WorldWideScience

Sample records for maximum parting surface

  1. Extreme Maximum Land Surface Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1992-09-01

    There are numerous reports in the literature of observations of land surface temperatures. Some of these, almost all made in situ, reveal maximum values in the 50°-70°C range, with a few, made in desert regions, near 80°C. Consideration of a simplified form of the surface energy balance equation, utilizing likely upper values of absorbed shortwave flux (1000 W m2) and screen air temperature (55°C), that surface temperatures in the vicinity of 90°-100°C may occur for dry, darkish soils of low thermal conductivity (0.1-0.2 W m1 K1). Numerical simulations confirm this and suggest that temperature gradients in the first few centimeters of soil may reach 0.5°-1°C mm1 under these extreme conditions. The study bears upon the intrinsic interest of identifying extreme maximum temperatures and yields interesting information regarding the comfort zone of animals (including man).

  2. On the maximum of wave surface of sea waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B

    1980-01-01

    This article considers wave surface as a normal stationary random process to solve the estimation of the maximum of wave surface in a given time interval by means of the theoretical results of probability theory. The results are represented by formulas (13) to (19) in this article. It was proved in this article that when time interval approaches infinite, the formulas (3), (6) of E )eta max) that were derived from the references (Cartwright, Longuet-Higgins) can also be derived by asymptotic distribution of the maximum of wave surface provided by the article. The advantage of the results obtained from this point of view as compared with the results obtained from the references was discussed.

  3. METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE MAXIMUM ARRANGEMENT FACTOR OF FOOTWEAR PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRIŞCU Mariana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available By classic methodology, designing footwear is a very complex and laborious activity. That is because classic methodology requires many graphic executions using manual means, which consume a lot of the producer’s time. Moreover, the results of this classical methodology may contain many inaccuracies with the most unpleasant consequences for the footwear producer. Thus, the costumer that buys a footwear product by taking into consideration the characteristics written on the product (size, width can notice after a period that the product has flaws because of the inadequate design. In order to avoid this kind of situations, the strictest scientific criteria must be followed when one designs a footwear product. The decisive step in this way has been made some time ago, when, as a result of powerful technical development and massive implementation of electronical calculus systems and informatics, This paper presents a product software for determining all possible arrangements of a footwear product’s reference points, in order to automatically acquire the maximum arrangement factor. The user multiplies the pattern in order to find the economic arrangement for the reference points. In this purpose, the user must probe few arrangement variants, in the translation and rotate-translation system. The same process is used in establishing the arrangement factor for the two points of reference of the designed footwear product. After probing several variants of arrangement in the translation and rotation and translation systems, the maximum arrangement factors are chosen. This allows the user to estimate the material wastes.

  4. Maximum surface level and temperature histories for Hanford waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, B.D.; Ha, N.D.; Huisingh, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive defense waste resulting from the chemical processing of spent nuclear fuel has been accumulating at the Hanford Site since 1944. This waste is stored in underground waste-storage tanks. The Hanford Site Tank Farm Facilities Interim Safety Basis (ISB) provides a ready reference to the safety envelope for applicable tank farm facilities and installations. During preparation of the ISB, tank structural integrity concerns were identified as a key element in defining the safety envelope. These concerns, along with several deficiencies in the technical bases associated with the structural integrity issues and the corresponding operational limits/controls specified for conduct of normal tank farm operations are documented in the ISB. Consequently, a plan was initiated to upgrade the safety envelope technical bases by conducting Accelerated Safety Analyses-Phase 1 (ASA-Phase 1) sensitivity studies and additional structural evaluations. The purpose of this report is to facilitate the ASA-Phase 1 studies and future analyses of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) and double-shell tanks (DSTs) by compiling a quantitative summary of some of the past operating conditions the tanks have experienced during their existence. This report documents the available summaries of recorded maximum surface levels and maximum waste temperatures and references other sources for more specific data

  5. Efficient algorithms for maximum likelihood decoding in the surface code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravyi, Sergey; Suchara, Martin; Vargo, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    We describe two implementations of the optimal error correction algorithm known as the maximum likelihood decoder (MLD) for the two-dimensional surface code with a noiseless syndrome extraction. First, we show how to implement MLD exactly in time O (n2), where n is the number of code qubits. Our implementation uses a reduction from MLD to simulation of matchgate quantum circuits. This reduction however requires a special noise model with independent bit-flip and phase-flip errors. Secondly, we show how to implement MLD approximately for more general noise models using matrix product states (MPS). Our implementation has running time O (nχ3), where χ is a parameter that controls the approximation precision. The key step of our algorithm, borrowed from the density matrix renormalization-group method, is a subroutine for contracting a tensor network on the two-dimensional grid. The subroutine uses MPS with a bond dimension χ to approximate the sequence of tensors arising in the course of contraction. We benchmark the MPS-based decoder against the standard minimum weight matching decoder observing a significant reduction of the logical error probability for χ ≥4.

  6. Decadal trends in Red Sea maximum surface temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaidez, V; Dreano, D; Agusti, S; Duarte, C M; Hoteit, I

    2017-08-15

    Ocean warming is a major consequence of climate change, with the surface of the ocean having warmed by 0.11 °C decade -1 over the last 50 years and is estimated to continue to warm by an additional 0.6 - 2.0 °C before the end of the century 1 . However, there is considerable variability in the rates experienced by different ocean regions, so understanding regional trends is important to inform on possible stresses for marine organisms, particularly in warm seas where organisms may be already operating in the high end of their thermal tolerance. Although the Red Sea is one of the warmest ecosystems on earth, its historical warming trends and thermal evolution remain largely understudied. We characterized the Red Sea's thermal regimes at the basin scale, with a focus on the spatial distribution and changes over time of sea surface temperature maxima, using remotely sensed sea surface temperature data from 1982 - 2015. The overall rate of warming for the Red Sea is 0.17 ± 0.07 °C decade -1 , while the northern Red Sea is warming between 0.40 and 0.45 °C decade -1 , all exceeding the global rate. Our findings show that the Red Sea is fast warming, which may in the future challenge its organisms and communities.

  7. Decadal trends in Red Sea maximum surface temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Chaidez, Veronica

    2017-08-09

    Ocean warming is a major consequence of climate change, with the surface of the ocean having warmed by 0.11 °C decade-1 over the last 50 years and is estimated to continue to warm by an additional 0.6 - 2.0 °C before the end of the century1. However, there is considerable variability in the rates experienced by different ocean regions, so understanding regional trends is important to inform on possible stresses for marine organisms, particularly in warm seas where organisms may be already operating in the high end of their thermal tolerance. Although the Red Sea is one of the warmest ecosystems on earth, its historical warming trends and thermal evolution remain largely understudied. We characterized the Red Sea\\'s thermal regimes at the basin scale, with a focus on the spatial distribution and changes over time of sea surface temperature maxima, using remotely sensed sea surface temperature data from 1982 - 2015. The overall rate of warming for the Red Sea is 0.17 ± 0.07 °C decade-1, while the northern Red Sea is warming between 0.40 and 0.45 °C decade-1, all exceeding the global rate. Our findings show that the Red Sea is fast warming, which may in the future challenge its organisms and communities.

  8. Decadal trends in Red Sea maximum surface temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Chaidez, Veronica; Dreano, Denis; Agusti, Susana; Duarte, Carlos M.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Ocean warming is a major consequence of climate change, with the surface of the ocean having warmed by 0.11 °C decade-1 over the last 50 years and is estimated to continue to warm by an additional 0.6 - 2.0 °C before the end of the century1. However, there is considerable variability in the rates experienced by different ocean regions, so understanding regional trends is important to inform on possible stresses for marine organisms, particularly in warm seas where organisms may be already operating in the high end of their thermal tolerance. Although the Red Sea is one of the warmest ecosystems on earth, its historical warming trends and thermal evolution remain largely understudied. We characterized the Red Sea's thermal regimes at the basin scale, with a focus on the spatial distribution and changes over time of sea surface temperature maxima, using remotely sensed sea surface temperature data from 1982 - 2015. The overall rate of warming for the Red Sea is 0.17 ± 0.07 °C decade-1, while the northern Red Sea is warming between 0.40 and 0.45 °C decade-1, all exceeding the global rate. Our findings show that the Red Sea is fast warming, which may in the future challenge its organisms and communities.

  9. Part 2: Surface water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 the surface water quality measurements were performed, according to the Agreement, at 8 profiles on the Hungarian territory and at 15 profiles on the Slovak territory. Basic physical and chemical parameters (as water temperature, pH values, conductivity, suspended solids, cations and anions (nitrates, ammonium ion, nitrites, total nitrogen, phosphates, total phosphorus, oxygen and organic carbon regime parameters), metals (iron, manganese and heavy metals), biological and microbiological parameters (coliform bacteria, chlorophyll-a, saprobity index and other biological parameters) and quality of sediment were measured

  10. Maximum Runoff of the Flood on Wadis of Northern Part of Algeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wadis of Algeria are characterized by a very irregular hydrological regime. The question of estimating the maximum flow of wadis is relevant. We propose in this paper a method based on an interpretation of the transformation of surface runoff in streamflow. The technique of account the maximal runoff of flood for the rivers ...

  11. Intelligent Machine Parts with Surface Embedded Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Østbø, Niels Peter

    2009-01-01

    A surface embedded temperature sensor has successfully been fabricated on a customized industrial bolt. The aluminum substrate of the bolt was electrically isolated by plasma electrolytic oxidation followed by the fabrication of a type T thermocouple and finally covered by a wear resistant DLC coating. This bolt is part of our work to develop smart machine parts that are capable of reporting their current physical status under real working conditions enabling both new tools for condition base...

  12. Critical Assessment of the Surface Tension determined by the Maximum Pressure Bubble Method

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetto, Franco Emmanuel; Zolotucho, Hector; Prado, Miguel Oscar

    2015-01-01

    The main factors that influence the value of surface tension of a liquid measured with the Maximum Pressure Bubble Method are critically evaluated. We present experimental results showing the effect of capillary diameter, capillary depth, bubble spheroidicity and liquid density at room temperature. We show that the decrease of bubble spheroidicity due to increase of capillary immersion depth is not sufficient to explain the deviations found in the measured surface tension values. Thus, we pro...

  13. Surface of Maximums of AR(2 Process Spectral Densities and its Application in Time Series Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Ivanov

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions. The obtained formula of surface of maximums of noise spectral densities gives an opportunity to realize for which values of AR(2 process characteristic polynomial coefficients it is possible to look for greater rate of convergence to zero of the probabilities of large deviations of the considered estimates.

  14. Dynamic surface tension measurements of ionic surfactants using maximum bubble pressure tensiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Camilla U.; Moreno, Norman; Sharma, Vivek

    Dynamic surface tension refers to the time dependent variation in surface tension, and is intimately linked with the rate of mass transfer of a surfactant from liquid sub-phase to the interface. The diffusion- or adsorption-limited kinetics of mass transfer to interfaces is said to impact the so-called foamability and the Gibbs-Marangoni elasticity of surfaces. Dynamic surface tension measurements carried out with conventional methods like pendant drop analysis, Wilhelmy plate, etc. are limited in their temporal resolution (>50 ms). In this study, we describe design and application of maximum bubble pressure tensiometry for the measurement of dynamic surface tension effects at extremely short (1-50 ms) timescales. Using experiments and theory, we discuss the overall adsorption kinetics of charged surfactants, paying special attention to the influence of added salt on dynamic surface tension.

  15. Search for the maximum efficiency of a ribbed-surfaces device, providing a tight seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutin, Jeanne.

    1977-04-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine the geometrical characteristics of ribbed surfaces used to equip devices in translation or slow rotation motion and having to form an acceptable seal between slightly viscous fluids. It systematically studies the pressure loss coefficient lambda in function of the different parameters setting the form of ribs and their relative position on the opposite sides. It shows that the passages with two ribbed surfaces lead to highly better results than those with only one, the maximum value of lambda, equal to 0.5, being obtained with the ratios: pitch/clearance = 5, depth of groove/clearance = 1,2, and with their teeth face to face on the two opposite ribbed surfaces. With certain shapes, alternate position of ribs can lead to the maximum of lambda yet lower than 0.5 [fr

  16. DESIGNING OF DEVELOPED SURFACES OF COMPLEX PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Tyshchenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper focuses on ensuring the rational choice of parameters of the mating surfaces of parts when designing process equipment based on the methods of artificial intelligence. Methodology. The paper considers the geometric model of a ruled developed surface, the conditions of existence of such a surface and provides a generalized algorithm for surface plotting regardless of the type of the working element or the machine-building product. One of the most common technical surfaces are the ruled ones, among which a special position is occupied by developed surfaces (thanks to their differential-parametric properties: surface tangent plane is n contact along the rectilinear generator and does not change its position in space when changing the point of contact; surfaces can be produced by bending sheet metal. These provisions enable a product manufacturer to save significant material and energy means, therefore, the development of geometric models of such surfaces is an important task. Findings. We analyzed the geometrical model of the developed surface which is incident to two guides. Experimental studies have shown the applicationprospectivity of semi-digger moldboards on moldboard plows, particularly on the double-deck ones. Taking into account the operating speed of the plow 2.8 m/s, the plant residues plowing percentage for plow with semi-digger moldboards is 98.9%, and with the digger ones – 96.1%. Originality. According to results: 1 the approaches to solving the problem of recognition of wear conditions of the tested interface, depicted by its conceptual model, were elaborated; 2 the corresponding algorithms of the computational procedures were built; 3 the mathematical model that determines the effect of the parameters of the contacting surfaces on their performance properties – linear wear rate during the normal wear and tear was developed; 4 for this model the theoretical prerequisite of use for the random mating study were

  17. EFFECTS OF A SAND RUNNING SURFACE ON THE KINEMATICS OF SPRINTING AT MAXIMUM VELOCITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P E Alcaraz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Performing sprints on a sand surface is a common training method for improving sprint-specific strength. For maximum specificity of training the athlete’s movement patterns during the training exercise should closely resemble those used when performing the sport. The aim of this study was to compare the kinematics of sprinting at maximum velocity on a dry sand surface to the kinematics of sprinting on an athletics track. Five men and five women participated in the study, and flying sprints over 30 m were recorded by video and digitized using biomechanical analysis software. We found that sprinting on a sand surface was substantially different to sprinting on an athletics track. When sprinting on sand the athletes tended to ‘sit’ during the ground contact phase of the stride. This action was characterized by a lower centre of mass, a greater forward lean in the trunk, and an incomplete extension of the hip joint at take-off. We conclude that sprinting on a dry sand surface may not be an appropriate method for training the maximum velocity phase in sprinting. Although this training method exerts a substantial overload on the athlete, as indicated by reductions in running velocity and stride length, it also induces detrimental changes to the athlete’s running technique which may transfer to competition sprinting.

  18. Table for monthly average daily extraterrestrial irradiation on horizontal surface and the maximum possible sunshine duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    The monthly average daily values of the extraterrestrial irradiation on a horizontal surface (H 0 ) and the maximum possible sunshine duration are two important parameters that are frequently needed in various solar energy applications. These are generally calculated by scientists each time they are needed and by using the approximate short-cut methods. Computations for these values have been made once and for all for latitude values of 60 deg. N to 60 deg. S at intervals of 1 deg. and are presented in a convenient tabular form. Values of the maximum possible sunshine duration as recorded on a Campbell Stoke's sunshine recorder are also computed and presented. These tables should avoid the need for repetition and approximate calculations and serve as a useful ready reference for solar energy scientists and engineers. (author)

  19. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 386 - Penalty Schedule; Violations and Maximum Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Maximum Civil Penalties The Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996 [Public Law 104-134, title III... civil penalties set out in paragraphs (e)(1) through (4) of this appendix results in death, serious... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Penalty Schedule; Violations and Maximum Civil...

  20. Calculating the Maximum Density of the Surface Packing of Ions in Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislenko, S. A.; Moroz, Yu. O.; Karu, K.; Ivaništšev, V. B.; Fedorov, M. V.

    2018-05-01

    The maximum density of monolayer packing on a graphene surface is calculated by means of molecular dynamics (MD) for ions of characteristic size and symmetry: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium [BMIM]+, tetrabutylammonium [TBA]+, tetrafluoroborate [BF4]-, dicyanamide [DCA]-, and bis(trifluoromethane) sulfonimide [TFSI]-. The characteristic orientations of ions in a closely packed monolayer are found. It is shown that the formation of a closely packed monolayer is possible for [DCA]- and [BF4]- anions only at surface charges that exceed the limit of the electrochemical stability of the corresponding ionic liquids. For the [TBA]+ cation, a monolayer structure can be observed at the charge of nearly 30 μC/cm2 attainable in electrochemical experiment.

  1. Optimisation of sea surface current retrieval using a maximum cross correlation technique on modelled sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuzé, Céline; Eriksson, Leif; Carvajal, Gisela

    2017-04-01

    Using sea surface temperature from satellite images to retrieve sea surface currents is not a new idea, but so far its operational near-real time implementation has not been possible. Validation studies are too region-specific or uncertain, due to the errors induced by the images themselves. Moreover, the sensitivity of the most common retrieval method, the maximum cross correlation, to the three parameters that have to be set is unknown. Using model outputs instead of satellite images, biases induced by this method are assessed here, for four different seas of Western Europe, and the best of nine settings and eight temporal resolutions are determined. For all regions, tracking a small 5 km pattern from the first image over a large 30 km region around its original location on a second image, separated from the first image by 6 to 9 hours returned the most accurate results. Moreover, for all regions, the problem is not inaccurate results but missing results, where the velocity is too low to be picked by the retrieval. The results are consistent both with limitations caused by ocean surface current dynamics and with the available satellite technology, indicating that automated sea surface current retrieval from sea surface temperature images is feasible now, for search and rescue operations, pollution confinement or even for more energy efficient and comfortable ship navigation.

  2. Evaluation of performance and maximum length of continuous decks in bridges : part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the performance history of continuous bridge decks in the State of Georgia, to determine why the current design detail works, to recommend a new design detail, and to recommend the maximum and/or optimum l...

  3. A Last Glacial Maximum world-ocean simulation at eddy-permitting resolution - Part 1: Experimental design and basic evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarotta, M.; Brodeau, L.; Brandefelt, J.; Lundberg, P.; Döös, K.

    2013-01-01

    Most state-of-the-art climate models include a coarsely resolved oceanic component, which has difficulties in capturing detailed dynamics, and therefore eddy-permitting/eddy-resolving simulations have been developed to reproduce the observed World Ocean. In this study, an eddy-permitting numerical experiment is conducted to simulate the global ocean state for a period of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ~ 26 500 to 19 000 yr ago) and to investigate the improvements due to taking into account these higher spatial scales. The ocean general circulation model is forced by a 49-yr sample of LGM atmospheric fields constructed from a quasi-equilibrated climate-model simulation. The initial state and the bottom boundary condition conform to the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) recommendations. Before evaluating the model efficiency in representing the paleo-proxy reconstruction of the surface state, the LGM experiment is in this first part of the investigation, compared with a present-day eddy-permitting hindcast simulation as well as with the available PMIP results. It is shown that the LGM eddy-permitting simulation is consistent with the quasi-equilibrated climate-model simulation, but large discrepancies are found with the PMIP model analyses, probably due to the different equilibration states. The strongest meridional gradients of the sea-surface temperature are located near 40° N and S, this due to particularly large North-Atlantic and Southern-Ocean sea-ice covers. These also modify the locations of the convection sites (where deep-water forms) and most of the LGM Conveyor Belt circulation consequently takes place in a thinner layer than today. Despite some discrepancies with other LGM simulations, a glacial state is captured and the eddy-permitting simulation undertaken here yielded a useful set of data for comparisons with paleo-proxy reconstructions.

  4. Trends in Mean Annual Minimum and Maximum Near Surface Temperature in Nairobi City, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lukoye Makokha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the long-term urban modification of mean annual conditions of near surface temperature in Nairobi City. Data from four weather stations situated in Nairobi were collected from the Kenya Meteorological Department for the period from 1966 to 1999 inclusive. The data included mean annual maximum and minimum temperatures, and was first subjected to homogeneity test before analysis. Both linear regression and Mann-Kendall rank test were used to discern the mean annual trends. Results show that the change of temperature over the thirty-four years study period is higher for minimum temperature than maximum temperature. The warming trends began earlier and are more significant at the urban stations than is the case at the sub-urban stations, an indication of the spread of urbanisation from the built-up Central Business District (CBD to the suburbs. The established significant warming trends in minimum temperature, which are likely to reach higher proportions in future, pose serious challenges on climate and urban planning of the city. In particular the effect of increased minimum temperature on human physiological comfort, building and urban design, wind circulation and air pollution needs to be incorporated in future urban planning programmes of the city.

  5. Conceptual model to determine maximum activity of radioactive waste in near-surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iarmosh, I.; Olkhovyk, Yu.

    2016-01-01

    For development of the management strategy for radioactive waste to be placed in near - surface disposal facilities (NSDF), it is necessary to justify long - term safety of such facilities. Use of mathematical modelling methods for long - term forecasts of radwaste radiation impact and assessment of radiation risks from radionuclides migration can help to resolve this issue. The purpose of the research was to develop the conceptual model for determining the maximum activity of radwaste to be safely disposed in the NSDF and to test it in the case of Lot 3 Vector NSDF (Chornobyl exclusion zone). This paper describes an approach to the development of such a model. The conceptual model of "9"0 Sr migration from Lot 3 through aeration zone and aquifer soils was developed. The results of modelling are shown. The proposals on further steps for the model improvement were developed

  6. Measurement of the surface tension by the method of maximum gas bubble pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugne, Jean

    1971-01-01

    A gas bubble method for measuring surface tension was studied. Theoretical investigations demonstrated that the maximum pressure can be represented by the envelope of a certain family of curves and that the physical nature of the capillary tube imposes an upper limit to its useful radius. With a given tube and a specified liquid, the dynamic evolution of the gas bubble depends only upon the variation of the mass of gas contained with time; this fact may restrict the choice of tubes. The use of one single tube requires important corrections. Computer treatment of the problem led to some accurate equations for calculating γ. Schroedinger equations and Sudgen's table are examined. The choice of tubes, the necessary corrections, density measurement, and the accuracy attainable are discussed. Experiments conducted with water and mercury using the sessile drop method and continuous recording of the pressure verified the theoretical ideas. (author) [fr

  7. Operational forecasting of daily temperatures in the Valencia Region. Part I: maximum temperatures in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, I.; Estrela, M.

    2009-09-01

    Extreme temperature events have a great impact on human society. Knowledge of summer maximum temperatures is very useful for both the general public and organisations whose workers have to operate in the open, e.g. railways, roadways, tourism, etc. Moreover, summer maximum daily temperatures are considered a parameter of interest and concern since persistent heat-waves can affect areas as diverse as public health, energy consumption, etc. Thus, an accurate forecasting of these temperatures could help to predict heat-wave conditions and permit the implementation of strategies aimed at minimizing the negative effects that high temperatures have on human health. The aim of this work is to evaluate the skill of the RAMS model in determining daily maximum temperatures during summer over the Valencia Region. For this, we have used the real-time configuration of this model currently running at the CEAM Foundation. To carry out the model verification process, we have analysed not only the global behaviour of the model for the whole Valencia Region, but also its behaviour for the individual stations distributed within this area. The study has been performed for the summer forecast period of 1 June - 30 September, 2007. The results obtained are encouraging and indicate a good agreement between the observed and simulated maximum temperatures. Moreover, the model captures quite well the temperatures in the extreme heat episodes. Acknowledgement. This work was supported by "GRACCIE" (CSD2007-00067, Programa Consolider-Ingenio 2010), by the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, contract number CGL2005-03386/CLI, and by the Regional Government of Valencia Conselleria de Sanitat, contract "Simulación de las olas de calor e invasiones de frío y su regionalización en la Comunidad Valenciana" ("Heat wave and cold invasion simulation and their regionalization at Valencia Region"). The CEAM Foundation is supported by the Generalitat Valenciana and BANCAIXA (Valencia, Spain).

  8. Freeform surface descriptions. Part I: Mathematical representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broemel, Anika; Lippmann, Uwe; Gross, Herbert

    2017-10-01

    Optical systems can benefit strongly from freeform surfaces; however, the choice of the right surface representation is not trivial and many aspects must be considered. In this work, we discuss the general approach classical globally defined representations, as well as the basic mathematics and properties of the most commonly used descriptions and present a new description developed by us for describing freeform surfaces.

  9. Relationship between plants in Europe and surface temperatures of the Atlantic Ocean during the glacial maximum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Campo, M

    1984-01-01

    In Europe and North America, the deciduous forest, whether or not mixed with conifers, prevails within boundaries which coincide with the 12 and 18/sup 0/C isotherms of Ocean surface temperatures in August; within Europe this forest points to the limit of the Atlantic influence and bevels out as it is squeezed between coniferous forest to the NE (thermic boundary) and steppe to the SE (hydric boundary). During the glacial age this forest disappeared from its main European area and remained only in mountain refuges. Thus, the temperature of the eastern Atlantic surface waters, off Europe, control the nature of its vegetation. Variations in the pollen curve of pines, birches, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae and Ephedra are accounted for by the climatic variations in southern Europe before 13,000 yr BP. It is seen that a very arid climate culminated at about 15,000 yr BP. It corresponds to the most active iceberg calving which considerably lowered the Ocean surface temperature far to the south. In spite of the increasing summer temperatures, this temperature remained as cold as it was during the glacial maximum. The result is the lowest evaporation from the Ocean hence a minimum of clouds and a minimum of rain. The end of the first phase of the deglaciation at +/- 13,000 yr BP corresponds to a warming up of the Ocean surface bringing about increased evaporation, hence rains over the continent. The evolution of the vegetation in Europe at the end of the glacial times from south of the ice sheet down to the Mediterranean, depends as much, if not more, on rains than on temperatures.

  10. Bayesian Maximum Entropy space/time estimation of surface water chloride in Maryland using river distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jat, Prahlad; Serre, Marc L

    2016-12-01

    Widespread contamination of surface water chloride is an emerging environmental concern. Consequently accurate and cost-effective methods are needed to estimate chloride along all river miles of potentially contaminated watersheds. Here we introduce a Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) space/time geostatistical estimation framework that uses river distances, and we compare it with Euclidean BME to estimate surface water chloride from 2005 to 2014 in the Gunpowder-Patapsco, Severn, and Patuxent subbasins in Maryland. River BME improves the cross-validation R 2 by 23.67% over Euclidean BME, and river BME maps are significantly different than Euclidean BME maps, indicating that it is important to use river BME maps to assess water quality impairment. The river BME maps of chloride concentration show wide contamination throughout Baltimore and Columbia-Ellicott cities, the disappearance of a clean buffer separating these two large urban areas, and the emergence of multiple localized pockets of contamination in surrounding areas. The number of impaired river miles increased by 0.55% per year in 2005-2009 and by 1.23% per year in 2011-2014, corresponding to a marked acceleration of the rate of impairment. Our results support the need for control measures and increased monitoring of unassessed river miles. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. ABOUT RATIONING MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE DEFECT DEPTH ON THE SURFACE OF STEEL BILLETS IN PRODUCTION OF HOT-ROLLED STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARUSOV E. V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. Significant influence on the quality of rolled steel have various defects on its surface, which in its turn inherited from surface defects of billet and possible damage to the surface of rolled steel in the rolling mill line. One of the criteria for assessing the quality indicators of rolled steel is rationing of surface defects [1; 2; 3; 6; 7]. Current status of the issue. Analyzing the different requirements of regulations to the surface quality of the rolled high-carbon steels, we can conclude that the maximum allowable depth of defects on the surface of billet should be in the range of 2.0...5.0 mm (depending on the section of the billet, method of its production and further the destination Purpose. Develop a methodology for calculating the maximum allowable depth of defects on the steel billet surface depending on the requirements placed on the surface quality of hot-rolled steel. Results. A simplified method of calculation, allowing at the rated depth of defects on the surface of the hot-rolled steel to make operatively calculation of the maximum allowable depth of surface defects of steel billets before heating the metal in the heat deformation was developed. The findings shows that the maximum allowable depth of surface defects is reduced with increasing diameter rolled steel, reducing the initial section steel billet and degrees of oxidation of the metal in the heating furnace.

  12. Sea Surface Warming and Increased Aridity at Mid-latitudes during Eocene Thermal Maximum 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, D. T.; Zeebe, R. E.; Hoenisch, B.; Schrader, C.; Lourens, L. J.; Zachos, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Early Eocene hyperthermals, i.e. abrupt global warming events characterized by the release of isotopically light carbon to the atmosphere, can provide insight into the sensitivity of the Earth's climate system and hydrologic cycle to carbon emissions. Indeed, the largest Eocene hyperthermal, the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), has provided one case study of extreme and abrupt global warming, with a mass of carbon release roughly equivalent to total modern fossil fuel reserves and a release rate 1/10 that of modern. Global sea surface temperatures (SST) increased by 5-8°C during the PETM and extensive evidence from marine and terrestrial records indicates significant shifts in the hydrologic cycle consistent with an increase in poleward moisture transport in response to surface warming. The second largest Eocene hyperthermal, Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM-2) provides an additional calibration point for determining the sensitivity of climate and the hydrologic cycle to massive carbon release. Marine carbon isotope excursions (CIE) and warming at the ETM-2 were roughly half as large as at the PETM, but reliable evidence for shifts in temperature and the hydrologic cycle are sparse for the ETM-2. Here, we utilize coupled planktic foraminiferal δ18O and Mg/Ca to determine ΔSST and ΔSSS (changes in sea surface temperature and salinity) for ETM-2 at ODP Sites 1209 (28°N paleolatitude in the Pacific) and 1265 (42°S paleolatitude in the S. Atlantic), accounting for potential pH influence on the two proxies by using LOSCAR climate-carbon cycle simulated ΔpH. Our results indicate a warming of 2-4°C at both mid-latitude sites and an increase in SSS of 1-3ppt, consistent with simulations of early Paleogene hydroclimate that suggest an increase in low- to mid-latitude aridity due to an intensification of moisture transport to high-latitudes. Furthermore, the magnitude of the CIE and warming for ETM-2 scales with the CIE and warming for the PETM, suggesting that

  13. Toward Improved Rotor-Only Axial Fans—Part II: Design Optimization for Maximum Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft; Thompson, M. C.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2000-01-01

    Numerical design optimization of the aerodynamic performance of axial fans is carried out, maximizing the efficiency in a designinterval of flow rates. Tip radius, number of blades, and angular velocity of the rotor are fixed, whereas the hub radius andspanwise distributions of chord length......, stagger angle, and camber angle are varied to find the optimum rotor geometry.Constraints ensure a pressure rise above a specified target and an angle of attack on the blades below stall. The optimizationscheme is used to investigate the dependence of maximum efficiency on the width of the design interval...

  14. DISCRETIZATION APPROACH USING RAY-TESTING MODEL IN PARTING LINE AND PARTING SURFACE GENERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jianwen; JIAN Bin; YAN Guangrong; LEI Yi

    2007-01-01

    Surface classification, 3D parting line, parting surface generation and demoldability analysis which is helpful to select optimal parting direction and optimal parting line are involved in automatic cavity design based on the ray-testing model. A new ray-testing approach is presented to classify the part surfaces to core/cavity surfaces and undercut surfaces by automatic identifying the visibility of surfaces. A simple, direct and efficient algorithm to identify surface visibility is developed. The algorithm is robust and adapted to rather complicated geometry, so it is valuable in computer-aided mold design systems. To validate the efficiency of the approach, an experimental program is implemented. Case studies show that the approach is practical and valuable in automatic parting line and parting surface generation.

  15. Merging daily sea surface temperature data from multiple satellites using a Bayesian maximum entropy method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shaolei; Yang, Xiaofeng; Dong, Di; Li, Ziwei

    2015-12-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) is an important variable for understanding interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere. SST fusion is crucial for acquiring SST products of high spatial resolution and coverage. This study introduces a Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) method for blending daily SSTs from multiple satellite sensors. A new spatiotemporal covariance model of an SST field is built to integrate not only single-day SSTs but also time-adjacent SSTs. In addition, AVHRR 30-year SST climatology data are introduced as soft data at the estimation points to improve the accuracy of blended results within the BME framework. The merged SSTs, with a spatial resolution of 4 km and a temporal resolution of 24 hours, are produced in the Western Pacific Ocean region to demonstrate and evaluate the proposed methodology. Comparisons with in situ drifting buoy observations show that the merged SSTs are accurate and the bias and root-mean-square errors for the comparison are 0.15°C and 0.72°C, respectively.

  16. The maximum percentage of fly ash to replace part of original Portland cement (OPC) in producing high strength concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallisa, Harun; Turuallo, Gidion

    2017-11-01

    This research investigates the maximum percent of fly ash to replace part of Orginal Portland Cement (OPC) in producing high strength concrete. Many researchers have found that the incorporation of industrial by-products such as fly ash as in producing concrete can improve properties in both fresh and hardened state of concrete. The water-binder ratio was used 0.30. The used sand was medium sand with the maximum size of coarse aggregate was 20 mm. The cement was Type I, which was Bosowa Cement produced by PT Bosowa. The percentages of fly ash to the total of a binder, which were used in this research, were 0, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%; while the super platicizer used was typed Naptha 511P. The results showed that the replacement cement up to 25 % of the total weight of binder resulted compressive strength higher than the minimum strength at one day of high-strength concrete.

  17. SURFACE ENGINEERING FOR PARTS MADE BY ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING

    OpenAIRE

    Nutal, Nicolas; Rochus, Pierre; Collette, Jean-Paul; Crahay, Jean; Larnicol, Maiween; Jochem, Helen; Magnien, Julien; Masse, Christian; Rigo, Olivier; Vanhumbeeck, Jean-François; Pambaguian, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    the surface preparation of metal parts made by additive manufacturing (AM). AM is a technology of choice for manufacturing of parts with complex shapes (heat exchangers, RF supports, optical parts…) and integrated functions such as conformal cooling channels, clips, hinges, etc. This opens the door for lightweight parts which are of prime importance for space applications. The potential of the AM technologies is however impeded by the quite rough surface finish that is observed on the as-m...

  18. Thermal Stress of Surface of Mold Cavities and Parting Line of Silicone Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajčičák Martin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the study of thermal stress of surface of mold cavities and parting line of silicone molds after pouring. The silicone mold White SD - THT was thermally stressed by pouring of ZnAl4Cu3 zinc alloy with pouring cycle 20, 30 and 40 seconds. The most thermally stressed part of surface at each pouring cycle is gating system and mold cavities. It could be further concluded that linear increase of the pouring cycle time leads to the exponential increasing of the maximum temperature of mold surface after its cooling. The elongated pouring cycle increases the temperature accumulated on the surface of cavities and the ability of silicone mold to conduct the heat on its surface decreases, because the low thermal conductivity of silicone molds enables the conduction of larger amount of heat into ambient environment.

  19. Verification of surface minimum, mean, and maximum temperature forecasts in Calabria for summer 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Federico

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 2005, one-hour temperature forecasts for the Calabria region (southern Italy, modelled by the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS, have been issued by CRATI/ISAC-CNR (Consortium for Research and Application of Innovative Technologies/Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Sciences of the National Research Council and are available online at http://meteo.crati.it/previsioni.html (every six hours. Beginning in June 2008, the horizontal resolution was enhanced to 2.5 km. In the present paper, forecast skill and accuracy are evaluated out to four days for the 2008 summer season (from 6 June to 30 September, 112 runs. For this purpose, gridded high horizontal resolution forecasts of minimum, mean, and maximum temperatures are evaluated against gridded analyses at the same horizontal resolution (2.5 km.

    Gridded analysis is based on Optimal Interpolation (OI and uses the RAMS first-day temperature forecast as the background field. Observations from 87 thermometers are used in the analysis system. The analysis error is introduced to quantify the effect of using the RAMS first-day forecast as the background field in the OI analyses and to define the forecast error unambiguously, while spatial interpolation (SI analysis is considered to quantify the statistics' sensitivity to the verifying analysis and to show the quality of the OI analyses for different background fields.

    Two case studies, the first one with a low (less than the 10th percentile root mean square error (RMSE in the OI analysis, the second with the largest RMSE of the whole period in the OI analysis, are discussed to show the forecast performance under two different conditions. Cumulative statistics are used to quantify forecast errors out to four days. Results show that maximum temperature has the largest RMSE, while minimum and mean temperature errors are similar. For the period considered

  20. Estimating daily minimum, maximum, and mean near surface air temperature using hybrid satellite models across Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Adar; Dorman, Michael; Schwartz, Joel; Novack, Victor; Just, Allan C; Kloog, Itai

    2017-11-01

    Meteorological stations measure air temperature (Ta) accurately with high temporal resolution, but usually suffer from limited spatial resolution due to their sparse distribution across rural, undeveloped or less populated areas. Remote sensing satellite-based measurements provide daily surface temperature (Ts) data in high spatial and temporal resolution and can improve the estimation of daily Ta. In this study we developed spatiotemporally resolved models which allow us to predict three daily parameters: Ta Max (day time), 24h mean, and Ta Min (night time) on a fine 1km grid across the state of Israel. We used and compared both the Aqua and Terra MODIS satellites. We used linear mixed effect models, IDW (inverse distance weighted) interpolations and thin plate splines (using a smooth nonparametric function of longitude and latitude) to first calibrate between Ts and Ta in those locations where we have available data for both and used that calibration to fill in neighboring cells without surface monitors or missing Ts. Out-of-sample ten-fold cross validation (CV) was used to quantify the accuracy of our predictions. Our model performance was excellent for both days with and without available Ts observations for both Aqua and Terra (CV Aqua R 2 results for min 0.966, mean 0.986, and max 0.967; CV Terra R 2 results for min 0.965, mean 0.987, and max 0.968). Our research shows that daily min, mean and max Ta can be reliably predicted using daily MODIS Ts data even across Israel, with high accuracy even for days without Ta or Ts data. These predictions can be used as three separate Ta exposures in epidemiology studies for better diurnal exposure assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Planning maximum extraction of a safety pillar in the Most surface mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helis, P; Hess, L; Kubiznak, K [SHR - Banske Projekty, Teplice (Czechoslovakia)

    1990-11-01

    Discusses planned coal surface mining in the Most mine in the area of the Hnevin safety pillar with coal reserves amounting to about 7.5 Mt. The following aspects are evaluated: coal reserves and their distribution in the pillar, coal seam thickness and dip angles, water conditions, water influx rates, mechanical properties of the overburden and strata situated in the seam floor, slope stability and hazards of landslides, effects of water influx on landslide hazards, types of bucket wheel excavators used for overburden removal and mining, types of belt conveyors used for mine haulage, stackers, position of mining equipment in the mine. A scheme developed by Banske Projekty Teplice for partial extraction of the safety pillar would result in extraction of 4.5 Mt coal. About 1.7 Mt coal would be left in a safety coal layer about 10.0 m thick situated in the floor in zones with landslide hazards. KU 300 bucket wheel excavators, belt conveyors 1,200 mm wide and ZP 2,500 stackers would be used. 4 refs.

  2. Surface polish of PLA parts in FDM using dichloromethane vapour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yifan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fused deposition modelling has become one of the most diffused rapid prototyping techniques, which is widely used to fabricate prototypes. However, further application of this technology is severely limited by poor surface roughness. Thus it is necessary to adopt some operations to improve surface quality. Chemical finishing is typically employed to finish parts in fused deposition modelling (FDM. The purpose of this paper is to decrease the surface roughness for polylactic acid (PLA parts in FDM. The chemical reaction mechanism during the treating process is analysed. Then NaOH solution and dichloromethane vapour are used to treat FDM specimens respectively. A 3D laser microscope has been applied to assess the effects in terms of surface topography and roughness. The experimental results show that treatment using dichloromethane vapour performs much better than NaOH solution. Compared with the untreated group, surface roughness obtained through vapour treatment decreases by 88 per cent. This research has been conducted to provide a better method to treat PLA parts using chemical reagents.

  3. Surface Coating of Plastic Parts for Business Machines (Industrial Surface Coating): New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about the new source performance standards (NSPS) for surface coating of plastic parts for business machines by reading the rule summary and history and finding the code of federal regulations as well as related rules.

  4. Detection of surface electromyography recording time interval without muscle fatigue effect for biceps brachii muscle during maximum voluntary contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Abdullah Ruhi; Arpinar-Avsar, Pinar

    2010-08-01

    The effects of fatigue on maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) parameters were examined by using force and surface electromyography (sEMG) signals of the biceps brachii muscles (BBM) of 12 subjects. The purpose of the study was to find the sEMG time interval of the MVC recordings which is not affected by the muscle fatigue. At least 10s of force and sEMG signals of BBM were recorded simultaneously during MVC. The subjects reached the maximum force level within 2s by slightly increasing the force, and then contracted the BBM maximally. The time index of each sEMG and force signal were labeled with respect to the time index of the maximum force (i.e. after the time normalization, each sEMG or force signal's 0s time index corresponds to maximum force point). Then, the first 8s of sEMG and force signals were divided into 0.5s intervals. Mean force, median frequency (MF) and integrated EMG (iEMG) values were calculated for each interval. Amplitude normalization was performed by dividing the force signals to their mean values of 0s time intervals (i.e. -0.25 to 0.25s). A similar amplitude normalization procedure was repeated for the iEMG and MF signals. Statistical analysis (Friedman test with Dunn's post hoc test) was performed on the time and amplitude normalized signals (MF, iEMG). Although the ANOVA results did not give statistically significant information about the onset of the muscle fatigue, linear regression (mean force vs. time) showed a decreasing slope (Pearson-r=0.9462, pfatigue starts after the 0s time interval as the muscles cannot attain their peak force levels. This implies that the most reliable interval for MVC calculation which is not affected by the muscle fatigue is from the onset of the EMG activity to the peak force time. Mean, SD, and range of this interval (excluding 2s gradual increase time) for 12 subjects were 2353, 1258ms and 536-4186ms, respectively. Exceeding this interval introduces estimation errors in the maximum amplitude calculations

  5. Design Process Control for Improved Surface Finish of Metal Additive Manufactured Parts of Complex Build Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikdam Jamal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Metal additive manufacturing (AM is increasingly used to create complex 3D components at near net shape. However, the surface finish (SF of the metal AM part is uneven, with surface roughness being variable over the facets of the design. Standard post-processing methods such as grinding and linishing often meet with major challenges in finishing parts of complex shape. This paper reports on research that demonstrated that mass finishing (MF processes are able to deliver high-quality surface finishes (Ra and Sa on AM-generated parts of a relatively complex geometry (both internal features and external facets under select conditions. Four processes were studied in this work: stream finishing, high-energy (HE centrifuge, drag finishing and disc finishing. Optimisation of the drag finishing process was then studied using a structured design of experiments (DOE. The effects of a range of finishing parameters were evaluated and optimal parameters and conditions were determined. The study established that the proposed method can be successfully applied in drag finishing to optimise the surface roughness in an industrial application and that it is an economical way of obtaining the maximum amount of information in a short period of time with a small number of tests. The study has also provided an important step in helping understand the requirements of MF to deliver AM-generated parts to a target quality finish and cycle time.

  6. Safety analysis of RA reactor operation, I-III, Part III - Environmental effect of the maximum credible accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisic, N.

    1963-02-01

    Maximum credible accident at the RA reactor would consider release of fission products into the environment. This would result from fuel elements failure or meltdown due to loss of coolant. The analysis presented in this report assumes that the reactor was operating at nominal power at the moment of maximum possible accident. The report includes calculations of fission products activity at the moment of accident, total activity release during the accident, concentration of radioactive material in the air in the reactor neighbourhood, and the analysis of accident environmental effects

  7. Manufactering of par-fried french-fries. Part 3: a blueprint to predict the maximum production yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, D.J.; Capelle, A.; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    Very little research on the production yield of par-fried French-fries has been reported in the literature. This paper bridges the knowledge gap and outlines the development of a model to predict the maximum production yield of par-fried French-fries. This yield model can be used to calculate the

  8. Parametric design of a part with free-form surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM Yeoung-il; KIM Li-ra; JUN Cha-soo

    2006-01-01

    3D solid models for parts with regular-form surfaces (PRFSs) are effectively generated using traditional parametric design techniques. A new model is obtained by changing some parameters defining the model. The parts with free-form surfaces(PFFSs), however, cannot be defined by several parameters. Usually they are defined by some geometric elements like profile curves. The traditional parametric design approaches have not easily dealt with the PFFSs. A method for generating a solid model and an engineering drawing for PFFSs is proposed in this paper: First, the new profiles are generated from input point data. Second,the profile information is extracted from the existing model. Last, the old profiles are replaced with the new profiles. This method can preserve the associative information of the existing model and automatically generate the drawing including views, dimensions, and annotations. The proposed method has been implemented using a commercial CAD/CAM system, Unigraphics, and API functions written in C-language, and were applied to the blades of a turbine generator. Some illustrative examples are provided in order to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. GAS SURFACE DENSITY, STAR FORMATION RATE SURFACE DENSITY, AND THE MAXIMUM MASS OF YOUNG STAR CLUSTERS IN A DISK GALAXY. II. THE GRAND-DESIGN GALAXY M51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Lópezlira, Rosa A.; Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan; Kroupa, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between maximum cluster mass and surface densities of total gas (Σ gas ), molecular gas (Σ H 2 ), neutral gas (Σ H I ), and star formation rate (Σ SFR ) in the grand-design galaxy M51, using published gas data and a catalog of masses, ages, and reddenings of more than 1800 star clusters in its disk, of which 223 are above the cluster mass distribution function completeness limit. By comparing the two-dimensional distribution of cluster masses and gas surface densities, we find for clusters older than 25 Myr that M 3rd ∝Σ H I 0.4±0.2 , whereM 3rd is the median of the five most massive clusters. There is no correlation withΣ gas ,Σ H2 , orΣ SFR . For clusters younger than 10 Myr, M 3rd ∝Σ H I 0.6±0.1 and M 3rd ∝Σ gas 0.5±0.2 ; there is no correlation with either Σ H 2 orΣ SFR . The results could hardly be more different from those found for clusters younger than 25 Myr in M33. For the flocculent galaxy M33, there is no correlation between maximum cluster mass and neutral gas, but we have determined M 3rd ∝Σ gas 3.8±0.3 , M 3rd ∝Σ H 2 1.2±0.1 , and M 3rd ∝Σ SFR 0.9±0.1 . For the older sample in M51, the lack of tight correlations is probably due to the combination of strong azimuthal variations in the surface densities of gas and star formation rate, and the cluster ages. These two facts mean that neither the azimuthal average of the surface densities at a given radius nor the surface densities at the present-day location of a stellar cluster represent the true surface densities at the place and time of cluster formation. In the case of the younger sample, even if the clusters have not yet traveled too far from their birth sites, the poor resolution of the radio data compared to the physical sizes of the clusters results in measuredΣ that are likely quite diluted compared to the actual densities relevant for the formation of the clusters.

  10. Estimation of Land Surface Temperature through Blending MODIS and AMSR-E Data with the Bayesian Maximum Entropy Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaokang Kou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST plays a major role in the study of surface energy balances. Remote sensing techniques provide ways to monitor LST at large scales. However, due to atmospheric influences, significant missing data exist in LST products retrieved from satellite thermal infrared (TIR remotely sensed data. Although passive microwaves (PMWs are able to overcome these atmospheric influences while estimating LST, the data are constrained by low spatial resolution. In this study, to obtain complete and high-quality LST data, the Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME method was introduced to merge 0.01° and 0.25° LSTs inversed from MODIS and AMSR-E data, respectively. The result showed that the missing LSTs in cloudy pixels were filled completely, and the availability of merged LSTs reaches 100%. Because the depths of LST and soil temperature measurements are different, before validating the merged LST, the station measurements were calibrated with an empirical equation between MODIS LST and 0~5 cm soil temperatures. The results showed that the accuracy of merged LSTs increased with the increasing quantity of utilized data, and as the availability of utilized data increased from 25.2% to 91.4%, the RMSEs of the merged data decreased from 4.53 °C to 2.31 °C. In addition, compared with the filling gap method in which MODIS LST gaps were filled with AMSR-E LST directly, the merged LSTs from the BME method showed better spatial continuity. The different penetration depths of TIR and PMWs may influence fusion performance and still require further studies.

  11. A binary genetic programing model for teleconnection identification between global sea surface temperature and local maximum monthly rainfall events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danandeh Mehr, Ali; Nourani, Vahid; Hrnjica, Bahrudin; Molajou, Amir

    2017-12-01

    The effectiveness of genetic programming (GP) for solving regression problems in hydrology has been recognized in recent studies. However, its capability to solve classification problems has not been sufficiently explored so far. This study develops and applies a novel classification-forecasting model, namely Binary GP (BGP), for teleconnection studies between sea surface temperature (SST) variations and maximum monthly rainfall (MMR) events. The BGP integrates certain types of data pre-processing and post-processing methods with conventional GP engine to enhance its ability to solve both regression and classification problems simultaneously. The model was trained and tested using SST series of Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, and Red Sea as potential predictors as well as classified MMR events at two locations in Iran as predictand. Skill of the model was measured in regard to different rainfall thresholds and SST lags and compared to that of the hybrid decision tree-association rule (DTAR) model available in the literature. The results indicated that the proposed model can identify potential teleconnection signals of surrounding seas beneficial to long-term forecasting of the occurrence of the classified MMR events.

  12. Influence of spatial and temporal spot distribution on the ocular surface quality and maximum ablation depth after photoablation with a 1050 Hz excimer laser system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrochen, Michael; Schelling, Urs; Wuellner, Christian; Donitzky, Christof

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the effect of temporal and spatial distributions of laser spots (scan sequences) on the corneal surface quality after ablation and the maximum ablation of a given refractive correction after photoablation with a high-repetition-rate scanning-spot laser. IROC AG, Zurich, Switzerland, and WaveLight AG, Erlangen, Germany. Bovine corneas and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plates were photoablated using a 1050 Hz excimer laser prototype for corneal laser surgery. Four temporal and spatial spot distributions (scan sequences) with different temporal overlapping factors were created for 3 myopic, 3 hyperopic, and 3 phototherapeutic keratectomy ablation profiles. Surface quality and maximum ablation depth were measured using a surface profiling system. The surface quality factor increased (rough surfaces) as the amount of temporal overlapping in the scan sequence and the amount of correction increased. The rise in surface quality factor was less for bovine corneas than for PMMA. The scan sequence might cause systematic substructures at the surface of the ablated material depending on the overlapping factor. The maximum ablation varied within the scan sequence. The temporal and spatial distribution of the laser spots (scan sequence) during a corneal laser procedure affected the surface quality and maximum ablation depth of the ablation profile. Corneal laser surgery could theoretically benefit from smaller spot sizes and higher repetition rates. The temporal and spatial spot distributions are relevant to achieving these aims.

  13. Surface grafted chitosan gels. Part II. Gel formation and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chao; Thormann, Esben; Claesson, Per M.

    2014-01-01

    Responsive biomaterial hydrogels attract significant attention due to their biocompatibility and degradability. In order to make chitosan based gels, we first graft one layer of chitosan to silica, and then build a chitosan/poly(acrylic acid) multilayer using the layer-by-layer approach. After...... cross-linking the chitosan present in the polyelectrolyte multilayer, poly(acrylic acid) is partly removed by exposing the multilayer structure to a concentrated carbonate buffer solution at a high pH, leaving a surface-grafted cross-linked gel. Chemical cross-linking enhances the gel stability against...... detachment and decomposition. The chemical reaction between gluteraldehyde, the cross-linking agent, and chitosan was followed in situ using total internal reflection Raman (TIRR) spectroscopy, which provided a molecular insight into the complex reaction mechanism, as well as the means to quantify the cross...

  14. An adaptive meshfree method for phase-field models of biomembranes. Part I: Approximation with maximum-entropy basis functions

    OpenAIRE

    Rosolen, A.; Peco, C.; Arroyo, M.

    2013-01-01

    We present an adaptive meshfree method to approximate phase-field models of biomembranes. In such models, the Helfrich curvature elastic energy, the surface area, and the enclosed volume of a vesicle are written as functionals of a continuous phase-field, which describes the interface in a smeared manner. Such functionals involve up to second-order spatial derivatives of the phase-field, leading to fourth-order Euler–Lagrange partial differential equations (PDE). The solutions develop sharp i...

  15. 19 mm sized bileaflet valve prostheses' flow field investigated by bidimensional laser Doppler anemometry (part II: maximum turbulent shear stresses)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, V; Grigioni, M; Daniele, C; D'Avenio, G; Boccanera, G

    1997-11-01

    The investigation of the flow field generated by cardiac valve prostheses is a necessary task to gain knowledge on the possible relationship between turbulence-derived stresses and the hemolytic and thrombogenic complications in patients after valve replacement. The study of turbulence flows downstream of cardiac prostheses, in literature, especially concerns large-sized prostheses with a variable flow regime from very low up to 6 L/min. The Food and Drug Administration draft guidance requires the study of the minimum prosthetic size at a high cardiac output to reach the maximum Reynolds number conditions. Within the framework of a national research project regarding the characterization of cardiovascular endoprostheses, an in-depth study of turbulence generated downstream of bileaflet cardiac valves is currently under way at the Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering of the Istituto Superiore di Sanita. Four models of 19 mm bileaflet valve prostheses were used: St Jude Medical HP, Edwards Tekna, Sorin Bicarbon, and CarboMedics. The prostheses were selected for the nominal Tissue Annulus Diameter as reported by manufacturers without any assessment of valve sizing method, and were mounted in aortic position. The aortic geometry was scaled for 19 mm prostheses using angiographic data. The turbulence-derived shear stresses were investigated very close to the valve (0.35 D0), using a bidimensional Laser Doppler anemometry system and applying the Principal Stress Analysis. Results concern typical turbulence quantities during a 50 ms window at peak flow in the systolic phase. Conclusions are drawn regarding the turbulence associated to valve design features, as well as the possible damage to blood constituents.

  16. Estimating Daily Maximum and Minimum Land Air Surface Temperature Using MODIS Land Surface Temperature Data and Ground Truth Data in Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Thanh Noi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate quantitatively the land surface temperature (LST derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer MOD11A1 and MYD11A1 Collection 5 products for daily land air surface temperature (Ta estimation over a mountainous region in northern Vietnam. The main objective is to estimate maximum and minimum Ta (Ta-max and Ta-min using both TERRA and AQUA MODIS LST products (daytime and nighttime and auxiliary data, solving the discontinuity problem of ground measurements. There exist no studies about Vietnam that have integrated both TERRA and AQUA LST of daytime and nighttime for Ta estimation (using four MODIS LST datasets. In addition, to find out which variables are the most effective to describe the differences between LST and Ta, we have tested several popular methods, such as: the Pearson correlation coefficient, stepwise, Bayesian information criterion (BIC, adjusted R-squared and the principal component analysis (PCA of 14 variables (including: LST products (four variables, NDVI, elevation, latitude, longitude, day length in hours, Julian day and four variables of the view zenith angle, and then, we applied nine models for Ta-max estimation and nine models for Ta-min estimation. The results showed that the differences between MODIS LST and ground truth temperature derived from 15 climate stations are time and regional topography dependent. The best results for Ta-max and Ta-min estimation were achieved when we combined both LST daytime and nighttime of TERRA and AQUA and data from the topography analysis.

  17. A comparison of PMIP2 model simulations and the MARGO proxy reconstruction for tropical sea surface temperatures at last glacial maximum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Brady, E.C. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Climate and Global Dynamics Division, Boulder, CO (United States); Schneider, Ralph; Weinelt, M. [Christian-Albrechts Universitaet, Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Kiel (Germany); Kucera, M. [Eberhard-Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Tuebingen (Germany); Abe-Ouchi, A. [The University of Tokyo, Center for Climate System Research, Kashiwa (Japan); Bard, E. [CEREGE, College de France, CNRS, Universite Aix-Marseille, Aix-en-Provence (France); Braconnot, P.; Kageyama, M.; Marti, O.; Waelbroeck, C. [Unite mixte CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Crucifix, M. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut d' Astronomie et de Geophysique Georges Lemaitre, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Hewitt, C.D. [Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter (United Kingdom); Paul, A. [Bremen University, Department of Geosciences, Bremen (Germany); Rosell-Mele, A. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, ICREA and Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals, Barcelona (Spain); Weber, S.L. [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), De Bilt (Netherlands); Yu, Y. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, LASG, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China)

    2009-05-15

    Results from multiple model simulations are used to understand the tropical sea surface temperature (SST) response to the reduced greenhouse gas concentrations and large continental ice sheets of the last glacial maximum (LGM). We present LGM simulations from the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project, Phase 2 (PMIP2) and compare these simulations to proxy data collated and harmonized within the Multiproxy Approach for the Reconstruction of the Glacial Ocean Surface Project (MARGO). Five atmosphere-ocean coupled climate models (AOGCMs) and one coupled model of intermediate complexity have PMIP2 ocean results available for LGM. The models give a range of tropical (defined for this paper as 15 S-15 N) SST cooling of 1.0-2.4 C, comparable to the MARGO estimate of annual cooling of 1.7{+-}1 C. The models simulate greater SST cooling in the tropical Atlantic than tropical Pacific, but interbasin and intrabasin variations of cooling are much smaller than those found in the MARGO reconstruction. The simulated tropical coolings are relatively insensitive to season, a feature also present in the MARGO transferred-based estimates calculated from planktonic foraminiferal assemblages for the Indian and Pacific Oceans. These assemblages indicate seasonality in cooling in the Atlantic basin, with greater cooling in northern summer than northern winter, not captured by the model simulations. Biases in the simulations of the tropical upwelling and thermocline found in the preindustrial control simulations remain for the LGM simulations and are partly responsible for the more homogeneous spatial and temporal LGM tropical cooling simulated by the models. The PMIP2 LGM simulations give estimates for the climate sensitivity parameter of 0.67 -0.83 C per Wm{sup -2}, which translates to equilibrium climate sensitivity for doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} of 2.6-3.1 C. (orig.)

  18. Should measurement of maximum urinary flow rate and residual urine volume be a part of a "minimal care" assessment programme in female incontinence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Pia; Mouritsen, L; Andersen, J Thorup

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of routine measurements of urinary flow rate and residual urine volume as a part of a "minimal care" assessment programme for women with urinary incontinence in detecting clinical significant bladder emptying problems. MATERIAL AND METHODS....... Twenty-six per cent had a maximum flow rate less than 15 ml/s, but only 4% at a voided volume > or =200 ml. Residual urine more than 149 ml was found in 6%. Two women had chronic retention with overflow incontinence. Both had typical symptoms with continuous leakage, stranguria and chronic cystitis...

  19. Treatment of polymer surfaces in plasma Part I. Kinetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabaliov, N A; Svirachev, D M

    2006-01-01

    The surface tension of the polymer materials depends on functional groups over its surface. As a result from the plasma treatment the kind and concentration of the functional groups can be changed. In the present work, the possible kinetic reactions are defined. They describe the interaction between the plasma and the polymer surface of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Basing on these reactions, the systems of differential kinetic equations are suggested. The solutions are obtained analytically for the system kinetic equations at defined circumstances

  20. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 4 Appendix C - Historical Maximum Near-Surface Air Temperature.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-06-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  1. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 18 Appendix Q - Historical Maximum Near-Surface Wind Speed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-06-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconom ic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  2. Nevada Test Site probable maximum flood study, part of US Geological Survey flood potential and debris hazard study, Yucca Mountain Site for US Department of Energy, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullard, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), is conducting studies at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The purposes of these studies are to provide hydrologic and geologic information to evaluate the suitability of Yucca Mountain for development as a high-level nuclear waste repository, and to evaluate the ability of the mined geologic disposal system (MGDS) to isolate the waste in compliance with regulatory requirements. In particular, the project is designed to acquire information necessary for the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate in its environmental impact statement (EIS) and license application whether the MGDS will meet the requirements of federal regulations 10 CFR Part 60, 10 CFR Part 960, and 40 CFR Part 191. Complete study plans for this part of the project were prepared by the USGS and approved by the DOE in August and September of 1990. The US Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) was selected by the USGS as a contractor to provide probable maximum flood (PMF) magnitudes and associated inundation maps for preliminary engineering design of the surface facilities at Yucca Mountain. These PMF peak flow estimates are necessary for successful waste repository design and construction. The PMF technique was chosen for two reasons: (1) this technique complies with ANSI requirements that PMF technology be used in the design of nuclear related facilities (ANSI/ANS, 1981), and (2) the PMF analysis has become a commonly used technology to predict a ''worst possible case'' flood scenario. For this PMF study, probable maximum precipitation (PMP) values were obtained for a local storm (thunderstorm) PMP event. These values were determined from the National Weather Services's Hydrometeorological Report No. 49 (HMR 49)

  3. 50 CFR Figures 14a and 14b to Part... - Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Bent Bars... 223—Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and Maximum...

  4. Temperature of the Icelandic crust: Inferred from electrical conductivity, temperature surface gradient, and maximum depth of earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnsson, Axel

    2008-02-01

    Two different models of the structure of the Icelandic crust have been presented. One is the thin-crust model with a 10-15 km thick crust beneath the axial rift zones, with an intermediate layer of partially molten basalt at the base of the crust and on the top of an up-domed asthenosphere. The thick-crust model assumes a 40 km thick and relatively cold crust beneath central Iceland. The most important and crucial parameter to distinguish between these different models is the temperature distribution with depth. Three methods are used to estimate the temperature distribution with depth. First, the surface temperature gradient measured in shallow wells drilled outside geothermal areas. Second, the thickness of the seismogenic zone which is associated with a 750 °C isothermal surface. Third, the depth to a layer with high electrical conductivity which is associated with partially molten basalt with temperature around 1100 °C at the base of the crust. Combination of these data shows that the temperature gradient can be assumed to be nearly linear from the surface down to the base of the crust. These results are strongly in favour of the thin-crust model. The scattered deep seismic reflectors interpreted as Moho in the thick-crust model could be caused by phase transitions or reflections from melt pockets in the mantle.

  5. An Improved Surface Simplification Method for Facial Expression Animation Based on Homogeneous Coordinate Transformation Matrix and Maximum Shape Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juin-Ling Tseng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial animation is one of the most popular 3D animation topics researched in recent years. However, when using facial animation, a 3D facial animation model has to be stored. This 3D facial animation model requires many triangles to accurately describe and demonstrate facial expression animation because the face often presents a number of different expressions. Consequently, the costs associated with facial animation have increased rapidly. In an effort to reduce storage costs, researchers have sought to simplify 3D animation models using techniques such as Deformation Sensitive Decimation and Feature Edge Quadric. The studies conducted have examined the problems in the homogeneity of the local coordinate system between different expression models and in the retainment of simplified model characteristics. This paper proposes a method that applies Homogeneous Coordinate Transformation Matrix to solve the problem of homogeneity of the local coordinate system and Maximum Shape Operator to detect shape changes in facial animation so as to properly preserve the features of facial expressions. Further, root mean square error and perceived quality error are used to compare the errors generated by different simplification methods in experiments. Experimental results show that, compared with Deformation Sensitive Decimation and Feature Edge Quadric, our method can not only reduce the errors caused by simplification of facial animation, but also retain more facial features.

  6. Impacts of land surface properties and atmospheric CO2 on the Last Glacial Maximum climate: a factor separation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Munhoven

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Many sensitivity studies have been carried out, using climate models of different degrees of complexity to test the climate response to Last Glacial Maximum boundary conditions. Here, instead of adding the forcings successively as in most previous studies, we applied the separation method of U. Stein et P. Alpert 1993, in order to determine rigorously the different contributions of the boundary condition modifications, and isolate the pure contributions from the interactions among the forcings. We carried out a series of sensitivity experiments with the model of intermediate complexity Planet Simulator, investigating the contributions of the ice sheet expansion and elevation, the lowering of the atmospheric CO2 and of the vegetation cover change on the LGM climate. The separation of the ice cover and orographic contributions shows that the ice albedo effect is the main contributor to the cooling of the Northern Hemisphere, whereas orography has only a local cooling impact over the ice sheets. The expansion of ice cover in the Northern Hemisphere causes a disruption of the tropical precipitation, and a southward shift of the ITCZ. The orographic forcing mainly contributes to the disruption of the atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere, leading to a redistribution of the precipitation, but weakly impacts the tropics. The isolated vegetation contribution also induces strong cooling over the continents of the Northern Hemisphere that further affects the tropical precipitation and reinforce the southward shift of the ITCZ, when combined with the ice forcing. The combinations of the forcings generate many non-linear interactions that reinforce or weaken the pure contributions, depending on the climatic mechanism involved, but they are generally weaker than the pure contributions. Finally, the comparison between the LGM simulated climate and climatic reconstructions over Eurasia suggests that our results reproduce well the south-west to

  7. 40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 268 - LDR Effective Dates of Surface Disposed Prohibited Hazardous Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false LDR Effective Dates of Surface Disposed Prohibited Hazardous Wastes VII Appendix VII to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... VII to Part 268—LDR Effective Dates of Surface Disposed Prohibited Hazardous Wastes Table 1—Effective...

  8. Welding-induced local maximum residual stress in heat affected zone of low-carbon austenitic stainless steel with machined surface layer and its influential factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Shigetaka; Ihara, Ryohei; Kanamaru, Daisuke; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of work-hardening and pre-existing stress in the machined surface layer of low-carbon austenitic stainless steel on the welding-induced residual stress were experimentally investigated through the use of weld specimens with three different surface layers; as-cutout, mechanically-polished and electrolytically-polished. The high tensile and compressive stresses exist in the work-hardened surface layer of the as-cutout and mechanically-polished specimens, respectively. Meanwhile, no stress and work-hardened surface layer exist in the electrolytically-polished specimen. TIG bead-on-plate welding under the same welding heat input conditions was performed to introduce the residual stress into these specimens. Using these welded specimens, the distributions of welding-induced residual stress were measured by the X-ray diffraction method. Similarly, the distributions of hardness in welds were estimated by the Vickers hardness test. And then, these distributions were compared with one another. Based on the results, the residual stress in the weld metal (WM) is completely unaffected by the machined surface layer because the work-hardened surface layer disappears through the processes of melting and solidification during welding. The local maximum longitudinal tensile residual stress in the heat affected zone (HAZ) depends on the work-hardening but not on the existing stress, regardless of whether tensile or compressive, in the machined surface layer before welding. At the base metal far from WM and HAZ, the residual stress is formed by the addition of the welding-induced residual stress to the pre-existing stress in the machined surface layer before welding. The features of the welding-induced residual stress in low-carbon austenitic stainless steel with the machined surface layer and their influential factors were thus clarified. (author)

  9. Results of PMIP2 coupled simulations of the Mid-Holocene and Last Glacial MaximumPart 1: experiments and large-scale features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A set of coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations using state of the art climate models is now available for the Last Glacial Maximum and the Mid-Holocene through the second phase of the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP2. This study presents the large-scale features of the simulated climates and compares the new model results to those of the atmospheric models from the first phase of the PMIP, for which sea surface temperature was prescribed or computed using simple slab ocean formulations. We consider the large-scale features of the climate change, pointing out some of the major differences between the different sets of experiments. We show in particular that systematic differences between PMIP1 and PMIP2 simulations are due to the interactive ocean, such as the amplification of the African monsoon at the Mid-Holocene or the change in precipitation in mid-latitudes at the LGM. Also the PMIP2 simulations are in general in better agreement with data than PMIP1 simulations.

  10. Surface temperature evolution and the location of maximum and average surface temperature of a lithium-ion pouch cell under variable load profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutam, Shovon; Timmermans, Jean-Marc; Omar, Noshin

    2014-01-01

    This experimental work attempts to determine the surface temperature evolution of large (20 Ah-rated capacity) commercial Lithium-Ion pouch cells for the application of rechargeable energy storage of plug in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles. The cathode of the cells is nickel...

  11. Fundamentally excited flow past a surface-mounted rib. Part I ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    structures contrary to the traditional belief that large eddies break into small scales at the .... The instantaneous streamwise velocity component (u(x,y,t)) can be decomposed into ..... rib surface where the velocity in the shear layer reaches a maximum value. ..... measurements and mode generation in the pairing process.

  12. Experimental investigation on shrinkage and surface replication of injection moulded ceramic parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Giannekas, Nikolaos; Marhöfer, David Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    Ceramic moulded parts are increasingly being used in advanced components and devices due to their unprecedented material and performance attributes. The surface finish, replication quality and material shrinkage are of immense importance for moulded ceramic parts intended for precision applications....... The current paper presents a thorough investigation on the process of ceramic moulding where it systematically characterizes the surface replication and shrinkage behaviours of precision moulded ceramic components. The test parts are moulded from Catamold TZP-A which is Y2O3-stabilised ZrO2 having widespread...... distribution for the moulded ceramic parts is presented....

  13. Laser surface textured titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V): Part 1 – Surface characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleging, Wilhelm [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IAM-AWP, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility, H.-von-Helmholtz-Pl. 1, 76344 Egg.-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Kumari, Renu [Department of Metal. and Maters. Eng., I. I. T. Kharagpur, WB 721302 (India); Besser, Heino [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IAM-AWP, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Scharnweber, Tim [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IBG-1, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta, E-mail: jyotsna@metal.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Metal. and Maters. Eng., I. I. T. Kharagpur, WB 721302 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Texturing of Ti–6Al–4V with linear and dimple patterns are developed with ArF laser. • Linear textures have width of 25 μm and are at an interval of 20 μm. • Dimple textures are equi-spaced and have a diameter of 60 μm. • Significant refinement of microstructure in textured zone as compared to substrate. • Increased wettability of the textured surface against simulated body fluid. - Abstract: In the present study, a detailed study of the characterization of laser-surface textured titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) with line and dimple geometry developed by using an ArF excimer laser operating at a wavelength of 193 nm with a pulse length of 5 ns is undertaken. The characterization of the textured surface (both the top surface and cross section) is carried out by scanning electron microscopy, electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) technique and X-ray diffraction techniques. There is refinement of microstructure along with presence of titanium oxides (rutile, anatase and few Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase) in the textured surface as compared to as-received one. The area fractions of linear texture and dimple texture measured by image analysis software are 45% and 20%, respectively. The wettability is increased after laser texturing. The total surface energy is decreased due to linear (29.6 mN/m) texturing and increased due to dimple (67.6 mN/m) texturing as compared to as-received Ti–6Al–4V (37 mN/m). The effect of polar component is more in influencing the surface energy of textured surface.

  14. Laser surface textured titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V): Part 1 – Surface characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfleging, Wilhelm; Kumari, Renu; Besser, Heino; Scharnweber, Tim; Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Texturing of Ti–6Al–4V with linear and dimple patterns are developed with ArF laser. • Linear textures have width of 25 μm and are at an interval of 20 μm. • Dimple textures are equi-spaced and have a diameter of 60 μm. • Significant refinement of microstructure in textured zone as compared to substrate. • Increased wettability of the textured surface against simulated body fluid. - Abstract: In the present study, a detailed study of the characterization of laser-surface textured titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) with line and dimple geometry developed by using an ArF excimer laser operating at a wavelength of 193 nm with a pulse length of 5 ns is undertaken. The characterization of the textured surface (both the top surface and cross section) is carried out by scanning electron microscopy, electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) technique and X-ray diffraction techniques. There is refinement of microstructure along with presence of titanium oxides (rutile, anatase and few Ti_2O_3 phase) in the textured surface as compared to as-received one. The area fractions of linear texture and dimple texture measured by image analysis software are 45% and 20%, respectively. The wettability is increased after laser texturing. The total surface energy is decreased due to linear (29.6 mN/m) texturing and increased due to dimple (67.6 mN/m) texturing as compared to as-received Ti–6Al–4V (37 mN/m). The effect of polar component is more in influencing the surface energy of textured surface.

  15. Surface properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy part I: Surface roughness and apparent surface free energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yingdi; Chibowski, Emil; Szcześ, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are the most often used implants material in dental treatment and orthopedics. Topography and wettability of its surface play important role in film formation, protein adhesion, following osseointegration and even duration of inserted implant. In this paper, we prepared Ti-6Al-4V alloy samples using different smoothing and polishing materials as well the air plasma treatment, on which contact angles of water, formamide and diiodomethane were measured. Then the apparent surface free energy was calculated using four different approaches (CAH, LWAB, O-W and Neumann's Equation of State). From LWAB approach the components of surface free energy were obtained, which shed more light on the wetting properties of samples surface. The surface roughness of the prepared samples was investigated with the help of optical profilometer and AFM. It was interesting whether the surface roughness affects the apparent surface free energy. It was found that both polar interactions the electron donor parameter of the energy and the work of water adhesion increased with decreasing roughness of the surfaces. Moreover, short time plasma treatment (1min) caused decrease in the surface hydrophilic character, while longer time (10min) treatment caused significant increase in the polar interactions and the work of water adhesion. Although Ti-6Al-4V alloy has been investigated many times, to our knowledge, so far no paper has been published in which surface roughness and changes in the surface free energy of the alloy were compared in the quantitative way in such large extent. This novel approach deliver better knowledge about the surface properties of differently smoothed and polished samples which may be helpful to facilitate cell adhesion, proliferation and mineralization. Therefore the results obtained present also potentially practical meaning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Selecting the induction heating for normalization of deposited surfaces of cylindrical parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Валеріївна Бережна

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The machine parts recovered by electric contact surfacing with metal strip are characterized by high loading of the surface layer, which has a significant impact on their performance. Therefore, the improvement of the operational stability of fast-wearing machine parts through the use of combined treatment technologies is required. Not all the work-piece but just the worn zones are subjected to recovery with electric contact surfacing; the tape thickness and depth of the heat affected zone being not more than a few millimeters. Therefore, the most optimal in this case is the use of a local surface heating method of high frequency currents. This method has economical benefits because there is no need to heat the entire work-piece. The induction heating mode at a constant power density has been proposed and analytically investigated. The ratios that make it possible to determine the main heating parameters ensuring calculation of the inductor for the normalization of the reconstructed surface of cylindrical parts have been given. These parameters are: specific power, frequency and warm-up time. The proposed induction heating mode is intermediate between the quenching and cross-cutting heating and makes it possible to simultaneously obtain the required temperatures at the surface and at the predetermined depth of the heated layer of cylindrical parts with the normalization of their surfaces restored with electric contact surfacing

  17. Surface properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy part I: Surface roughness and apparent surface free energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yingdi; Chibowski, Emil; Szcześ, Aleksandra, E-mail: aszczes@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl

    2017-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are the most often used implants material in dental treatment and orthopedics. Topography and wettability of its surface play important role in film formation, protein adhesion, following osseointegration and even duration of inserted implant. In this paper, we prepared Ti-6Al-4V alloy samples using different smoothing and polishing materials as well the air plasma treatment, on which contact angles of water, formamide and diiodomethane were measured. Then the apparent surface free energy was calculated using four different approaches (CAH, LWAB, O-W and Neumann's Equation of State). From LWAB approach the components of surface free energy were obtained, which shed more light on the wetting properties of samples surface. The surface roughness of the prepared samples was investigated with the help of optical profilometer and AFM. It was interesting whether the surface roughness affects the apparent surface free energy. It was found that both polar interactions the electron donor parameter of the energy and the work of water adhesion increased with decreasing roughness of the surfaces. Moreover, short time plasma treatment (1 min) caused decrease in the surface hydrophilic character, while longer time (10 min) treatment caused significant increase in the polar interactions and the work of water adhesion. Although Ti-6Al-4V alloy has been investigated many times, to our knowledge, so far no paper has been published in which surface roughness and changes in the surface free energy of the alloy were compared in the quantitative way in such large extent. This novel approach deliver better knowledge about the surface properties of differently smoothed and polished samples which may be helpful to facilitate cell adhesion, proliferation and mineralization. Therefore the results obtained present also potentially practical meaning. - Highlights: • Surface of five Ti-6Al-4V alloy samples were smoothed and polished successively. • The

  18. Evaluating the performance of free-formed surface parts using an analytic network process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xueming; Ma, Yanqiao; Liang, Dezhi

    2018-03-01

    To successfully design parts with a free-formed surface, the critical issue of how to evaluate and select a favourable evaluation strategy before design is raised. The evaluation of free-formed surface parts is a multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem that requires the consideration of a large number of interdependent factors. The analytic network process (ANP) is a relatively new MCDM method that can systematically deal with all kinds of dependences. In this paper, the factors, which come from the life-cycle and influence the design of free-formed surface parts, are proposed. After analysing the interdependence among these factors, a Hybrid ANP (HANP) structure for evaluating the part’s curved surface is constructed. Then, a HANP evaluation of an impeller is presented to illustrate the application of the proposed method.

  19. Surface morphology of chitin highly related with the isolated body part of butterfly (Argynnis pandora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Murat; Bitim, Betül; Mujtaba, Muhammad; Koyuncu, Turgay

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to understand the differences in the physicochemical properties of chitin samples isolated from the wings and the other body parts except the wings (OBP) of a butterfly species (Argynnis pandora). The same isolation method was used for obtaining chitin specimens from both types of body parts. The chitin content of the wings (22%) was recorded as being much higher than the OBP (8%). The extracted chitin samples were characterized via FT-IR, TGA, XRD, SEM, and elemental analysis techniques. Results of these characterizations revealed that the chitins from both structures (wings and OBP) were very similar, except for their surface morphologies. SEM results demonstrated one type of surface morphology for the wings and four different surface morphologies for the OBP. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that the surface morphology of the chitin is highly related with the body part. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF AEROSOL GAS-DYNAMIC SUSPENSION CLEANING ON SURFACE OF THE AIRCRAFT PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly D. Hizhko

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available  The specificity of the surface microgeometry formation under the influence of aerosol gas-dynamic suspension flow was considered. The composition and character of metallic surface layer formation of aircraft parts was investigated. The possibility of surface material composition and properties adjustment changing aerosol gas-dynamic suspension flow parameters was determined. The hypothesis about the possibility of using aerosol gas-dynamic suspension flow to form corrosion-resistant coating on the detail metallic surfaces was set up.

  1. Maximum Temperature Detection System for Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankiewicz, Maciej; Kos, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    The paper describes structure and measurement results of the system detecting present maximum temperature on the surface of an integrated circuit. The system consists of the set of proportional to absolute temperature sensors, temperature processing path and a digital part designed in VHDL. Analogue parts of the circuit where designed with full-custom technique. The system is a part of temperature-controlled oscillator circuit - a power management system based on dynamic frequency scaling method. The oscillator cooperates with microprocessor dedicated for thermal experiments. The whole system is implemented in UMC CMOS 0.18 μm (1.8 V) technology.

  2. Reduction of Surface Roughness by Means of Laser Processing over Additive Manufacturing Metal Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Vittorio; Argenio, Paolo; Caiazzo, Fabrizia; Sergi, Vincenzo

    2016-12-31

    Optimization of processing parameters and exposure strategies is usually performed in additive manufacturing to set up the process; nevertheless, standards for roughness may not be evenly matched on a single complex part, since surface features depend on the building direction of the part. This paper aims to evaluate post processing treating via laser surface modification by means of scanning optics and beam wobbling to process metal parts resulting from selective laser melting of stainless steel in order to improve surface topography. The results are discussed in terms of roughness, geometry of the fusion zone in the cross-section, microstructural modification, and microhardness so as to assess the effects of laser post processing. The benefits of beam wobbling over linear scanning processing are shown, as heat effects in the base metal are proven to be lower.

  3. Coupling of carboxylic groups onto the surface of polystyrene parts during fused filament fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Philipp; Schubert, Oliver; Simon, Frank; Schlenstedt, Kornelia

    2017-11-01

    A method for the fabrication of polystyrene parts, modified with carboxylic groups during Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), is being introduced. This method is based on the application of a thin layer of a reactive polymer carrying carboxylic groups on a substrate surface. A polystyrene film is printed on top of this layer. During contact between the hot melt and the reactive layer, a Friedel-Crafts type acylation using a green catalyst takes place, which attaches the reactive polymer to the polystyrene surface. The modified surface is homogeneous, hydrophilic and able to bind copper ions. The method could be used to fabricate unique parts of polystyrene with tailored surface functionalisation. It could be applied for laboratory use, e.g. for the manufacture of lab-on-a-chip devices.

  4. Effect of the barrier properties on the surface part of the barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolova, M.V.; Zhukov, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of barrier characteristics on the discharge processes in a barrier discharge was investigated, main attention being paid to the amount and distribution of the charge left on the barrier surface by the volume discharge in the main air gap. The measurements show that the main part of the gap charge is due to the volume part of the discharge. The measured values of the surface charge significantly increase with the voltage applied and with the length of the gas gap, while the dimensions of the charge spot and the distribution of charge density are determined by the barrier properties. (J.U.)

  5. Surface quality and topographic inspection of variable compliance part after precise turning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieslony, P.; Krolczyk, G. M.; Wojciechowski, S.; Chudy, R.; Zak, K.; Maruda, R. W.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents the problem of precise turning of the mould parts with variable compliance and demonstrates a topographic inspection of the machined surface quality. The study was conducted for the cutting tools made of cemented carbide with coatings, in a range of variable cutting parameters. The long shaft with special axial hole, made of hardened 55NiCrMoV6 steel was selected as a workpiece. The carried out study included the stiffness measurement of the machining system, as well as the investigation of cutting force components. In this context, the surface topography parameters were evaluated using the stylus profile meter and analysed. The research revealed that the surface topography, alongside the 3D functional parameters, and PSD influences the performance of the machined surface. The lowest surface roughness parameters values, equalled to Sa = 1 μm and Sz = 4.3 μm have been obtained during turning with cutting speed vc = 90 m/min. The stable turning of variable compliance part affects the surface texture formation with a unidirectional perpendicular, anisotropic structure. Nevertheless, in case of unstable turning, the characteristic chatter marks are observed, and process dynamics has greater contribution in formation of surface finish than turning kinematics and elastic plastic deformation of workpiece.

  6. Surface Finish Effects Using Coating Method on 3D Printing (FDM) Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidiezul, AHM; Aiman, AF; Bakar, B.

    2018-03-01

    One of three-dimensional (3-D) printing economical processes is by using Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM). The 3-D printed object was built using layer-by-layer approach which caused “stair stepping” effects. This situation leads to uneven surface finish which mostly affect the objects appearance for product designers in presenting their models or prototypes. The objective of this paper is to examine the surface finish effects from the application of XTC-3D coating developed by Smooth-On, USA on the 3D printed parts. From the experimental works, this study shows the application of XTC-3D coating to the 3-D printed parts has improve the surface finish by reducing the gap between the layer

  7. Intercomparison of oceanic and atmospheric forced and coupled mesoscale simulations. Part I: Surface fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josse, P.; Caniaux, G.; Giordani, H.; Planton, S.

    1999-04-01

    A mesoscale non-hydrostatic atmospheric model has been coupled with a mesoscale oceanic model. The case study is a four-day simulation of a strong storm event observed during the SEMAPHORE experiment over a 500 × 500 km2 domain. This domain encompasses a thermohaline front associated with the Azores current. In order to analyze the effect of mesoscale coupling, three simulations are compared: the first one with the atmospheric model forced by realistic sea surface temperature analyses; the second one with the ocean model forced by atmospheric fields, derived from weather forecast re-analyses; the third one with the models being coupled. For these three simulations the surface fluxes were computed with the same bulk parametrization. All three simulations succeed well in representing the main oceanic or atmospheric features observed during the storm. Comparison of surface fields with in situ observations reveals that the winds of the fine mesh atmospheric model are more realistic than those of the weather forecast re-analyses. The low-level winds simulated with the atmospheric model in the forced and coupled simulations are appreciably stronger than the re-analyzed winds. They also generate stronger fluxes. The coupled simulation has the strongest surface heat fluxes: the difference in the net heat budget with the oceanic forced simulation reaches on average 50 Wm-2 over the simulation period. Sea surface-temperature cooling is too weak in both simulations, but is improved in the coupled run and matches better the cooling observed with drifters. The spatial distributions of sea surface-temperature cooling and surface fluxes are strongly inhomogeneous over the simulation domain. The amplitude of the flux variation is maximum in the coupled run. Moreover the weak correlation between the cooling and heat flux patterns indicates that the surface fluxes are not responsible for the whole cooling and suggests that the response of the ocean mixed layer to the atmosphere is

  8. The influence of land surface properties on Sahel climate. Part 1: Desertification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yongkang; Shukla, Jagadish

    1993-01-01

    This is a general circulation model sensitivity study of the physical mechanisms of the effects of desertification on the Sahel drought. The model vegetation types were changed in the prescribed desertification area, which led to changes in the surface characteristics. The model was integrated for three months (June, July, August) with climatological surface conditions (control) and desertification conditions (anomaly) to examine the summer season response to the changed surface conditions. The control and anomaly experiments consisted of five pairs of integrations with different initial conditions and/or sea surface temperature boundary conditions. In the desertification experiment, the moisture flux convergence and rainfall were reduced in the test area and increased to the immediate south of this area. The simulated anomaly dipole pattern was similar to the observed African drought patterns in which the axis of the maximum rainfall shifts to the south. The circulation changes in the desertification experiment were consistent with those observed during sub-Saharan dry years. The tropical easterly jet was weaker and the African easterly jet was stronger than normal. Further, in agreement with the observations, the easterly wave disturbances were reduced in intensity but not in number. Descending motion dominated the desertification area. The surface energy budget and hydrological cycle were also changed substantially in the anomaly experiment.

  9. Casting of microstructured shark skin surfaces and possible applications on aluminum casting parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Ivanov

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the project Functional Surfaces via Micro- and Nanoscaled Structures?which is part of the Cluster of Excellence 揑ntegrative Production Technology?established and financed by the German Research Foundation (DFG, an investment casting process to produce 3-dimensional functional surfaces down to a structural size of 1 μm on near-net-shape-casting parts has been developed. The common way to realize functional microstructures on metallic surfaces is to use laser ablation, electro discharge machining or micro milling. The handicap of these processes is their limited productivity. The approach of this project to raise the efficiency is to use the investment casting process to replicate microstructured surfaces by moulding from a laser-microstructured grand master pattern. The main research objective deals with the investigation of the single process steps of the investment casting process with regard to the moulding accuracy. Actual results concerning making of the wax pattern, suitability of ceramic mould and core materials for casting of an AlSi7Mg0.3 alloy as well as the knock-out behavior of the shells are presented. By using of the example of an intake manifold of a gasoline race car engine, a technical shark skin surface has been realized to reduce the drag of the intake air. The intake manifold consists of an air-restrictor with a defined inner diameter which is microstructured with technical shark skin riblets. For this reason the inner diameter cannot be drilled after casting and demands a very high accuracy of the casting part. A technology for the fabrication and demoulding of accurate microstructured castings are shown. Shrinkage factors of different moulding steps of the macroscopic casting part as well as the microscopic riblet structure have been examined as well.

  10. Results of PMIP2 coupled simulations of the Mid-Holocene and Last Glacial MaximumPart 2: feedbacks with emphasis on the location of the ITCZ and mid- and high latitudes heat budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A set of coupled ocean-atmosphere(-vegetation simulations using state of the art climate models is now available for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM and the Mid-Holocene (MH through the second phase of the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP2. Here we quantify the latitudinal shift of the location of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ in the tropical regions during boreal summer and the change in precipitation in the northern part of the ITCZ. For both periods the shift is more pronounced over the continents and East Asia. The maritime continent is the region where the largest spread is found between models. We also clearly establish that the larger the increase in the meridional temperature gradient in the tropical Atlantic during summer at the MH, the larger the change in precipitation over West Africa. The vegetation feedback is however not as large as found in previous studies, probably due to model differences in the control simulation. Finally, we show that the feedback from snow and sea-ice at mid and high latitudes contributes for half of the cooling in the Northern Hemisphere for the LGM, with the remaining being achieved by the reduced CO2 and water vapour in the atmosphere. For the MH the snow and albedo feedbacks strengthen the spring cooling and enhance the boreal summer warming, whereas water vapour reinforces the late summer warming. These feedbacks are modest in the Southern Hemisphere. For the LGM most of the surface cooling is due to CO2 and water vapour.

  11. Analytical mass formula and nuclear surface properties in the ETF approximation. Part I: symmetric nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymard, François; Gulminelli, Francesca; Margueron, Jérôme

    2016-08-01

    The problem of determination of nuclear surface energy is addressed within the framework of the extended Thomas Fermi (ETF) approximation using Skyrme functionals. We propose an analytical model for the density profiles with variationally determined diffuseness parameters. In this first paper, we consider the case of symmetric nuclei. In this situation, the ETF functional can be exactly integrated, leading to an analytical formula expressing the surface energy as a function of the couplings of the energy functional. The importance of non-local terms is stressed and it is shown that they cannot be deduced simply from the local part of the functional, as it was suggested in previous works.

  12. Numerical modelling of flexible pavement incorporating cross-anisotropic material properties. Part II: Surface rectangular loading

    OpenAIRE

    Maina, J W; Kawana, F; Matsui, K

    2017-01-01

    In order to better understand the impact of increased loading on roads, studies on tyre-road interaction have gained prominence in recent years. Tyres form an essential interface between vehicles and road pavement surfaces. These are the only parts of the vehicle that are in contact with the road and transmit the vehicle loading to the road surface. The use of the Cartesian coordinate system is convenient in dealing with a uniform/non-uniform tyre load acting over a rectangular area, but few ...

  13. MOUNTABILITY PARTS OF MACHINE WITH ROTATING SURFACE, FITTED WITH POSITIVE CLEARANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew BUDNIAK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper demonstrates the conditions of automatic assembly the parts of machines with rotating surfaces, fitted with positive clearance. Determination of the general condition of asseblability allowed for designation of the acceptable relative displacement and torsion axle, combined parts on the mounting position. The designation of depending allowed for assess the technological capacity of the installation equipment. On the basis of this mathematical model was developed a computer program that allows to determine the effect of geometric, strength and dynamic parameters of the assembly process. The examples of results of numerical calculations are shown in the graphs

  14. Injection moulding of plastic parts with laser textured surfaces with optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina-Estany, J.; García-Granada, A. A.; Corull-Massana, E.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to manufacture micro and nanotextured surfaces on plastic injection moulds with the aim of replicating them and obtaining plastic parts with optical applications. Different patterns are manufactured with nanosecond and femtosecond lasers in order to obtain three different optical applications: (i) homogeneous light diffusion (ii) 1D light directionality and (iii) 2D light directionality. Induction heating is used in the injections in order to improve the textures degree of replication. The steel mould and the plastic parts are analyzed with a confocal/focus variation microscope and with a surface roughness tester. A mock-up and a luminance camera are used to evaluate the homogeneity and luminance of the homogeneous light diffusion application in comparison with the current industrial solutions.

  15. Evaluation and Visualization of Surface Defects - a Numerical and Experimental Study on Sheet-Metal Parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, A.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to predict surface defects in outer panels is of vital importance in the automotive industry, especially for brands in the premium car segment. Today, measures to prevent these defects can not be taken until a test part has been manufactured, which requires a great deal of time and expense. The decision as to whether a certain surface is of acceptable quality or not is based on subjective evaluation. It is quite possible to detect a defect by measurement, but it is not possible to correlate measured defects and the subjective evaluation. If all results could be based on the same criteria, it would be possible to compare a surface by both FE simulations, experiments and subjective evaluation with the same result.In order to find a solution concerning the prediction of surface defects, a laboratory tool was manufactured and analysed both experimentally and numerically. The tool represents the area around a fuel filler lid and the aim was to recreate surface defects, so-called 'teddy bear ears'. A major problem with the evaluation of such defects is that the panels are evaluated manually and to a great extent subjectivity is involved in the classification and judgement of the defects. In this study the same computer software was used for the evaluation of both the experimental and the numerical results. In this software the surface defects were indicated by a change in the curvature of the panel. The results showed good agreement between numerical and experimental results. Furthermore, the evaluation software gave a good indication of the appearance of the surface defects compared to an analysis done in existing tools for surface quality measurements. Since the agreement between numerical and experimental results was good, this indicates that these tools can be used for an early verification of surface defects in outer panels

  16. Intercomparison of oceanic and atmospheric forced and coupled mesoscale simulations Part I: Surface fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Josse

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available A mesoscale non-hydrostatic atmospheric model has been coupled with a mesoscale oceanic model. The case study is a four-day simulation of a strong storm event observed during the SEMAPHORE experiment over a 500 × 500 km2 domain. This domain encompasses a thermohaline front associated with the Azores current. In order to analyze the effect of mesoscale coupling, three simulations are compared: the first one with the atmospheric model forced by realistic sea surface temperature analyses; the second one with the ocean model forced by atmospheric fields, derived from weather forecast re-analyses; the third one with the models being coupled. For these three simulations the surface fluxes were computed with the same bulk parametrization. All three simulations succeed well in representing the main oceanic or atmospheric features observed during the storm. Comparison of surface fields with in situ observations reveals that the winds of the fine mesh atmospheric model are more realistic than those of the weather forecast re-analyses. The low-level winds simulated with the atmospheric model in the forced and coupled simulations are appreciably stronger than the re-analyzed winds. They also generate stronger fluxes. The coupled simulation has the strongest surface heat fluxes: the difference in the net heat budget with the oceanic forced simulation reaches on average 50 Wm-2 over the simulation period. Sea surface-temperature cooling is too weak in both simulations, but is improved in the coupled run and matches better the cooling observed with drifters. The spatial distributions of sea surface-temperature cooling and surface fluxes are strongly inhomogeneous over the simulation domain. The amplitude of the flux variation is maximum in the coupled run. Moreover the weak correlation between the cooling and heat flux patterns indicates that the surface fluxes are not responsible for the whole cooling and suggests that the response of the ocean mixed layer

  17. Intercomparison of oceanic and atmospheric forced and coupled mesoscale simulations Part I: Surface fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Giordani

    Full Text Available A mesoscale non-hydrostatic atmospheric model has been coupled with a mesoscale oceanic model. The case study is a four-day simulation of a strong storm event observed during the SEMAPHORE experiment over a 500 × 500 km2 domain. This domain encompasses a thermohaline front associated with the Azores current. In order to analyze the effect of mesoscale coupling, three simulations are compared: the first one with the atmospheric model forced by realistic sea surface temperature analyses; the second one with the ocean model forced by atmospheric fields, derived from weather forecast re-analyses; the third one with the models being coupled. For these three simulations the surface fluxes were computed with the same bulk parametrization. All three simulations succeed well in representing the main oceanic or atmospheric features observed during the storm. Comparison of surface fields with in situ observations reveals that the winds of the fine mesh atmospheric model are more realistic than those of the weather forecast re-analyses. The low-level winds simulated with the atmospheric model in the forced and coupled simulations are appreciably stronger than the re-analyzed winds. They also generate stronger fluxes. The coupled simulation has the strongest surface heat fluxes: the difference in the net heat budget with the oceanic forced simulation reaches on average 50 Wm-2 over the simulation period. Sea surface-temperature cooling is too weak in both simulations, but is improved in the coupled run and matches better the cooling observed with drifters. The spatial distributions of sea surface-temperature cooling and surface fluxes are strongly inhomogeneous over the simulation domain. The amplitude of the flux variation is maximum in the coupled run. Moreover the weak correlation between the cooling and heat flux patterns indicates that the surface fluxes are not responsible for the whole cooling and suggests that the response of the ocean mixed layer

  18. Study on the radon content of the surface and groundwaters in southern part of Calcutta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, S B; Datta, J; Ghosh, S [Jadavpur Univ., Calcutta (India). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1979-07-01

    The radon level of the surface and groundwaters has been determined in the southern part of Calcutta in 1976. The experimental setup is made highly sensitive so as to monitor the activity upto the range of 10sup(-17) curies per litre. The mean activities in this area are 0.569, 0.404, 0.458 and 0.988 pico-curies respectively for the samples from the surface, 30.5 m., 152.5 m and 244 m. depth. The chlorides and the total dissolved substances in the samples vary with the depth as the radon content does. The activity of the samples from the Bengal Lamp area, which is just below the permissible limit, gives out a sharp peak above the mean value. It is considered that this is arising out of some external contamination and is likely to be derived from some radioactive wastes from the nearby laboratories.

  19. Sparking-out optimization while surface grinding aluminum alloy 1933T2 parts using fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Ya I.; Salov, V. M.; Kien Nguyen, Chi

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the results of a search for optimal sparing-out strokes when surface grinding aluminum parts by high-porous wheels Norton of black silicon carbide 37C80K12VP using fuzzy logic. The topography of grinded surface is evaluated according to the following parameters: roughness – Ra, Rmax, Sm; indicators of flatness deviation – EFEmax, EFEa, EFEq; microhardness HV, each of these parameters is represented by two measures of position and dispersion. The simulation results of fuzzy logic in the Matlab medium establish that during the grinding of alloy 1933T2, the best integral performance evaluation of sparking-out was given to two double-strokes (d=0.827) and the worst – to three ones (d=0.405).

  20. Shrinkage Analysis on Thick Plate Part using Response Surface Methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isafiq M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work reported herein is about an analysis on the quality (shrinkage on a thick plate part using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Previous researches showed that the most influential factor affecting the shrinkage on moulded parts are mould and melt temperature. Autodesk Moldflow Insight software was used for the analysis, while specifications of Nessei NEX 1000 injection moulding machine and P20 mould material were incorporated in this study on top of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS as a moulded thermoplastic material. Mould temperature, melt temperature, packing pressure and packing time were selected as variable parameters. The results show that the shrinkage have improved 42.48% and 14.41% in parallel and normal directions respectively after the optimisation process.

  1. Optimisation of process parameters on thin shell part using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, J. M.; Shayfull, Z.; Nasir, S. M.; Fathullah, M.; Rashidi, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    This study is carried out to focus on optimisation of process parameters by simulation using Autodesk Moldflow Insight (AMI) software. The process parameters are taken as the input in order to analyse the warpage value which is the output in this study. There are some significant parameters that have been used which are melt temperature, mould temperature, packing pressure, and cooling time. A plastic part made of Polypropylene (PP) has been selected as the study part. Optimisation of process parameters is applied in Design Expert software with the aim to minimise the obtained warpage value. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been applied in this study together with Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) in order to investigate the interactions between parameters that are significant to the warpage value. Thus, the optimised warpage value can be obtained using the model designed using RSM due to its minimum error value. This study comes out with the warpage value improved by using RSM.

  2. Surface characterization of activated chalcopyrite particles via the FLSmidth ROL process. Part 1: Electron microscope investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karcz, Adam Paul; Damø, Anne Juul; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    Because of its unique semiconductor properties, the world’s most abundant copper mineral (chalcopyrite) is refractory with respect to atmospheric leaching using traditional ferric sulfate lixiviants. A novel approach to address this issue – conducted at FLSmidth – utilizes a mechanochemical Rapid...... of copper(II) to dope the semiconductor lattice and thereby "activate" the chalcopyrite, thereby reducing leach times below 2 hours (>98% recovery). Because the activation plays a major role in accelerating the leaching step, it is critical to understand the nature of this intermediate and its part...... in the ROL process. The current work presents results from electron microscope investigations of surface-activated particles....

  3. Warpage analysis on thin shell part using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulhasif, Z.; Shayfull, Z.; Nasir, S. M.; Fathullah, M.; Hazwan, M. H. M.

    2017-09-01

    The optimisation of moulding parameters appropriate to reduce warpage defects produce using Autodesk Moldflow Insight (AMI) 2012 software The product is injected by using Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) materials. This analysis has processing parameter that varies in melting temperature, mould temperature, packing pressure and packing time. Design of Experiments (DOE) has been integrated to obtain a polynomial model using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The Glowworm Swarm Optimisation (GSO) method is used to predict a best combination parameters to minimise warpage defect in order to produce high quality parts.

  4. Distribution of phytoplankton groups within the deep chlorophyll maximum

    KAUST Repository

    Latasa, Mikel; Cabello, Ana Marí a; Moran, Xose Anxelu G.; Massana, Ramon; Scharek, Renate

    2016-01-01

    and optical and FISH microscopy. All groups presented minimum abundances at the surface and a maximum in the DCM layer. The cell distribution was not vertically symmetrical around the DCM peak and cells tended to accumulate in the upper part of the DCM layer

  5. Mathematical Optimal Sequence Model Development to Process Planes and Other Interconnected Surfaces of Complex Body Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Kravchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience in application of multi-operational machines CNC (MOM CNC shows that they are efficient only in case of significantly increasing productivity and dramatically reducing time-to-market cycle of new products. Most full technological MOM capabilities are revealed when processing the complex body parts. The more complex is a part design and the more is its number of machined surfaces, the more tools are necessary for its processing and positioning, the more is an efficiency of their application. At the same time, the case history of using these machines in industry shows that MOM CNC are, virtually, used mostly for technological processes of universal equipment, which is absolutely unacceptable. One way to improve the processing performance on MOM CNC is to reduce nonproductive machine time through reducing the mutual idle movements of the working machine. This problem is solved using dynamic programming methods, one of which is the solution of the traveling salesman problem (Bellman's method. With a known plan for treatment of all elementary surfaces of the body part, i.e. the known number of performed transitions, each transition is represented as a vertex of some graph, while technological links between the vertices are its edges. A mathematical model is developed on the Bellman principle, which is adapted to technological tasks to minimize the idle time of mutual idle movements of the working machine to perform all transitions in the optimal sequence. The initial data to fill matrix of time expenditures are time consumed by the hardware after executing the i-th transition, and necessary to complete the j-transition. The programmer fills in matrix cells according to known routing body part taking into account the time for part and table positioning, tool exchange, spindle and table approach to the working zone, and the time of table rotation, etc. The mathematical model was tested when machining the body part with 36 transitions on the

  6. Surface motion induced by nuclear explosions beneath Pahute Mesa. Part I. Halfbreak, Greeley, Scotch, Boxcar events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret, W.R.

    1976-10-01

    Results of surface motion studies conducted by Sandia Laboratories during seven underground nuclear explosions detonated beneath Pahute Mesa, Areas 19 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, between 1966 and 1973 are reported. The report is divided into two parts of which this, Part I, includes (1) descriptions of the Pahute Mesa geological environment and of the purposes and instrumentation used in these programs (Chapter 1), and (2) description of four events, the data derived from each, and analysis of these data. These Part I events are HALFBEAK (Chapter 2), GREELEY (Chapter 3), SCOTCH (Chapter 4), and BOXCAR (Chapter 5) for all of which a nominally radial array of gage stations yielded data as a function of distance primarily, although in a few cases data were derived from stations at widely separated azimuths from the explosion. Results of the analysis indicate that average propagation velocity through the geologic column between the explosions and mesa surface was about 8800 ft/sec and that for horizontal distances greater than shot depth, refraction occurred within rhyolite flows with characteristic velocity of about 12,300 ft/sec. There is evidence which suggests possible deeper refraction at a velocity between 18,000 and 21,000 ft/sec. Only the verticle motion peaks follow a pattern amenable to regression analysis because geometrical effects influence horizontal motion amplitudes differently as horizontal distances increase. Particle velocities vary roughly as the inverse square of slant or radial range with exponent values ranging from -3.9 to -1.3. Displacements follow a similar pattern with exponents ranging from about -6 to -2. Displacement profiles at various times during the motion and displacement hodographs in the vertical-radial plane aid in understanding several local phenomena implied by individual motion records

  7. The last glacial maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P.U.; Dyke, A.S.; Shakun, J.D.; Carlson, A.E.; Clark, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; McCabe, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level ???14.5 ka.

  8. Probable maximum flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L.

    1991-11-01

    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility

  9. Two sides of the coin. Part 2. Colloid and surface science meets real biointerfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninham, Barry W; Larsson, Kåre; Lo Nostro, Pierandrea

    2017-11-01

    Part 1 revisited developments in lipid and surfactant self assembly over the past 40 years [1]. New concepts emerged. Here we explore how these developments can be used to make sense of and bring order to a range of complex biological phenomena. Together with Part 1, this contribution is a fundamental revision of intuition at the boundaries of Colloid Science and Biological interfaces from a perspective of nearly 50 years. We offer new insights on a unified treatment of self assembly of lipids, surfactants and proteins in the light of developments presented in Part 1. These were in the enabling disciplines in molecular forces, hydration, oil and electrolyte specificity; and in the role of non Euclidean geometries-across the whole gammut of physical, colloid and surface chemistry, biophysics and membrane biology and medicine. It is where the early founders of the cell theory of biology and the physiologists expected advances to occur as D'Arcy Thompson predicted us 100 years ago. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of the shrinkage at the thick plate part using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatta, N. M.; Azlan, M. Z.; Shayfull, Z.; Roselina, S.; Nasir, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    Injection moulding is well known for its manufacturing process especially in producing plastic products. To measure the final product quality, there are lots of precautions to be taken into such as parameters setting at the initial stage of the process. Sometimes, if these parameters were set up wrongly, defects may be occurred and one of the well-known defects in the injection moulding process is a shrinkage. To overcome this problem, a maximisation at the precaution stage by making an optimal adjustment on the parameter setting need to be done and this paper focuses on analysing the shrinkage by optimising the parameter at thick plate part with the help of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and ANOVA analysis. From the previous study, the outstanding parameter gained from the optimisation method in minimising the shrinkage at the moulded part was packing pressure. Therefore, with the reference from the previous literature, packing pressure was selected as the parameter setting for this study with other three parameters which are melt temperature, cooling time and mould temperature. The analysis of the process was obtained from the simulation by Autodesk Moldflow Insight (AMI) software and the material used for moulded part was Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS). The analysis and result were obtained and it found that the shrinkage can be minimised and the significant parameters were found as packing pressure, mould temperature and melt temperature.

  11. Reference sources for the calibration of surface contamination monitors - Beta-emitters (maximum beta energy greater than MeV) and alpha-emitters (International Standard Publication ISO 8769:1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, J.

    2001-01-01

    This International Standard specifies the characteristics of reference sources of radioactive surface contamination, traceable to national measurement standards, for the calibration of surface contamination monitors. This International Standard relates to alpha-emitters and to beta-emitters of maximum beta energy greater than 0,15 MeV. It does not describe the procedures involved in the use of these reference sources for the calibration of surface contamination monitors. Such procedures are specified in IEC Publication 325 and other documents. This International Standard specifies reference radiations for the calibration of surface contamination monitors which take the form of adequately characterized large area sources specified, without exception, in terms of activity and surface emission rate, the evaluation of these quantities being traceable to national standards

  12. Final Rule to Reduce Toxic Air Pollutants from Surface Coating of Plastic Parts and Products Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains an August 2004 fact sheet with information regarding the final NESHAP for Surface Coating of Plastic Parts and Products. This document provides a summary of the information for the information for this regulation.

  13. Thermal dimensioning of the deep repository. Influence of canister spacing, canister power, rock thermal properties and nearfield design on the maximum canister surface temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekmark, Harald; Faelth, Billy

    2003-12-01

    The report addresses the problem of the minimum spacing required between neighbouring canisters in the deep repository. That spacing is calculated for a number of assumptions regarding the conditions that govern the temperature in the nearfield and at the surfaces of the canisters. The spacing criterion is that the temperature at the canister surfaces must not exceed 100 deg C .The results are given in the form of nomographic charts, such that it is in principle possible to determine the spacing as soon as site data, i.e. the initial undisturbed rock temperature and the host rock heat transport properties, are available. Results of canister spacing calculations are given for the KBS-3V concept as well as for the KBS-3H concept. A combination of numerical and analytical methods is used for the KBS-3H calculations, while the KBS-3V calculations are purely analytical. Both methods are described in detail. Open gaps are assigned equivalent heat conductivities, calculated such that the conduction across the gaps will include also the heat transferred by radiation. The equivalent heat conductivities are based on the emissivities of the different gap surfaces. For the canister copper surface, the emissivity is determined by back-calculation of temperatures measured in the Prototype experiment at Aespoe HRL. The size of the different gaps and the emissivity values are of great importance for the results and will be investigated further in the future

  14. Site descriptive modeling as a part of site characterization in Sweden - Concluding the surface based investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Winberg, Anders; Skagius, Kristina; Stroem, Anders; Lindborg, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, is currently finalizing its surface based site investigations for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel in the municipalities of Oestharmnar (the Forsmark area) and Oskarshamn (the Simpevar/Laxemar area). The investigation data are assessed into a Site Descriptive Model, constituting a synthesis of geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydro-geochemistry, transport properties and a surface system description. Site data constitute a wide range of different measurement results. These data both need to be checked for consistency and to be interpreted into a format more amenable for three-dimensional modeling. The three-dimensional modeling (i.e. estimating the distribution of parameter values in space) is made in a sequence where the geometrical framework is taken from the geological models and in turn used by the rock mechanics, thermal and hydrogeological modeling. These disciplines in turn are partly interrelated, and also provide feedback to the geological modeling, especially if the geological description appears unreasonable when assessed together with the other data. Procedures for assessing the uncertainties and the confidence in the modeling have been developed during the course of the site modeling. These assessments also provide key input to the completion of the site investigation program. (authors)

  15. Approximate maximum parsimony and ancestral maximum likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Noga; Chor, Benny; Pardi, Fabio; Rapoport, Anat

    2010-01-01

    We explore the maximum parsimony (MP) and ancestral maximum likelihood (AML) criteria in phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Both problems are NP-hard, so we seek approximate solutions. We formulate the two problems as Steiner tree problems under appropriate distances. The gist of our approach is the succinct characterization of Steiner trees for a small number of leaves for the two distances. This enables the use of known Steiner tree approximation algorithms. The approach leads to a 16/9 approximation ratio for AML and asymptotically to a 1.55 approximation ratio for MP.

  16. Interaction of the wood surface with metal ions. Part 3: The effects of light on chromium impregnated wood surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stipta, J.; Németh, K.; Molnárné Hamvas, L.

    2004-01-01

    UV-light changes of untreated and chromium impregnated wood surface were investigated by absorption spectrophotometric methods. The properties of indifferent silicagel and celulose layers were to the behaviour of poplar and black locust surface. Chromic-ion-impregnation had no significant effect on the absorption spectra of these layers. On the other hand, hexavalent chromium was reduced and UV-light caused irreversible wood degradation. Surface treatment caused considerable modification in black locust

  17. Maximum permissible dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This chapter presents a historic overview of the establishment of radiation guidelines by various national and international agencies. The use of maximum permissible dose and maximum permissible body burden limits to derive working standards is discussed

  18. The PMIP4 Contribution to CMIP6-Part 4: Scientific Objectives and Experimental Design of the PMIP4-CMIP6 Last Glacial Maximum Experiments and PMIP4 Sensitivity Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Masa; Albani, Samuel; Braconnot, Pascale; Harrison, Sandy P.; Hopcroft, Peter O.; Ivanovic, Ruza F.; Lambert, Fabrice; Marti, Olivier; Peltier, W. Richard; Peterschmitt, Jean-Yves; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21,000 years ago) is one of the suite of paleoclimate simulations included in the current phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). It is an interval when insolation was similar to the present, but global ice volume was at a maximum, eustatic sea level was at or close to a minimum, greenhouse gas concentrations were lower, atmospheric aerosol loadings were higher than today, and vegetation and land-surface characteristics were different from today. The LGM has been a focus for the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) since its inception, and thus many of the problems that might be associated with simulating such a radically different climate are well documented. The LGM state provides an ideal case study for evaluating climate model performance because the changes in forcing and temperature between the LGM and pre-industrial are of the same order of magnitude as those projected for the end of the 21st century. Thus, the CMIP6 LGM experiment could provide additional information that can be used to constrain estimates of climate sensitivity. The design of the Tier 1 LGM experiment (lgm) includes an assessment of uncertainties in boundary conditions, in particular through the use of different reconstructions of the ice sheets and of the change in dust forcing. Additional (Tier 2) sensitivity experiments have been designed to quantify feedbacks associated with land-surface changes and aerosol loadings, and to isolate the role of individual forcings. Model analysis and evaluation will capitalize on the relative abundance of paleoenvironmental observations and quantitative climate reconstructions already available for the LGM.

  19. The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 - Part 4: Scientific objectives and experimental design of the PMIP4-CMIP6 Last Glacial Maximum experiments and PMIP4 sensitivity experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Masa; Albani, Samuel; Braconnot, Pascale; Harrison, Sandy P.; Hopcroft, Peter O.; Ivanovic, Ruza F.; Lambert, Fabrice; Marti, Olivier; Peltier, W. Richard; Peterschmitt, Jean-Yves; Roche, Didier M.; Tarasov, Lev; Zhang, Xu; Brady, Esther C.; Haywood, Alan M.; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Mahowald, Natalie M.; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Renssen, Hans; Tomas, Robert A.; Zhang, Qiong; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Cao, Jian; Li, Qiang; Lohmann, Gerrit; Ohgaito, Rumi; Shi, Xiaoxu; Volodin, Evgeny; Yoshida, Kohei; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Weipeng

    2017-11-01

    The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 000 years ago) is one of the suite of paleoclimate simulations included in the current phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). It is an interval when insolation was similar to the present, but global ice volume was at a maximum, eustatic sea level was at or close to a minimum, greenhouse gas concentrations were lower, atmospheric aerosol loadings were higher than today, and vegetation and land-surface characteristics were different from today. The LGM has been a focus for the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) since its inception, and thus many of the problems that might be associated with simulating such a radically different climate are well documented. The LGM state provides an ideal case study for evaluating climate model performance because the changes in forcing and temperature between the LGM and pre-industrial are of the same order of magnitude as those projected for the end of the 21st century. Thus, the CMIP6 LGM experiment could provide additional information that can be used to constrain estimates of climate sensitivity. The design of the Tier 1 LGM experiment (lgm) includes an assessment of uncertainties in boundary conditions, in particular through the use of different reconstructions of the ice sheets and of the change in dust forcing. Additional (Tier 2) sensitivity experiments have been designed to quantify feedbacks associated with land-surface changes and aerosol loadings, and to isolate the role of individual forcings. Model analysis and evaluation will capitalize on the relative abundance of paleoenvironmental observations and quantitative climate reconstructions already available for the LGM.

  20. The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 – Part 4: Scientific objectives and experimental design of the PMIP4-CMIP6 Last Glacial Maximum experiments and PMIP4 sensitivity experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kageyama

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 000 years ago is one of the suite of paleoclimate simulations included in the current phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6. It is an interval when insolation was similar to the present, but global ice volume was at a maximum, eustatic sea level was at or close to a minimum, greenhouse gas concentrations were lower, atmospheric aerosol loadings were higher than today, and vegetation and land-surface characteristics were different from today. The LGM has been a focus for the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP since its inception, and thus many of the problems that might be associated with simulating such a radically different climate are well documented. The LGM state provides an ideal case study for evaluating climate model performance because the changes in forcing and temperature between the LGM and pre-industrial are of the same order of magnitude as those projected for the end of the 21st century. Thus, the CMIP6 LGM experiment could provide additional information that can be used to constrain estimates of climate sensitivity. The design of the Tier 1 LGM experiment (lgm includes an assessment of uncertainties in boundary conditions, in particular through the use of different reconstructions of the ice sheets and of the change in dust forcing. Additional (Tier 2 sensitivity experiments have been designed to quantify feedbacks associated with land-surface changes and aerosol loadings, and to isolate the role of individual forcings. Model analysis and evaluation will capitalize on the relative abundance of paleoenvironmental observations and quantitative climate reconstructions already available for the LGM.

  1. Surface integrity and part accuracy in reaming and tapping stainless steel with new vegetable based cutting oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the effect of new formulations of vegetable oils on surface integrity and part accuracy in reaming and tapping operations with AISI 316L stainless steel. Surface integrity was assessed with measurements of roughness, microhardness, and using metallographic...... as part accuracy. Cutting fluids based on vegetable oils showed comparable or better performance than mineral oils. ÆÉ2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd....... techniques, while part accuracy was measured on a coordinate measuring machine. A widely diffused commercial mineral oil was used as reference for all measurements. Cutting fluid was found to have a significant effect on surface integrity and thickness of the strain hardened layer in the sub-surface, as well...

  2. Glacial evolution in King George and Livingston Islands (Antarctica) since the Last Glacial Maximum based on cosmogenic nuclide dating and glacier surface reconstruction - CRONOANTAR project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Fernández, Jesús; Oliva, Marc; Fernández Menéndez, Susana del Carmen; García Hernández, Cristina; Menéndez Duarte, Rosa Ana; Pellitero Ondicol, Ramón; Pérez Alberti, Augusto; Schimmelpfennig, Irene

    2017-04-01

    CRONOANTAR brings together researchers from Spain, Portugal, France and United Kingdom with the objective of spatially and temporally reconstruct the deglaciation process at the two largest islands in the South Shetlands Archipelago (Maritime Antarctica), since the Global Last Glacial Maximum. Glacier retreat in polar areas has major implications at a local, regional and even planetary scale. Global average sea level rise is the most obvious and socio-economically relevant, but there are others such as the arrival of new fauna to deglaciated areas, plant colonisation or permafrost formation and degradation. This project will study the ice-free areas in Byers and Hurd peninsulas (Livingston Island) and Fildes and Potter peninsulas (King George Island). Ice-cap glacier retreat chronology will be revealed by the use of cosmogenic isotopes (mainly 36Cl) on glacially originated sedimentary and erosive records. Cosmogenic dating will be complemented by other dating methods (C14 and OSL), which will permit the validation of these methods in regions with cold-based glaciers. Given the geomorphological evidences and the obtained ages, a deglaciation calendar will be proposed and we will use a GIS methodology to reconstruct the glacier extent and the ice thickness. The results emerging from this project will allow to assess whether the high glacier retreat rates observed during the last decades were registered in the past, or if they are conversely the consequence (and evidence) of the Global Change in Antarctica. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness (Reference: CTM2016-77878-P).

  3. Impact of chemical polishing on surface roughness and dimensional quality of electron beam melting process (EBM) parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolimont, Adrien; Rivière-Lorphèvre, Edouard; Ducobu, François; Backaert, Stéphane

    2018-05-01

    Additive manufacturing is growing faster and faster. This leads us to study the functionalization of the parts that are produced by these processes. Electron Beam melting (EBM) is one of these technologies. It is a powder based additive manufacturing (AM) method. With this process, it is possible to manufacture high-density metal parts with complex topology. One of the big problems with these technologies is the surface finish. To improve the quality of the surface, some finishing operations are needed. In this study, the focus is set on chemical polishing. The goal is to determine how the chemical etching impacts the dimensional accuracy and the surface roughness of EBM parts. To this end, an experimental campaign was carried out on the most widely used material in EBM, Ti6Al4V. Different exposure times were tested. The impact of these times on surface quality was evaluated. To help predicting the excess thickness to be provided, the dimensional impact of chemical polishing on EBM parts was estimated. 15 parts were measured before and after chemical machining. The improvement of surface quality was also evaluated after each treatment.

  4. Shaded Spacecraft Radiators to Be Used on the Daytime Surface of the Mercury Planet, the Moon, and Asteroids of the Solar System Inner Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Igrickii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the daytime a surface of the Moon, Mercury planet, and asteroids of the Solar system inner part, significantly heats up, and infrared radiation of the local soil becomes essential. At the same time direct solar radiation and reflected from the surface solar radiation reach the maximum too. These radiation fluxes can significantly decrease the efficiency of spacecraft radiators in the daytime. This effect is especially strong on the Mercury surface where direct solar radiation is 10 times stronger than solar radiation near the Earth. As a result, on the daytime surface of the Mercury the conventional low-temperature radiators become completely disabled.The article describes the development of the special shaded spacecraft radiators to be used in daytime on the Mercury and other atmosphereless bodies of the Solar system inner part. To solve this task are used mirror shades. The shape of these shades is developed to improve operation conditions of the spacecraft radiator through the appropriate scheme of radiation reflection. The task is discussed in 2D and 3D cases. A new design of shaded spacecraft radiators is proposed, and reasonable proportions of radiators are determined. The performance capability of proposed radiators for environments of the Mercury and the Moon is estimated using the zonal method in view of partial mirror reflection. The calculations showed that the developed shaded spacecraft radiators are capable to work on the Mercury surface as the low-temperature radiators even during the daytime. New radiators provide minimum accepted operating temperature of 241К (-32°С, meanwhile radiators of common design have minimum operating temperature of 479К (206°С. Using such radiators on the Moon enables us to increase effectiveness of spacecraft radiators and to decrease their minimum operating temperature from 270К (-3°С to 137К (-136°С.

  5. Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics Analyses for Circumferential Part-Through Surface Cracks at the Interface Between elbows and Pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tae Kwang; Oh, Chang Kyun; Kim, Yun Jae; Kim, Jong Sung; Jin, Tae Eun

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents plastic limit loads and approximate J-integral estimates for circumferential part-through surface crack at the interface between elbows and pipes. Based on finite element limit analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic materials, plastic limit moments under in-plane bending are obtained and it is found that they are similar those for circumferential part-through surface cracks in the center of elbow. Based on present FE results, closed-form limit load solutions are proposed. Welds are not explicitly considered and all materials are assumed to be homogeneous. And the method to estimate the elastic-plastic J-integral for circumferential part-through surface cracks at the interface between elbows and straight pipes is proposed based on the reference stress approach, which was compared with corresponding solutions for straight pipes

  6. Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics Analyses For circumferential Part-through Surface Cracks At The Interface Between Elbows and Pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tae Kwang; Kim, Yun Jae; Oh, Chang Kyun; Kim, Jong Sung; Jin, Tae Eun

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents plastic limit loads and approximate J-integral estimates for circumferential part-through surface crack at the interface between elbows and pipes. Based on finite element limit analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic materials, plastic limit moments under in-plane bending are obtained and it is found that they are similar those for circumferential part-through surface cracks in the center of elbow. Based on present FE results, closed-form limit load solutions are proposed. Welds are not explicitly considered and all materials are assumed to be homogeneous. And the method to estimate the elastic-plastic J-integral for circumferential part-through surface cracks at the interface between elbows and straight pipes is proposed based on the reference stress approach, which was compared with corresponding solutions for straight pipes

  7. THERAPEUTIC EYELIDS HYGIENE IN THE ALGORITHMS OF PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF OCULAR SURFACE DISEASES. PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Trubilin

    2016-01-01

    problem of modern ophthalmology.Part 1 — Trubilin VN, Poluninа EG, Kurenkov VV, Kapkova SG, Markova EY, Therapeutic eyelids hygiene in the algorithms of prevention and treatment of ocular surface diseases. Ophthalmology in Russia. 2016;13(2:122–127 doi: 10.18008/1816–5095– 2016–2–122–127

  8. Whole effluent assessment of industrial wastewater for determination of BAT compliance. Part 2: metal surface treatment industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartiser, Stefan; Hafner, Christoph; Hercher, Christoph; Kronenberger-Schäfer, Kerstin; Paschke, Albrecht

    2010-06-01

    maximum conductivity of the samples was 43,700 microS cm(-1) and indicates that salts might contribute to the overall toxicity. Half of the wastewater samples proved to be biologically well treatable in the Zahn-Wellens test with COD elimination above 80%, whilst the others were insufficiently biodegraded (COD elimination 28-74%). After the pretreatment in the Zahn-Wellens test, wastewater samples from four (out of ten) companies were extremely ecotoxic especially to algae (maximum LID(A) = 16,384). Three wastewater samples were genotoxic in the umu test. Applying the rules for salt correction of test results as allowed in the German Wastewater Ordinance, only a small part of toxicity could be attributed to salts. Considering the PBS, wastewater from the metal surface treatment industry exhibited very low levels of PBS. In one factory, the origin of ecotoxicity has been attributed to the organosulphide dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC) used as a water treatment chemical for metal precipitation. The assumption based on rough calculation of input of the organosulphide into the wastewater was confirmed in practice by testing its ecotoxicity at the corresponding dilution ratio after pretreatment in the Zahn-Wellens test. Whilst the COD elimination of DMDTC was only 32% in 7 days, the pretreated sample exhibited a high ecotoxicity to algae (LID(A) = 1,536) and luminescent bacteria (LID(lb) = 256). Comparative data from wastewater surveillance by authorities (data from 1993 to 2007) confirmed the range of ecotoxicity observed in the study. Whilst wastewater from the metal surface treatment industry usually did not exhibit ecotoxicity (median LID 1-2), the maximum LID values reported for the algae, daphnia and luminescent bacteria tests were very high (LID(A) up to 3,072, LID(D) up to 512 and LID(lb) up to 2,048). DMDTC was found to be one important source of ecotoxicity in galvanic wastewater. DMDTC is added in surplus, and according to the supplier, the amount in excess should

  9. THE DESIGN OF KNOWLEDGE BASE FOR SURFACE RELATIONS BASED PART RECOGNITION APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem ÇİÇEK

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new knowledge base for an expert system used in part recognition algorithm has been designed. Parts are recognized by the computer program by comparing face adjacency relations and attributes belonging to each part represented in the rules in the knowledge base developed with face adjacency relations and attributes generated from STEP file of the part. Besides, rule writing process has been quite simplified by generating the rules represented in the knowledge base with an automatic rule writing module developed within the system. With the knowledge base and automatic rule writing module used in the part recognition system, simple, intermediate and complex parts can be recognized by a part recognition program.

  10. On a research of the jet stream power generation. Part 2. Maximum height of a flying kite; Jet kiryu hatsuden no kenkyu. 2. Tako no totatsu kodo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyashita, J. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology

    1998-04-05

    Tethering cable was investigated as a part of a research of jet stream power generation using balloon and kite. Recently, there appeared new materials with light and high strength properties, such as carbon and polyamide resin. When these are used as tethering cables, flying ability of tethered bodies is remarkably improved. Tethered balloon at the altitude of 6500 feet and large-scale kite at the altitude of 5000 m are proposed for the idea of jet stream power generation. A computer program was developed for determining the flying ability of a kite, to calculate it. Similarity rule was also determined by the dimensional analysis. For a kite with a tethering cable having uniform diameter and specific gravity, the similarity can be obtained when two kinds of similarity rules are satisfied. One is (length of tethering cable/width of kite wing)times(dynamic pressure of air/tensile strength of cable){sup 1/2}=(constant). Another is (length of tethering cable)times(density of cable/tensile strength of cable)=(constant). Since the maximum height is in proportion to (strength/specific gravity) of the cable, it increases drastically using high performance materials. It is affected by the aerodynamic performance of the kite and the safety factor of strength of the cable. 4 refs., 45 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Maximum Acceleration Recording Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Coarsely digitized maximum levels recorded in blown fuses. Circuit feeds power to accelerometer and makes nonvolatile record of maximum level to which output of accelerometer rises during measurement interval. In comparison with inertia-type single-preset-trip-point mechanical maximum-acceleration-recording devices, circuit weighs less, occupies less space, and records accelerations within narrower bands of uncertainty. In comparison with prior electronic data-acquisition systems designed for same purpose, circuit simpler, less bulky, consumes less power, costs and analysis of data recorded in magnetic or electronic memory devices. Circuit used, for example, to record accelerations to which commodities subjected during transportation on trucks.

  12. Rendering of surface-geometries at job-generation level for camouflaging the layered nature of Additively Manufactured parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D. B.; Hansen, H. N.; Nielsen, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The layered nature of Additive Manufactured parts, specifically those given from the Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) process, exhibit a distinct surface definition. The origin of this is from the 2.5D deposition scheme, which leaves the seam between the individual layers clearly visible.[1...

  13. The influence of rolled erosion control systems on soil temperature and surface albedo: part I. A greenhouse experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, R.A.; Menard, T.; Perry, J.L.; Penn, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    A greenhouse study examined the influences of various surface covers (a bare control soil and seven rolled erosion control systems—RECS) on surface radiative properties, and soil temperature. In our companion paper we examine relationships with soil moisture, biomass production, and nutrient assimilation. Randomization and replication were key components to our study of microclimate under tropical radiation conditions. The bare Oxisol control soil exhibited the most extreme microclimatic conditions with the lowest albedo (not significantly different from that of P300© North American Green, a dark green polypropylene system), and the highest mean and maximum hourly temperatures recorded at depths of 5 and 8 cm. This hostile climatic environment was not conducive to biomass production or moisture storage and it is likely that the observed soil surface crusts impeded plant emergence. Rolled erosion control systems, on the other hand, generally moderated soil temperatures by reflecting more shortwave radiation, implying less heat energy at the surface for conduction to the soil. The result was that RECS exhibited lower mean soil temperatures, higher minimum temperatures and lower maximum soil temperatures. An aspen excelsior system (Curlex I© Excelsior) had the highest albedo and the soil beneath this system exhibited the greatest temperature modulation. Open-weave systems composed of jute (Geojute© Price & Pictures) and coconut fibers (BioD-Mat 70© RoLanka) were the RECS most similar in temperature response to the bare control soil. Other systems examined were intermediate in their temperature response and surface albedo (i.e., SC150BN© North American Green, C125© North American Green and Futerra© Conwed Fibers). (author)

  14. Maximum Quantum Entropy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Jae-Hoon; Han, Myung Joon

    2018-01-01

    Maximum entropy method for analytic continuation is extended by introducing quantum relative entropy. This new method is formulated in terms of matrix-valued functions and therefore invariant under arbitrary unitary transformation of input matrix. As a result, the continuation of off-diagonal elements becomes straightforward. Without introducing any further ambiguity, the Bayesian probabilistic interpretation is maintained just as in the conventional maximum entropy method. The applications o...

  15. Maximum power demand cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.

    1998-01-01

    The charging for a service is a supplier's remuneration for the expenses incurred in providing it. There are currently two charges for electricity: consumption and maximum demand. While no problem arises about the former, the issue is more complicated for the latter and the analysis in this article tends to show that the annual charge for maximum demand arbitrarily discriminates among consumer groups, to the disadvantage of some [it

  16. Beale AFB, Marysville, California Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO) Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-19

    GLOCAL CLIMATOLO0Y BRANCH USAFETAC SURFACE WINDS A14 4EATHFk SERVICE/MAC PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) " ;F...930 F £ USAFETAC 0-8.S (OL.A) PSEVWOUS EDITIONS 0 THIs PONM AS O Nso~ITI - V--. .1 I j GLOCAL CLIMATOLOGY BRANCH uS AFETAC SURFACE WINDS ATR W EATHER

  17. RF-plasma vapor deposition of siloxane on paper. Part 2: Chemical evolution of paper surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Halil Turgut

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Investigate the detailed RF-cold plasma surface modified paper by XPS and ATR-FTIR. ► Some chemical analysis of RF-cold plasma surface modified paper after RF plasma treatment. ► Identify the connection between RF plasma treatment and the surface chemistry of paper surface. - Abstract: Survey and high-resolution (HR) XPS studies indicate that OMCTSO plasma treatment created a new silicon containing functional groups and changed the hydroxyl content on the surface of paper. Four intense survey XPS spectrum peaks were observed for the OMCTSO plasma treated paper. They were the Si 2p at 100 eV, Si 2s at 160 eV, C 1s at 285 eV, and O 1s at 525 eV for the plasma modified surface. It was realized that the macromolecular chain-breaking mechanisms and plasma-induced etching processes control the number and the availability of OH-functionalities during OMCTSO plasma exposure on paper. The reaction, initiated by these species, depends mainly on the nature of chemicals in the plasma as well as on the energy level of the plasma and the nature of the surface effects in the modification of the paper. The ATR-FTIR spectrum of paper treated with OMCTSO plasma has characteristic absorption bands attributed to the Si-O and Si-O-Si formations on the surface.

  18. Simple and Multi-collision of an Ellipsoid with Planar Surfaces. Part I: Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae–Doru Stănescu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the problem of simultaneous collisions between an ellipsoid and some planar surfaces. The approach is one based on the theory of screws and uses the notion of inertance. The authors consider that the coefficients of restitution are different for each planar surface and they obtain the velocities after the collision. An example concludes the theory.

  19. Evaluation of starter dietary digestible lysine level on broilers raised under a sex-separated or straight-run housing regime, part 2: Economics of sex separation and digestible lysine level for maximum returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, M J; Colson, G; Frost, T J; Halley, J; Pesti, G M

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the maximum net returns digestible lysine (dLys) levels (MNRL) when maintaining the ideal amino acid ratio for starter diets of broilers raised sex separate or comingled (straight-run). A total of 3,240 Ross 708 chicks was separated by sex and placed in 90 pens by 2 rearing types: sex separate (36 males or 36 females) or straight-run (18 males + 18 females). Each rearing type was fed 6 starter diets (25 d) formulated to have dLys levels between 1.05 and 1.80%. A common grower diet with 1.02% of dLys was fed from 25 to 32 days. Body weight gain (BWG) and feed intake were assessed at 25 and 32 d for performance evaluation. Additionally, at 26 and 33 d, 4 birds per pen were sampled for carcass yield evaluation. Data were modeled using response surface methodology in order to estimate feed intake and whole carcass weight at 1,600 g live BW. Returns over feed cost were estimated for a 1.8-million-broiler complex of each rearing system under 9 feed/meat price scenarios. Results indicated that females needed more feed to reach market weight, followed by straight-run birds, and then males. At medium meat and feed prices, female birds had MNRL at 1.07% dLys, whereas straight-run and males had MNRL at 1.05%. As feed and meat prices increased, females had MNRL increased up to 1.15% dLys. Sex separation resulted in increased revenue under certain feed and meat prices, and before sex separation cost was deducted. When the sexing cost was subtracted from the returns, sex separation was not shown to be economically viable when targeting birds for light market BW. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Analytical mass formula and nuclear surface properties in the ETF approximation. Part II: asymmetric nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymard, François; Gulminelli, Francesca; Margueron, Jérôme

    2016-08-01

    We have recently addressed the problem of the determination of the nuclear surface energy for symmetric nuclei in the framework of the extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) approximation using Skyrme functionals. We presently extend this formalism to the case of asymmetric nuclei and the question of the surface symmetry energy. We propose an approximate expression for the diffuseness and the surface energy. These quantities are analytically related to the parameters of the energy functional. In particular, the influence of the different equation of state parameters can be explicitly quantified. Detailed analyses of the different energy components (local/non-local, isoscalar/isovector, surface/curvature and higher order) are also performed. Our analytical solution of the ETF integral improves previous models and leads to a precision of better than 200 keV per nucleon in the determination of the nuclear binding energy for dripline nuclei.

  1. Effect of Carbon Content on the Properties of Iron-Based Powder Metallurgical Parts Produced by the Surface Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the rolling densification process has become increasingly widely used to strengthen powder metallurgy parts. The original composition of the rolled powder metallurgy blank has a significant effect on the rolling densification technology. The present work investigated the effects of different carbon contents (0 wt. %, 0.2 wt. %, 0.45 wt. %, and 0.8 wt. % on the rolling densification. The selection of the raw materials in the surface rolling densification process was analyzed based on the pore condition, structure, hardness, and friction performance of the materials. The results show that the 0.8 wt. % carbon content of the surface rolling material can effectively improve the properties of iron-based powder metallurgy parts. The samples with 0.8 wt. % carbon have the highest surface hardness (340 HV0.1 and the lowest surface friction coefficient (0.35. Even if the dense layer depth is 1.13 mm, which is thinner than other samples with low carbon content, it also meets the requirements for powder metallurgy parts such as gears used in the auto industry.

  2. Influence of the Lubricant Type on the Surface Quality of Steel Parts Obtained by Ironing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Adamović

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available If it is needed to achieve a higher strain rate during the ironing process, which is possible without inter-stage annealing, the ironing is performed in succession through multiple dies. During that process, changes of friction conditions occur due to the change of contact conditions (dislodging of lubricants, changes of surface roughness, formation of friction junctions, etc.. In the multistage ironing, after each stage, the completely new conditions on the contact surfaces occur, which will significantly affect the quality of the workpiece surface. Lubricant has a very important role during the steel sheet metal ironing process; to separate the sheet metal surface from the tool and to reduce the friction between the contact surfaces. The influence of tribological conditions in ironing process is extremely important and it was a subject of study among researches in recent years, both in the real processes and on the tribo-models. Investigation of tribological conditions in the real processes is much longer and more expensive, so testing on the tribo-models is more frequent. Experimental research on the original tribo-model presented in this paper was aimed to indicate the changes that occur during multistage ironing, as well as to consider the impact of some factors (tool material, lubricant on die and punch on increase or decrease of the sheet metal surface roughness in ironing stages.

  3. The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6-Part 4: Scientific objectives and experimental design of the PMIP4-CMIP6 Last Glacial Maximum experiments and PMIP4 sensitivity experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kageyama, Masa; Albani, Samuel; Braconnot, Pascale; Harrison, Sandy P.; Hopcroft, Peter O.; Ivanovic, Ruza F.; Lambert, Fabrice; Marti, Olivier; Richard Peltier, W.; Peterschmitt, Jean Yves; Roche, Didier M.; Tarasov, Lev; Zhang, Xu; Brady, Esther C.; Haywood, Alan M.; Legrande, Allegra N.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Mahowald, Natalie M.; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Renssen, Hans; Tomas, Robert A.; Zhang, Qiong; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Cao, Jian; Li, Qiang; Lohmann, Gerrit; Ohgaito, Rumi; Shi, Xiaoxu; Volodin, Evgeny; Yoshida, Kohei; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Weipeng

    2017-01-01

    The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 000 years ago) is one of the suite of paleoclimate simulations included in the current phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). It is an interval when insolation was similar to the present, but global ice volume was at a maximum, eustatic sea

  4. A Methodology to Assess the Accuracy with which Remote Data Characterize a Specific Surface, as a Function of Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM: Application to Three Italian Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Cavalli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This methodology assesses the accuracy with which remote data characterizes a surface, as a function of Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM. The purpose is to identify the best remote data that improves the characterization of a surface, evaluating the number of bands in the spectral range. The first step creates an accurate dataset of remote simulated data, using in situ hyperspectral reflectances. The second step evaluates the capability of remote simulated data to characterize this surface. The spectral similarity measurements, which are obtained using classifiers, provide this capability. The third step examines the precision of this capability. The assumption is that in situ hyperspectral reflectances are considered the “real” reflectances. They are resized with the same spectral range of the remote data. The spectral similarity measurements which are obtained from “real” resized reflectances, are considered “real” measurements. Therefore, the quantity and magnitude of “errors” (i.e., differences between spectral similarity measurements obtained from “real” resized reflectances and from remote data provide the accuracy as a function of FWHM. This methodology was applied to evaluate the accuracy with which CHRIS-mode1, CHRIS-mode2, Landsat5-TM, MIVIS and PRISMA data characterize three coastal waters. Their mean values of uncertainty are 1.59%, 3.79%, 7.75%, 3.15% and 1.18%, respectively.

  5. Wiesbaden AB, Germany, Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-08-16

    temperatures, extreme maximum and miinimum temperatures, psychrometric sunmmary of wet-bulb temperature depression versusI dry-bulb temperature._means...14 5.1 033 MA us3 s , 33𔃾 *,~76, ~ ____ 6 5 410-0 U~i 4 6 it" 4! - 4 0 4 fl? 2 . a354,,-S 35W 11-44*0 - 3 5i f 4F1 5fu 7. 1,i 2 62M e a * _ 601_...body of the -ummary consists of a bivariate percentage frequeucy distribution of wet-bulb depression in 17 classes anread horisontally; by 2-degree

  6. Fracture surface analysis in composite and titanium bonding: Part 1: Titanium bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, K. A.; Wightman, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    Fractured lap shear Ti 6-4 adherends bonded with polyphenyquinoxaline (PPQ) and polysulfone were analyzed. The effects of adherend pretreatment, stress level, thermal aging, anodizing voltage, and modified adhesive of Ti 6-4 adherend bonded with PPQ on lap shear strength were studied. The effect of adherend pretreatment on lap shear strength was investigated for PS samples. Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) used to study the surface topography and surface composition are also discussed.

  7. Maximum likely scale estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...

  8. Robust Maximum Association Estimators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Alfons (Andreas); C. Croux (Christophe); P. Filzmoser (Peter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe maximum association between two multivariate variables X and Y is defined as the maximal value that a bivariate association measure between one-dimensional projections αX and αY can attain. Taking the Pearson correlation as projection index results in the first canonical correlation

  9. Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 1. distribution of fine and coarse components in surface sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V. E.; Eagle, R.J.; Robison, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations over the floor of Bikini lagoon. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long- lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show what modifications occurred since the sediment composition was first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. In this report a comparison is made of the amount and distribution of fine material associated with the lagoon surface sediment before and after the testing of nuclear devices. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material in-the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. Five cratering events at Bikini Atoll generated sufficient material to account for the inventory of new fine material found over the bottom surface of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to alter the geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor

  10. Inverse modeling of cloud-aerosol interactions -- Part 1: Detailed response surface analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Partridge, D.G.; Vrugt, J.A.; Tunved, P.; Ekman, A.M.L.; Gorea, D.; Sooroshian, A.

    2011-01-01

    New methodologies are required to probe the sensitivity of parameters describing cloud droplet activation. This paper presents an inverse modeling-based method for exploring cloud-aerosol interactions via response surfaces. The objective function, containing the difference between the measured and

  11. Plattsburgh, AFB, New York. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-24

    GLOCAL CLIMATOLOGY 3RANCH LSAFETAC SURFACE WINDS 410 wrATHER SERVICE/MAC PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND...oeux1I, . .p 4. A i € * GLOcAL CLIMATCLOGY RANCH L’AFETAC CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY AIP ’-EATHFR SRVlCE/MAC 72(7Z_ PLATTSBURSH AFS NV 74-97 *A

  12. 40 CFR 270.17 - Specific part B information requirements for surface impoundments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... migration of any hazardous constituents into the ground water or surface water at any future time; (2) The....19 of this chapter; (5) Proposed action leakage rate, with rationale, if required under § 264.222 of..., including the double liner system, leak detection system, cover system, and appurtenances for control of...

  13. WEAR OF THE FRICTION SURFACES PARTS IN THE PRESENSE OF SOLID PARTICLES CONTACTING ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Musaibov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of intensity of wear of details of the cars working in the oil polluted by abrasive particles, depending on mechanical properties of material of details and abrasive particles, their sizes, a form and concentration, loading, temperature of a surface of friction, speed of sliding, quality of lubricant are considered. 

  14. Continuous vs. pulsating flow boiling. Part 2: Statistical comparison using response surface methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Elmegaard, Brian; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2016-01-01

    Response surface methodology is used to investigate an active method for flow boiling heat transfer enhancement by means of fluid flow pulsation. The flow pulsations are introduced by a flow modulating expansion device and compared with the baseline continuous flow provided by a stepper...

  15. Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 1. distribution of fine and coarse components in surface sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V. E.; Eagle, R.J.; Robison, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations over the floor of Bikini lagoon. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long- lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show what modifications occurred since the sediment composition was first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. In this report a comparison is made of the amount and distribution of fine material associated with the lagoon surface sediment before and after the testing of nuclear devices. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material in-the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. Five cratering events at Bikini Atoll generated sufficient material to account for the inventory of new fine material found over the bottom surface of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to alter the geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor.

  16. Development of contour scanning parameters to improve surface finishing of additive manufactured parts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hoosain, Shaik

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing (AM), widely known as 3D printing, is a method of manufacturing that forms parts from powder, wire or sheets in a process that proceeds layer by layer. Many techniques have been developed to accomplish this via melting...

  17. RA reactor safety analysis I-III, Part III - Environmental effect of the maximum credible accident; Analiza sigurnosti rada Reaktora RA I-III, III deo - Posledica maksimalno moguceg akcidenta na okolinu reaktora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisic, N [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-02-15

    The objective of the maximum credible accident analysis was to determine the integral radiation doses in the vicinity of the reactor and in the environment. In case of RA reactor the maximum credible accident, meaning release of the fission products, would be caused by fuel elements meltdown. This analysis includes the following calculation results: activity of the fission products, volatility of the fission products, concentration of radioactive materials in the air, analysis of the accident environmental effects.

  18. Theoretical modeling and design of photonic structures in zeolite nanocomposites for gas sensing. Part I: surface relief gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, D; Naydenova, I

    2017-12-01

    The suitability of holographic structures fabricated in zeolite nanoparticle-polymer composite materials for gas sensing applications has been investigated. Theoretical modeling of the sensor response (i.e., change in hologram readout due to a change in refractive index modulation or thickness as a result of gas adsorption) of different sensor designs was carried out using Raman-Nath theory and Kogelnik's coupled wave theory. The influence of a range of parameters on the sensor response of holographically recorded surface and volume photonic grating structures has been studied, namely the phase difference between the diffracted and probe beam introduced by the grating, grating geometry, thickness, spatial frequency, reconstruction wavelength, and zeolite nanoparticle refractive index. From this, the optimum fabrication conditions for both surface and volume holographic gas sensor designs have been identified. Here, in part I, results from theoretical modeling of the influence of design on the sensor response of holographically inscribed surface relief structures for gas sensing applications is reported.

  19. A resistance representation of schemes for evaporation from bare and partly plant-covered surfaces for use in atmospheric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihailovic, D.T.; Pielke, R.A.; Rajkovic, B.; Lee, T.J.; Jeftic, M. (Novi Sad Univ. (Yugoslavia) Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (United States) Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia))

    1993-06-01

    In the parameterization of land surface processes, attention must be devoted to surface evaporation, one of the main processes in the air-land energy exchange. One of the most used approaches is the resistance representation which requires the calculation of aerodynamic resistances. These resistances are calculated using K theory for different morphologies of plant communities; then, the performance of the evaporation schemes within the alpha, beta, and their combination approaches that parameterize evaporation from bare and partly plant-covered soil surfaces are discussed. Additionally, a new alpha scheme is proposed based on an assumed power dependence alpha on volumetric soil moisture content and its saturated value. Finally, the performance of the considered and the proposed schemes is tested based on time integrations using real data. The first set was for 4 June 1982, and the second for 3 June 1981 at the experimental site in Rimski Sancevi, Yugoslavia, on chernozem soil, as representative for a bare, and partly plant-covered surface, respectively. 63 refs.

  20. Optimisation of warpage on thin shell plastic part using response surface methodology (RSM) and glowworm swarm optimisation (GSO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asyirah, B. N.; Shayfull, Z.; Nasir, S. M.; Fathullah, M.; Hazwan, M. H. M.

    2017-09-01

    In manufacturing a variety of parts, plastic injection moulding is widely use. The injection moulding process parameters have played important role that affects the product's quality and productivity. There are many approaches in minimising the warpage ans shrinkage such as artificial neural network, genetic algorithm, glowworm swarm optimisation and hybrid approaches are addressed. In this paper, a systematic methodology for determining a warpage and shrinkage in injection moulding process especially in thin shell plastic parts are presented. To identify the effects of the machining parameters on the warpage and shrinkage value, response surface methodology is applied. In thos study, a part of electronic night lamp are chosen as the model. Firstly, experimental design were used to determine the injection parameters on warpage for different thickness value. The software used to analyse the warpage is Autodesk Moldflow Insight (AMI) 2012.

  1. Temporal code in the vibrissal system-Part II: Roughness surface discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, F D [Departamento de BioingenierIa, FACET, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, INSIBIO - CONICET, CC 327, Postal Code CP 4000 (Argentina); AlbarracIn, A L [Catedra de Neurociencias, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman (Argentina); Felice, C J [Departamento de BioingenierIa, FACET, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, INSIBIO - CONICET, CC 327, Postal Code CP 4000 (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Previous works have purposed hypotheses about the neural code of the tactile system in the rat. One of them is based on the physical characteristics of vibrissae, such as frequency of resonance; another is based on discharge patterns on the trigeminal ganglion. In this work, the purpose is to find a temporal code analyzing the afferent signals of two vibrissal nerves while vibrissae sweep surfaces of different roughness. Two levels of pressure were used between the vibrissa and the contact surface. We analyzed the afferent discharge of DELTA and GAMMA vibrissal nerves. The vibrissae movements were produced using electrical stimulation of the facial nerve. The afferent signals were analyzed using an event detection algorithm based on Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT). The algorithm was able to detect events of different duration. The inter-event times detected were calculated for each situation and represented in box plot. This work allowed establishing the existence of a temporal code at peripheral level.

  2. Software measurement standards for areal surface texture parameters: part 2—comparison of software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, P M; Smith, I M; Giusca, C; Leach, R K; Wang, C

    2012-01-01

    A companion paper in this issue describes reference software for the evaluation of areal surface texture parameters, focusing on the definitions of the parameters and giving details of the numerical algorithms employed in the software to implement those definitions. The reference software is used as a benchmark against which software in a measuring instrument can be compared. A data set is used as input to both the software under test and the reference software, and the results delivered by the software under test are compared with those provided by the reference software. This paper presents a comparison of the results returned by the reference software with those reported by proprietary software for surface texture measurement. Differences between the results can be used to identify where algorithms and software for evaluating the parameters differ. They might also be helpful in identifying where parameters are not sufficiently well-defined in standards. (paper)

  3. Temporal code in the vibrissal system-Part II: Roughness surface discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfan, F D; AlbarracIn, A L; Felice, C J

    2007-01-01

    Previous works have purposed hypotheses about the neural code of the tactile system in the rat. One of them is based on the physical characteristics of vibrissae, such as frequency of resonance; another is based on discharge patterns on the trigeminal ganglion. In this work, the purpose is to find a temporal code analyzing the afferent signals of two vibrissal nerves while vibrissae sweep surfaces of different roughness. Two levels of pressure were used between the vibrissa and the contact surface. We analyzed the afferent discharge of DELTA and GAMMA vibrissal nerves. The vibrissae movements were produced using electrical stimulation of the facial nerve. The afferent signals were analyzed using an event detection algorithm based on Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT). The algorithm was able to detect events of different duration. The inter-event times detected were calculated for each situation and represented in box plot. This work allowed establishing the existence of a temporal code at peripheral level

  4. Burlington IAP, Vermont. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-23

    34~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~A .... . ... .. . .. ... ... . . .. . .. ........ . . . . . . .. ’_L ’,AL CLIŘATOLOGY FRANCH 7AC SURFACE WINDS S A T,-.ŕ SERVICM/MAC...72 C USAP ETAC 0-1-5n (a.. A) ..vWW... 1394""S "IS FOOD ~~ ADS 00OLI *L ,AL CLIMATOLOGY BRANCH uSAFETAC CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY A7. EATHER SERVICE/MAC

  5. Multichannel analysis of the surface waves of earth materials in some parts of Lagos State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegbola R.B.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a method that utilizes multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW, which was used to measure shear wave velocities, with a view to establishing the probable causes of road failure, subsidence and weakening of structures in some local government areas in Lagos, Nigeria. MASW data were acquired using a 24-channel seismograph. The acquired data were processed and transformed into a two-dimensional (2-D structure reflective of the depth and surface wave velocity distribution within a depth of 0–15 m beneath the surface using SURFSEIS software. The shear wave velocity data were compared with other geophysical/ borehole data that were acquired along the same profile. The comparison and correlation illustrate the accuracy and consistency of MASW-derived shear wave velocity profiles. Rigidity modulus and N-value were also generated. The study showed that the low velocity/ very low velocity data are reflective of organic clay/ peat materials and thus likely responsible for the failure, subsidence and weakening of structures within the study areas.

  6. Impact of satellite-based lake surface observations on the initial state of HIRLAM. Part II: Analysis of lake surface temperature and ice cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Kheyrollah Pour

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from a study on the impact of remote-sensing Lake Surface Water Temperature (LSWT observations in the analysis of lake surface state of a numerical weather prediction (NWP model. Data assimilation experiments were performed with the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM, a three-dimensional operational NWP model. Selected thermal remote-sensing LSWT observations provided by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR sensors onboard the Terra/Aqua and ENVISAT satellites, respectively, were included into the assimilation. The domain of our experiments, which focussed on two winters (2010–2011 and 2011–2012, covered northern Europe. Validation of the resulting objective analyses against independent observations demonstrated that the description of the lake surface state can be improved by the introduction of space-borne LSWT observations, compared to the result of pure prognostic parameterisations or assimilation of the available limited number of in-situ lake temperature observations. Further development of the data assimilation methods and solving of several practical issues are necessary in order to fully benefit from the space-borne observations of lake surface state for the improvement of the operational weather forecast. This paper is the second part of a series of two papers aimed at improving the objective analysis of lake temperature and ice conditions in HIRLAM.

  7. Maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enslin, J.H.R.

    1990-01-01

    A well engineered renewable remote energy system, utilizing the principal of Maximum Power Point Tracking can be m ore cost effective, has a higher reliability and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. This paper reports that a high-efficient power electronic converter, for converting the output voltage of a solar panel, or wind generator, to the required DC battery bus voltage has been realized. The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the input source under varying input and output parameters. Maximum power point tracking for relative small systems is achieved by maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor based algorithm. Through practical field measurements it is shown that a minimum input source saving of 15% on 3-5 kWh/day systems can easily be achieved. A total cost saving of at least 10-15% on the capital cost of these systems are achievable for relative small rating Remote Area Power Supply systems. The advantages at larger temperature variations and larger power rated systems are much higher. Other advantages include optimal sizing and system monitor and control

  8. Improvement of finishing antifriction treatment without abrasive of the rubbing parts surfaces of agricultural machineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Shepelenk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The wear of machines and mechanisms after rubbing is a major concern. The costs of manufacturing and restoration parts for agricultural machinery are enormous such as the trunnions pinions of hydraulic pumps. Finishing treatment antifriction without abrasive (FTAA is the existing method of manufacturing and restoration, but it has disadvantages like low work efficiency and the frequent replacement of the instrument. That is why a new method of FTAA parts type ''tree'' has been developed called vibratory finishing treatment antifriction without abrasive, (VFTAA method. The study was conducted at the laboratory of the State Technical University of Kirovograd (Ukraine where turn 16K20, the profilograph-profilometer "Talysurf-5", the scanning electron microscope REM-106I, friction machine MI-1M and the stand KI-28097-02M were used respectively for machining, study of micro relief before and after the VFTAA, microstructure, wear resistance and the determination of the break-in period of parts. The results showed that the VFTAA helped reduce the roughness Ra of the samples studied by half compared to the samples processed by polishing and 1.3 times compared to those treated with the FTAA, the break-in period has been reduced four times , this leads to an increase in the life of the hydraulic pump. This technology can be recommended for manufacturing and repair of hydraulic units of agricultural machineries.

  9. Abbreviated machining schedule for fabricating beryllium parts free of surface damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitscher, S.; Capes, J.F.; Leslie, W.W.; Luckow, J.R.; Riegel, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    This study was performed to develop a more economical method of machining damage-free beryllium components at Rocky Flats. The present method involves a 9-pass schedule of lathe turning followed by a chemical etch. Prototype beryllium hemispherical shell parts and cylindrical tensile specimens machined to simulate the parts were utilized in this study. The main investigative methods used to evaluate the amount of machining damage were metallography and tensile tests. It was found that damage-free parts could be produced by carefully controlled machining if the number of machining passes was reduced to 4 or even 3, if followed by the standard etching treatment. These findings were made on Select S-65 grade beryllium, and probably apply to other common grades of powder source beryllium but not necessarily to ingot-source beryllium. It is recommended that the 4-pass schedule becomes the standard method to produce damage-free beryllium derived from powder. Significant savings in time, labor, and equipment can be realized by this change in method without decreasing the quality of the product

  10. LCLS Maximum Credible Beam Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.

    2005-01-01

    The maximum credible beam power is defined as the highest credible average beam power that the accelerator can deliver to the point in question, given the laws of physics, the beam line design, and assuming all protection devices have failed. For a new accelerator project, the official maximum credible beam power is determined by project staff in consultation with the Radiation Physics Department, after examining the arguments and evidence presented by the appropriate accelerator physicist(s) and beam line engineers. The definitive parameter becomes part of the project's safety envelope. This technical note will first review the studies that were done for the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SSRL, where a photoinjector similar to the one proposed for the LCLS is being tested. In Section 3 the maximum charge out of the gun for a single rf pulse is calculated. In Section 4, PARMELA simulations are used to track the beam from the gun to the end of the photoinjector. Finally in Section 5 the beam through the matching section and injected into Linac-1 is discussed

  11. Investigation of Thermostressed State of Coating Formation at Electric Contact Surfacing of “Shaft” Type Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena V. Berezshnaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The forming of coating at electric contact surfacing is considered. The mathematical model of the coating formation is developed. The method of numerical recurrent solution of the finite-difference form of static equilibrium conditions of the selected elementary volume of coating is used. This model considers distribution of thermal properties and geometric parameters along the thermal deformation zone during the process of electric contact surfacing by compact material. It is found that the change of value of speed asymmetry factor leads to increasing of the friction coefficient in zone of surfacing. This provides the forming of the coating of higher quality. The limitation of the technological capabilities of equipment for electric contact surfacing is related to the size of recoverable parts and application of high electromechanical powers. The regulation of the speed asymmetry factor allows for expanding the technological capabilities of equipment for electric contact surfacing. The nomograms for determination of the stress on the roller electrode and the finite thickness of the coating as the function of the initial thickness of the compact material and the deformation degree are shown.

  12. Clark AFB, Philippines. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    34---- . - - 0 -- Web S Lr’: L ’LT tTnLOGY 9 PANCH𔃼, ETA C SURFACE WINDS * EAT S VI C /~E PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND...CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY Alp *.ATH’P Srv~cr/V , c 9E’-7- LLAPK AFFP 73-8’ Ncv * PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE ALL FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 50a... NCV PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE 7.i -7l1. (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) % Sl8l,Tl $IATiTE MILES >10 :6 t5 >4 3 >2 -2 6 ’ !c - I 𔄀 4F~,’ 4 9.7 49.8

  13. Pilot investigations of surface parts of three closed landfills and factors affecting them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Jouko

    2003-05-01

    Aftercare of closed sanitary landfills in a major environmental problem. Rehabilitation of the landfill with vegetation and reducing leachate production are two issues that must be dealt. For this reason, Finnish Environment Institute has conducted several projects on closed landfills. This research aims at determining the physical and chemical properties of the soils at three closed landfills in Helsinki, Finland. Research was conducted to understand the impact by studying the following properties: Chemical, nutrient metal, gamma and radon analysis of surface soils of three closed landfills in Helsinki area.

  14. Fabrication of Circuit QED Quantum Processors, Part 1: Extensible Footprint for a Superconducting Surface Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, A.; Michalak, D. J.; Poletto, S.; Clarke, J. S.; Dicarlo, L.

    Large-scale quantum computation hinges on the ability to preserve and process quantum information with higher fidelity by increasing redundancy in a quantum error correction code. We present the realization of a scalable footprint for superconducting surface code based on planar circuit QED. We developed a tileable unit cell for surface code with all I/O routed vertically by means of superconducting through-silicon vias (TSVs). We address some of the challenges encountered during the fabrication and assembly of these chips, such as the quality of etch of the TSV, the uniformity of the ALD TiN coating conformal to the TSV, and the reliability of superconducting indium contact between the chips and PCB. We compare measured performance to a detailed list of specifications required for the realization of quantum fault tolerance. Our demonstration using centimeter-scale chips can accommodate the 50 qubits needed to target the experimental demonstration of small-distance logical qubits. Research funded by Intel Corporation and IARPA.

  15. Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 2. inventories of transuranium elements in surface sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Robison, W.L.

    1997-10-01

    This is the second of three reports on Bikini sediment studies, which discusses the concentrations and inventories of {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu in sediments from the lagoon. Surface sediment samples were collected from 87 locations over the entire lagoon at Bikini Atoll during 1979. The collections were made to map the distribution of long-lived radionuclides associated with the bottom material and to show what modifications occurred in the composition of the sediment as a result of the testing program. Present inventories for {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu in the surface 2 cm of sediment are estimated to be 14 and 17 TBq, respectively. These values are estimated to represent only 14% of the total inventory in the sediment column. Sediment inventories of {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am are changing only slowly with time through chemical- physical processes that continuously mobilize small amounts of the transuranics to the water column. The lowest concentrations and inventories are associated with deposits logoonward of the eastern reef.

  16. Safety analysis of RA reactor operation, I-III, Part III - Environmental effect of the maximum credible accident; Analiza sigurnosti rada reaktora RA - I-III, III deo - Posledica maksimalno moguceg akcidenta na okolinu reaktora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisic, N [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-02-15

    Maximum credible accident at the RA reactor would consider release of fission products into the environment. This would result from fuel elements failure or meltdown due to loss of coolant. The analysis presented in this report assumes that the reactor was operating at nominal power at the moment of maximum possible accident. The report includes calculations of fission products activity at the moment of accident, total activity release during the accident, concentration of radioactive material in the air in the reactor neighbourhood, and the analysis of accident environmental effects.

  17. Maximum entropy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponman, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    For some years now two different expressions have been in use for maximum entropy image restoration and there has been some controversy over which one is appropriate for a given problem. Here two further entropies are presented and it is argued that there is no single correct algorithm. The properties of the four different methods are compared using simple 1D simulations with a view to showing how they can be used together to gain as much information as possible about the original object. (orig.)

  18. RF-plasma vapor deposition of siloxane on paper. Part 1: Physical evolution of paper surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Halil Turgut

    2013-01-01

    An alternative, new approach to improve the hydrophobicity and barrier properties of paper was evaluated by radio-frequency (RF) plasma octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OMCTSO) vapor treatment. The interaction between OMCTSO and paper, causing the increased hydophobicity, is likely through covalent bonding. The deposited thin silicone-like polymeric layer from OMCTSO plasma treatment possessed desirable hydrophobic properties. The SEM micrographs showed uniformly distributed grainy particles with various shapes on the paper surface. Deposition of the silicone polymer-like layer with the plasma treatment affects the distribution of voids in the network structure and increases the barrier against water intake and air. The water absorptivity was reduced by 44% for the OMCTSO plasma treated sheet. The highest resistance to air flow was an approximately 41% lower air permeability than virgin paper.

  19. Free surface flow with moving rigid bodies. Part 1. Computational flow model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubanov, O.I.; Mironova, L.A.; Kocabiyik, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper was motivated by the study of Hirt and Sicilian, where the 'differential form' of the governing equations for the inviscid fluid flow (FAVOR equations) were obtained. We utilize mainly generalized differentiation to extend the Reynolds transport theorem over a control volume containing fluid interface for deriving the 'integral form' of governing equations for the incompressible viscous flow problems. This is done following the work by Farassat and the use of generalized function theory made this derivation straightforward, systematic and rigorous. The resulting equations are discretized by a finite-volume method using a staggered grid, after making use of the coarse-scale approximation. The resulting governing equations are valid for a class of flows including free surface flows with arbitrarily moving bodies and are consistent with Hirt and Sicilian's formulation in the inviscid fluid flow case. (author)

  20. Chitin based polyurethanes using hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene, part III: surface characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Zuber, Mohammad; Saif, Muhammad Jawwad; Jawaid, Mohammad; Mahmood, Kashif; Shahid, Muhammad; Anjum, Muhammad Naveed; Ahmad, Mirza Nadeem

    2013-11-01

    Hydroxy terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)-chitin based polyurethanes (PUs) with controlled hydrophobicity were synthesized using HTPB and toluene diisocyanate (TDI). The prepolymer was extended with different mass ratios of chitin and 1,4-butane diol (BDO). The effect of chitin contents in chain extender (CE) proportions on surface properties was studied and investigated. Incorporation of chitin contents into the final PU showed decrease in contact angle value of water drop, water absorption (%) and swelling behavior. The antibacterial activity of the prepared samples was affected by varying the chitin contents in the chemical composition of the final PU. The results demonstrated that the use of prepared material can be suggested as non-absorbable suture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Transcontinental methane measurements: Part 2. Mobile surface investigation of fossil fuel industrial fugitive emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Ira; Culling, Daniel; Schneising, Oliver; Farrell, Paige; Buchwitz, Michael; Burrows, John P.

    2013-08-01

    The potent greenhouse gas, methane, CH4, has a wide variety of anthropogenic and natural sources. Fall, continental-scale (Florida to California) surface CH4 data were collected to investigate the importance of fossil fuel industrial (FFI) emissions in the South US. A total of 6600 measurements along 7020-km of roadways were made by flame ion detection gas chromatography onboard a nearly continuously moving recreational vehicle in 2010. A second, winter survey in Southern California measured CH4 at 2 Hz with a cavity ring-down spectrometer in 2012. Data revealed strong and persistent FFI CH4 sources associated with refining, oil/gas production, a presumed major pipeline leak, and a coal loading plant. Nocturnal CH4 mixing ratios tended to be higher than daytime values for similar sources, sometimes significantly, which was attributed to day/night meteorological differences, primarily changes in the boundary layer height. The highest CH4 mixing ratio (39 ppm) was observed near the Kern River Oil Field, California, which uses steam reinjection. FFI CH4 plume signatures were distinguished as stronger than other sources on local scales. On large (4°) scales, the CH4 trend was better matched spatially with FFI activity than wetland spatial patterns. Qualitative comparison of surface data with SCIAMACHY and GOSAT satellite retrievals showed agreement of the large-scale CH4 spatial patterns. Comparison with inventory models and seasonal winds suggests for some seasons and some portions of the Gulf of Mexico a non-negligible underestimation of FFI emissions. For other seasons and locations, qualitative interpretation is not feasible. Unambiguous quantitative source attribution is more complex, requiring transport modeling.

  2. Tracer techniques for the investigation of wear mechanisms in coated or surface-treated machine parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedecke, T.; Grosch, J.

    1990-01-01

    Tracer techniques allow wear measurement down to rates of only some μg/h, and these measurements can be done continuously within an inspection test run, not requiring dismantling of the parts to be examined. The measurements revealed the materials pair of a chilled cast iron camshaft and a hard metal coated rocker arm to be superior in terms of wear behaviour over the materials pair of a malleable cast iron camshaft with induction hardening and a rocker arm with hard chromium plating. The total wear of a chilled cast iron camshaft was measured to be approx. 90% less than that of the malleable cast iron camshaft, under equal loading conditions. With the rocker arms, this ratio is approx. 1:3. Another disadvantage of the latter pair is the overall wear ratio of 19:1. The best wear resistance was measured with a TiN-coated rocker arm combined with a chilled cast iron camshaft. (orig./MM) [de

  3. Effect of Tooling Material on the Internal Surface Quality of Ti6Al4V Parts Fabricated by Hot Isostatic Pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chao; Song, Bo; Wei, Qingsong; Yan, Wu; Xue, Pengju; Shi, Yusheng

    2017-01-01

    For the net-shape hot isostatic pressing (HIP) process, control of the internal surface roughness of as-HIPped parts remains a challenge for practical engineering. To reveal the evolution mechanism of the internal surface of the parts during the HIP process, the effect of different tooling materials (H13, T8, Cr12 steel, and graphite) as internal cores on the interfacial diffusion and surface roughness was systematically studied.

  4. The status of pesticide pollution in surface waters (rivers and lakes) of Greece. Part I. Review on occurrence and levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinou, Ioannis K.; Hela, Dimitra G.; Albanis, Triantafyllos A.

    2006-01-01

    This review evaluates and summarizes the results of long-term research projects, monitoring programs and published papers concerning the pollution of surface waters (rivers and lakes) of Greece by pesticides. Pesticide classes mostly detected involve herbicides used extensively in corn, cotton and rice production, organophosphorus insecticides as well as the banned organochlorines insecticides due to their persistence in the aquatic environment. The compounds most frequently detected were atrazine, simazine, alachlor, metolachlor and trifluralin of the herbicides, diazinon, parathion methyl of the insecticides and lindane, endosulfan and aldrin of the organochlorine pesticides. Rivers were found to be more polluted than lakes. The detected concentrations of most pesticides follow a seasonal variation, with maximum values occurring during the late spring and summer period followed by a decrease during winter. Nationwide, in many cases the reported concentrations ranged in low ppb levels. However, elevated concentrations were recorded in areas of high pesticide use and intense agricultural practices. Generally, similar trends and levels of pesticides were found in Greek rivers compared to pesticide contamination in other European rivers. Monitoring of the Greek water resources for pesticide residues must continue, especially in agricultural regions, because the nationwide patterns of pesticide use are constantly changing. Moreover, emphasis should be placed on degradation products not sufficiently studied so far. - Information on pesticide pollution of surface waters in Greece is reviewed

  5. Light Gray Surface-Gleyed Loamy Sandy Soils of the Northern Part of Tambov Plain: Agroecology, Properties, and Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidel'man, F. R.; Stepantsova, L. V.; Nikiforova, A. S.; Krasin, V. N.; Dautokov, I. M.; Krasina, T. V.

    2018-04-01

    Light gray soils of Tambov oblast mainly develop from sandy and loamy sandy parent materials; these are the least studied soils in this region. Despite their coarse texture, these soils are subjected to surface waterlogging. They are stronger affected by the agrogenic degradation in comparison with chernozems and dark gray soils. Morphology, major elements of water regime, physical properties, and productivity of loamy sandy light gray soils with different degrees of gleyzation have been studied in the northern part of Tambov Plain in order to substantiate the appropriate methods of their management. The texture of these soils changes at the depth of 70-100 cm. The upper part is enriched in silt particles (16-30%); in the lower part, the sand content reaches 80-85%. In the nongleyed variants, middle-profile horizons contain thin iron-cemented lamellae (pseudofibers); in surface-gleyed variants, iron nodules are present in the humus horizon. The removal of clay from the humus horizon and its accumulation at the lithological contact and in pseudofibers promote surface subsidence and formation of microlows in the years with moderate and intense winter precipitation. The low range of active moisture favors desiccation of the upper horizons to the wilting point in dry years. The yield of cereal crops reaches 3.5-4.5 t/ha in the years with high and moderate summer precipitation on nongleyed and slightly gleyed light gray soils and decreases by 20-50% on strongly gleyed light gray soils. On light gray soils without irrigation, crop yields are unstable, and productivity of pastures is low. High yields of cereals and vegetables can be obtained on irrigated soils. In this case, local drainage measures should be applied to microlows; liming can be recommended to improve soil productivity.

  6. Optimisation of process parameters on thin shell part using response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm (GA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, J. M.; Shayfull, Z.; Nasir, S. M.; Fathullah, M.; Hazwan, M. H. M.

    2017-09-01

    This study conducts the simulation on optimisation of injection moulding process parameters using Autodesk Moldflow Insight (AMI) software. This study has applied some process parameters which are melt temperature, mould temperature, packing pressure, and cooling time in order to analyse the warpage value of the part. Besides, a part has been selected to be studied which made of Polypropylene (PP). The combination of the process parameters is analysed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the optimised value is obtained using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The RSM as well as Genetic Algorithm are applied in Design Expert software in order to minimise the warpage value. The outcome of this study shows that the warpage value improved by using RSM and GA.

  7. Monitoring of the stress-strain state of the surface layer of a part in the cutting process using vibroacoustic diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allenov Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The state of the surface layer after mechanical process influences on the performance characteristics of the parts: corrosion and fatigue resistance, dimensional stability during the operating time. The wear of tools can have a decisive influence on the surface deformation. The present paper is devoted to monitoring the influence of wear on the surface layer using the analysis of vibration signals.

  8. Surface water - groundwater relationship in the downstream part of the Komadougou Yobe River (Eastern Sahelian Niger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, B.; Genthon, P.; Luxereau, A.; Descloîtres, M.; Moumouni Moussa, A.; Abdou, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Komadougou Yobe (KY) is a temporary river meandering on nearly 100 km along the Niger/Nigeria border in its lower part, before reaching the endoreic Lake Chad. There, seasonal flow from July to January is related to rainfall amount on the upstream Jos Plateau, Nigeria. In the semi-arid downstream area (350 mm annual rainfall in Diffa, Niger) the KY is the main source of recharge for the sandy quaternary aquifer which is used both for irrigation and for drinking water supply. The borders of the KY in Niger are subjected to an agricultural development involving intensive irrigated cropping of sweet pepper mainly produced for sale in Nigeria. Irrigation waters are mainly extracted from the KY, and therefore irrigation must stop when the River runs dry, but irrigation from wells is now developing with an increased risk of soil salinization. The flow rate of the KY has been impacted both by the 80s and 90s droughts, also underwent by the entire Sahel, and by the building up of a series of dams starting from the 70s in Nigeria. Therefore the KY and its relations with the underlying groundwaters should be carefully monitored to provide guidelines for policy makers in charge of the development of this area. However, in this remote area, data are scarce and often discontinuous : there are for example no continuous groundwater level data from before the drought. As part of the Lake Chad French IRD project, series of campaigns involving water level, exploration geophysics, gravity, soil sampling and social studies have been carried out between 2008 and 2011. They allowed to build a numerical model for groundwater-river interactions which in some instances has been compared with previously recorded data. This model is then forced with theoretical climatic senarii based on humid 60s data and data from the drought period. This allows discussing the relationships between the river and groundwaters in a changing climate. Our results militate for the setting up of a limited

  9. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Topsøe

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over

  10. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. We review the need for such methods in data analysis and show, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. We conclude with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  11. Solar maximum observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    The successful retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite by Shuttle astronauts in April 1984 permitted continuance of solar flare observations that began in 1980. The SMM carries a soft X ray polychromator, gamma ray, UV and hard X ray imaging spectrometers, a coronagraph/polarimeter and particle counters. The data gathered thus far indicated that electrical potentials of 25 MeV develop in flares within 2 sec of onset. X ray data show that flares are composed of compressed magnetic loops that have come too close together. Other data have been taken on mass ejection, impacts of electron beams and conduction fronts with the chromosphere and changes in the solar radiant flux due to sunspots. 13 references

  12. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. The author reviews the need for such methods in data analysis and shows, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. He concludes with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  13. Functional Maximum Autocorrelation Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2005-01-01

    MAF outperforms the functional PCA in concentrating the interesting' spectra/shape variation in one end of the eigenvalue spectrum and allows for easier interpretation of effects. Conclusions. Functional MAF analysis is a useful methods for extracting low dimensional models of temporally or spatially......Purpose. We aim at data where samples of an underlying function are observed in a spatial or temporal layout. Examples of underlying functions are reflectance spectra and biological shapes. We apply functional models based on smoothing splines and generalize the functional PCA in......\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{ramsay97} to functional maximum autocorrelation factors (MAF)\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{switzer85,larsen2001d}. We apply the method to biological shapes as well as reflectance spectra. {\\$\\backslash\\$bf Methods}. MAF seeks linear combination of the original variables that maximize autocorrelation between...

  14. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yunji; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  15. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2015-02-12

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  16. A Conceptual Approach to Assimilating Remote Sensing Data to Improve Soil Moisture Profile Estimates in a Surface Flux/Hydrology Model. Part 1; Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosson, William L.; Laymon, Charles A.; Inguva, Ramarao; Schamschula, Marius; Caulfield, John

    1998-01-01

    ' soil moisture under such conditions and even more difficult to apply such a value. Because of the non-linear relationships between near-surface soil moisture and other variables of interest, such as surface energy fluxes and runoff, mean soil moisture has little applicability at such large scales. It is for these reasons that the use of remote sensing in conjunction with a hydrologic model appears to be of benefit in capturing the complete spatial and temporal structure of soil moisture. This paper is Part I of a four-part series describing a method for intermittently assimilating remotely-sensed soil moisture information to improve performance of a distributed land surface hydrology model. The method, summarized in section II, involves the following components, each of which is detailed in the indicated section of the paper or subsequent papers in this series: Forward radiative transfer model methods (section II and Part IV); Use of a Kalman filter to assimilate remotely-sensed soil moisture estimates with the model profile (section II and Part IV); Application of a soil hydrology model to capture the continuous evolution of the soil moisture profile within and below the root zone (section III); Statistical aggregation techniques (section IV and Part II); Disaggregation techniques using a neural network approach (section IV and Part III); and Maximum likelihood and Bayesian algorithms for inversely solving for the soil moisture profile in the upper few cm (Part IV).

  17. Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

    1993-01-01

    Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.

  18. Solar maximum mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.

    1981-01-01

    By understanding the sun, astrophysicists hope to expand this knowledge to understanding other stars. To study the sun, NASA launched a satellite on February 14, 1980. The project is named the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). The satellite conducted detailed observations of the sun in collaboration with other satellites and ground-based optical and radio observations until its failure 10 months into the mission. The main objective of the SMM was to investigate one aspect of solar activity: solar flares. A brief description of the flare mechanism is given. The SMM satellite was valuable in providing information on where and how a solar flare occurs. A sequence of photographs of a solar flare taken from SMM satellite shows how a solar flare develops in a particular layer of the solar atmosphere. Two flares especially suitable for detailed observations by a joint effort occurred on April 30 and May 21 of 1980. These flares and observations of the flares are discussed. Also discussed are significant discoveries made by individual experiments

  19. The greening of the McGill Paleoclimate Model. Part I: Improved land surface scheme with vegetation dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi; Mysak, Lawrence A.; Wang, Zhaomin [McGill University, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Global Environmental and Climate Change Centre (GEC3), Montreal, QC (Canada); Brovkin, Victor [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Potsdam (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The formulation of a new land surface scheme (LSS) with vegetation dynamics for coupling to the McGill Paleoclimate Model (MPM) is presented. This LSS has the following notable improvements over the old version: (1) parameterization of deciduous and evergreen trees by using the model's climatology and the output of the dynamic global vegetation model, VECODE (Brovkin et al. in Ecological Modelling 101:251-261 (1997), Global Biogeochemical Cycles 16(4):1139, (2002)); (2) parameterization of tree leaf budburst and leaf drop by using the model's climatology; (3) parameterization of the seasonal cycle of the grass leaf area index; (4) parameterization of the seasonal cycle of tree leaf area index by using the time-dependent growth of the leaves; (5) calculation of land surface albedo by using vegetation-related parameters, snow depth and the model's climatology. The results show considerable improvement of the model's simulation of the present-day climate as compared with that simulated in the original physically-based MPM. In particular, the strong seasonality of terrestrial vegetation and the associated land surface albedo variations are in good agreement with several satellite observations of these quantities. The application of this new version of the MPM (the ''green'' MPM) to Holocene millennial-scale climate changes is described in a companion paper, Part II. (orig.)

  20. Reorganization of lipid nanocapsules at air-water interface: Part 2. Properties of the formed surface film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkov, I; Ivanova, Tz; Panaiotov, I; Proust, J; Saulnier, P

    2005-09-01

    The state, electrical and dilatational rheological properties of surface films formed at air-water interface from lipid nanocapsules (LNC) with various compositions as well as model monolayers formed by the LNC constituents-Labrafac, Solutol and Lipoid are investigated. These nanocapsules constitute potential drug delivery systems where lypophilic drug will be loaded in their core. The study of the model Labrafac/Solutol (Lab/Sol) mixed monolayers shows behavior close to the ideal. Small negative deviations in the mean molecular areas a and dipole moments mu are observed. All studied monolayers have elastic behavior during the small continuous compressions. The comparison between the properties of surface films formed from LNC with those of the model monolayers confirms the idea developed in the kinetic study that the surface films formed after a rapid disaggregation of the unstable nanocapsule fraction (LNC I) contains mainly Labrafac and Solutol. The Labrafac molar part (xLab) in the formed Lab/Sol mixed layer is established.

  1. Maximum Power Point Tracking Based on Sliding Mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimrod Vázquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar panels, which have become a good choice, are used to generate and supply electricity in commercial and residential applications. This generated power starts with the solar cells, which have a complex relationship between solar irradiation, temperature, and output power. For this reason a tracking of the maximum power point is required. Traditionally, this has been made by considering just current and voltage conditions at the photovoltaic panel; however, temperature also influences the process. In this paper the voltage, current, and temperature in the PV system are considered to be a part of a sliding surface for the proposed maximum power point tracking; this means a sliding mode controller is applied. Obtained results gave a good dynamic response, as a difference from traditional schemes, which are only based on computational algorithms. A traditional algorithm based on MPPT was added in order to assure a low steady state error.

  2. A Finite Element Method for Free-Surface Flows of Incompressible Fluids in Three Dimensions, Part II: Dynamic Wetting Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, T.A.; Cairncross, R.A.; Rao, R.R.; Sackinger, P.A.; Schunk, P.R.

    1999-01-29

    To date, few researchers have solved three-dimensional free-surface problems with dynamic wetting lines. This paper extends the free-surface finite element method described in a companion paper [Cairncross, R.A., P.R. Schunk, T.A. Baer, P.A. Sackinger, R.R. Rao, "A finite element method for free surface flows of incompressible fluid in three dimensions, Part I: Boundary-Fitted mesh motion.", to be published (1998)] to handle dynamic wetting. A generalization of the technique used in two dimensional modeling to circumvent double-valued velocities at the wetting line, the so-called kinematic paradox, is presented for a wetting line in three dimensions. This approach requires the fluid velocity normal to the contact line to be zero, the fluid velocity tangent to the contact line to be equal to the tangential component of web velocity, and the fluid velocity into the web to be zero. In addition, slip is allowed in a narrow strip along the substrate surface near the dynamic contact line. For realistic wetting-line motion, a contact angle which varies with wetting speed is required because contact lines in three dimensions typically advance or recede a different rates depending upon location and/or have both advancing and receding portions. The theory is applied to capillary rise of static fluid in a corner, the initial motion of a Newtonian droplet down an inclined plane, and extrusion of a Newtonian fluid from a nozzle onto a moving substrate. The extrusion results are compared to experimental visualization. Subject Categories

  3. Novel fabrication method for 3D microstructures using surface-activated bonding and its application to micro-mechanical parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takayuki; Takahashi, Mutsuya; Ozawa, Takashi; Tawara, Satoshi; Goto, Takayuki

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that a novel fabrication method for 3-D microstructures (FORMULA) is applicable to fabrication of micro mechanical parts with a large flexibility. This method is a kind of layer manufacturing method of thin films for metallic or dielectric microstructures using surface-activated bonding (SAB). The bonding interfaces of thin films are investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Voids were observed at the interfaces of both pure aluminum films and Al-Cu alloy films. The ratio of void on the Al-Cu/Al-Cu interface is much larger than that of Al/Al interface, although the films have the same surface roughness of 3nm in Ra (average roughness). And approximately 10nm-thick amorphous intermediate layers were found at the interfaces. Furthermore, we have fabricated a micro gear of 900μm in diameter and 200μm in height, which is about ten times as large as our previous test pieces. Overhung structures such as a bridge structure and a cantilever were also fabricated without supporting layers beneath them.

  4. A Climatology of Midlatitude Continental Clouds from the ARM SGP Site. Part II; Cloud Fraction and Surface Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, B.; Minnis, P.

    2006-01-01

    Data collected at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (SCF) are analyzed to determine the monthly and hourly variations of cloud fraction and radiative forcing between January 1997 and December 2002. Cloud fractions are estimated for total cloud cover and for single-layered low (0-3 km), middle (3-6 km), and high clouds (more than 6 km) using ARM SCG ground-based paired lidar-radar measurements. Shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) fluxes are derived from up- and down-looking standard precision spectral pyranometers and precision infrared radiometer measurements with uncertainties of approximately 10 Wm(exp -2). The annual averages of total, and single-layered low, middle and high cloud fractions are 0.49, 0.11, 0.03, and 0.17, respectively. Both total and low cloud amounts peak during January and February and reach a minimum during July and August, high clouds occur more frequently than other types of clouds with a peak in summer. The average annual downwelling surface SW fluxes for total and low clouds (151 and 138 Wm(exp-2), respectively) are less than those under middle and high clouds (188 and 201 Wm(exp -2), respectively), but the downwelling LW fluxes (349 and 356 Wm(exp -2)) underneath total and low clouds are greater than those from middle and high clouds (337 and 333 Wm(exp -2)). Low clouds produce the largest LW warming (55 Wm(exp -2) and SW cooling (-91 Wm(exp -2)) effects with maximum and minimum absolute values in spring and summer, respectively. High clouds have the smallest LW warming (17 Wm(exp -2)) and SW cooling (-37 Wm(exp -2)) effects at the surface. All-sky SW CRF decreases and LW CRF increases with increasing cloud fraction with mean slopes of -0.984 and 0.616 Wm(exp -2)%(exp -1), respectively. Over the entire diurnal cycle, clouds deplete the amount of surface insolation more than they add to the downwelling LW flux. The calculated CRFs do not appear to be significantly

  5. Investigation into the influence of laser energy input on selective laser melted thin-walled parts by response surface method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jian; Pang, Zhicong; Wu, Weihui

    2018-04-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) provides a feasible way for manufacturing of complex thin-walled parts directly, however, the energy input during SLM process, namely derived from the laser power, scanning speed, layer thickness and scanning space, etc. has great influence on the thin wall's qualities. The aim of this work is to relate the thin wall's parameters (responses), namely track width, surface roughness and hardness to the process parameters considered in this research (laser power, scanning speed and layer thickness) and to find out the optimal manufacturing conditions. Design of experiment (DoE) was used by implementing composite central design to achieve better manufacturing qualities. Mathematical models derived from the statistical analysis were used to establish the relationships between the process parameters and the responses. Also, the effects of process parameters on each response were determined. Then, a numerical optimization was performed to find out the optimal process set at which the quality features are at their desired values. Based on this study, the relationship between process parameters and SLMed thin-walled structure was revealed and thus, the corresponding optimal process parameters can be used to manufactured thin-walled parts with high quality.

  6. Research on the surface water quality in mining influenced area in north-western part of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smical Irina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the current situation of the quality of surface water in the areas influenced by mining activities in the north-western part of Romania. In this respect a series of investigations have been conducted regarding the contamination with heavy metals of the water of the Someş and Tisa hydro- graphic Basins, which cover the northern part of Maramures County and the south-western area of Maramures County, respectively. The results of the comparative research refer to the period between 1999 and 2011 and reveal the specific heavy metal ions of mining activity: Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb Cd and Ni, as well as the water pH. The presented values as annual average values reveal an increase in several heavy metals after the closure of mines, which is due to the lack of effectiveness of the closure and of the conservation of the mine galleries, as well as of the impaired functioning of the mining wastewater treatment plants.

  7. Quality Control of Laser-Beam-Melted Parts by a Correlation Between Their Mechanical Properties and a Three-Dimensional Surface Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, T.; Wiora, G.; Witt, G.

    2017-03-01

    Good correlations between three-dimensional surface analyses of laser-beam-melted parts of nickel alloy HX and their mechanical properties were found. The surface analyses were performed with a confocal microscope, which offers a more profound surface data basis than a conventional, two-dimensional tactile profilometry. This new approach results in a wide range of three-dimensional surface parameters, which were each evaluated with respect to their feasibility for quality control in additive manufacturing. As a result of an automated surface analysis process by the confocal microscope and an industrial six-axis robot, the results are an innovative approach for quality control in additive manufacturing.

  8. A summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 1. Fish and wildlife information needs in the federal surface mining permanent regulations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This is part 1 of three part series to assist government agencies and private citizens in determining fish and wildlife information needs for new coal mining operations pursuant to the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. Part 2 will document status of individual state surface mining regulations as of January 1980 in those states having significant strippable reserves and/or active strip mining operations. It will also provide documentation of fish and wildlife information needs identified in the state regulations of compliance to PL 95-87. Part 3 will be a discussion of the information needed to develop the Fish and Wildlife Plan identified in the Permanent Regulations. The objective of this three part series is to include consideration of fish and wildlife resources in the surface mining process.

  9. 40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity are applicable to... part. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity in drinking water, measured at a representative...

  10. Two dimensional modeling of elastic wave propagation in solids containing cracks with rough surfaces and friction - Part II: Numerical implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delrue, Steven; Aleshin, Vladislav; Truyaert, Kevin; Bou Matar, Olivier; Van Den Abeele, Koen

    2018-01-01

    Our study aims at the creation of a numerical toolbox that describes wave propagation in samples containing internal contacts (e.g. cracks, delaminations, debondings, imperfect intergranular joints) of known geometry with postulated contact interaction laws including friction. The code consists of two entities: the contact model and the solid mechanics module. Part I of the paper concerns an in-depth description of a constitutive model for realistic contacts or cracks that takes into account the roughness of the contact faces and the associated effects of friction and hysteresis. In the crack model, three different contact states can be recognized: contact loss, total sliding and partial slip. Normal (clapping) interactions between the crack faces are implemented using a quadratic stress-displacement relation, whereas tangential (friction) interactions were introduced using the Coulomb friction law for the total sliding case, and the Method of Memory Diagrams (MMD) in case of partial slip. In the present part of the paper, we integrate the developed crack model into finite element software in order to simulate elastic wave propagation in a solid material containing internal contacts or cracks. We therefore implemented the comprehensive crack model in MATLAB® and introduced it in the Structural Mechanics Module of COMSOL Multiphysics®. The potential of the approach for ultrasound based inspection of solids with cracks showing acoustic nonlinearity is demonstrated by means of an example of shear wave propagation in an aluminum sample containing a single crack with rough surfaces and friction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Credal Networks under Maximum Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasiewicz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We apply the principle of maximum entropy to select a unique joint probability distribution from the set of all joint probability distributions specified by a credal network. In detail, we start by showing that the unique joint distribution of a Bayesian tree coincides with the maximum entropy model of its conditional distributions. This result, however, does not hold anymore for general Bayesian networks. We thus present a new kind of maximum entropy models, which are computed sequentially. ...

  12. Relative amplitude preservation processing utilizing surface consistent amplitude correction. Part 3; Surface consistent amplitude correction wo mochiita sotai shinpuku hozon shori. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, T [Japan National Oil Corporation, Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1996-10-01

    For the seismic reflection method conducted on the ground surface, generator and geophone are set on the surface. The observed waveforms are affected by the ground surface and surface layer. Therefore, it is required for discussing physical properties of the deep underground to remove the influence of surface layer, preliminarily. For the surface consistent amplitude correction, properties of the generator and geophone were removed by assuming that the observed waveforms can be expressed by equations of convolution. This is a correction method to obtain records without affected by the surface conditions. In response to analysis and correction of waveforms, wavelet conversion was examined. Using the amplitude patterns after correction, the significant signal region, noise dominant region, and surface wave dominant region would be separated each other. Since the amplitude values after correction of values in the significant signal region have only small variation, a representative value can be given. This can be used for analyzing the surface consistent amplitude correction. Efficiency of the process can be enhanced by considering the change of frequency. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Numerical simulation of surface solar radiation over Southern Africa. Part 1: Evaluation of regional and global climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chao; Morel, Béatrice; Wild, Martin; Pohl, Benjamin; Abiodun, Babatunde; Bessafi, Miloud

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluates the performance of climate models in reproducing surface solar radiation (SSR) over Southern Africa (SA) by validating five Regional Climate Models (RCM, including CCLM4, HIRHAM5, RACMO22T, RCA4 and REMO2009) that participated in the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment program over Africa (CORDEX-Africa) along with their ten driving General Circulation Models (GCMs) from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 over SA. The model simulated SSR was thereby compared to reference data from ground-based measurements, satellite-derived products and reanalyses over the period 1990-2005. Results show that (1) the references obtained from satellite retrievals and reanalyses overall overestimate SSR by up to 10 W/m2 on average when compared to ground-based measurements from the Global Energy Balance Archive, which are located mainly over the eastern part of the southern African continent. (2) Compared to one of the satellite products (Surface Solar Radiation Data Set—Heliosat Edition 2; SARAH-2): GCMs overestimate SSR over SA in terms of their multi-model mean by about 1 W/m2 (compensation of opposite biases over sub-regions) and 7.5 W/m2 in austral summer and winter respectively; RCMs driven by GCMs show in their multimodel mean underestimations of SSR in both seasons with Mean Bias Errors (MBEs) of about - 30 W/m2 in austral summer and about - 14 W/m2 in winter compared to SARAH-2. This multi-model mean low bias is dominated by the simulations of the CCLM4, with negative biases up to - 76 W/m2 in summer and - 32 W/m2 in winter. (3) The discrepancies in the simulated SSR over SA are larger in the RCMs than in the GCMs. (4) In terms of trend during the "brightening" period 1990-2005, both GCMs and RCMs (driven by European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis ERA-Interim, short as ERAINT and GCMs) simulate an SSR trend of less than 1 W/m2 per decade. However, variations of SSR trend exist among different references data

  14. Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lester J.; Dixon, Joann F.

    2015-01-01

    Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program. The dataset contains structural surfaces depicting the top and base of the aquifer system, its major and minor hydrogeologic units and zones, geophysical marker horizons, and the altitude of the 10,000-milligram-per-liter total dissolved solids boundary that defines the approximate fresh and saline parts of the aquifer system. The thicknesses of selected major and minor units or zones were determined by interpolating points of known thickness or from raster surface subtraction of the structural surfaces. Additional data contained include clipping polygons; regional polygon features that represent geologic or hydrogeologic aspects of the aquifers and the minor units or zones; data points used in the interpolation; and polygon and line features that represent faults, boundaries, and other features in the aquifer system.

  15. Relative amplitude preservation processing utilizing surface consistent amplitude correction. Part 4; Surface consistent amplitude correction wo mochiita sotai shinpuku hozon shori. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, T [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-10-22

    Discussions were given on seismic exploration from the ground surface using the reflection method, for surface consistent amplitude correction from among effects imposed from the ground surface and a surface layer. Amplitude distribution on the reflection wave zone is complex. Therefore, items to be considered in making an analysis are multiple, such as estimation of spherical surface divergence effect and exponential attenuation effect, not only amplitude change through the surface layer. If all of these items are taken into consideration, burden of the work becomes excessive. As a method to solve this problem, utilization of amplitude in initial movement of a diffraction wave may be conceived. Distribution of the amplitude in initial movement of the diffraction wave shows a value relatively close to distribution of the vibration transmitting and receiving points. The reason for this is thought because characteristics of the vibration transmitting and receiving points related with waveline paths in the vicinity of the ground surface have no great difference both on the diffraction waves and on the reflection waves. The lecture described in this paper introduces an attempt of improving the efficiency of the surface consistent amplitude correction by utilizing the analysis of amplitude in initial movement of the diffraction wave. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  16. A summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 2. The status of state surface mining regulations as of January 1980 and the fish and wildlife information needs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This is part 2 of a three part series to assist government agencies and private citizens in determining fish and wildlife information needs for new coal mining operations pursuant to the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. This portion documents the status of individual state surface mining regulations as of January 1980 in those states having significant strippable reserves and/or active strip mining operations. It also provides documentation of fish and wildlife information needs identified in the state regulations of compliance to PL 95-87.

  17. Greenland Surface Mass Balance as Simulated by the Community Earth System Model. Part II: Twenty-First-Century Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vizcaino, M.; Lipscomb, W.H.; Sacks, W.J.; van den Broeke, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the first twenty-first-century projections of surface mass balance (SMB) changes for the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) with the Community Earth System Model (CESM), which includes a new ice sheet component. For glaciated surfaces, CESM includes a sophisticated calculation of energy

  18. Inverse modelling of Köhler theory – Part 1: A response surface analysis of CCN spectra with respect to surface-active organic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lowe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study a novel framework for inverse modelling of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN spectra is developed using Köhler theory. The framework is established by using model-generated synthetic measurements as calibration data for a parametric sensitivity analysis. Assessment of the relative importance of aerosol physicochemical parameters, while accounting for bulk–surface partitioning of surface-active organic species, is carried out over a range of atmospherically relevant supersaturations. By introducing an objective function that provides a scalar metric for diagnosing the deviation of modelled CCN concentrations from synthetic observations, objective function response surfaces are presented as a function of model input parameters. Crucially, for the chosen calibration data, aerosol–CCN spectrum closure is confirmed as a well-posed inverse modelling exercise for a subset of the parameters explored herein. The response surface analysis indicates that the appointment of appropriate calibration data is particularly important. To perform an inverse aerosol–CCN closure analysis and constrain parametric uncertainties, it is shown that a high-resolution CCN spectrum definition of the calibration data is required where single-valued definitions may be expected to fail. Using Köhler theory to model CCN concentrations requires knowledge of many physicochemical parameters, some of which are difficult to measure in situ on the scale of interest and introduce a considerable amount of parametric uncertainty to model predictions. For all partitioning schemes and environments modelled, model output showed significant sensitivity to perturbations in aerosol log-normal parameters describing the accumulation mode, surface tension, organic : inorganic mass ratio, insoluble fraction, and solution ideality. Many response surfaces pertaining to these parameters contain well-defined minima and are therefore good candidates for calibration using a Monte

  19. Bio-activated titanium surface utilizable for mimetic bone implantation in dentistry – Part III: Surface characteristics an bone-implant contact formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strnad, J.; Strnad, Z.; Šesták, Jaroslav; Urban, K.; Povýšil, C.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 68, - (2007), s. 841-843 ISSN 0022-3697 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100639 Grant - others:GAMPO(CZ) FT-TA/087 Program:FT Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : implants * surface * titanium * bioactivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.899, year: 2007

  20. Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yuan Tseng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.

  1. Continuous agglomerate model for identifying the solute- indifferent part of colloid nanoparticle's surface charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfimov, A V; Aryslanova, E M; Chivilikhin, S A

    2016-01-01

    This work proposes an explicit analytical model for the surface potential of a colloidal nano-agglomerate. The model predicts that when an agglomerate reaches a certain critical size, its surface potential becomes independent of the agglomerate radius. The model also provides a method for identifying and quantifying the solute-indifferent charge in nanocolloids, that allows to assess the stability of toxicologically significant parameters of the system. (paper)

  2. PROCEEDINGS WITH CONTAMINATED INDUSTRIAL SITES IN TERMS OF NEW LEGISLATION – PART I. HISTORICAL POLLUTION OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Paulina Wiśniewska; Agnieszka Pusz

    2017-01-01

    This article shows a way of dealing with the industrial areas, where historical contamination of the earth’s surface occurred, together with an indication of the proper remediation method selection. Public Administration authorities, including the Regional Director of Environmental Protection (RDOŚ) and the governor are responsible, among others, for identifying areas where historical contamination or potential historical contamination of the earth's surface occurred. General Director of Envi...

  3. Modelling the climate and surface mass balance of polar ice sheets using RACMO2 - Part 2: Antarctica (1979-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior van Wessem, Jan; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Noël, Brice P. Y.; van Meijgaard, Erik; Amory, Charles; Birnbaum, Gerit; Jakobs, Constantijn L.; Krüger, Konstantin; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Lhermitte, Stef; Ligtenberg, Stefan R. M.; Medley, Brooke; Reijmer, Carleen H.; van Tricht, Kristof; Trusel, Luke D.; van Ulft, Lambertus H.; Wouters, Bert; Wuite, Jan; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2018-04-01

    We evaluate modelled Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) near-surface climate, surface mass balance (SMB) and surface energy balance (SEB) from the updated polar version of the regional atmospheric climate model, RACMO2 (1979-2016). The updated model, referred to as RACMO2.3p2, incorporates upper-air relaxation, a revised topography, tuned parameters in the cloud scheme to generate more precipitation towards the AIS interior and modified snow properties reducing drifting snow sublimation and increasing surface snowmelt. Comparisons of RACMO2 model output with several independent observational data show that the existing biases in AIS temperature, radiative fluxes and SMB components are further reduced with respect to the previous model version. The model-integrated annual average SMB for the ice sheet including ice shelves (minus the Antarctic Peninsula, AP) now amounts to 2229 Gt y-1, with an interannual variability of 109 Gt y-1. The largest improvement is found in modelled surface snowmelt, which now compares well with satellite and weather station observations. For the high-resolution ( ˜ 5.5 km) AP simulation, results remain comparable to earlier studies. The updated model provides a new, high-resolution data set of the contemporary near-surface climate and SMB of the AIS; this model version will be used for future climate scenario projections in a forthcoming study.

  4. A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibert, Yann

    2015-09-01

    We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope.

  5. Human arachnoid granulations Part I: a technique for quantifying area and distribution on the superior surface of the cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holman David W

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The arachnoid granulations (AGs are herniations of the arachnoid membrane into the dural venous sinuses on the surface of the brain. Previous morphological studies of AGs have been limited in scope and only one has mentioned surface area measurements. The purpose of this study was to investigate the topographic distribution of AGs on the superior surface of the cerebral cortex. Methods En face images were taken of the superior surface of 35 formalin-fixed human brains. AGs were manually identified using Adobe Photoshop, with a pixel location containing an AG defined as 'positive'. A set of 25 standard fiducial points was marked on each hemisphere for a total of 50 points on each image. The points were connected on each hemisphere to create a segmented image. A standard template was created for each hemisphere by calculating the average position of the 25 fiducial points from all brains. Each segmented image was mapped to the standard template using a linear transformation. A topographic distribution map was produced by calculating the proportion of AG positive images at each pixel in the standard template. The AG surface area was calculated for each hemisphere and for the total brain superior surface. To adjust for different brain sizes, the proportional involvement of AGs was calculated by dividing the AG area by the total area. Results The total brain average surface area of AGs was 78.53 ± 13.13 mm2 (n = 35 and average AG proportional involvement was 57.71 × 10-4 ± 7.65 × 10-4. Regression analysis confirmed the reproducibility of AG identification between independent researchers with r2 = 0.97. The surface AGs were localized in the parasagittal planes that coincide with the region of the lateral lacunae. Conclusion The data obtained on the spatial distribution and en face surface area of AGs will be used in an in vitro model of CSF outflow. With an increase in the number of samples, this analysis technique can be used

  6. Maximum likelihood estimation for integrated diffusion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltazar-Larios, Fernando; Sørensen, Michael

    We propose a method for obtaining maximum likelihood estimates of parameters in diffusion models when the data is a discrete time sample of the integral of the process, while no direct observations of the process itself are available. The data are, moreover, assumed to be contaminated...... EM-algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in the diffusion model. As part of the algorithm, we use a recent simple method for approximate simulation of diffusion bridges. In simulation studies for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the CIR process the proposed method works...... by measurement errors. Integrated volatility is an example of this type of observations. Another example is ice-core data on oxygen isotopes used to investigate paleo-temperatures. The data can be viewed as incomplete observations of a model with a tractable likelihood function. Therefore we propose a simulated...

  7. Is there an optimal topographical surface in nano-scale affecting protein adsorption and cell behaviors? Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Huajie, E-mail: wanghuajie972001@163.com; Sun Yuanyuan; Cao Ying, E-mail: caoying1130@sina.com; Wang Kui; Yang Lin [Henan Normal University, College of Chemistry and Environmental Science (China); Zhang Yidong; Zheng Zhi [Xuchang University, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials (China)

    2012-05-15

    Although nano-structured surfaces exhibit superior biological activities to the smooth or micro-structured surfaces, whether there is an optimal topographical surface in nano-scale affecting protein adsorption and cell behaviors is still controversial. In this study, porous aluminum oxide membranes with different pore sizes ranging from 25 to 120 nm were prepared by the anodic oxidation technique. The surface morphology, topography and wettability were analyzed by scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope and water contact angle measurement, respectively. The results indicated that the synergistic action of the nano-topography structure and hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties resulted in a highest protein adsorption on the aluminum oxide membrane with 80 nm pore size. Additionally, the morphological, metabolic and cell counting methods showed that cells had different sensitivity to porous aluminum oxide membranes with different surface features. Furthermore, this sensitivity was cell type dependent. The optimal pore size of aluminum oxide membranes for cell growth was 80 nm for PC12 cells and 50 nm for NIH 3T3 cells.

  8. Fouling tendency of ash resulting from burning mixtures of biofuels. Part 3. Influence of probe surface temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mischa Theis; Bengt-Johan Skrifvars; Maria Zevenhoven; Mikko Hupa; Honghi Tran [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Aabo (Finland). Combustion and Materials Chemistry

    2006-10-15

    Mixtures of peat with bark and peat with straw were burned in a large lab-scale entrained flow reactor under controlled conditions, and deposits were collected on an air-cooled probe controlled at four to six different probe surface temperatures between 475 and 625{sup o}C. The results show that the probe surface temperature has no effect on the deposition rate when peat is burned. When burning bark, either alone or in mixtures with peat, the deposition rate decreases with increasing probe surface temperature. When burning straw, either alone or in mixtures with peat, the deposition rate increases with increasing probe surface temperature up to 550{sup o}C and remains constant at higher temperatures. The Cl content in the deposits decreases with increasing probe surface temperature, regardless of the mixture composition. In deposits obtained from burning peat-bark mixtures, K appears as K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} when the deposition rate is low and as KCl when the deposition rate is high. In deposits obtained from burning peat-straw mixtures, no clear relationship is found between the deposition rate and the contents of Cl, S and K in the deposits. 21 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    60, No. 3. — journal of. March 2003 physics pp. 415–422. Maximum stellar iron core mass. F W GIACOBBE. Chicago Research Center/American Air Liquide ... iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large .... thermal equilibrium velocities will tend to be non-relativistic.

  10. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs

  11. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore

  12. A portable storage maximum thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayart, Gerard.

    1976-01-01

    A clinical thermometer storing the voltage corresponding to the maximum temperature in an analog memory is described. End of the measurement is shown by a lamp switch out. The measurement time is shortened by means of a low thermal inertia platinum probe. This portable thermometer is fitted with cell test and calibration system [fr

  13. Neutron spectra unfolding with maximum entropy and maximum likelihood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shikoh; Tsunoda, Toshiharu

    1989-01-01

    A new unfolding theory has been established on the basis of the maximum entropy principle and the maximum likelihood method. This theory correctly embodies the Poisson statistics of neutron detection, and always brings a positive solution over the whole energy range. Moreover, the theory unifies both problems of overdetermined and of underdetermined. For the latter, the ambiguity in assigning a prior probability, i.e. the initial guess in the Bayesian sense, has become extinct by virtue of the principle. An approximate expression of the covariance matrix for the resultant spectra is also presented. An efficient algorithm to solve the nonlinear system, which appears in the present study, has been established. Results of computer simulation showed the effectiveness of the present theory. (author)

  14. PROCEEDINGS WITH CONTAMINATED INDUSTRIAL SITES IN TERMS OF NEW LEGISLATION – PART I. HISTORICAL POLLUTION OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Paulina Wiśniewska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article shows a way of dealing with the industrial areas, where historical contamination of the earth’s surface occurred, together with an indication of the proper remediation method selection. Public Administration authorities, including the Regional Director of Environmental Protection (RDOŚ and the governor are responsible, among others, for identifying areas where historical contamination or potential historical contamination of the earth's surface occurred. General Director of Environmental Protection is responsible for conducting and updating the registry, which contains information on identified by RDOŚ and district governor contaminated areas. The article discusses also issues related to the duties and responsibilities wielding the earth's surface, as well as the costs of using the environment, taking into account the "polluter pays" principle.

  15. Distribution of phytoplankton groups within the deep chlorophyll maximum

    KAUST Repository

    Latasa, Mikel

    2016-11-01

    The fine vertical distribution of phytoplankton groups within the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) was studied in the NE Atlantic during summer stratification. A simple but unconventional sampling strategy allowed examining the vertical structure with ca. 2 m resolution. The distribution of Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, chlorophytes, pelagophytes, small prymnesiophytes, coccolithophores, diatoms, and dinoflagellates was investigated with a combination of pigment-markers, flow cytometry and optical and FISH microscopy. All groups presented minimum abundances at the surface and a maximum in the DCM layer. The cell distribution was not vertically symmetrical around the DCM peak and cells tended to accumulate in the upper part of the DCM layer. The more symmetrical distribution of chlorophyll than cells around the DCM peak was due to the increase of pigment per cell with depth. We found a vertical alignment of phytoplankton groups within the DCM layer indicating preferences for different ecological niches in a layer with strong gradients of light and nutrients. Prochlorococcus occupied the shallowest and diatoms the deepest layers. Dinoflagellates, Synechococcus and small prymnesiophytes preferred shallow DCM layers, and coccolithophores, chlorophytes and pelagophytes showed a preference for deep layers. Cell size within groups changed with depth in a pattern related to their mean size: the cell volume of the smallest group increased the most with depth while the cell volume of the largest group decreased the most. The vertical alignment of phytoplankton groups confirms that the DCM is not a homogeneous entity and indicates groups’ preferences for different ecological niches within this layer.

  16. Estimation of surface temperature by using inverse problem. Part 1. Steady state analyses of two-dimensional cylindrical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshio; Terada, Atsuhiko

    2006-03-01

    In the corrosive process environment of thermochemical hydrogen production Iodine-Sulfur process plant, there is a difficulty in the direct measurement of surface temperature of the structural materials. An inverse problem method can effectively be applied for this problem, which enables estimation of the surface temperature using the temperature data at the inside of structural materials. This paper shows analytical results of steady state temperature distributions in a two-dimensional cylindrical system cooled by impinging jet flow, and clarifies necessary order of multiple-valued function from the viewpoint of engineeringly satisfactory precision. (author)

  17. Economics, organization, and planning in surface mining. Part I. Ekonomika, organizacja, i planowanie w gornictwie odkrywkowym. Czesc I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trembecki, A; Uberman, R

    1975-01-01

    Describes the organization of the Ministry of Mining and Energy of the Polish People's Republic and the Union of the Brown Coal Industry. Principles of organization and management of brown coal mines are also outlined. Analyzed are: management structure of production at brown coal mines, management structure of coal preparation and of brown coal mining planning. Methods of production analysis are also explained including analysis of working time and methods based on photography. Organization of work and management of brown coal surface mines is described: organization of belt conveyor haulage, rail transport, truck transport, organization scheme for relocating belt conveyors and rails in surface mines. (31 refs.) (In Polish)

  18. Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastea, S

    2009-01-27

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

  19. Estimates for the Probabilities of Surface-to-Air Cloud-Free Lines-of-Sight and Low Cloud Statistics from Ship Observations. Part 1. Fifteen Marine Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-24

    time before and after) or cumulus fractus of bad weath’er, or both ( pannus ), usually below altostratus or nimbostratus. 8 = Cumulus and stratocumulus...vibrous upper part by cumulus, stratocumulus, stratus or pannus . + . from Surface Marine Observations Tape Deck TDF-11 *Fog All clouds in the 0-50...Fractus of bad weather, cr V both ( pannus ), usually below Alto- stratus or N~imbostratus. The term "bad weather* denotes the conditions which coenerally

  20. On the maximum drawdown during speculative bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotundo, Giulia; Navarra, Mauro

    2007-08-01

    A taxonomy of large financial crashes proposed in the literature locates the burst of speculative bubbles due to endogenous causes in the framework of extreme stock market crashes, defined as falls of market prices that are outlier with respect to the bulk of drawdown price movement distribution. This paper goes on deeper in the analysis providing a further characterization of the rising part of such selected bubbles through the examination of drawdown and maximum drawdown movement of indices prices. The analysis of drawdown duration is also performed and it is the core of the risk measure estimated here.

  1. On Maximum Entropy and Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gresele

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Maximum entropy is a powerful concept that entails a sharp separation between relevant and irrelevant variables. It is typically invoked in inference, once an assumption is made on what the relevant variables are, in order to estimate a model from data, that affords predictions on all other (dependent variables. Conversely, maximum entropy can be invoked to retrieve the relevant variables (sufficient statistics directly from the data, once a model is identified by Bayesian model selection. We explore this approach in the case of spin models with interactions of arbitrary order, and we discuss how relevant interactions can be inferred. In this perspective, the dimensionality of the inference problem is not set by the number of parameters in the model, but by the frequency distribution of the data. We illustrate the method showing its ability to recover the correct model in a few prototype cases and discuss its application on a real dataset.

  2. Maximum Water Hammer Sensitivity Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jalil Emadi; Abbas Solemani

    2011-01-01

    Pressure waves and Water Hammer occur in a pumping system when valves are closed or opened suddenly or in the case of sudden failure of pumps. Determination of maximum water hammer is considered one of the most important technical and economical items of which engineers and designers of pumping stations and conveyance pipelines should take care. Hammer Software is a recent application used to simulate water hammer. The present study focuses on determining significance of ...

  3. Maximum Gene-Support Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Shan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomes and genes diversify during evolution; however, it is unclear to what extent genes still retain the relationship among species. Model species for molecular phylogenetic studies include yeasts and viruses whose genomes were sequenced as well as plants that have the fossil-supported true phylogenetic trees available. In this study, we generated single gene trees of seven yeast species as well as single gene trees of nine baculovirus species using all the orthologous genes among the species compared. Homologous genes among seven known plants were used for validation of the finding. Four algorithms—maximum parsimony (MP, minimum evolution (ME, maximum likelihood (ML, and neighbor-joining (NJ—were used. Trees were reconstructed before and after weighting the DNA and protein sequence lengths among genes. Rarely a gene can always generate the “true tree” by all the four algorithms. However, the most frequent gene tree, termed “maximum gene-support tree” (MGS tree, or WMGS tree for the weighted one, in yeasts, baculoviruses, or plants was consistently found to be the “true tree” among the species. The results provide insights into the overall degree of divergence of orthologous genes of the genomes analyzed and suggest the following: 1 The true tree relationship among the species studied is still maintained by the largest group of orthologous genes; 2 There are usually more orthologous genes with higher similarities between genetically closer species than between genetically more distant ones; and 3 The maximum gene-support tree reflects the phylogenetic relationship among species in comparison.

  4. Influence of Cutting Parameters on the Surface Roughness and Hole Diameter of Drilling Making Parts of Alluminium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Stasiūnas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the drilling process of an aluminium alloy. The paper is aimed at analyzing the influence of cutting speed, feed and hole depth considering hole diameter and hole surface roughness of aluminum alloy 6082 in the dry drilling process and at making empirical formulas for cutting parameters. The article also describes experimental techniques and equipment, tools and measuring devices. Experimental studies have been carried out using different cutting parameters. The obtained results have been analyzed using computer software. According to the existing techniques for measuring, surface roughness and hole diameters have been measured, empirical models have been created and the results of the conducted experiments have been inspected. The findings and recommendations are presented at the end of the work.Artcile in Lithuanian

  5. Surface grafted chitosan gels. Part I. Molecular insight into the formation of chitosan and poly(acrylic acid) multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chao; Thormann, Esben; Claesson, Per M.

    2014-01-01

    Composite polyelectrolyte multilayers of chitosan and low molecular weight poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) have been assembled by sequential adsorption as a first step toward building a surface anchored chitosan gel. Silane chemistry was used to graft the first chitosan layer to prevent film detachment...... and decomposition. The assembly process is characterized by nonlinear growth behavior, with different adsorption kinetics for chitosan and PAA. In situ analysis of the multilayer by means of surface sensitive total internal reflection Raman (TIRR) spectroscopy, combined with target factor analysis of the spectra...... molecular weight chitosan shows a similar behavior, although to a much lower extent. Our data demonstrate that the charged monomeric units of chitosan are mainly compensated by carboxylate ions from PAA. Furthermore, the morphology and mechanical properties of the multilayers were investigated in situ using...

  6. Prince George Apt, British Columbia, Canada, Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-11-02

    A4 .4 __~~ ! LA CAL -_-_ TOTAL NUMBER Of OBSERVATIONS USAFETAC 0-8-5 (01) 1 S~ PF Ots E- dIONS OA T1,11 FORASt*5 OBSc,.Tr A TI Tt, !,/, SURFACE WINDS 2...USAFETAC OM 0 8-5 (OUI) Tous DIONS OFI , lOOM ATE OTSO)LEI NNW aY VARBIL -i S t I T A ,,,/ SURFACE WINDS 2 E AT E1 E I1. F/ A C PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY...3 2. 2 >1 >1, -- 5 16 _ 1 0 NO CELIN ,4.11 4’s. 44.b 44, 5 44.7 441,7 44#44.7 44.7 44. 44 . 44. 44.9 44.’ 4 .. 4.So 18000 -,9 4 4-. q -4-9 . 50,U Sn

  7. Surface functionalization of bioactive glasses with natural molecules of biological significance, Part I: Gallic acid as model molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Ferraris, Sara; Prenesti, Enrico; Verné, Enrica

    2013-12-01

    Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA) and its derivatives are a group of biomolecules (polyphenols) obtained from plants. They have effects which are potentially beneficial to heath, for example they are antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and antibacterial, as recently investigated in many fields such as medicine, food and plant sciences. The main drawbacks of these molecules are both low stability and bioavailability. In this research work the opportunity to graft GA to bioactive glasses is investigated, in order to deliver the undamaged biological molecule into the body, using the biomaterial surfaces as a localized carrier. GA was considered for functionalization since it is a good model molecule for polyphenols and presents several interesting biological activities, like antibacterial, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. Two different silica based bioactive glasses (SCNA and CEL2), with different reactivity, were employed as substrates. UV photometry combined with the Folin&Ciocalteu reagent was adopted to test the concentration of GA in uptake solution after functionalization. This test verified how much GA consumption occurred with surface modification and it was also used on solid samples to test the presence of GA on functionalized glasses. XPS and SEM-EDS techniques were employed to characterize the modification of material surface properties and functional group composition before and after functionalization.

  8. Modelling the climate and surface mass balance of polar ice sheets using RACMO2 - Part 1: Greenland (1958-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Brice; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Melchior van Wessem, J.; van Meijgaard, Erik; van As, Dirk; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Lhermitte, Stef; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Smeets, C. J. P. Paul; van Ulft, Lambertus H.; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2018-03-01

    We evaluate modelled Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) near-surface climate, surface energy balance (SEB) and surface mass balance (SMB) from the updated regional climate model RACMO2 (1958-2016). The new model version, referred to as RACMO2.3p2, incorporates updated glacier outlines, topography and ice albedo fields. Parameters in the cloud scheme governing the conversion of cloud condensate into precipitation have been tuned to correct inland snowfall underestimation: snow properties are modified to reduce drifting snow and melt production in the ice sheet percolation zone. The ice albedo prescribed in the updated model is lower at the ice sheet margins, increasing ice melt locally. RACMO2.3p2 shows good agreement compared to in situ meteorological data and point SEB/SMB measurements, and better resolves the spatial patterns and temporal variability of SMB compared with the previous model version, notably in the north-east, south-east and along the K-transect in south-western Greenland. This new model version provides updated, high-resolution gridded fields of the GrIS present-day climate and SMB, and will be used for projections of the GrIS climate and SMB in response to a future climate scenario in a forthcoming study.

  9. Oxidising alternative species to chromium VI in zinc-galvanised steel surface treatment. Part 2. An electrochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, E.; Fedrizzi, L.; Diamantinio, T.C.

    1998-01-01

    In the first part of this work, the authors present the main results and conclusions of a morphological and chemical study carried out on zinc conversion layers (ZCLs) obtained with oxidising alternative passivation baths, that includes molybdates, permanganates, van[ates and tungstates. A good chromate-based bath was used as reference. In this second part of the work, the authors present the main results obtained on selected zinc conversion layers (ZCLs), using a.c. electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results obtained were correlated with the morphological and chemical data obtained with the same ZCLs in the first part of this work. Finally, it is concluded that the alternative ZCLs studied, does not seem to be as efficient as that obtained with a chromate-based passivation bath used as reference. It is believed that a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the ZCL's formation, can be useful for studying, in the very near future, possible synergetic effects between molybdates and other chemical species. (orig.)

  10. Bangor International/Dow AFB, Maine. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-06

    temporary site at ground GM1-1l RO-2 Surfac level in ramp area. 6 Apr 60 Located approx 200 ft from corner Same RO-2A 13 ft of old rnwy 33 taxiway and...USAF STAC . 0-14-S( OL A) ............ . . .T... ..O . PORN ... 17- GLCPAL CLIMATOLOGY 9RANCH ArETAC CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY Alq WEATHEk SERVICL/4AC S...13.1 i ?6 6.. 5918 USAFETAC PORN 0.9.5 (OL.-) PFVIOUS EDITIONS OF TnIS FORM AIRE ORSOLTE Jut 64 GLCRAL CLIMAT0L.i Y 1 ANCH AFE T AC SKYCO E A>4 4ATHER

  11. Lipids of Dietzia sp. A14101. Part I: A study of the production dynamics of surface-active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidsten, Ina; Mjøs, Svein Are; Holmelid, Bjarte; Bødtker, Gunhild; Barth, Tanja

    2017-11-01

    Dietzia sp. A14101 belonging to the genus Dietzia (Gram-positive bacteria, Actinomycetes, high G+C content of DNA) was isolated from an oil reservoir model column inoculated with oil-field bacteria (Bødtker et al., 2009). Low interfacial tension (IFT) values were obtained by studying intact strain cells grown on water-immiscible hydrocarbons (HC) (Kowalewski et al. (2004), Kowalewski et al. (2005). Further investigations showed that the adaptation mechanism of Dietzia sp. A14101 to toxic water-immiscible HC involved changes both on the level of fatty acids content and in the physical properties of the cellular surface (development of the negative cellular surface charge and an increased in hydrophobicity) (Hvidsten et al., 2015b). However, these changes could not explain the low IFT values observed in earlier studies of this strain. Generally, low IFT imply a production of surface active compounds of low MW that are lipids by structure (Rosenberg and Ron, 1999). In this paper, it is shown that Dietzia sp. A14101 produces a range of glycolipids on all substrates. The amount of trehalose-containing lipids increases when the strain is grown on hydrocarbons. The production peak seems to coincide with the exponential growth phase, and such increased glycolipid synthesis continues throughout the stationary phase. The results indicate that only low amounts of the hydrocarbon substrate is incorporated directly into the glycolipids produced. Most of the hydrocarbon substrate seems to be employed for the biosynthesis of the neutral lipids and higher amounts of biomass were generated on HC substrates compared to incubations on non-HC substrates. The lipid content of the cell was determined as the total lipid extract (TLE), and was further fractionated (SPE). The hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties of the isolated surface active compounds were determined (GC-MS, TLC, DART, LC-MS). The changes in the lipid content during the culture development were monitored by 1D and 2D TLC

  12. Optimisation of warpage on plastic injection moulding part using response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm method (GA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miza, A. T. N. A.; Shayfull, Z.; Nasir, S. M.; Fathullah, M.; Hazwan, M. H. M.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, Computer Aided Engineering was used for injection moulding simulation. The method of Design of experiment (DOE) was utilize according to the Latin Square orthogonal array. The relationship between the injection moulding parameters and warpage were identify based on the experimental data that used. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used as to validate the model accuracy. Then, the RSM and GA method were combine as to examine the optimum injection moulding process parameter. Therefore the optimisation of injection moulding is largely improve and the result shown an increasing accuracy and also reliability. The propose method by combining RSM and GA method also contribute in minimising the warpage from occur.

  13. Generic maximum likely scale selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    in this work is on applying this selection principle under a Brownian image model. This image model provides a simple scale invariant prior for natural images and we provide illustrative examples of the behavior of our scale estimation on such images. In these illustrative examples, estimation is based......The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...

  14. Pesticide exposure assessment for surface waters in the EU. Part 1: Some comments on the current procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Martin; Diesner, Mirjam; Großmann, Dietlinde; Guerniche, Djamal; Hommen, Udo; Klein, Michael; Kubiak, Roland; Müller, Alexandra; Priegnitz, Jan; Reichenberger, Stefan; Thomas, Kai; Trapp, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    In 2001, the European Commission introduced a risk assessment project known as FOCUS (FOrum for the Coordination of pesticide fate models and their USe) for the surface water risk assessment of active substances in the European Union. Even for the national authorisation of plant protection products (PPPs), the vast majority of EU member states still refer to the four runoff and six drainage scenarios selected by the FOCUS Surface Water Workgroup. However, our study, as well as the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), has stated the need for various improvements. Current developments in pesticide exposure assessment mainly relate to two processes. Firstly, predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of pesticides are calculated by introducing model input variables such as weather conditions, soil properties and substance fate parameters that have a probabilistic nature. Secondly, spatially distributed PECs for soil-climate scenarios are derived on the basis of an analysis of geodata. Such approaches facilitate the calculation of a spatiotemporal cumulative distribution function (CDF) of PECs for a given area of interest and are subsequently used to determine an exposure concentration endpoint as a given percentile of the CDF. For national PPP authorisation, we propose that, in the future, exposure endpoints should be determined from the overall known statistical PEC population for an area of interest, and derived for soil and climate conditions specific to the particular member state. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Turbulence kinetic energy budget during the afternoon transition - Part 1: Observed surface TKE budget and boundary layer description for 10 intensive observation period days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Erik; Lohou, Fabienne; Lothon, Marie; Pardyjak, Eric; Mahrt, Larry; Darbieu, Clara

    2016-07-01

    The decay of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and its budget in the afternoon period from midday until zero-buoyancy flux at the surface is studied in a two-part paper by means of measurements from the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) field campaign for 10 intensive observation period days. Here, in Part 1, near-surface measurements from a small tower are used to estimate a TKE budget. The overall boundary layer characteristics and mesoscale situation at the site are also described based upon taller tower measurements, radiosoundings and remote sensing instrumentation. Analysis of the TKE budget during the afternoon transition reveals a variety of different surface layer dynamics in terms of TKE and TKE decay. This is largely attributed to variations in the 8 m wind speed, which is responsible for different amounts of near-surface shear production on different afternoons and variations within some of the afternoon periods. The partitioning of near-surface production into local dissipation and transport in neutral and unstably stratified conditions was investigated. Although variations exist both between and within afternoons, as a rule of thumb, our results suggest that about 50 % of the near-surface production of TKE is compensated for by local dissipation near the surface, leaving about 50 % available for transport. This result indicates that it is important to also consider TKE transport as a factor influencing the near-surface TKE decay rate, which in many earlier studies has mainly been linked with the production terms of TKE by buoyancy and wind shear. We also conclude that the TKE tendency is smaller than the other budget terms, indicating a quasi-stationary evolution of TKE in the afternoon transition. Even though the TKE tendency was observed to be small, a strong correlation to mean buoyancy production of -0.69 was found for the afternoon period. For comparison with previous results, the TKE budget terms are normalized with

  16. Turbulence kinetic energy budget during the afternoon transition – Part 1: Observed surface TKE budget and boundary layer description for 10 intensive observation period days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nilsson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The decay of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE and its budget in the afternoon period from midday until zero-buoyancy flux at the surface is studied in a two-part paper by means of measurements from the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST field campaign for 10 intensive observation period days. Here, in Part 1, near-surface measurements from a small tower are used to estimate a TKE budget. The overall boundary layer characteristics and mesoscale situation at the site are also described based upon taller tower measurements, radiosoundings and remote sensing instrumentation. Analysis of the TKE budget during the afternoon transition reveals a variety of different surface layer dynamics in terms of TKE and TKE decay. This is largely attributed to variations in the 8 m wind speed, which is responsible for different amounts of near-surface shear production on different afternoons and variations within some of the afternoon periods. The partitioning of near-surface production into local dissipation and transport in neutral and unstably stratified conditions was investigated. Although variations exist both between and within afternoons, as a rule of thumb, our results suggest that about 50 % of the near-surface production of TKE is compensated for by local dissipation near the surface, leaving about 50 % available for transport. This result indicates that it is important to also consider TKE transport as a factor influencing the near-surface TKE decay rate, which in many earlier studies has mainly been linked with the production terms of TKE by buoyancy and wind shear. We also conclude that the TKE tendency is smaller than the other budget terms, indicating a quasi-stationary evolution of TKE in the afternoon transition. Even though the TKE tendency was observed to be small, a strong correlation to mean buoyancy production of −0.69 was found for the afternoon period. For comparison with previous results, the TKE

  17. Long-term trends of surface ozone and its influencing factors at the Mt. Waliguan GAW station, China - Part 1: Overall trends and characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W. Y.; Lin, W. L.; Xu, X. B.; Tang, J.; Huang, J. Q.; Wu, H.; Zhang, X. C.

    2015-11-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important atmospheric oxidant, greenhouse gas and atmospheric pollutant at the same time. The level of tropospheric ozone, particularly in the surface layer, is impacted by emissions of precursors and is subjected to meteorological conditions. Due its importance, the long-term variation trend of baseline ozone is highly needed for environmental and climate change assessment. So far, studies about the long-term trends of ozone at representative sites are mainly available for European and North American sites. Similar studies are lacking for China, a country with rapid economic growth for recent decades, and many other developing countries. To uncover the long-term characteristics and trends of baseline surface ozone, concentration in western China, measurements at a global baseline Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) station in the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau region (Mt. Waliguan) for the period of 1994 to 2013 were analysed in this study, using a modified Mann-Kendall test and the Hilbert-Huang Transform analysis for the trend and periodicity analysis, respectively. Results reveal higher surface ozone during the night and lower during the day at Waliguan, due to mountain-valley breezes. A seasonal maximum in summer was found, which was probably caused by enhanced stratosphere-to-troposphere exchange events and/or by tropospheric photochemistry. Analysis suggests that there is a season-diurnal cycle in the three-dimensional winds on top of Mt. Waliguan. Season-dependent daytime and nighttime ranges of 6 h were determined based on the season-diurnal cycle in the three-dimensional winds and were used to sort subsets of ozone data for trend analysis. Significant increasing trends in surface ozone were detected for both daytime (1.5-2.7 ppbv 10 a-1) and nighttime (1.3-2.9 ppbv 10 a-1). Autumn and spring revealed the largest increase rates, while summer and winter showed relatively weaker increases. The HHT spectral analysis confirmed the increasing

  18. Adhesion of nitrile rubber (NBR) to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric. Part 1: PET surface modification by methylenediphenyl di-isocyanate (MDI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavizadeh, Mahmoud; Jamshidi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Glutaric anhydride peroxide (GAP) was grafted on PET surface by UV irradiation method. Then MDI was attached to GAP on PET surface. • The fabric was vulcanized by nitrile rubber. • Peet test was performed after each stage of surface modification. • Curing temperature was increased and the tests were repeated. • Effect of MDI coating on PET without carboxylation was evaluated. Effect of vulcanizing temperature on this product was also studied. - Abstract: Fiber to rubber adhesion is an important subject in rubber composite industry. It is well known that surface physical, mechanical and chemical treatments are effective methods to improve interfacial bonding. Ultra violet (UV) light irradiation is an efficient method which is used to increase interfacial interactions. In this research UV assisted chemical modification of PET fabric was used to increase its bonding to nitrile rubber (NBR). NBR is perfect selection to produce fuel and oil resistant rubber parts but it has weak bonding to fabrics. For this purpose at first, the PET fabric was carboxylated under UV irradiation and then methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) was reacted and grafted to carboxylated PET. T-peel test was used to evaluate PET fabric to NBR bonding strength. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-AT) was used to assess surface modifications of the PET fabrics. The chemical composition of the PET surfaces before and after carboxylation and MDI grafting was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that at vulcanizing temperature of 150 °C, carboxylation in contrary to MDI grafting, improved considerably PET to NBR adhesion. Finally effect of curing temperature on PET to NBR bonding strength was determined. It was found that increasing vulcanizing temperature to 170 °C caused considerable improvement (about 134%) in bonding strength.

  19. Research of the value of linear distortion of renewable surface of part during rotary processing of bulky items without dismantling unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, J. A.; Fedorenko, M. A.; Pogonin, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    The loading and unloading units and grinding mills of raw devices have internal cone type or pipe screw perceive load of incoming and outgoing material. The main part of the support assembly is a pin. Mounting seats for the pipe screws cone have traces of deformation and work hardening, while they themselves have wear of pins and deformation of the inner and outer cylindrical working surface. In the mill body, there are constantly acting dynamic forces causing vibration, which are transmitted to the stud and inner accelerating elements. Under the influence of stress and vibration, the housing spigot is in the stress-compressed state and stretched vertically and horizontally. As a result, the insertion element is deformed and weakened in the fixture. A moving element appears in the gap leading to the fact that it drops lfeedstock and under the influence of variable loads it is destroyed, as well as the seating surfaces of the insert pin member.

  20. System for memorizing maximum values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1992-08-01

    The invention discloses a system capable of memorizing maximum sensed values. The system includes conditioning circuitry which receives the analog output signal from a sensor transducer. The conditioning circuitry rectifies and filters the analog signal and provides an input signal to a digital driver, which may be either linear or logarithmic. The driver converts the analog signal to discrete digital values, which in turn triggers an output signal on one of a plurality of driver output lines n. The particular output lines selected is dependent on the converted digital value. A microfuse memory device connects across the driver output lines, with n segments. Each segment is associated with one driver output line, and includes a microfuse that is blown when a signal appears on the associated driver output line.

  1. Remarks on the maximum luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Ikeda, Taishi; Moore, Christopher J.; Yoo, Chul-Moon

    2018-04-01

    The quest for fundamental limitations on physical processes is old and venerable. Here, we investigate the maximum possible power, or luminosity, that any event can produce. We show, via full nonlinear simulations of Einstein's equations, that there exist initial conditions which give rise to arbitrarily large luminosities. However, the requirement that there is no past horizon in the spacetime seems to limit the luminosity to below the Planck value, LP=c5/G . Numerical relativity simulations of critical collapse yield the largest luminosities observed to date, ≈ 0.2 LP . We also present an analytic solution to the Einstein equations which seems to give an unboundedly large luminosity; this will guide future numerical efforts to investigate super-Planckian luminosities.

  2. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  3. Scintillation counter, maximum gamma aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumim, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  4. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Shiguang; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  5. The polymeric nanofilm of triazinedithiolsilane fabricated by self-assembled technique on copper surface. Part 2: Characterization of composition and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yabin; Liu, Zhong; Huang, Yudong; Qi, Yutai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The chemical reactions between copper and triazinedithiolsilane were revealed. • The structure of triazinedithiolsilane's polymeric nanofilm was demonstrated. • The morphology and microstructure of the polymeric nanofilm was observed. - Abstract: In the first part, a novel design route for metal protection against corrosion was proposed, and a class of triazinedithiolsilane compounds was conceived as protector for copper. The protective capability of the polymeric nanofilm, fabricated by self-assembling one representative (abbreviated as TESPA) of triazinedithiolsilane compounds onto copper surface, has been investigated and evaluated by electrochemical tests. The results show that the polymeric nanofilm significantly inhibits copper corrosion. This study, on the one hand, concentrates on the chemical composition of the TESPA polymeric nanofilm by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS results reveal that the chemical bonds between copper and TESPA monomers, three dimensional disulfide units and siloxane networks are responsible for the satisfactory protection of TESPA polymeric nanofilm against copper corrosion. On the other hand, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) are utilized to reveal the morphology and the uniformity of the TESPA polymeric nanofilm. The SEM-EDS results demonstrate that the copper surfaces are uniformly covered with TESPA self-assembled monolayer and the polymeric nanofilm. The TESPA-covered copper surfaces turn out to be smoother than that of the bare copper surface.

  6. The polymeric nanofilm of triazinedithiolsilane fabricated by self-assembled technique on copper surface. Part 2: Characterization of composition and morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yabin; Liu, Zhong; Huang, Yudong; Qi, Yutai

    2015-11-01

    In the first part, a novel design route for metal protection against corrosion was proposed, and a class of triazinedithiolsilane compounds was conceived as protector for copper. The protective capability of the polymeric nanofilm, fabricated by self-assembling one representative (abbreviated as TESPA) of triazinedithiolsilane compounds onto copper surface, has been investigated and evaluated by electrochemical tests. The results show that the polymeric nanofilm significantly inhibits copper corrosion. This study, on the one hand, concentrates on the chemical composition of the TESPA polymeric nanofilm by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS results reveal that the chemical bonds between copper and TESPA monomers, three dimensional disulfide units and siloxane networks are responsible for the satisfactory protection of TESPA polymeric nanofilm against copper corrosion. On the other hand, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) are utilized to reveal the morphology and the uniformity of the TESPA polymeric nanofilm. The SEM-EDS results demonstrate that the copper surfaces are uniformly covered with TESPA self-assembled monolayer and the polymeric nanofilm. The TESPA-covered copper surfaces turn out to be smoother than that of the bare copper surface.

  7. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is described in this paper. The method employed depends, in part, upon an estimate of the true relativistic mass increase experienced by electrons within a highly compressed iron core, just prior to core collapse, and is significantly ...

  8. Levels of antibody to conserved parts of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 in Ghanaian children are not associated with protection from clinical malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodoo, D; Theander, T G; Kurtzhals, J A

    1999-01-01

    malaria season in April and after the season in November. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we measured antibody responses to recombinant gluthathione S-transferase-PfMSP119 fusion proteins corresponding to the Wellcome and MAD20 allelic variants in these samples. Prevalence of antibodies......The 19-kDa conserved C-terminal part of the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (PfMSP119) is a malaria vaccine candidate antigen, and human antibody responses to PfMSP119 have been associated with protection against clinical malaria. In this longitudinal study carried out in an area...

  9. New non-stick expoxy-silicone water-based coatings part 1: Physical and surface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garti, N. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel); Smith, J. [Decora Manufacturing, Fort Edward, NY (United States)

    1995-06-01

    In search for tomorrow`s technology for water-based coating, Decora Manufacturing and The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, have initiated an intensive research program for designing, developing and manufacturing new coatings based on cross-linked, room temperature-cured silicone-expoxy resins. The new water-borne coatings have most exciting characteristics such as: non-stick properties, effective release, high lubricity, corrosion protection and abrasion resistance. The coatings are environmentally-friendly and easy to use. These coatings are ideal for marine, agricultural, industrial and maintenance applications. This paper brings quantitative measurements related to the dispersion technology (particle size, stability, shelf-life), to the non-stick properties (deicing, low surface energy, easy-release and non-stick), lubricity, adhesion to substrates, viscosity, dynamic and static friction coefficients and environmental impact (low VOC, non-toxicity, low-leaching). The coating was tested in various industrial coating systems and was found to exhibit excellent non-stick and release properties. Special attention was given to Zebra Mussels, Quagga Mussels and other bacterial and algeal bioforms. The coating proved to be efficient as foul-release coating with very low biofouling adhesion. The low adhesion applied to many other substances in which foul-release means easy-clean and low-wear.

  10. Variability of the Tropical Ocean Surface Temperatures at Decadal-Multidecadal Timescales. Part I: The Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vikram M.

    1998-09-01

    Gridded time series from the Global Ocean Surface Temperature Atlas were analyzed with a variety of techniques to identify spatial structures and oscillation periods of the tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) variations at decadal timescales, and to develop physical interpretations of statistical patterns of decadal SST variations. Each time series was 110 yr (1882-1991) long. The tropical Atlantic SST variations were compared with decadal variations in a 74-yr-long (1912-85) north Nordeste Brazil rainfall time series and a 106-yr-long (1886-1991) tropical Atlantic cyclone activity index time series. The tropical Atlantic SST variations were also compared with decadal variations in the extratropical Atlantic SST.Multiyear to multidecadal variations in the cross-equatorial dipole pattern identified as a dominant empirical pattern of the tropical Atlantic SST variations in earlier and present studies are shown to be variations in the approximately north-south gradient of SST anomalies. It is also shown that there was no dynamical-thermodynamical, dipole mode of SST variations during the analysis period. There was a distinct decadal timescale (12-13 yr) of SST variations in the tropical South Atlantic, whereas no distinct decadal timescale was found in the tropical North Atlantic SST variations. Approximately 80% of the coherent decadal variance in the cross-equatorial SST gradient was `explained' by coherent decadal oscillations in the tropical South Atlantic SSTs. There were three, possibly physical, modes of decadal variations in the tropical Atlantic SSTs during the analysis period. In the more energetic mode of the North Atlantic decadal SST variations, anomalies traveled into the tropical North Atlantic from the extratropical North Atlantic along the eastern boundary of the basin. The anomalies strengthened and resided in the tropical North Atlantic for several years, then frequently traveled northward into the mid-high-latitude North Atlantic along

  11. Long-term trends of surface ozone and its influencing factors at the Mt Waliguan GAW station, China - Part 1: Overall trends and characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wanyun; Lin, Weili; Xu, Xiaobin; Tang, Jie; Huang, Jianqing; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Xiaochun

    2016-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important atmospheric oxidant, greenhouse gas and atmospheric pollutant at the same time. The oxidation capacity of the atmosphere, climate, human and vegetation health can be impacted by the increase of the ozone level. Therefore, long-term determination of trends of baseline ozone is highly needed information for environmental and climate change assessment. So far, studies on the long-term trends of ozone at representative sites are mainly available for European and North American sites. Similar studies are lacking for China and many other developing countries. Measurements of surface ozone were carried out at a baseline Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) station in the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau region (Mt Waliguan, 36°17' N, 100°54' E, 3816 m a.s.l.) for the period of 1994 to 2013. To uncover the variation characteristics, long-term trends and influencing factors of surface ozone at this remote site in western China, a two-part study has been carried out, with this part focusing on the overall characteristics of diurnal, seasonal and long-term variations and the trends of surface ozone. To obtain reliable ozone trends, we performed the Mann-Kendall trend test and the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) analysis on the ozone data. Our results confirm that the mountain-valley breeze plays an important role in the diurnal cycle of surface ozone at Waliguan, resulting in higher ozone values during the night and lower ones during the day, as was previously reported. Systematic diurnal and seasonal variations were found in mountain-valley breezes at the site, which were used in defining season-dependent daytime and nighttime periods for trend calculations. Significant positive trends in surface ozone were detected for both daytime (0.24 ± 0.16 ppbv year-1) and nighttime (0.28 ± 0.17 ppbv year-1). The largest nighttime increasing rate occurred in autumn (0.29 ± 0.11 ppbv year-1), followed by spring (0.24 ± 0.12 ppbv year-1), summer (0.22 ± 0

  12. Studies on the establishment of maximum permissible exposure dose for reference Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.J.; Lee, K.S.; Chun, K.C.; Kim, C.B.; Chung, K.H.; Kim, S.L.; Kim, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In order to establish the Reference Korean and maximum permissible exposure dose of Reference Korean, for the first year a total of 9,758 males and 7,019 females were surveyed for the height, weight, a body surface area, and a total of 879 individuals of 180 households located in different 30 localities were analyzed for food consumption and a total of radioactive substances (β-ray) contained in food per capita per day. In this report the external and internal exposure dose were also estimated on the basis of data mostly published in other country as well as in Korea in part

  13. Objective Bayesianism and the Maximum Entropy Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Williamson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Bayesian epistemology invokes three norms: the strengths of our beliefs should be probabilities; they should be calibrated to our evidence of physical probabilities; and they should otherwise equivocate sufficiently between the basic propositions that we can express. The three norms are sometimes explicated by appealing to the maximum entropy principle, which says that a belief function should be a probability function, from all those that are calibrated to evidence, that has maximum entropy. However, the three norms of objective Bayesianism are usually justified in different ways. In this paper, we show that the three norms can all be subsumed under a single justification in terms of minimising worst-case expected loss. This, in turn, is equivalent to maximising a generalised notion of entropy. We suggest that requiring language invariance, in addition to minimising worst-case expected loss, motivates maximisation of standard entropy as opposed to maximisation of other instances of generalised entropy. Our argument also provides a qualified justification for updating degrees of belief by Bayesian conditionalisation. However, conditional probabilities play a less central part in the objective Bayesian account than they do under the subjective view of Bayesianism, leading to a reduced role for Bayes’ Theorem.

  14. Maximum entropy and Bayesian methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.R.; Erickson, G.J.; Neudorfer, P.O.

    1992-01-01

    Bayesian probability theory and Maximum Entropy methods are at the core of a new view of scientific inference. These 'new' ideas, along with the revolution in computational methods afforded by modern computers allow astronomers, electrical engineers, image processors of any type, NMR chemists and physicists, and anyone at all who has to deal with incomplete and noisy data, to take advantage of methods that, in the past, have been applied only in some areas of theoretical physics. The title workshops have been the focus of a group of researchers from many different fields, and this diversity is evident in this book. There are tutorial and theoretical papers, and applications in a very wide variety of fields. Almost any instance of dealing with incomplete and noisy data can be usefully treated by these methods, and many areas of theoretical research are being enhanced by the thoughtful application of Bayes' theorem. Contributions contained in this volume present a state-of-the-art overview that will be influential and useful for many years to come

  15. Warpage optimisation on the moulded part with straight-drilled and conformal cooling channels using response surface methodology (RSM) and glowworm swarm optimisation (GSO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazwan, M. H. M.; Shayfull, Z.; Sharif, S.; Nasir, S. M.; Zainal, N.

    2017-09-01

    In injection moulding process, quality and productivity are notably important and must be controlled for each product type produced. Quality is measured as the extent of warpage of moulded parts while productivity is measured as a duration of moulding cycle time. To control the quality, many researchers have introduced various of optimisation approaches which have been proven enhanced the quality of the moulded part produced. In order to improve the productivity of injection moulding process, some of researches have proposed the application of conformal cooling channels which have been proven reduced the duration of moulding cycle time. Therefore, this paper presents an application of alternative optimisation approach which is Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with Glowworm Swarm Optimisation (GSO) on the moulded part with straight-drilled and conformal cooling channels mould. This study examined the warpage condition of the moulded parts before and after optimisation work applied for both cooling channels. A front panel housing have been selected as a specimen and the performance of proposed optimisation approach have been analysed on the conventional straight-drilled cooling channels compared to the Milled Groove Square Shape (MGSS) conformal cooling channels by simulation analysis using Autodesk Moldflow Insight (AMI) 2013. Based on the results, melt temperature is the most significant factor contribute to the warpage condition and warpage have optimised by 39.1% after optimisation for straight-drilled cooling channels and cooling time is the most significant factor contribute to the warpage condition and warpage have optimised by 38.7% after optimisation for MGSS conformal cooling channels. In addition, the finding shows that the application of optimisation work on the conformal cooling channels offers the better quality and productivity of the moulded part produced.

  16. Discussion about the use of the volume specific surface area (VSSA) as a criterion to identify nanomaterials according to the EU definition. Part two: experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecloux, André J; Atluri, Rambabu; Kolen'ko, Yury V; Deepak, Francis Leonard

    2017-10-12

    The first part of this study was dedicated to the modelling of the influence of particle shape, porosity and particle size distribution on the volume specific surface area (VSSA) values in order to check the applicability of this concept to the identification of nanomaterials according to the European Commission Recommendation. In this second part, experimental VSSA values are obtained for various samples from nitrogen adsorption isotherms and these values were used as a screening tool to identify and classify nanomaterials. These identification results are compared to the identification based on the 50% of particles with a size below 100 nm criterion applied to the experimental particle size distributions obtained by analysis of electron microscopy images on the same materials. It is concluded that the experimental VSSA values are able to identify nanomaterials, without false negative identification, if they have a mono-modal particle size, if the adsorption data cover the relative pressure range from 0.001 to 0.65 and if a simple, qualitative image of the particles by transmission or scanning electron microscopy is available to define their shape. The experimental conditions to obtain reliable adsorption data as well as the way to analyze the adsorption isotherms are described and discussed in some detail in order to help the reader in using the experimental VSSA criterion. To obtain the experimental VSSA values, the BET surface area can be used for non-porous particles, but for porous, nanostructured or coated nanoparticles, only the external surface of the particles, obtained by a modified t-plot approach, should be considered to determine the experimental VSSA and to avoid false positive identification of nanomaterials, only the external surface area being related to the particle size. Finally, the availability of experimental VSSA values together with particle size distributions obtained by electron microscopy gave the opportunity to check the

  17. Cosmic shear measurement with maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alex; Taylor, Andy

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the problem of noise bias in maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori estimators for cosmic shear. We derive the leading and next-to-leading order biases and compute them in the context of galaxy ellipticity measurements, extending previous work on maximum likelihood inference for weak lensing. We show that a large part of the bias on these point estimators can be removed using information already contained in the likelihood when a galaxy model is specified, without the need for external calibration. We test these bias-corrected estimators on simulated galaxy images similar to those expected from planned space-based weak lensing surveys, with promising results. We find that the introduction of an intrinsic shape prior can help with mitigation of noise bias, such that the maximum a posteriori estimate can be made less biased than the maximum likelihood estimate. Second-order terms offer a check on the convergence of the estimators, but are largely subdominant. We show how biases propagate to shear estimates, demonstrating in our simple set-up that shear biases can be reduced by orders of magnitude and potentially to within the requirements of planned space-based surveys at mild signal-to-noise ratio. We find that second-order terms can exhibit significant cancellations at low signal-to-noise ratio when Gaussian noise is assumed, which has implications for inferring the performance of shear-measurement algorithms from simplified simulations. We discuss the viability of our point estimators as tools for lensing inference, arguing that they allow for the robust measurement of ellipticity and shear.

  18. The Effectiveness Evaluation of Current Disinfectants on Pathogens Isolated from Surface of Different Parts of Shahid Sadughi Accidents Burns Hospital in City of Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sahlabadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The burn unit is a suitable environment for the growth of pathogenic bacteria that can reduce these pathogens by appropriate disinfection methods. So, choosing an appropriate disinfectant and applying standard methods of disinfection can be effective in reducing nosocomial infections. The aim of this study is evaluation of efficacy of current disinfectants on pathogens isolated from surface of different parts of Shahid Sadughi accidents burns hospital in city of Yazd. Methods: In this study, the sampling method has done simple randomly and 240 samples were collected from 30 different parts of hospital surfaces (for every disinfectant 30 samples before and 30 samples after disinfection. The samples in the Microbiology laboratory of Medical Sciences University were cultured on blood agar and EMB agar culture. Colonies that were suspected to pathogens were identified by biochemical tests and their colony count was determined. Data were analyzed using Paired T-test. Results: The average of isolated bacteria at 4 parts of burn unit of hospital before disinfecting by Deconex 50 AF, Descoscid, Epimax SC and Silvosept was 58.02, 18897.28, 30989.05 and 38.52 respectively and after disinfecting was 12.8, 0.62, 1.65 and 5.09 respectively. Reducing of contamination in all disinfectants shown a significant difference (p<0.05. The most common isolated pathogens were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella, staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter and Escherichia coli. Conclusion: The results showed that all disinfectants was effective on isolated pathogens and also have shown a significant difference (p<0.05 between the average of bacteria count before and after disinfection.

  19. Adhesion of nitrile rubber (NBR) to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric. Part 1: PET surface modification by methylenediphenyl di-isocyanate (MDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavizadeh, Mahmoud; Jamshidi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Fiber to rubber adhesion is an important subject in rubber composite industry. It is well known that surface physical, mechanical and chemical treatments are effective methods to improve interfacial bonding. Ultra violet (UV) light irradiation is an efficient method which is used to increase interfacial interactions. In this research UV assisted chemical modification of PET fabric was used to increase its bonding to nitrile rubber (NBR). NBR is perfect selection to produce fuel and oil resistant rubber parts but it has weak bonding to fabrics. For this purpose at first, the PET fabric was carboxylated under UV irradiation and then methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) was reacted and grafted to carboxylated PET. T-peel test was used to evaluate PET fabric to NBR bonding strength. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-AT) was used to assess surface modifications of the PET fabrics. The chemical composition of the PET surfaces before and after carboxylation and MDI grafting was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that at vulcanizing temperature of 150 °C, carboxylation in contrary to MDI grafting, improved considerably PET to NBR adhesion. Finally effect of curing temperature on PET to NBR bonding strength was determined. It was found that increasing vulcanizing temperature to 170 °C caused considerable improvement (about 134%) in bonding strength.

  20. Maximum entropy principal for transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilich, F.; Da Silva, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  1. Motorcycle Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    An article in NASA Tech Briefs describing a vacuum bagging process for forming composite parts helped a small Oklahoma Company to improve its manufacturing process. President of Performance Extremes, Larry Ortega, and his partners make motorcycle parts from carbon/epoxy to reduce weight. Using vacuum bags, parts have a better surface and fewer voids inside. When heat used in the vacuum bag process caused deformation upon cooling, a solution found in another tech brief solved the problem. A metal plate inside the vacuum bag made for more even heat transfer. A third article described a simple procedure for repairing loose connector pins, which the company has also utilized.

  2. Potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer in Florida and parts of Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama, May – June 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnaman, Sandra L.; Dixon, Joann F.

    2011-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system covers nearly 100,000 square miles in the southeastern United States throughout Florida and in parts of Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama, and is one of the most productive aquifers in the world (Miller, 1990). This sequence of carbonate rocks is hydraulically connected and is over 300 feet thick in south Florida and thins toward the north. Typically, this sequence is subdivided into the Upper Floridan aquifer, the middle confining unit, and the Lower Floridan aquifer. The majority of freshwater is contained in the Upper Floridan aquifer and is used for water supply (Miller, 1986). The Lower Floridan aquifer contains fresh to brackish water in northeastern Florida and Georgia, while in south Florida it is saline. The potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer in May–June 2010 shown on this map was constructed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Floridan Aquifer System Groundwater Availability Study (U.S. Geological Survey database, 2011). Previous synoptic measurements and regional potentiometric maps of the Upper Floridan aquifer were prepared for May 1980 (Johnston and others, 1981) and May 1985 (Bush and others, 1986) as part of the Floridan Regional Aquifer System Analysis.

  3. The herbicide glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA in the Lavaux vineyard area, western Switzerland: proof of widespread export to surface waters. Part II: the role of infiltration and surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daouk, Silwan; De Alencastro, Luiz F; Pfeifer, Hans-Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    Two parcels of the Lavaux vineyard area, western Switzerland, were studied to assess to which extent the widely used herbicide, glyphosate, and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) were retained in the soil or exported to surface waters. They were equipped at their bottom with porous ceramic cups and runoff collectors, which allowed retrieving water samples for the growing seasons 2010 and 2011. The role of slope, soil properties and rainfall regime in their export was examined and the surface runoff/throughflows ratio was determined with a mass balance. Our results revealed elevated glyphosate and AMPA concentrations at 60 and 80 cm depth at parcel bottoms, suggesting their infiltration in the upper parts of the parcels and the presence of preferential flows in the studied parcels. Indeed, the succession of rainy days induced the gradual saturation of the soil porosity, leading to rapid infiltration through macropores, as well as surface runoff formation. Furthermore, the presence of more impervious weathered marls at 100 cm depth induced throughflows, the importance of which in the lateral transport of the herbicide molecules was determined by the slope steepness. Mobility of glyphosate and AMPA into the unsaturated zone was thus likely driven by precipitation regime and soil characteristics, such as slope, porosity structure and layer permeability discrepancy. Important rainfall events (>10 mm/day) were clearly exporting molecules from the soil top layer, as indicated by important concentrations in runoff samples. The mass balance showed that total loss (10-20%) mainly occurred through surface runoff (96%) and, to a minor extent, by throughflows in soils (4%), with subsequent exfiltration to surface waters.

  4. Last Glacial Maximum Salinity Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, K.; Spivack, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that salinity can be reconstructed from sediment porewater. The goal of our study is to reconstruct high precision salinity during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Salinity is usually determined at high precision via conductivity, which requires a larger volume of water than can be extracted from a sediment core, or via chloride titration, which yields lower than ideal precision. It has been demonstrated for water column samples that high precision density measurements can be used to determine salinity at the precision of a conductivity measurement using the equation of state of seawater. However, water column seawater has a relatively constant composition, in contrast to porewater, where variations from standard seawater composition occur. These deviations, which affect the equation of state, must be corrected for through precise measurements of each ion's concentration and knowledge of apparent partial molar density in seawater. We have developed a density-based method for determining porewater salinity that requires only 5 mL of sample, achieving density precisions of 10-6 g/mL. We have applied this method to porewater samples extracted from long cores collected along a N-S transect across the western North Atlantic (R/V Knorr cruise KN223). Density was determined to a precision of 2.3x10-6 g/mL, which translates to salinity uncertainty of 0.002 gms/kg if the effect of differences in composition is well constrained. Concentrations of anions (Cl-, and SO4-2) and cations (Na+, Mg+, Ca+2, and K+) were measured. To correct salinities at the precision required to unravel LGM Meridional Overturning Circulation, our ion precisions must be better than 0.1% for SO4-/Cl- and Mg+/Na+, and 0.4% for Ca+/Na+, and K+/Na+. Alkalinity, pH and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon of the porewater were determined to precisions better than 4% when ratioed to Cl-, and used to calculate HCO3-, and CO3-2. Apparent partial molar densities in seawater were

  5. Maximum Parsimony on Phylogenetic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic networks are generalizations of phylogenetic trees, that are used to model evolutionary events in various contexts. Several different methods and criteria have been introduced for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Maximum Parsimony is a character-based approach that infers a phylogenetic tree by minimizing the total number of evolutionary steps required to explain a given set of data assigned on the leaves. Exact solutions for optimizing parsimony scores on phylogenetic trees have been introduced in the past. Results In this paper, we define the parsimony score on networks as the sum of the substitution costs along all the edges of the network; and show that certain well-known algorithms that calculate the optimum parsimony score on trees, such as Sankoff and Fitch algorithms extend naturally for networks, barring conflicting assignments at the reticulate vertices. We provide heuristics for finding the optimum parsimony scores on networks. Our algorithms can be applied for any cost matrix that may contain unequal substitution costs of transforming between different characters along different edges of the network. We analyzed this for experimental data on 10 leaves or fewer with at most 2 reticulations and found that for almost all networks, the bounds returned by the heuristics matched with the exhaustively determined optimum parsimony scores. Conclusion The parsimony score we define here does not directly reflect the cost of the best tree in the network that displays the evolution of the character. However, when searching for the most parsimonious network that describes a collection of characters, it becomes necessary to add additional cost considerations to prefer simpler structures, such as trees over networks. The parsimony score on a network that we describe here takes into account the substitution costs along the additional edges incident on each reticulate vertex, in addition to the substitution costs along the other edges which are

  6. Upper ocean currents and sea surface temperatures (SST) from Satellite-tracked drifting buoys (drifters) as part of the Global Drifter Program for Hawaii region 1980/02/01 - 2009/03/31 (NODC Accession 0063296)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite-tracked drifting buoys ("drifters") collect measurements of upper ocean currents and sea surface temperatures (SST) around the world as part of the Global...

  7. Distribution, sources and contamination assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments of the South Yellow Sea and northern part of the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian; Li, Anchun; Huang, Peng

    2017-11-15

    Surface sediment samples collected from the South Yellow Sea and northern part of the East China Sea during spring and autumn, respectively, were analyzed for grain size, aluminum, and heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) to evaluate heavy metal levels and the contamination status. The results showed that all of the heavy metal concentrations met the standard criteria of the Chinese National Standard Criteria for Marine Sediment Quality. Both the EFs and a multivariate analysis (PCA) indicated that Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn were mainly from natural contributions, while Pb was influenced by anthropogenic inputs, especially during autumn. The geoaccumulation index of Pb near the mouth of the Yangtze River suggested that the pollution degree in autumn was heavier than that in spring, which might be caused by the greater river discharge in summer and more heavy metal adsorption with finer grain sizes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Shaping optimal zinc coating on the surface of high-quality ductile iron casting. Part II – Technological formula and value of diffusion coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopyciński D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The completed research presented in the first part of the article has allowed linking the manufacturing technology of ductile iron castings with the process of hot dip galvanizing. On the basis of these data simulations were carried out to examine the behaviour of zinc diffusion coefficient D in the galvanized coating. The adopted model of zinc coating growth helped to explain the cases of excessive growth of the intermetallic phases in this type of coating. The paper analyzes covered the relationship between the roughness and phase composition of the top layer of product and the thickness and kinetics of zinc coating growth referred to individual sub-layers of the intermetallic phases.Roughness and phase composition in the surface layer of product were next related to the diffusion coefficient D examined in respective sublayers of the intermetallic phases.

  9. Stereo and scanning electron microscopy of in-shell Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.): part two-surface sound nut fungi spoilage susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scussel, Vildes M; Manfio, Daniel; Savi, Geovana D; Moecke, Elisa H S

    2014-11-01

    This work reports the in-shell Brazil nut spoilage susceptible morpho-histological characteristics and fungi infection (shell, edible part, and brown skin) through stereo and scanning electron microscopies (SEM). The following characteristics related to shell (a) morphology-that allow fungi and insects' entrance to inner nut, and (b) histology-that allow humidity absorption, improving environment conditions for living organisms development, were identified. (a.1) locule in testae-the nut navel, which is a cavity formed during nut detaching from pods (located at 1.0 to 2.0/4th of the shell B&C nut faces linkage). It allows the nut brown skin (between shell and edible part) first contact to the external environment, through the (a.2) nut channel-the locule prolongation path, which has the water/nutrients cambium function for their transport and distribution to the inner seed (while still on the tree/pod). Both, locule followed by the channel, are the main natural entrance of living organisms (fungi and insects), including moisture to the inner seed structures. In addition, the (a.3) nut shell surface-which has a crinkled and uneven surface morphology-allows water absorption, thus adding to the deterioration processes too. The main shell histological characteristic, which also allows water absorption (thus improving environment conditions for fungi proliferation), is the (b.1) cell wall porosity-the multilayered wall and porous rich cells that compose the shell faces double tissue layers and the (b.2) soft tissue-the mix of tissues 2 faces corner/linkage. This work also shows in details the SEM nut spoilage susceptible features highly fungi infected with hyphae and reproductive structures distribution. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Axisymmetric flow in a cylindrical tank over a rotating bottom. Part II. Deformation of the water surface and experimental verification of the theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iga, Keita; Watanabe, Shunichi; Niino, Hiroshi; Misawa, Nobuhiko [Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8564 (Japan); Yokota, Sho [Meteorological Research Institute, 1-1 Nagamine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052 (Japan); Ikeda, Takashi, E-mail: iga@aori.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Japan Patent Office, 3-4-3 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda, Tokyo 100-8915 (Japan)

    2017-12-15

    The theory of axisymmetric flow in a cylindrical container with a rotating bottom, as described in Part I, is validated against the results of previous and our own laboratory experiments. First, deformation of the water surface is derived using the velocity distribution of the axisymmetric flow obtained by the theory. The form of the water surface is classified into three regimes, and the rotation rates of the transitions between these regimes are determined. The parameters predicted from this theory are compared with the results measured in laboratory experiments and also with data from previous experimental studies. The theory predicts the experimental data well, but a slight difference was found in the narrow region close to the side wall. Corrections estimated by considering the fluid behavior around the side wall boundary layer successfully explain most of the discrepancies. This theory appears to predict the results of the laboratory experiments very well, much better than a theory using an assumption of quadratic drag as a model of turbulent boundary layers. (paper)

  11. Monitoring of chlorophyll-a and sea surface silicate concentrations in the south part of Cheju island in the East China sea using MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanzhi; Huang, Zhaojun; Fu, Dongyang; Tsou, Jin Yeu; Jiang, Tingchen; Liang, X. San; Lu, Xia

    2018-05-01

    Continually supplied with nutrients, phytoplankton maintains high productivity under ideal illumination and temperature conditions. Data in the south part of Cheju Island in the East China Sea (ECS), which has experienced a spring bloom since the 2000s, were acquired during a research cruise in the spring of 2007. Compared with in-situ measurements, MODIS chlorophyll-a measurements showed high stability in this area. Excluding some invalid stations data, the relationships between nutrients and chlorophyll-a concentrations in the study area were examined and compared with the results in 2015. A high positive correlation between silicate and chlorophyll-a concentration was identified, and a regression relationship was proposed. MODIS chlorophyll-a measurements and sea surface temperature were utilized to determine surface silicate distribution. The silicate concentration retrieved from MODIS exhibited good agreement with in-situ measurements with R2 of 0.803, root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.326 μmol/L (8.23%), and mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.925 μmol/L (23.38%). The study provides a new solution to identify nutrient distributions using satellite data such as MODIS for water bodies, but the method still needs to be refined to determine the relationship of chlorophyll-a and nutrients during other seasons to monitor water quality in this and other areas.

  12. Two-dimensional maximum entropy image restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brolley, J.E.; Lazarus, R.B.; Suydam, B.R.; Trussell, H.J.

    1977-07-01

    An optical check problem was constructed to test P LOG P maximum entropy restoration of an extremely distorted image. Useful recovery of the original image was obtained. Comparison with maximum a posteriori restoration is made. 7 figures

  13. Controlling the Release of Indomethacin from Glass Solutions Layered with a Rate Controlling Membrane Using Fluid-Bed Processing. Part 1: Surface and Cross-Sectional Chemical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereymaker, Aswin; Scurr, David J; Steer, Elisabeth D; Roberts, Clive J; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2017-04-03

    Fluid bed coating has been shown to be a suitable manufacturing technique to formulate poorly soluble drugs in glass solutions. Layering inert carriers with a drug-polymer mixture enables these beads to be immediately filled into capsules, thus avoiding additional, potentially destabilizing, downstream processing. In this study, fluid bed coating is proposed for the production of controlled release dosage forms of glass solutions by applying a second, rate controlling membrane on top of the glass solution. Adding a second coating layer adds to the physical and chemical complexity of the drug delivery system, so a thorough understanding of the physical structure and phase behavior of the different coating layers is needed. This study aimed to investigate the surface and cross-sectional characteristics (employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)) of an indomethacin-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) glass solution, top-coated with a release rate controlling membrane consisting of either ethyl cellulose or Eudragit RL. The implications of the addition of a pore former (PVP) and the coating medium (ethanol or water) were also considered. In addition, polymer miscibility and the phase analysis of the underlying glass solution were investigated. Significant differences in surface and cross-sectional topography of the different rate controlling membranes or the way they are applied (solution vs dispersion) were observed. These observations can be linked to the polymer miscibility differences. The presence of PVP was observed in all rate controlling membranes, even if it is not part of the coating solution. This could be attributed to residual powder presence in the coating chamber. The distribution of PVP among the sample surfaces depends on the concentration and the rate controlling polymer used. Differences can again be linked to polymer miscibility. Finally, it was shown that the underlying glass solution layer

  14. Analysis of Accuracy of Modis BRDF Product (MCD43 C6) Based on Misr Land Surface Brf Product - a Case Study of the Central Part of Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Chen, S.; Qin, W.; Murefu, M.; Wang, Y.; Yu, Y.; Zhen, Z.

    2018-04-01

    EOS/MODIS land surface Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) product (MCD43), with the latest version C6, is one of the most important operational BRDF products with global coverage. The core sub-product MCD43A1 stores 3 parameters of the RossThick-LiSparseR semi-empirical kernel-driven BRDF model. It is important for confident use of the product to evaluate the accuracy of bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) predicted by MCD43A1 BRDF model (mBRF). A typical region in the central part of Northeast Asia is selected as the study area. The performance of MCD43A1 BRDF model is analyzed in various observation geometries and phenological phases, using Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) land-surface reflectance factor product (MILS_BRF) as the reference data. In addition, MODIS products MCD12Q1 and MOD/MYD10A1 are used to evaluate the impacts of land cover types and snow covers on the model accuracy, respectively. The results show an overall excellent performance of MCD43A1 in representing the anisotropic reflectance of land surface, with root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.0262 and correlation coefficient (R) of 0.9537, for all available comparable samples of MILS_BRF and mBRF pairs. The model accuracy varies in different months, which is related to the phenological phases of the study area. The accuracy for pixels labelled as `snow' by MCD43 is obviously low, with RMSE/R of 0.0903/0.8401. Ephemeral snowfall events further decrease the accuracy, with RMSE/R of 0.1001/0.7715. These results provide meaningful information to MCD43 users, especially those, whose study regions are subject to phenological cycles as well as snow cover and change.

  15. MAXIMUM RUNOFF OF THE FLOOD ON WADIS OF NORTHERN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lanez

    The technique of account the maximal runoff of flood for the rivers of northern part of Algeria based on the theory of ... north to south: 1) coastal Tel – fertile, high cultivated and sown zone; 2) territory of Atlas. Mountains ... In the first case the empiric dependence between maximum intensity of precipitation for some calculation ...

  16. Maximum likelihood estimation of the attenuated ultrasound pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Klaus Bolding

    1994-01-01

    The attenuated ultrasound pulse is divided into two parts: a stationary basic pulse and a nonstationary attenuation pulse. A standard ARMA model is used for the basic pulse, and a nonstandard ARMA model is derived for the attenuation pulse. The maximum likelihood estimator of the attenuated...

  17. 5 CFR 581.402 - Maximum garnishment limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSING GARNISHMENT ORDERS FOR CHILD SUPPORT AND/OR ALIMONY Consumer Credit Protection Act Restrictions..., pursuant to section 1673(b)(2) (A) and (B) of title 15 of the United States Code (the Consumer Credit... local law, the maximum part of the aggregate disposable earnings subject to garnishment to enforce any...

  18. Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生

    2003-01-01

    Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.

  19. A statistical-dynamical scheme for reconstructing ocean forcing in the Atlantic. Part I: weather regimes as predictors for ocean surface variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassou, Christophe; Minvielle, Marie; Terray, Laurent [CERFACS/CNRS, Climate Modelling and Global Change Team, Toulouse (France); Perigaud, Claire [JPL-NASA, Ocean Science Element, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2011-01-15

    The links between the observed variability of the surface ocean variables estimated from reanalysis and the overlying atmosphere decomposed in classes of large-scale atmospheric circulation via clustering are investigated over the Atlantic from 1958 to 2002. Daily 500 hPa geopotential height and 1,000 hPa wind anomaly maps are classified following a weather-typing approach to describe the North Atlantic and tropical Atlantic atmospheric dynamics, respectively. The algorithm yields patterns that correspond in the extratropics to the well-known North Atlantic-Europe weather regimes (NAE-WR) accounting for the barotropic dynamics, and in the tropics to wind classes (T-WC) representing the alteration of the trades. 10-m wind and 2-m temperature (T2) anomaly composites derived from regime/wind class occurrence are indicative of strong relationships between daily large-scale atmospheric circulation and ocean surface over the entire Atlantic basin. High temporal correlation values are obtained basin-wide at low frequency between the observed fields and their reconstruction by multiple linear regressions with the frequencies of occurrence of both NAE-WR and T-WC used as sole predictors. Additional multiple linear regressions also emphasize the importance of accounting for the strength of the daily anomalous atmospheric circulation estimated by the combined distances to all regimes centroids in order to reproduce the daily to interannual variability of the Atlantic ocean. We show that for most of the North Atlantic basin the occurrence of NAE-WR generally sets the sign of the ocean surface anomaly for a given day, and that the inter-regime distances are valuable predictors for the magnitude of that anomaly. Finally, we provide evidence that a large fraction of the low-frequency trends in the Atlantic observed at the surface over the last 50 years can be traced back, except for T2, to changes in occurrence of tropical and extratropical weather classes. All together, our

  20. Maximum Power from a Solar Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Miller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.

  1. Wear, creep, and frictional heating of femoral implant articulating surfaces and the effect on long-term performance--Part II, Friction, heating, and torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J A; Schwartz, G; Lynch, G; Gir, S

    1988-04-01

    In Part I, (J.A. Davidson and G. Schwartz, "Wear, creep, and frictional heating of femoral implant articulating surfaces and the effect on long-term performance--Part I, A review," J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 21, 000-000 (1987) it was shown that lubrication of the artificial hip joint was complex and that long-term performance is governed by the combined wear, creep, and to a lesser extent, oxidation degradation of the articulating materials. Importantly, it was shown that a tendency for heating exists during articulation in the hip joint and that elevated temperatures can increase the wear, creep, and oxidation degradation rate of UHMWPE. The present study was performed to examine closely the propensity to generate heat during articulation in a hip joint simulator. The systems investigated were polished Co-Cr-Mo alloy articulating against UHMWPE, polished alumina ceramic against UHMWPE, and polished alumina against itself. Frictional torque was also evaluated for each system at various levels of applied loads. A walking load history was used in both the frictional heating and torque tests. The majority of tests were performed with 5 mL of water lubricant. However, the effect of various concentrations of hyaluronic acid was also evaluated. Results showed frictional heating to occur in all three systems, reaching an equilibrium after roughly 30 min articulation time. Ceramic systems showed reduced levels of heating compared to the cobalt alloy-UHMWPE system. The level of frictional torque for each system ranked similar to their respective tendencies to generate heat. Hyaluronic acid had little effect, while dry conditions and the presence of small quantities of bone cement powder in water lubricant significantly increased frictional torque.

  2. What controls the maximum magnitude of injection-induced earthquakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, D. W. S.

    2017-12-01

    Three different approaches for estimation of maximum magnitude are considered here, along with their implications for managing risk. The first approach is based on a deterministic limit for seismic moment proposed by McGarr (1976), which was originally designed for application to mining-induced seismicity. This approach has since been reformulated for earthquakes induced by fluid injection (McGarr, 2014). In essence, this method assumes that the upper limit for seismic moment release is constrained by the pressure-induced stress change. A deterministic limit is given by the product of shear modulus and the net injected fluid volume. This method is based on the assumptions that the medium is fully saturated and in a state of incipient failure. An alternative geometrical approach was proposed by Shapiro et al. (2011), who postulated that the rupture area for an induced earthquake falls entirely within the stimulated volume. This assumption reduces the maximum-magnitude problem to one of estimating the largest potential slip surface area within a given stimulated volume. Finally, van der Elst et al. (2016) proposed that the maximum observed magnitude, statistically speaking, is the expected maximum value for a finite sample drawn from an unbounded Gutenberg-Richter distribution. These three models imply different approaches for risk management. The deterministic method proposed by McGarr (2014) implies that a ceiling on the maximum magnitude can be imposed by limiting the net injected volume, whereas the approach developed by Shapiro et al. (2011) implies that the time-dependent maximum magnitude is governed by the spatial size of the microseismic event cloud. Finally, the sample-size hypothesis of Van der Elst et al. (2016) implies that the best available estimate of the maximum magnitude is based upon observed seismicity rate. The latter two approaches suggest that real-time monitoring is essential for effective management of risk. A reliable estimate of maximum

  3. MAXIMUM PRINCIPLE FOR SUBSONIC FLOW WITH VARIABLE ENTROPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sizykh Grigory

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maximum principle for subsonic flow is fair for stationary irrotational subsonic gas flows. According to this prin- ciple, if the value of the velocity is not constant everywhere, then its maximum is achieved on the boundary and only on the boundary of the considered domain. This property is used when designing form of an aircraft with a maximum critical val- ue of the Mach number: it is believed that if the local Mach number is less than unit in the incoming flow and on the body surface, then the Mach number is less then unit in all points of flow. The known proof of maximum principle for subsonic flow is based on the assumption that in the whole considered area of the flow the pressure is a function of density. For the ideal and perfect gas (the role of diffusion is negligible, and the Mendeleev-Clapeyron law is fulfilled, the pressure is a function of density if entropy is constant in the entire considered area of the flow. Shows an example of a stationary sub- sonic irrotational flow, in which the entropy has different values on different stream lines, and the pressure is not a function of density. The application of the maximum principle for subsonic flow with respect to such a flow would be unreasonable. This example shows the relevance of the question about the place of the points of maximum value of the velocity, if the entropy is not a constant. To clarify the regularities of the location of these points, was performed the analysis of the com- plete Euler equations (without any simplifying assumptions in 3-D case. The new proof of the maximum principle for sub- sonic flow was proposed. This proof does not rely on the assumption that the pressure is a function of density. Thus, it is shown that the maximum principle for subsonic flow is true for stationary subsonic irrotational flows of ideal perfect gas with variable entropy.

  4. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  5. Understanding the Role of Reservoir Size on Probable Maximum Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldemichael, A. T.; Hossain, F.

    2011-12-01

    This study addresses the question 'Does surface area of an artificial reservoir matter in the estimation of probable maximum precipitation (PMP) for an impounded basin?' The motivation of the study was based on the notion that the stationarity assumption that is implicit in the PMP for dam design can be undermined in the post-dam era due to an enhancement of extreme precipitation patterns by an artificial reservoir. In addition, the study lays the foundation for use of regional atmospheric models as one way to perform life cycle assessment for planned or existing dams to formulate best management practices. The American River Watershed (ARW) with the Folsom dam at the confluence of the American River was selected as the study region and the Dec-Jan 1996-97 storm event was selected for the study period. The numerical atmospheric model used for the study was the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). First, the numerical modeling system, RAMS, was calibrated and validated with selected station and spatially interpolated precipitation data. Best combinations of parameterization schemes in RAMS were accordingly selected. Second, to mimic the standard method of PMP estimation by moisture maximization technique, relative humidity terms in the model were raised to 100% from ground up to the 500mb level. The obtained model-based maximum 72-hr precipitation values were named extreme precipitation (EP) as a distinction from the PMPs obtained by the standard methods. Third, six hypothetical reservoir size scenarios ranging from no-dam (all-dry) to the reservoir submerging half of basin were established to test the influence of reservoir size variation on EP. For the case of the ARW, our study clearly demonstrated that the assumption of stationarity that is implicit the traditional estimation of PMP can be rendered invalid to a large part due to the very presence of the artificial reservoir. Cloud tracking procedures performed on the basin also give indication of the

  6. Modelling of the long-term fate of pesticide residues in agricultural soils and their surface exchange with the atmosphere: Part II. Projected long-term fate of pesticide residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtz, M T; Bidleman, T F

    2007-05-01

    In the first part of this paper, a simple coupled dynamic soil-atmosphere model for studying the gaseous exchange of pesticide soil residues with the atmosphere is described and evaluated by comparing model results with published measurements of pesticide concentrations in air and soil. In Part II, the model is used to study the concentration profiles of pesticide residues in both undisturbed and annually tilled agricultural soils. Future trends are estimated for the measured air and soil concentrations of lindane and six highly persistent pesticides (toxaphene, p,p'-DDE, dieldrin, cis- and trans-chlordane and trans-nonachlor) over a twenty-year period due to volatilization and leaching into the deeper soil. Wet deposition and particle associated pesticide deposition (that increase soil residue concentrations) and soil erosion, degradation in the soil (other than for lindane) and run-off in precipitation are not considered in this study. Estimates of the rain deposition fluxes are reported that show that, other than for lindane, net volatilization fluxes greatly exceed rain deposition fluxes. The model shows that the persistent pesticides studied are highly immobile in soil and that loss of these highly persistent residues from the soil is by volatilization rather than leaching into the deeper soil. The soil residue levels of these six pesticides are currently sources of net volatilization to the atmosphere and will remain so for many years. The maximum rate of volatilization from the soil was simulated by setting the atmospheric background concentration to zero; these simulations show that the rates of volatilization will not be significantly increased since soil resistance rather than the atmospheric concentration controls the volatilization rates. Annual tilling of the soils increases the volatilization loss to the atmosphere. Nonetheless, the model predicts that, if only air-soil exchange is considered, more than 76% of current persistent pesticide residues

  7. Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2009-01-01

    boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...

  8. Modelling maximum canopy conductance and transpiration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is much current interest in predicting the maximum amount of water that can be transpired by Eucalyptus trees. It is possible that industrial waste water may be applied as irrigation water to eucalypts and it is important to predict the maximum transpiration rates of these plantations in an attempt to dispose of this ...

  9. Experience of high-nitrogenous steel powder application in repairs and surface hardening of responsible parts for power equipment by plasma spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpakov, A. S.; Kardonina, N. I.

    2016-02-01

    The questions of the application of novel diffusion-alloying high-nitrogenous steel powders for repair and surface hardening of responsible parts of power equipment by plasma spraying are considered. The appropriateness of the method for operative repair of equipment and increasing its service life is justified. General data on the structure, properties, and manufacture of nitrogen-, aluminum-, and chromium-containing steel powders that are economically alloyed using diffusion are described. It is noted that the nitrogen release during the decomposition of iron nitrides, when heating, protects the powder particles from oxidation in the plasma jet. It is shown that the coating retains 50% of nitrogen that is contained in the powder. Plasma spraying modes for diffusion-alloying high-nitrogenous steel powders are given. The service properties of plasma coatings based on these powders are analyzed. It is shown that the high-nitrogenous steel powders to a nitrogen content of 8.9 wt % provide the necessary wear resistance and hardness of the coating and the strength of its adhesion to the substrate and corrosion resistance to typical aggressive media. It is noted that increasing the coating porosity promotes stress relaxation and increases its thickness being limited with respect to delamination conditions in comparison with dense coatings on retention of the low defectiveness of the interface and high adhesion to the substrate. The examples of the application of high-nitrogenous steel powders in power engineering during equipment repairs by service companies and overhaul subdivisions of heat power plants are given. It is noted that the plasma spraying of diffusion-alloyed high-nitrogenous steel powders is a unique opportunity to restore nitrided steel products.

  10. Multiple trigger scintillators were installed: big ones covering the total surface of the sensor and several smaller ones. The former give a trigger for each beam particle. The latter are used to select a part of the sensor surface for efficiency measurements.

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G.

    2004-01-01

    Multiple trigger scintillators were installed: big ones covering the total surface of the sensor and several smaller ones. The former give a trigger for each beam particle. The latter are used to select a part of the sensor surface for efficiency measurements.

  11. MXLKID: a maximum likelihood parameter identifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavel, D.T.

    1980-07-01

    MXLKID (MaXimum LiKelihood IDentifier) is a computer program designed to identify unknown parameters in a nonlinear dynamic system. Using noisy measurement data from the system, the maximum likelihood identifier computes a likelihood function (LF). Identification of system parameters is accomplished by maximizing the LF with respect to the parameters. The main body of this report briefly summarizes the maximum likelihood technique and gives instructions and examples for running the MXLKID program. MXLKID is implemented LRLTRAN on the CDC7600 computer at LLNL. A detailed mathematical description of the algorithm is given in the appendices. 24 figures, 6 tables

  12. Maximum neutron flux in thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugar, P.V.

    1968-12-01

    Direct approach to the problem is to calculate spatial distribution of fuel concentration if the reactor core directly using the condition of maximum neutron flux and comply with thermal limitations. This paper proved that the problem can be solved by applying the variational calculus, i.e. by using the maximum principle of Pontryagin. Mathematical model of reactor core is based on the two-group neutron diffusion theory with some simplifications which make it appropriate from maximum principle point of view. Here applied theory of maximum principle are suitable for application. The solution of optimum distribution of fuel concentration in the reactor core is obtained in explicit analytical form. The reactor critical dimensions are roots of a system of nonlinear equations and verification of optimum conditions can be done only for specific examples

  13. Maximum allowable load on wheeled mobile manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibnejad Korayem, M.; Ghariblu, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a computational technique for finding the maximum allowable load of mobile manipulator during a given trajectory. The maximum allowable loads which can be achieved by a mobile manipulator during a given trajectory are limited by the number of factors; probably the dynamic properties of mobile base and mounted manipulator, their actuator limitations and additional constraints applied to resolving the redundancy are the most important factors. To resolve extra D.O.F introduced by the base mobility, additional constraint functions are proposed directly in the task space of mobile manipulator. Finally, in two numerical examples involving a two-link planar manipulator mounted on a differentially driven mobile base, application of the method to determining maximum allowable load is verified. The simulation results demonstrates the maximum allowable load on a desired trajectory has not a unique value and directly depends on the additional constraint functions which applies to resolve the motion redundancy

  14. Maximum phytoplankton concentrations in the sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, G.A.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A simplification of plankton dynamics using coagulation theory provides predictions of the maximum algal concentration sustainable in aquatic systems. These predictions have previously been tested successfully against results from iron fertilization experiments. We extend the test to data collect...

  15. Astrakhan-Mangyshlak water main (pipeline): corrosion state of the inner surface, and methods for its corrosion protection. Part III. The effects of KW2353 inhibitor. Part IV. Microbiological corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reformatskaya, I.I.; Ashcheulova, I.I.; Barinova, M.A.; Kostin, D.V.; Prutchenko, S.G.; Ivleva, G.A.; Taubaldiev, T.S.; Murinov, K.S.; Tastanov, K.Kh.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of the KW2353 corrosion inhibitor, applied on the Astrakhan-Mangyshlak water main (pipeline) since 1997, on the corrosion processes, occurring on the 17G1S steel surface, is considered. The properties of the surface sediments are also considered. The role of the microbiological processes in the corrosion behavior of the water main (pipeline) inner surface is studied. It is shown, that application of the polyphosphate-type inhibitors, including the KW2353 one, for the anticorrosive protection of the inner surface of the extended water main (pipelines) is inadmissible: at the temperature of ∼20 deg C this corrosion inhibitor facilitates the development of the local corrosion processes on the water main (pipeline) inner surface. At the temperature of ∼8 deg C the above inhibitor discontinues to effect the corrosive stability of the 17G1S steel. The optimal way of the anticorrosive protection of the steel equipment, contacting with the water media, is the increase in the oxygen content therein [ru

  16. Acid Etching as Surface Treatment Method for Luting of Glass-Ceramic Restorations, part 1: Acids, Application Protocol and Etching Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilija Barjaktarova-Valjakova

    2018-03-01

    CONCLUSION: Acid etching of the bonding surface of glass - ceramic restorations is considered as the most effective treatment method that provides a reliable bond with composite cement. Selective removing of the glassy matrix of silicate ceramics results in a micromorphological three-dimensional porous surface that allows micromechanical interlocking of the luting composite.

  17. Techniques in gas-phase thermolyses - Part 7. Direct surface participation in gas-phase Curie-point pyrolysis: The pyrolysis of phenyl azide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Helge; Carlsen, Lars

    1986-01-01

    The possible direct participation of the hot reactor surface in the formation of pyrolysis products was elucidated through the pyrolytic decomposition of phenyl azide. It is demonstrated that the intermediate phenyl nitrene generated reacts with elemental carbon at the filament surface, leading...

  18. Spatio-temporal distribution of Diaphanosoma brachyurum (Cladocera: Sididae in freshwater reservoir ecosystems: importance of maximum water depth and macrophyte beds for avoidance of fish predation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Yun Choi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In empirical studies, Cladocera is commonly utilized as a primary food source for predators such as fish, thus, predator avoidance are important strategies to sustain their population in freshwater ecosystems. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that water depth is an important factor in determining the spatial distribution of Diaphanosoma brachyurum Liévin, 1848 in response to fish predation. Quarterly monitoring was implemented at three water layers (i.e., water surface and middle and bottom layers in 21 reservoirs located in the southeastern part of South Korea. D. brachyurum individuals were frequently observed at the study sites and exhibited different spatial patterns of distribution in accordance with the maximum depth of the reservoirs. In the reservoirs with a maximum depth of more than 6 m, high densities of D. brachyurum were observed in the bottom layers; however, in the shallower reservoirs (maximum depth <6 m, D. brachyurum were concentrated in the surface layer. Moreover, during additional surveys, we observed a trend in which D. brachyurum densities increased as the maximum depth or macrophyte biomass increased. Gut contents analysis revealed that predatory fishes in each reservoir frequently consumed D. brachyurum; however, the consumption rate abruptly decreased in reservoirs where the maximum depth was more than 11 m or in the shallow reservoirs supporting a macrophyte bed. Interestingly, the reservoirs more than 11-m depth supported high densities of D. brachyurum in the bottom layer and in the surface macrophyte bed. Based on these results, reservoirs with a maximum depth of more than 11 m or those with a macrophyte bed may provide a refuge for D. brachyurum to avoid fish predation. Compared with other cladoceran species, D. brachyurum readily exploits various types of refugia (in this study, the deep layer or surface macrophyte bed, which may help explain why this species is abundant in various types of reservoirs.

  19. Tribological Characteristics of Flat Surfaces of Parts made of Baked ПА-ЖГр2 Material after Needle Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Feldshtejn

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers regularities of machined surface formation and its wear resistance in the process of needle milling of baked ПА-ЖГр2 material. Roughness of the machined surface is reduced as feed and tightness are increased. The surface being machined does not practically have pores and traces of single needle trajectories and rolls of deformed metal along their lateral sides are observed. Instant and average friction coefficients for various machining conditions differ approximately by 10 %, difference in relative solid surface wear is greater by 3 and more fold in accordance with machining conditions. The minimal intensity of surface wear process after needle milling is observed while machining it with minimal milling speed and feed and maximal tightness.

  20. Effect of Built-Up Edge Formation during Stable State of Wear in AISI 304 Stainless Steel on Machining Performance and Surface Integrity of the Machined Part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Yassmin Seid; Fox-Rabinovich, German; Paiva, Jose Mario; Wagg, Terry; Veldhuis, Stephen Clarence

    2017-10-25

    During machining of stainless steels at low cutting -speeds, workpiece material tends to adhere to the cutting tool at the tool-chip interface, forming built-up edge (BUE). BUE has a great importance in machining processes; it can significantly modify the phenomenon in the cutting zone, directly affecting the workpiece surface integrity, cutting tool forces, and chip formation. The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 304 stainless steel has a high tendency to form an unstable BUE, leading to deterioration of the surface quality. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the nature of the surface integrity induced during machining operations. Although many reports have been published on the effect of tool wear during machining of AISI 304 stainless steel on surface integrity, studies on the influence of the BUE phenomenon in the stable state of wear have not been investigated so far. The main goal of the present work is to investigate the close link between the BUE formation, surface integrity and cutting forces in the stable sate of wear for uncoated cutting tool during the cutting tests of AISI 304 stainless steel. The cutting parameters were chosen to induce BUE formation during machining. X-ray diffraction (XRD) method was used for measuring superficial residual stresses of the machined surface through the stable state of wear in the cutting and feed directions. In addition, surface roughness of the machined surface was investigated using the Alicona microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to reveal the surface distortions created during the cutting process, combined with chip undersurface analyses. The investigated BUE formation during the stable state of wear showed that the BUE can cause a significant improvement in the surface integrity and cutting forces. Moreover, it can be used to compensate for tool wear through changing the tool geometry, leading to the protection of the cutting tool from wear.

  1. Maximum gravitational redshift of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.L.; Teukolsky, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    The stability of uniformly rotating, cold white dwarfs is examined in the framework of the Parametrized Post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism of Will and Nordtvedt. The maximum central density and gravitational redshift of a white dwarf are determined as functions of five of the nine PPN parameters (γ, β, zeta 2 , zeta 3 , and zeta 4 ), the total angular momentum J, and the composition of the star. General relativity predicts that the maximum redshifts is 571 km s -1 for nonrotating carbon and helium dwarfs, but is lower for stars composed of heavier nuclei. Uniform rotation can increase the maximum redshift to 647 km s -1 for carbon stars (the neutronization limit) and to 893 km s -1 for helium stars (the uniform rotation limit). The redshift distribution of a larger sample of white dwarfs may help determine the composition of their cores

  2. Shaping optimal zinc coating on the surface of high-quality ductile iron casting. Part I – Moulding technologies vs. zinc coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczęsny A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies have demonstrated that in the process of hot dip galvanizing the decisive influence on the mechanism of zinc coating formation and properties has the quality of the mechanically untreated (raw surface layer of the galvanized product. The terms “casting surface layer” denote various parameters of the microstructure, including the type of metal matrix, the number of grains and the size of graphite nodules, possible presence of hard spots (the precipitates of eutectic cementite and parameters of the surface condition. The completed research has allowed linking the manufacturing technology of ductile iron castings with the process of hot dip galvanizing.

  3. 30 CFR 77.803-1 - Fail safe ground check circuits; maximum voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... voltage. 77.803-1 Section 77.803-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.803-1 Fail safe ground check circuits; maximum voltage. The maximum voltage used for ground check circuits under § 77.803 shall not...

  4. Review of Global Ocean Intermediate Water Masses: 1.Part A,the Neutral Density Surface (the 'McDougall Surface') as a Study Frame for Water-Mass Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuzhu You

    2006-01-01

    This review article commences with a comprehensive historical review of the evolution and application of various density surfaces in atmospheric and oceanic studies.The background provides a basis for the birth of the neutral density idea.Attention is paid to the development of the neutral density surface concept from the nonlinearity of the equation of state of seawater.The definition and properties of neutral density surface are described in detail as developed from the equations of state of seawater and the buoyancy frequency when the squared buoyancy frequency N2 is zero, a neutral state of stability.In order to apply the neutral density surface to intermediate water-mass analysis, this review also describes in detail its practical oceanographic application.The mapping technique is focused for the first time on applying regularly gridded data in this review.It is reviewed how a backbone and ribs framework was designed to flesh out from a reference cast and first mapped the global neutral surfaces in the world's oceans.Several mapped neutral density surfaces are presented as examples for each world ocean.The water-mass property is analyzed in each ocean at mid-depth.The characteristics of neutral density surfaces are compared with those of potential density surfaces.

  5. Summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region V. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    This report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. This volume is specifically for the states of Washington, Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, Oregon, California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico.

  6. Maximum entropy analysis of EGRET data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohl, M.; Strong, A.W.

    1997-01-01

    EGRET data are usually analysed on the basis of the Maximum-Likelihood method \\cite{ma96} in a search for point sources in excess to a model for the background radiation (e.g. \\cite{hu97}). This method depends strongly on the quality of the background model, and thus may have high systematic unce...... uncertainties in region of strong and uncertain background like the Galactic Center region. Here we show images of such regions obtained by the quantified Maximum-Entropy method. We also discuss a possible further use of MEM in the analysis of problematic regions of the sky....

  7. The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find...

  8. Shower maximum detector for SDC calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernwein, J.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype for the SDC end-cap (EM) calorimeter complete with a pre-shower and a shower maximum detector was tested in beams of electrons and Π's at CERN by an SDC subsystem group. The prototype was manufactured from scintillator tiles and strips read out with 1 mm diameter wave-length shifting fibers. The design and construction of the shower maximum detector is described, and results of laboratory tests on light yield and performance of the scintillator-fiber system are given. Preliminary results on energy and position measurements with the shower max detector in the test beam are shown. (authors). 4 refs., 5 figs

  9. Topics in Bayesian statistics and maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Cicuttin, A.; Cerdeira, A.; Stanciulescu, C.

    1998-12-01

    Notions of Bayesian decision theory and maximum entropy methods are reviewed with particular emphasis on probabilistic inference and Bayesian modeling. The axiomatic approach is considered as the best justification of Bayesian analysis and maximum entropy principle applied in natural sciences. Particular emphasis is put on solving the inverse problem in digital image restoration and Bayesian modeling of neural networks. Further topics addressed briefly include language modeling, neutron scattering, multiuser detection and channel equalization in digital communications, genetic information, and Bayesian court decision-making. (author)

  10. Density estimation by maximum quantum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, R.N.; Wallstrom, T.; Martz, H.F.

    1993-01-01

    A new Bayesian method for non-parametric density estimation is proposed, based on a mathematical analogy to quantum statistical physics. The mathematical procedure is related to maximum entropy methods for inverse problems and image reconstruction. The information divergence enforces global smoothing toward default models, convexity, positivity, extensivity and normalization. The novel feature is the replacement of classical entropy by quantum entropy, so that local smoothing is enforced by constraints on differential operators. The linear response of the estimate is proportional to the covariance. The hyperparameters are estimated by type-II maximum likelihood (evidence). The method is demonstrated on textbook data sets

  11. Maximum heat flux in boiling in a large volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmans, Dzh.

    1976-01-01

    Relationships are derived for the maximum heat flux qsub(max) without basing on the assumptions of both the critical vapor velocity corresponding to the zero growth rate, and planar interface. The Helmholz nonstability analysis of vapor column has been made to this end. The results of this examination have been used to find maximum heat flux for spherical, cylindric and flat plate heaters. The conventional hydrodynamic theory was found to be incapable of producing a satisfactory explanation of qsub(max) for small heaters. The occurrence of qsub(max) in the present case can be explained by inadequate removal of vapor output from the heater (the force of gravity for cylindrical heaters and surface tension for the spherical ones). In case of flat plate heater the qsub(max) value can be explained with the help of the hydrodynamic theory

  12. Fortifying the Bone-Implant Interface Part 1: An In Vitro Evaluation of 3D-Printed and TPS Porous Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacBarb, Regina F; Lindsey, Derek P; Bahney, Chelsea S; Woods, Shane A; Wolfe, Mark L; Yerby, Scott A

    2017-01-01

    An aging society and concomitant rise in the incidence of impaired bone health have led to the need for advanced osteoconductive spinal implant surfaces that promote greater biological fixation ( e.g. for interbody fusion cages, sacroiliac joint fusion implants, and artificial disc replacements). Additive manufacturing, i.e. 3D-printing, may improve bone integration by generating biomimetic spinal implant surfaces that mimic bone morphology. Such surfaces may foster an enhanced cellular response compared to traditional implant surfacing processes. This study investigated the response of human osteoblasts to additive manufactured (AM) trabecular-like titanium implant surfaces compared to traditionally machined base material with titanium plasma spray (TPS) coated surfaces, with and without a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) coating. For TPS-coated discs, wrought Ti6Al4V ELI was machined and TPS-coating was applied. For AM discs, Ti6Al4V ELI powder was 3D-printed to form a solid base and trabecular-like porous surface. The HA-coating was applied via a precipitation dip-spin method. Surface porosity, pore size, thickness, and hydrophilicity were characterized. Initial cell attachment, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and calcium production of hFOB cells ( n =5 per group) were measured. Cells on AM discs exhibited expedited proliferative activity. While there were no differences in mean ALP expression and calcium production between TPS and AM discs, calcium production on the AM discs trended 48% higher than on TPS discs ( p =0.07). Overall, HA-coating did not further enhance results compared to uncoated TPS and AM discs. Results demonstrate that additive manufacturing allows for controlled trabecular-like surfaces that promote earlier cell proliferation and trends toward higher calcium production than TPS coating. Results further showed that nanocrystalline HA may not provide an advantage on porous titanium surfaces. Additive manufactured porous

  13. Mechanical properties of NiTi and CuNiTi wires used in orthodontic treatment. Part 2: Microscopic surface appraisal and metallurgical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Abdo Gravina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This research aimed at comparing the qualitative chemical compositions and the surface morphology of fracture regions of eight types of Nickel (Ni Titanium (Ti conventional wires, superelastic and heat-activated (GAC, TP, Ormco, Masel, Morelli and Unitek, to the wires with addition of copper (CuNiTi 27oC and 35oC, Ormco after traction test. METHODS: The analyses were performed in a scanning electronic microscope (JEOL, model JSM-5800 LV with EDS system of microanalysis (energy dispersive spectroscopy. RESULTS : The results showed that NiTi wires presented Ni and Ti as the main elements of the alloy with minimum differences in their composition. The CuNiTi wires, however, presented Ni and Ti with a significant percentage of copper (Cu. As for surface morphology, the wires that presented the lowest wire-surface roughness were the superelastic ones by Masel and Morelli, while those that presented the greatest wire-surface roughness were the CuNiTi 27oC and 35oC ones by Ormco, due to presence of microcavity formed as a result of pulling out some particles, possibly of NiTi. 4 The fracture surfaces presented characteristics of ductile fracture, with presence of microcavities. The superelastic wires by GAC and the CuNiTi 27oC and the heat-activated ones by Unitek presented the smallest microcavities and the lowest wire-surface roughness with regard to fracture, while the CuNiTi 35oC wires presented inadequate wire-surface roughness in the fracture region. CONCLUSION: CuNiTi 35oC wires did not present better morphologic characteristics in comparison to the other wires with regard to surfaces and fracture region.

  14. Meteosat SEVIRI Fire Radiative Power (FRP) products from the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF) - Part 1: Algorithms, product contents and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooster, M. J.; Roberts, G.; Freeborn, P. H.; Xu, W.; Govaerts, Y.; Beeby, R.; He, J.; Lattanzio, A.; Mullen, R.

    2015-06-01

    Characterising changes in landscape scale fire activity at very high temporal resolution is best achieved using thermal observations of actively burning fires made from geostationary Earth observation (EO) satellites. Over the last decade or more, a series of research and/or operational "active fire" products have been developed from these types of geostationary observations, often with the aim of supporting the generation of data related to biomass burning fuel consumption and trace gas and aerosol emission fields. The Fire Radiative Power (FRP) products generated by the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF) from data collected by the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) are one such set of products, and are freely available in both near real-time and archived form. Every 15 min, the algorithms used to generate these products identify and map the location of new SEVIRI observations containing actively burning fires, and characterise their individual rates of radiative energy release (fire radiative power; FRP) that is believed proportional to rates of biomass consumption and smoke emission. The FRP-PIXEL product contains the highest spatial resolution FRP dataset, delivered for all of Europe, northern and southern Africa, and part of South America at a spatial resolution of 3 km (decreasing away from the west African sub-satellite point) at the full 15 min temporal resolution. The FRP-GRID product is an hourly summary of the FRP-PIXEL data, produced at a 5° grid cell size and including simple bias adjustments for meteorological cloud cover and for the regional underestimation of FRP caused, primarily, by the non-detection of low FRP fire pixels at SEVIRI's relatively coarse pixel size. Here we describe the enhanced geostationary Fire Thermal Anomaly (FTA) algorithm used to detect the SEVIRI active fire pixels, and detail methods used to deliver atmospherically corrected FRP information

  15. Maximum field capability of energy saver superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkot, F.; Cooper, W.E.; Hanft, R.; McInturff, A.

    1983-01-01

    At an energy of 1 TeV the superconducting cable in the Energy Saver dipole magnets will be operating at ca. 96% of its nominal short sample limit; the corresponding number in the quadrupole magnets will be 81%. All magnets for the Saver are individually tested for maximum current capability under two modes of operation; some 900 dipoles and 275 quadrupoles have now been measured. The dipole winding is composed of four individually wound coils which in general come from four different reels of cable. As part of the magnet fabrication quality control a short piece of cable from both ends of each reel has its critical current measured at 5T and 4.3K. In this paper the authors describe and present the statistical results of the maximum field tests (including quench and cycle) on Saver dipole and quadrupole magnets and explore the correlation of these tests with cable critical current

  16. Nonsymmetric entropy and maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengshi

    2009-01-01

    Under the frame of a statistical model, the concept of nonsymmetric entropy which generalizes the concepts of Boltzmann's entropy and Shannon's entropy, is defined. Maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle is proved. Some important distribution laws such as power law, can be derived from this principle naturally. Especially, nonsymmetric entropy is more convenient than other entropy such as Tsallis's entropy in deriving power laws.

  17. Maximum speed of dewetting on a fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Tak Shing; Gueudre, Thomas; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus

    2011-01-01

    A solid object can be coated by a nonwetting liquid since a receding contact line cannot exceed a critical speed. We theoretically investigate this forced wetting transition for axisymmetric menisci on fibers of varying radii. First, we use a matched asymptotic expansion and derive the maximum speed

  18. Maximum potential preventive effect of hip protectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schoor, N.M.; Smit, J.H.; Bouter, L.M.; Veenings, B.; Asma, G.B.; Lips, P.T.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the maximum potential preventive effect of hip protectors in older persons living in the community or homes for the elderly. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Emergency departments in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Hip fracture patients aged 70 and older who

  19. Maximum gain of Yagi-Uda arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, J.H.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Nilsson, E.

    1971-01-01

    Numerical optimisation techniques have been used to find the maximum gain of some specific parasitic arrays. The gain of an array of infinitely thin, equispaced dipoles loaded with arbitrary reactances has been optimised. The results show that standard travelling-wave design methods are not optimum....... Yagi–Uda arrays with equal and unequal spacing have also been optimised with experimental verification....

  20. correlation between maximum dry density and cohesion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    represents maximum dry density, signifies plastic limit and is liquid limit. Researchers [6, 7] estimate compaction parameters. Aside from the correlation existing between compaction parameters and other physical quantities there are some other correlations that have been investigated by other researchers. The well-known.

  1. Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2015-03-01

    The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.

  2. The maximum-entropy method in superspace

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Smaalen, S.; Palatinus, Lukáš; Schneider, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 59, - (2003), s. 459-469 ISSN 0108-7673 Grant - others:DFG(DE) XX Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : maximum-entropy method, * aperiodic crystals * electron density Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.558, year: 2003

  3. Achieving maximum sustainable yield in mixed fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulrich, Clara; Vermard, Youen; Dolder, Paul J.; Brunel, Thomas; Jardim, Ernesto; Holmes, Steven J.; Kempf, Alexander; Mortensen, Lars O.; Poos, Jan Jaap; Rindorf, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Achieving single species maximum sustainable yield (MSY) in complex and dynamic fisheries targeting multiple species (mixed fisheries) is challenging because achieving the objective for one species may mean missing the objective for another. The North Sea mixed fisheries are a representative example

  4. 5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... maximum stipend established under this section. (e) A trainee at a non-Federal hospital, clinic, or medical or dental laboratory who is assigned to a Federal hospital, clinic, or medical or dental... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Student...

  5. Minimal length, Friedmann equations and maximum density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awad, Adel [Center for Theoretical Physics, British University of Egypt,Sherouk City 11837, P.O. Box 43 (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University,Cairo, 11566 (Egypt); Ali, Ahmed Farag [Centre for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,Sheikh Zayed, 12588, Giza (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University,Benha, 13518 (Egypt)

    2014-06-16

    Inspired by Jacobson’s thermodynamic approach, Cai et al. have shown the emergence of Friedmann equations from the first law of thermodynamics. We extend Akbar-Cai derivation http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.75.084003 of Friedmann equations to accommodate a general entropy-area law. Studying the resulted Friedmann equations using a specific entropy-area law, which is motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), reveals the existence of a maximum energy density closed to Planck density. Allowing for a general continuous pressure p(ρ,a) leads to bounded curvature invariants and a general nonsingular evolution. In this case, the maximum energy density is reached in a finite time and there is no cosmological evolution beyond this point which leaves the big bang singularity inaccessible from a spacetime prospective. The existence of maximum energy density and a general nonsingular evolution is independent of the equation of state and the spacial curvature k. As an example we study the evolution of the equation of state p=ωρ through its phase-space diagram to show the existence of a maximum energy which is reachable in a finite time.

  6. Resolving the stratification discrepancy of turbulent natural convection in differentially heated air-filled cavities. Part III: A full convection–conduction–surface radiation coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, Shihe; Salat, Jacques; Joubert, Patrice; Sergent, Anne; Penot, François; Quéré, Patrick Le

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Turbulent natural convection is studied numerically and experimentally. ► DNS of full conduction–convection–radiation coupling is performed. ► Spectral methods are combined with domain decomposition. ► Considering surface radiation improves strongly numerical results. ► Surface radiation is responsible for the weak stratification. -- Abstract: The present study concerns an air-filled differentially heated cavity of 1 m × 0.32 m × 1 m (width × depth × height) subject to a temperature difference of 15 K and is motivated by the need to understand the persistent discrepancy observed between numerical and experimental results on thermal stratification in the cavity core. An improved experiment with enhanced metrology was set up and experimental data have been obtained along with the characteristics of the surfaces and materials used. Experimental temperature distributions on the passive walls have been introduced in numerical simulations in order to provide a faithful prediction of experimental data. By means of DNS using spectral methods, heat conduction in the insulating material is first coupled with natural convection in the cavity. As heat conduction influences only the temperature distribution on the top and bottom surfaces and in the near wall regions, surface radiation is added to the coupling of natural convection with heat conduction. The temperature distribution in the cavity is strongly affected by the polycarbonate front and rear walls of the cavity, which are almost black surfaces for low temperature radiation, and also other low emissivity walls. The thermal stratification is considerably weakened by surface radiation. Good agreement between numerical simulations and experiments is observed on both time-averaged fields and turbulent statistics. Treating the full conduction–convection–radiation coupling allowed to confirm that experimental wall temperatures resulted from the coupled phenomena and this is another way to

  7. Kinetic model framework for aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions - Part 1: General equations, parameters, and terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöschl, U.; Rudich, Y.; Ammann, M.

    2007-12-01

    Aerosols and clouds play central roles in atmospheric chemistry and physics, climate, air pollution, and public health. The mechanistic understanding and predictability of aerosol and cloud properties, interactions, transformations, and effects are, however, still very limited. This is due not only to the limited availability of measurement data, but also to the limited applicability and compatibility of model formalisms used for the analysis, interpretation, and description of heterogeneous and multiphase processes. To support the investigation and elucidation of atmospheric aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions, we present a comprehensive kinetic model framework with consistent and unambiguous terminology and universally applicable rate equations and parameters. It enables a detailed description of mass transport and chemical reactions at the gas-particle interface, and it allows linking aerosol and cloud surface processes with gas phase and particle bulk processes in systems with multiple chemical components and competing physicochemical processes. The key elements and essential aspects of the presented framework are: a simple and descriptive double-layer surface model (sorption layer and quasi-static layer); straightforward flux-based mass balance and rate equations; clear separation of mass transport and chemical reactions; well-defined and consistent rate parameters (uptake and accommodation coefficients, reaction and transport rate coefficients); clear distinction between gas phase, gas-surface, and surface-bulk transport (gas phase diffusion, surface and bulk accommodation); clear distinction between gas-surface, surface layer, and surface-bulk reactions (Langmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal mechanisms); mechanistic description of concentration and time dependences (transient and steady-state conditions); flexible addition of unlimited numbers of chemical species and physicochemical processes; optional aggregation or resolution

  8. Polar silica-based stationary phases. Part II- Neutral silica stationary phases with surface bound maltose and sorbitol for hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnasekara, Renuka; El Rassi, Ziad

    2017-07-28

    Two neutral polyhydroxylated silica bonded stationary phases, namely maltose-silica (MALT-silica) and sorbitol-silica (SOR-silica), have been introduced and chromatographically characterized in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) for a wide range of polar compounds. The bonding of the maltose and sorbitol to the silica surface was brought about by first converting bare silica to an epoxy-activated silica surface via reaction with γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) followed by attaching maltose and sorbitol to the epoxy surface in the presence of the Lewis acid catalyst BF 3 .ethereate. Both silica based columns offered the expected retention characteristics usually encountered for neutral polar surface. The retention mechanism is majorly based on solute' differential partitioning between an organic rich hydro-organic mobile phase (e.g., ACN rich mobile phase) and an adsorbed water layer on the surface of the stationary phase although additional hydrogen bonding was also responsible in some cases for solute retention. The MALT-silica column proved to be more hydrophilic and offered higher retention, separation efficiency and resolution than the SOR-silica column among the tested polar solutes such as derivatized mono- and oligosaccharides, weak phenolic acids, cyclic nucleotide monophosphate and nucleotide-5'-monophosphates, and weak bases, e.g., nucleobases and nucleosides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region III. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    The report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. Methods and sources to obtain information to satisfy state and Federal regulations are presented. Considerable emphasis is placed on postmining assistance. This volume is specifically for the states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana and Ohio.

  10. Summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region IV. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    The report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. Methods and sources to obtain information to satisfy state and Federal regulations are presented. This volume is specifically for the states of Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Texas and Louisiana.

  11. Summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    The report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. Methods and sources to obtain information to satisfy state and Federal regulations are presented. This volume is specifically for the states of Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, West Virginia and Virginia.

  12. Summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    The report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. Methods and sources to obtain information to satisfy state and Federal regulations are presented. This volume is specifically for the states of Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Florida.

  13. Theory and application of maximum magnetic energy in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.K.

    1992-02-01

    The magnetic energy in an inductively driven steady-state toroidal plasma is a maximum for a given rate of dissipation of energy (Poynting flux). A purely resistive steady state of the piecewise force-free configuration, however, cannot exist, as the periodic removal of the excess poloidal flux and pressure, due to heating, ruptures the static equilibrium of the partitioning rational surfaces intermittently. The rupture necessitates a plasma with a negative q'/q (as in reverse field pinches and spheromaks) to have the same α in all its force-free regions and with a positive q'/q (as in tokamaks) to have centrally peaked α's

  14. Elemental composition of cosmic rays using a maximum likelihood method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddick, K.

    1996-01-01

    We present a progress report on our attempts to determine the composition of cosmic rays in the knee region of the energy spectrum. We have used three different devices to measure properties of the extensive air showers produced by primary cosmic rays: the Soudan 2 underground detector measures the muon flux deep underground, a proportional tube array samples shower density at the surface of the earth, and a Cherenkov array observes light produced high in the atmosphere. We have begun maximum likelihood fits to these measurements with the hope of determining the nuclear mass number A on an event by event basis. (orig.)

  15. Approximation for maximum pressure calculation in containment of PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, A.L. de

    1989-01-01

    A correlation was developed to estimate the maximum pressure of dry containment of PWR following a Loss-of-Coolant Accident - LOCA. The expression proposed is a function of the total energy released to the containment by the primary circuit, of the free volume of the containment building and of the total surface are of the heat-conducting structures. The results show good agreement with those present in Final Safety Analysis Report - FSAR of several PWR's plants. The errors are in the order of ± 12%. (author) [pt

  16. Adhesion of nitrile rubber to UV-assisted surface chemical modified PET fabric, part II: Interfacial characterization of MDI grafted PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razavizadeh, Mahmoud; Jamshidi, Masoud, E-mail: mjamshidi@iust.ac.ir

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • In this research UV-irradiated PET fabric was chemically modified. • The fabric at first carboxylated under UV irradiation using glutaric anhydride, then it was grafted using isocyanate (i.e. MDI). • The surface of the fabric was characterized before and after each treating satge. • The composite samples were prepared and tested for T-Peel test. The surfaces of the fabrics were surface characterized to understand. - Abstract: Fiber to rubber adhesion is an important subject in rubber industry. It is well known that surface treatment (i.e. physical, mechanical and chemical) is an effective method to improve interfacial bonding of fibers and/or fabrics to rubbers. UV irradiation is an effective method which has been used to increase fabric-rubber interfacial interactions. In this research UV assisted chemical modification of PET fabrics was used to increase PET to nitrile rubber (NBR) adhesion. Nitrile rubber is a perfect selection as fuel and oil resistant rubber. However it has weak bonding to PET fabric. For this purpose PET fabric was carboxylated under UV irradiation and then methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) was grafted on carboxylated PET. The chemical composition of the fabric before and after surface treatment was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The sectional morphology of the experimental PET fibers and the interface between rubber compound and PET fabric was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The morphology and structure of the product were analyzed by an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX). FTIR-ATR and H NMR analysis were used to assess surface modifications on the PET irradiated fabrics.

  17. Adhesion of nitrile rubber to UV-assisted surface chemical modified PET fabric, part II: Interfacial characterization of MDI grafted PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavizadeh, Mahmoud; Jamshidi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • In this research UV-irradiated PET fabric was chemically modified. • The fabric at first carboxylated under UV irradiation using glutaric anhydride, then it was grafted using isocyanate (i.e. MDI). • The surface of the fabric was characterized before and after each treating satge. • The composite samples were prepared and tested for T-Peel test. The surfaces of the fabrics were surface characterized to understand. - Abstract: Fiber to rubber adhesion is an important subject in rubber industry. It is well known that surface treatment (i.e. physical, mechanical and chemical) is an effective method to improve interfacial bonding of fibers and/or fabrics to rubbers. UV irradiation is an effective method which has been used to increase fabric-rubber interfacial interactions. In this research UV assisted chemical modification of PET fabrics was used to increase PET to nitrile rubber (NBR) adhesion. Nitrile rubber is a perfect selection as fuel and oil resistant rubber. However it has weak bonding to PET fabric. For this purpose PET fabric was carboxylated under UV irradiation and then methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) was grafted on carboxylated PET. The chemical composition of the fabric before and after surface treatment was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The sectional morphology of the experimental PET fibers and the interface between rubber compound and PET fabric was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The morphology and structure of the product were analyzed by an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX). FTIR-ATR and H NMR analysis were used to assess surface modifications on the PET irradiated fabrics.

  18. The Hengill geothermal area, Iceland: Variation of temperature gradients deduced from the maximum depth of seismogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, G. R.

    1995-04-01

    Given a uniform lithology and strain rate and a full seismic data set, the maximum depth of earthquakes may be viewed to a first order as an isotherm. These conditions are approached at the Hengill geothermal area S. Iceland, a dominantly basaltic area. The likely strain rate calculated from thermal and tectonic considerations is 10 -15 s -1, and temperature measurements from four drill sites within the area indicate average, near-surface geothermal gradients of up to 150 °C km -1 throughout the upper 2 km. The temperature at which seismic failure ceases for the strain rates likely at the Hengill geothermal area is determined by analogy with oceanic crust, and is about 650 ± 50 °C. The topographies of the top and bottom of the seismogenic layer were mapped using 617 earthquakes located highly accurately by performing a simultaneous inversion for three-dimensional structure and hypocentral parameters. The thickness of the seismogenic layer is roughly constant and about 3 km. A shallow, aseismic, low-velocity volume within the spreading plate boundary that crosses the area occurs above the top of the seismogenic layer and is interpreted as an isolated body of partial melt. The base of the seismogenic layer has a maximum depth of about 6.5 km beneath the spreading axis and deepens to about 7 km beneath a transform zone in the south of the area. Beneath the high-temperature part of the geothermal area, the maximum depth of earthquakes may be as shallow as 4 km. The geothermal gradient below drilling depths in various parts of the area ranges from 84 ± 9 °Ckm -1 within the low-temperature geothermal area of the transform zone to 138 ± 15 °Ckm -1 below the centre of the high-temperature geothermal area. Shallow maximum depths of earthquakes and therefore high average geothermal gradients tend to correlate with the intensity of the geothermal area and not with the location of the currently active spreading axis.

  19. Maximum concentrations at work and maximum biologically tolerable concentration for working materials 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The meaning of the term 'maximum concentration at work' in regard of various pollutants is discussed. Specifically, a number of dusts and smokes are dealt with. The valuation criteria for maximum biologically tolerable concentrations for working materials are indicated. The working materials in question are corcinogeneous substances or substances liable to cause allergies or mutate the genome. (VT) [de

  20. 75 FR 43840 - Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalties for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ...-17530; Notice No. 2] RIN 2130-ZA03 Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum... remains at $250. These adjustments are required by the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990...

  1. Pesticide exposure assessment for surface waters in the EU. Part 2: Determination of statistically based run-off and drainage scenarios for Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Martin; Diesner, Mirjam; Großmann, Dietlinde; Guerniche, Djamal; Hommen, Udo; Klein, Michael; Kubiak, Roland; Müller, Alexandra; Preuss, Thomas G; Priegnitz, Jan; Reichenberger, Stefan; Thomas, Kai; Trapp, Matthias

    2017-05-01

    In order to assess surface water exposure to active substances of plant protection products (PPPs) in the European Union (EU), the FOCUS (FOrum for the Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and their USe) surface water workgroup introduced four run-off and six drainage scenarios for Step 3 of the tiered FOCUSsw approach. These scenarios may not necessarily represent realistic worst-case situations for the different Member States of the EU. Hence, the suitability of the scenarios for risk assessment in the national authorisation procedures is not known. Using Germany as an example, the paper illustrates how national soil-climate scenarios can be developed to model entries of active substances into surface waters from run-off and erosion (using the model PRZM) and from drainage (using the model MACRO). In the authorisation procedure for PPPs on Member State level, such soil-climate scenarios can be used to determine exposure endpoints with a defined overall percentile. The approach allows the development of national specific soil-climate scenarios and to calculate percentile-based exposure endpoints. The scenarios have been integrated into a software tool analogous to FOCUS-SWASH which can be used in the future to assess surface water exposure in authorisation procedures of PPPs in Germany. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. A comparison of three approaches for simulating fine-scale surface winds in support of wildland fire management: Part I. Model formulation and comparison against measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason M. Forthofer; Bret W. Butler; Natalie S. Wagenbrenner

    2014-01-01

    For this study three types of wind models have been defined for simulating surface wind flow in support of wildland fire management: (1) a uniform wind field (typically acquired from coarse-resolution (,4 km) weather service forecast models); (2) a newly developed mass-conserving model and (3) a newly developed mass and momentumconserving model (referred to as the...

  3. Stem mortality in surface fires: Part II, experimental methods for characterizing the thermal response of tree stems to heating by fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. M. Jimenez; B. W. Butler; J. Reardon

    2003-01-01

    Current methods for predicting fire-induced plant mortality in shrubs and trees are largely empirical. These methods are not readily linked to duff burning, soil heating, and surface fire behavior models. In response to the need for a physics-based model of this process, a detailed model for predicting the temperature distribution through a tree stem as a function of...

  4. Insights into factors contributing to the observability of a submarine at periscope depth by modern radar, Part 2: EM simulation of mast RCS in a realistic sea surface environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, JC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available IEEE-APS Topical Conference on Antennas and Propagation in Wireless Communications (APWC), Cape Town 2-7 September 2012 Insights into factors contributing to the observability of a submarine at periscope depth by modern radar, Part 2: EM... simulation of mast RCS in a realistic sea surface environment Smit JC; Cilliers JE CSIR, Defence, Peace, Safety and Security. PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001 Abstract Recently, a set of high resolution radar measurements were undertaken in South...

  5. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified. (paper)

  6. Maximum-entropy description of animal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Chris H; Subaşı, Yiğit; Calabrese, Justin M

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic.

  7. Pareto versus lognormal: a maximum entropy test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

    2011-08-01

    It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

  8. Maximum parsimony on subsets of taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Mareike; Thatte, Bhalchandra D

    2009-09-21

    In this paper we investigate mathematical questions concerning the reliability (reconstruction accuracy) of Fitch's maximum parsimony algorithm for reconstructing the ancestral state given a phylogenetic tree and a character. In particular, we consider the question whether the maximum parsimony method applied to a subset of taxa can reconstruct the ancestral state of the root more accurately than when applied to all taxa, and we give an example showing that this indeed is possible. A surprising feature of our example is that ignoring a taxon closer to the root improves the reliability of the method. On the other hand, in the case of the two-state symmetric substitution model, we answer affirmatively a conjecture of Li, Steel and Zhang which states that under a molecular clock the probability that the state at a single taxon is a correct guess of the ancestral state is a lower bound on the reconstruction accuracy of Fitch's method applied to all taxa.

  9. Superficial roughness on composite surface, composite enamel and composite dentin junctions after different finishing and polishing procedures. Part I: roughness after treatments with tungsten carbide vs diamond burs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraris, Federico; Conti, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate different instruments for finishing composite restorations, as well as examining different surfaces and interfaces of the same restoration. The null hypothesis is represented by the fact that there are no significant differences on roughness of composite restorations finishing between tungsten carbide and diamond burs, furthermore the null hypothesis is that there are no significant differences on roughness between finishing on composite surfaces (C), compositeenamel (CE) and composite-dentin (CD) interfaces. The study was performed on 28 teeth, and class V cavities were prepared on the extracted teeth. Restorations were done in Filtek XTE nanofilled composite (3M Espe) in a standardized method, to then be finished. A comparison was made in the phase 1 between tungsten carbide burs (16 blades), diamond burs (46 μm), with a similar shape by the same manufacturer (Komet). Each surface received 5 bur applications. Consequently, an analysis with a profilometer was performed. Phase 2 involved further confrontation of ulterior finishing with ultrafine tungsten carbide burs (30 blades) and with extra and ultrafine diamond burs (25 and 8 μm) (the same shape as previously mentioned). A second analysis was then performed with a profilometer. All measurements were taken on C surfaces, CE and CD interfaces. Statistical analyses were carried out with c2 test (a = 0.05). The finishing procedures with fine grit or toothing burs gave a better smoothness with tungsten carbide burs compared to diamond burs. While with the ultrafine grit no significant differences were noted between tungsten carbide and diamond burs on the CE and CD interfaces, the diamond bur left less superficial roughness on the C surfaces. With regards to the superficial roughness of the different areas of restoration, it can be concluded that: minor roughness was detected on C surfaces, while the CD interface had the most superficial roughness, regardless of whether the

  10. Maximum entropy analysis of liquid diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root, J.H.; Egelstaff, P.A.; Nickel, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    A maximum entropy method for reducing truncation effects in the inverse Fourier transform of structure factor, S(q), to pair correlation function, g(r), is described. The advantages and limitations of the method are explored with the PY hard sphere structure factor as model input data. An example using real data on liquid chlorine, is then presented. It is seen that spurious structure is greatly reduced in comparison to traditional Fourier transform methods. (author)

  11. High-resolution MRI using orbit surface coils for the evaluation of metastatic risk factors in 143 children with retinoblastoma. Part 2: new vs. old imaging concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirin, Selma; Schlamann, Marc; Schweiger, Bernd; Goericke, Sophia L. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Metz, Klaus A. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Pathology and Neuropathology, Essen (Germany); Bornfeld, Norbert; Holdt, Markus [University Hospital Essen, Department of Ophthalmology, Essen (Germany); Temming, Petra; Schuendeln, Michael M. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Essen (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is recommended for the evaluation of metastatic risk factors in children with retinoblastoma according to recent guidelines. The aim of this study was to compare diagnostic accuracy of a new imaging concept with two orbit surface coils to that of an old imaging concept with one orbit surface coil. One hundred forty-three patients (148 eyes, 64 girls, 79 boys) underwent high-resolution MRI on 1.5 T scanners using orbit surface coils. The old imaging concept (one orbit surface coil focusing on the (most) effected eye additionally to the standard head coil) was used in 100 patients/103 eye; the new imaging concept (two orbit surface coils (each focusing on one eye) additionally to the standard head coil) in 43 patients/45 eyes. Image analysis was performed by two neuroradiologists in consensus. Histopathology served as gold standard. Detection rate for choroidal invasion was higher for the new compared to that for the old imaging concept (sensitivity/specificity 87.5/94.6 % vs. 57.1/96.1 % for choroidal invasion and 100/97.5 % vs. 58.3/97.7 % for massive choroidal invasion, respectively). Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of postlaminar optic nerve infiltration, peribulbar fat, and scleral invasion were comparable in both imaging concepts; however positive predictive value was higher in the new imaging concept (new vs. old imaging concept: 60 vs. 31.6 % for postlaminar and deep postlaminar optic nerve infiltration, respectively, and 100 vs. 66.7 % for scleral invasion). The new imaging concept shows a trend towards improving the accuracy of detecting metastatic risk factors in children with retinoblastoma and is therefore recommended for pretherapeutic imaging and follow-up. (orig.)

  12. High-resolution MRI using orbit surface coils for the evaluation of metastatic risk factors in 143 children with retinoblastoma. Part 2: new vs. old imaging concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirin, Selma; Schlamann, Marc; Schweiger, Bernd; Goericke, Sophia L.; Metz, Klaus A.; Bornfeld, Norbert; Holdt, Markus; Temming, Petra; Schuendeln, Michael M.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is recommended for the evaluation of metastatic risk factors in children with retinoblastoma according to recent guidelines. The aim of this study was to compare diagnostic accuracy of a new imaging concept with two orbit surface coils to that of an old imaging concept with one orbit surface coil. One hundred forty-three patients (148 eyes, 64 girls, 79 boys) underwent high-resolution MRI on 1.5 T scanners using orbit surface coils. The old imaging concept (one orbit surface coil focusing on the (most) effected eye additionally to the standard head coil) was used in 100 patients/103 eye; the new imaging concept (two orbit surface coils (each focusing on one eye) additionally to the standard head coil) in 43 patients/45 eyes. Image analysis was performed by two neuroradiologists in consensus. Histopathology served as gold standard. Detection rate for choroidal invasion was higher for the new compared to that for the old imaging concept (sensitivity/specificity 87.5/94.6 % vs. 57.1/96.1 % for choroidal invasion and 100/97.5 % vs. 58.3/97.7 % for massive choroidal invasion, respectively). Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of postlaminar optic nerve infiltration, peribulbar fat, and scleral invasion were comparable in both imaging concepts; however positive predictive value was higher in the new imaging concept (new vs. old imaging concept: 60 vs. 31.6 % for postlaminar and deep postlaminar optic nerve infiltration, respectively, and 100 vs. 66.7 % for scleral invasion). The new imaging concept shows a trend towards improving the accuracy of detecting metastatic risk factors in children with retinoblastoma and is therefore recommended for pretherapeutic imaging and follow-up. (orig.)

  13. A Maximum Resonant Set of Polyomino Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Heping

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A polyomino graph P is a connected finite subgraph of the infinite plane grid such that each finite face is surrounded by a regular square of side length one and each edge belongs to at least one square. A dimer covering of P corresponds to a perfect matching. Different dimer coverings can interact via an alternating cycle (or square with respect to them. A set of disjoint squares of P is a resonant set if P has a perfect matching M so that each one of those squares is M-alternating. In this paper, we show that if K is a maximum resonant set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching. We further prove that the maximum forcing number of a polyomino graph is equal to the cardinality of a maximum resonant set. This confirms a conjecture of Xu et al. [26]. We also show that if K is a maximal alternating set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching.

  14. Automatic maximum entropy spectral reconstruction in NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobli, Mehdi; Maciejewski, Mark W.; Gryk, Michael R.; Hoch, Jeffrey C.

    2007-01-01

    Developments in superconducting magnets, cryogenic probes, isotope labeling strategies, and sophisticated pulse sequences together have enabled the application, in principle, of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy to biomolecular systems approaching 1 megadalton. In practice, however, conventional approaches to NMR that utilize the fast Fourier transform, which require data collected at uniform time intervals, result in prohibitively lengthy data collection times in order to achieve the full resolution afforded by high field magnets. A variety of approaches that involve nonuniform sampling have been proposed, each utilizing a non-Fourier method of spectrum analysis. A very general non-Fourier method that is capable of utilizing data collected using any of the proposed nonuniform sampling strategies is maximum entropy reconstruction. A limiting factor in the adoption of maximum entropy reconstruction in NMR has been the need to specify non-intuitive parameters. Here we describe a fully automated system for maximum entropy reconstruction that requires no user-specified parameters. A web-accessible script generator provides the user interface to the system

  15. maximum neutron flux at thermal nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugar, P.

    1968-10-01

    Since actual research reactors are technically complicated and expensive facilities it is important to achieve savings by appropriate reactor lattice configurations. There is a number of papers, and practical examples of reactors with central reflector, dealing with spatial distribution of fuel elements which would result in higher neutron flux. Common disadvantage of all the solutions is that the choice of best solution is done starting from the anticipated spatial distributions of fuel elements. The weakness of these approaches is lack of defined optimization criteria. Direct approach is defined as follows: determine the spatial distribution of fuel concentration starting from the condition of maximum neutron flux by fulfilling the thermal constraints. Thus the problem of determining the maximum neutron flux is solving a variational problem which is beyond the possibilities of classical variational calculation. This variational problem has been successfully solved by applying the maximum principle of Pontrjagin. Optimum distribution of fuel concentration was obtained in explicit analytical form. Thus, spatial distribution of the neutron flux and critical dimensions of quite complex reactor system are calculated in a relatively simple way. In addition to the fact that the results are innovative this approach is interesting because of the optimization procedure itself [sr

  16. Infiltração da água no solo: parte II acúmulo de água sobre a superfície do terreno Water infiltration in soil: part II water accumulation over the soil surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Duarte Coelho

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo básico o desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para a quantificação do acúmulo de água na superfície do solo, em função da intensidade de precipitação dos emissores de um infiltrômetro de aspersores (IAS. Em condições de intensidade de precipitação abaixo da velocidade básica do solo (VIB o microrrelevo superficial comportou-se de maneira estável, apresentando uma superfície espelhada crescente (acúmulo de água sobre o solo, ao longo dos primeiros 120 min de ensaio e, em condições de intensidade de precipitação acima da velocidade básica (VIB observou-se que a superfície espelhada estabilizava-se em menos de 30 min, apresentando, posteriormente, a formação de canais preferenciais de escoamento de água sobre o solo (erosão laminar.This paper aims at the development of a new methodology for quantification of water over a soil surface, as a function of the precipitation intensity from a sprinkler irrigation system. The research was carried out at the experimental station belonging to Rural Engineering Department of the University of São Paulo (ESALQ, on a soil often used for traditional agricultural practices. The results obtained showed the existence of a relationship between the precipitation intensity over the area and the microrelief of the soil. Under conditions of low intensity, the microrelief stayed stable throughout the formation of puddles on the soil surface. Under conditions of high intensity, runoff was observed over the area, with the formation of small preferential water flow channels among the puddles, starting the laminar erosion process of the soil.

  17. Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 3. Inventories of some long-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides associated with lagoon surface sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.

    1997-12-01

    Surface sediment samples were collected during 1979 from 87 locations in the lagoon at Bikini Atoll. The collections were made to better define the concentrations and distribution of long-lived radionuclides associated with the bottom material and to show what modifications occurred to the composition of the surface sediment from the nuclear testing program conducted by the United States at the Atoll between 1946 and 1958. This is the last of three reports on Bikini sediment studies. In this report, we discuss the concentrations and inventories of the residual long-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides in sediments from the lagoon. The gamma-emitting radionuclides detected most frequently in sediments collected in 1979, in addition to Americium-241 ({sup 241}Am) (discussed in the second report of this series), included Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs), Bismuth-207 ({sup 207}Bi), Europium-155 ({sup 155}Eu), and Cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co). Other man-made, gamma-emitting radionuclides such as Europium-152,154 ({sup 152,154}Eu), Antimony-125 ({sup 125}Sb), and Rhodium-101,102m ({sup 101,102m}Rh) were occasionally measured above detection limits in sediments near test site locations. The mean inventories for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 207}Ei, {sup 155}Eu, and {sup 60}Co in the surface 4 cm of the lagoon sediment to be 1.7, 0.56, 7.76, and 0.74 TBq, respectively. By June 1997, radioactive decay would reduce these values to 1.1, 0.38, 0.62, and 0.07 TBq, respectively. Some additional loss results from a combination of different processes that continuously mobilize and return some amount of the radionuclides to the water column. The water and dissolved constituents are removed from the lagoon through channels and exchange with the surface waters of the north equatorial Pacific Ocean. Highest levels of these radionuclides are found in surface deposits lagoonward of the Bravo Crater. Lowest concentrations and inventories are associated with sediment lagoonward of the eastern reef. The quantities in

  18. Maximum Available Accuracy of FM-CW Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ricny

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the principles and above all with the maximum available measuring accuracy analyse of FM-CW (Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave radars, which are usually employed for distance and velocity measurements of moving objects in road traffic, as well as air traffic and in other applications. These radars often form an important part of the active safety equipment of high-end cars – the so-called anticollision systems. They usually work in the frequency bands of mm waves (24, 35, 77 GHz. Function principles and analyses of factors, that dominantly influence the distance measurement accuracy of these equipments especially in the modulation and demodulation part, are shown in the paper.

  19. Surface-coated fly ash used as filler in biodegradable poly(vinyl alcohol) composite films: Part 1-The modification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, D.C.D.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Gupta, S.; Yu, A.; Blackburn, D.; White, C.

    2010-01-01

    The surfaces of fly ash (FA) particles were modified by surfactant, sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and used in fabrication of composite films with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Both unmodified fly ash (FA) and modified fly ash (SLS-FA) samples were examined using a range of analytical tools including X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The distribution patterns of SLS-FA particles were shifted to the higher regions compared to FA by adding 1.2-4.2 μm in the ranges between 2 and 25 μm, whereas the modification process reduced the size of the particles over 25 μm due to grinding during the activation process. The increased 1.2-4.2 μm in average can be considered the thickness of the surfactant on the SLS-FA surface. On the oxides based chemical analysis by XRF, the compositions were almost unchanged. SEM and TEM were visualised the irregular sizes morphology mostly spherical of the particles, although it is impossible to capture the images of exactly same particles in modified and unmodified forms. The composite films reinforced with SLS-FA showed 33% higher strength than those of FA filled films. The enhancement of tensile strength attributed from the level of physical bonding between SLS-FA and PVA surfaces.

  20. Adhesion of nitrile rubber to UV-assisted surface chemical modified PET fabric, part II: Interfacial characterization of MDI grafted PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavizadeh, Mahmoud; Jamshidi, Masoud

    2016-08-01

    Fiber to rubber adhesion is an important subject in rubber industry. It is well known that surface treatment (i.e. physical, mechanical and chemical) is an effective method to improve interfacial bonding of fibers and/or fabrics to rubbers. UV irradiation is an effective method which has been used to increase fabric-rubber interfacial interactions. In this research UV assisted chemical modification of PET fabrics was used to increase PET to nitrile rubber (NBR) adhesion. Nitrile rubber is a perfect selection as fuel and oil resistant rubber. However it has weak bonding to PET fabric. For this purpose PET fabric was carboxylated under UV irradiation and then methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) was grafted on carboxylated PET. The chemical composition of the fabric before and after surface treatment was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The sectional morphology of the experimental PET fibers and the interface between rubber compound and PET fabric was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The morphology and structure of the product were analyzed by an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX). FTIR-ATR and H NMR analysis were used to assess surface modifications on the PET irradiated fabrics.

  1. High-resolution MRI using orbit surface coils for the evaluation of metastatic risk factors in 143 children with retinoblastoma. Part 1: MRI vs. histopathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirin, Selma; Schlamann, Marc; Schweiger, Bernd; Goericke, Sophia L. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Metz, Klaus A. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Pathology and Neuropathology, Essen (Germany); Bornfeld, Norbert; Holdt, Markus [University Hospital Essen, Department of Ophthalmology, Essen (Germany); Temming, Petra; Schuendeln, Michael M. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Essen (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    A reliable detection of metastatic risk factors is important for children with retinoblastoma to choose the right therapeutic regimen. First studies using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with orbit surface coils were promising. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the ability of high-resolution MRI to detect metastatic and especially advanced metastatic risk factors in a large group of children with retinoblastoma. One hundred forty-three consecutive children with retinoblastoma (148 enucleated eyes, 64 girls, 79 boys, mean age 19.7 ± 15.3) who received pretherapeutical high-resolution MRI with orbit surface coils on 1.5 T MR scanner systems between 2007 and 2012 and subsequent primary enucleation within 14 days were included in this retrospective study. Image analysis was performed by two neuroradiologists experienced in ocular imaging in consensus. Histopathology served as gold standard. Sensitivity/specificity for the detection of metastatic risk factors using high-resolution MRI with orbit surface coils were 60 %/88.7 % for postlaminar optic nerve infiltration, 65.5 %/95.6 % for choroidal invasion, 100 %/99.3 % for scleral invasion, and 100 %/100 % for peribulbar fat invasion, respectively. The results increased for the detection of advanced metastatic risk factors, 81.8 %/89.1 % for deep postlaminar optic nerve infiltration, 70.6 %/97.6 % for massive choroidal invasion. High-resolution MRI is clinically valuable for the detection of metastatic, especially of advanced metastatic risk factors in children with retinoblastoma. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of the salt deposition on the canister surface of concrete cask. Part 2. Measurement test of the salt concentration in air and salt deposition in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wataru, Masumi

    2012-01-01

    Concerning the storage facility of spent nuclear fuel using the concrete cask, there is an issue of stress corrosion cracking(SCC). The cooling air goes up along the canister surface in the concrete cask. To evaluate the initiation of SCC or rusting, it is important to verify the estimation method of the sea salt deposition on the metal canister surface transported by cooling air including sea salt particles. To measure the deposition rate, field tests were performed in Choushi test center. In the field test, it was found that the amount of sea salt deposition was very low because the density of the atmospheric sea salt concentration was very low compared with the laboratory test. Using relation between laboratory data and filed data, it is possible to evaluate the salt deposition rate on the canister surface. We also measured atmospheric sea salt concentration in Choushi test center to make the environment condition clear and compared the measurement data with the calculation data to verify the evaluation model. We are developing the automatic measuring device for atmospheric sea salt concentration. To check its performance, we are measuring atmospheric sea salt concentration in Yokosuka Area of CRIEPI and it was confirmed that the device works for one month automatically and fulfills its specifications. (author)

  3. Investigation of zones with increased ground surface gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butkus, D.V.; Morkunas, G.S.; Styro, B.I.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of the increased gamma radiation zones of soils were conducted in the South-Western part of the Litvinian. The shores of lakes in the north-eastern part of the Suduva high land were investigated. the maximum values of the gamma radiation dose rates were distributed along the lake shores at a distance of 1 m from the water surface, while farther than 1.5 m from it the dose rate was close to the natural value. The increased gamma radiation intensity zones on the ground surface were found only at the northern (Lake Reketija) or the western shore (other lakes under investigation). The highest values of the gamma radiation dose 200-600 μR/h (0.5-1.5 nGy/s) were observed in the comparatively small areas (up to several square metres). The gamma radiation intensity of soil surface increased strongly moving towards the point where the maximum intensity was obsered. 10 figs

  4. Maximum total organic carbon limit for DWPF melter feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    DWPF recently decided to control the potential flammability of melter off-gas by limiting the total carbon content in the melter feed and maintaining adequate conditions for combustion in the melter plenum. With this new strategy, all the LFL analyzers and associated interlocks and alarms were removed from both the primary and backup melter off-gas systems. Subsequently, D. Iverson of DWPF- T ampersand E requested that SRTC determine the maximum allowable total organic carbon (TOC) content in the melter feed which can be implemented as part of the Process Requirements for melter feed preparation (PR-S04). The maximum TOC limit thus determined in this study was about 24,000 ppm on an aqueous slurry basis. At the TOC levels below this, the peak concentration of combustible components in the quenched off-gas will not exceed 60 percent of the LFL during off-gas surges of magnitudes up to three times nominal, provided that the melter plenum temperature and the air purge rate to the BUFC are monitored and controlled above 650 degrees C and 220 lb/hr, respectively. Appropriate interlocks should discontinue the feeding when one or both of these conditions are not met. Both the magnitude and duration of an off-gas surge have a major impact on the maximum TOC limit, since they directly affect the melter plenum temperature and combustion. Although the data obtained during recent DWPF melter startup tests showed that the peak magnitude of a surge can be greater than three times nominal, the observed duration was considerably shorter, on the order of several seconds. The long surge duration assumed in this study has a greater impact on the plenum temperature than the peak magnitude, thus making the maximum TOC estimate conservative. Two models were used to make the necessary calculations to determine the TOC limit

  5. Maximum entropy decomposition of quadrupole mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, U. von; Dose, V.; Golan, A.

    2004-01-01

    We present an information-theoretic method called generalized maximum entropy (GME) for decomposing mass spectra of gas mixtures from noisy measurements. In this GME approach to the noisy, underdetermined inverse problem, the joint entropies of concentration, cracking, and noise probabilities are maximized subject to the measured data. This provides a robust estimation for the unknown cracking patterns and the concentrations of the contributing molecules. The method is applied to mass spectroscopic data of hydrocarbons, and the estimates are compared with those received from a Bayesian approach. We show that the GME method is efficient and is computationally fast

  6. Maximum power operation of interacting molecular motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golubeva, Natalia; Imparato, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    , as compared to the non-interacting system, in a wide range of biologically compatible scenarios. We furthermore consider the case where the motor-motor interaction directly affects the internal chemical cycle and investigate the effect on the system dynamics and thermodynamics.......We study the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of different traffic models for kinesin which are relevant in biological and experimental contexts. We find that motor-motor interactions play a fundamental role by enhancing the thermodynamic efficiency at maximum power of the motors...

  7. Maximum entropy method in momentum density reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzynski, L.; Holas, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) is applied to the reconstruction of the 3-dimensional electron momentum density distributions observed through the set of Compton profiles measured along various crystallographic directions. It is shown that the reconstruction of electron momentum density may be reliably carried out with the aid of simple iterative algorithm suggested originally by Collins. A number of distributions has been simulated in order to check the performance of MEM. It is shown that MEM can be recommended as a model-free approach. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig

  8. Multi-Channel Maximum Likelihood Pitch Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a method for multi-channel pitch estimation is proposed. The method is a maximum likelihood estimator and is based on a parametric model where the signals in the various channels share the same fundamental frequency but can have different amplitudes, phases, and noise characteristics....... This essentially means that the model allows for different conditions in the various channels, like different signal-to-noise ratios, microphone characteristics and reverberation. Moreover, the method does not assume that a certain array structure is used but rather relies on a more general model and is hence...

  9. Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M

    2014-04-01

    We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter.

  10. Maximum entropy PDF projection: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggenstoss, Paul M.

    2017-06-01

    We review maximum entropy (MaxEnt) PDF projection, a method with wide potential applications in statistical inference. The method constructs a sampling distribution for a high-dimensional vector x based on knowing the sampling distribution p(z) of a lower-dimensional feature z = T (x). Under mild conditions, the distribution p(x) having highest possible entropy among all distributions consistent with p(z) may be readily found. Furthermore, the MaxEnt p(x) may be sampled, making the approach useful in Monte Carlo methods. We review the theorem and present a case study in model order selection and classification for handwritten character recognition.

  11. Multiperiod Maximum Loss is time unit invariant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Raimund M; Breuer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Time unit invariance is introduced as an additional requirement for multiperiod risk measures: for a constant portfolio under an i.i.d. risk factor process, the multiperiod risk should equal the one period risk of the aggregated loss, for an appropriate choice of parameters and independent of the portfolio and its distribution. Multiperiod Maximum Loss over a sequence of Kullback-Leibler balls is time unit invariant. This is also the case for the entropic risk measure. On the other hand, multiperiod Value at Risk and multiperiod Expected Shortfall are not time unit invariant.

  12. Maximum a posteriori decoder for digital communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altes, Richard A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A system and method for decoding by identification of the most likely phase coded signal corresponding to received data. The present invention has particular application to communication with signals that experience spurious random phase perturbations. The generalized estimator-correlator uses a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator to generate phase estimates for correlation with incoming data samples and for correlation with mean phases indicative of unique hypothesized signals. The result is a MAP likelihood statistic for each hypothesized transmission, wherein the highest value statistic identifies the transmitted signal.

  13. Improved Maximum Parsimony Models for Phylogenetic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Iersel, Leo; Jones, Mark; Scornavacca, Celine

    2018-05-01

    Phylogenetic networks are well suited to represent evolutionary histories comprising reticulate evolution. Several methods aiming at reconstructing explicit phylogenetic networks have been developed in the last two decades. In this article, we propose a new definition of maximum parsimony for phylogenetic networks that permits to model biological scenarios that cannot be modeled by the definitions currently present in the literature (namely, the "hardwired" and "softwired" parsimony). Building on this new definition, we provide several algorithmic results that lay the foundations for new parsimony-based methods for phylogenetic network reconstruction.

  14. Ancestral sequence reconstruction with Maximum Parsimony

    OpenAIRE

    Herbst, Lina; Fischer, Mareike

    2017-01-01

    One of the main aims in phylogenetics is the estimation of ancestral sequences based on present-day data like, for instance, DNA alignments. One way to estimate the data of the last common ancestor of a given set of species is to first reconstruct a phylogenetic tree with some tree inference method and then to use some method of ancestral state inference based on that tree. One of the best-known methods both for tree inference as well as for ancestral sequence inference is Maximum Parsimony (...

  15. Sensitivity of Surface Temperature to Oceanic Forcing via q-Flux Green’s Function Experiments. Part I: Linear Response Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fukai; Lu, Jian; Garuba, Oluwayemi A.; Leung, Lai-Yung; Luo, Yiyong; Wan, Xiuquan

    2018-05-01

    This paper explores the use of linear response function (LRF) to relate the mean sea surface temperature (SST) response to prescribed ocean heat convergence (q-flux) forcings. Two methods for constructing the LRF based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT) and Green’s function (GRF) are examined. A 900-year preindustrial simulation from the Community Earth System Model with a slab ocean (CESM-SOM) is used to estimate the LRF using FDT. For GRF, 106 pairs of CESM-SOM simulations with warm and cold q-flux patches are performed. FDT is found to have skill in estimating the SST response to a q-flux forcing when the local SST response is strong, but it fails in inverse estimation of the q-flux forcing for a given SST pattern. In contrast, GRF is shown to be reasonably accurate in estimating both SST response and q-flux forcing. Possible degradation in FDT may be attributed to insufficient data sampling, significant departures of the SST data from Gaussian, and the non-normality of the constructed operator. The accurately estimated GRF-based LRF is used to (i) generate a global surface temperature sensitivity map that shows the q-flux forcing in higher latitudes to be three to four times more effective than in low latitudes in producing global surface warming; (ii) identify the most excitable SST mode (neutral vector) resembling Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation; and (iii) estimate a time-invariant q-flux forcing needed for maintaining the GHG-induced SST warming pattern. The GRF experiments will be used to construct LRF for other variables to further explore climate sensitivities and feedbacks.

  16. Preface to the special issue of PSS on "Surfaces, atmospheres and magnetospheres of the outer planets, their satellites and ring systems: Part XII″

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustenis, A.; Atreya, S.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Mueller-Wodarg, I.; Spilker, L.; Strazzulla, G.

    2018-06-01

    This issue contains six articles on original research and review papers presented in the past year in sessions organized during several international meetings and congresses including the European Geosciences Union (EGU), European Planetary Science Congress (EPSC) and others. The manuscripts cover recent observations and models of the atmospheres, magnetospheres and surfaces of the giant planets and their satellites based on ongoing and recent planetary missions. Concepts of architecture and payload for future space missions are also presented. The six articles in this special issue cover a variety of objects in the outer solar system ranging from Jupiter to Neptune and the possibilities for their exploration. A brief introductory summary of their findings follows.

  17. Efficient heuristics for maximum common substructure search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Péter; Kovács, Péter

    2015-05-26

    Maximum common substructure search is a computationally hard optimization problem with diverse applications in the field of cheminformatics, including similarity search, lead optimization, molecule alignment, and clustering. Most of these applications have strict constraints on running time, so heuristic methods are often preferred. However, the development of an algorithm that is both fast enough and accurate enough for most practical purposes is still a challenge. Moreover, in some applications, the quality of a common substructure depends not only on its size but also on various topological features of the one-to-one atom correspondence it defines. Two state-of-the-art heuristic algorithms for finding maximum common substructures have been implemented at ChemAxon Ltd., and effective heuristics have been developed to improve both their efficiency and the relevance of the atom mappings they provide. The implementations have been thoroughly evaluated and compared with existing solutions (KCOMBU and Indigo). The heuristics have been found to greatly improve the performance and applicability of the algorithms. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the applied methods and present the experimental results.

  18. The effect of residual thermal stresses on the fatigue crack growth of laser-surface-annealed AISI 304 stainless steel Part I: computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiue, R.K.; Chang, C.T.; Young, M.C.; Tsay, L.W.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of residual thermal stresses on the fatigue crack growth of the laser-surface-annealed AISI 304 stainless steel, especially the effect of stress redistribution ahead of the crack tip was extensively evaluated in the study. Based on the finite element simulation, the longitudinal residual tensile stress field has a width of roughly 20 mm on the laser-irradiated surface and was symmetric with respect to the centerline of the laser-annealed zone (LAZ). Meanwhile, residual compressive stresses distributed over a wide region away from the LAZ. After introducing a notch perpendicular to the LAZ, the distribution of longitudinal residual stresses became unsymmetrical about the centerline of LAZ. High residual compressive stresses exist within a narrow range ahead of notch tip. The improved crack growth resistance of the laser-annealed specimen might be attributed to those induced compressive stresses. As the notch tip passed through the centerline of the LAZ, the residual stress ahead of the notch tip was completely reverted into residual tensile stresses. The existence of unanimous residual tensile stresses ahead of the notch tip was maintained, even if the notch tip extended deeply into the LAZ. Additionally, the presence of the residual tensile stress ahead of the notch tip did not accelerate the fatigue crack growth rate in the compact tension specimen

  19. Verification study on technology for preliminary investigation for HLW geological disposal. Part 2. Verification of surface geophysical prospecting through establishing site descriptive models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Koichi; Hasegawa, Takuma; Goto, Keiichiro; Yoshimura, Kimitaka; Muramoto, Shigenori

    2012-01-01

    The Yokosuka demonstration and validation project using Yokosuka CRIEPI site has been conducted since FY 2006 as a cooperative research between NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan) and CRIEPI. The objectives of this project are to examine and to refine the basic methodology of the investigation and assessment of properties of geological environment in the stage of Preliminary Investigation for HLW geological disposal. Within Preliminary Investigation technologies, surface geophysical prospecting is an important means of obtaining information from deep geological environment for planning borehole surveys. In FY 2010, both seismic prospecting (seismic reflection and vertical seismic profiling methods) for obtaining information about geological structure and electromagnetic prospecting (magneto-telluric and time domain electromagnetic methods) for obtaining information about resistivity structure reflecting the distribution of salt water/fresh water boundary to a depth of over several hundred meters were conducted in the Yokosuka CRIEPI site. Through these surveys, the contribution of geophysical prospecting methods in the surface survey stage to improving the reliability of site descriptive models was confirmed. (author)

  20. Evaluation of Land Surface Models in Reproducing Satellite-Derived LAI over the High-Latitude Northern Hemisphere. Part I: Uncoupled DGVMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zeng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaf Area Index (LAI represents the total surface area of leaves above a unit area of ground and is a key variable in any vegetation model, as well as in climate models. New high resolution LAI satellite data is now available covering a period of several decades. This provides a unique opportunity to validate LAI estimates from multiple vegetation models. The objective of this paper is to compare new, satellite-derived LAI measurements with modeled output for the Northern Hemisphere. We compare monthly LAI output from eight land surface models from the TRENDY compendium with satellite data from an Artificial Neural Network (ANN from the latest version (third generation of GIMMS AVHRR NDVI data over the period 1986–2005. Our results show that all the models overestimate the mean LAI, particularly over the boreal forest. We also find that seven out of the eight models overestimate the length of the active vegetation-growing season, mostly due to a late dormancy as a result of a late summer phenology. Finally, we find that the models report a much larger positive trend in LAI over this period than the satellite observations suggest, which translates into a higher trend in the growing season length. These results highlight the need to incorporate a larger number of more accurate plant functional types in all models and, in particular, to improve the phenology of deciduous trees.

  1. Digital surfaces and hydrogeologic data for the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and in parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellino, Jason C.

    2011-01-01

    A digital dataset for the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and in parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina was developed from selected reports published as part of the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the 1980s. These reports contain maps and data depicting the extent and elevation of both time-stratigraphic and hydrogeologic units of which the aquifer system is composed, as well as data on hydrology, meteorology, and aquifer properties. The three primary reports used for this dataset compilation were USGS Professional Paper 1403-B (Miller, 1986), Professional Paper 1403-C (Bush and Johnston, 1988), and USGS Open-File Report 88-86 (Miller, 1988). Paper maps from Professional Papers 1403-B and 1403-C were scanned and georeferenced to the North American Datum of 1927 (NAD27) using the Lambert Conformal Conic projection (standard parallels 33 and 45 degrees, central longitude -96 degrees, central latitude 39 degrees). Once georeferenced, tracing of pertinent line features contained in each image (for example, contours and faults) was facilitated by specialized software using algorithms that automated much of the process. Resulting digital line features were then processed using standard geographic information system (GIS) software to remove artifacts from the digitization process and to verify and update attribute tables. The digitization process for polygonal features (for example, outcrop areas and unit extents) was completed by hand using GIS software.

  2. Application of near-surface geophysics as part of a hydrologic study of a subsurface drip irrigation system along the Powder River floodplain near Arvada, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, James I.; Veloski, Garret; Smith, Bruce D.; Minsley, Burke J.; Engle, Mark A.; Lipinski, Brian A.; Hammack, Richard W.; Zupancic, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid development of coalbed natural gas (CBNG) production in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming has occurred since 1997. National attention related to CBNG development has focused on produced water management, which is the single largest cost for on-shore domestic producers. Low-cost treatment technologies allow operators to reduce their disposal costs, provide treated water for beneficial use, and stimulate oil and gas production by small operators. Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) systems are one potential treatment option that allows for increased CBNG production by providing a beneficial use for the produced water in farmland irrigation.Water management practices in the development of CBNG in Wyoming have been aided by integrated geophysical, geochemical, and hydrologic studies of both the disposal and utilization of water. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have utilized multi-frequency airborne, ground, and borehole electromagnetic (EM) and ground resistivity methods to characterize the near-surface hydrogeology in areas of produced water disposal. These surveys provide near-surface EM data that can be compared with results of previous surveys to monitor changes in soils and local hydrology over time as the produced water is discharged through SDI.The focus of this investigation is the Headgate Draw SDI site, situated adjacent to the Powder River near the confluence of a major tributary, Crazy Woman Creek, in Johnson County, Wyoming. The SDI system was installed during the summer of 2008 and began operation in October of 2008. Ground, borehole, and helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) conductivity surveys were conducted at the site prior to the installation of the SDI system. After the installation of the subsurface drip irrigation system, ground EM surveys have been performed quarterly (weather permitting). The geophysical surveys map the heterogeneity of the near-surface

  3. Hydraulic Limits on Maximum Plant Transpiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, S.; Vico, G.; Katul, G. G.; Palmroth, S.; Jackson, R. B.; Porporato, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Photosynthesis occurs at the expense of water losses through transpiration. As a consequence of this basic carbon-water interaction at the leaf level, plant growth and ecosystem carbon exchanges are tightly coupled to transpiration. In this contribution, the hydraulic constraints that limit transpiration rates under well-watered conditions are examined across plant functional types and climates. The potential water flow through plants is proportional to both xylem hydraulic conductivity (which depends on plant carbon economy) and the difference in water potential between the soil and the atmosphere (the driving force that pulls water from the soil). Differently from previous works, we study how this potential flux changes with the amplitude of the driving force (i.e., we focus on xylem properties and not on stomatal regulation). Xylem hydraulic conductivity decreases as the driving force increases due to cavitation of the tissues. As a result of this negative feedback, more negative leaf (and xylem) water potentials would provide a stronger driving force for water transport, while at the same time limiting xylem hydraulic conductivity due to cavitation. Here, the leaf water potential value that allows an optimum balance between driving force and xylem conductivity is quantified, thus defining the maximum transpiration rate that can be sustained by the soil-to-leaf hydraulic system. To apply the proposed framework at the global scale, a novel database of xylem conductivity and cavitation vulnerability across plant types and biomes is developed. Conductivity and water potential at 50% cavitation are shown to be complementary (in particular between angiosperms and conifers), suggesting a tradeoff between transport efficiency and hydraulic safety. Plants from warmer and drier biomes tend to achieve larger maximum transpiration than plants growing in environments with lower atmospheric water demand. The predicted maximum transpiration and the corresponding leaf water

  4. Analogue of Pontryagin's maximum principle for multiple integrals minimization problems

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail, Zelikin

    2016-01-01

    The theorem like Pontryagin's maximum principle for multiple integrals is proved. Unlike the usual maximum principle, the maximum should be taken not over all matrices, but only on matrices of rank one. Examples are given.

  5. Lake Basin Fetch and Maximum Length/Width

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear features representing the Fetch, Maximum Length and Maximum Width of a lake basin. Fetch, maximum length and average width are calcuated from the lake polygon...

  6. Surface decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S. da; Teixeira, M.V.

    1986-06-01

    The general methods of surface decontamination used in laboratory and others nuclear installations areas, as well as the procedures for handling radioactive materials and surfaces of work are presented. Some methods for decontamination of body external parts are mentioned. The medical supervision and assistance are required for internal or external contamination involving or not lesion in persons. From this medical radiation protection decontamination procedures are determined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. The method of local increments for the calculation of adsorption energies of atoms and small molecules on solid surfaces. Part I. A single Cu atom on the polar surfaces of ZnO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Ilka; Fink, Karin; Staemmler, Volker

    2009-12-21

    The method of local increments is used in connection with the supermolecule approach and an embedded cluster model to calculate the adsorption energy of single Cu atoms at different adsorption sites at the polar surfaces of ZnO. Hartree-Fock calculations for the full system, adsorbed atom and solid surface, and for the fragments are the first step in this approach. In the present study, restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock (ROHF) calculations are performed since the Cu atom possesses a singly-occupied 4s orbital. The occupied Hartree-Fock orbitals are then localized by means of the Foster-Boys localization procedure. The correlation energies are expanded into a series of many-body increments which are evaluated separately and independently. In this way, the very time-consuming treatment of large systems is replaced with a series of much faster calculations for small subunits. In the present application, these subunits consist of the orbitals localized at the different atoms. Three adsorption situations with rather different bonding characteristics have been studied: a Cu atom atop a threefold-coordinated O atom of an embedded Zn(4)O(4) cluster, a Cu atom in an O vacancy site at the O-terminated ZnO(000-1) surface, and a Cu atom in a Zn vacancy site at the Zn-terminated ZnO(0001) surface. The following properties are analyzed in detail: convergence of the many-body expansion, contributions of the different n-body increments to the adsorption energy, treatment of the singly-occupied orbital as "localized" or "delocalized". Big savings in computer time can be achieved by this approach, particularly if only the localized orbitals in the individual increment under consideration are described by a large correlation adapted basis set, while all other orbitals are treated by a medium-size Hartree-Fock-type basis set. In this way, the method of local increments is a powerful alternative to the widely used methods like DFT or RI-MP2.

  8. SRL in-situ tests in the United Kingdom: Part 2, Surface analyses of SRS waste glass buried for one and two years in limestone at Ballidon, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namboodri, C.G. Jr.; Wicks, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    A multiphase experimental program to assess and understand waste glass behavior under a wide range of conditions has been in progress at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) for over a decade. An important part of this experimental effort is to assess the effects of repository relevant conditions on performance of SRS waste glass, in both controlled laboratory tests, as well as in actual field experiments. In laboratory test, SRS waste glass, simulated and in many cases also fully radioactive, has been tested in environments of salt, basalt, shale, granite, clay and tuff. In field experiments, there are four joint international programs being conducted in four different countries, involving burial of SRS simulated waste glass in granite, limestone, clay and salt geologies. This report discusses the SRS waste glass studies in limestone at Ballidon, UK

  9. The Effect of Exogenous Zinc Concentration on the Responsiveness of MC3T3-E1 Pre-Osteoblasts to Surface Microtopography: Part II (Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Dorst

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Osseointegration of bone implants is a vital part of the recovery process. Numerous studies have shown that micropatterned geometries can promote cell-substrate associations and strengthen the bond between tissue and the implanted material. As demonstrated previously, exogenous zinc levels can influence the responsiveness of pre-osteoblasts to micropatterns and modify their migratory behavior. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of exogenous zinc on differentiation of osteoblasts cultured on micropatterned vs. planar substrates. Levels of activated metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1, as well as early stage differentiation marker alkaline phosphatase, were altered with the addition of zinc. These results suggest that exogenous zinc concentration and micropatterning may interdependently modulate osteoblast differentiation.

  10. Maximum Likelihood Reconstruction for Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Setsompop, Kawin; Ye, Huihui; Cauley, Stephen F; Wald, Lawrence L

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a statistical estimation framework for magnetic resonance (MR) fingerprinting, a recently proposed quantitative imaging paradigm. Within this framework, we present a maximum likelihood (ML) formalism to estimate multiple MR tissue parameter maps directly from highly undersampled, noisy k-space data. A novel algorithm, based on variable splitting, the alternating direction method of multipliers, and the variable projection method, is developed to solve the resulting optimization problem. Representative results from both simulations and in vivo experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach yields significantly improved accuracy in parameter estimation, compared to the conventional MR fingerprinting reconstruction. Moreover, the proposed framework provides new theoretical insights into the conventional approach. We show analytically that the conventional approach is an approximation to the ML reconstruction; more precisely, it is exactly equivalent to the first iteration of the proposed algorithm for the ML reconstruction, provided that a gridding reconstruction is used as an initialization.

  11. Maximum Profit Configurations of Commercial Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of commercial engines with finite capacity low- and high-price economic subsystems and a generalized commodity transfer law [n ∝ Δ (P m] in commodity flow processes, in which effects of the price elasticities of supply and demand are introduced, is presented in this paper. Optimal cycle configurations of commercial engines for maximum profit are obtained by applying optimal control theory. In some special cases, the eventual state—market equilibrium—is solely determined by the initial conditions and the inherent characteristics of two subsystems; while the different ways of transfer affect the model in respects of the specific forms of the paths of prices and the instantaneous commodity flow, i.e., the optimal configuration.

  12. The worst case complexity of maximum parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Amir; Musa-Lempel, Noa; Tsur, Dekel; Ziv-Ukelson, Michal

    2014-11-01

    One of the core classical problems in computational biology is that of constructing the most parsimonious phylogenetic tree interpreting an input set of sequences from the genomes of evolutionarily related organisms. We reexamine the classical maximum parsimony (MP) optimization problem for the general (asymmetric) scoring matrix case, where rooted phylogenies are implied, and analyze the worst case bounds of three approaches to MP: The approach of Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards, the approach of Hendy and Penny, and a new agglomerative, "bottom-up" approach we present in this article. We show that the second and third approaches are faster than the first one by a factor of Θ(√n) and Θ(n), respectively, where n is the number of species.

  13. Modelling maximum likelihood estimation of availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, R.A.; Tietjen, G.L.; Rock, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    Suppose the performance of a nuclear powered electrical generating power plant is continuously monitored to record the sequence of failure and repairs during sustained operation. The purpose of this study is to assess one method of estimating the performance of the power plant when the measure of performance is availability. That is, we determine the probability that the plant is operational at time t. To study the availability of a power plant, we first assume statistical models for the variables, X and Y, which denote the time-to-failure and the time-to-repair variables, respectively. Once those statistical models are specified, the availability, A(t), can be expressed as a function of some or all of their parameters. Usually those parameters are unknown in practice and so A(t) is unknown. This paper discusses the maximum likelihood estimator of A(t) when the time-to-failure model for X is an exponential density with parameter, lambda, and the time-to-repair model for Y is an exponential density with parameter, theta. Under the assumption of exponential models for X and Y, it follows that the instantaneous availability at time t is A(t)=lambda/(lambda+theta)+theta/(lambda+theta)exp[-[(1/lambda)+(1/theta)]t] with t>0. Also, the steady-state availability is A(infinity)=lambda/(lambda+theta). We use the observations from n failure-repair cycles of the power plant, say X 1 , X 2 , ..., Xsub(n), Y 1 , Y 2 , ..., Ysub(n) to present the maximum likelihood estimators of A(t) and A(infinity). The exact sampling distributions for those estimators and some statistical properties are discussed before a simulation model is used to determine 95% simulation intervals for A(t). The methodology is applied to two examples which approximate the operating history of two nuclear power plants. (author)

  14. 33 CFR 401.29 - Maximum draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and speed of a vessel in transit shall be controlled by the master, who shall take into account the vessel's individual characteristics and its tendency to list or squat, so as to avoid striking bottom. 1... designated in a Seaway Notice by the Corporation and the Manager for the part of the Seaway in which a vessel...

  15. Development of radiation curable surface coating based on soybean oil. part II: Evaluation of the prepared acrylated resin as surface coatings by using EB or UV sources for radiation curing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.S.; Said, H.M.; Moussa, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing trend in using vegetable oils as raw materials in acylation production that can be cured by UV/EB systems. The acrylated resin formulates by using individually different functional acrylate monomers were prepared and cured by EB or UV sources. The characterization properties of the cured films were investigated in terms of pendulum hardness, bending, impact, gloss, adhesion and chemical tests. Other formulations were prepared by mixing a constant ratio of different functional acrylate monomers and exposed to UV or EB irradiation. The results showed that the hardness of cured films were increased by increasing the functionality of monomers with excellent adhesion for all formulations but at expense of other properties involving bending and impact tests. Therefore, it can be deduce that the hardness of the curing surface coating by using EB was found to be nearly twice the hardness of the curing surface coating by using UV irradiation. Also, the best formulations which have given good chemical and mechanical properties are (mono-di) functional acrylate monomer resin under EB and (mono-tri) functional acrylate monomer resin under UV irradiation

  16. Assessment of precast beam-column using capacity demand response spectrum subject to design basis earthquake and maximum considered earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Kay Dora Abd.; Tukiar, Mohd Azuan; Hamid, Nor Hayati Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Malaysia is surrounded by the tectonic feature of the Sumatera area which consists of two seismically active inter-plate boundaries, namely the Indo-Australian and the Eurasian Plates on the west and the Philippine Plates on the east. Hence, Malaysia experiences tremors from far distant earthquake occurring in Banda Aceh, Nias Island, Padang and other parts of Sumatera Indonesia. In order to predict the safety of precast buildings in Malaysia under near field ground motion the response spectrum analysis could be used for dealing with future earthquake whose specific nature is unknown. This paper aimed to develop of capacity demand response spectrum subject to Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) and Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) in order to assess the performance of precast beam column joint. From the capacity-demand response spectrum analysis, it can be concluded that the precast beam-column joints would not survive when subjected to earthquake excitation with surface-wave magnitude, Mw, of more than 5.5 Scale Richter (Type 1 spectra). This means that the beam-column joint which was designed using the current code of practice (BS8110) would be severely damaged when subjected to high earthquake excitation. The capacity-demand response spectrum analysis also shows that the precast beam-column joints in the prototype studied would be severely damaged when subjected to Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) with PGA=0.22g having a surface-wave magnitude of more than 5.5 Scale Richter, or Type 1 spectra.

  17. Effect of airborne particle abrasion protocols on surface topography of Y-TZP ceramic Efeito do protocolo de jateamento com partículas na topografia da superfície de uma cerâmica Y-TZP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. C. Queiroz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate Y-TZP surface after different airborne particle abrasion protocols. Seventy-six Y-TZP ceramic blocks (5×4×4 mm³ were sintered and polished. Specimens were randomly divided into 19 groups (n=4 according to control group and 3 factors: a protocol duration (2 and 4 s; b particle size (30 µm, alumina coated silica particle; 45 µm, alumina particle; and 145 µm, alumina particle and; c pressure (1.5, 2.5 and 4.5 bar. Airborne particle abrasion was performed following a strict protocol. For qualitative and quantitative results, topography surfaces were analyzed in a digital optical profilometer (Interference Microscopic, using different roughness parameters (Ra, Rq, Rz, X-crossing, Mr1, Mr2 and Sdr and 3D images. Surface roughness also was analyzed following the primer and silane applications on Y-TZP surfaces. One-way ANOVA revealed that treatments (application period, particle size and pressure of particle blasting provided significant difference for all roughness parameters. The Tukey test determined that the significant differences between groups were different among roughness parameters. In qualitative analysis, the bonding agent application reduced roughness, filing the valleys in the surface. The protocols performed in this study verified that application period, particle size and pressure influenced the topographic pattern and amplitude of roughness.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a superfície de uma cerâmica à base de zircônia tetragonal estabilizada por ítria (Y-TZP após diferentes protocolos de jateamento com partículas. Setenta e seis blocos cerâmicos de Y-TZP (5 x 4 x 4 mm³ foram sinterizados e polidos. As amostras foram randomicamente divididas em 19 grupos (n=4 sendo um controle e 18 grupos utilizando 3 fatores: a tempo (2 e 4 s; b tamanho de partícula (30 µm - partículas de alumina revestida por sílica; 45 µm - partículas de alumina; 145 µm - partículas de alumina e; c pressão (1

  18. Environmental conditions of interstadial (MIS 3 and features of the last glacial maximum on the King George island (West Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Verkulich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interstadial marine deposits stratum was described in the Fildes Peninsula (King George Island due to field and laboratory investigations during 2008–2011. The stratum fragments occur in the west and north-west parts of peninsula in following forms: sections of soft sediments, containing fossil shells, marine algae, bones of marine animals and rich marine diatom complexes in situ (11 sites; fragments of shells and bones on the surface (25 sites. According to the results of radiocarbon dating, these deposits were accumulated within the period 19–50 ky BP. Geographical and altitude settings of the sites, age characteristics, taxonomy of fossil flora and fauna, and good safety of the soft deposits stratum allow to make following conclusions: during interstadial, sea water covered significant part of King George Island up to the present altitude of 40 m a.s.l., and the King George Island glaciation had smaller size then; environmental conditions for the interstadial deposit stratum accumulation were at least not colder than today; probably, the King George island territory was covered entirely by ice masses of Last glacial maximum not earlier than 19 ky BP; during Last glacial maximum, King George Island was covered by thin, «cold», not mobile glaciers, which contribute to conservation of the soft marine interstadial deposits filled with fossil flora and fauna.

  19. Preparing sewage sludge for land application or surface disposal: A guide for preparers of sewage sludge on the monitoring, record keeping, and reporting requirements of the federal standards for the use of disposal of sewage sludge, 40 CFR part 503

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The document focuses on the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements that apply to persons who prepare sewage sludge or a material derived from sewage sludge. It defines persons who prepare sewage sludge and then summarizes their general responsibilities. USEPA promulgated at 40 CFR Part 503 Phase 1 of the risk-based regulations that govern the final use or disposal of sewage sludge. The intent of the Federal program is to ensure that the use or disposal of sewage sludge occurs in a way that protects both human health and the environment. The Part 503 regulation establishes general requirements, pollutant limits, operational standards, and management practices, as well as monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements. These requirements apply to sewage sludge that is land applied, placed on a surface disposal site, or incinerated in a sewage sludge-only incinerator.

  20. Kalman filters for assimilating near-surface observations in the Richards equation - Part 2: A dual filter approach for simultaneous retrieval of states and parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, H.; Romano, N.; Chirico, G. B.

    2012-12-01

    We present a dual Kalman Filter (KF) approach for retrieving states and parameters controlling soil water dynamics in a homogenous soil column by using near-surface state observations. The dual Kalman filter couples a standard KF algorithm for retrieving the states and an unscented KF algorithm for retrieving the parameters. We examine the performance of the dual Kalman Filter applied to two alternative state-space formulations of the Richards equation, respectively differentiated by the type of variable employed for representing the states: either the soil water content (θ) or the soil matric pressure head (h). We use a synthetic time-series series of true states and noise corrupted observations and a synthetic time-series of meteorological forcing. The performance analyses account for the effect of the input parameters, the observation depth and the assimilation frequency as well as the relationship between the retrieved states and the assimilated variables. We show that the identifiability of the parameters is strongly conditioned by several factors, such as the initial guess of the unknown parameters, the wet or dry range of the retrieved states, the boundary conditions, as well as the form (h-based or θ-based) of the state-space formulation. State identifiability is instead efficient even with a relatively coarse time-resolution of the assimilated observation. The accuracy of the retrieved states exhibits limited sensitivity to the observation depth and the assimilation frequency.

  1. Feed rate affecting surface roughness and tool wear in dry hard turning of AISI 4140 steel automotive parts using TiN+AlCrN coated inserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paengchit, Phacharadit; Saikaew, Charnnarong

    2018-02-01

    This work aims to investigate the effects of feed rate on surface roughness (Ra) and tool wear (VB) and to obtain the optimal operating condition of the feed rate in dry hard turning of AISI 4140 chromium molybdenum steel for automotive industry applications using TiN+AlCrN coated inserts. AISI 4140 steel bars were employed in order to carry out the dry hard turning experiments by varying the feed rates of 0.06, 0.08 and 0.1 mm/rev based on experimental design technique that can be analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). In addition, the cutting tool inserts were examined after machining experiments by SEM to evaluate the effect of turning operations on tool wear. The results showed that averages Ra and VB were significantly affected by the feed rate at the level of significance of 0.05. Averages Ra and VB values at the feed rate of 0.06 mm/rev were lowest compared to average values at the feed rates of 0.08 and 0.1 mm/rev, based on the main effect plot.

  2. Boehm Titration Revisited (Part I: Practical Aspects for Achieving a High Precision in Quantifying Oxygen-Containing Surface Groups on Carbon Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schönherr

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Practical aspects of the Boehm titration method are evaluated for obtaining reliable results in the quantification of oxygen-containing surface groups in a short time. Analytical criteria such as accuracy, repeatability, precision, and robustness are applied. Oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs are used as the model substance. Different reaction bases (NaHCO3(aq, Na2CO3(aq, NaOH(aq are applied and treatment times are studied. We also show that smaller amounts of carbon material can be reliably analyzed by using an autotitrator combined with a pH electrode. We find that indirect titration with Na2CO3 results in the highest titration precision and accuracy despite the lower base strength compared with NaOH. Therefore, CO2 impurities do not have to be removed and only 7 min is necessary for one titration. The titration error with respect to the proposed method is 0.15% of the aliquot volume. The mixing method during the carbon treatment with bases (stirring, shaking, ultrasound treatment has no influence on the result as long as one allows a few hours for the reaction to complete. Finally, we provide a standard operating procedure for obtaining results with high precision during Boehm titration.

  3. Multiple interpretations of a pair of images of a surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longuet-Higgins, H. C.

    1988-07-01

    It is known that, if two optical images of a visually textured surface, projected from finitely separated viewpoints, allow more than one three-dimensional interpretation, then the surface must be part of a quadric passing through the two viewpoints. It is here shown that this quadric is either a plane or a ruled surface of a type first considered by Maybank (1985) in a study of ambiguous optic flow fields. In the latter case, three is the maximum number of distinct interpretations that the two images can sustain.

  4. A maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic-SPE system using a maximum current controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhida, Riza [Osaka Univ., Dept. of Physical Science, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan); Osaka Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Park, Minwon; Dakkak, Mohammed; Matsuura, Kenji [Osaka Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Tsuyoshi, Akira; Michira, Masakazu [Kobe City College of Technology, Nishi-ku, Kobe (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Processes to produce hydrogen from solar photovoltaic (PV)-powered water electrolysis using solid polymer electrolysis (SPE) are reported. An alternative control of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in the PV-SPE system based on the maximum current searching methods has been designed and implemented. Based on the characteristics of voltage-current and theoretical analysis of SPE, it can be shown that the tracking of the maximum current output of DC-DC converter in SPE side will track the MPPT of photovoltaic panel simultaneously. This method uses a proportional integrator controller to control the duty factor of DC-DC converter with pulse-width modulator (PWM). The MPPT performance and hydrogen production performance of this method have been evaluated and discussed based on the results of the experiment. (Author)

  5. Maximum power analysis of photovoltaic module in Ramadi city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahatha Salim, Majid; Mohammed Najim, Jassim [College of Science, University of Anbar (Iraq); Mohammed Salih, Salih [Renewable Energy Research Center, University of Anbar (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    Performance of photovoltaic (PV) module is greatly dependent on the solar irradiance, operating temperature, and shading. Solar irradiance can have a significant impact on power output of PV module and energy yield. In this paper, a maximum PV power which can be obtain in Ramadi city (100km west of Baghdad) is practically analyzed. The analysis is based on real irradiance values obtained as the first time by using Soly2 sun tracker device. Proper and adequate information on solar radiation and its components at a given location is very essential in the design of solar energy systems. The solar irradiance data in Ramadi city were analyzed based on the first three months of 2013. The solar irradiance data are measured on earth's surface in the campus area of Anbar University. Actual average data readings were taken from the data logger of sun tracker system, which sets to save the average readings for each two minutes and based on reading in each one second. The data are analyzed from January to the end of March-2013. Maximum daily readings and monthly average readings of solar irradiance have been analyzed to optimize the output of photovoltaic solar modules. The results show that the system sizing of PV can be reduced by 12.5% if a tracking system is used instead of fixed orientation of PV modules.

  6. Venus atmosphere profile from a maximum entropy principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Epele

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The variational method with constraints recently developed by Verkley and Gerkema to describe maximum-entropy atmospheric profiles is generalized to ideal gases but with temperature-dependent specific heats. In so doing, an extended and non standard potential temperature is introduced that is well suited for tackling the problem under consideration. This new formalism is successfully applied to the atmosphere of Venus. Three well defined regions emerge in this atmosphere up to a height of 100 km from the surface: the lowest one up to about 35 km is adiabatic, a transition layer located at the height of the cloud deck and finally a third region which is practically isothermal.

  7. Long-term trends of surface ozone and its influencing factors at the Mt Waliguan GAW station, China - Part 2: The roles of anthropogenic emissions and climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wanyun; Xu, Xiaobin; Lin, Meiyun; Lin, Weili; Tarasick, David; Tang, Jie; Ma, Jianzhong; Zheng, Xiangdong

    2018-01-01

    despite ozone increases in eastern China. Analysis of the Trajectory-mapped Ozonesonde data set for the Stratosphere and Troposphere (TOST) and trajectory residence time reveals increases in direct ozone transport from the eastern sector during autumn, which adds to the autumnal ozone increase. We further examine the links of ozone variability at WLG to the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM), and the sunspot cycle. Our results suggest that the 2-3-, 3-7-, and 11-year periodicities are linked to the QBO, EASM index, and sunspot cycle, respectively. A multivariate regression analysis is performed to quantify the relative contributions of various factors to surface ozone concentrations at WLG. Through an observational and modelling analysis, this study demonstrates the complex relationships between surface ozone at remote locations and its dynamical and chemical influencing factors.

  8. TRANSFORMATION AND SCATTERING OF SURFACE WAVES ON THE ACOUSTIC LOAD TO ULTRASONIC EVALUATION AND MEASUREMENTS. Part 1. The boundary of acoustic contact is sliding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Baev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available for the enhancement and improvement of ultrasonic methods evaluation and measurements. The purpose of this work is to determine the influence of the geometric parameters of the acoustic load body and its position on the coefficients of reflection and propagation of the Stoneley and Rayleigh waves and to identify the possibility of using the results of the study for practical applications.Based on the analysis of the acoustic path and the experimental data, the relationship between the measured amplitude parameters and the coefficients of the propagation and reflection of surface waves, as well as the reflectivity of the contact region of the load body in the form of a prism through the sliding boundary, which reaches up to ≈ 32–34 дБ, is established. For the first time, the dependence of these coefficients on the inclination angle of one of the prism lateral faces in the range of 0 ± 45°, dimensionless thickness of the contact layer (0–0,05 and its orientation relative to the acoustic axis.It is established that these coefficients are mainly maximal when the prism is rectangular. The coefficient of reflectivity in the hard contact of bodies is more than an order of magnitude less, and the coefficients of wave propagation – comparable in magnitude. The prospects of using the results of the study to evaluate the quality of adhesion of materials during welding, soldering, gluing, detection of defects in hardto-reach places, as well as to determine the physical and mechanical properties of metals by the proposed method of creating a reference signal are shown.

  9. Maximum β limited by ideal MHD ballooning instabilites in JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Shogo; Azumi, Masashi

    1986-03-01

    Maximum β limited by ideal MHD ballooning instabilities is investigated on divertor configurations in JT-60. Maximum β against ballooning modes in JT-60 has strong dependecy on the distribution of the safety factor over the magnetic surfaces. Maximum β is ∼ 2 % for q 0 = 1.0, while more than 3 % for q 0 = 1.5. These results suggest that the profile control of the safety factor, especially on the magnetic axis, is attractive to the higher β operation in JT-60. (author)

  10. Minimum disturbance rewards with maximum possible classical correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pande, Varad R., E-mail: varad_pande@yahoo.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Pune, 411008 (India); Shaji, Anil [School of Physics, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Thiruvananthapuram, 695016 (India)

    2017-07-12

    Weak measurements done on a subsystem of a bipartite system having both classical and nonClassical correlations between its components can potentially reveal information about the other subsystem with minimal disturbance to the overall state. We use weak quantum discord and the fidelity between the initial bipartite state and the state after measurement to construct a cost function that accounts for both the amount of information revealed about the other system as well as the disturbance to the overall state. We investigate the behaviour of the cost function for families of two qubit states and show that there is an optimal choice that can be made for the strength of the weak measurement. - Highlights: • Weak measurements done on one part of a bipartite system with controlled strength. • Weak quantum discord & fidelity used to quantify all correlations and disturbance. • Cost function to probe the tradeoff between extracted correlations and disturbance. • Optimal measurement strength for maximum extraction of classical correlations.

  11. Maximum mass of magnetic white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paret, Daryel Manreza; Horvath, Jorge Ernesto; Martínez, Aurora Perez

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the problem of the maximum masses of magnetized white dwarfs (WDs). The impact of a strong magnetic field on the structure equations is addressed. The pressures become anisotropic due to the presence of the magnetic field and split into parallel and perpendicular components. We first construct stable solutions of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations for parallel pressures and find that physical solutions vanish for the perpendicular pressure when B ≳ 10 13 G. This fact establishes an upper bound for a magnetic field and the stability of the configurations in the (quasi) spherical approximation. Our findings also indicate that it is not possible to obtain stable magnetized WDs with super-Chandrasekhar masses because the values of the magnetic field needed for them are higher than this bound. To proceed into the anisotropic regime, we can apply results for structure equations appropriate for a cylindrical metric with anisotropic pressures that were derived in our previous work. From the solutions of the structure equations in cylindrical symmetry we have confirmed the same bound for B ∼ 10 13 G, since beyond this value no physical solutions are possible. Our tentative conclusion is that massive WDs with masses well beyond the Chandrasekhar limit do not constitute stable solutions and should not exist. (paper)

  12. TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M

    2007-11-12

    Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.

  13. Mammographic image restoration using maximum entropy deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannetta, A; Jackson, J C; Kotre, C J; Birch, I P; Robson, K J; Padgett, R

    2004-01-01

    An image restoration approach based on a Bayesian maximum entropy method (MEM) has been applied to a radiological image deconvolution problem, that of reduction of geometric blurring in magnification mammography. The aim of the work is to demonstrate an improvement in image spatial resolution in realistic noisy radiological images with no associated penalty in terms of reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio perceived by the observer. Images of the TORMAM mammographic image quality phantom were recorded using the standard magnification settings of 1.8 magnification/fine focus and also at 1.8 magnification/broad focus and 3.0 magnification/fine focus; the latter two arrangements would normally give rise to unacceptable geometric blurring. Measured point-spread functions were used in conjunction with the MEM image processing to de-blur these images. The results are presented as comparative images of phantom test features and as observer scores for the raw and processed images. Visualization of high resolution features and the total image scores for the test phantom were improved by the application of the MEM processing. It is argued that this successful demonstration of image de-blurring in noisy radiological images offers the possibility of weakening the link between focal spot size and geometric blurring in radiology, thus opening up new approaches to system optimization

  14. Maximum Margin Clustering of Hyperspectral Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazmardi, S.; Safari, A.; Homayouni, S.

    2013-09-01

    In recent decades, large margin methods such as Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are supposed to be the state-of-the-art of supervised learning methods for classification of hyperspectral data. However, the results of these algorithms mainly depend on the quality and quantity of available training data. To tackle down the problems associated with the training data, the researcher put effort into extending the capability of large margin algorithms for unsupervised learning. One of the recent proposed algorithms is Maximum Margin Clustering (MMC). The MMC is an unsupervised SVMs algorithm that simultaneously estimates both the labels and the hyperplane parameters. Nevertheless, the optimization of the MMC algorithm is a non-convex problem. Most of the existing MMC methods rely on the reformulating and the relaxing of the non-convex optimization problem as semi-definite programs (SDP), which are computationally very expensive and only can handle small data sets. Moreover, most of these algorithms are two-class classification, which cannot be used for classification of remotely sensed data. In this paper, a new MMC algorithm is used that solve the original non-convex problem using Alternative Optimization method. This algorithm is also extended for multi-class classification and its performance is evaluated. The results of the proposed algorithm show that the algorithm has acceptable results for hyperspectral data clustering.

  15. Paving the road to maximum productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, C

    1998-01-01

    "Job security" is an oxymoron in today's environment of downsizing, mergers, and acquisitions. Workers find themselves living by new rules in the workplace that they may not understand. How do we cope? It is the leader's charge to take advantage of this chaos and create conditions under which his or her people can understand the need for change and come together with a shared purpose to effect that change. The clinical laboratory at Arkansas Children's Hospital has taken advantage of this chaos to down-size and to redesign how the work gets done to pave the road to maximum productivity. After initial hourly cutbacks, the workers accepted the cold, hard fact that they would never get their old world back. They set goals to proactively shape their new world through reorganizing, flexing staff with workload, creating a rapid response laboratory, exploiting information technology, and outsourcing. Today the laboratory is a lean, productive machine that accepts change as a way of life. We have learned to adapt, trust, and support each other as we have journeyed together over the rough roads. We are looking forward to paving a new fork in the road to the future.

  16. Maximum power flux of auroral kilometric radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, R.F.; Fainberg, J.

    1991-01-01

    The maximum auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) power flux observed by distant satellites has been increased by more than a factor of 10 from previously reported values. This increase has been achieved by a new data selection criterion and a new analysis of antenna spin modulated signals received by the radio astronomy instrument on ISEE 3. The method relies on selecting AKR events containing signals in the highest-frequency channel (1980, kHz), followed by a careful analysis that effectively increased the instrumental dynamic range by more than 20 dB by making use of the spacecraft antenna gain diagram during a spacecraft rotation. This analysis has allowed the separation of real signals from those created in the receiver by overloading. Many signals having the appearance of AKR harmonic signals were shown to be of spurious origin. During one event, however, real second harmonic AKR signals were detected even though the spacecraft was at a great distance (17 R E ) from Earth. During another event, when the spacecraft was at the orbital distance of the Moon and on the morning side of Earth, the power flux of fundamental AKR was greater than 3 x 10 -13 W m -2 Hz -1 at 360 kHz normalized to a radial distance r of 25 R E assuming the power falls off as r -2 . A comparison of these intense signal levels with the most intense source region values (obtained by ISIS 1 and Viking) suggests that multiple sources were observed by ISEE 3

  17. Maximum likelihood window for time delay estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Sup; Yoon, Dong Jin; Kim, Chi Yup

    2004-01-01

    Time delay estimation for the detection of leak location in underground pipelines is critically important. Because the exact leak location depends upon the precision of the time delay between sensor signals due to leak noise and the speed of elastic waves, the research on the estimation of time delay has been one of the key issues in leak lovating with the time arrival difference method. In this study, an optimal Maximum Likelihood window is considered to obtain a better estimation of the time delay. This method has been proved in experiments, which can provide much clearer and more precise peaks in cross-correlation functions of leak signals. The leak location error has been less than 1 % of the distance between sensors, for example the error was not greater than 3 m for 300 m long underground pipelines. Apart from the experiment, an intensive theoretical analysis in terms of signal processing has been described. The improved leak locating with the suggested method is due to the windowing effect in frequency domain, which offers a weighting in significant frequencies.

  18. Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction with Maximum Parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Lina; Fischer, Mareike

    2017-12-01

    One of the main aims in phylogenetics is the estimation of ancestral sequences based on present-day data like, for instance, DNA alignments. One way to estimate the data of the last common ancestor of a given set of species is to first reconstruct a phylogenetic tree with some tree inference method and then to use some method of ancestral state inference based on that tree. One of the best-known methods both for tree inference and for ancestral sequence inference is Maximum Parsimony (MP). In this manuscript, we focus on this method and on ancestral state inference for fully bifurcating trees. In particular, we investigate a conjecture published by Charleston and Steel in 1995 concerning the number of species which need to have a particular state, say a, at a particular site in order for MP to unambiguously return a as an estimate for the state of the last common ancestor. We prove the conjecture for all even numbers of character states, which is the most relevant case in biology. We also show that the conjecture does not hold in general for odd numbers of character states, but also present some positive results for this case.

  19. Soil contamination. part 1. changes in the humidity of non saturated soils after reject in a limited space. part 2. movements of radioactive ions in non saturated soils after reject in a limited space; Contamination des sols (1. partie). Evolution de l'humidite dans les sols non satures apres rejets sur une surface limitee. (2. partie). Comportement des ions radioactifs dans les sols non satures apres rejets d'eau sur une surface limitee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rancon, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1972-07-01

    An important feature in radiological safety studies of sites is the knowledge of water movements in the unsaturated layer surmounting aquifer; this zone of aerated soil can be effective as a protection against aquifer contamination. Utilizing a neutron-moisture meter, a method was developed permitting to build graphically the hydric states of soil and the moistened volume evolution with time in the particular case of a limited feeding surface. It is also possible to measure moisture gradients, drying kinetics, the retention capacity of soil and the gravific water content achieved by a given water head. The initial hydric state has an effect only upon the infiltration rate and neither upon the moistened front position nor upon the volume of moistened soil; consequently, the storable water amount in soil can be calculated. When water feeding has been stopped, the volume of moistened soil increases to an equilibrium state restricted by the moistened front and all the other water movements occur exclusively inside this volume. Consequently in case of radioactive waste disposal, the ionic pollution will be confined inside a measurable volume, the moistened front being the maximum limits of this volume. Part 2. Following up the report on water movements in non-saturated s o i l s after reject on a limited space - CEA R 3635 (1) - the radioactive ions movements in these soils are studied in using an anion and a cation of reference: iodine 131 and strontium 85. The experimental method is founded on the simultaneous measurements of moisture and radioactivity fronts by means of a neutrons moisture meter and an specially conceived radioactivity probe. It has so been possible to measure: the relative velocities of moisture and radioactivity fronts; the contaminated soil volume inside the moistened oil volume; the concentration gradients; the contamination changes upon watering; the effect of chemical composition of water upon this ions movements and the effect of soil moisture

  20. Kalman filters for assimilating near-surface observations into the Richards equation - Part 2: A dual filter approach for simultaneous retrieval of states and parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, H.; Romano, N.; Chirico, G. B.

    2014-07-01

    This study presents a dual Kalman filter (DSUKF - dual standard-unscented Kalman filter) for retrieving states and parameters controlling the soil water dynamics in a homogeneous soil column, by assimilating near-surface state observations. The DSUKF couples a standard Kalman filter for retrieving the states of a linear solver of the Richards equation, and an unscented Kalman filter for retrieving the parameters of the soil hydraulic functions, which are defined according to the van Genuchten-Mualem closed-form model. The accuracy and the computational expense of the DSUKF are compared with those of the dual ensemble Kalman filter (DEnKF) implemented with a nonlinear solver of the Richards equation. Both the DSUKF and the DEnKF are applied with two alternative state-space formulations of the Richards equation, respectively differentiated by the type of variable employed for representing the states: either the soil water content (θ) or the soil water matric pressure head (h). The comparison analyses are conducted with reference to synthetic time series of the true states, noise corrupted observations, and synthetic time series of the meteorological forcing. The performance of the retrieval algorithms are examined accounting for the effects exerted on the output by the input parameters, the observation depth and assimilation frequency, as well as by the relationship between retrieved states and assimilated variables. The uncertainty of the states retrieved with DSUKF is considerably reduced, for any initial wrong parameterization, with similar accuracy but less computational effort than the DEnKF, when this is implemented with ensembles of 25 members. For ensemble sizes of the same order of those involved in the DSUKF, the DEnKF fails to provide reliable posterior estimates of states and parameters. The retrieval performance of the soil hydraulic parameters is strongly affected by several factors, such as the initial guess of the unknown parameters, the wet or dry

  1. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the ultimate...

  2. 20 CFR 226.52 - Total annuity subject to maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total annuity subject to maximum. 226.52... COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Railroad Retirement Family Maximum § 226.52 Total annuity subject to maximum. The total annuity amount which is compared to the maximum monthly amount to...

  3. Half-width at half-maximum, full-width at half-maximum analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    addition to the well-defined parameter full-width at half-maximum (FWHM). The distribution of ... optical side-lobes in the diffraction pattern resulting in steep central maxima [6], reduc- tion of effects of ... and broad central peak. The idea of.

  4. Productivity of agricultural surfaces in the eastern parts of Germany under the influence of climatic changes; Die Ertragsfaehigkeit ostdeutscher Ackerflaechen unter Klimawandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wechsung, Frank; Gerstengarbe, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Lasch, Petra; Luettger, Andrea (eds.)

    2008-12-15

    statistical yield models relating yearly changes in major climate variables to those in crop yield at the county level. The models were calibrated for the period 1990 to 2006 and then used for simulating the climate dominated yield variability beginning in 1951 up to 2055. The results received after integration revealed that the climate-determined yield level will probably remain stable under the projected climatic conditions for the next 20 to 30 years. A significant yield loss is to be expected by the middle of the 21st century, especially at locations in the eastern sandy lowlands distant from coast and mountain regions. The losses will be greater in the cultivation of the summer crop maize than that of the winter crop wheat. However, the increase in atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) might compensate part or all of these losses. Due to the fertilizing effect of this greenhouse gas, yields of wheat can even be expected to increase above current levels and yield losses of maize due to water stress will be mostly diminished. An optimum nitrogen provision is a necessary precondition for the CO2 fertilization to come to its full effect, though. In contrast to wheat and maize, yields of fast growing aspen in short rotation coppice plantation are expected to increase under the presumed changes of climate also on sandy soils with low water holding capacity even when neglecting the beneficial effect of higher CO2. This is indicated by simulation results using the eco-physiological forest dynamics model 4C. The model was applied to those areas of East-Germany's arable land where cereal cropping is less productive than the current median level. Following these results, short rotation coppicing of aspen is a promising cultivation alternative for farmers to secure future incomes. Woody biomass generated in short rotation coppice plantations with aspen is particularly suitable for bio-energy production. Taken the simulated effects of the projected climate change on

  5. A maximum likelihood framework for protein design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Hervé

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of protein design is to predict amino-acid sequences compatible with a given target structure. Traditionally envisioned as a purely thermodynamic question, this problem can also be understood in a wider context, where additional constraints are captured by learning the sequence patterns displayed by natural proteins of known conformation. In this latter perspective, however, we still need a theoretical formalization of the question, leading to general and efficient learning methods, and allowing for the selection of fast and accurate objective functions quantifying sequence/structure compatibility. Results We propose a formulation of the protein design problem in terms of model-based statistical inference. Our framework uses the maximum likelihood principle to optimize the unknown parameters of a statistical potential, which we call an inverse potential to contrast with classical potentials used for structure prediction. We propose an implementation based on Markov chain Monte Carlo, in which the likelihood is maximized by gradient descent and is numerically estimated by thermodynamic integration. The fit of the models is evaluated by cross-validation. We apply this to a simple pairwise contact potential, supplemented with a solvent-accessibility term, and show that the resulting models have a better predictive power than currently available pairwise potentials. Furthermore, the model comparison method presented here allows one to measure the relative contribution of each component of the potential, and to choose the optimal number of accessibility classes, which turns out to be much higher than classically considered. Conclusion Altogether, this reformulation makes it possible to test a wide diversity of models, using different forms of potentials, or accounting for other factors than just the constraint of thermodynamic stability. Ultimately, such model-based statistical analyses may help to understand the forces

  6. Maximum values and classifications of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The primary means of controlling the use of radiation are safety license procedure and the monitoring of radiation exposure and working conditions at places of radiation use. In Section 17 of the Finnish Radiation Act (592/91) certain operations are exempted from the safety license. The exemption limits for the licensing of radioactive materials, the radiotoxicity classification of radionuclides related to such exemption limits, the annual limits on intake of radionuclides to be followed when monitoring internal radiation dose, as well as concentration limits in the breathing air are specified in the guide. Also the surface contamination limits which must be followed when monitoring working conditions at places of radiation use are presented. (4 refs., 6 tabs.)

  7. Modeling Mediterranean Ocean climate of the Last Glacial Maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Mikolajewicz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A regional ocean general circulation model of the Mediterranean is used to study the climate of the Last Glacial Maximum. The atmospheric forcing for these simulations has been derived from simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model, which in turn was forced with surface conditions from a coarse resolution earth system model. The model is successful in reproducing the general patterns of reconstructed sea surface temperature anomalies with the strongest cooling in summer in the northwestern Mediterranean and weak cooling in the Levantine, although the model underestimates the extent of the summer cooling in the western Mediterranean. However, there is a strong vertical gradient associated with this pattern of summer cooling, which makes the comparison with reconstructions complicated. The exchange with the Atlantic is decreased to roughly one half of its present value, which can be explained by the shallower Strait of Gibraltar as a consequence of lower global sea level. This reduced exchange causes a strong increase of salinity in the Mediterranean in spite of reduced net evaporation.

  8. Maximum entropy production rate in quantum thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beretta, Gian Paolo, E-mail: beretta@ing.unibs.i [Universita di Brescia, via Branze 38, 25123 Brescia (Italy)

    2010-06-01

    In the framework of the recent quest for well-behaved nonlinear extensions of the traditional Schroedinger-von Neumann unitary dynamics that could provide fundamental explanations of recent experimental evidence of loss of quantum coherence at the microscopic level, a recent paper [Gheorghiu-Svirschevski 2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 054102] reproposes the nonlinear equation of motion proposed by the present author [see Beretta G P 1987 Found. Phys. 17 365 and references therein] for quantum (thermo)dynamics of a single isolated indivisible constituent system, such as a single particle, qubit, qudit, spin or atomic system, or a Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac field. As already proved, such nonlinear dynamics entails a fundamental unifying microscopic proof and extension of Onsager's reciprocity and Callen's fluctuation-dissipation relations to all nonequilibrium states, close and far from thermodynamic equilibrium. In this paper we propose a brief but self-contained review of the main results already proved, including the explicit geometrical construction of the equation of motion from the steepest-entropy-ascent ansatz and its exact mathematical and conceptual equivalence with the maximal-entropy-generation variational-principle formulation presented in Gheorghiu-Svirschevski S 2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 022105. Moreover, we show how it can be extended to the case of a composite system to obtain the general form of the equation of motion, consistent with the demanding requirements of strong separability and of compatibility with general thermodynamics principles. The irreversible term in the equation of motion describes the spontaneous attraction of the state operator in the direction of steepest entropy ascent, thus implementing the maximum entropy production principle in quantum theory. The time rate at which the path of steepest entropy ascent is followed has so far been left unspecified. As a step towards the identification of such rate, here we propose a possible

  9. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 257 - Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Drinking Water Act Chemical CAS No. MCL -(mg/l) Arsenic 7440-38-2 0.05 Barium 7440-39-3 1.0 Benzene 71-343... 0.004 Lead 7439-92-1 0.05 Mercury 7439-97-6 0.002 Methoxychlor 72-43-5 0.1 Nitrate 10.0 Selenium...

  10. Discretization error estimates in maximum norm for convergent splittings of matrices with a monotone preconditioning part

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe; Karátson, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 210, January 2017 (2017), s. 155-164 ISSN 0377-0427 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : finite difference method * error estimates * matrix splitting * preconditioning Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 1.357, year: 2016 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0377042716301492?via%3Dihub

  11. Evaluation of performance and maximum length of continuous decks in bridges : part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Field experimental measurements and analytical studies showed that the link-slab reinforcement : experiences almost no axial load due to thermal and gravity loading. One of the fundamental : reasons for the low loads in the link-slab reinforcement is...

  12. Discretization error estimates in maximum norm for convergent splittings of matrices with a monotone preconditioning part

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe; Karátson, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 210, January 2017 (2017), s. 155-164 ISSN 0377-0427 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : finite difference method * error estimates * matrix splitting * preconditioning Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 1.357, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0377042716301492?via%3Dihub

  13. Determination of the maximum-depth to potential field sources by a maximum structural index method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedi, M.; Florio, G.

    2013-01-01

    A simple and fast determination of the limiting depth to the sources may represent a significant help to the data interpretation. To this end we explore the possibility of determining those source parameters shared by all the classes of models fitting the data. One approach is to determine the maximum depth-to-source compatible with the measured data, by using for example the well-known Bott-Smith rules. These rules involve only the knowledge of the field and its horizontal gradient maxima, and are independent from the density contrast. Thanks to the direct relationship between structural index and depth to sources we work out a simple and fast strategy to obtain the maximum depth by using the semi-automated methods, such as Euler deconvolution or depth-from-extreme-points method (DEXP). The proposed method consists in estimating the maximum depth as the one obtained for the highest allowable value of the structural index (Nmax). Nmax may be easily determined, since it depends only on the dimensionality of the problem (2D/3D) and on the nature of the analyzed field (e.g., gravity field or magnetic field). We tested our approach on synthetic models against the results obtained by the classical Bott-Smith formulas and the results are in fact very similar, confirming the validity of this method. However, while Bott-Smith formulas are restricted to the gravity field only, our method is applicable also to the magnetic field and to any derivative of the gravity and magnetic field. Our method yields a useful criterion to assess the source model based on the (∂f/∂x)max/fmax ratio. The usefulness of the method in real cases is demonstrated for a salt wall in the Mississippi basin, where the estimation of the maximum depth agrees with the seismic information.

  14. Noncircular Chainrings Do Not Influence Maximum Cycling Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Chee-Hoi; Elmer, Steven J; Martin, James C

    2017-12-01

    Noncircular chainrings could increase cycling power by prolonging the powerful leg extension/flexion phases, and curtailing the low-power transition phases. We compared maximal cycling power-pedaling rate relationships, and joint-specific kinematics and powers across 3 chainring eccentricities (CON = 1.0; LOW ecc  = 1.13; HIGH ecc  = 1.24). Part I: Thirteen cyclists performed maximal inertial-load cycling under 3 chainring conditions. Maximum cycling power and optimal pedaling rate were determined. Part II: Ten cyclists performed maximal isokinetic cycling (120 rpm) under the same 3 chainring conditions. Pedal and joint-specific powers were determined using pedal forces and limb kinematics. Neither maximal cycling power nor optimal pedaling rate differed across chainring conditions (all p > .05). Peak ankle angular velocity for HIGH ecc was less than CON (p pedal system allowed cyclists to manipulate ankle angular velocity to maintain their preferred knee and hip actions, suggesting maximizing extension/flexion and minimizing transition phases may be counterproductive for maximal power.

  15. Robust Deep Network with Maximum Correntropy Criterion for Seizure Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective seizure detection from long-term EEG is highly important for seizure diagnosis. Existing methods usually design the feature and classifier individually, while little work has been done for the simultaneous optimization of the two parts. This work proposes a deep network to jointly learn a feature and a classifier so that they could help each other to make the whole system optimal. To deal with the challenge of the impulsive noises and outliers caused by EMG artifacts in EEG signals, we formulate a robust stacked autoencoder (R-SAE as a part of the network to learn an effective feature. In R-SAE, the maximum correntropy criterion (MCC is proposed to reduce the effect of noise/outliers. Unlike the mean square error (MSE, the output of the new kernel MCC increases more slowly than that of MSE when the input goes away from the center. Thus, the effect of those noises/outliers positioned far away from the center can be suppressed. The proposed method is evaluated on six patients of 33.6 hours of scalp EEG data. Our method achieves a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 99%, which is promising for clinical applications.

  16. Surfaces with Natural Ridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Markvorsen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    We discuss surfaces with singularities, both in mathematics and in the real world. For many types of mathematical surface, singularities are natural and can be regarded as part of the surface. The most emblematic example is that of surfaces of constant negative Gauss curvature, all of which...

  17. Assessment of extreme value distributions for maximum temperature in the Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Alexander; Hertig, Elke; Jacobeit, Jucundus

    2015-04-01

    Extreme maximum temperatures highly affect the natural as well as the societal environment Heat stress has great effects on flora, fauna and humans and culminates in heat related morbidity and mortality. Agriculture and different industries are severely affected by extreme air temperatures. Even more under climate change conditions, it is necessary to detect potential hazards which arise from changes in the distributional parameters of extreme values, and this is especially relevant for the Mediterranean region which is characterized as a climate change hot spot. Therefore statistical approaches are developed to estimate these parameters with a focus on non-stationarities emerging in the relationship between regional climate variables and their large-scale predictors like sea level pressure, geopotential heights, atmospheric temperatures and relative humidity. Gridded maximum temperature data from the daily E-OBS dataset (Haylock et al., 2008) with a spatial resolution of 0.25° x 0.25° from January 1950 until December 2012 are the predictands for the present analyses. A s-mode principal component analysis (PCA) has been performed in order to reduce data dimension and to retain different regions of similar maximum temperature variability. The grid box with the highest PC-loading represents the corresponding principal component. A central part of the analyses is the model development for temperature extremes under the use of extreme value statistics. A combined model is derived consisting of a Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) model and a quantile regression (QR) model which determines the GPD location parameters. The QR model as well as the scale parameters of the GPD model are conditioned by various large-scale predictor variables. In order to account for potential non-stationarities in the predictors-temperature relationships, a special calibration and validation scheme is applied, respectively. Haylock, M. R., N. Hofstra, A. M. G. Klein Tank, E. J. Klok, P

  18. Weighted Maximum-Clique Transversal Sets of Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Chuan-Min Lee

    2011-01-01

    A maximum-clique transversal set of a graph G is a subset of vertices intersecting all maximum cliques of G. The maximum-clique transversal set problem is to find a maximum-clique transversal set of G of minimum cardinality. Motivated by the placement of transmitters for cellular telephones, Chang, Kloks, and Lee introduced the concept of maximum-clique transversal sets on graphs in 2001. In this paper, we study the weighted version of the maximum-clique transversal set problem for split grap...

  19. Pattern formation, logistics, and maximum path probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkaldy, J. S.

    1985-05-01

    The concept of pattern formation, which to current researchers is a synonym for self-organization, carries the connotation of deductive logic together with the process of spontaneous inference. Defining a pattern as an equivalence relation on a set of thermodynamic objects, we establish that a large class of irreversible pattern-forming systems, evolving along idealized quasisteady paths, approaches the stable steady state as a mapping upon the formal deductive imperatives of a propositional function calculus. In the preamble the classical reversible thermodynamics of composite systems is analyzed as an externally manipulated system of space partitioning and classification based on ideal enclosures and diaphragms. The diaphragms have discrete classification capabilities which are designated in relation to conserved quantities by descriptors such as impervious, diathermal, and adiabatic. Differentiability in the continuum thermodynamic calculus is invoked as equivalent to analyticity and consistency in the underlying class or sentential calculus. The seat of inference, however, rests with the thermodynamicist. In the transition to an irreversible pattern-forming system the defined nature of the composite reservoirs remains, but a given diaphragm is replaced by a pattern-forming system which by its nature is a spontaneously evolving volume partitioner and classifier of invariants. The seat of volition or inference for the classification system is thus transferred from the experimenter or theoretician to the diaphragm, and with it the full deductive facility. The equivalence relations or partitions associated with the emerging patterns may thus be associated with theorems of the natural pattern-forming calculus. The entropy function, together with its derivatives, is the vehicle which relates the logistics of reservoirs and diaphragms to the analog logistics of the continuum. Maximum path probability or second-order differentiability of the entropy in isolation are

  20. Maximum atmosphere at the Mini Atomiades

    CERN Multimedia

    Rachel Bray, Atomiades organizer team

    2016-01-01

    CERN Clubs Coordination Committee and CERN Staff Association host the ASCERI Mini Atomiades June 2016.   The CERN team won the tennis tournament for the Mini Atomiades 2016. (Photo: Erwin Van Hove) Over 180 participants from 10 different European Scientific Research Institutes came together on the first weekend of June in Divonne-les-Bains to take part in the ASCERI Sport & Science Mini Atomiades. Sports men and women from Belgium, Germany, France, Hungary, Russia and Switzerland battled it out in four different tournaments for medals, cups and, above all, lots of fun. The four disciplines included football, golf, tennis and a 10km race. CERN was victorious in tennis, golf and the men's and women's 10km, and despite the CERN football team putting up an excellent fight against some very strong teams they came almost last (we cannot win everything, can we?). But CERN were the clear winners for team spirit, community and camaraderie, as confirmed by all the comp...

  1. The Maximum Flux of Star-Forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Roland M.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Thompson, Todd A.; Clutterbuck, Julie

    2018-04-01

    The importance of radiation pressure feedback in galaxy formation has been extensively debated over the last decade. The regime of greatest uncertainty is in the most actively star-forming galaxies, where large dust columns can potentially produce a dust-reprocessed infrared radiation field with enough pressure to drive turbulence or eject material. Here we derive the conditions under which a self-gravitating, mixed gas-star disc can remain hydrostatic despite trapped radiation pressure. Consistently taking into account the self-gravity of the medium, the star- and dust-to-gas ratios, and the effects of turbulent motions not driven by radiation, we show that galaxies can achieve a maximum Eddington-limited star formation rate per unit area \\dot{Σ }_*,crit ˜ 10^3 M_{⊙} pc-2 Myr-1, corresponding to a critical flux of F*, crit ˜ 1013L⊙ kpc-2 similar to previous estimates; higher fluxes eject mass in bulk, halting further star formation. Conversely, we show that in galaxies below this limit, our one-dimensional models imply simple vertical hydrostatic equilibrium and that radiation pressure is ineffective at driving turbulence or ejecting matter. Because the vast majority of star-forming galaxies lie below the maximum limit for typical dust-to-gas ratios, we conclude that infrared radiation pressure is likely unimportant for all but the most extreme systems on galaxy-wide scales. Thus, while radiation pressure does not explain the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, it does impose an upper truncation on it. Our predicted truncation is in good agreement with the highest observed gas and star formation rate surface densities found both locally and at high redshift.

  2. Skill and reliability of climate model ensembles at the Last Glacial Maximum and mid-Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Hargreaves

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Paleoclimate simulations provide us with an opportunity to critically confront and evaluate the performance of climate models in simulating the response of the climate system to changes in radiative forcing and other boundary conditions. Hargreaves et al. (2011 analysed the reliability of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project, PMIP2 model ensemble with respect to the MARGO sea surface temperature data synthesis (MARGO Project Members, 2009 for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 ka BP. Here we extend that work to include a new comprehensive collection of land surface data (Bartlein et al., 2011, and introduce a novel analysis of the predictive skill of the models. We include output from the PMIP3 experiments, from the two models for which suitable data are currently available. We also perform the same analyses for the PMIP2 mid-Holocene (6 ka BP ensembles and available proxy data sets. Our results are predominantly positive for the LGM, suggesting that as well as the global mean change, the models can reproduce the observed pattern of change on the broadest scales, such as the overall land–sea contrast and polar amplification, although the more detailed sub-continental scale patterns of change remains elusive. In contrast, our results for the mid-Holocene are substantially negative, with the models failing to reproduce the observed changes with any degree of skill. One cause of this problem could be that the globally- and annually-averaged forcing anomaly is very weak at the mid-Holocene, and so the results are dominated by the more localised regional patterns in the parts of globe for which data are available. The root cause of the model-data mismatch at these scales is unclear. If the proxy calibration is itself reliable, then representativity error in the data-model comparison, and missing climate feedbacks in the models are other possible sources of error.

  3. Reconstructing Oceanographic Conditions From the Holocene to the Last Glacial Maximum in the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.; Dekens, P. S.; Weber, M. E.; Spiess, V.; France-Lanord, C.

    2015-12-01

    The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 354 drilled 7 sites in the Bay of Bengal, providing a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of the link between glacial cycles, tropical oceanographic changes, and monsoon strength. Deep-sea sediment cores of the Bengal Fan fluctuate between sand, hemipelagic and terrestrial sediment layers. All but one of the sites (U1454) contain a layer of calcareous clay in the uppermost part of the core that is late Pleistocene in age. During Expedition 354 site U1452C was sampled at high resolution (every 2cm) by a broad group of collaborators with the goal of reconstructing monsoon strength and oceanographic conditions using a variety of proxies. The top 480 cm of site U1452C (8ºN, 87ºE, 3671m water depth) contains primarily nannofossil rich calcareous clay. The relatively high abundance of foraminifera will allow us to generate a high resolution record of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) using standard foraminifera proxies. We will present oxygen isotopes (δ18O) and Mg/Ca data of mixed layer planktonic foraminifera from the top 70cm of the core, representing the Holocene to the last glacial maximum. δ18O of planktonic foraminifera records global ice volume and local SST and SSS, while Mg/Ca of foraminifera is a proxy for SST. The paired Mg/Ca and δ18O measurements on the same samples of foraminifera, together with published estimates with global ocean δ18O, can be used to reconstruct both SST and local δ18O of seawater, which is a function of the evaporation/precipitation balance. In future work, the local SSS and SST during the LGM will be paired with terrestrial and other oceanic proxies to increase our understanding of how global climate is connected to monsoon strength.

  4. Southern ocean warming, sea level and hydrological change during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sluijs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A brief (~150 kyr period of widespread global average surface warming marks the transition between the Paleocene and Eocene epochs, ~56 million years ago. This so-called "Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum" (PETM is associated with the massive injection of 13C-depleted carbon, reflected in a negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE. Biotic responses include a global abundance peak (acme of the subtropical dinoflagellate Apectodinium. Here we identify the PETM in a marine sedimentary sequence deposited on the East Tasman Plateau at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP Site 1172 and show, based on the organic paleothermometer TEX86, that southwest Pacific sea surface temperatures increased from ~26 °C to ~33°C during the PETM. Such temperatures before, during and after the PETM are >10 °C warmer than predicted by paleoclimate model simulations for this latitude. In part, this discrepancy may be explained by potential seasonal biases in the TEX86 proxy in polar oceans. Additionally, the data suggest that not only Arctic, but also Antarctic temperatures may be underestimated in simulations of ancient greenhouse climates by current generation fully coupled climate models. An early influx of abundant Apectodinium confirms that environmental change preceded the CIE on a global scale. Organic dinoflagellate cyst assemblages suggest a local decrease in the amount of river run off reaching the core site during the PETM, possibly in concert with eustatic rise. Moreover, the assemblages suggest changes in seasonality of the regional hydrological system and storm activity. Finally, significant variation in dinoflagellate cyst assemblages during the PETM indicates that southwest Pacific climates varied significantly over time scales of 103 – 104 years during this event, a finding comparable to similar studies of PETM successions from the New Jersey Shelf.

  5. On the Maximum Speed of Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftopoulos, Dionysios G.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we examine the analytical production of the Lorentz Transformation regarding its fundamental conclusion i.e. that the speed of Light in vacuum is the uppermost limit for the speed of matter, hence superluminal speeds are unattainable. This examination covers the four most prominent relevant sources of bibliography: Albert Einstein's historic paper (1905) titled: "On the Electrodynamics of moving Bodies" on which his Special Relativity Theory is founded. His famous textbook titled: "Relativity, The Special and General Theory", A. P. French's textbook titled "Special Relativity", Wolfgang Rindler's textbook titled: "Essential Relativity". Special emphasis is placed on the critical analysis of Einstein's gedanken experiment as it is presented in his original paper, where he considers a moving, straight, rigid rod at the ends of which there are two clocks, whose synchronization is checked according to his own definition as given in part 1 of his paper. By applying the second fundamental hypothesis (principle) of SRT, we arrive at the conclusion that this noetic experiment can be concluded only if the rod's speed V with regards the stationary system and measured from it, is less than the speed of light C also with regards the stationary system and measured from it. In the opposite case, said noetic experiment would be meaningless as it could never be concluded for the Observer of the stationary system, at least in the Euclidean Space. Finally, we show that in all four cases under examination the relationship v definite and rigid law of Physics forbidding matter to travel with superluminal velocity in vacuum.

  6. A maximum power point tracking algorithm for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelatury, Sudarshan R.; Gray, Robert

    2013-05-01

    The voltage and current characteristic of a photovoltaic (PV) cell is highly nonlinear and operating a PV cell for maximum power transfer has been a challenge for a long time. Several techniques have been proposed to estimate and track the maximum power point (MPP) in order to improve the overall efficiency of a PV panel. A strategic use of the mean value theorem permits obtaining an analytical expression for a point that lies in a close neighborhood of the true MPP. But hitherto, an exact solution in closed form for the MPP is not published. This problem can be formulated analytically as a constrained optimization, which can be solved using the Lagrange method. This method results in a system of simultaneous nonlinear equations. Solving them directly is quite difficult. However, we can employ a recursive algorithm to yield a reasonably good solution. In graphical terms, suppose the voltage current characteristic and the constant power contours are plotted on the same voltage current plane, the point of tangency between the device characteristic and the constant power contours is the sought for MPP. It is subject to change with the incident irradiation and temperature and hence the algorithm that attempts to maintain the MPP should be adaptive in nature and is supposed to have fast convergence and the least misadjustment. There are two parts in its implementation. First, one needs to estimate the MPP. The second task is to have a DC-DC converter to match the given load to the MPP thus obtained. Availability of power electronics circuits made it possible to design efficient converters. In this paper although we do not show the results from a real circuit, we use MATLAB to obtain the MPP and a buck-boost converter to match the load. Under varying conditions of load resistance and irradiance we demonstrate MPP tracking in case of a commercially available solar panel MSX-60. The power electronics circuit is simulated by PSIM software.

  7. Maximum Entropy, Word-Frequency, Chinese Characters, and Multiple Meanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoyong; Minnhagen, Petter

    2015-01-01

    The word-frequency distribution of a text written by an author is well accounted for by a maximum entropy distribution, the RGF (random group formation)-prediction. The RGF-distribution is completely determined by the a priori values of the total number of words in the text (M), the number of distinct words (N) and the number of repetitions of the most common word (kmax). It is here shown that this maximum entropy prediction also describes a text written in Chinese characters. In particular it is shown that although the same Chinese text written in words and Chinese characters have quite differently shaped distributions, they are nevertheless both well predicted by their respective three a priori characteristic values. It is pointed out that this is analogous to the change in the shape of the distribution when translating a given text to another language. Another consequence of the RGF-prediction is that taking a part of a long text will change the input parameters (M, N, kmax) and consequently also the shape of the frequency distribution. This is explicitly confirmed for texts written in Chinese characters. Since the RGF-prediction has no system-specific information beyond the three a priori values (M, N, kmax), any specific language characteristic has to be sought in systematic deviations from the RGF-prediction and the measured frequencies. One such systematic deviation is identified and, through a statistical information theoretical argument and an extended RGF-model, it is proposed that this deviation is caused by multiple meanings of Chinese characters. The effect is stronger for Chinese characters than for Chinese words. The relation between Zipf’s law, the Simon-model for texts and the present results are discussed. PMID:25955175

  8. Verification of maximum impact force for interim storage cask for the Fast Flux Testing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.W.; Chang, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to perform an impact analysis of the Interim Storage Cask (ISC) of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) for a 4-ft end drop. The ISC is a concrete cask used to store spent nuclear fuels. The analysis is to justify the impact force calculated by General Atomics (General Atomics, 1994) using the ILMOD computer code. ILMOD determines the maximum force developed by the concrete crushing which occurs when the drop energy has been absorbed. The maximum force, multiplied by the dynamic load factor (DLF), was used to determine the maximum g-level on the cask during a 4-ft end drop accident onto the heavily reinforced FFTF Reactor Service Building's concrete surface. For the analysis, this surface was assumed to be unyielding and the cask absorbed all the drop energy. This conservative assumption simplified the modeling used to qualify the cask's structural integrity for this accident condition

  9. Geoarchaeological response to landscape changes of the Greek continental shelf since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsimalis, Vasilios; Pavlopoulos, Kosmas; Panagiotopoulos, Ioannis

    2010-05-01

    An overview of geological, sedimentological, palaeoclimatic, archaeological and mythological data is presented in order to detect the geomorphological changes of the Aegean and Ionian shelves during the last sea-level transgression, and comprehend the consequent prehistoric human adaptations. The irregular rise of sea level since the Last Glacial Maximum forced the Palaeolithic human to abandon its settlements located near the old (lower) coastlines and to move landward in new positions. Commonly, the coastline movement was very slow causing no significant impact on human activities; however in some cases, the transgression was very prompt causing human migration towards highlands. In some very gentle-dipped and wide regions, e.g. the North Aegean plateau, the sea-level rise caused a rapid coastline retreat (in some extreme case as fast as 10 m/yr) and inundation of an extended surface area. However, at the same time, in the steep parts of the Greek shelf, e.g. the Kyparissiakos Gulf and Crete, the coastline advanced landwards with a slow motion (commonly, a few cm/yr) covering small areas. In addition, coastal regions with particular geomorphologic characteristics, e.g. coastal paleo-lakes protected by a sill (gulfs of Corinth, Amvrakikos, Pagasitikos Evvoikos, Saronikos), were deluged by the sea during different periods and under different intensity, depending on the elevation of the sill and the manner of its overflow. Although the presence of Palaeolithic human in the Greek mainland has been confirmed by several archaeological excavations, there is no certain evidence for human settlement in the deep parts of Greek shelf. However, many archaeologists have suggested that some of Palaeolithic people lived on the shelf, when the sea level was lower than its present position. Nevertheless, some potential Palaeolithic migration routes can be indicated taking into account (a) the palaeogeographic reconstruction of Greek shelf over the Last Quaternary; (b

  10. Accurate modeling and maximum power point detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accurate modeling and maximum power point detection of photovoltaic ... Determination of MPP enables the PV system to deliver maximum available power. ..... adaptive artificial neural network: Proposition for a new sizing procedure.

  11. Maximum power per VA control of vector controlled interior ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thakur Sumeet Singh

    2018-04-11

    Apr 11, 2018 ... Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New ... The MPVA operation allows maximum-utilization of the drive-system. ... Permanent magnet motor; unity power factor; maximum VA utilization; ...

  12. Electron density distribution in Si and Ge using multipole, maximum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Si and Ge has been studied using multipole, maximum entropy method (MEM) and ... and electron density distribution using the currently available versatile ..... data should be subjected to maximum possible utility for the characterization of.

  13. Surface Effect Ship Structural Producibility. Part 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-14

    KSI FAILURE - ISo - .276 "A4p I ’ 1 7.". P’ALm ,. I.-u -1.-7 .4 1 "/,A 4s-77 I 3qQ# .’I FA iL & 0 I -a- Liii .L-,2 -22 𔄁, I jj ir.i F4I, i11 9 .4122 1...909603 POCI90’l 1L2 9 0, 1800770 1100916 12-9034 A2.Q0456 41005?, j290o.7* 41)9002 SO-0006? 27003 12700071 5000246 ar04132 81*00619 41.0911a 2#0O009O

  14. Future changes over the Himalayas: Maximum and minimum temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimri, A. P.; Kumar, D.; Choudhary, A.; Maharana, P.

    2018-03-01

    An assessment of the projection of minimum and maximum air temperature over the Indian Himalayan region (IHR) from the COordinated Regional Climate Downscaling EXperiment- South Asia (hereafter, CORDEX-SA) regional climate model (RCM) experiments have been carried out under two different Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. The major aim of this study is to assess the probable future changes in the minimum and maximum climatology and its long-term trend under different RCPs along with the elevation dependent warming over the IHR. A number of statistical analysis such as changes in mean climatology, long-term spatial trend and probability distribution function are carried out to detect the signals of changes in climate. The study also tries to quantify the uncertainties associated with different model experiments and their ensemble in space, time and for different seasons. The model experiments and their ensemble show prominent cold bias over Himalayas for present climate. However, statistically significant higher warming rate (0.23-0.52 °C/decade) for both minimum and maximum air temperature (Tmin and Tmax) is observed for all the seasons under both RCPs. The rate of warming intensifies with the increase in the radiative forcing under a range of greenhouse gas scenarios starting from RCP4.5 to RCP8.5. In addition to this, a wide range of spatial variability and disagreements in the magnitude of trend between different models describes the uncertainty associated with the model projections and scenarios. The projected rate of increase of Tmin may destabilize the snow formation at the higher altitudes in the northern and western parts of Himalayan region, while rising trend of Tmax over southern flank may effectively melt more snow cover. Such combined effect of rising trend of Tmin and Tmax may pose a potential threat to the glacial deposits. The overall trend of Diurnal temperature range (DTR) portrays increasing trend across entire area with

  15. Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-10-27

    Oct 27, 2016 ... maximum aerobic metabolic rate (MMR) is proportional to the fractal extent ... metabolic rate with body mass can be obtained by taking body .... blood takes place. ..... MMR and BMR is that MMR is owing mainly to respiration in skeletal .... the spectra of surface area scaling strategies of cells and organisms:.

  16. Artificial Neural Network In Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithm Of Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modestas Pikutis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Scientists are looking for ways to improve the efficiency of solar cells all the time. The efficiency of solar cells which are available to the general public is up to 20%. Part of the solar energy is unused and a capacity of solar power plant is significantly reduced – if slow controller or controller which cannot stay at maximum power point of solar modules is used. Various algorithms of maximum power point tracking were created, but mostly algorithms are slow or make mistakes. In the literature more and more oftenartificial neural networks (ANN in maximum power point tracking process are mentioned, in order to improve performance of the controller. Self-learner artificial neural network and IncCond algorithm were used for maximum power point tracking in created solar power plant model. The algorithm for control was created. Solar power plant model is implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment.

  17. An extended heterogeneous car-following model accounting for anticipation driving behavior and mixed maximum speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengxin; Wang, Jufeng; Cheng, Rongjun; Ge, Hongxia

    2018-02-01

    The optimal driving speeds of the different vehicles may be different for the same headway. In the optimal velocity function of the optimal velocity (OV) model, the maximum speed vmax is an important parameter determining the optimal driving speed. A vehicle with higher maximum speed is more willing to drive faster than that with lower maximum speed in similar situation. By incorporating the anticipation driving behavior of relative velocity and mixed maximum speeds of different percentages into optimal velocity function, an extended heterogeneous car-following model is presented in this paper. The analytical linear stable condition for this extended heterogeneous traffic model is obtained by using linear stability theory. Numerical simulations are carried out to explore the complex phenomenon resulted from the cooperation between anticipation driving behavior and heterogeneous maximum speeds in the optimal velocity function. The analytical and numerical results all demonstrate that strengthening driver's anticipation effect can improve the stability of heterogeneous traffic flow, and increasing the lowest value in the mixed maximum speeds will result in more instability, but increasing the value or proportion of the part already having higher maximum speed will cause different stabilities at high or low traffic densities.

  18. Maximum Power Training and Plyometrics for Cross-Country Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebben, William P.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a rationale for maximum power training and plyometrics as conditioning strategies for cross-country runners, examining: an evaluation of training methods (strength training and maximum power training and plyometrics); biomechanic and velocity specificity (role in preventing injury); and practical application of maximum power training and…

  19. 13 CFR 107.840 - Maximum term of Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum term of Financing. 107.840... COMPANIES Financing of Small Businesses by Licensees Structuring Licensee's Financing of An Eligible Small Business: Terms and Conditions of Financing § 107.840 Maximum term of Financing. The maximum term of any...

  20. 7 CFR 3565.210 - Maximum interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum interest rate. 3565.210 Section 3565.210... AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Loan Requirements § 3565.210 Maximum interest rate. The interest rate for a guaranteed loan must not exceed the maximum allowable rate specified by the Agency in...

  1. Characterizing graphs of maximum matching width at most 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Jisu; Ok, Seongmin; Suh, Geewon

    2017-01-01

    The maximum matching width is a width-parameter that is de ned on a branch-decomposition over the vertex set of a graph. The size of a maximum matching in the bipartite graph is used as a cut-function. In this paper, we characterize the graphs of maximum matching width at most 2 using the minor o...

  2. A review of the regional maximum flood and rational formula using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flood estimation methods in South Africa are based on three general approaches: empirical, deterministic and probabilistic. The \\"quick\\" methods often used as checks are the regional maximum flood (RMF) and the rational formula (RF), which form part of the empirical and deterministic methods respectively. A database of ...

  3. ANALYSIS OF ACCURACY OF MODIS BRDF PRODUCT (MCD43 C6 BASED ON MISR LAND SURFACE BRF PRODUCT – A CASE STUDY OF THE CENTRAL PART OF NORTHEAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available EOS/MODIS land surface Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF product (MCD43, with the latest version C6, is one of the most important operational BRDF products with global coverage. The core sub-product MCD43A1 stores 3 parameters of the RossThick-LiSparseR semi-empirical kernel-driven BRDF model. It is important for confident use of the product to evaluate the accuracy of bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF predicted by MCD43A1 BRDF model (mBRF. A typical region in the central part of Northeast Asia is selected as the study area. The performance of MCD43A1 BRDF model is analyzed in various observation geometries and phenological phases, using Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR land-surface reflectance factor product (MILS_BRF as the reference data. In addition, MODIS products MCD12Q1 and MOD/MYD10A1 are used to evaluate the impacts of land cover types and snow covers on the model accuracy, respectively. The results show an overall excellent performance of MCD43A1 in representing the anisotropic reflectance of land surface, with root mean square error (RMSE of 0.0262 and correlation coefficient (R of 0.9537, for all available comparable samples of MILS_BRF and mBRF pairs. The model accuracy varies in different months, which is related to the phenological phases of the study area. The accuracy for pixels labelled as ‘snow’ by MCD43 is obviously low, with RMSE/R of 0.0903/0.8401. Ephemeral snowfall events further decrease the accuracy, with RMSE/R of 0.1001/0.7715. These results provide meaningful information to MCD43 users, especially those, whose study regions are subject to phenological cycles as well as snow cover and change.

  4. Experimental measurements and analytical analysis related to gas turbine heat transfer. Part 1: Time-averaged heat-flux and surface-pressure measurements on the vanes and blades of the SSME fuel-side turbine and comparison with prediction. Part 2: Phase-resolved surface-pressure and heat-flux measurements on the first blade of the SSME fuel-side turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Time averaged Stanton number and surface-pressure distributions are reported for the first-stage vane row, the first stage blade row, and the second stage vane row of the Rocketdyne Space Shuttle Main Engine two-stage fuel-side turbine. Unsteady pressure envelope measurements for the first blade are also reported. These measurements were made at 10 percent, 50 percent, and 90 percent span on both the pressure and suction surfaces of the first stage components. Additional Stanton number measurements were made on the first stage blade platform blade tip, and shroud, and at 50 percent span on the second vane. A shock tube was used as a short duration source of heated and pressurized air to which the turbine was subjected. Platinum thin-film heat flux gages were used to obtain the heat flux measurements, while miniature silicon-diaphragm flush-mounted pressure transducers were used to obtain the pressure measurements. The first stage vane Stanton number distributions are compared with predictions obtained using a version of STAN5 and a quasi-3D Navier-Stokes solution. This same quasi-3D N-S code was also used to obtain predictions for the first blade and the second vane.

  5. Impact of soil moisture on extreme maximum temperatures in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirien Whan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Land-atmosphere interactions play an important role for hot temperature extremes in Europe. Dry soils may amplify such extremes through feedbacks with evapotranspiration. While previous observational studies generally focused on the relationship between precipitation deficits and the number of hot days, we investigate here the influence of soil moisture (SM on summer monthly maximum temperatures (TXx using water balance model-based SM estimates (driven with observations and temperature observations. Generalized extreme value distributions are fitted to TXx using SM as a covariate. We identify a negative relationship between SM and TXx, whereby a 100 mm decrease in model-based SM is associated with a 1.6 °C increase in TXx in Southern-Central and Southeastern Europe. Dry SM conditions result in a 2–4 °C increase in the 20-year return value of TXx compared to wet conditions in these two regions. In contrast with SM impacts on the number of hot days (NHD, where low and high surface-moisture conditions lead to different variability, we find a mostly linear dependency of the 20-year return value on surface-moisture conditions. We attribute this difference to the non-linear relationship between TXx and NHD that stems from the threshold-based calculation of NHD. Furthermore the employed SM data and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI are only weakly correlated in the investigated regions, highlighting the importance of evapotranspiration and runoff for resulting SM. Finally, in a case study for the hot 2003 summer we illustrate that if 2003 spring conditions in Southern-Central Europe had been as dry as in the more recent 2011 event, temperature extremes in summer would have been higher by about 1 °C, further enhancing the already extreme conditions which prevailed in that year.

  6. 40 CFR 1042.140 - Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cylinders having an internal diameter of 13.0 cm and a 15.5 cm stroke length, the rounded displacement would... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum engine power, displacement... Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed. This section describes...

  7. Installation of the MAXIMUM microscope at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, W.; Perera, R.C.C.; Underwood, J.H.; Singh, S.; Solak, H.; Cerrina, F.

    1995-10-01

    The MAXIMUM scanning x-ray microscope, developed at the Synchrotron Radiation Center (SRC) at the University of Wisconsin, Madison was implemented on the Advanced Light Source in August of 1995. The microscope's initial operation at SRC successfully demonstrated the use of multilayer coated Schwarzschild objective for focusing 130 eV x-rays to a spot size of better than 0.1 micron with an electron energy resolution of 250meV. The performance of the microscope was severely limited, because of the relatively low brightness of SRC, which limits the available flux at the focus of the microscope. The high brightness of the ALS is expected to increase the usable flux at the sample by a factor of 1,000. The authors will report on the installation of the microscope on bending magnet beamline 6.3.2 at the ALS and the initial measurement of optical performance on the new source, and preliminary experiments with surface chemistry of HF etched Si will be described

  8. The maximum entropy production and maximum Shannon information entropy in enzyme kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobovišek, Andrej; Markovič, Rene; Brumen, Milan; Fajmut, Aleš

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate that the maximum entropy production principle (MEPP) serves as a physical selection principle for the description of the most probable non-equilibrium steady states in simple enzymatic reactions. A theoretical approach is developed, which enables maximization of the density of entropy production with respect to the enzyme rate constants for the enzyme reaction in a steady state. Mass and Gibbs free energy conservations are considered as optimization constraints. In such a way computed optimal enzyme rate constants in a steady state yield also the most uniform probability distribution of the enzyme states. This accounts for the maximal Shannon information entropy. By means of the stability analysis it is also demonstrated that maximal density of entropy production in that enzyme reaction requires flexible enzyme structure, which enables rapid transitions between different enzyme states. These results are supported by an example, in which density of entropy production and Shannon information entropy are numerically maximized for the enzyme Glucose Isomerase.

  9. Solar Maximum Mission Experiment - Ultraviolet Spectroscopy and Polarimetry on the Solar Maximum Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Cheng, C. C.; Woodgate, B. E.; Brandt, J. C.; Chapman, R. D.; Athay, R. G.; Beckers, J. M.; Bruner, E. C.; Gurman, J. B.; Hyder, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter on the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft is described. It is pointed out that the instrument, which operates in the wavelength range 1150-3600 A, has a spatial resolution of 2-3 arcsec and a spectral resolution of 0.02 A FWHM in second order. A Gregorian telescope, with a focal length of 1.8 m, feeds a 1 m Ebert-Fastie spectrometer. A polarimeter comprising rotating Mg F2 waveplates can be inserted behind the spectrometer entrance slit; it permits all four Stokes parameters to be determined. Among the observing modes are rasters, spectral scans, velocity measurements, and polarimetry. Examples of initial observations made since launch are presented.

  10. Maximum thermal loading test of BWR fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Yoshitaka; Yoshimura, Kunihiro; Nakamura, Satoshi; Ishizuka, Takao.

    1987-01-01

    Various proving tests on the reliability of nuclear power plants have been conducted at the Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center and at the Japan Power Plant Engineering and Inspection Corporation. The tests were initiated at the request of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). Toshiba undertook one of the proving tests on the reliability of nuclear fuel assembly; the maximum thermal loading test of BWR fuel assembly from the Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center. These tests are part of the proving tests mentioned above, and their purpose is to confirm the reliability of the thermal hydraulic engineering techniques. Toshiba has been engaged for the past nine years in the design, fabrication and testing of the equipment. For the project, a test model fuel assembly was used to measure the critical power of the BWR fuel assembly and the void and fluidity of the coolant. From the test results, it has been confirmed that the heat is transferred safely from the fuel assembly to the coolant in the BWR nuclear power plant. In addition, the propriety and reliability of the thermal hydraulic engineering techniques for the fuel assembly have been proved. (author)

  11. Maximum Solutions of Normalized Ricci Flow on 4-Manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fuquan; Zhang, Yuguang; Zhang, Zhenlei

    2008-10-01

    We consider the maximum solution g( t), t ∈ [0, + ∞), to the normalized Ricci flow. Among other things, we prove that, if ( M, ω) is a smooth compact symplectic 4-manifold such that {b_2^+(M) > 1} and let g( t), t ∈ [0, ∞), be a solution to (1.3) on M whose Ricci curvature satisfies that |Ric( g( t))| ≤ 3 and additionally χ( M) = 3τ ( M) > 0, then there exists an {min mathbb{N}} , and a sequence of points { x j, k ∈ M}, j = 1, . . . , m, satisfying that, by passing to a subsequence, {{(M, g(tk+t), x_{1,k},ldots, x_{m,k})stackrel{d_{GH}}longrightarrow ({\\coprod limitsm_{j=1}} N_j , g_{infty}, x_{1,infty}, ldots, x_{m,infty}),}} t ∈ [0, ∞), in the m-pointed Gromov-Hausdorff sense for any sequence t k → ∞, where ( N j , g ∞), j = 1, . . . , m, are complete complex hyperbolic orbifolds of complex dimension 2 with at most finitely many isolated orbifold points. Moreover, the convergence is C ∞ in the non-singular part of {\\coprod _1^m Nj} and {text{Vol}_{g0}(M)=sum_{j=1}mtext{Vol}_{g_{infty}}(Nj)} , where χ( M) (resp. τ( M)) is the Euler characteristic (resp. signature) of M.

  12. Surface Water & Surface Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains boundaries for all surface water and surface drainage for the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a...

  13. Maximum Power Point Tracking Using Sliding Mode Control for Photovoltaic Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ghazanfari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a robust Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT for PV array has been proposed using sliding mode control by defining a new formulation for sliding surface which is based on increment conductance (INC method. The stability and robustness of the proposed controller are investigated to load variations and environment changes. Three different types of DC-DC converter are used in Maximum Power Point (MPP system and the results obtained are given. The simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method in the presence of load variations and environment changes for different types of DC-DC converter topologies.

  14. Prediction of transient maximum heat flux based on a simple liquid layer evaporation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serizawa, A.; Kataoka, I.

    1981-01-01

    A model of liquid layer evaporation with considerable supply of liquid has been formulated to predict burnout characteristics (maximum heat flux, life, etc.) during an increase of the power. The analytical description of the model is built upon the visual and photographic observations of the boiling configuration at near peak heat flux reported by other investigators. The prediction compares very favourably with water data presently available. It is suggested from the work reported here that the maximum heat flux occurs because of a balance between the consumption of the liquid film on the heated surface and the supply of liquid. Thickness of the liquid film is also very important. (author)

  15. Effect of a High-intensity Interval Training method on maximum oxygen consumption in Chilean schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Galdames-Maliqueo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The low levels of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max evaluated in Chilean schoolchildren suggest the startup of trainings that improve the aerobic capacity. Objective: To analyze the effect of a High-intensity Interval Training method on maximum oxygen consumption in Chilean schoolchildren. Materials and methods: Thirty-two high school students from the eighth grade, who were divided into two groups, were part of the study (experimental group = 16 students and control group = 16 students. The main analyzed variable was the maximum oxygen consumption through the Course Navette Test. A High-intensity Interval training method was applied based on the maximum aerobic speed obtained through the Test. A mixed ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Results: The experimental group showed a significant increase in the Maximum Oxygen Consumption between the pretest and posttest when compared with the control group (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: The results of the study showed a positive effect of the High-intensity Interval Training on the maximum consumption of oxygen. At the end of the study, it is concluded that High-intensity Interval Training is a good stimulation methodology for Chilean schoolchildren.

  16. How Selby coal will reach the surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    In many respects this conveyor will exemplify the NCB's intention to employ the latest technology at Selby. This single conveyor will be almost 15km long, and will bring coal to the surface from almost 1 km below ground level. A steel cord belt, 1300 mm wide and weighing over 2500 tonnes, will travel at up to 8.4 m/s to bring as much as 3200 t/h of coal to the surface. The conveyor is capable of delivering up to 1800 t/h of coal even from the furthest and deepest point in the conveyor run. Maximum tension in the belt is almost 200 tonnes, and even on the slack side of the pulley, the tension will be 68 tonnes. Eleven bunkering points will each be capable of feeding 750 tonnes of coal per hour, and a computerized control will ensure that the required mix is brought from the bunkers without exceeding the maximum capacity of the conveyor. When maximum tonnage is not being handled, the conveyor will be capable of running at the lowest speed which is capable of bringing out the tonnage on the belt. This minimizes wear and tear on all moving parts of the system. From each bunkering point, the coal will be fed down a chute onto a short accelerating conveyor which feeds the coal centrally onto the main conveyor and ensures that it is moving in the same direction as the main conveyor.

  17. The Influence of Pressure Distribution on the Maximum Values of Stress in FEM Analysis of Plain Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Cojocaru

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Several methods can be used in the FEM studies to apply the loads on a plain bearing. The paper presents a comparative analysis of maximum stress obtained for three loading scenarios: resultant force applied on the shaft – bearing assembly, variable pressure with sinusoidal distribution applied on the bearing surface, variable pressure with parabolic distribution applied on the bearing surface.

  18. Benefits of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and maximum tolerated concentration (MTC) concept in aquatic toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, Thomas H.; Boegi, Christian; Winter, Matthew J.; Owens, J. Willie

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the need to identify specific sublethal effects of chemicals, such as reproductive toxicity, and specific modes of actions of the chemicals, such as interference with the endocrine system. To achieve these aims requires criteria which provide a basis to interpret study findings so as to separate these specific toxicities and modes of action from not only acute lethality per se but also from severe inanition and malaise that non-specifically compromise reproductive capacity and the response of endocrine endpoints. Mammalian toxicologists have recognized that very high dose levels are sometimes required to elicit both specific adverse effects and present the potential of non-specific 'systemic toxicity'. Mammalian toxicologists have developed the concept of a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) beyond which a specific toxicity or action cannot be attributed to a test substance due to the compromised state of the organism. Ecotoxicologists are now confronted by a similar challenge and must develop an analogous concept of a MTD and the respective criteria. As examples of this conundrum, we note recent developments in efforts to validate protocols for fish reproductive toxicity and endocrine screens (e.g. some chemicals originally selected as 'negatives' elicited decreases in fecundity or changes in endpoints intended to be biomarkers for endocrine modes of action). Unless analogous criteria can be developed, the potentially confounding effects of systemic toxicity may then undermine the reliable assessment of specific reproductive effects or biomarkers such as vitellogenin or spiggin. The same issue confronts other areas of aquatic toxicology (e.g., genotoxicity) and the use of aquatic animals for preclinical assessments of drugs (e.g., use of zebrafish for drug safety assessment). We propose that there are benefits to adopting the concept of an MTD for toxicology and pharmacology studies using fish and other aquatic organisms and the

  19. Microprocessor Controlled Maximum Power Point Tracker for Photovoltaic Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiya, J. D.; Tahirou, G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a microprocessor controlled maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic module. Input current and voltage are measured and multiplied within the microprocessor, which contains an algorithm to seek the maximum power point. The duly cycle of the DC-DC converter, at which the maximum power occurs is obtained, noted and adjusted. The microprocessor constantly seeks for improvement of obtained power by varying the duty cycle

  20. Trapping of hydride forming elements within miniature electrothermal devices. Part 2. Investigation of collection of arsenic and selenium hydrides on a surface and in a cavity of a graphite rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Docekal, Bohumil

    2004-01-01

    The interaction of arsenic and selenium hydrides with bare and modified graphite was investigated by atomic absorption spectrometry and by radiotracer technique using 75 Se radionuclide in a laboratory made brass cylindrical chamber equipped with a vertical quartz tube torch for supporting miniature hydrogen diffusion flame atomizer. Strong interaction was observed at elevated temperatures above 800 deg. C. In contrast to the very often-reported data for conventional graphite tube atomizers, this high temperature interaction was also accompanied by a pronounced trapping of analytes at elevated temperatures close to 1100-1200 deg. C when modified graphite was used. Comparing modifiers tested (Ir, Pt and Rh), iridium appeared the only useful permanent modifier. Among various graphite-rod traps designed, the most efficient trapping of analytes was achieved in a graphite cavity. The net selenium trapping efficiencies of approximately 53% and 70% were found by radiotracer technique for the iridium-treated graphite surface and the iridium-treated graphite cavity, respectively. In contrast to the molybdenum surface, bare graphite did not exhibit any significant trapping effect. Trapping isotherms obtained at different temperatures displayed non-linear course in the range up to the upper limit of the analytical relevance of 100 ng of an analyte, indicating a limited trapping capacity of the modified graphite surface and the same trapping mechanism at low and elevated temperatures applied (300-1300 deg. C). Radiography experiments with 75 Se radiotracer showed that a major part of selenium was collected within the small cavity of the graphite rod and that selenium was also deposited after the trapping and vaporization steps in the trap chamber and on the quartz tube wall of the burner. Complementary experiments performed with the conventional transversally heated graphite tube and with bare and thermally shielded injection capillaries for hydride introduction, showed that