speed of the amplification gain can be well reduced to reach the envelope matching regime. This results in a favorable BRA process, in which higher saturated intensity, shorter interaction length and higher energy-transfer efficiency are achieved

  9. Method of electric powertrain matching for battery-powered electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Guobao; Xiong, Lu; Zhang, Lijun; Yu, Zhuoping

    2013-05-01

    The current match method of electric powertrain still makes use of longitudinal dynamics, which can't realize maximum capacity for on-board energy storage unit and can't reach lowest equivalent fuel consumption as well. Another match method focuses on improving available space considering reasonable layout of vehicle to enlarge rated energy capacity for on-board energy storage unit, which can keep the longitudinal dynamics performance almost unchanged but can't reach lowest fuel consumption. Considering the characteristics of driving motor, method of electric powertrain matching utilizing conventional longitudinal dynamics for driving system and cut-and-try method for energy storage system is proposed for passenger cars converted from traditional ones. Through combining the utilization of vehicle space which contributes to the on-board energy amount, vehicle longitudinal performance requirements, vehicle equivalent fuel consumption level, passive safety requirements and maximum driving range requirement together, a comprehensive optimal match method of electric powertrain for battery-powered electric vehicle is raised. In simulation, the vehicle model and match method is built in Matlab/simulink, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) is chosen as a test condition. The simulation results show that 2.62% of regenerative energy and 2% of energy storage efficiency are increased relative to the traditional method. The research conclusions provide theoretical and practical solutions for electric powertrain matching for modern battery-powered electric vehicles especially for those converted from traditional ones, and further enhance dynamics of electric vehicles.

  10. Objective Bayesianism and the Maximum Entropy Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Williamson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Bayesian epistemology invokes three norms: the strengths of our beliefs should be probabilities; they should be calibrated to our evidence of physical probabilities; and they should otherwise equivocate sufficiently between the basic propositions that we can express. The three norms are sometimes explicated by appealing to the maximum entropy principle, which says that a belief function should be a probability function, from all those that are calibrated to evidence, that has maximum entropy. However, the three norms of objective Bayesianism are usually justified in different ways. In this paper, we show that the three norms can all be subsumed under a single justification in terms of minimising worst-case expected loss. This, in turn, is equivalent to maximising a generalised notion of entropy. We suggest that requiring language invariance, in addition to minimising worst-case expected loss, motivates maximisation of standard entropy as opposed to maximisation of other instances of generalised entropy. Our argument also provides a qualified justification for updating degrees of belief by Bayesian conditionalisation. However, conditional probabilities play a less central part in the objective Bayesian account than they do under the subjective view of Bayesianism, leading to a reduced role for Bayes’ Theorem.

  11. Efficient heuristics for maximum common substructure search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Péter; Kovács, Péter

    2015-05-26

    Maximum common substructure search is a computationally hard optimization problem with diverse applications in the field of cheminformatics, including similarity search, lead optimization, molecule alignment, and clustering. Most of these applications have strict constraints on running time, so heuristic methods are often preferred. However, the development of an algorithm that is both fast enough and accurate enough for most practical purposes is still a challenge. Moreover, in some applications, the quality of a common substructure depends not only on its size but also on various topological features of the one-to-one atom correspondence it defines. Two state-of-the-art heuristic algorithms for finding maximum common substructures have been implemented at ChemAxon Ltd., and effective heuristics have been developed to improve both their efficiency and the relevance of the atom mappings they provide. The implementations have been thoroughly evaluated and compared with existing solutions (KCOMBU and Indigo). The heuristics have been found to greatly improve the performance and applicability of the algorithms. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the applied methods and present the experimental results.

  12. MR angiography with a matched filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Castro, J.B.; Riederer, S.J.; Lee, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    The technique of matched filtering was applied to a series of cine MR images. The filter was devised to yield a subtraction angiographic image in which direct current components present in the cine series are removed and the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the vascular structures is optimized. The S/N of a matched filter was compared with that of a simple subtraction, in which an image with high flow is subtracted from one with low flow. Experimentally, a range of results from minimal improvement to significant (60%) improvement in S/N was seen in the comparisons of matched filtered subtraction with simple subtraction

  13. Effects of drugs of abuse and cholinergic agents on delayed matching-to-sample responding in the squirrel monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudzik, T J; Wenger, G R

    1993-04-01

    To study how drugs may disrupt short-term memory function, squirrel monkeys were trained to respond under a titrating delayed matching-to-sample schedule of reinforcement. Monkeys could respond on each of three keys in an operant chamber. At the start of each trial, the 30th response on the center key illuminated each of the side keys, one of which matched the stimulus presented on the center key (simultaneous matching). A response to the correct (matching) side key turned off all stimuli and initiated a delay, the length of which varied as a function of ongoing performance. After the delay, stimuli were randomly presented on two of the three keys. A response to the key which matched the color on the center key before the delay resulted in delivery of a food pellet (delayed matching). Incorrect simultaneous or delayed matching responses initiated a timeout. Under this procedure, diazepam and scopolamine decreased delayed matching accuracy at one or more doses that did not significantly decrease mean delay values, but only scopolamine decreased matching accuracy at a dose that did not significantly decrease response rates. Cocaine decreased mean delay values after the highest dose without affecting matching accuracy. Pentobarbital and methylscopolamine decreased matching accuracy and mean and maximum delay values after the highest doses. Nicotine and phencyclidine produced small decreases in delayed matching accuracy without affecting mean and maximum delay values. Caffeine, morphine, physostigmine and neostigmine did not alter matching performance even after doses that markedly decreased rates of responding.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. State of otolaryngology match: has competition increased since the "early" match?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Muffly, Cristina; Sheeder, Jeanelle; Abaza, Mona

    2015-05-01

    To examine fluctuations in supply and demand of otolaryngology residency positions after the shift from an "early match" coordinated by the San Francisco match to a "conventional" matching process through the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP). To determine whether competition among otolaryngology residency positions have changed during this time frame. Database analysis. Matching statistics from 1998 to 2013 were obtained for all first-year residency positions through the NRMP. Matching statistics from 1998 to 2005 were obtained for otolaryngology residency positions through the San Francisco match. Univariate analysis was performed, with a P value less than .05 determined as significant. The number of otolaryngology positions and applicants remained proportional to the overall number of positions and applicants in the NRMP match. Otolaryngology applicants per position and the matching rate of all applicants did not change between the 2 time periods studied. The overall match rate of US seniors applying to otolaryngology did not change, while the match rate of non-US seniors decreased significantly following initiation of the conventional match. There was no significant change in United States Medical Licensing Exam step 1 scores or percentage of unfilled otolaryngology residency positions between the 2 time periods. When comparing the early versus conventional otolaryngology match time periods, the only major change was the decreased percentage of matching among non-US senior applicants. Despite a significant shift in match timing after 2006, the supply, demand, and competitiveness of otolaryngology residency positions have not changed significantly. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  15. Polyhedral patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2015-10-27

    We study the design and optimization of polyhedral patterns, which are patterns of planar polygonal faces on freeform surfaces. Working with polyhedral patterns is desirable in architectural geometry and industrial design. However, the classical tiling patterns on the plane must take on various shapes in order to faithfully and feasibly approximate curved surfaces. We define and analyze the deformations these tiles must undertake to account for curvature, and discover the symmetries that remain invariant under such deformations. We propose a novel method to regularize polyhedral patterns while maintaining these symmetries into a plethora of aesthetic and feasible patterns.

  16. Matching beams on photon/electron linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, L.; Vial, P.; Hunt, P.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: There are a number of obvious reasons to match megavoltage X-ray and electron beams for clinical purposes. If two dual-purpose X-ray/electron linear accelerators are of the same design and manufacturer, then this might be possible. The issue is however whether the beams can be matched sufficiently close to be considered the same for patient treatments and planning data for dose calculation purposes. If successfully achieved, there are significant advantages in reduced commissioning time, less work in planning and flexibility in the treatment of patients between the two treatment machines. We have investigated matching a new Varian Clinac 21EX with our 1993 Varian Clinac 2100 C/D. A Varian Clinac 1800 was the first linear accelerator installed at RNSH in 1987. When the Clinac 2100 C/D was installed in 1993, we attempted to match all the X-ray and electron beams with the original Clinac 1800 physical data. The X-ray beam characteristics were satisfactory but the electron beams were not sufficiently compatible for planning or patient treatment purposes. A different designed scattering foil and electron applicator were the cause of the different electron beam physical characteristics between the two models. In replacing the Clinac 1800 with the Clinac 21EX, we have used the original 1993 data of the Clinac 2100 C/D as the gold standard to aim for. Initial measurements during acceptance tests showed that all beams satisfied the manufacturer's specification. The energy was then matched to the existing clinical physics data by adjusting the bending magnet power supply and re-tuning the accelerator. This involved matching % depth dose and the corresponding ratio of 10 and 20 cm % depth dose ratio for 6MV and 18 MV X-ray beams. For 6, 9, 12, 16 and 20 MeV electron beams the normal physical parameters of depth of maximum (R max ), the practical range (R p ), the depth of 50% (R 50 ), the slope (G), the average energy at the surface (E 0 ) and the % photon

  17. Distribution of phytoplankton groups within the deep chlorophyll maximum

    KAUST Repository

    Latasa, Mikel

    2016-11-01

    The fine vertical distribution of phytoplankton groups within the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) was studied in the NE Atlantic during summer stratification. A simple but unconventional sampling strategy allowed examining the vertical structure with ca. 2 m resolution. The distribution of Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, chlorophytes, pelagophytes, small prymnesiophytes, coccolithophores, diatoms, and dinoflagellates was investigated with a combination of pigment-markers, flow cytometry and optical and FISH microscopy. All groups presented minimum abundances at the surface and a maximum in the DCM layer. The cell distribution was not vertically symmetrical around the DCM peak and cells tended to accumulate in the upper part of the DCM layer. The more symmetrical distribution of chlorophyll than cells around the DCM peak was due to the increase of pigment per cell with depth. We found a vertical alignment of phytoplankton groups within the DCM layer indicating preferences for different ecological niches in a layer with strong gradients of light and nutrients. Prochlorococcus occupied the shallowest and diatoms the deepest layers. Dinoflagellates, Synechococcus and small prymnesiophytes preferred shallow DCM layers, and coccolithophores, chlorophytes and pelagophytes showed a preference for deep layers. Cell size within groups changed with depth in a pattern related to their mean size: the cell volume of the smallest group increased the most with depth while the cell volume of the largest group decreased the most. The vertical alignment of phytoplankton groups confirms that the DCM is not a homogeneous entity and indicates groups’ preferences for different ecological niches within this layer.

  18. Stimulus-dependent maximum entropy models of neural population codes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Granot-Atedgi

    Full Text Available Neural populations encode information about their stimulus in a collective fashion, by joint activity patterns of spiking and silence. A full account of this mapping from stimulus to neural activity is given by the conditional probability distribution over neural codewords given the sensory input. For large populations, direct sampling of these distributions is impossible, and so we must rely on constructing appropriate models. We show here that in a population of 100 retinal ganglion cells in the salamander retina responding to temporal white-noise stimuli, dependencies between cells play an important encoding role. We introduce the stimulus-dependent maximum entropy (SDME model-a minimal extension of the canonical linear-nonlinear model of a single neuron, to a pairwise-coupled neural population. We find that the SDME model gives a more accurate account of single cell responses and in particular significantly outperforms uncoupled models in reproducing the distributions of population codewords emitted in response to a stimulus. We show how the SDME model, in conjunction with static maximum entropy models of population vocabulary, can be used to estimate information-theoretic quantities like average surprise and information transmission in a neural population.

  19. METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE MAXIMUM ARRANGEMENT FACTOR OF FOOTWEAR PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRIŞCU Mariana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available By classic methodology, designing footwear is a very complex and laborious activity. That is because classic methodology requires many graphic executions using manual means, which consume a lot of the producer’s time. Moreover, the results of this classical methodology may contain many inaccuracies with the most unpleasant consequences for the footwear producer. Thus, the costumer that buys a footwear product by taking into consideration the characteristics written on the product (size, width can notice after a period that the product has flaws because of the inadequate design. In order to avoid this kind of situations, the strictest scientific criteria must be followed when one designs a footwear product. The decisive step in this way has been made some time ago, when, as a result of powerful technical development and massive implementation of electronical calculus systems and informatics, This paper presents a product software for determining all possible arrangements of a footwear product’s reference points, in order to automatically acquire the maximum arrangement factor. The user multiplies the pattern in order to find the economic arrangement for the reference points. In this purpose, the user must probe few arrangement variants, in the translation and rotate-translation system. The same process is used in establishing the arrangement factor for the two points of reference of the designed footwear product. After probing several variants of arrangement in the translation and rotation and translation systems, the maximum arrangement factors are chosen. This allows the user to estimate the material wastes.

  20. Efficient algorithms for maximum likelihood decoding in the surface code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravyi, Sergey; Suchara, Martin; Vargo, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    We describe two implementations of the optimal error correction algorithm known as the maximum likelihood decoder (MLD) for the two-dimensional surface code with a noiseless syndrome extraction. First, we show how to implement MLD exactly in time O (n2), where n is the number of code qubits. Our implementation uses a reduction from MLD to simulation of matchgate quantum circuits. This reduction however requires a special noise model with independent bit-flip and phase-flip errors. Secondly, we show how to implement MLD approximately for more general noise models using matrix product states (MPS). Our implementation has running time O (nχ3), where χ is a parameter that controls the approximation precision. The key step of our algorithm, borrowed from the density matrix renormalization-group method, is a subroutine for contracting a tensor network on the two-dimensional grid. The subroutine uses MPS with a bond dimension χ to approximate the sequence of tensors arising in the course of contraction. We benchmark the MPS-based decoder against the standard minimum weight matching decoder observing a significant reduction of the logical error probability for χ ≥4.

  1. Hydraulic Limits on Maximum Plant Transpiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, S.; Vico, G.; Katul, G. G.; Palmroth, S.; Jackson, R. B.; Porporato, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Photosynthesis occurs at the expense of water losses through transpiration. As a consequence of this basic carbon-water interaction at the leaf level, plant growth and ecosystem carbon exchanges are tightly coupled to transpiration. In this contribution, the hydraulic constraints that limit transpiration rates under well-watered conditions are examined across plant functional types and climates. The potential water flow through plants is proportional to both xylem hydraulic conductivity (which depends on plant carbon economy) and the difference in water potential between the soil and the atmosphere (the driving force that pulls water from the soil). Differently from previous works, we study how this potential flux changes with the amplitude of the driving force (i.e., we focus on xylem properties and not on stomatal regulation). Xylem hydraulic conductivity decreases as the driving force increases due to cavitation of the tissues. As a result of this negative feedback, more negative leaf (and xylem) water potentials would provide a stronger driving force for water transport, while at the same time limiting xylem hydraulic conductivity due to cavitation. Here, the leaf water potential value that allows an optimum balance between driving force and xylem conductivity is quantified, thus defining the maximum transpiration rate that can be sustained by the soil-to-leaf hydraulic system. To apply the proposed framework at the global scale, a novel database of xylem conductivity and cavitation vulnerability across plant types and biomes is developed. Conductivity and water potential at 50% cavitation are shown to be complementary (in particular between angiosperms and conifers), suggesting a tradeoff between transport efficiency and hydraulic safety. Plants from warmer and drier biomes tend to achieve larger maximum transpiration than plants growing in environments with lower atmospheric water demand. The predicted maximum transpiration and the corresponding leaf water

  2. Analogue of Pontryagin's maximum principle for multiple integrals minimization problems

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail, Zelikin

    2016-01-01

    The theorem like Pontryagin's maximum principle for multiple integrals is proved. Unlike the usual maximum principle, the maximum should be taken not over all matrices, but only on matrices of rank one. Examples are given.

  3. Lake Basin Fetch and Maximum Length/Width

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear features representing the Fetch, Maximum Length and Maximum Width of a lake basin. Fetch, maximum length and average width are calcuated from the lake polygon...

  4. Shape-matching soft mechanical metamaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirzaali Mazandarani, M.; Janbaz, S.; Strano, M.; Vergani, L.; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Architectured materials with rationally designed geometries could be used to create mechanical metamaterials with unprecedented or rare properties and functionalities. Here, we introduce "shape-matching" metamaterials where the geometry of cellular structures comprising auxetic and conventional

  5. The Effectiveness of Advertising Matching Purchase Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Loef (Joost); G. Antonides (Gerrit); W.F. van Raaij (Fred)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractSeveral authors have proposed frameworks to help advertisers predict and plan advertising effectiveness. Rossiter and Percy's advertising grid (1997) recommends that the ad appeal should match the purchase motivation or attitude base. They suggest that for utilitarian brands

  6. Personalized Medicine: Matching Treatments to Your Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe December 2013 Print this issue Personalized Medicine Matching Treatments to Your Genes Send us your ... for disease, and the ways you respond to medicines are also unique. Medicines that work well for ...

  7. Mobile Application for Pesticide Label Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    The label matching application will give inspectors the ability to instantly compare pesticide product labels against state and federal label databases via their cell phone, tablet or other mobile device.

  8. Study of matching between HIRFL and CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jingyu; Li Haohu; Yuan Youjin

    2001-01-01

    'HIRFL-CSR Cooler Storage Ring' makes use of existing HIRFL as its pre-accelerator. In order to take the full capability of HIRFL, the authors have studied in detailed the matching modes between HIRFL and CSR. It is proposed to use two matching modes; direct matching between SFC (HIRFL injector cyclotron) and CSRm (CSR main ring); three-cascade matching of SFC, SSC (HIRFL main cyclotron) and CSRm. With these combinations, better beam transmission efficiency, better beam utilization efficiency of HIRFL-CSR accelerator complex and better operation efficiency of HIRFL can be obtained. In the first case, SSC can be used simultaneously in other purposes, either to accelerate medium energy heavy ions or to accelerate protons combined with another small cyclotron

  9. Matching modes between HIRFL and CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J.Y.; Li, H.H.; Yuan, Y.J.

    2001-01-01

    National key scientific project 'HIRFL-CSR Cooler Storage Ring' makes use of existing HIRFL as its pre-accelerator. In order to take the full capability of HIRFL, we have studied in detailed the matching modes between HIRFL and CSR. It is proposed to use two matching modes: direct matching between SFC (HIRFL injector cyclotron) and CSRm (CSR main ring), three-cascade matching of SFC, SSC (HIRFL main cyclotron) and CSRm. With these combinations, better beam transmission efficiency, better beam utilization efficiency of HIRFL-CSR accelerator complex and better operation efficiency of HIRFL can be obtained. In the first case, SSC can be used simultaneously in other purposes, either to accelerate medium energy heavy ions or to accelerate protons combined with another small cyclotron

  10. Fractional Order Element Based Impedance Matching

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa; Salama, Khaled N.; Shamim, Atif

    2014-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to fractional order element based impedance matching. In one embodiment, a method includes aligning a traditional Smith chart (|.alpha.|=1) with a fractional order Smith chart (|.alpha

  11. Reliability of visual and instrumental color matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igiel, Christopher; Lehmann, Karl Martin; Ghinea, Razvan; Weyhrauch, Michael; Hangx, Ysbrand; Scheller, Herbert; Paravina, Rade D

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of visual and instrumental shade matching. Forty individuals with normal color perception participated in this study. The right maxillary central incisor of a teaching model was prepared and restored with 10 feldspathic all-ceramic crowns of different shades. A shade matching session consisted of the observer (rater) visually selecting the best match by using VITA classical A1-D4 (VC) and VITA Toothguide 3D Master (3D) shade guides and the VITA Easyshade Advance intraoral spectrophotometer (ES) to obtain both VC and 3D matches. Three shade matching sessions were held with 4 to 6 weeks between sessions. Intra-rater reliability was assessed based on the percentage of agreement for the three sessions for the same observer, whereas the inter-rater reliability was calculated as mean percentage of agreement between different observers. The Fleiss' Kappa statistical analysis was used to evaluate visual inter-rater reliability. The mean intra-rater reliability for the visual shade selection was 64(11) for VC and 48(10) for 3D. The corresponding ES values were 96(4) for both VC and 3D. The percentages of observers who matched the same shade with VC and 3D were 55(10) and 43(12), respectively, while corresponding ES values were 88(8) for VC and 92(4) for 3D. The results for visual shade matching exhibited a high to moderate level of inconsistency for both intra-rater and inter-rater comparisons. The VITA Easyshade Advance intraoral spectrophotometer exhibited significantly better reliability compared with visual shade selection. This study evaluates the ability of observers to consistently match the same shade visually and with a dental spectrophotometer in different sessions. The intra-rater and inter-rater reliability (agreement of repeated shade matching) of visual and instrumental tooth color matching strongly suggest the use of color matching instruments as a supplementary tool in

  12. Specialization Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Design patterns offer many advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the final program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose that these concepts...... are complementary. Program specialization can optimize programs written using design patterns, and design patterns provide information about the program structure that can guide specialization. Concretely, we propose specialization patterns, which describe how to apply program specialization to optimize uses...... of design patterns. In this paper, we analyze the specialization opportunities provided by specific uses of design patterns. Based on the analysis of each design pattern, we define the associated specialization pattern. These specialization opportunities can be declared using the specialization classes...

  13. Modelling relationships between match events and match outcome in elite football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyou; Hopkins, Will G; Gómez, Miguel-Angel

    2016-08-01

    Identifying match events that are related to match outcome is an important task in football match analysis. Here we have used generalised mixed linear modelling to determine relationships of 16 football match events and 1 contextual variable (game location: home/away) with the match outcome. Statistics of 320 close matches (goal difference ≤ 2) of season 2012-2013 in the Spanish First Division Professional Football League were analysed. Relationships were evaluated with magnitude-based inferences and were expressed as extra matches won or lost per 10 close matches for an increase of two within-team or between-team standard deviations (SD) of the match event (representing effects of changes in team values from match to match and of differences between average team values, respectively). There was a moderate positive within-team effect from shots on target (3.4 extra wins per 10 matches; 99% confidence limits ±1.0), and a small positive within-team effect from total shots (1.7 extra wins; ±1.0). Effects of most other match events were related to ball possession, which had a small negative within-team effect (1.2 extra losses; ±1.0) but a small positive between-team effect (1.7 extra wins; ±1.4). Game location showed a small positive within-team effect (1.9 extra wins; ±0.9). In analyses of nine combinations of team and opposition end-of-season rank (classified as high, medium, low), almost all between-team effects were unclear, while within-team effects varied depending on the strength of team and opposition. Some of these findings will be useful to coaches and performance analysts when planning training sessions and match tactics.

  14. Fingerprint Recognition Using Minutia Score Matching

    OpenAIRE

    J, Ravi.; Raja, K. B.; R, Venugopal. K.

    2010-01-01

    The popular Biometric used to authenticate a person is Fingerprint which is unique and permanent throughout a person’s life. A minutia matching is widely used for fingerprint recognition and can be classified as ridge ending and ridge bifurcation. In this paper we projected Fingerprint Recognition using Minutia Score Matching method (FRMSM). For Fingerprint thinning, the Block Filter is used, which scans the image at the boundary to preserves the quality of the image and extract the minutiae ...

  15. Parikh Matching in the Streaming Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Lap-Kei; Lewenstein, Moshe; Zhang, Qin

    2012-01-01

    Let S be a string over an alphabet Σ = {σ1, σ2, …}. A Parikh-mapping maps a substring S′ of S to a |Σ|-length vector that contains, in location i of the vector, the count of σi in S′. Parikh matching refers to the problem of finding all substrings of a text T which match to a given input |Σ|-leng...

  16. THE Economics of Match-Fixing

    OpenAIRE

    Caruso, Raul

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenon of match-fixing does constitute a constant element of sport contests. This paper presents a simple formal model in order to explain it. The intuition behind is that an asymmetry in the evaluation of the stake is the key factor leading to match-fixing. In sum, this paper considers a partial equilibrium model of contest where two asymmetric, rational and risk-neutral opponents evaluate differently a contested stake. Differently from common contest models, agents have the option ...

  17. INFORMATION SYSTEMS AUDIT CURRICULA CONTENT MATCHING

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile-Daniel CARDOȘ; Ildikó Réka CARDOȘ

    2014-01-01

    Financial and internal auditors must cope with the challenge of performing their mission in technology enhanced environment. In this article we match the information technology description found in the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) and the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA) curricula against the Model Curriculum issued by the Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA). By reviewing these three curricula, we matched the content in the ISACA Model Curriculum wi...

  18. Women match men when learning a spatial skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Ian; Yu, Jingjie Jessica; Feng, Jing; Marshman, Jeff

    2009-07-01

    Meta-analytic studies have concluded that although training improves spatial cognition in both sexes, the male advantage generally persists. However, because some studies run counter to this pattern, a closer examination of the anomaly is warranted. The authors investigated the acquisition of a basic skill (spatial selective attention) using a matched-pair two-wave longitudinal design. Participants were screened with the use of an attentional visual field task, with the objective of selecting and matching 10 male-female pairs, over a wide range (30% to 57% correct). Subsequently, 20 participants 17-23 years of age (selected from 43 screened) were trained for 10 hr (distributed over several sessions) by playing a first-person shooter video game. This genre is known to be highly effective in enhancing spatial skills. All 20 participants improved, with matched members of the male-female pairs achieving very similar gains, independent of starting level. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the learning trajectory of women is not inferior to that of men when acquiring a basic spatial skill. Training methods that develop basic spatial skills may be essential to achieve gender parity in both basic and complex spatial tasks.

  19. Robust, Efficient Depth Reconstruction With Hierarchical Confidence-Based Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Chen, Ke; Song, Mingli; Tao, Dacheng; Chen, Gang; Chen, Chun

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, taking photos and capturing videos with mobile devices have become increasingly popular. Emerging applications based on the depth reconstruction technique have been developed, such as Google lens blur. However, depth reconstruction is difficult due to occlusions, non-diffuse surfaces, repetitive patterns, and textureless surfaces, and it has become more difficult due to the unstable image quality and uncontrolled scene condition in the mobile setting. In this paper, we present a novel hierarchical framework with multi-view confidence-based matching for robust, efficient depth reconstruction in uncontrolled scenes. Particularly, the proposed framework combines local cost aggregation with global cost optimization in a complementary manner that increases efficiency and accuracy. A depth map is efficiently obtained in a coarse-to-fine manner by using an image pyramid. Moreover, confidence maps are computed to robustly fuse multi-view matching cues, and to constrain the stereo matching on a finer scale. The proposed framework has been evaluated with challenging indoor and outdoor scenes, and has achieved robust and efficient depth reconstruction.

  20. Statistical Mechanics of a Simplified Bipartite Matching Problem: An Analytical Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Erba, Matías Germán

    2012-03-01

    We perform an analytical study of a simplified bipartite matching problem in which there exists a constant matching energy, and both heterosexual and homosexual pairings are allowed. We obtain the partition function in a closed analytical form and we calculate the corresponding thermodynamic functions of this model. We conclude that the model is favored at high temperatures, for which the probabilities of heterosexual and homosexual pairs tend to become equal. In the limits of low and high temperatures, the system is extensive, however this property is lost in the general case. There exists a relation between the matching energies for which the system becomes more stable under external (thermal) perturbations. As the difference of energies between the two possible matches increases the system becomes more ordered, while the maximum of entropy is achieved when these energies are equal. In this limit, there is a first order phase transition between two phases with constant entropy.

  1. Maximum Likelihood Reconstruction for Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Setsompop, Kawin; Ye, Huihui; Cauley, Stephen F; Wald, Lawrence L

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a statistical estimation framework for magnetic resonance (MR) fingerprinting, a recently proposed quantitative imaging paradigm. Within this framework, we present a maximum likelihood (ML) formalism to estimate multiple MR tissue parameter maps directly from highly undersampled, noisy k-space data. A novel algorithm, based on variable splitting, the alternating direction method of multipliers, and the variable projection method, is developed to solve the resulting optimization problem. Representative results from both simulations and in vivo experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach yields significantly improved accuracy in parameter estimation, compared to the conventional MR fingerprinting reconstruction. Moreover, the proposed framework provides new theoretical insights into the conventional approach. We show analytically that the conventional approach is an approximation to the ML reconstruction; more precisely, it is exactly equivalent to the first iteration of the proposed algorithm for the ML reconstruction, provided that a gridding reconstruction is used as an initialization.

  2. Maximum Profit Configurations of Commercial Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of commercial engines with finite capacity low- and high-price economic subsystems and a generalized commodity transfer law [n ∝ Δ (P m] in commodity flow processes, in which effects of the price elasticities of supply and demand are introduced, is presented in this paper. Optimal cycle configurations of commercial engines for maximum profit are obtained by applying optimal control theory. In some special cases, the eventual state—market equilibrium—is solely determined by the initial conditions and the inherent characteristics of two subsystems; while the different ways of transfer affect the model in respects of the specific forms of the paths of prices and the instantaneous commodity flow, i.e., the optimal configuration.

  3. The worst case complexity of maximum parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Amir; Musa-Lempel, Noa; Tsur, Dekel; Ziv-Ukelson, Michal

    2014-11-01

    One of the core classical problems in computational biology is that of constructing the most parsimonious phylogenetic tree interpreting an input set of sequences from the genomes of evolutionarily related organisms. We reexamine the classical maximum parsimony (MP) optimization problem for the general (asymmetric) scoring matrix case, where rooted phylogenies are implied, and analyze the worst case bounds of three approaches to MP: The approach of Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards, the approach of Hendy and Penny, and a new agglomerative, "bottom-up" approach we present in this article. We show that the second and third approaches are faster than the first one by a factor of Θ(√n) and Θ(n), respectively, where n is the number of species.

  4. Modelling maximum likelihood estimation of availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, R.A.; Tietjen, G.L.; Rock, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    Suppose the performance of a nuclear powered electrical generating power plant is continuously monitored to record the sequence of failure and repairs during sustained operation. The purpose of this study is to assess one method of estimating the performance of the power plant when the measure of performance is availability. That is, we determine the probability that the plant is operational at time t. To study the availability of a power plant, we first assume statistical models for the variables, X and Y, which denote the time-to-failure and the time-to-repair variables, respectively. Once those statistical models are specified, the availability, A(t), can be expressed as a function of some or all of their parameters. Usually those parameters are unknown in practice and so A(t) is unknown. This paper discusses the maximum likelihood estimator of A(t) when the time-to-failure model for X is an exponential density with parameter, lambda, and the time-to-repair model for Y is an exponential density with parameter, theta. Under the assumption of exponential models for X and Y, it follows that the instantaneous availability at time t is A(t)=lambda/(lambda+theta)+theta/(lambda+theta)exp[-[(1/lambda)+(1/theta)]t] with t>0. Also, the steady-state availability is A(infinity)=lambda/(lambda+theta). We use the observations from n failure-repair cycles of the power plant, say X 1 , X 2 , ..., Xsub(n), Y 1 , Y 2 , ..., Ysub(n) to present the maximum likelihood estimators of A(t) and A(infinity). The exact sampling distributions for those estimators and some statistical properties are discussed before a simulation model is used to determine 95% simulation intervals for A(t). The methodology is applied to two examples which approximate the operating history of two nuclear power plants. (author)

  5. Fast group matching for MR fingerprinting reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauley, Stephen F; Setsompop, Kawin; Ma, Dan; Jiang, Yun; Ye, Huihui; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; Griswold, Mark A; Wald, Lawrence L

    2015-08-01

    MR fingerprinting (MRF) is a technique for quantitative tissue mapping using pseudorandom measurements. To estimate tissue properties such as T1 , T2 , proton density, and B0 , the rapidly acquired data are compared against a large dictionary of Bloch simulations. This matching process can be a very computationally demanding portion of MRF reconstruction. We introduce a fast group matching algorithm (GRM) that exploits inherent correlation within MRF dictionaries to create highly clustered groupings of the elements. During matching, a group specific signature is first used to remove poor matching possibilities. Group principal component analysis (PCA) is used to evaluate all remaining tissue types. In vivo 3 Tesla brain data were used to validate the accuracy of our approach. For a trueFISP sequence with over 196,000 dictionary elements, 1000 MRF samples, and image matrix of 128 × 128, GRM was able to map MR parameters within 2s using standard vendor computational resources. This is an order of magnitude faster than global PCA and nearly two orders of magnitude faster than direct matching, with comparable accuracy (1-2% relative error). The proposed GRM method is a highly efficient model reduction technique for MRF matching and should enable clinically relevant reconstruction accuracy and time on standard vendor computational resources. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Hybrid-Based Dense Stereo Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, T. Y.; Ting, H. W.; Jaw, J. J.

    2016-06-01

    Stereo matching generating accurate and dense disparity maps is an indispensable technique for 3D exploitation of imagery in the fields of Computer vision and Photogrammetry. Although numerous solutions and advances have been proposed in the literature, occlusions, disparity discontinuities, sparse texture, image distortion, and illumination changes still lead to problematic issues and await better treatment. In this paper, a hybrid-based method based on semi-global matching is presented to tackle the challenges on dense stereo matching. To ease the sensitiveness of SGM cost aggregation towards penalty parameters, a formal way to provide proper penalty estimates is proposed. To this end, the study manipulates a shape-adaptive cross-based matching with an edge constraint to generate an initial disparity map for penalty estimation. Image edges, indicating the potential locations of occlusions as well as disparity discontinuities, are approved by the edge drawing algorithm to ensure the local support regions not to cover significant disparity changes. Besides, an additional penalty parameter 𝑃𝑒 is imposed onto the energy function of SGM cost aggregation to specifically handle edge pixels. Furthermore, the final disparities of edge pixels are found by weighting both values derived from the SGM cost aggregation and the U-SURF matching, providing more reliable estimates at disparity discontinuity areas. Evaluations on Middlebury stereo benchmarks demonstrate satisfactory performance and reveal the potency of the hybrid-based dense stereo matching method.

  7. Predicting the Outcome of NBA Playoffs Based on the Maximum Entropy Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Cheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Predicting the outcome of National Basketball Association (NBA matches poses a challenging problem of interest to the research community as well as the general public. In this article, we formalize the problem of predicting NBA game results as a classification problem and apply the principle of Maximum Entropy to construct an NBA Maximum Entropy (NBAME model that fits to discrete statistics for NBA games, and then predict the outcomes of NBA playoffs using the model. Our results reveal that the model is able to predict the winning team with 74.4% accuracy, outperforming other classical machine learning algorithms that could only afford a maximum prediction accuracy of 70.6% in the experiments that we performed.

  8. Maximum covariance analysis to identify intraseasonal oscillations over tropical Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Naurinete J. C.; Mesquita, Michel d. S.; Mendes, David; Spyrides, Maria H. C.; Pedra, George U.; Lucio, Paulo S.

    2017-09-01

    A reliable prognosis of extreme precipitation events in the tropics is arguably challenging to obtain due to the interaction of meteorological systems at various time scales. A pivotal component of the global climate variability is the so-called intraseasonal oscillations, phenomena that occur between 20 and 100 days. The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), which is directly related to the modulation of convective precipitation in the equatorial belt, is considered the primary oscillation in the tropical region. The aim of this study is to diagnose the connection between the MJO signal and the regional intraseasonal rainfall variability over tropical Brazil. This is achieved through the development of an index called Multivariate Intraseasonal Index for Tropical Brazil (MITB). This index is based on Maximum Covariance Analysis (MCA) applied to the filtered daily anomalies of rainfall data over tropical Brazil against a group of covariates consisting of: outgoing longwave radiation and the zonal component u of the wind at 850 and 200 hPa. The first two MCA modes, which were used to create the { MITB}_1 and { MITB}_2 indices, represent 65 and 16 % of the explained variance, respectively. The combined multivariate index was able to satisfactorily represent the pattern of intraseasonal variability over tropical Brazil, showing that there are periods of activation and inhibition of precipitation connected with the pattern of MJO propagation. The MITB index could potentially be used as a diagnostic tool for intraseasonal forecasting.

  9. Modeling Mediterranean Ocean climate of the Last Glacial Maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Mikolajewicz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A regional ocean general circulation model of the Mediterranean is used to study the climate of the Last Glacial Maximum. The atmospheric forcing for these simulations has been derived from simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model, which in turn was forced with surface conditions from a coarse resolution earth system model. The model is successful in reproducing the general patterns of reconstructed sea surface temperature anomalies with the strongest cooling in summer in the northwestern Mediterranean and weak cooling in the Levantine, although the model underestimates the extent of the summer cooling in the western Mediterranean. However, there is a strong vertical gradient associated with this pattern of summer cooling, which makes the comparison with reconstructions complicated. The exchange with the Atlantic is decreased to roughly one half of its present value, which can be explained by the shallower Strait of Gibraltar as a consequence of lower global sea level. This reduced exchange causes a strong increase of salinity in the Mediterranean in spite of reduced net evaporation.

  10. A Frequency Matching Method for Generation of a Priori Sample Models from Training Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Katrine; Cordua, Knud Skou; Frydendall, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a Frequency Matching Method (FMM) for generation of a priori sample models based on training images and illustrates its use by an example. In geostatistics, training images are used to represent a priori knowledge or expectations of models, and the FMM can be used to generate...... new images that share the same multi-point statistics as a given training image. The FMM proceeds by iteratively updating voxel values of an image until the frequency of patterns in the image matches the frequency of patterns in the training image; making the resulting image statistically...... indistinguishable from the training image....

  11. K-Line Patterns’ Predictive Power Analysis Using the Methods of Similarity Match and Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Tao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stock price prediction based on K-line patterns is the essence of candlestick technical analysis. However, there are some disputes on whether the K-line patterns have predictive power in academia. To help resolve the debate, this paper uses the data mining methods of pattern recognition, pattern clustering, and pattern knowledge mining to research the predictive power of K-line patterns. The similarity match model and nearest neighbor-clustering algorithm are proposed for solving the problem of similarity match and clustering of K-line series, respectively. The experiment includes testing the predictive power of the Three Inside Up pattern and Three Inside Down pattern with the testing dataset of the K-line series data of Shanghai 180 index component stocks over the latest 10 years. Experimental results show that (1 the predictive power of a pattern varies a great deal for different shapes and (2 each of the existing K-line patterns requires further classification based on the shape feature for improving the prediction performance.

  12. A maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic-SPE system using a maximum current controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhida, Riza [Osaka Univ., Dept. of Physical Science, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan); Osaka Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Park, Minwon; Dakkak, Mohammed; Matsuura, Kenji [Osaka Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Tsuyoshi, Akira; Michira, Masakazu [Kobe City College of Technology, Nishi-ku, Kobe (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Processes to produce hydrogen from solar photovoltaic (PV)-powered water electrolysis using solid polymer electrolysis (SPE) are reported. An alternative control of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in the PV-SPE system based on the maximum current searching methods has been designed and implemented. Based on the characteristics of voltage-current and theoretical analysis of SPE, it can be shown that the tracking of the maximum current output of DC-DC converter in SPE side will track the MPPT of photovoltaic panel simultaneously. This method uses a proportional integrator controller to control the duty factor of DC-DC converter with pulse-width modulator (PWM). The MPPT performance and hydrogen production performance of this method have been evaluated and discussed based on the results of the experiment. (Author)

  13. MATCH: An Atom- Typing Toolset for Molecular Mechanics Force Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesselman, Joseph D.; Price, Daniel J.; Knight, Jennifer L.; Brooks, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a toolset of program libraries collectively titled MATCH (Multipurpose Atom-Typer for CHARMM) for the automated assignment of atom types and force field parameters for molecular mechanics simulation of organic molecules. The toolset includes utilities for the conversion from multiple chemical structure file formats into a molecular graph. A general chemical pattern-matching engine using this graph has been implemented whereby assignment of molecular mechanics atom types, charges and force field parameters is achieved by comparison against a customizable list of chemical fragments. While initially designed to complement the CHARMM simulation package and force fields by generating the necessary input topology and atom-type data files, MATCH can be expanded to any force field and program, and has core functionality that makes it extendable to other applications such as fragment-based property prediction. In the present work, we demonstrate the accurate construction of atomic parameters of molecules within each force field included in CHARMM36 through exhaustive cross validation studies illustrating that bond increment rules derived from one force field can be transferred to another. In addition, using leave-one-out substitution it is shown that it is also possible to substitute missing intra and intermolecular parameters with ones included in a force field to complete the parameterization of novel molecules. Finally, to demonstrate the robustness of MATCH and the coverage of chemical space offered by the recent CHARMM CGENFF force field (Vanommeslaeghe, et al., JCC., 2010, 31, 671–690), one million molecules from the PubChem database of small molecules are typed, parameterized and minimized. PMID:22042689

  14. Spectral matching research for light-emitting diode-based neonatal jaundice therapeutic device light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ruting; Guo, Zhenning; Lin, Jieben

    2015-09-01

    To decrease the risk of bilirubin encephalopathy and minimize the need for exchange transfusions, we report a novel design for light source of light-emitting diode (LED)-based neonatal jaundice therapeutic device (NJTD). The bilirubin absorption spectrum in vivo was regarded as target. Based on spectral constructing theory, we used commercially available LEDs with different peak wavelengths and full width at half maximum as matching light sources. Simple genetic algorithm was first proposed as the spectral matching method. The required LEDs number at each peak wavelength was calculated, and then, the commercial light source sample model of the device was fabricated to confirm the spectral matching technology. In addition, the corresponding spectrum was measured and the effect was analyzed finally. The results showed that fitted spectrum was very similar to the target spectrum with 98.86 % matching degree, and the actual device model has a spectrum close to the target with 96.02 % matching degree. With higher fitting degree and efficiency, this matching algorithm is very suitable for light source matching technology of LED-based spectral distribution, and bilirubin absorption spectrum in vivo will be auspicious candidate for the target spectrum of new LED-based NJTD light source.

  15. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES DURING MATCHES AND PROFILE OF ELITE PENCAK SILAT EXPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict Tan

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study describing the physiological responses during competitive matches and profile of elite exponents of an emerging martial art sport, pencak silat. Thirty exponents (21 males and 9 females were involved in the study. Match responses (i.e. heart rate (HR throughout match and capillary blood lactate concentration, [La], at pre-match and at the end of every round were obtained during actual competitive duels. Elite silat exponents' physiological attributes were assessed via anthropometry, vertical jump, isometric grip strength, maximal oxygen uptake, and the Wingate 30 s anaerobic test of the upper and lower body, in the laboratory. The match response data showed that silat competitors' mean HR was > 84% of estimated HR maximum and levels of [La] ranged from 6.7 - 18.7 mMol-1 during matches. This suggests that competitive silat matches are characterised by high aerobic and anaerobic responses. In comparison to elite taekwondo and judo athletes' physiological characteristics, elite silat exponents have lower aerobic fitness and grip strength, but greater explosive leg power (vertical jump. Generally, they also possessed a similar anaerobic capability in the lower but markedly inferior anaerobic capability in the upper body

  16. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis with HLA matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechitsky, Svetlana; Kuliev, Anver; Tur-Kaspa, Illan; Morris, Randy; Verlinsky, Yury

    2004-08-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) has recently been offered in combination with HLA typing, which allowed a successful haematopoietic reconstitution in affected siblings with Fanconi anaemia by transplantation of stem cells obtained from the HLA-matched offspring resulting from PGD. This study presents the results of the first PGD practical experience performed in a group of couples at risk for producing children with genetic disorders. These parents also requested preimplantation HLA typing for treating the affected children in the family, who required HLA-matched stem cell transplantation. Using a standard IVF procedure, oocytes or embryos were tested for causative gene mutations simultaneously with HLA alleles, selecting and transferring only those unaffected embryos, which were HLA matched to the affected siblings. The procedure was performed for patients with children affected by Fanconi anaemia (FANC) A and C, different thalassaemia mutations, Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, X-linked hyperimmunoglobulin M syndrome and X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal displasia with immune deficiency. Overall, 46 PGD cycles were performed for 26 couples, resulting in selection and transfer of 50 unaffected HLA-matched embryos in 33 cycles, yielding six HLA-matched clinical pregnancies and the birth of five unaffected HLA-matched children. Despite the controversy of PGD use for HLA typing, the data demonstrate the usefulness of this approach for at-risk couples, not only to avoid the birth of affected children with an inherited disease, but also for having unaffected children who may also be potential HLA-matched donors of stem cells for treatment of affected siblings.

  17. Perspectives on Inmate Communication and Interpersonal Relations in the Maximum Security Prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhis, Patricia; Meussling, Vonne

    In recent years, scholarly and applied inquiry has addressed the importance of interpersonal communication patterns and problems in maximum security institutions for males. As a result of this research, the number of programs designed to improve the interpersonal effectiveness of prison inmates has increased dramatically. Research suggests that…

  18. Relationship between oral status and maximum bite force in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ming Su

    2009-03-01

    Conclusion: By combining the results of this study, it was concluded that associations of bite force with factors like age, maximum mouth opening and the number of teeth in contact were clearer than for other variables such as body height, body weight, occlusal pattern, and tooth decay or fillings.

  19. Family Patterns Associated with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Darryl N.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Used family systems perspective to explore familial transactional patterns related to anorexia nervosa among 22 families with an anorexic child and 22 matched control families. Identified 7 family groups with unique family dynamics differentiating one from another. With no single family pattern characterizing families of anorexics, results…

  20. Maximum mass of magnetic white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paret, Daryel Manreza; Horvath, Jorge Ernesto; Martínez, Aurora Perez

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the problem of the maximum masses of magnetized white dwarfs (WDs). The impact of a strong magnetic field on the structure equations is addressed. The pressures become anisotropic due to the presence of the magnetic field and split into parallel and perpendicular components. We first construct stable solutions of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations for parallel pressures and find that physical solutions vanish for the perpendicular pressure when B ≳ 10 13 G. This fact establishes an upper bound for a magnetic field and the stability of the configurations in the (quasi) spherical approximation. Our findings also indicate that it is not possible to obtain stable magnetized WDs with super-Chandrasekhar masses because the values of the magnetic field needed for them are higher than this bound. To proceed into the anisotropic regime, we can apply results for structure equations appropriate for a cylindrical metric with anisotropic pressures that were derived in our previous work. From the solutions of the structure equations in cylindrical symmetry we have confirmed the same bound for B ∼ 10 13 G, since beyond this value no physical solutions are possible. Our tentative conclusion is that massive WDs with masses well beyond the Chandrasekhar limit do not constitute stable solutions and should not exist. (paper)

  1. TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M

    2007-11-12

    Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.

  2. Mammographic image restoration using maximum entropy deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannetta, A; Jackson, J C; Kotre, C J; Birch, I P; Robson, K J; Padgett, R

    2004-01-01

    An image restoration approach based on a Bayesian maximum entropy method (MEM) has been applied to a radiological image deconvolution problem, that of reduction of geometric blurring in magnification mammography. The aim of the work is to demonstrate an improvement in image spatial resolution in realistic noisy radiological images with no associated penalty in terms of reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio perceived by the observer. Images of the TORMAM mammographic image quality phantom were recorded using the standard magnification settings of 1.8 magnification/fine focus and also at 1.8 magnification/broad focus and 3.0 magnification/fine focus; the latter two arrangements would normally give rise to unacceptable geometric blurring. Measured point-spread functions were used in conjunction with the MEM image processing to de-blur these images. The results are presented as comparative images of phantom test features and as observer scores for the raw and processed images. Visualization of high resolution features and the total image scores for the test phantom were improved by the application of the MEM processing. It is argued that this successful demonstration of image de-blurring in noisy radiological images offers the possibility of weakening the link between focal spot size and geometric blurring in radiology, thus opening up new approaches to system optimization

  3. Maximum Margin Clustering of Hyperspectral Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazmardi, S.; Safari, A.; Homayouni, S.

    2013-09-01

    In recent decades, large margin methods such as Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are supposed to be the state-of-the-art of supervised learning methods for classification of hyperspectral data. However, the results of these algorithms mainly depend on the quality and quantity of available training data. To tackle down the problems associated with the training data, the researcher put effort into extending the capability of large margin algorithms for unsupervised learning. One of the recent proposed algorithms is Maximum Margin Clustering (MMC). The MMC is an unsupervised SVMs algorithm that simultaneously estimates both the labels and the hyperplane parameters. Nevertheless, the optimization of the MMC algorithm is a non-convex problem. Most of the existing MMC methods rely on the reformulating and the relaxing of the non-convex optimization problem as semi-definite programs (SDP), which are computationally very expensive and only can handle small data sets. Moreover, most of these algorithms are two-class classification, which cannot be used for classification of remotely sensed data. In this paper, a new MMC algorithm is used that solve the original non-convex problem using Alternative Optimization method. This algorithm is also extended for multi-class classification and its performance is evaluated. The results of the proposed algorithm show that the algorithm has acceptable results for hyperspectral data clustering.

  4. Paving the road to maximum productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, C

    1998-01-01

    "Job security" is an oxymoron in today's environment of downsizing, mergers, and acquisitions. Workers find themselves living by new rules in the workplace that they may not understand. How do we cope? It is the leader's charge to take advantage of this chaos and create conditions under which his or her people can understand the need for change and come together with a shared purpose to effect that change. The clinical laboratory at Arkansas Children's Hospital has taken advantage of this chaos to down-size and to redesign how the work gets done to pave the road to maximum productivity. After initial hourly cutbacks, the workers accepted the cold, hard fact that they would never get their old world back. They set goals to proactively shape their new world through reorganizing, flexing staff with workload, creating a rapid response laboratory, exploiting information technology, and outsourcing. Today the laboratory is a lean, productive machine that accepts change as a way of life. We have learned to adapt, trust, and support each other as we have journeyed together over the rough roads. We are looking forward to paving a new fork in the road to the future.

  5. Maximum power flux of auroral kilometric radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, R.F.; Fainberg, J.

    1991-01-01

    The maximum auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) power flux observed by distant satellites has been increased by more than a factor of 10 from previously reported values. This increase has been achieved by a new data selection criterion and a new analysis of antenna spin modulated signals received by the radio astronomy instrument on ISEE 3. The method relies on selecting AKR events containing signals in the highest-frequency channel (1980, kHz), followed by a careful analysis that effectively increased the instrumental dynamic range by more than 20 dB by making use of the spacecraft antenna gain diagram during a spacecraft rotation. This analysis has allowed the separation of real signals from those created in the receiver by overloading. Many signals having the appearance of AKR harmonic signals were shown to be of spurious origin. During one event, however, real second harmonic AKR signals were detected even though the spacecraft was at a great distance (17 R E ) from Earth. During another event, when the spacecraft was at the orbital distance of the Moon and on the morning side of Earth, the power flux of fundamental AKR was greater than 3 x 10 -13 W m -2 Hz -1 at 360 kHz normalized to a radial distance r of 25 R E assuming the power falls off as r -2 . A comparison of these intense signal levels with the most intense source region values (obtained by ISIS 1 and Viking) suggests that multiple sources were observed by ISEE 3

  6. Maximum likelihood window for time delay estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Sup; Yoon, Dong Jin; Kim, Chi Yup

    2004-01-01

    Time delay estimation for the detection of leak location in underground pipelines is critically important. Because the exact leak location depends upon the precision of the time delay between sensor signals due to leak noise and the speed of elastic waves, the research on the estimation of time delay has been one of the key issues in leak lovating with the time arrival difference method. In this study, an optimal Maximum Likelihood window is considered to obtain a better estimation of the time delay. This method has been proved in experiments, which can provide much clearer and more precise peaks in cross-correlation functions of leak signals. The leak location error has been less than 1 % of the distance between sensors, for example the error was not greater than 3 m for 300 m long underground pipelines. Apart from the experiment, an intensive theoretical analysis in terms of signal processing has been described. The improved leak locating with the suggested method is due to the windowing effect in frequency domain, which offers a weighting in significant frequencies.

  7. Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction with Maximum Parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Lina; Fischer, Mareike

    2017-12-01

    One of the main aims in phylogenetics is the estimation of ancestral sequences based on present-day data like, for instance, DNA alignments. One way to estimate the data of the last common ancestor of a given set of species is to first reconstruct a phylogenetic tree with some tree inference method and then to use some method of ancestral state inference based on that tree. One of the best-known methods both for tree inference and for ancestral sequence inference is Maximum Parsimony (MP). In this manuscript, we focus on this method and on ancestral state inference for fully bifurcating trees. In particular, we investigate a conjecture published by Charleston and Steel in 1995 concerning the number of species which need to have a particular state, say a, at a particular site in order for MP to unambiguously return a as an estimate for the state of the last common ancestor. We prove the conjecture for all even numbers of character states, which is the most relevant case in biology. We also show that the conjecture does not hold in general for odd numbers of character states, but also present some positive results for this case.

  8. Content Based Image Matching for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, M. C.; Meyer, C.

    2006-12-01

    Planetary missions generate large volumes of data. With the MER rovers still functioning on Mars, PDS contains over 7200 released images from the Microscopic Imagers alone. These data products are only searchable by keys such as the Sol, spacecraft clock, or rover motion counter index, with little connection to the semantic content of the images. We have developed a method for matching images based on the visual textures in images. For every image in a database, a series of filters compute the image response to localized frequencies and orientations. Filter responses are turned into a low dimensional descriptor vector, generating a 37 dimensional fingerprint. For images such as the MER MI, this represents a compression ratio of 99.9965% (the fingerprint is approximately 0.0035% the size of the original image). At query time, fingerprints are quickly matched to find images with similar appearance. Image databases containing several thousand images are preprocessed offline in a matter of hours. Image matches from the database are found in a matter of seconds. We have demonstrated this image matching technique using three sources of data. The first database consists of 7200 images from the MER Microscopic Imager. The second database consists of 3500 images from the Narrow Angle Mars Orbital Camera (MOC-NA), which were cropped into 1024×1024 sub-images for consistency. The third database consists of 7500 scanned archival photos from the Apollo Metric Camera. Example query results from all three data sources are shown. We have also carried out user tests to evaluate matching performance by hand labeling results. User tests verify approximately 20% false positive rate for the top 14 results for MOC NA and MER MI data. This means typically 10 to 12 results out of 14 match the query image sufficiently. This represents a powerful search tool for databases of thousands of images where the a priori match probability for an image might be less than 1%. Qualitatively, correct

  9. Optimally matching support and perceived spousal sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrona, Carolyn E; Shaffer, Philip A; Wesner, Kristin A; Gardner, Kelli A

    2007-12-01

    Partner sensitivity is an important antecedent of both intimacy (H. T. Reis & P. Shaver, 1988) and attachment (M. D. S. Ainsworth, 1989). On the basis of the optimal matching model of social support (C. E. Cutrona & D. Russell, 1990), support behaviors that "matched" the support goals of the stressed individual were predicted to lead to the perception of partner sensitivity. Predictions were tested with 59 married couples, who engaged in a videotaped self-disclosure task. Matching support was defined as the disclosure of emotions followed by emotional support or a request for information followed by informational support. Partial evidence was found for the predictions. Matching support following the disclosure of emotions was predictive of perceived partner sensitivity. Mismatched support following the disclosure of emotions predicted lower marital satisfaction, through the mediation of partner sensitivity. Matching support following a request for information was not predictive of perceived partner sensitivity, but negative partner responses (e.g., criticism or sarcasm) following a request for information negatively predicted perceptions of partner sensitivity. The importance of considering the context of support transactions is discussed.

  10. Unsupervised image matching based on manifold alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yuru; Huang, Fengchun; Shi, Fuhao; Zha, Hongbin

    2012-08-01

    This paper challenges the issue of automatic matching between two image sets with similar intrinsic structures and different appearances, especially when there is no prior correspondence. An unsupervised manifold alignment framework is proposed to establish correspondence between data sets by a mapping function in the mutual embedding space. We introduce a local similarity metric based on parameterized distance curves to represent the connection of one point with the rest of the manifold. A small set of valid feature pairs can be found without manual interactions by matching the distance curve of one manifold with the curve cluster of the other manifold. To avoid potential confusions in image matching, we propose an extended affine transformation to solve the nonrigid alignment in the embedding space. The comparatively tight alignments and the structure preservation can be obtained simultaneously. The point pairs with the minimum distance after alignment are viewed as the matchings. We apply manifold alignment to image set matching problems. The correspondence between image sets of different poses, illuminations, and identities can be established effectively by our approach.

  11. Match Analysis in Volleyball: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to review the available literature on match analysis in adult male Volleyball. Specific key words "performance analysis", "match analysis", "game analysis", "notational analysis", "tactical analysis", "technical analysis", "outcome" and "skills" were used to search relevant databases (PubMed, Web of Science, SportDiscus, Academic Search Complete and the International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport. The research was conducted according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta analyses guidelines. Of 3407 studies initially identified, only 34 were fully reviewed, and their outcome measures extracted and analyzed. Studies that fit all inclusion criteria were organized into two levels of analysis, according to their research design (comparative or predictive and depending on the type of variables analyzed (skills and their relationship with success, play position and match phase. Results show that from a methodological point of view, comparative studies where currently complemented with some predictive studies. This predictive approach emerged with the aim to identify the relationship between variables, considering their possible interactions and consequently its effect on team performance, contributing to a better understanding of Volleyball game performance through match analysis. Taking into account the limitations of the reviewed studies, future research should provide comprehensive operational definitions for the studied variables, using more recent samples, and consider integrating the player positions and match phase contexts into the analysis of Volleyball.

  12. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the ultimate...

  13. 20 CFR 226.52 - Total annuity subject to maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total annuity subject to maximum. 226.52... COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Railroad Retirement Family Maximum § 226.52 Total annuity subject to maximum. The total annuity amount which is compared to the maximum monthly amount to...

  14. A Maximum Power Transfer Tracking Method for WPT Systems with Coupling Coefficient Identification Considering Two-Value Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Dai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Maximum power transfer tracking (MPTT is meant to track the maximum power point during the system operation of wireless power transfer (WPT systems. Traditionally, MPTT is achieved by impedance matching at the secondary side when the load resistance is varied. However, due to a loosely coupling characteristic, the variation of coupling coefficient will certainly affect the performance of impedance matching, therefore MPTT will fail accordingly. This paper presents an identification method of coupling coefficient for MPTT in WPT systems. Especially, the two-value issue during the identification is considered. The identification approach is easy to implement because it does not require additional circuit. Furthermore, MPTT is easy to realize because only two easily measured DC parameters are needed. The detailed identification procedure corresponding to the two-value issue and the maximum power transfer tracking process are presented, and both the simulation analysis and experimental results verified the identification method and MPTT.

  15. PREDICTING THE MATCH OUTCOME IN ONE DAY INTERNATIONAL CRICKET MATCHES, WHILE THE GAME IS IN PROGRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bailey

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Millions of dollars are wagered on the outcome of one day international (ODI cricket matches, with a large percentage of bets occurring after the game has commenced. Using match information gathered from all 2200 ODI matches played prior to January 2005, a range of variables that could independently explain statistically significant proportions of variation associated with the predicted run totals and match outcomes were created. Such variables include home ground advantage, past performances, match experience, performance at the specific venue, performance against the specific opposition, experience at the specific venue and current form. Using a multiple linear regression model, prediction variables were numerically weighted according to statistical significance and used to predict the match outcome. With the use of the Duckworth-Lewis method to determine resources remaining, at the end of each completed over, the predicted run total of the batting team could be updated to provide a more accurate prediction of the match outcome. By applying this prediction approach to a holdout sample of matches, the efficiency of the "in the run" wagering market could be assessed. Preliminary results suggest that the market is prone to overreact to events occurring throughout the course of the match, thus creating brief inefficiencies in the wagering market

  16. Automatic loading pattern optimization tool for Loviisa VVER-440 reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuopanportti, Jaakko [Fortum Power and Heat, Fortum (Finland). Nuclear Competence Center

    2013-09-15

    An automatic loading pattern optimization tool called ALPOT has been developed for Loviisa VVER-440 reactors. The ALPOT code utilizes combination of three different optimization methods. The first method is the imitation of the equilibrium pattern that is the optimized pattern in case the cycle length and the operation conditions are constant and the same shuffling pattern is repeated from cycle to cycle. In practice, the algorithm imitates assemblies' operation year distribution of the equilibrium pattern stochastically. The function of the imitation algorithm is to provide initial patterns quickly for the next optimization phase, which is performed either with the stochastic guided binary search algorithm or the deterministic burnup kernel method depending on the choice of the user. The former is a modified version of the standard binary search. The standard version goes through all possible swaps of the assemblies and chooses the best swap at each iteration round. The guided version chooses one assembly, tries to swap it with every other possible assembly and performs the best swap at each iteration round. The search is guided so that the algorithm chooses the assemblies at or near the most restrictive fuel assembly first. The kernel method creates burnup kernel functions to estimate burnup variations that are required to achieve desired changes in the power distribution of the reactor. The idea of the kernel method is first determine the optimal burnup distribution that minimizes the maximum relative assembly power using the created kernel functions and a common solver routine. Then, the burnups of the available fuel assemblies are matched with the obtained burnup distribution. (orig.)

  17. Automatic loading pattern optimization tool for Loviisa VVER-440 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuopanportti, Jaakko

    2013-01-01

    An automatic loading pattern optimization tool called ALPOT has been developed for Loviisa VVER-440 reactors. The ALPOT code utilizes combination of three different optimization methods. The first method is the imitation of the equilibrium pattern that is the optimized pattern in case the cycle length and the operation conditions are constant and the same shuffling pattern is repeated from cycle to cycle. In practice, the algorithm imitates assemblies' operation year distribution of the equilibrium pattern stochastically. The function of the imitation algorithm is to provide initial patterns quickly for the next optimization phase, which is performed either with the stochastic guided binary search algorithm or the deterministic burnup kernel method depending on the choice of the user. The former is a modified version of the standard binary search. The standard version goes through all possible swaps of the assemblies and chooses the best swap at each iteration round. The guided version chooses one assembly, tries to swap it with every other possible assembly and performs the best swap at each iteration round. The search is guided so that the algorithm chooses the assemblies at or near the most restrictive fuel assembly first. The kernel method creates burnup kernel functions to estimate burnup variations that are required to achieve desired changes in the power distribution of the reactor. The idea of the kernel method is first determine the optimal burnup distribution that minimizes the maximum relative assembly power using the created kernel functions and a common solver routine. Then, the burnups of the available fuel assemblies are matched with the obtained burnup distribution. (orig.)

  18. Cosmic shear measurement with maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alex; Taylor, Andy

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the problem of noise bias in maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori estimators for cosmic shear. We derive the leading and next-to-leading order biases and compute them in the context of galaxy ellipticity measurements, extending previous work on maximum likelihood inference for weak lensing. We show that a large part of the bias on these point estimators can be removed using information already contained in the likelihood when a galaxy model is specified, without the need for external calibration. We test these bias-corrected estimators on simulated galaxy images similar to those expected from planned space-based weak lensing surveys, with promising results. We find that the introduction of an intrinsic shape prior can help with mitigation of noise bias, such that the maximum a posteriori estimate can be made less biased than the maximum likelihood estimate. Second-order terms offer a check on the convergence of the estimators, but are largely subdominant. We show how biases propagate to shear estimates, demonstrating in our simple set-up that shear biases can be reduced by orders of magnitude and potentially to within the requirements of planned space-based surveys at mild signal-to-noise ratio. We find that second-order terms can exhibit significant cancellations at low signal-to-noise ratio when Gaussian noise is assumed, which has implications for inferring the performance of shear-measurement algorithms from simplified simulations. We discuss the viability of our point estimators as tools for lensing inference, arguing that they allow for the robust measurement of ellipticity and shear.

  19. Shape-matching soft mechanical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaali, M J; Janbaz, S; Strano, M; Vergani, L; Zadpoor, A A

    2018-01-17

    Architectured materials with rationally designed geometries could be used to create mechanical metamaterials with unprecedented or rare properties and functionalities. Here, we introduce "shape-matching" metamaterials where the geometry of cellular structures comprising auxetic and conventional unit cells is designed so as to achieve a pre-defined shape upon deformation. We used computational models to forward-map the space of planar shapes to the space of geometrical designs. The validity of the underlying computational models was first demonstrated by comparing their predictions with experimental observations on specimens fabricated with indirect additive manufacturing. The forward-maps were then used to devise the geometry of cellular structures that approximate the arbitrary shapes described by random Fourier's series. Finally, we show that the presented metamaterials could match the contours of three real objects including a scapula model, a pumpkin, and a Delft Blue pottery piece. Shape-matching materials have potential applications in soft robotics and wearable (medical) devices.

  20. Achromatic hues matching in graphic printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinia Ira Glogar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Some problems in process of dark achromatic hues reproduction and matching in graphic industry, where requests on colour matching are very high, are discussed. When achromatic hues is concerned, in terms of high requests on colour parameter matching, right on time production, quick response and high quality standards requests, the production and moreover the reproduction is subject to many variables and represent the manufacturing process of high complexity. The aim is to achieve a graphic reproduction with defined colour parameters and remission characteristics as close as possible to a standard. In this paper, black and grey hues characterized with average lightness value L*≤ 20, were analysed. Subjective as well as objective colour evaluation have been performed and results of colour differences obtained by two colour difference formulae, CIELAB and CMC(l:c have been compared.

  1. Improved Stereo Matching With Boosting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiny B

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents an approach based on classification for improving the accuracy of stereo matching methods. We propose this method for occlusion handling. This work employs classification of pixels for finding the erroneous disparity values. Due to the wide applications of disparity map in 3D television medical imaging etc the accuracy of disparity map has high significance. An initial disparity map is obtained using local or global stereo matching methods from the input stereo image pair. The various features for classification are computed from the input stereo image pair and the obtained disparity map. Then the computed feature vector is used for classification of pixels by using GentleBoost as the classification method. The erroneous disparity values in the disparity map found by classification are corrected through a completion stage or filling stage. A performance evaluation of stereo matching using AdaBoostM1 RUSBoost Neural networks and GentleBoost is performed.

  2. Covariant diagrams for one-loop matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhengkang

    2016-10-01

    We present a diagrammatic formulation of recently-revived covariant functional approaches to one-loop matching from an ultraviolet (UV) theory to a low-energy effective field theory. Various terms following from a covariant derivative expansion (CDE) are represented by diagrams which, unlike conventional Feynman diagrams, involve gaugecovariant quantities and are thus dubbed ''covariant diagrams.'' The use of covariant diagrams helps organize and simplify one-loop matching calculations, which we illustrate with examples. Of particular interest is the derivation of UV model-independent universal results, which reduce matching calculations of specific UV models to applications of master formulas. We show how such derivation can be done in a more concise manner than the previous literature, and discuss how additional structures that are not directly captured by existing universal results, including mixed heavy-light loops, open covariant derivatives, and mixed statistics, can be easily accounted for.

  3. 6d, Coulomb branch anomaly matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intriligator, Kenneth

    2014-10-01

    6d QFTs are constrained by the analog of 't Hooft anomaly matching: all anomalies for global symmetries and metric backgrounds are constants of RG flows, and for all vacua in moduli spaces. We discuss an anomaly matching mechanism for 6d theories on their Coulomb branch. It is a global symmetry analog of Green-Schwarz-West-Sagnotti anomaly cancellation, and requires the apparent anomaly mismatch to be a perfect square, . Then Δ I 8 is cancelled by making X 4 an electric/magnetic source for the tensor multiplet, so background gauge field instantons yield charged strings. This requires the coefficients in X 4 to be integrally quantized. We illustrate this for theories. We also consider the SCFTs from N small E8 instantons, verifying that the recent result for its anomaly polynomial fits with the anomaly matching mechanism.

  4. Matching to Openly Innovate with Suppliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Linda Nhu

    2017-01-01

    heterogeneous suppliers with the internal organisation in order to openly innovate. More specifically, it focuses on a governance mode, recently emerged in practice, by which firms summon their suppliers and their own internal organisation at an event to match them for open innovation activities – innovation......When large firms choose to involve their many suppliers in open innovation, they are faced with a set of challenges pertaining to the governance of several suppliers. Suppliers are heterogeneous, offering heterogeneous materials, products, information, services, and knowledge, which are differently...... organized across functions and hierarchies. To make use of such heterogeneous resources, a critical challenge for open innovation is to pair a supplier resource with a suitable opportunity-for-use from within the firm – a challenge of matching. This dissertation addresses the challenge of matching...

  5. INFORMATION SYSTEMS AUDIT CURRICULA CONTENT MATCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile-Daniel CARDOȘ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Financial and internal auditors must cope with the challenge of performing their mission in technology enhanced environment. In this article we match the information technology description found in the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC and the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA curricula against the Model Curriculum issued by the Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA. By reviewing these three curricula, we matched the content in the ISACA Model Curriculum with the IFAC International Education Practice Statement 2 and the IIAs’ Global Model Internal Audit Curriculum. In the IFAC and IIA Curriculum there are 16 content elements, out of 19 possible, which match, in their description, the ISACA Model Curriculum’s content. We noticed that a candidate who graduates an IFAC or IIA compliant program acquire IS auditing competences similar to the specific content of the ISACA model curriculum but less than the requirements for a professional information systems auditor.

  6. Covariant diagrams for one-loop matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhengkang [Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics (MCTP), University of Michigan,450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY),Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-05-30

    We present a diagrammatic formulation of recently-revived covariant functional approaches to one-loop matching from an ultraviolet (UV) theory to a low-energy effective field theory. Various terms following from a covariant derivative expansion (CDE) are represented by diagrams which, unlike conventional Feynman diagrams, involve gauge-covariant quantities and are thus dubbed “covariant diagrams.” The use of covariant diagrams helps organize and simplify one-loop matching calculations, which we illustrate with examples. Of particular interest is the derivation of UV model-independent universal results, which reduce matching calculations of specific UV models to applications of master formulas. We show how such derivation can be done in a more concise manner than the previous literature, and discuss how additional structures that are not directly captured by existing universal results, including mixed heavy-light loops, open covariant derivatives, and mixed statistics, can be easily accounted for.

  7. A medium resolution fingerprint matching system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Mohammad Bahaa-Eldin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel minutiae based fingerprint matching system is proposed. The system is suitable for medium resolution fingerprint images obtained by low cost commercial sensors. The paper presents a new thinning algorithm, a new features extraction and representation, and a novel feature distance matching algorithm. The proposed system is rotation and translation invariant and is suitable for complete or partial fingerprint matching. The proposed algorithms are optimized to be executed on low resource environments both in CPU power and memory space. The system was evaluated using a standard fingerprint dataset and good performance and accuracy were achieved under certain image quality requirements. In addition, the proposed system was compared favorably to that of the state of the art systems.

  8. Covariant diagrams for one-loop matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhengkang [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    We present a diagrammatic formulation of recently-revived covariant functional approaches to one-loop matching from an ultraviolet (UV) theory to a low-energy effective field theory. Various terms following from a covariant derivative expansion (CDE) are represented by diagrams which, unlike conventional Feynman diagrams, involve gaugecovariant quantities and are thus dubbed ''covariant diagrams.'' The use of covariant diagrams helps organize and simplify one-loop matching calculations, which we illustrate with examples. Of particular interest is the derivation of UV model-independent universal results, which reduce matching calculations of specific UV models to applications of master formulas. We show how such derivation can be done in a more concise manner than the previous literature, and discuss how additional structures that are not directly captured by existing universal results, including mixed heavy-light loops, open covariant derivatives, and mixed statistics, can be easily accounted for.

  9. Matching of ion sources to cyclotron inflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baartman, R.

    1988-06-01

    In general, cyclotron inflectors strongly couple the two transverse subspaces. This leads to a growth in emittance projections for a beam with no initial correlation between the two transverse subspaces. Only in the case of the Mueller (hyperboloid) inflector is there no emittance growth. We have made calculations using an optimization routine to match a given beam through the axial injection system. We find that in the limit where all the emittance is due to a beam's axial angular momentum (for example, from an ECR source), matching with no emittance growth is possible even in the case of mirror or spiral inflectors. Moreover, any one of the two transverse emittances circulating in the cyclotron can be made smaller than the source emittance while maintaining the sum of the emittances constant. This is achieved by rotating the matching quadrupoles with respect to the inflector and retuning

  10. Covariant diagrams for one-loop matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhengkang

    2017-01-01

    We present a diagrammatic formulation of recently-revived covariant functional approaches to one-loop matching from an ultraviolet (UV) theory to a low-energy effective field theory. Various terms following from a covariant derivative expansion (CDE) are represented by diagrams which, unlike conventional Feynman diagrams, involve gauge-covariant quantities and are thus dubbed “covariant diagrams.” The use of covariant diagrams helps organize and simplify one-loop matching calculations, which we illustrate with examples. Of particular interest is the derivation of UV model-independent universal results, which reduce matching calculations of specific UV models to applications of master formulas. We show how such derivation can be done in a more concise manner than the previous literature, and discuss how additional structures that are not directly captured by existing universal results, including mixed heavy-light loops, open covariant derivatives, and mixed statistics, can be easily accounted for.

  11. Surface Area Distribution Descriptor for object matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Gafar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Matching 3D objects by their similarity is a fundamental problem in computer vision, computer graphics and many other fields. The main challenge in object matching is to find a suitable shape representation that can be used to accurately and quickly discriminate between similar and dissimilar shapes. In this paper we present a new volumetric descriptor to represent 3D objects. The proposed descriptor is used to match objects under rigid transformations including uniform scaling. The descriptor represents the object by dividing it into shells, acquiring the area distribution of the object through those shells. The computed areas are normalised to make the descriptor scale-invariant in addition to rotation and translation invariant. The effectiveness and stability of the proposed descriptor to noise and variant sampling density as well as the effectiveness of the similarity measures are analysed and demonstrated through experimental results.

  12. Specialization Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz , Ulrik Pagh; Lawall , Julia ,; Consel , Charles

    1999-01-01

    Design patterns offer numerous advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the finished program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose to consider program specialization and design patterns as complementary concepts. On the one hand, program specialization can optimize object-oriented programs written using design patterns. On the other hand, design pat...

  13. Using crosswell data to enhance history matching

    KAUST Repository

    Ravanelli, Fabio M.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in the oil industry is the production of reliable reservoir forecast models. Due to different sources of uncertainties in the numerical models and inputs, reservoir simulations are often only crude approximations of the reality. This problem is mitigated by conditioning the model with data through data assimilation, a process known in the oil industry as history matching. Several recent advances are being used to improve history matching reliability, notably the use of time-lapse data and advanced data assimilation techniques. One of the most promising data assimilation techniques employed in the industry is the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) because of its ability to deal with non-linear models at reasonable computational cost. In this paper we study the use of crosswell seismic data as an alternative to 4D seismic surveys in areas where it is not possible to re-shoot seismic. A synthetic reservoir model is used in a history matching study designed better estimate porosity and permeability distributions and improve the quality of the model to predict future field performance. This study is divided in three parts: First the use of production data only is evaluated (baseline for benchmark). Second the benefits of using production and 4D seismic data are assessed. Finally, a new conceptual idea is proposed to obtain time-lapse information for history matching. The use of crosswell time-lapse seismic tomography to map velocities in the interwell region is demonstrated as a potential tool to ensure survey reproducibility and low acquisition cost when compared with full scale surface surveys. Our numerical simulations show that the proposed method provides promising history matching results leading to similar estimation error reductions when compared with conventional history matched surface seismic data.

  14. Physiological characteristics of badminton match play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faude, Oliver; Meyer, Tim; Rosenberger, Friederike; Fries, Markus; Huber, Günther; Kindermann, Wilfried

    2007-07-01

    The present study aimed at examining the physiological characteristics and metabolic demands of badminton single match play. Twelve internationally ranked badminton players (eight women and four men) performed an incremental treadmill test [VO(2peak = )50.3 +/- 4.1 ml min(-1) kg(-1) (women) and 61.8 +/- 5.9 ml min(-1) kg(-1) (men), respectively]. On a separate day, they played a simulated badminton match of two 15 min with simultaneous gas exchange (breath-by-breath) and heart rate measurements. Additionally, blood lactate concentrations were determined before, after 15 min and at the end of the match. Furthermore, the duration of rallies and rests in between, the score as well as the number of shots per rally were recorded. A total of 630 rallies was analysed. Mean rally and rest duration were 5.5 +/- 4.4 s and 11.4 +/- 6.0 s, respectively, with an average 5.1 +/- 3.9 shots played per rally. Mean oxygen uptake (VO(2)), heart rate (HR), and blood lactate concentrations during badminton matches were 39.6 +/- 5.7 ml min(-1) kg(-1) (73.3% VO(2peak)), 169 +/- 9 min(-1) (89.0% HR(peak)) and 1.9 +/- 0.7 mmol l(-1), respectively. For a single subject 95% confidence intervals for VO(2) and HR during match play were on average 45.7-100.9% VO(2peak) and 78.3-99.8% HR(peak). High average intensity of badminton match play and considerable variability of several physiological variables demonstrate the importance of anaerobic alactacid and aerobic energy production in competitive badminton. A well-developed aerobic endurance capacity seems necessary for fast recovery between rallies or intensive training workouts.

  15. Pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Theodoridis, Sergios

    2003-01-01

    Pattern recognition is a scientific discipline that is becoming increasingly important in the age of automation and information handling and retrieval. Patter Recognition, 2e covers the entire spectrum of pattern recognition applications, from image analysis to speech recognition and communications. This book presents cutting-edge material on neural networks, - a set of linked microprocessors that can form associations and uses pattern recognition to ""learn"" -and enhances student motivation by approaching pattern recognition from the designer's point of view. A direct result of more than 10

  16. Efficient Direct-Matching Rectenna Design for RF Power Transfer Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyrouz, Shady; Visser, Huib

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the design, simulation, fabrication and measurements of a 50 ohm rectenna system. The paper investigates each part (in terms of input impedance) of the rectenna system starting from the antenna, followed by the matching network, to the rectifier. The system consists of an antenna, which captures the transmitted RF signal, connected to a rectifier which converts the AC captured signal into a DC power signal. For maximum power transfer, a matching network is designed between the rectifier and the antenna. At an input power level of -10 dBm, the system is able to achieve an RF/DC power conversion efficiency of 49.7%.

  17. Efficient Direct-Matching Rectenna Design for RF Power Transfer Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyrouz, Shady; Visser, Huib

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design, simulation, fabrication and measurements of a 50 ohm rectenna system. The paper investigates each part (in terms of input impedance) of the rectenna system starting from the antenna, followed by the matching network, to the rectifier. The system consists of an antenna, which captures the transmitted RF signal, connected to a rectifier which converts the AC captured signal into a DC power signal. For maximum power transfer, a matching network is designed between the rectifier and the antenna. At an input power level of −10 dBm, the system is able to achieve an RF/DC power conversion efficiency of 49.7%

  18. History Matching: Towards Geologically Reasonable Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melnikova, Yulia; Cordua, Knud Skou; Mosegaard, Klaus

    This work focuses on the development of a new method for history matching problem that through a deterministic search finds a geologically feasible solution. Complex geology is taken into account evaluating multiple point statistics from earth model prototypes - training images. Further a function...... that measures similarity between statistics of a training image and statistics of any smooth model is introduced and its analytical gradient is computed. This allows us to apply any gradientbased method to history matching problem and guide a solution until it satisfies both production data and complexity...

  19. Faster and Simpler Approximation of Stable Matchings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Paluch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We give a 3 2 -approximation algorithm for finding stable matchings that runs in O(m time. The previous most well-known algorithm, by McDermid, has the same approximation ratio but runs in O(n3/2m time, where n denotes the number of people andm is the total length of the preference lists in a given instance. In addition, the algorithm and the analysis are much simpler. We also give the extension of the algorithm for computing stable many-to-many matchings.

  20. Famous face recognition, face matching, and extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Karen; Poyarekar, Siddhi

    2015-01-01

    It has been previously established that extraverts who are skilled at interpersonal interaction perform significantly better than introverts on a face-specific recognition memory task. In our experiment we further investigate the relationship between extraversion and face recognition, focusing on famous face recognition and face matching. Results indicate that more extraverted individuals perform significantly better on an upright famous face recognition task and show significantly larger face inversion effects. However, our results did not find an effect of extraversion on face matching or inverted famous face recognition.