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Sample records for maximum moist static

  1. EFFECTIVENESS OF PNF STRETCHING VERSUS STATIC STRETCHING ON PAIN AND HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY FOLLOWING MOIST HEAT IN INDIVIDUALS WITH KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS

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    Meena .V

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoarthritis (OA is a degenerative joint disease and one of the major public health problem that causesfunctional impairment and reduced quality of life. To compare the effectiveness of PNF Hold relax stretching versus Static stretching on pain and flexibility of hamstring following moist heat in individuals with knee osteoarthritis. Hamstring tightness is the major problem in knee osteoarthritis individuals. Therefore the need of study is comparing the effectiveness of PNF Hold relax stretching versus static stretching on pain and flexibility of hamstrings following moist heat in knee osteoarthritis participants. Determining the effects of PNF Hold relax stretching versus Static stretching along with moist heat on pain and hamstring flexibility by VAS and Active knee extension range of motion in knee osteoarthritis individuals. Methods: 30 subjects with symptoms of knee osteoarthritis were randomly distributed into 2 groups 15 in each group. PNF Hold relax stretching along with moist heat is compared to Static stretching along with moist heat. Pain was measured by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and hamstring flexibility by Active knee Extension Range of Motion (AKEROM by universal goniometer. Measurements are taken pre and post intervention. Results: The results indicated PNF Hold relax stretching along with moist heat showed a statistically significant improvement in pain (p<0.05 and improvement in hamstring flexibility (p<0.05 when compared to Static stretching along with moist heat. Conclusion: Subjects with PNF Hold relax stretching along with moist heat showed significant improvement in pain reduction and improving hamstring flexibility than Static stretching along with moist heat.

  2. On the recent warming in the subcloud layer entropy and vertically integrated moist static energy over South Asian Monsoon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konduru, R.; Gupta, A.; Matsumoto, J.; Takahashi, H. G.

    2017-12-01

    In order to explain monsoon circulation, surface temperature gradients described as most traditional concept. However, it cannot explain certain important aspects of monsoon circulation. Later, convective quasi-equilibrium framework and vertically integrated atmospheric energy budget has become recognized theories to explain the monsoon circulation. In this article, same theories were analyzed and observed for the duration 1979-2010 over south Asian summer monsoon region. With the help of NCEP-R2, NOAA 20th Century, and Era-Interim reanalysis an important feature was noticed pertained to subcloud layer entropy and vertical moist static energy. In the last 32 years, subcloud layer entropy and vertically integrated moist static energy has shown significant seasonal warming all over the region with peak over the poleward flank of the cross-equatorial cell. The important reason related to the warming was found to be increase in surface enthalpy fluxes. Instead, other dynamical contributions pertained to the warming was also observed. Increase in positive anomalies of vertical advection of moist static energy over northern Bay of Bengal, Central India, Peninsular India, Eastern Arabian Sea, and Equatorial Indian Ocean was found to be an important dynamic factor contributing for warming of vertically integrated moist static energy. Along with it vertical moist stability has also supported the argument. Similar interpretations were perceived in the AMIP simulation of CCSM4 model. Further modeling experiments on this warming will be helpful to know the exact mechanism behind it.

  3. Using the Moist Static Energy Budget to Understand Storm Track Shifts across a Range of Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barpanda, P.; Shaw, T.

    2017-12-01

    Storm tracks shift meridionally in response to forcing across a range of time scales. Here we formulate a moist static energy (MSE) framework for storm track position and use it to understand storm track shifts in response to seasonal insolation, El Niño minus La Niña conditions, and direct (increased CO2 over land) and indirect (increased sea surface temperature) effects of increased CO2. Two methods (linearized Taylor series and imposed MSE flux divergence) are developed to quantify storm track shifts and decompose them into contributions from net energy (MSE input to the atmosphere minus atmospheric storage) and MSE flux divergence by the mean meridional circulation and stationary eddies. Net energy is not a dominant contribution across the time scales considered. The stationary eddy contribution dominates the storm-track shift in response to seasonal insolation, El Niño minus La Niña conditions, and CO2 direct effect in the Northern Hemisphere, whereas the mean meridional circulation contribution dominates the shift in response to CO2 indirect effect during northern winter and in the Southern Hemisphere during May and October. Overall, the MSE framework shows the seasonal storm-track shift in the Northern Hemisphere is connected to the stationary eddy MSE flux evolution. Furthermore, the equatorward storm-track shift during northern winter in response to El Niño minus La Niña conditions involves a different regime than the poleward shift in response to increased CO2 even though the tropical upper troposphere warms in both cases.

  4. The boundary layer moist static energy budget: Convection picks up moisture and leaves footprints in the marine boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Szoeke, S. P.

    2017-12-01

    Averaged over the tropical marine boundary layer (BL), 130 W m-2 turbulent surface moist static energy (MSE) flux, 120 W m-2 of which is evaporation, is balanced by upward MSE flux at the BL top due to 1) incorporation of cold air by downdrafts from deep convective clouds, and 2) turbulent entrainment of dry air into the BL. Cold saturated downdraft air, and warm clear air entrained into the BL have distinct thermodynamic properties. This work observationally quantifies their respective MSE fluxes in the central Indian Ocean in 2011, under different convective conditions of the intraseasonal (40-90 day) Madden Julian oscillation (MJO). Under convectively suppressed conditions, entrainment and downdraft fluxes export equal shares (60 W m-2) of MSE from the BL. Downdraft fluxes are more variable, increasing for stronger convection. In the convectively active phase of the MJO, downdrafts export 90 W m-2 from the BL, compared to 40 W m-2 by entrainment. These processes that control the internal, latent (condensation), and MSE of the tropical marine atmospheric BL determine the parcel buoyancy and strength of tropical deep convection.

  5. THE EFFECT OF THE STATIC RELATIVE STRENGTH ON THE MAXIMUM RELATIVE RECEIVING OF OXYGEN

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    Abdulla Elezi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on research on the sample of 263 students of age- 18 years, and used batteries of 9 tests for evaluation of the static relative strength and the criterion variable- maximum relative receiving of oxygen (VO2 ml / kg / min based on the Astrand test ,and on regression analysis to determine the influence of the static relative strength on the criterion variable maximum relative oxygen receiving, can be generally concluded that from 9 predictor variables statistically significant partial effect have 2variables. In hierarchical order, they are: the variable of static relative leg strength - endurance of the fingers (the angle of the lower leg and thigh 900 (SRL2 which arithmetic mean is 25.04 seconds and variable ctatic relative strength of arms and shoulders – push-up endurance in the balance beam (angle of the forearm and upper arm 900 ( SRA2 with arithmetic mean of 17.75 seconds. From the statistically influential significant predictor variables on the criterion variable one is from the static relative leg strength (SRL2 and the other is from the static relative strength of arm and shoulder area (SRA2. With the analysis of these relations we can conclude that the isometric contractions of the four headed thigh muscle and the isometric contractions of the three headed upper arm muscle are predominantly responsible for the successful execution of doing actions on a bicycle ergometer and not on the maximum relative receiving of oxygen.

  6. Influence of acute static stretching on the behavior of maximum muscle strength

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    Carmen Lúcia Borges Bastos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the influence of acute static stretching on maximal muscle strength (1RM. The non-probabilistic sample consisted of 30 subjects split into two groups: static stretching (SS= 15 and without stretching group (WS= 15. Muscle strength evaluation (1RM was conducted with a Dynamometer model 32527pp400 Pound push / pull devices coupled in knee extension (KE and bench press (BP. The Wilcoxon test for intragroup comparisons and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparisons between groups (p< 0.05 were selected. There were no significant differences (p> 0.05 between the SS and WS in exercise KE and BP. Therefore, it can be concluded that there was no reduction in the performance of 1RM performing the exercises KE and BP when preceded by static stretching.

  7. Investigation of the Maximum Spin-Up Coefficients of Friction Obtained During Tests of a Landing Gear Having a Static-Load Rating of 20,000 Pounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterson, Sidney A.

    1959-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made at the Langley landing loads track to obtain data on the maximum spin-up coefficients of friction developed by a landing gear having a static-load rating of 20,000 pounds. The forward speeds ranged from 0 to approximately 180 feet per second and the sinking speeds, from 2.7 feet per second to 9.4 feet per second. The results indicated the variation of the maximum spin-up coefficient of friction with forward speed and vertical load. Data obtained during this investigation are also compared with some results previously obtained for nonrolling tires to show the effect of forward speed.

  8. Maximum capacity model of grid-connected multi-wind farms considering static security constraints in electrical grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, W; Oodo, S O; He, H; Qiu, G Y

    2013-01-01

    An increasing interest in wind energy and the advance of related technologies have increased the connection of wind power generation into electrical grids. This paper proposes an optimization model for determining the maximum capacity of wind farms in a power system. In this model, generator power output limits, voltage limits and thermal limits of branches in the grid system were considered in order to limit the steady-state security influence of wind generators on the power system. The optimization model was solved by a nonlinear primal-dual interior-point method. An IEEE-30 bus system with two wind farms was tested through simulation studies, plus an analysis conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed model. The results indicated that the model is efficient and reasonable.

  9. Maximum capacity model of grid-connected multi-wind farms considering static security constraints in electrical grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W.; Qiu, G. Y.; Oodo, S. O.; He, H.

    2013-03-01

    An increasing interest in wind energy and the advance of related technologies have increased the connection of wind power generation into electrical grids. This paper proposes an optimization model for determining the maximum capacity of wind farms in a power system. In this model, generator power output limits, voltage limits and thermal limits of branches in the grid system were considered in order to limit the steady-state security influence of wind generators on the power system. The optimization model was solved by a nonlinear primal-dual interior-point method. An IEEE-30 bus system with two wind farms was tested through simulation studies, plus an analysis conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed model. The results indicated that the model is efficient and reasonable.

  10. Observing the Forces Involved in Static Friction under Static Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Static friction is an important concept in introductory physics. Later in the year students apply their understanding of static friction under more complex conditions of static equilibrium. Traditional lab demonstrations in this case involve exceeding of the maximum level of static friction, resulting in the "onset of motion." (Contains…

  11. 21 CFR 890.5250 - Moist steam cabinet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Moist steam cabinet. 890.5250 Section 890.5250...) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5250 Moist steam cabinet. (a) Identification. A moist steam cabinet is a device intended for medical purposes that delivers...

  12. Continuous Cropping and Moist Deep Convection on the Canadian Prairies

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    Devon E. Worth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Summerfallow is cropland that is purposely kept out of production during a growing season to conserve soil moisture. On the Canadian Prairies, a trend to continuous cropping with a reduction in summerfallow began after the summerfallow area peaked in 1976. This study examined the impact of this land-use change on convective available potential energy (CAPE, a necessary but not sufficient condition for moist deep convection. All else being equal, an increase in CAPE increases the probability-of-occurrence of convective clouds and their intensity if they occur. Representative Bowen ratios for the Black, Dark Brown, and Brown soil zones were determined for 1976: the maximum summerfallow year, 2001: our baseline year, and 20xx: a hypothetical year with the maximum-possible annual crop area. Average mid-growing-season Bowen ratios and noon solar radiation were used to estimate the reduction in the lifted index (LI from land-use weighted evapotranspiration in each study year. LI is an index of CAPE, and a reduction in LI indicates an increase in CAPE. The largest reductions in LI were found for the Black soil zone. They were −1.61 ± 0.18, −1.77 ± 0.14 and −1.89 ± 0.16 in 1976, 2001 and 20xx, respectively. These results suggest that, all else being equal, the probability-of-occurrence of moist deep convection in the Black soil zone was lower in 1976 than in the base year 2001, and it will be higher in 20xx when the annual crop area reaches a maximum. The trend to continuous cropping had less impact in the drier Dark Brown and Brown soil zones.

  13. The reaction of uranium with moist hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, R.J.; Kay, P.

    1987-10-01

    The reaction of uranium in moist hydrogen at a total pressure of 101 kPa over the temperature range 105 0 -200 0 C and water vapour pressures in the range 5-100 kPa has been examined in a limited thermogravimetric study. It has been shown that initially there is a period during which only linear kinetics are observed with a rate similar to that exhibited in similarly moist argon, i.e. hydrogen has no apparent effect on the reaction. At water vapour pressures of and above 49 kPa, corresponding to hydrogen:water vapour pressure ratios in the range 1:1 to 1:100, over the exposure times studied (not > 20h) only such linear kinetics are observed. Below this water vapour pressure and after an initial period of linear kinetics a continuously increasing reaction rate was observed in some instances resulting from rapid attach on localised areas. The localised reaction rates were approximately 2-3 orders of magnitude faster than the original linear reaction kinetics and the interaction rates in either moist argon or moist air. Comparison with a single experiment carried out at 150 0 C indicated that breakaway rates were approaching that in dry hydrogen. During breakaway attack there was a significant increase in the relative amounts of uranium hydride formed. The duration of the linear kinetics phase was extended by pre-oxidation of the uranium surface, decreasing temperature at a constant water vapour pressure, or increasing water vapour pressure (or water vapour: hydrogen pressure ratio) at a constant temperature. (author)

  14. Roller compaction of moist pharmaceutical powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C-Y; Hung, W-L; Miguélez-Morán, A M; Gururajan, B; Seville, J P K

    2010-05-31

    The compression behaviour of powders during roller compaction is dominated by a number of factors, such as process conditions (roll speed, roll gap, feeding mechanisms and feeding speed) and powder properties (particle size, shape, moisture content). The moisture content affects the powder properties, such as the flowability and cohesion, but it is not clear how the moisture content will influence the powder compression behaviour during roller compaction. In this study, the effect of moisture contents on roller compaction behaviour of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, Avicel PH102) was investigated experimentally. MCC samples of different moisture contents were prepared by mixing as-received MCC powder with different amount of water that was sprayed onto the powder bed being agitated in a rotary mixer. The flowability of these samples were evaluated in terms of the poured angle of repose and flow functions. The moist powders were then compacted using the instrumented roller compactor developed at the University of Birmingham. The flow and compression behaviour during roller compaction and the properties of produced ribbons were examined. It has been found that, as the moisture content increases, the flowability of moist MCC powders decreases and the powder becomes more cohesive. As a consequence of non-uniform flow of powder into the compaction zone induced by the friction between powder and side cheek plates, all produced ribbons have a higher density in the middle and lower densities at the edges. For the ribbons made of powders with high moisture contents, different hydration states across the ribbon width were also identified from SEM images. Moreover, it was interesting to find that these ribbons were split into two halves. This is attributed to the reduction in the mechanical strength of moist powder compacts with high moisture contents produced at high compression pressures. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Engineering Model of High Pressure Moist Air

    OpenAIRE

    Hyhlík Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the moist air equation of state. There are equations of state discussed in the article, i.e. the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases, the model of an ideal mixture of real gases and the model based on the virial equation of state. The evaluation of sound speed based on the ideal mixture concept is mentioned. The sound speed calculated by the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases is compared with the sound speed calculated by using the model based on the concept ...

  16. A transilient matrix for moist convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romps, D.; Kuang, Z.

    2011-08-15

    A method is introduced for diagnosing a transilient matrix for moist convection. This transilient matrix quantifies the nonlocal transport of air by convective eddies: for every height z, it gives the distribution of starting heights z{prime} for the eddies that arrive at z. In a cloud-resolving simulation of deep convection, the transilient matrix shows that two-thirds of the subcloud air convecting into the free troposphere originates from within 100 m of the surface. This finding clarifies which initial height to use when calculating convective available potential energy from soundings of the tropical troposphere.

  17. On the sensitivities of idealized moist baroclinic waves to environmental temperature and moist convection

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    Kirshbaum, Daniel; Merlis, Timothy; Gyakum, John; McTaggart-Cowan, Ron

    2017-04-01

    The impact of cloud diabatic heating on baroclinic life cycles has been studied for decades, with the nearly universal finding that this heating enhances the system growth rate. However, few if any studies have systematically addressed the sensitivity of baroclinic waves to environmental temperature. For a given relative humidity, warmer atmospheres contain more moisture than colder atmospheres. They also are more prone to the development of deep moist convection, which is itself a major source of diabatic heating. Thus, it is reasonable to expect faster baroclinic wave growth in warmer systems. To address this question, this study performs idealized simulations of moist baroclinic waves in a periodic channel, using initial environments with identical relative humidities, dry stabilities, and dry available potential energies but varying environmental temperatures and moist instabilities. While the dry versions of these simulations exhibit virtually identical wave growth, the moist versions exhibit major differences in life cycle. Counter-intuitively, despite slightly faster initial wave growth, the warmer and moister waves ultimately develop into weaker baroclinic systems with an earlier onset of the decay phase. An energetics analysis reveals that the reduced wave amplitude in the warmer cases stems from a reduced transfer of available potential energy into eddy potential energy. This reduced energy transfer is associated with an unfavorable phasing of mid-to-upper-level thermal and vorticity anomalies, which limits the meridional heat flux.

  18. Behavior of highly radioactive iodine on charcoal in moist air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, R.A.; Manning, S.R.; Martin, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    The behavior of highly radioactive iodine adsorbed on charcoal exposed to moist air (110 torr water vapor partial pressure) was investigated in a series of six experiments. The amount of radioactive 130 I on the well-insulated 28-cm 3 bed ranged from 50 to 570 Ci, and the relative humidity was 47 percent at the bed inlet temperature of 70 0 C. Radioactive iodine was released from the test beds at a continuous fractional release rate of approximately 7 x 10 -6 /hr for all types of charcoal tested. The chemical form of the released iodine was such that it was very highly penetrating with respect to the nine different types of commercial impregnated charcoals tested in backup collection beds. Two types of silver-nitrate-coated adsorption materials behaved similarly to the charcoals. Silver-exchanged type 13-X molecular sieve adsorbers were 20 to 50 times more efficient for adsorbing the highly penetrating iodine, but not as efficient as normally found for collecting methyl iodide. The chemical form of the highly penetrating iodine was not determined. When the moist air velocity was decreased from 28.5 fpm (25 0 C) to as low as 0.71 fpm (25 0 C), the charcoal bed temperature rose slowly and reached the ignition temperature in three of the experiments. At 0.71 fpm (25 0 C) the ignited charcoal beds reached maximum temperatures of 430 to 470 0 C because of the limited oxygen supply. The charcoal exposed for four years at Oak Ridge ignited at 283 0 C compared with 368 0 C for unused charcoal from the same batch. Two of the experiments used charcoal containing 1 or 2 percent TEDA (triethylene-diamine) and a proprietary flame retardant. The oxidation and ignition behavior of these charcoals did not appear to be affected adversely by the presence of the TEDA

  19. Moist temperate forest butterflies of western Bhutan

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    Arun P. Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Random surveys were carried out in moist temperate forests (1,860–3,116 m around Bunakha Village and Dochula Pass, near Thimphu in western Bhutan, recording 65 species of butterflies.  Of these, 11 species, viz., Straightwing Blue Orthomiella pontis pontis Elwes, Slate Royal Maneca bhotea bhotea Moore, Dull Green Hairstreak Esakiozephyrus icana Moore, Yellow Woodbrown Lethe nicetas Hewitson, Small Silverfork Zophoessa jalaurida elwesi Moore, Scarce Labyrinth, Neope pulahina (Evans, Chumbi Wall Chonala masoni Elwes, Pale Hockeystick Sailer Neptis manasa manasa Moore and White Commodore Parasarpa dudu dudu Westwood, are restricted to the eastern Himalaya, northeastern India and Myanmar.  Two other species, Tawny Mime Chiasa agestor agestor (Gray and Himalayan Spotted Flat Celaenorrhinus munda Moore have been only rarely recorded from Bhutan and a few individuals of the rare Bhutan Glory Bhutanitis lidderdalei Atkinson were also recorded near Bunakha.  

  20. Diagnosis of Moist Vorticity and Moist Divergence for a Heavy Precipitation Event in Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang LI; Daoyong YANG; Xiaohua JIANG; Jing PAN; Yanke TAN

    2017-01-01

    A regional heavy precipitation event that occurred over Sichuan Province on 8-9 September 2015 is analyzed based on hourly observed precipitation data obtained from weather stations and NCEP FNL data.Two moist dynamic parameters, i.e., moist vorticity (mζ) and moist divergence (mδ), are used to diagnose this heavy precipitation event.Results show that the topography over southwestern China has a significant impact on the ability of these two parameters to diagnose precipitation.When the impact of topography is weak (i.e., low altitude), mζ cannot exactly depict the location of precipitation in the initial stage of the event.Then, as the precipitation develops, its ability to depict the location improves significantly.In particular, mζ coincides best with the location of precipitation during the peak stage of the event.Besides, the evolution of the mζ center shows high consistency with the evolution of the precipitation center.For mδ,although some false-alarm regions are apparent, it reflects the location of precipitation almost entirely during the precipitation event.However, the mδ center shows inconsistency with the precipitation center.These results suggest that both mζ and mδ have a significant ability to predict the location of precipitation.Moreover, mζ has a stronger ability than mδ in terms of predicting the variability of the precipitation center.However, when the impact of topography is strong (i.e., high altitude), both of these two moist dynamic parameters are unable to depict the location and center of precipitation during the entire precipitation event, suggesting their weak ability to predict precipitation over complex topography.

  1. Engineering Model of High Pressure Moist Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyhlík Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the moist air equation of state. There are equations of state discussed in the article, i.e. the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases, the model of an ideal mixture of real gases and the model based on the virial equation of state. The evaluation of sound speed based on the ideal mixture concept is mentioned. The sound speed calculated by the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases is compared with the sound speed calculated by using the model based on the concept of an ideal mixture of real gases. The comparison of enthalpy end entropy based on the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases and the model of an ideal mixture of real gases is performed. It is shown that the model of an ideal mixture of real gases deviates from the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases only in the case of high pressure. An impossibility of the definition of partial pressure in the mixture of real gases is discussed, where the virial equation of state is used.

  2. Moist Soil Management of Wetland Impoundments for Plants and Invertebrates

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    Department of the Interior — In year’s past an impoundment was drained (a drawdown) when floating-leaved plants covered more than 50% of the water area. Drawdowns encourage beneficial moist soil...

  3. A Moist Crevice for Word Aversion: In Semantics Not Sounds.

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    Paul H Thibodeau

    Full Text Available Why do people self-report an aversion to words like "moist"? The present studies represent an initial scientific exploration into the phenomenon of word aversion by investigating its prevalence and cause. Results of five experiments indicate that about 10-20% of the population is averse to the word "moist." This population often speculates that phonological properties of the word are the cause of their displeasure. However, data from the current studies point to semantic features of the word-namely, associations with disgusting bodily functions-as a more prominent source of peoples' unpleasant experience. "Moist," for averse participants, was notable for its valence and personal use, rather than imagery or arousal-a finding that was confirmed by an experiment designed to induce an aversion to the word. Analyses of individual difference measures suggest that word aversion is more prevalent among younger, more educated, and more neurotic people, and is more commonly reported by females than males.

  4. Oxidation of uranium monocarbide in dry or moist oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, B.; Herrmann, F.J.

    1968-01-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of uranium monocarbide either in dry or moist air or in oxygen-argon mixtures, has been studied thermogravimetrically, between 500 and 800 C in a circulating atmosphere. In all cases the oxidation leads to the formation of U 3 O 8 . Between 500 and 700 C, the activation energy is about 21 +3 kcal/mole. It seems to decrease between 700 and 800 C, but the reaction follows always a linear rate law. In moist air, the oxidation proceeds more swiftly, due to an increase in the reactional interface. An evaluation of the over-temperature has been made at 800 C. (author) [fr

  5. Predation drives nesting success in moist highland grasslands: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By focusing on process-oriented data rather than inventory-type data, this study provides a robust understanding of the effects of agricultural management on grassland bird reproductive output in the moist highland grasslands (MHGs) of South Africa. Four-hundred and four nests of 12 grassland-breeding bird species were ...

  6. Sucralfate cream in the management of moist desquamation during radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaney, G. [Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool, NSW, (Australia). Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Therapy Centre; Fisher, R.; Hook, C. [Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW, (Australia). Department of Radiation Oncology; Barton, M. [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW (Australia). Department of Radiation Oncology

    1997-08-01

    Randomized trials have shown that sucralfate is effective in the management of acute radiation reactions such as oesophagitis, mucositis and proctitis. However, at the time of commencement of the present trial, it had never been used in the management of moist desquamation of the skin. The purpose of the present study was to assess the value of sucralfate cream in the management of moist desquamation during radiotherapy. Patients who developed moist desquamation during radiation were eligible. Patients were stratified by site of radiotherapy into three groups: (i) the head and neck; (ii) the breast; and (iii) other sites. Patients were randomized to receive 10% sucralfate in sorbolene cream or sorbolene alone. Patients` pain and skin healing were assessed by using linear analogue self-assessment (LASA) scales and by serial measurement of the desquamated area. Due to poor patient accrual, the trial was terminated after 2 years and 39 patients. No statistically significant difference was found between the two arms in either time from randomization to healing or improvement in pain score. Twenty patients in the sucralfate arm took a geometric mean of 14.8 days to heal whereas 19 patients receiving sorbolene alone took a geometric mean of 14.2 days. The ratio of mean times to healing, 1.043, is not statistically different from 1 (P= 0.86; 95% Cl = 0.65,1.67). A total of 75% of the patients reported pain relief on application of either cream. Mean LASA scores for pain for each day after randomization were compared by treatment arm and there was no statistically significant difference (P = 0.32). The present trial was unable to show a difference in terms of time to healing or pain relief in the treatment of moist desquamation. The small number of patients in the trial gave a wide confidence interval for treatment difference, implying that an important effect of sucralfate has not been excluded. Given the poor accrual in the present, single-institution study, future

  7. Sucralfate cream in the management of moist desquamation during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaney, G.; Fisher, R.; Hook, C.; Barton, M.

    1997-01-01

    Randomized trials have shown that sucralfate is effective in the management of acute radiation reactions such as oesophagitis, mucositis and proctitis. However, at the time of commencement of the present trial, it had never been used in the management of moist desquamation of the skin. The purpose of the present study was to assess the value of sucralfate cream in the management of moist desquamation during radiotherapy. Patients who developed moist desquamation during radiation were eligible. Patients were stratified by site of radiotherapy into three groups: (i) the head and neck; (ii) the breast; and (iii) other sites. Patients were randomized to receive 10% sucralfate in sorbolene cream or sorbolene alone. Patients' pain and skin healing were assessed by using linear analogue self-assessment (LASA) scales and by serial measurement of the desquamated area. Due to poor patient accrual, the trial was terminated after 2 years and 39 patients. No statistically significant difference was found between the two arms in either time from randomization to healing or improvement in pain score. Twenty patients in the sucralfate arm took a geometric mean of 14.8 days to heal whereas 19 patients receiving sorbolene alone took a geometric mean of 14.2 days. The ratio of mean times to healing, 1.043, is not statistically different from 1 (P= 0.86; 95% Cl = 0.65,1.67). A total of 75% of the patients reported pain relief on application of either cream. Mean LASA scores for pain for each day after randomization were compared by treatment arm and there was no statistically significant difference (P = 0.32). The present trial was unable to show a difference in terms of time to healing or pain relief in the treatment of moist desquamation. The small number of patients in the trial gave a wide confidence interval for treatment difference, implying that an important effect of sucralfate has not been excluded. Given the poor accrual in the present, single-institution study, future

  8. A Warming Surface but a Cooling Top of Atmosphere Associated with Warm, Moist Air Mass Advection over the Ice and Snow Covered Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlar, J.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric advection of heat and moisture from lower latitudes to the high-latitude Arctic is a critical component of Earth's energy cycle. Large-scale advective events have been shown to make up a significant portion of the moist static energy budget of the Arctic atmosphere, even though such events are typically infrequent. The transport of heat and moisture over surfaces covered by ice and snow results in dynamic changes to the boundary layer structure, stability and turbulence, as well as to diabatic processes such as cloud distribution, microphysics and subsequent radiative effects. Recent studies have identified advection into the Arctic as a key mechanism for modulating the melt and freeze of snow and sea ice, via modification to all-sky longwave radiation. This paper examines the radiative impact during summer of such Arctic advective events at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), considering also the important role they play for the surface energy budget. Using infrared sounder measurements from the AIRS satellite, the summer frequency of significantly stable and moist advective events from 2003-2014 are characterized; justification of AIRS profiles over the Arctic are made using radiosoundings during a 3-month transect (ACSE) across the Eastern Arctic basin. One such event was observed within the East Siberian Sea in August 2014 during ACSE, providing in situ verification on the robustness and capability of AIRS to monitor advective cases. Results will highlight the important surface warming aspect of stable, moist instrusions. However a paradox emerges as such events also result in a cooling at the TOA evident on monthly mean TOA radiation. Thus such events have a climatic importance over ice and snow covered surfaces across the Arctic. ERA-Interim reanalyses are examined to provide a longer term perspective on the frequency of such events as well as providing capability to estimate meridional fluxes of moist static energy.

  9. Moist Heat Disinfection and Revisiting the A0 Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Patrick J; Schoene, Michael J; Dehmler, Matthew A; McDonnell, Gerald

    2016-04-02

    Moist heat is employed in the medical device, pharmaceutical, and food processing industries to render products and goods safe for use and human consumption. Applications include its use to pasteurize a broad range of foods and beverages, the control of microbial contamination of blood products, and treatment of bone tissue transplants and vaccines. In the pharmaceutical industry, water heated to 65°C to 80°C is used to sanitize high-purity water systems. In healthcare, it has been employed for decades to disinfect patient care items ranging from bedpans to anesthesia equipment. There is a good understanding of the conditions necessary to achieve disinfection of microorganisms at temperatures ranging from 65°C to 100°C. Based on this information, the efficacy of moist heat processes at a range of exposure times and temperatures can be quantified based on mathematical models such as the A0 calculation. While the A0 concept is recognized within the European healthcare community, it has yet to be widely adopted within the United States. This article provides information regarding the A0 concept, a brief overview of the classification of thermal disinfection for use with healthcare applications within the United States, and recent data on reinvestigating the thermal disinfection of a selected panel of microorganisms and a mixed culture biofilm.

  10. Electromagnetic aquametry electromagnetic wave interaction with water and moist substances

    CERN Document Server

    Kupfer, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of Electromagnetic Aquametry. It summarizes the wide area of metrology and its applications in electromagnetic sensing of moist materials. The physical properties of water in various degrees of binding interacting with electromagnetic fields is presented by model systems. The book describes measurement methods and sensors in the frequency domain, TDR-techniques for environmental problems, methods and sensors for quality assessment of biological substances, and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Environmental sciences, as well as civil and geoengineering, fossil fuels, food and pharmaceutical science are the main fields of application. A very wide frequency sprectrum is used for dielectric measurement methods, but the microwave range is clearly dominant. Multiparameter methods as well as methods of principal components and artificial neural networks for density independent measurements are described.

  11. Toxic and carcinogenic agents in dry and moist snuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, D; Adams, J D; Lisk, D; Fisenne, I; Brunnemann, K D

    1987-12-01

    The oral use of snuff is causatively associated with cancer of the oral cavity. Since most epidemiologic studies to date relate to the long-term use of dry snuff, which has dominated the U.S. smokeless tobacco market in the past, the concentrations of several toxic and carcinogenic agents in the three most popular dry snuff brands have been compared with those in the five most popular moist snuff brands sold in the United States. All eight samples were analyzed for nitrate, alkaloids, polyphenols, volatile carbonyl compounds, lead, cadmium, selenium, and the carcinogenic compounds benzo[a]pyrene (CAS: 50-32-8), polonium-210 (CAS: 13981-52-7), volatile N-nitrosamines (VNAs), N-nitrosodiethanolamine (CAS: 1116-54-7), and the tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs). Most of the snuff brands were rich in nitrate (greater than or equal to 1.5%), total polyphenols (greater than 2%), and in nicotine (greater than or equal to 1.5%), which is the habituating factor in tobacco use. Concentrations of the VNAs were significantly above the permissible limits set for some food products; the concentrations of the TSNAs in both snuff types exceeded the levels of nitrosamines in other consumer products by at least two to three orders of magnitude. The extremely high levels of the TSNAs in snuff have remained unchanged during the last decade and present the major carcinogenic risk factor for the oral use of snuff. Polonium-210 contributes further to the carcinogenic risk associated with snuff. The chemical-analytical data presented in this study do not indicate marked differences in the carcinogenic potential of moist snuff compared to dry snuff.

  12. A comparative study of the efficacy of topical negative pressure moist dressings and conventional moist dressings in chronic wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauro Leo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the efficacy of topical negative pressure moist wound dressing as compared to conventional moist wound dressings in improving the healing process in chronic wounds and to prove that negative pressure dressings can be used as a much better treatment option in the management of chronic wounds. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective comparative study of data from 112 patients with chronic wounds, of which 56 patients underwent topical negative pressure dressings (17 diabetic, 10 pressure sores, nine ischemic, two varicose, 10 post-infective raw areas and eight traumatic - six had bone exposed, two orthopaedic prosthesis exposed. The remaining 56 patients underwent conventional moist dressings (20 diabetic, two ischemic, 15 pressure sores, three varicose, eight post-infective raw areas and eight traumatic - five had bone exposed, three orthopaedic prosthesis exposed. The results were compared after 10 days. The variables compared were, rate of granulation tissue formation as a percentage of ulcer area covered, skin graft take up as the percentage of ulcer surface area and duration of hospital stay. The variables were compared using Unpaired Student′s t test. A " P" value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Out of 56 patients who underwent topical negative pressure dressings, six (10.71% were failures, due to failure in maintaining topical negative pressure due to defective sealing technique; these were included into the study group. After 10 days, the mean rate of granulation tissue formation was 71.43% of ulcer surface area. All these 56 cases underwent split-thickness skin grafting. The mean graft take-up was 79.29%. The mean hospital stay was 32.64 days. In the remaining 56 patients, the mean rate of granulation tissue formation was 52.85% of ulcer surface area. The mean graft take-up was only 60.45% of the total ulcer surface area. The mean hospital stay was 60.45 days. Conclusion: To conclude, topical negative

  13. Statics of deformable solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bisplinghoff, Raymond L; Pian, Theodore HH

    2014-01-01

    Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.

  14. 9 CFR 381.165 - “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... heat.â 381.165 Section 381.165 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.165 “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated that has been cooked by the action of moist heat in...

  15. Health constraints of Cart Horses in the Dry warm, Sub-moist tepid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to identify the major health and welfare constraints of cart horses in the dry warm, sub-moist tepid and moist cool climatic zones of Ethiopia. The study was cross sectional and a total of 837 horses were examined. Five major health problems and welfare issues were identified. Lymphangitis ...

  16. A new mix design concept for earth-moist concrete: A theoretical and experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hüsken, Götz; Brouwers, Jos

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses experiments on earth-moist concrete (EMC) based on the ideas of a new mix design concept. First, a brief introduction into particle packing and relevant packing theories is given. Based on packing theories for geometric packing, a new concept for the mix design of earth-moist

  17. Land-cover classification in a moist tropical region of Brazil with Landsat TM imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guiying; Lu, Dengsheng; Moran, Emilio; Hetrick, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to improve land-cover classification accuracy in a moist tropical region in Brazil by examining the use of different remote sensing-derived variables and classification algorithms. Different scenarios based on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral data and derived vegetation indices and textural images, and different classification algorithms - maximum likelihood classification (MLC), artificial neural network (ANN), classification tree analysis (CTA), and object-based classification (OBC), were explored. The results indicated that a combination of vegetation indices as extra bands into Landsat TM multispectral bands did not improve the overall classification performance, but the combination of textural images was valuable for improving vegetation classification accuracy. In particular, the combination of both vegetation indices and textural images into TM multispectral bands improved overall classification accuracy by 5.6% and kappa coefficient by 6.25%. Comparison of the different classification algorithms indicated that CTA and ANN have poor classification performance in this research, but OBC improved primary forest and pasture classification accuracies. This research indicates that use of textural images or use of OBC are especially valuable for improving the vegetation classes such as upland and liana forest classes having complex stand structures and having relatively large patch sizes.

  18. Static electromagnetic frequency changers

    CERN Document Server

    Rozhanskii, L L

    1963-01-01

    Static Electromagnetic Frequency Changers is about the theory, design, construction, and applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers, devices that used for multiplication or division of alternating current frequency. It is originally published in the Russian language. This book is organized into five chapters. The first three chapters introduce the readers to the principles of operation, the construction, and the potential applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers and to the principles of their design. The two concluding chapters use some hitherto unpublished work

  19. Multiscale eddy simulation for moist atmospheric convection: Preliminary investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stechmann, Samuel N., E-mail: stechmann@wisc.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

    2014-08-15

    A multiscale computational framework is designed for simulating atmospheric convection and clouds. In this multiscale framework, large eddy simulation (LES) is used to model the coarse scales of 100 m and larger, and a stochastic, one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model is used to represent the fine scales of 100 m and smaller. Coupled and evolving together, these two components provide a multiscale eddy simulation (MES). Through its fine-scale turbulence and moist thermodynamics, MES allows coarse grid cells to be partially cloudy and to encompass cloudy–clear air mixing on scales down to 1 m; in contrast, in typical LES such fine-scale processes are not represented or are parameterized using bulk deterministic closures. To illustrate MES and investigate its multiscale dynamics, a shallow cumulus cloud field is simulated. The fine-scale variability is seen to take a plausible form, with partially cloudy grid cells prominent near cloud edges and cloud top. From earlier theoretical work, this mixing of cloudy and clear air is believed to have an important impact on buoyancy. However, contrary to expectations based on earlier theoretical studies, the mean statistics of the bulk cloud field are essentially the same in MES and LES; possible reasons for this are discussed, including possible limitations in the present formulation of MES. One difference between LES and MES is seen in the coarse-scale turbulent kinetic energy, which appears to grow slowly in time due to incoherent stochastic fluctuations in the buoyancy. This and other considerations suggest the need for some type of spatial and/or temporal filtering to attenuate undersampling of the stochastic fine-scale processes.

  20. Multiscale eddy simulation for moist atmospheric convection: Preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stechmann, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    A multiscale computational framework is designed for simulating atmospheric convection and clouds. In this multiscale framework, large eddy simulation (LES) is used to model the coarse scales of 100 m and larger, and a stochastic, one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model is used to represent the fine scales of 100 m and smaller. Coupled and evolving together, these two components provide a multiscale eddy simulation (MES). Through its fine-scale turbulence and moist thermodynamics, MES allows coarse grid cells to be partially cloudy and to encompass cloudy–clear air mixing on scales down to 1 m; in contrast, in typical LES such fine-scale processes are not represented or are parameterized using bulk deterministic closures. To illustrate MES and investigate its multiscale dynamics, a shallow cumulus cloud field is simulated. The fine-scale variability is seen to take a plausible form, with partially cloudy grid cells prominent near cloud edges and cloud top. From earlier theoretical work, this mixing of cloudy and clear air is believed to have an important impact on buoyancy. However, contrary to expectations based on earlier theoretical studies, the mean statistics of the bulk cloud field are essentially the same in MES and LES; possible reasons for this are discussed, including possible limitations in the present formulation of MES. One difference between LES and MES is seen in the coarse-scale turbulent kinetic energy, which appears to grow slowly in time due to incoherent stochastic fluctuations in the buoyancy. This and other considerations suggest the need for some type of spatial and/or temporal filtering to attenuate undersampling of the stochastic fine-scale processes

  1. Rectifier cabinet static breaker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantino, R.A. Jr; Gliebe, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    A rectifier cabinet static breaker replaces a blocking diode pair with an SCR and the installation of a power transistor in parallel with the latch contactor to commutate the SCR to the off state. The SCR serves as a static breaker with fast turnoff capability providing an alternative way of achieving reactor scram in addition to performing the function of the replaced blocking diodes. The control circuitry for the rectifier cabinet static breaker includes on-line test capability and an LED indicator light to denote successful test completion. Current limit circuitry provides high-speed protection in the event of overload. 7 figs

  2. Rectifier cabinet static breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Jr, Roger A.; Gliebe, Ronald J.

    1992-09-01

    A rectifier cabinet static breaker replaces a blocking diode pair with an SCR and the installation of a power transistor in parallel with the latch contactor to commutate the SCR to the off state. The SCR serves as a static breaker with fast turnoff capability providing an alternative way of achieving reactor scram in addition to performing the function of the replaced blocking diodes. The control circuitry for the rectifier cabinet static breaker includes on-line test capability and an LED indicator light to denote successful test completion. Current limit circuitry provides high-speed protection in the event of overload.

  3. 'Static' octupole deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leander, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Certain nuclei can be described as having intrinsic shapes with parity breaking static moments. The rationale for this description is discussed, spectroscopic models are outlined and their consequences are compared with experiment. (orig.)

  4. Convergence behavior of idealized convection-resolving simulations of summertime deep moist convection over land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panosetti, Davide; Schlemmer, Linda; Schär, Christoph

    2018-05-01

    Convection-resolving models (CRMs) can explicitly simulate deep convection and resolve interactions between convective updrafts. They are thus increasingly used in numerous weather and climate applications. However, the truncation of the continuous energy cascade at scales of O (1 km) poses a serious challenge, as in kilometer-scale simulations the size and properties of the simulated convective cells are often determined by the horizontal grid spacing (Δ x ).In this study, idealized simulations of deep moist convection over land are performed to assess the convergence behavior of a CRM at Δ x = 8, 4, 2, 1 km and 500 m. Two types of convergence estimates are investigated: bulk convergence addressing domain-averaged and integrated variables related to the water and energy budgets, and structural convergence addressing the statistics and scales of individual clouds and updrafts. Results show that bulk convergence generally begins at Δ x =4 km, while structural convergence is not yet fully achieved at the kilometer scale, despite some evidence that the resolution sensitivity of updraft velocities and convective mass fluxes decreases at finer resolution. In particular, at finer grid spacings the maximum updraft velocity generally increases, and the size of the smallest clouds is mostly determined by Δ x . A number of different experiments are conducted, and it is found that the presence of orography and environmental vertical wind shear yields more energetic structures at scales much larger than Δ x , sometimes reducing the resolution sensitivity. Overall the results lend support to the use of kilometer-scale resolutions in CRMs, despite the inability of these models to fully resolve the associated cloud field.

  5. Study Of Plant Regeneration Potential In Tropical Moist Deciduous Forest In Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish K Mishra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration patterns of species population can address climate change by adaptive evolution or by migrating association to survive in their favorable climate and finally decided to particular forest future. In this paper we examined the status of regeneration potential of tree species in tropical moist deciduous forest at Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, Northern India. To investigate tree, sapling and seedling population distribution, we examine regeneration status in 145 random plots in study area. Total 74 plant species of 60 genera belonging to 32 families out of which 71 species of trees, 56 of seedlings and 60 of saplings were found in the forest. On the basis of importance value index Mallotus philippensis, Tectona grandis, Shorea robusta, Syzygium cumini and Bombax ceiba have been found as dominant species in the study area. As far as the regeneration status is concerned, the maximum tree species (64% have been found in good regeneration category. Significant variations in species richness and population density, between three life form (i. e. tree, sapling and seedling have been found. In which only three new tree species Prosopis juliflora, Psidium guajava and Morus alba were added in sapling and seedling stage. It is major ecological concern that about 19 % economically important plant species like Madhuca longifolia, Terminalia elliptica, Buchanania cochinchinensis, some Ficus species etc. have been found in poor regeneration phage, whereas about 7% species found in no regeneration categories. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 153-163 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9218

  6. Novel Friction Law for the Static Friction Force based on Local Precursor Slipping

    OpenAIRE

    Katano, Yu; Nakano, Ken; Otsuki, Michio; Matsukawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The sliding of a solid object on a solid substrate requires a shear force that is larger than the maximum static friction force. It is commonly believed that the maximum static friction force is proportional to the loading force and does not depend on the apparent contact area. The ratio of the maximum static friction force to the loading force is called the static friction coefficient µ M, which is considered to be a constant. Here, we conduct experiments demonstrating that the static fricti...

  7. Role of hydrocolloid dressings in the treatment of moist skin desquamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolin, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    Moist skin desquamation has been of concern to radiation oncologists since the inception of radiation therapy as a major treatment modality. As treatment units became more sophisticated severe skin reactions became less of a problem, but never disappeared. In recent years, with the more aggressive use of chemotherapy concurrently with radiation therapy, and with some treatment regimens requiring high doses to the skin, moist desquamation has occurred more frequently. The principle of wound healing under occlusive moist conditions is based on the observation that untouched blisters showed faster reepithelialization than open blisters. As long ago as 1962, it was demonstrated that if tissue hydration were maintained the rate of epidermal resurfacing would be enhanced. The primary disadvantage has been the fear of infection. Since June 1984, the authors have treated 40 patients with moist desquamation with an occlusive hydrocolloid dressing. These patients had undergone radiation therapy for a variety of conditions, including Hodgkin disease, head and neck cancers, melanoma, and breast cancer. Some patients had received concurrent chemotherapy and experienced severe reactions. All patients healed well with good cosmesis, and there were no infections. Pain relief was excellent. This exhibit demonstrates the theory of moist occlusive healing. Dressing application and case history pictures illustrating the healing process are shown

  8. Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M

    2014-04-01

    We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter.

  9. Global and exponential attractors of the three dimensional viscous primitive equations of large-scale moist atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    You, Bo; Li, Fang

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the long-time behavior of solutions for the three dimensional viscous primitive equations of large-scale moist atmosphere. We prove the existence of a global attractor for the three dimensional viscous primitive equations of large-scale moist atmosphere by asymptotic a priori estimate and construct an exponential attractor by using the smoothing property of the semigroup generated by the three dimensional viscous primitive equations of large-scale moist atmosphere...

  10. Attaining the canopy in dry and moist tropical forests: strong differences in tree growth trajectories reflect variation in growing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienen, Roel J W; Zuidema, Pieter A; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Availability of light and water differs between tropical moist and dry forests, with typically higher understorey light levels and lower water availability in the latter. Therefore, growth trajectories of juvenile trees--those that have not attained the canopy--are likely governed by temporal fluctuations in light availability in moist forests (suppressions and releases), and by spatial heterogeneity in water availability in dry forests. In this study, we compared juvenile growth trajectories of Cedrela odorata in a dry (Mexico) and a moist forest (Bolivia) using tree rings. We tested the following specific hypotheses: (1) moist forest juveniles show more and longer suppressions, and more and stronger releases; (2) moist forest juveniles exhibit wider variation in canopy accession pattern, i.e. the typical growth trajectory to the canopy; (3) growth variation among dry forest juveniles persists over longer time due to spatial heterogeneity in water availability. As expected, the proportion of suppressed juveniles was higher in moist than in dry forest (72 vs. 17%). Moist forest suppressions also lasted longer (9 vs. 5 years). The proportion of juveniles that experienced releases in moist forest (76%) was higher than in dry forest (41%), and releases in moist forests were much stronger. Trees in the moist forest also had a wider variation in canopy accession patterns compared to the dry forest. Our results also showed that growth variation among juvenile trees persisted over substantially longer periods of time in dry forest (>64 years) compared to moist forest (12 years), most probably because of larger persistent spatial variation in water availability. Our results suggest that periodic increases in light availability are more important for attaining the canopy in moist forests, and that spatial heterogeneity in water availability governs long-term tree growth in dry forests.

  11. High performance of treated and washed MSWI bottom ash granulates as natural aggregate replacement within earth-moist concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keulen, A; van Zomeren, A; Harpe, P; Aarnink, W; Simons, H A E; Brouwers, H J H

    2016-03-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash was treated with specially designed dry and wet treatment processes, obtaining high quality bottom ash granulate fractions (BGF) suitable for up to 100% replacement of natural gravel in concrete. The wet treatment (using only water for separating and washing) significantly lowers the leaching of e.g. chloride and sulfate, heavy metals (antimony, molybdenum and copper) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Two potential bottom ash granulate fractions, both in compliance with the standard EN 12620 (aggregates for concrete), were added into earth-moist concrete mixtures. The fresh and hardened concrete physical performances (e.g. workability, strength and freeze-thaw) of high strength concrete mixtures were maintained or improved compared with the reference mixtures, even after replacing up to 100% of the initial natural gravel. Final element leaching of monolithic and crushed granular state BGF containing concretes, showed no differences with the gravel references. Leaching of all mixtures did not exceed the limit values set by the Dutch Soil Quality Degree. In addition, multiple-life-phase emission (pH static test) for the critical elements of input bottom ash, bottom ash granulate (BGF) and crushed BGF containing concrete were assessed. Simulation pH lowering or potential carbonation processes indicated that metal (antimony, barium, chrome and copper) and sulfate element leaching behavior are mainly pH dominated and controlled, although differ in mechanism and related mineral abundance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding dynamics of large-scale atmospheric vortices with moist-convective shallow water model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostami, M.; Zeitlin, V.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric jets and vortices which, together with inertia-gravity waves, constitute the principal dynamical entities of large-scale atmospheric motions, are well described in the framework of one- or multi-layer rotating shallow water models, which are obtained by vertically averaging of full “primitive” equations. There is a simple and physically consistent way to include moist convection in these models by adding a relaxational parameterization of precipitation and coupling precipitation with convective fluxes with the help of moist enthalpy conservation. We recall the construction of moist-convective rotating shallow water model (mcRSW) model and give an example of application to upper-layer atmospheric vortices. (paper)

  13. Moist-condition Training for Cerebrovascular Anastomosis: A Practical Step after Mastering Basic Manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Satoru; Sekiguchi, Tomoko; Mochizuki, Takahiro; Sato, Kimitoshi; Koizumi, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Kenji; Yamamoto, Isao; Kumabe, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    As cerebrovascular anastomosis is performed in moist conditions that may impede precise manipulations, surgeons must undergo extensive preoperative training. We developed a simple moist-condition training method. It involves placing a free-floating inner platform hosting an artery from a chicken wing in an outer container filled with tap water to just below the specimen. Trainees performed anastomosis under magnification. Training sessions mimicked difficulties encountered during operations such as poor visibility of the lumen and problems handling the sutures. A retrospective comparison of 100 wet- and 100 dry-condition training sessions for end-to-side anastomoses with 8 stitches showed that under moist condition the time required for the entire procedure was significantly longer (17.8 ± 2.1 vs. 15.3 ± 2.1 min, p bridge between training for basic manipulations under dry conditions and actual surgery.

  14. Inclusion of Linearized Moist Physics in Nasa's Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdaway, Daniel; Errico, Ronald; Gelaro, Ronaldo; Kim, Jong G.

    2013-01-01

    Inclusion of moist physics in the linearized version of a weather forecast model is beneficial in terms of variational data assimilation. Further, it improves the capability of important tools, such as adjoint-based observation impacts and sensitivity studies. A linearized version of the relaxed Arakawa-Schubert (RAS) convection scheme has been developed and tested in NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System data assimilation tools. A previous study of the RAS scheme showed it to exhibit reasonable linearity and stability. This motivates the development of a linearization of a near-exact version of the RAS scheme. Linearized large-scale condensation is included through simple conversion of supersaturation into precipitation. The linearization of moist physics is validated against the full nonlinear model for 6- and 24-h intervals, relevant to variational data assimilation and observation impacts, respectively. For a small number of profiles, sudden large growth in the perturbation trajectory is encountered. Efficient filtering of these profiles is achieved by diagnosis of steep gradients in a reduced version of the operator of the tangent linear model. With filtering turned on, the inclusion of linearized moist physics increases the correlation between the nonlinear perturbation trajectory and the linear approximation of the perturbation trajectory. A month-long observation impact experiment is performed and the effect of including moist physics on the impacts is discussed. Impacts from moist-sensitive instruments and channels are increased. The effect of including moist physics is examined for adjoint sensitivity studies. A case study examining an intensifying Northern Hemisphere Atlantic storm is presented. The results show a significant sensitivity with respect to moisture.

  15. Approximate maximum parsimony and ancestral maximum likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Noga; Chor, Benny; Pardi, Fabio; Rapoport, Anat

    2010-01-01

    We explore the maximum parsimony (MP) and ancestral maximum likelihood (AML) criteria in phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Both problems are NP-hard, so we seek approximate solutions. We formulate the two problems as Steiner tree problems under appropriate distances. The gist of our approach is the succinct characterization of Steiner trees for a small number of leaves for the two distances. This enables the use of known Steiner tree approximation algorithms. The approach leads to a 16/9 approximation ratio for AML and asymptotically to a 1.55 approximation ratio for MP.

  16. Influence of moist combustion gas on performance of a sub-critical turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wenbin; Su Ming

    2005-01-01

    In the HAT cycle, as the absolute humidity of the moist combustion gas increases, the performance of the turbine will also change. In this paper, one model to calculate the thermodynamic properties of the moist combustion gas is introduced, and another model to calculate the performance of the turbine is formulated based on the equations of one dimensional flow. Using these models with the geometric parameters of the turbine fixed, at the design working condition, the performance of the turbine is calculated and analyzed for different absolute humidities. Finally, some conclusions about the turbine performance are presented

  17. Energy conversion statics

    CERN Document Server

    Messerle, H K; Declaris, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Energy Conversion Statics deals with equilibrium situations and processes linking equilibrium states. A development of the basic theory of energy conversion statics and its applications is presented. In the applications the emphasis is on processes involving electrical energy. The text commences by introducing the general concept of energy with a survey of primary and secondary energy forms, their availability, and use. The second chapter presents the basic laws of energy conversion. Four postulates defining the overall range of applicability of the general theory are set out, demonstrating th

  18. Static Transition Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Damian, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Starting from an operational specification of a translation from a structured to an unstructured imperative language, we point out how a compositional and context-insensitive translation gives rise to static chains of jumps. Taking an inspiration from the notion of continuation, we state a new...... compositional and context-sensitive specification that provably gives rise to no static chains of jumps, no redundant labels, and no unused labels. It is defined with one inference rule per syntactic construct and operates in linear time and space on the size of the source program (indeed it operates in one...

  19. Maximum permissible dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This chapter presents a historic overview of the establishment of radiation guidelines by various national and international agencies. The use of maximum permissible dose and maximum permissible body burden limits to derive working standards is discussed

  20. Explosions and static electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Niels M

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of electrostatic discharges as causes of ignition of vapor/gas and dust/gas mixtures. A series of examples of static-caused explosions will be discussed. The concepts of explosion limits, the incendiveness of various discharge types and safe voltages are explained...

  1. Static Transition Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Damian, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Starting from an operational specification of a translation from a structured to an unstructured imperative language, we point out how a compositional and context-insensitive translation gives rise to static chains of jumps. Taking an inspiration from the notion of continuation, we state a new co...

  2. Use of moist run-of-mine coal for gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowka, K.; Duerlich, M.; Rabe, W. (VEB Gaskombinat Fritz Selbmann, Schwarze Pumpe (German Democratic Republic))

    1988-01-01

    A Series of experiments was performed in 1982 and 1986 to assess the feasibility of substituting brown coal briquets by raw brown coal in the fixed bed gasification plant for producing town gas at Schwarze Pumpe, GDR. Raw brown coal (50% coal moisture, screened coal of fractions 20 to 80 mm) had to be mixed with dry briquets to maintain a maximum 35% coal charge moisture. Briquet substitution degree varied from 20 to 50%. Short-term gasification tests were also carried out at an experimental generator examining 80 to 100% substitution degrees. Parameters of generator operation that were achieved are provided. Experiments proved that 50% briquet substitution is technologically feasible in industrial plant operation employing unscreened coal containing all coal fines. An economic assessment is further made that shows substantial energy savings in coal drying and briquetting.

  3. South American climate during the Last Glacial Maximum: Delayed onset of the South American monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, K. H.; Vizy, E. K.

    2006-01-01

    The climate of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) over South America is simulated using a regional climate model with 60-km resolution, providing a simulation that is superior to those available from global models that do not resolve the topography and regional-scale features of the South American climate realistically. LGM conditions on SST, insolation, vegetation, and reduced atmospheric CO2 on the South American climate are imposed together and individually. Remote influences are not included. Annual rainfall is 25-35% lower in the LGM than in the present day simulation throughout the Amazon basin. A primary cause is a 2-3 month delay in the onset of the rainy season, so that the dry season is about twice as long as in the present day. The delayed onset occurs because the low-level inflow from the tropical Atlantic onto the South American continent is drier than in the present day simulation due to reduced evaporation from cooler surface waters, and this slows the springtime buildup of moist static energy that is needed to initiate convection. Once the monsoon begins in the Southern Hemisphere, LGM rainfall rates are similar to those in the present day. In the Northern Hemisphere, however, rainfall is lower throughout the (shortened) rainy season. Regional-scale structure includes slight precipitation increases in the Nordeste region of Brazil and along the eastern foothills of the Andes, and a region in the center of the Amazon basin that does not experience annual drying. In the Andes Mountains, the signal is complicated, with regions of significant rainfall increases adjacent to regions with reduced precipitation.

  4. Randomized Comparison of Dry Dressings Versus Hydrogel in Management of Radiation-Induced Moist Desquamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macmillan, Maureen S.; Wells, Mary; MacBride, Sheila; Raab, Gillian M.; Munro, Alastair; MacDougall, Hugh

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We present the results of a randomized controlled clinical trial that evaluated the effect of a hydrogel or dry dressing on the time to healing of moist desquamation after radiotherapy to the head-and-neck, breast, or anorectal areas. Methods and Materials: A total of 357 patients were randomized before radiotherapy to receive simple dry dressings (Tricotex) or a hydrogel (Intrasite), with Tricotex as a secondary dressing. Patients were instructed to use their dressings from the onset of moist desquamation, if it occurred. Results: Of the 357 patients, 100 (28%) developed moist desquamation. The time to healing was significantly prolonged (hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.99), in patients assigned to gel dressings. No evidence was found that gel dressings had a significant impact on subjectively reported skin symptoms. Conclusion: The results of this study have not supported the routine use of hydrogels in the care of patients with moist desquamation and suggests that the healing times are prolonged, without any improvement in patient comfort

  5. Ionotropic Receptor-dependent moist and dry cells control hygrosensation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Zachary A; Silbering, Ana F; Cruz, Joyner; Yang, Ludi; Croset, Vincent; Benton, Richard; Garrity, Paul A

    2017-06-16

    Insects use hygrosensation (humidity sensing) to avoid desiccation and, in vectors such as mosquitoes, to locate vertebrate hosts. Sensory neurons activated by either dry or moist air ('dry cells' and 'moist cells') have been described in many insects, but their behavioral roles and the molecular basis of their hygrosensitivity remain unclear. We recently reported that Drosophila hygrosensation relies on three Ionotropic Receptors (IRs) required for dry cell function: IR25a, IR93a and IR40a (Knecht et al., 2016). Here, we discover Drosophila moist cells and show that they require IR25a and IR93a together with IR68a, a conserved, but orphan IR. Both IR68a- and IR40a-dependent pathways drive hygrosensory behavior: each is important for dry-seeking by hydrated flies and together they underlie moist-seeking by dehydrated flies. These studies reveal that humidity sensing in Drosophila , and likely other insects, involves the combined activity of two molecularly related but neuronally distinct hygrosensing systems.

  6. Soil Effects on Forest Structure and Diversity in a Moist and a Dry Tropical Forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña-Claros, M.; Poorter, L.; Alarcon, A.; Blate, G.; Choque, U.; Fredericksen, T.S.; Justiniano, J.; Leaño, C.; Licona, J.C.; Pariona, W.; Putz, F.E.; Quevedo, L.; Toledo, M.

    2012-01-01

    Soil characteristics are important drivers of variation in wet tropical forest structure and diversity, but few studies have evaluated these relationships in drier forest types. Using tree and soil data from 48 and 32 1 ha plots, respectively, in a Bolivian moist and dry forest, we asked how soil

  7. Leaf traits show different relationships with shade tolerance in moist versus dry tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorter, Lourens

    2009-03-01

    Shade tolerance is the central paradigm for understanding forest succession and dynamics, but there is considerable debate as to what the salient features of shade tolerance are, whether adult leaves show similar shade adaptations to seedling leaves, and whether the same leaf adaptations are found in forests under different climatic control. Here, adult leaf and metamer traits were measured for 39 tree species from a tropical moist semi-evergreen forest (1580 mm rain yr(-1)) and 41 species from a dry deciduous forest (1160 mm yr(-1)) in Bolivia. Twenty-six functional traits were measured and related to species regeneration light requirements.Adult leaf traits were clearly associated with shade tolerance. Different, rather than stronger, shade adaptations were found for moist compared with dry forest species. Shade adaptations exclusively found in the evergreen moist forest were related to tough and persistent leaves, and shade adaptations in the dry deciduous forest were related to high light interception and water use.These results suggest that, for forests differing in rainfall seasonality, there is a shift in the relative importance of functional leaf traits and performance trade-offs that control light partitioning. In the moist evergreen forest leaf traits underlying the growth-survival trade-off are important, whereas in the seasonally deciduous forest leaf traits underlying the growth trade-off between low and high light might become important.

  8. Surface and atmospheric controls on the onset of moist convection over land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gentine, P.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Andrea, D' F.; Ek, M.

    2013-01-01

    The onset of moist convection over land is investigated using a conceptual approach with a slab boundary layer model. We here determine the essential factors for the onset of boundary layer clouds over land, and study their relative importance. They are: 1) the ratio of the temperature to the

  9. Bark traits and life-history strategies of tropical dry- and moist forest trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, L.; McNeil, A.; Hurtado, V.H.; Prins, H.H.T.; Putz, F.E.

    2014-01-01

    1.Bark is crucial to trees because it protects their stems against fire and other hazards and because of its importance for assimilate transport, water relationships and repair. We evaluate size-dependent changes in bark thickness for 50 woody species from a moist forest and 50 species from a dry

  10. Restoring dry and moist forests of the inland northwestern United States [Chapter 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa B. Jain; Russell T. Graham

    2015-01-01

    The complex topography of the Inland Northwestern United States (58.4 million ha) interacts with soils and a highly variable climate to provide a mosaic of dry and moist mixed conifer forest settings. Approximately 20% of the area is covered by dry forests dominated by Pinus ponderosa, Pseudotsuga menziesii and contains a diversity of lower vegetation ranging from a...

  11. Seasonal variation in soil and plant water potentials in a Bolivian tropical moist and dry forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markesteijn, L.; Iraipi, J.; Bongers, F.; Poorter, L.

    2010-01-01

    We determined seasonal variation in soil matric potentials (¿soil) along a topographical gradient and with soil depth in a Bolivian tropical dry (1160 mm y-1 rain) and moist forest (1580 mm y-1). In each forest we analysed the effect of drought on predawn leaf water potentials (¿pd) and drought

  12. Moist Orographic Convection: Physical Mechanisms and Links to Surface-Exchange Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Kirshbaum

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current understanding of moist orographic convection and its regulation by surface-exchange processes. Such convection tends to develop when and where moist instability coincides with sufficient terrain-induced ascent to locally overcome convective inhibition. The terrain-induced ascent can be owing to mechanical (airflow over or around an obstacle and/or thermal (differential heating over sloping terrain forcing. For the former, the location of convective initiation depends on the dynamical flow regime. In “unblocked” flows that ascend the barrier, the convection tends to initiate over the windward slopes, while in “blocked” flows that detour around the barrier, the convection tends to initiate upstream and/or downstream of the high terrain where impinging flows split and rejoin, respectively. Processes that destabilize the upstream flow for mechanically forced moist convection include large-scale moistening and ascent, positive surface sensible and latent heat fluxes, and differential advection in baroclinic zones. For thermally forced flows, convective initiation is driven by thermally direct circulations with sharp updrafts over or downwind of the mountain crest (daytime or foot (nighttime. Along with the larger-scale background flow, local evapotranspiration and transport of moisture, as well as thermodynamic heterogeneities over the complex terrain, regulate moist instability in such events. Longstanding limitations in the quantitative understanding of related processes, including both convective preconditioning and initiation, must be overcome to improve the prediction of this convection, and its collective effects, in weather and climate models.

  13. Theoretical and numerical studies of transonic flow of moist air around a thin airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang-Chang [School of Mechanical Engineering, Andong National University, Kyongbuk (Korea); Rusak, Zvi [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Numerical studies of a two-dimensional and steady transonic flow of moist air around a thin airfoil with condensation are presented. The computations are guided by a recent transonic small-disturbance (TSD) theory of Rusak and Lee (2000) on this topic. The asymptotic model provides a simplified framework to investigate the changes in the flow field caused by the heat addition from a nonequilibrium process of condensation of water vapor in the air by homogeneous nucleation. An iterative method which is based on a type-sensitive difference scheme is applied to solve the governing equations. The results demonstrate the similarity rules for transonic flow of moist air and the effects of energy supply by condensation on the flow behavior. They provide a method to formulate various cases with different flow properties that have a sufficiently close behavior and that can be used in future computations, experiments, and design of flow systems operating with moist air. Also, the computations show that the TSD solutions of moist air flows represent the essence of the flow character computed from the inviscid fluid flow equations. (orig.)

  14. Moist skin care can diminish acute radiation-induced skin toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momm, F.; Weissenberger, C.; Bertelt, S.; Henke, M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Radiation treatment may induce acute skin reactions. There are several methods of managing them. Validity of these methods, however, is not sufficiently studied. We therefore investigated, whether moist skin care with 3% urea lotion will reduce acute radiation skin toxicity. Patients and Methods: 88 patients with carcinomas of the head and neck undergoing radiotherapy with curative intent (mean total dose 60 Gy, range: 50-74 Gy) were evaluated weekly for acute skin reactions according to the RTOG-CTC score. In 63 patients, moist skin care with 3% urea lotion was performed. The control group consisted of 25 patients receiving conventional dry skin care. The incidence of grade I, II, and III reactions and the radiation dose at occurrence of a particular reaction were determined and statistically analyzed using the log-rank test. The dose-time relations of individual skin reactions are described. Results: At some point of time during radiotherapy, all patients suffered from acute skin reactions grade I, > 90% from grade II reactions. 50% of patients receiving moist skin care experienced grade I reactions at 26 Gy as compared to 22 Gy in control patients (p = 0.03). Grade II reactions occurred at 51 Gy versus 34 Gy (p = 0.006). Further, 22% of the patients treated with moist skin care suffered from acute skin toxicity grade III as compared to 56% of the controls (p = 0.0007). Conclusion: Moist skin care with 3% urea lotion delays the occurrence and reduces the grade of acute skin reactions in percutaneously irradiated patients with head and neck tumors. (orig.)

  15. The Static Quantum Multiverse

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Yasunori

    2012-01-01

    We consider the multiverse in the intrinsically quantum mechanical framework recently proposed in Refs. [1,2]. By requiring that the principles of quantum mechanics are universally valid and that physical predictions do not depend on the reference frame one chooses to describe the multiverse, we find that the multiverse state must be static---in particular, the multiverse does not have a beginning or end. We argue that, despite its naive appearance, this does not contradict observation, inclu...

  16. PEBBLES Simulation of Static Friction and New Static Friction Benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogliati, Joshua J.; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.

    2010-01-01

    Pebble bed reactors contain large numbers of spherical fuel elements arranged randomly. Determining the motion and location of these fuel elements is required for calculating certain parameters of pebble bed reactor operation. This paper documents the PEBBLES static friction model. This model uses a three dimensional differential static friction approximation extended from the two dimensional Cundall and Strack model. The derivation of determining the rotational transformation of pebble to pebble static friction force is provided. A new implementation for a differential rotation method for pebble to container static friction force has been created. Previous published methods are insufficient for pebble bed reactor geometries. A new analytical static friction benchmark is documented that can be used to verify key static friction simulation parameters. This benchmark is based on determining the exact pebble to pebble and pebble to container static friction coefficients required to maintain a stable five sphere pyramid.

  17. Maximum Acceleration Recording Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Coarsely digitized maximum levels recorded in blown fuses. Circuit feeds power to accelerometer and makes nonvolatile record of maximum level to which output of accelerometer rises during measurement interval. In comparison with inertia-type single-preset-trip-point mechanical maximum-acceleration-recording devices, circuit weighs less, occupies less space, and records accelerations within narrower bands of uncertainty. In comparison with prior electronic data-acquisition systems designed for same purpose, circuit simpler, less bulky, consumes less power, costs and analysis of data recorded in magnetic or electronic memory devices. Circuit used, for example, to record accelerations to which commodities subjected during transportation on trucks.

  18. Evaluation the consistency of location of moist desquamation and skin high dose area for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy after breast conservative surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Li-Min; Huang, Eng-Yen; Liang, Ji-An; Meng, Fan-Yun; Chang, Gia-Hsin; Tsao, Min-Jen

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate whether the location of moist desquamation matches high dose area for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after breast conservative surgery. One hundred and nine breast cancer patients were enrolled to this study. Their highest skin dose area (the hot spot) was estimated from the treatment planning. We divided the irradiated field into breast; sternal/parasternal; axillary; and inframammary fold areas. The location for moist desquamation was recorded to see if it matches the hot spot. We also analyzed other possible risk factors which may be related to the moist desquamation. Forty-eight patients with 65 locations developed moist desquamation during the RT course. Patients with larger breast sizes and easy to sweat are two independent risk factors for moist desquamation. The distribution of moist desquamation occurred most in the axillary area. All nine patients with the hot spots located at the axillary area developed moist desquamation at the axillary area, and six out of seven patients with the hot spots located at the inframammary fold developed moist desquamation there. The majority of patients with moist desquamation over the breast or sternal/parasternal areas had the hot spots located at these areas. For a patient with moist desquamation, if a hot spot is located at the axillary or inframammary fold areas, it is very likely to have moist desquamation occur there. On the other hand, if moist desquamation occurs over the breast or sternal/parasternal areas, we can highly expect these two areas are also the hot spot locations

  19. The static pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longmire, Conrad L [University of California, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1958-07-01

    In a pinch, the outward diffusion of plasma due to collisions can be balanced by the inward drift resulting from ExB, where E is the applied electric field and B the magnetic field. From the equation expressing the balance of these two effects, together with the pressure balance equation, one obtains the perpendicular conductivity, which is about one-half of the classical parallel conductivity. This result has been applied to the problem of a static pinch under the assumptions: 1) there is an applied longitudinal (B{sub z}) magnetic field; 2) the plasma is isothermal; 3) the solution depends only on the radial coordinate.

  20. Maximum Quantum Entropy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Jae-Hoon; Han, Myung Joon

    2018-01-01

    Maximum entropy method for analytic continuation is extended by introducing quantum relative entropy. This new method is formulated in terms of matrix-valued functions and therefore invariant under arbitrary unitary transformation of input matrix. As a result, the continuation of off-diagonal elements becomes straightforward. Without introducing any further ambiguity, the Bayesian probabilistic interpretation is maintained just as in the conventional maximum entropy method. The applications o...

  1. Maximum power demand cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.

    1998-01-01

    The charging for a service is a supplier's remuneration for the expenses incurred in providing it. There are currently two charges for electricity: consumption and maximum demand. While no problem arises about the former, the issue is more complicated for the latter and the analysis in this article tends to show that the annual charge for maximum demand arbitrarily discriminates among consumer groups, to the disadvantage of some [it

  2. Development of a moisture scheme for the explicit numerical simulation of moist convection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bopape, Mary-Jane M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available .kashan.co.za] Development of a moisture scheme for the explicit numerical simulation of moist convection M BOPAPE, F ENGELBRECHT, D RANDALL AND W LANDMAN CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa Email: mbopape... sigma coordinate model that incorporates moisture effects, so that it can simulate convective clouds and precipitation. moisture terms equivalent to those of the miller and pearce (1974) model are incorporated in the equation set used: ; (1) ; (2...

  3. HUBUNGAN PRINSIP DAN JENIS BALUTAN DENGAN PENERAPAN TEKNIK MOIST WOUND HEALING

    OpenAIRE

    Diah Merdekawati; Rasyidah AZ

    2017-01-01

    Salah satu komplikasi yang paling sering terjadi dilapangan pada penderita diabetes melitus yaitu adanya ulkus diabetikum atau gangren dan biasanya penyakit ini menyerang penderita pada usia produktif yaitu antara umur 30-50 tahun. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan prinsip dan jenis balutan dengan penerapan tehnik moist wound healing. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kuantitatif dengan metode cross secsional. Sebanyak 31 responden terlibat dalam penelitian ini. Pengump...

  4. The Case to Include Brand of Moist Snuff in Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberlake, David S

    2016-08-01

    Brand of smokeless tobacco was added to the most recent Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS), but deleted from the Centers for Disease Control's National Adult Tobacco Survey. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of brand in distinguishing users of moist snuff. The sample consisted of participants from the 2010-2011 TUS-CPS who reported having used one of 14 brands of moist snuff in the past month (n = 2334). The brands were categorized into one of three types: snus, discount snuff, premium snuff. Multinomial logistic regression was employed for testing for associations between brand type and a series of demographic and tobacco use measures. Females, metropolitan residents, current smokers, and moderate users of snuff had significantly greater odds of using snus relative to premium snuff in the adjusted model (P discount versus premium snuff. Separate analyses among current smokers (n = 470) and former smokers (n = 70) revealed positive associations between smoking cessation attempts and smokers' switch to discount snuff. Differences among the three categories of snuff users are likely attributed to variations in marketing campaigns. The differences are sufficient to warrant inclusion of snuff brand in health surveys because brand type could serve as a proxy measure for snuff use and dependence. Inclusion of brand of moist snuff in health surveys will enable researchers to categorize snuff users by brand type. Findings from this study indicate that brand type, defined according to cost (ie, discount vs. premium brands) and type of preferred snuff (ie, snus vs. other moist snuff), can distinguish snuff users by various demographic and tobacco use measures. Consequently, categorization by brand type could be used as a proxy measure for studies whose surveys do not include detailed information on snuff use and behavior. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on

  5. Comparison of ethanol hand sanitizer versus moist towelette packets for mealtime patient hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Herleen; Knighton, Shanina; Zabarsky, Trina F; Donskey, Curtis J

    2017-09-01

    To facilitate patient hand hygiene, there is a need for easy-to-use products. In a survey of 100 patients, a single-use ethanol hand sanitizer packet took less time to access than a single-use moist towelette packet (3 vs 23 seconds) and was preferred by 74% of patients for mealtime hand hygiene. Performance of patient hand hygiene increased when a reminder was provided at the time of meal tray delivery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Asymptotics for moist deep convection I: refined scalings and self-sustaining updrafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittmeir, Sabine; Klein, Rupert

    2018-04-01

    Moist processes are among the most important drivers of atmospheric dynamics, and scale analysis and asymptotics are cornerstones of theoretical meteorology. Accounting for moist processes in systematic scale analyses therefore seems of considerable importance for the field. Klein and Majda (Theor Comput Fluid Dyn 20:525-551, 2006) proposed a scaling regime for the incorporation of moist bulk microphysics closures in multiscale asymptotic analyses of tropical deep convection. This regime is refined here to allow for mixtures of ideal gases and to establish consistency with a more general multiple scales modeling framework for atmospheric flows. Deep narrow updrafts, the so-called hot towers, constitute principal building blocks of larger scale storm systems. They are analyzed here in a sample application of the new scaling regime. A single quasi-one-dimensional upright columnar cloud is considered on the vertical advective (or tower life cycle) time scale. The refined asymptotic scaling regime is essential for this example as it reveals a new mechanism for the self-sustainance of such updrafts. Even for strongly positive convectively available potential energy, a vertical balance of buoyancy forces is found in the presence of precipitation. This balance induces a diagnostic equation for the vertical velocity, and it is responsible for the generation of self-sustained balanced updrafts. The time-dependent updraft structure is encoded in a Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the precipitation mixing ratio. Numerical solutions of this equation suggest that the self-sustained updrafts may strongly enhance hot tower life cycles.

  7. Efficacy of Microwave Disinfection on Moist and Dry Dental Stone Casts with Different Irradiation Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Robati Anaraki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dental practice contains the use of instruments and multiuse items that should be sterilized or disinfected properly. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of microwave irradiation on dental stone cast disinfection in moist and dry condition. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 76 stone casts were prepared by a sterile method. The casts were contaminated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212 as well as Candida albicans (ATCC 10231. Half the samples were dried for two hours and the other half was studied while still moist. The samples were irradiated by a household microwave at 600 W for 3, 5 and 7 minutes. The microorganisms on the samples were extracted by immersion in tryptic soy broth and .001 ml of that was cultured in nutrient agar media, incubated overnight and counted and recorded as colony forming unit per milliliter (CFU/mL. Results: The findings showed that microorganisms reduced to 4.87 logarithm of CFU/mL value on dental cast within seven minutes in comparison with positive control. Although microbial count reduction was observed as a result of exposure time increase, comparison between moist and dried samples showed no significant difference. Conclusions: Seven-minute microwave irradiation at 600 W can effectively reduce the microbial load of dental stone casts. Wetting the casts does not seem to alter the efficacy of irradiation.   Keywords: Microwave Disinfection; Dental Stone Casts; Irradiation Times

  8. Novel friction law for the static friction force based on local precursor slipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katano, Yu; Nakano, Ken; Otsuki, Michio; Matsukawa, Hiroshi

    2014-09-10

    The sliding of a solid object on a solid substrate requires a shear force that is larger than the maximum static friction force. It is commonly believed that the maximum static friction force is proportional to the loading force and does not depend on the apparent contact area. The ratio of the maximum static friction force to the loading force is called the static friction coefficient µM, which is considered to be a constant. Here, we conduct experiments demonstrating that the static friction force of a slider on a substrate follows a novel friction law under certain conditions. The magnitude of µM decreases as the loading force increases or as the apparent contact area decreases. This behavior is caused by the slip of local precursors before the onset of bulk sliding and is consistent with recent theory. The results of this study will develop novel methods for static friction control.

  9. Sensitivity of South American tropical climate to Last Glacial Maximum boundary conditions: focus on teleconnections with tropics and extratropics (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodri, M.; Kageyama, M.; Roche, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    Proxy data over tropical latitudes for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) has been interpreted as a southward shift of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and so far linked to a mechanism analogous to the modern day “meridional-mode” in the Atlantic Ocean. Here we have explored alternative mechanisms, related to the direct impact of the LGM global changes in the dry static stability on tropical moist deep convection. We have used a coupled ocean-atmosphere model capable of capturing the thermodynamical structure of the atmosphere and the tropical component of the Hadley and Walker circulations. In each experiment, we have applied either all the LGM forcings, or the individual contributions of greenhouse gases (GHG) concentrations, ice sheet topography and/or albedo to explore the hydrological response over tropical latitudes with a focus on South America. The dominant forcing for the LGM tropical temperature and precipitation changes is found to be due to the reduced GHG, through the direct effect of reduced radiative heating (Clausius-Clapeyron relationship). The LGM GHG is also responsible for increased extra-tropical static stability which strengthens the Hadley Cell. Stronger subsidence over northern tropics then produces an amplification of the northern tropics drying initially due to the direct cooling effect. The land ice sheet is also able to promote the Hadley cell feedback mostly via the topographic effect on the extra-tropical dry static stability and on the position of the subtropical jets. Our results therefore suggest that the communication between the extratropics and the tropics is tighter during LGM and does not necessarily rely on the “meridional-mode” mechanism. The Hadley cell response is constrained by the requirement that diabatic heating in the tropics balances cooling in subtropics. We show that such extratropics-tropics dependence is stronger at the LGM because of the stronger perturbation of northern extra tropical thermal and

  10. Photovoltaic static concentrator analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonacid, G.; Luque, A.; Molledo, A. G.

    1984-12-01

    Ray tracing is the basis of the present analysis of truncated bifacial compound parabolic concentrators filled with a dielectric substance, which are of interest in photovoltaic applications where the bifacial cells allow higher static concentrations to be achieved. Among the figures of merit for this type of concentrator, the directional intercept factor plays a major role and is defined as the ratio of the power of the collector to that at the entry aperture, in a lossless concentrator illuminated by light arriving from a given direction. A procedure for measuring outdoor, full size panels has been developed, and a correction method for avoiding the effect of unwanted diffuse radiation during the measurements is presented.

  11. Static electricity: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Rita M.

    1991-11-01

    The major concern with static electricity is its discharging in a flammable atmosphere which can explode and cause a fire. Textile materials can have their electrical resistivity decreased by the addition of antistatic finishes, imbedding conductive particles into the fibres or by adding metal fibers to the yarns. The test methods used in the studies of static electricity include measuring the static properties of materials, of clothed persons, and of the ignition energy of flammable gases. Surveys have shown that there is sparse evidence for fires definitively being caused by static electricity. However, the 'worst-case' philosophy has been adopted and a static electricity safety code is described, including correct grounding procedures and the wearing of anti-static clothing and footwear.

  12. Maximum likely scale estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...

  13. Robust Maximum Association Estimators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Alfons (Andreas); C. Croux (Christophe); P. Filzmoser (Peter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe maximum association between two multivariate variables X and Y is defined as the maximal value that a bivariate association measure between one-dimensional projections αX and αY can attain. Taking the Pearson correlation as projection index results in the first canonical correlation

  14. Free nicotine content and strategic marketing of moist snuff tobacco products in the United States: 2000-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, H R; Koh, H; Connolly, G N

    2008-10-01

    From 2000 to 2006, moist snuff sales have increased and now account for 71% of the smokeless tobacco market. Previous research has shown that major manufacturers of smokeless tobacco products manipulated free nicotine, the form most readily absorbed, to promote tolerance and addiction. This study examines the possibility that company-specific and brand-specific strategies of the major moist snuff manufacturers involve controlling free nicotine content and ease of dosing with products that are designed and targeted to specific groups. This study looks at the current total US moist snuff market with product design data from the Massachusetts Department of Public Health; moist snuff use from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health; market data from ACNielsen; and magazine advertising expenditures from TNS Media Intelligence. (1) The levels of free nicotine of moist snuff products have increased over time for several major manufacturers; (2) the number and variety of sub-brands have increased over time; (3) changes in design, as reflected by variation in free nicotine associated with pH or tobacco leaf, or both, have enhanced the ease and uniformity of dosing; (4) marketing through price and advertising has increased; and (5) youth use has increased. A combination of factors including brand proliferation, control of free nicotine and product design has most likely resulted in the expanded consumption of moist snuff, particularly among young people.

  15. Maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enslin, J.H.R.

    1990-01-01

    A well engineered renewable remote energy system, utilizing the principal of Maximum Power Point Tracking can be m ore cost effective, has a higher reliability and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. This paper reports that a high-efficient power electronic converter, for converting the output voltage of a solar panel, or wind generator, to the required DC battery bus voltage has been realized. The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the input source under varying input and output parameters. Maximum power point tracking for relative small systems is achieved by maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor based algorithm. Through practical field measurements it is shown that a minimum input source saving of 15% on 3-5 kWh/day systems can easily be achieved. A total cost saving of at least 10-15% on the capital cost of these systems are achievable for relative small rating Remote Area Power Supply systems. The advantages at larger temperature variations and larger power rated systems are much higher. Other advantages include optimal sizing and system monitor and control

  16. Statics and Mechanics of Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    The statics and mechanics of structures form a core aspect of civil engineering. This book provides an introduction to the subject, starting from classic hand-calculation types of analysis and gradually advancing to a systematic form suitable for computer implementation. It starts with statically...

  17. Response of Moist Convection to Multi-scale Surface Flux Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S. L.; Ryu, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate response of moist convection to multi-scale feature of the spatial variation of surface sensible heat fluxes (SHF) in the afternoon evolution of the convective boundary layer (CBL), utilizing a mesoscale-domain large eddy simulation (LES) model. The multi-scale surface heterogeneity feature is analytically created as a function of the spectral slope in the wavelength range from a few tens of km to a few hundreds of m in the spectrum of surface SHF on a log-log scale. The response of moist convection to the κ-3 - slope (where κ is wavenumber) surface SHF field is compared with that to the κ-2 - slope surface, which has a relatively weak mesoscale feature, and the homogeneous κ0 - slope surface. Given the surface energy balance with a spatially uniform available energy, the prescribed SHF has a 180° phase lag with the latent heat flux (LHF) in a horizontal domain of (several tens of km)2. Thus, warmer (cooler) surface is relatively dry (moist). For all the cases, the same observation-based sounding is prescribed for the initial condition. For all the κ-3 - slope surface heterogeneity cases, early non-precipitating shallow clouds further develop into precipitating deep thunderstorms. But for all the κ-2 - slope cases, only shallow clouds develop. We compare the vertical profiles of domain-averaged fluxes and variances, and the contribution of the mesoscale and turbulence contributions to the fluxes and variances, between the κ-3 versus κ-2 slope cases. Also the cross-scale processes are investigated.

  18. Effect of an isolated elliptical terrain (Jeju Island on rainfall enhancement in a moist environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-OK Lee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of idealised experiments using a cloud-resolving storm simulator (CReSS was performed to investigate the effects of the isolated elliptically shaped terrain of Jeju Island (oriented east–west, southern Korea, on the enhancement of pre-existing rainfall systems under the influence of prevailing southwesterly moist flows. Control parameters were the low-altitude wind speed (Froude numbers: 0.2, 0.4, 0.55 and the initial location of the elongated (oriented north–east rainfall system (off the northwestern or western shores of the island. Simulations were conducted for all combinations of initial location and wind regime. Overall, results indicate that weak southwesterlies flowing around the steep mountain on the island (height, 2 km generate two local convergences, on the northern lateral side and on the lee side of the island, both in regions of moist environments, thus producing conditions favourable for enhanced rainfall. As an eastward-moving rainfall system approaches the northwestern shore of the island, the southwesterlies at low altitudes accelerate between the system and the terrain, generating a local updraft region that causes rainfall enhancement onshore in advance of the system's arrival over the terrain. Thus, the prevailing southwesterlies at low altitudes that are parallel to the terrain are a crucial element for the enhancement. Relatively weak southwesterlies at low altitudes allow system enhancement on the lee side by generating a convergence of relatively weak go-around northwesterlies from the northern island and relatively strong moist southwesterlies from the southern island, thus producing a relatively long-lived rainfall system. As the southwesterlies strengthen, a dry descending air mass intensifies on the northeastern downwind side of the terrain, rapidly dissipating rainfall and resulting in a relatively short-lived rainfall system. A coexisting terrain-generated local convergence, combined with the absence

  19. Changes of mycorrhizal colonization along moist gradient in a vineyard of Eger (Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donkó Ádám

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of mycorrhizal fungi has special importance in the case of low soil moisture because the colonization of vine roots by mycorrhiza increases water and nutrient uptake and thus aids the avoidance of biotic and abiotic stresses of grape. Our aim was to investigate in the Eger wine region the changes of mycorrhizal colonization, water potential, and yield quality and quantity of grape roots at three altitudes, along a changing soil moist gradient. Our results show that the degree of mycorrhizal colonization is higher in drier areas, which supports the water and nutrient uptake of the host plant.

  20. Corrosion of candidate iron-base waste package structural barrier materials in moist salt environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerman, R.E.; Pitman, S.G.

    1984-11-01

    Mild steels are considered to be strong candidates for waste package structural barrier (e.g., overpack) applications in salt repositories. Corrosion rates of these materials determined in autoclave tests utilizing a simulated intrusion brine based on Permian Basin core samples are low, generally <25 μm (1 mil) per year. When the steels are exposed to moist salts containing simulated inclusion brines, the corrosion rates are found to increase significantly. The magnesium in the inclusion brine component of the environment is believed to be responsible for the increased corrosion rates. 1 reference, 4 figures, 2 tables

  1. Corrosion of copper-based materials in irradiated moist air systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, D.T.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.

    1991-06-01

    The atmospheric corrosion of oxygen-free copper (CDA-102), 70/30 copper-nickel (CDA-715), and 7% aluminum bronze (CDA-613) in an irradiated moist air environment was investigated. Experiments were performed in both dry and 40% RH (at sign 90 degree C) air at temperatures of 90 and 150 degree C. Initial corrosion rates were determined based on a combination of weight gain and weight loss measurements. Corrosion products observed were identified. These experiments support efforts by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) to evaluate possible metallic barrier materials for nuclear waste containers. 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  2. Interactions between Canopy Structure and Herbaceous Biomass along Environmental Gradients in Moist Forest and Dry Miombo Woodland of Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deo D Shirima

    Full Text Available We have limited understanding of how tropical canopy foliage varies along environmental gradients, and how this may in turn affect forest processes and functions. Here, we analyse the relationships between canopy leaf area index (LAI and above ground herbaceous biomass (AGBH along environmental gradients in a moist forest and miombo woodland in Tanzania. We recorded canopy structure and herbaceous biomass in 100 permanent vegetation plots (20 m × 40 m, stratified by elevation. We quantified tree species richness, evenness, Shannon diversity and predominant height as measures of structural variability, and disturbance (tree stumps, soil nutrients and elevation as indicators of environmental variability. Moist forest and miombo woodland differed substantially with respect to nearly all variables tested. Both structural and environmental variables were found to affect LAI and AGBH, the latter being additionally dependent on LAI in moist forest but not in miombo, where other factors are limiting. Combining structural and environmental predictors yielded the most powerful models. In moist forest, they explained 76% and 25% of deviance in LAI and AGBH, respectively. In miombo woodland, they explained 82% and 45% of deviance in LAI and AGBH. In moist forest, LAI increased non-linearly with predominant height and linearly with tree richness, and decreased with soil nitrogen except under high disturbance. Miombo woodland LAI increased linearly with stem density, soil phosphorous and nitrogen, and decreased linearly with tree species evenness. AGBH in moist forest decreased with LAI at lower elevations whilst increasing slightly at higher elevations. AGBH in miombo woodland increased linearly with soil nitrogen and soil pH. Overall, moist forest plots had denser canopies and lower AGBH compared with miombo plots. Further field studies are encouraged, to disentangle the direct influence of LAI on AGBH from complex interrelationships between stand

  3. Interactions between Canopy Structure and Herbaceous Biomass along Environmental Gradients in Moist Forest and Dry Miombo Woodland of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirima, Deo D; Pfeifer, Marion; Platts, Philip J; Totland, Ørjan; Moe, Stein R

    2015-01-01

    We have limited understanding of how tropical canopy foliage varies along environmental gradients, and how this may in turn affect forest processes and functions. Here, we analyse the relationships between canopy leaf area index (LAI) and above ground herbaceous biomass (AGBH) along environmental gradients in a moist forest and miombo woodland in Tanzania. We recorded canopy structure and herbaceous biomass in 100 permanent vegetation plots (20 m × 40 m), stratified by elevation. We quantified tree species richness, evenness, Shannon diversity and predominant height as measures of structural variability, and disturbance (tree stumps), soil nutrients and elevation as indicators of environmental variability. Moist forest and miombo woodland differed substantially with respect to nearly all variables tested. Both structural and environmental variables were found to affect LAI and AGBH, the latter being additionally dependent on LAI in moist forest but not in miombo, where other factors are limiting. Combining structural and environmental predictors yielded the most powerful models. In moist forest, they explained 76% and 25% of deviance in LAI and AGBH, respectively. In miombo woodland, they explained 82% and 45% of deviance in LAI and AGBH. In moist forest, LAI increased non-linearly with predominant height and linearly with tree richness, and decreased with soil nitrogen except under high disturbance. Miombo woodland LAI increased linearly with stem density, soil phosphorous and nitrogen, and decreased linearly with tree species evenness. AGBH in moist forest decreased with LAI at lower elevations whilst increasing slightly at higher elevations. AGBH in miombo woodland increased linearly with soil nitrogen and soil pH. Overall, moist forest plots had denser canopies and lower AGBH compared with miombo plots. Further field studies are encouraged, to disentangle the direct influence of LAI on AGBH from complex interrelationships between stand structure, environmental

  4. Fluorescent lamp with static magnetic field generating means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, P.E.; Maya, J.

    1987-09-08

    A fluorescent lamp wherein magnetic field generating means (e.g., permanent magnets) are utilized to generate a static magnetic field across the respective electrode structures of the lamp such that maximum field strength is located at the electrode's filament. An increase in efficacy during operation has been observed. 2 figs.

  5. Maximum entropy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponman, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    For some years now two different expressions have been in use for maximum entropy image restoration and there has been some controversy over which one is appropriate for a given problem. Here two further entropies are presented and it is argued that there is no single correct algorithm. The properties of the four different methods are compared using simple 1D simulations with a view to showing how they can be used together to gain as much information as possible about the original object. (orig.)

  6. The last glacial maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P.U.; Dyke, A.S.; Shakun, J.D.; Carlson, A.E.; Clark, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; McCabe, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level ???14.5 ka.

  7. Investigating synoptic-scale monsoonal disturbances in an idealized moist model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S.; Ming, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the potential utility of a theory for a "moisture-dynamical" instability in explaining the time and spatial scales of intra-seasonal variability associated with the Indian summer monsoon. These studies suggest that a localized region in the subtropics with mean low-level westerly winds and mean temperature increasing poleward will allow the formation of westward propagating precipitation anomalies associated with moist Rossby-like waves. Here we test this theory in an idealized moist model with realistic radiative transfer by inducing a local poleward-increasing temperature gradient by placing a continent with simplified hydrology in the subtropics. We experiment with different treatments of land-surface hydrology, ranging from the extreme (treating land as having the same heat capacity as the slab ocean used in the model, and turning off evaporation completely over land) to the more realistic (bucket hydrology, with a decreased heat capacity over land), and different continental shapes, ranging from a zonally-symmetric continent, to Earth-like continental geometry. Precipitation rates produced by the simulations are analyzed using space-time spectral analysis, and connected to variability in the winds through regression analysis. The observed behavior is discussed with respect to predictions from the theory.

  8. Study of caprine bones after moist and dry heat processes by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Caroline M.; Azeredo, Soraia R.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Souza, Sheila M.F.M de

    2013-01-01

    Bone tissue is a biological material composed of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and collagen matrix. The bone X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern presents characteristics of the hydroxyapatite crystallography planes. This paper presents the characterization by X-ray diffraction of caprine bone powder pattern and the comparison of this pattern with moist or dry heat cooked bone patterns. The parameters chosen to characterize the X-ray diffraction peaks were: angular position (2θ), full width at half maximumt (FWHM), and relative intensity (I rel ). The X-ray diffraction patterns were obtained with a Shimadzu XRD-6000 diffractometer. The caprine bone XRD pattern revealed a significant correlation of several crystallographic parameters (lattice data) with hydroxyapatite. The profiles of the three bone types analyzed presented differences. The study showed as small angular displacement (decrease of the 2θ angle) of some peaks was observed after moist and dry heat cooking processes. The characterization of bone tissue aimed to contribute to future analysis in the field of archeology. (author)

  9. Study of caprine bones after moist and dry heat processes by X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Caroline M., E-mail: carolmattosb@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Arqueologia Brasileira (IAB), Belford Roxo, RJ (Brazil); Azeredo, Soraia R.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: soraia@lin.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/LIN/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Souza, Sheila M.F.M de, E-mail: sferraz@ensp.fiocruz.br [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (ENSP/FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca

    2013-07-01

    Bone tissue is a biological material composed of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and collagen matrix. The bone X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern presents characteristics of the hydroxyapatite crystallography planes. This paper presents the characterization by X-ray diffraction of caprine bone powder pattern and the comparison of this pattern with moist or dry heat cooked bone patterns. The parameters chosen to characterize the X-ray diffraction peaks were: angular position (2θ), full width at half maximumt (FWHM), and relative intensity (I{sub rel}). The X-ray diffraction patterns were obtained with a Shimadzu XRD-6000 diffractometer. The caprine bone XRD pattern revealed a significant correlation of several crystallographic parameters (lattice data) with hydroxyapatite. The profiles of the three bone types analyzed presented differences. The study showed as small angular displacement (decrease of the 2θ angle) of some peaks was observed after moist and dry heat cooking processes. The characterization of bone tissue aimed to contribute to future analysis in the field of archeology. (author)

  10. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Topsøe

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over

  11. Probable maximum flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L.

    1991-11-01

    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility

  12. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. We review the need for such methods in data analysis and show, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. We conclude with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  13. Solar maximum observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    The successful retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite by Shuttle astronauts in April 1984 permitted continuance of solar flare observations that began in 1980. The SMM carries a soft X ray polychromator, gamma ray, UV and hard X ray imaging spectrometers, a coronagraph/polarimeter and particle counters. The data gathered thus far indicated that electrical potentials of 25 MeV develop in flares within 2 sec of onset. X ray data show that flares are composed of compressed magnetic loops that have come too close together. Other data have been taken on mass ejection, impacts of electron beams and conduction fronts with the chromosphere and changes in the solar radiant flux due to sunspots. 13 references

  14. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. The author reviews the need for such methods in data analysis and shows, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. He concludes with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  15. Functional Maximum Autocorrelation Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2005-01-01

    MAF outperforms the functional PCA in concentrating the interesting' spectra/shape variation in one end of the eigenvalue spectrum and allows for easier interpretation of effects. Conclusions. Functional MAF analysis is a useful methods for extracting low dimensional models of temporally or spatially......Purpose. We aim at data where samples of an underlying function are observed in a spatial or temporal layout. Examples of underlying functions are reflectance spectra and biological shapes. We apply functional models based on smoothing splines and generalize the functional PCA in......\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{ramsay97} to functional maximum autocorrelation factors (MAF)\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{switzer85,larsen2001d}. We apply the method to biological shapes as well as reflectance spectra. {\\$\\backslash\\$bf Methods}. MAF seeks linear combination of the original variables that maximize autocorrelation between...

  16. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yunji; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  17. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2015-02-12

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  18. Statics and mechanics of structures

    CERN Document Server

    Krenk, Steen

    2013-01-01

    The statics and mechanics of structures form a core aspect of civil engineering. This book provides an introduction to the subject, starting from classic hand-calculation types of analysis and gradually advancing to a systematic form suitable for computer implementation. It starts with statically determinate structures in the form of trusses, beams and frames. Instability is discussed in the form of the column problem - both the ideal column and the imperfect column used in actual column design. The theory of statically indeterminate structures is then introduced, and the force and deformation methods are explained and illustrated. An important aspect of the book’s approach is the systematic development of the theory in a form suitable for computer implementation using finite elements. This development is supported by two small computer programs, MiniTruss and MiniFrame, which permit static analysis of trusses and frames, as well as linearized stability analysis. The book’s final section presents related ...

  19. Statics of Historic Masonry Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of much of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. This book aims to help fill this demand presenting a comprehensive new statics of masonry constructions. The book, result of thirty years of research and professional experience, gives the fundamentals of statics of the masonry solid, then applied to the study of statics of arches, piers and vaults. Further, combining engineering and architecture and through an interdisciplinary approach, the book investigates the statical behaviour of many historic monuments, as the Pantheon, the Colosseum,  the domes of S. Maria del Fiore in Florence and of St. Peter in Rome, the Tower of Pisa, the Gothic Cathedrals and the Masonry Buildings under seismic actions.

  20. Static Analysis of Mobile Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    and not allowed, to do. The second issue was that a fully static analysis was never a realistic possibility, because Java , the programming langauge...scale to large programs it had to handle essentially all of the features of Java and could also be used as a general-purpose analysis engine. The...static analysis of imperative languages. • A framework for adding specifications about the behavior of methods, including methods that were

  1. Static Decoupling in fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    An algebraic approach is given for a design of a static residual weighting factor in connection with fault detection. A complete parameterization is given of the weighting factor which will minimize a given performance index......An algebraic approach is given for a design of a static residual weighting factor in connection with fault detection. A complete parameterization is given of the weighting factor which will minimize a given performance index...

  2. Solar maximum mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.

    1981-01-01

    By understanding the sun, astrophysicists hope to expand this knowledge to understanding other stars. To study the sun, NASA launched a satellite on February 14, 1980. The project is named the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). The satellite conducted detailed observations of the sun in collaboration with other satellites and ground-based optical and radio observations until its failure 10 months into the mission. The main objective of the SMM was to investigate one aspect of solar activity: solar flares. A brief description of the flare mechanism is given. The SMM satellite was valuable in providing information on where and how a solar flare occurs. A sequence of photographs of a solar flare taken from SMM satellite shows how a solar flare develops in a particular layer of the solar atmosphere. Two flares especially suitable for detailed observations by a joint effort occurred on April 30 and May 21 of 1980. These flares and observations of the flares are discussed. Also discussed are significant discoveries made by individual experiments

  3. Numerical simulations of Jupiter’s moist convection layer: Structure and dynamics in statistically steady states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, K.; Nakajima, K.; Odaka, M.; Kuramoto, K.; Hayashi, Y.-Y.

    2014-02-01

    A series of long-term numerical simulations of moist convection in Jupiter’s atmosphere is performed in order to investigate the idealized characteristics of the vertical structure of multi-composition clouds and the convective motions associated with them, varying the deep abundances of condensable gases and the autoconversion time scale, the latter being one of the most questionable parameters in cloud microphysical parameterization. The simulations are conducted using a two-dimensional cloud resolving model that explicitly represents the convective motion and microphysics of the three cloud components, H2O, NH3, and NH4SH imposing a body cooling that substitutes the net radiative cooling. The results are qualitatively similar to those reported in Sugiyama et al. (Sugiyama, K. et al. [2011]. Intermittent cumulonimbus activity breaking the three-layer cloud structure of Jupiter. Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L13201. doi:10.1029/2011GL047878): stable layers associated with condensation and chemical reaction act as effective dynamical and compositional boundaries, intense cumulonimbus clouds develop with distinct temporal intermittency, and the active transport associated with these clouds results in the establishment of mean vertical profiles of condensates and condensable gases that are distinctly different from the hitherto accepted three-layered structure (e.g., Atreya, S.K., Romani, P.N. [1985]. Photochemistry and clouds of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. In: Recent Advances in Planetary Meteorology. Cambridge Univ. Press, London, pp. 17-68). Our results also demonstrate that the period of intermittent cloud activity is roughly proportional to the deep abundance of H2O gas. The autoconversion time scale does not strongly affect the results, except for the vertical profiles of the condensates. Changing the autoconversion time scale by a factor of 100 changes the intermittency period by a factor of less than two, although it causes a dramatic increase in the amount of

  4. STRATOSPHERIC TEMPERATURES AND WATER LOSS FROM MOIST GREENHOUSE ATMOSPHERES OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasting, James F.; Kopparapu, Ravi K. [Department of Geosciences, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA 16801 (United States); Chen, Howard, E-mail: jfk4@psu.edu, E-mail: hwchen@bu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    A radiative-convective climate model is used to calculate stratospheric temperatures and water vapor concentrations for ozone-free atmospheres warmer than that of modern Earth. Cold, dry stratospheres are predicted at low surface temperatures, in agreement with recent 3D calculations. However, at surface temperatures above 350 K, the stratosphere warms and water vapor becomes a major upper atmospheric constituent, allowing water to be lost by photodissociation and hydrogen escape. Hence, a moist greenhouse explanation for loss of water from Venus, or some exoplanet receiving a comparable amount of stellar radiation, remains a viable hypothesis. Temperatures in the upper parts of such atmospheres are well below those estimated for a gray atmosphere, and this factor should be taken into account when performing inverse climate calculations to determine habitable zone boundaries using 1D models.

  5. STRATOSPHERIC TEMPERATURES AND WATER LOSS FROM MOIST GREENHOUSE ATMOSPHERES OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasting, James F.; Kopparapu, Ravi K.; Chen, Howard

    2015-01-01

    A radiative-convective climate model is used to calculate stratospheric temperatures and water vapor concentrations for ozone-free atmospheres warmer than that of modern Earth. Cold, dry stratospheres are predicted at low surface temperatures, in agreement with recent 3D calculations. However, at surface temperatures above 350 K, the stratosphere warms and water vapor becomes a major upper atmospheric constituent, allowing water to be lost by photodissociation and hydrogen escape. Hence, a moist greenhouse explanation for loss of water from Venus, or some exoplanet receiving a comparable amount of stellar radiation, remains a viable hypothesis. Temperatures in the upper parts of such atmospheres are well below those estimated for a gray atmosphere, and this factor should be taken into account when performing inverse climate calculations to determine habitable zone boundaries using 1D models

  6. A novel topical protectant for the prevention of β-radiation induced moist desquamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, L.; Wilcock, S.; Rezvani, M.; Hsia, C.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Effective therapies for the prevention of radiation-induced skin burns that could be readily deployed under a nuclear accident or nuclear terrorism scenario are urgently needed. In this report we describe the efficacy of a novel radioprotectant (DMZ911) in a model of b-radiation induced moist desquamation (MD) in pig skin. DMZ911 is a nitroxide-based topical cream that effectively delivers the nitroxide into viable skin cells. Stable nitroxide compounds have been shown to be effective against both X-ray and ?-ray-induced damage in vivo and in vitro. A pig skin model of β-radiation-induced MD was employed in this study. Exposure to 30 Gy was used to induce skin lesions involving >80% moist desquamation in prescribed test sites on flank skin of female Large White pigs. DMZ911 or placebo was applied to various test sites 2 hours prior to radiation exposure. Lesions were scored based on the area of the test site containing 50% MD (severe) as determined by clinical assessment using blinded observers. Treatment with DMZ911 resulted in a 31% net reduction in MD when compared to placebo treated sites following an 8-week study period. This reduction was observed whether all sites or only those with severe MD were considered. Skin damage (as indicated by MD) from radiation exposure was significantly reduced by 31% (p = 0.05) following pretreatment with the novel topical radioprotectant DMZ911. This observation suggests that skin lesion development from radiation-induced oxidative damage cascades may be successfully inhibited by treatment with DMZ911. This topical therapeutic agent represents a novel treatment for nuclear radiation induced skin injury. DMZ911 may have unique applications in radiation oncology, cosmetic and therapeutic UV, laser, glycolic and dermabrasion procedures

  7. Ultrasonographic assessment of the swelling of the human masseter muscle after static and dynamic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, M; Thomsen, C E; Vilmann, A

    1996-01-01

    min at maximum (median endurance time 7.1 min). For dynamic activity, the same individuals chewed gum unilaterally until exhaustion or 40 min at maximum (all endured 40 min) with a cycle time of 725 ms, an average load of 9.3% of maximal electromyographic activity (maxEMG) and a peak mean voltage...... analogue scales (VAS) revealed the concomitant occurrence of pain (static 11.9 VAS%; dynamic 5.9 VAS%), and discomfort (static 8.1 VAS%; dynamic 5.9 VAS%), and both sensations decreased to pre-exercise values after 20-min recovery. Systolic blood pressure increased significantly, more during static (12...

  8. Evaluation of Advanced Nonlinear Static Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ali Shayanfar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Having very simplicity, nonlinear static procedures (NSPs are the most popular tools for estimation of structural capacity. These approaches construct a graphic display of the overall structural response via a pushover curve. The overall response of the system provides a direct simulation of the building as single degree of freedom (SDOF system that simplifies the design and evaluation of the structure. In this research, the first step in any nonlinear static analysis or in other words perform a pushover analysis has been studied. Applied lateral load to the structural model not only affects the overall responses of the structure through structural capacity curve, but also directly affects the local responses of the structure. In order to evaluate these lateral loads, steel buckling restrained braced frame structures are examined by advanced modal pushovers. Next, the results of these pushover analyses will be compared with nonlinear time history analysis as the most accurate method. Finally, the most efficient method in this particular structure is introduced. The analysis conducted in these structures shows that the lateral load pattern based on story shears offers a good prediction of the maximum response of the concentrically buckling restrained braced frame buildings.

  9. Network Completion for Static Gene Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsu Nakajima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tackle the problem of completing and inferring genetic networks under stationary conditions from static data, where network completion is to make the minimum amount of modifications to an initial network so that the completed network is most consistent with the expression data in which addition of edges and deletion of edges are basic modification operations. For this problem, we present a new method for network completion using dynamic programming and least-squares fitting. This method can find an optimal solution in polynomial time if the maximum indegree of the network is bounded by a constant. We evaluate the effectiveness of our method through computational experiments using synthetic data. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our proposed method can distinguish the differences between two types of genetic networks under stationary conditions from lung cancer and normal gene expression data.

  10. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments of its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant; still within the broad studies in the subject it is not yet recognised, in particular within the seismic area, a unitary approach to deal with Masonry structures. This successful book contributes to clarify the issues with a rigorous approach offering a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. This third edition has been driven by some recent developments of the research in the field, and it gives the fundamentals of Statics with an original and rigorous mathematical formulation, further in-depth inquired in this new version. With many refinements and improvements, the book investigates the static behaviour of many historic monuments, such as the Gothic Cathedrals, the Mycenaean Tholoi, the Pantheon, the Colosseum, the dome...

  11. Detecting leaf phenology of seasonally moist tropical forests in South America with multi-temporal MODIS images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangming Xiao; Stephen Hagen; Qingyuan Zhang; Michael Keller; Berrien Moore III

    2006-01-01

    Leaf phenology of tropical evergreen forests affects carbon and water fluxes. In an earlier study of a seasonally moist evergreen tropical forest site in the Amazon basin, time series data of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from the VEGETATION and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors showed an unexpected seasonal pattern, with higher EVI in the...

  12. A Static Burst Test for Composite Flywheel Rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Stefan; Schulz, Alexander; Sima, Harald; Koch, Thomas; Kaltenbacher, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    High efficient and safe flywheels are an interesting technology for decentralized energy storage. To ensure all safety aspects, a static test method for a controlled initiation of a burst event for composite flywheel rotors is presented with nearly the same stress distribution as in the dynamic case, rotating with maximum speed. In addition to failure prediction using different maximum stress criteria and a safety factor, a set of tensile and compressive tests is carried out to identify the parameters of the used carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) material. The static finite element (FE) simulation results of the flywheel static burst test (FSBT) compare well to the quasistatic FE-simulation results of the flywheel rotor using inertia loads. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the presented method is a very good controllable and observable possibility to test a high speed flywheel energy storage system (FESS) rotor in a static way. Thereby, a much more expensive and dangerous dynamic spin up test with possible uncertainties can be substituted.

  13. Static Analysis for Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Rosa, D. Schuch da

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows how static analysis techniques can help understanding biological systems. Based on a simple example we illustrate the outcome of performing three different analyses extracting information of increasing precision. We conclude by reporting on the potential impact and exploitation o...... of these techniques in systems biology....

  14. Static Verification for Code Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fähndrich, Manuel

    The Code Contracts project [3] at Microsoft Research enables programmers on the .NET platform to author specifications in existing languages such as C# and VisualBasic. To take advantage of these specifications, we provide tools for documentation generation, runtime contract checking, and static contract verification.

  15. Static Analysis for Dynamic XML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    We describe the summary graph lattice for dataflow analysis of programs that dynamically construct XML documents. Summary graphs have successfully been used to provide static guarantees in the JWIG language for programming interactive Web services. In particular, the JWIG compiler is able to check...

  16. Counterterms for static Lovelock solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdizadeh, M.R.; Dehghani, M.H.; Zangeneh, M.K.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the counterterms that remove the non-logarithmic divergences of the action in third order Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes. We do this by defining the cosmological constant in such a way that the asymptotic form of the metric have the same form in Lovelock and Einstein gravities. Thus, we employ the counterterms of Einstein gravity and show that the power law divergences of the action of Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes can be removed by suitable choice of coefficients. We find that the dependence of these coefficients on the dimension in Lovelock gravity is the same as in Einstein gravity. We also introduce the finite energy-momentum tensor and employ these counterterms to calculate the finite action and mass of static black hole solutions of third order Lovelock gravity. Next, we calculate the thermodynamic quantities and show that the entropy calculated through the use of Gibbs-Duhem relation is consistent with the obtained entropy by Wald's formula. Furthermore, we find that in contrast to Einstein gravity in which there exists no uncharged extreme black hole, third order Lovelock gravity can have these kind of black holes. Finally, we investigate the stability of static charged black holes of Lovelock gravity in canonical ensemble and find that small black holes show a phase transition between very small and small black holes, while the large ones are stable. (orig.)

  17. Counterterms for static Lovelock solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdizadeh, M.R. [Shahid Bahonar University, Department of Physics, PO Box 76175, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dehghani, M.H. [Research Institute for Astrophysics and Astronomy of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zangeneh, M.K. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, we introduce the counterterms that remove the non-logarithmic divergences of the action in third order Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes. We do this by defining the cosmological constant in such a way that the asymptotic form of the metric have the same form in Lovelock and Einstein gravities. Thus, we employ the counterterms of Einstein gravity and show that the power law divergences of the action of Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes can be removed by suitable choice of coefficients. We find that the dependence of these coefficients on the dimension in Lovelock gravity is the same as in Einstein gravity. We also introduce the finite energy-momentum tensor and employ these counterterms to calculate the finite action and mass of static black hole solutions of third order Lovelock gravity. Next, we calculate the thermodynamic quantities and show that the entropy calculated through the use of Gibbs-Duhem relation is consistent with the obtained entropy by Wald's formula. Furthermore, we find that in contrast to Einstein gravity in which there exists no uncharged extreme black hole, third order Lovelock gravity can have these kind of black holes. Finally, we investigate the stability of static charged black holes of Lovelock gravity in canonical ensemble and find that small black holes show a phase transition between very small and small black holes, while the large ones are stable. (orig.)

  18. Static Analysis of Functional Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Klaas; van den Broek, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the static analysis of programs in the functional programming language Miranda is described based on two graph models. A new control-flow graph model of Miranda definitions is presented, and a model with four classes of caligraphs. Standard software metrics are applicable to these

  19. Relationship between Static Stiffness and Modal Stiffness of Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjian Ji Tianjian Ji

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives the relationship between the static stiffness and modal stiffness of a structure. The static stiffness and modal stiffness are two important concepts in both structural statics and dynamics. Although both stiffnesses indicate the capacity of the structure to resist deformation, they are obtained using different methods. The former is calculated by solving the equations of equilibrium and the latter can be obtained by solving an eigenvalue problem. A mathematical relationship between the two stiffnesses was derived based on the definitions of two stiffnesses. This relationship was applicable to a linear system and the derivation of relationships does not reveal any other limitations. Verification of the relationship was given by using several examples. The relationship between the two stiffnesses demonstrated that the modal stiffness of the fundamental mode was always larger than the static stiffness of a structure if the critical point and the maximum mode value are at the same node, i.e. for simply supported beam and seven storeys building are 1.5% and 15% respectively. The relationship could be applied into real structures, where the greater the number of modes being considered, the smaller the difference between the modal stiffness and the static stiffness of a structure.

  20. RESPON IMUNITAS BENIH LOBSTER, Panulirus homarus DENGAN PENGGUNAAN PROBIOTIK PADA PAKAN MOIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryanti Haryanti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pemeliharaan benih lobster P. homarus masih menghadapi beberapa permasalahan, di antaranya infeksi penyakit bakteri (red body disease dan mortalitas yang tinggi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengkaji respons imunitas benih lobster P. homarus yang diberi pakan pelet basah (moist diets dengan penambahan probiotik. Pemeliharaan benih lobster dilakukan secara individu (1 ekor/keranjang. Lama pemeliharaan selama tiga bulan. Bobot awal puerulus P. homarus adalah 0,37 ± 0,05 g. Perlakuan meliputi pemberian pakan moist yang ditambahkan (A ragi Saccharomyces cerevisiae, (B kombinasi probiotik, Alteromonas sp. BY-9 dan Bacillus cereus BC, dan (C tanpa probiotik. Respons imunitas dianalisis dengan RT-qPCR melalui tujuh gen target terkait ekspresi imunitas, setelah diuji tantang dengan Vibrio harveyi (penyebab red body disease. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sintasan benih lobster sebesar (A 32,22%; (B 29,63%; dan (C 33,33%. Pertumbuhan panjang dan bobot benih lobster tidak berbeda nyata (P>0,05. Respons imunitas benih lobster P. homarus pada perlakuan A dan B menunjukkan nilai ekspresi imun yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan perlakuan C (tanpa probiotik. Ekspresi gen penyandi anti lipopolisakarida (ALFHa-1 meningkat pada (A rata-rata sebesar 3,44 kali dan (B 3,25 kali dibandingkan dengan perlakuan C (2,43 kali. Kelipatan ekspresi profenoloksidase (proPO benih lobster meningkat pada perlakuan A (penambahan ragi rata-rata sebesar 5,27 kali, sedangkan pada perlakuan B (kombinasi probiotik sebesar 12,92 kali. Ekspresi Clotting sistem (transglutaminase, clotting protein dan antioxidant defense mechanism (glutathione peroxidase/GPO dan SAA juga mengalami peningkatan pada perlakuan A dan B. A number of contrains including disease infections and significant mortality have been occurring in lobster aquaculture. The aim of this research was to observe the immune response of juvenile lobster P. homarus culture fed by moist pellet supplemented with

  1. Robust Quantitative Comparative Statics for a Multimarket Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Harks; Philipp von Falkenhausen

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a quantitative approach to comparative statics that allows to bound the maximum effect of an exogenous parameter change on a system's equilibrium. The motivation for this approach is a well known paradox in multimarket Cournot competition, where a positive price shock on a monopoly market may actually reduce the monopolist's profit. We use our approach to quantify for the first time the worst case profit reduction for multimarket oligopolies exposed to arbitrary positive price sh...

  2. Effect of fermented moist feed on performance, gut bacteria and gut histo-morphology in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missotten, J A; Michiels, J; Dierick, N; Ovyn, A; Akbarian, A; De Smet, S

    2013-01-01

    1. Fermented feed has been shown to be beneficial in pig nutrition as a tool to reduce gut microbial disorders. Experiments with fermented feed in poultry are scarce, probably because of the belief that wet feed is less suitable for this species and causes wet litter. 2. A total of 280 one-d-old Ross 308 chickens were used in a completely randomised design with two dietary treatments (7 replicates of 20 birds/treatment); air-dry feed versus the same feed in moist form (water:feed ratio of 1.3:1, on a weight basis), inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 40087 (9 log10 CFU/kg feed) and batch-fermented for 48 h at 26°C. The birds were given starter (d 0-13), grower (d 4-26) and finisher (d 27-39) diets ad libitum. At the end of the grower and finisher period, two birds per pen were removed to sample intestinal contents for cultivating bacteria and intestinal tissue to determine villus height and crypt depth. 3. Fermented moist feed (FMF) batches showed good characteristics, with a pH between 3.9 and 4.4 and DL-lactic acid between 137 and 286 mmol/l. Daily feed intake and gain were reduced considerably in the FMF group in the starter (-40 and -44%, respectively) and grower (-23 and -16%) period, though in the finisher period these birds performed better, with an improved feed utilisation. Concomitant with the latter, villus height at the mid-jejunum and mid-ileum on d 39 was higher (+22.6% and +16.0%). Significantly more Lactobacilli and less coliforms were found in the foregut and less Streptococci in ileum and caeca of birds given FMF. 4. This trial showed that FMF was detrimental for early bird growth but affected beneficially feed efficiency, the composition of the gut bacteria and villus height in the small intestine in the finisher period in broilers.

  3. A Global Analysis of Deforestation in Moist Tropical Forest Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, B D; Kalamandeen, M; Galbraith, D; Gloor, E; Spracklen, D V

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) have been established to conserve tropical forests, but their effectiveness at reducing deforestation is uncertain. To explore this issue, we combined high resolution data of global forest loss over the period 2000-2012 with data on PAs. For each PA we quantified forest loss within the PA, in buffer zones 1, 5, 10 and 15 km outside the PA boundary as well as a 1 km buffer within the PA boundary. We analysed 3376 tropical and subtropical moist forest PAs in 56 countries over 4 continents. We found that 73% of PAs experienced substantial deforestation pressure, with >0.1% a(-1) forest loss in the outer 1 km buffer. Forest loss within PAs was greatest in Asia (0.25% a(-1)) compared to Africa (0.1% a(-1)), the Neotropics (0.1% a(-1)) and Australasia (Australia and Papua New Guinea; 0.03% a(-1)). We defined performance (P) of a PA as the ratio of forest loss in the inner 1 km buffer compared to the loss that would have occurred in the absence of the PA, calculated as the loss in the outer 1 km buffer corrected for any difference in deforestation pressure between the two buffers. To remove the potential bias due to terrain, we analysed a subset of PAs (n = 1804) where slope and elevation in inner and outer 1 km buffers were similar (within 1° and 100 m, respectively). We found 41% of PAs in this subset reduced forest loss in the inner buffer by at least 25% compared to the expected inner buffer forest loss (P<0.75). Median performance (P) of subset reserves was 0.87, meaning a reduction in forest loss within the PA of 13%. We found PAs were most effective in Australasia (P = 0.16), moderately successful in the Neotropics (P = 0.72) and Africa (p = 0.83), but ineffective in Asia (P = 1). We found many countries have PAs that give little or no protection to forest loss, particularly in parts of Asia, west Africa and central America. Across the tropics, the median effectiveness of PAs at the national level improved with gross domestic product per

  4. Credal Networks under Maximum Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasiewicz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We apply the principle of maximum entropy to select a unique joint probability distribution from the set of all joint probability distributions specified by a credal network. In detail, we start by showing that the unique joint distribution of a Bayesian tree coincides with the maximum entropy model of its conditional distributions. This result, however, does not hold anymore for general Bayesian networks. We thus present a new kind of maximum entropy models, which are computed sequentially. ...

  5. GEMAS: Colours of dry and moist agricultural soil samples of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Martin; Fabian, Karl; Reimann, Clemens

    2016-04-01

    High resolution HDR colour images of all Ap samples from the GEMAS survey were acquired using a GeoTek Linescan camera. Three measurements of dry and wet samples with increasing exposure time and increasing illumination settings produced a set of colour images at 50μm resolution. Automated image processing was used to calibrate the six images per sample with respect to the synchronously measured X-Rite colorchecker chart. The calibrated images were then fit to Munsell soil colours that were measured in the same way. The results provide overview maps of dry and moist European soil colours. Because colour is closely linked to iron mineralogy, carbonate, silicate and organic carbon content the results can be correlated to magnetic, mineralogical, and geochemical properties. In combination with the full GEMAS chemical and physical measurements, this yields a valuable data set for calibration and interpretation of visible satellite colour data with respect to chemical composition and geological background, soil moisture, and soil degradation. This data set will help to develop new methods for world-wide characterization and monitoring of agricultural soils which is essential for quantifying geologic and human impact on the critical zone environment. It furthermore enables the scientific community and governmental authorities to monitor consequences of climatic change, to plan and administrate economic and ecological land use, and to use the data set for forensic applications.

  6. Treatment of sandal burns of the feet in children in a moist environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakirov, Babur M

    2014-05-01

    Burns to children's feet are often due to scalds, from hot tap water, as an infant's skin is thinner and hence more susceptible to a full-thickness injury. In Central Asia, and particularly in Uzbekistan, many episodes of burns take place at homes because of using sandal heaters. In the case of sandal burns of the foot, it usually is not only skin that is injured but also underlying tissues: subcutaneous fat, fasciae, muscles and even bones. Many controlled studies have confirmed that wounds heal more readily in a moist, physiological environment. After performing the toilet of burn wounds of the foot, we applied Dermazin cream on the affected areas and then the foot was placed onto a polyethylene packet of large size and fixed by a bandage. Measurement of wound water evaporation was performed every day post-burn. Surgery was usually performed 15-17 days after burn by applying a perforated skin graft or a 0.2-0.3-mm-thick non-perforated skin graft. The procedures helped to improve the general condition of patients, shortened their stay in hospital and also reduced expenses and lessened joint deformities and contracture deformities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Kinetic Modeling of a Silicon Refining Process in a Moist Hydrogen Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Morita, Kazuki

    2018-06-01

    We developed a kinetic model that considers both silicon loss and boron removal in a metallurgical grade silicon refining process. This model was based on the hypotheses of reversible reactions. The reaction rate coefficient kept the same form but error of terminal boron concentration could be introduced when relating irreversible reactions. Experimental data from published studies were used to develop a model that fit the existing data. At 1500 °C, our kinetic analysis suggested that refining silicon in a moist hydrogen atmosphere generates several primary volatile species, including SiO, SiH, HBO, and HBO2. Using the experimental data and the kinetic analysis of volatile species, we developed a model that predicts a linear relationship between the reaction rate coefficient k and both the quadratic function of p(H2O) and the square root of p(H2). Moreover, the model predicted the partial pressure values for the predominant volatile species and the prediction was confirmed by the thermodynamic calculations, indicating the reliability of the model. We believe this model provides a foundation for designing a silicon refining process with a fast boron removal rate and low silicon loss.

  8. Replacement of moist ingredients in the feed training of carnivorous fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Salaro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the replacement of bovine heart by gelatin in the feed training of carnivorous fish, using giant trahira (Hoplias lacerdae as an experimental model. A completely randomized design with four treatments and five repetitions was employed. The treatments were composed of wet ingredients beef heart (control, gelatin diluted in water, gelatin diluted in beef heart broth, and gelatin diluted in water mixed with fish meal. The fish (3.22±0.03 cm and 0.57±0.01 g were conditioned to accept industrialized diets by the technique of gradual feed ingredients transition in the diet. Gains in weight and length, efficiency of feed training, specific growth rate, cannibalism, mortality and survival rates were evaluated. There was significant difference in weight and length gains and specific growth rate, whereby the use of bovine heart gave the best results. Greater efficiency of feed training was observed for fish fed diets containing beef heart and gelatin diluted in water mixed with fish meal. The high survival rates and the absence of significant differences among treatments for rates of cannibalism, mortality and survival indicate the feasibility of using gelatin as a moist ingredient in the feed training of carnivorous fish.

  9. Beyond the brotherhood: Skoal Bandits' role in the evolution of marketing moist smokeless tobacco pouches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendlin, Yogi H; Veffer, Jessica R; Lewis, M Jane; Ling, Pamela M

    2017-01-01

    Since 2006, "snus" smokeless tobacco has been sold in the U.S.. However, U.S. Smokeless Tobacco (USST) and Swedish Match developed and marketed pouched moist snuff tobacco (MST) since 1973. Analysis of previously secret tobacco documents, advertisements and trade press. USST partnered with Swedish Match, forming United Scandia International to develop pouch products as part of the "Lotus Project." Pouched MST was not commonly used, either in Sweden or the U.S. prior to the Lotus Project's innovation in 1973. The project aimed to transform smokeless tobacco from being perceived as an "unsightly habit of old men" into a relevant, socially acceptable urban activity, targeting 15-35 year-old men. While USST's initial pouched product "Good Luck," never gained mainstream traction, Skoal Bandits captured significant market share after its 1983 introduction. Internal market research found that smokers generally used Skoal Bandits in smokefree environments, yet continued to smoke cigarettes in other contexts. Over time, pouch products increasingly featured increased flavor, size, nicotine strength and user imagery variation. Marlboro and Camel Snus advertising mirrors historical advertising for Skoal Bandits, designed to recruit new users and smokers subjected to smokefree places. Despite serious efforts, pouched MST marketing has been unable to dispel its association with traditional smokeless tobacco stereotypes as macho and rural. Public education efforts to discourage new users and dual use of MST and cigarettes should emphasize that "new" pouch products are simply repackaging "old" smokeless tobacco.

  10. Characteristics of transonic moist air flows around butterfly valves with spontaneous condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.M. Toufique Hasan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Effects of spontaneous condensation of moist air on the shock wave dynamics around butterfly valves in transonic flows are investigated by experimental and numerical simulations. Two symmetric valve disk shapes namely- a flat rectangular plate and a mid-plane cross-section of a prototype butterfly valve have been studied in the present research. Results showed that in case with spontaneous condensation, the root mean square of pressure oscillation (induced by shock dynamics is reduced significantly with those without condensation for both shapes of the valves. Moreover, local aerodynamic moments were reduced in case with condensation which is considered to be beneficial in torque requirement in case of on/off applications of valves as flow control devices. However, total pressure loss was increased with spontaneous condensation in both the valves. Furthermore, the disk shape of a prototype butterfly valve showed better aerodynamic performances compared to flat rectangular plate profile in respect of total pressure loss and vortex shedding frequency in the wake region.

  11. Moist exposed burn ointment for treating pressure ulcers: A multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Ma, Yubo; Yang, Qi; Pan, Yu; Meng, Qinggang

    2017-07-01

    Pressure ulcers often seriously affect the quality of life of patients. Moist Exposed Burn Ointment (MEBO) has been developed to treat patients with pressure ulcers. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MEBO in the treatment of pressure ulcers in Chinese patients. Seventy-two patients with pressure ulcers were randomly assigned to 2 groups who received a placebo or MEBO for 2 months. The primary outcomes included the wound surface area (WSA) and pressure ulcer scale for healing (PUSH) tool. The secondary outcomes included a visual analog scale (VAS), questionnaire of ulcer status, and adverse effects. Sixty-seven patients completed the study. After 2 months of treatment, the difference of mean change from the baseline was greater for MEBO (vs placebo) for WSA mean (SD) -6.0 (-8.8, -3.3), PUSH Tool -2.6 (-4.7, -1.5), and VAS score -2.9 (-4.4, -1.7). On the basis of the questionnaire, the pressure ulcers were "completely healed" (50.0% vs 16.7%) (P pressure ulcers.

  12. A new fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) bait base carrier for moist conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Lekhnath; Wu, Wen-Jer; Shih, Cheng-Jen

    2010-10-01

    A new water-resistant fire ant bait (T-bait; cypermethrin 0.128%) consisting of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) as a carrier was developed and evaluated against a standard commercial bait (Advion; indoxacarb 0.045%) under both laboratory and field conditions. When applying the normal T-bait or Advion in the laboratory, 100% of Solenopsis invicta Buren worker ants were killed within 4 days. However, when the T-bait and Advion were wetted, 70.6 and 39.7% of the ants were killed respectively. Under field conditions, dry T-bait and dry Advion had almost the same efficacy against ant colonies. However, when T-bait and Advion came in contact with water, the former's ability to kill S. invicta colonies in the field was only marginally reduced, while Advion lost virtually all of its activity. In addition, DDGS was also shown to be compatible with a number of other insecticides, such as d-allethrin, permethrin and pyrethrin. Based on its properties of remaining attractive to the fire ants when wetted, combined with its ant-killing abilities both in the laboratory and in the field, T-bait is an efficient fire ant bait, especially under moist conditions.

  13. Remote sensing for conservation of tropical moist forests: A study in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick-Smith, Robert Myles

    The Indonesian archipelago extends in a great 6000km arc from the northern tip of Sumatra to the eastern border of Irian Jaya. It includes a wide diversity of ecosystems ranging from the floristically rich and economically important lowland tropical rain forests to the 'moss' and sub-alpine meadows of the higher mountains and from fresh-water swamp forest to the dry monsoon forest and savanna woodlands of the lesser Sunda islands. These forests are of importance for the protection of watersheds and catchment areas, for the maintenance of water supplies, and for their general and local influence upon climate. They are the habitat of a large number of rare, endangered and endemic plant and animal species; also many other birds, mammals, reptiles and insects which form a colourful, scientifically valuable and irreplaceable part of the national heritage and world genetic resources. This study examines an area of great ecological importance in Sulawesi, and an attempt is made to map a number of ecosystems in the area. Landsat multispectral imagery (1972) was the basis of the mapping and field work was completed in 1980. The satellite imagery proved to be a satisfactory mapping tool in these tropical moist forest conditions.

  14. Static Behaviour of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim André

    One new foundation concept in relation to offshore wind turbines is bucket foundations. The concept is known from the oil and gas industry, though the load conditions here are significantly different. The bucket foundation can be used as monopod or e.g. tripod foundations for offshore wind turbines....... The monopod concept is investigated in this thesis, regarding the static behaviour from loads relevant to offshore wind turbines. The main issue in this concept is the rotational stiffness of the foundation and the combined capacity dominated by moments. The vertical bearing capacity of bucket foundations...... theory is proposed. The proposed expression applies to plane strain as well as axis-symmetric stress conditions for foundations with smooth or rough bases. A thorough experimental investigation of the static behaviour of bucket foundations subjected to combined loading is carried out. Laboratory tests...

  15. Size scaling of static friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, O M; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio

    2013-02-22

    Sliding friction across a thin soft lubricant film typically occurs by stick slip, the lubricant fully solidifying at stick, yielding and flowing at slip. The static friction force per unit area preceding slip is known from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to decrease with increasing contact area. That makes the large-size fate of stick slip unclear and unknown; its possible vanishing is important as it would herald smooth sliding with a dramatic drop of kinetic friction at large size. Here we formulate a scaling law of the static friction force, which for a soft lubricant is predicted to decrease as f(m)+Δf/A(γ) for increasing contact area A, with γ>0. Our main finding is that the value of f(m), controlling the survival of stick slip at large size, can be evaluated by simulations of comparably small size. MD simulations of soft lubricant sliding are presented, which verify this theory.

  16. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This successful book, which is now appearing in its second edition, presents a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. The book you hold in hands contributes to fill this demand. The second edition integrates the original text of the first edition with new developments, widening and revisions, due to recent research studies achievements. The result is a book that gives a complete picture of the behaviour of the Masonry Constructions. First of all, it gives the fundamentals of its Statics, based on the no-tension assumption, and then it develops the Limit Analysis for the Masonry Constructions. In this framework, through an interdisciplinary approach combining Engineering and Architecture, the book also investigates the sta...

  17. Water cooled static pressure probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagen, Nicholas T. (Inventor); Eves, John W. (Inventor); Reece, Garland D. (Inventor); Geissinger, Steve L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved static pressure probe containing a water cooling mechanism is disclosed. This probe has a hollow interior containing a central coolant tube and multiple individual pressure measurement tubes connected to holes placed on the exterior. Coolant from the central tube symmetrically immerses the interior of the probe, allowing it to sustain high temperature (in the region of 2500 F) supersonic jet flow indefinitely, while still recording accurate pressure data. The coolant exits the probe body by way of a reservoir attached to the aft of the probe. The pressure measurement tubes are joined to a single, larger manifold in the reservoir. This manifold is attached to a pressure transducer that records the average static pressure.

  18. Numerical Study on the Effect of Non-Equilibrium Condensation on Drag Divergence Mach Number in a Transonic Moist Air Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Min [GyeongBuk Technopark, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hui Bo; Kwon, Young Doo; Kwon, Soon Bum [Kyungpook Nat’l Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In the present study, the effects of non-equilibrium condensation on the drag divergence Mach number with the angle of attack in a transonic 2D moist air flow of NACA0012 are investigated using the TVD finite difference scheme. For the same α, the maximum upstream Mach number of the shock wave, Mmax, and the size of supersonic bubble decrease with the increase in Φ{sub 0}. For the same M{sub ∞}, Φ{sub 0}, and T{sub 0}, the length of the non-equilibrium condensation zone Δ{sub z} decreases with increasing Φ{sub 0}. On the other hand, because of the attenuating effect of non-equilibrium condensation on wave drag, which is related to the interaction between the shock wave and the boundary layer, the drag coefficient C{sub D} decreases with an increase in Φ{sub 0} for the same M{sub ∞} and α. For the same α, M{sub D} increases with increasing Φ{sub 0}, while M{sub D} decreases with an increase in α.

  19. Precipitation-Static-Reduction Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-03-31

    if» 85 z \\ PRECIPITATION-STATIC-REDUCTION RESEARCH study of the effects of flame length , flame spacing, and burner spacing on B shows that there...unod: Flame length *. The visual length of the flame from the burner tip to the flame tip when examined in a darkened room against a black background...Postlve and Negative Flames The use of the second flame-conduction coefficient, B, facilitates considerably the study of the effect of flame length , spacing

  20. Static and Dynamic Membrane Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Ivanov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available While originally P systems were defined to contain multiset rewriting rules, it turned out that considering different types of rules may produce important results, such as increasing the computational power of the rules. This paper focuses on factoring out the concept of a membrane structure out of various P system models with the goal of providing useful formalisations. Both static and dynamic membrane structures are considered.

  1. Quantitative determination of the specific heat and the glass transition of moist samples by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubnell, M; Schawe, J E

    2001-04-17

    In differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), remnant moisture loss in samples often overlaps and distorts other thermal events, e.g. glass transitions. To separate such overlapping processes, temperature modulated DSC (TMDSC) has been widely used. In this contribution we discuss the quantitative determination of the heat capacity of a moist sample from TMDSC measurements. The sample was a spray-dried pharmaceutical compound run in different pans (hermetically-sealed pan, pierced lid pan [50 microm] and open pan). The apparent heat capacity was corrected for the remaining amount of moisture. Using this procedure we could clearly identify the glass transition of the dry and the moist sample. We found that a moisture content of about 6.2% shifts the glass transition by about 50 degrees C.

  2. Homotheties of cylindrically symmetric static spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, A.; Ziad, M.; Sharif, M.

    1998-08-01

    In this note we consider the homotheties of cylindrically symmetric static spacetimes. We find that we can provide a complete list of all metrics that admit non-trivial homothetic motions and are cylindrically symmetric static. (author)

  3. Comparision of Vacuum-Asisted Closure and Moist Wound Dressing in the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Ravari, Hassan; Modaghegh, Mohammad-Hadi Saeed; Kazemzadeh, Gholam Hosein; Johari, Hamed Ghoddusi; Vatanchi, Attieh Mohammadzadeh; Sangaki, Abolghasem; Shahrodi, Mohammad Vahedian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) is a new method in wound care which speeds wound healing by causing vacuum, improving tissue perfusion and suctioning the exudates. This study aims to evaluate its efficacy in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Materials and Methods: Thirteen patients with diabetic foot ulcers were enrolled in the moist dressing group, and 10 patients in the VAC group. The site, size and depth of the wound were inspected and recorded before and every three days du...

  4. Combined moist airtight storage and feed fermentation of barley by the yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus and a lactic acid bacteria consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny eBorling Welin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study combined moist airtight storage of moist grain with pig feed fermentation. Starter cultures with the potential to facilitate both technologies were added to airtight stored moist crimped cereal grain, and the impact on storage microflora and the quality of feed fermentations generated from the grain was investigated. Four treatments were compared: three based on moist barley, either un inoculated (M, inoculated with Wickerhamomyces anomalus (W, or inoculated with W. anomalus and LAB starter culture, containing Pediococcus acidilactici DSM 16243, Pediococcus pentosaceus DSM 12834 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 12837 (WLAB; and one treatment based on dried barley (D. After 6 weeks of storage, four feed fermentations FM, FW, FWLAB, and FD, were initiated from M, W, WLAB and D, respectively, by mixing the grain with water to a dry matter content of 30%. Each treatment was fermented in batch initially for 7 days and then kept in a continuous mode by adding new feed daily with 50% back-slop. During the 6 week storage period, the average water activity decreased in M, W and WLAB from 0.96 to 0.85, and cereal pH decreased from approximately 6.0 at harvest to 4.5. Feed fermentation conferred a further pH decrease to 3.8 – 4.1. In M, W and WLAB, moulds and Enterobacteriaceae were mostly below detection limit, whereas both organism groups were detected in D. In fermented feed, Enterobacteriaceae were below detection limit in almost all conditions. Moulds were detected in FD, for most of the fermentation time in FM and at some sampling points in FW and FWLAB. Starter organisms, especially W. anomalus and L. plantarum comprised a considerable proportion of the yeast and LAB populations, respectively, in both stored grain and fermented feed. However, autochthonous Pichia kudriavzevii and Kazachstania exigua partially dominated the yeast populations in stored grain and fermented feed, respectively.

  5. Comparision of vacuum-asisted closure and moist wound dressing in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravari, Hassan; Modaghegh, Mohammad-Hadi Saeed; Kazemzadeh, Gholam Hosein; Johari, Hamed Ghoddusi; Vatanchi, Attieh Mohammadzadeh; Sangaki, Abolghasem; Shahrodi, Mohammad Vahedian

    2013-01-01

    Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) is a new method in wound care which speeds wound healing by causing vacuum, improving tissue perfusion and suctioning the exudates. This study aims to evaluate its efficacy in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Thirteen patients with diabetic foot ulcers were enrolled in the moist dressing group, and 10 patients in the VAC group. The site, size and depth of the wound were inspected and recorded before and every three days during the study period. Patient satisfaction and formation of granulation tissue were also assessed. Improvement of the wound in the form of reducing the diameter and depth and increasing proliferation of granulation tissue was significant in most of the patients of the VAC group after two weeks. Satisfaction of patients in the VAC group was evaluated as excellent as no amputation was done in this group. Wagner score was reduced in both the study groups, although this decrement was not significant in the moist dressing group. VAC appears to be as safe as and more efficacious than moist dressing for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers.

  6. Comparision of Vacuum-Asisted Closure and Moist Wound Dressing in the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravari, Hassan; Modaghegh, Mohammad-Hadi Saeed; Kazemzadeh, Gholam Hosein; Johari, Hamed Ghoddusi; Vatanchi, Attieh Mohammadzadeh; Sangaki, Abolghasem; Shahrodi, Mohammad Vahedian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) is a new method in wound care which speeds wound healing by causing vacuum, improving tissue perfusion and suctioning the exudates. This study aims to evaluate its efficacy in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Materials and Methods: Thirteen patients with diabetic foot ulcers were enrolled in the moist dressing group, and 10 patients in the VAC group. The site, size and depth of the wound were inspected and recorded before and every three days during the study period. Patient satisfaction and formation of granulation tissue were also assessed. Results: Improvement of the wound in the form of reducing the diameter and depth and increasing proliferation of granulation tissue was significant in most of the patients of the VAC group after two weeks. Satisfaction of patients in the VAC group was evaluated as excellent as no amputation was done in this group. Wagner score was reduced in both the study groups, although this decrement was not significant in the moist dressing group. Conclusion: VAC appears to be as safe as and more efficacious than moist dressing for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. PMID:23723599

  7. Species-environment relationship in the herb-subshrub layer of a moist Savanna site, Federal District, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhoz, C B R; Felfili, J M; Rodrigues, C

    2008-02-01

    The soils are seasonally or permanently saturated in the moist grassland savanna, locally known as Campo Limpo Umido. Soil moisture variation seems to determine spatial distribution of communities. The objective of this study is to analyse the relationship between environmental variables and the patterns of spatial distribution of species in the herbaceous-subshrub layer of an area of moist grassland at the Agua Limpa Farm, Brasília, DF (15 degrees 56' to 15 degrees 59' S and 47 degrees 55' to 47 degrees 58' W Gr.). An area of 400 x 400 m was divided into four sections of 200 x 200 m where four transects were randomly sampled. A line intercept method was adopted for the phytossociological study. Superficial soils samples (0-20 cm) were collected for chemical and textural analyses. Gravimetric soil moisture was measured quarterly during the study-year. A total of 85 species in 67 genera and 24 families were found. The diversity was high, Shannon's index, H', was 2.60 nats.cover(-1). Floristic composition of the transects in soils with a high gravimetric soil moisture and high content of organic matter and sand differed from those transects in soils with a lower gravimetric soil moisture indicating seasonal variation. A Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) showed significant correlations between soil texture and soil moisture features and species distribution. Gravimetric soil moisture, organic matter, clay, silt and sand were significantly correlated to species distribution in the moist grassland determining mosaics in the vegetation.

  8. Comparision of vacuum-asisted closure and moist wound dressing in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ravari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC is a new method in wound care which speeds wound healing by causing vacuum, improving tissue perfusion and suctioning the exudates. This study aims to evaluate its efficacy in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Materials and Methods: Thirteen patients with diabetic foot ulcers were enrolled in the moist dressing group, and 10 patients in the VAC group. The site, size and depth of the wound were inspected and recorded before and every three days during the study period. Patient satisfaction and formation of granulation tissue were also assessed. Results: Improvement of the wound in the form of reducing the diameter and depth and increasing proliferation of granulation tissue was significant in most of the patients of the VAC group after two weeks. Satisfaction of patients in the VAC group was evaluated as excellent as no amputation was done in this group. Wagner score was reduced in both the study groups, although this decrement was not significant in the moist dressing group. Conclusion: VAC appears to be as safe as and more efficacious than moist dressing for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers.

  9. A Pedagogical Model of Static Friction

    OpenAIRE

    Pickett, Galen T.

    2015-01-01

    While dry Coulombic friction is an elementary topic in any standard introductory course in mechanics, the critical distinction between the kinetic and static friction forces is something that is both hard to teach and to learn. In this paper, I describe a geometric model of static friction that may help introductory students to both understand and apply the Coulomb static friction approximation.

  10. In-Flight Pitot-Static Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John V. (Inventor); Cunningham, Kevin (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A GPS-based pitot-static calibration system uses global output-error optimization. High data rate measurements of static and total pressure, ambient air conditions, and GPS-based ground speed measurements are used to compute pitot-static pressure errors over a range of airspeed. System identification methods rapidly compute optimal pressure error models with defined confidence intervals.

  11. Moist convection and the 2010-2011 revival of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Orton, G. S.; Rogers, J. H.; Giles, R. S.; Payne, A. V.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Vedovato, M.

    2017-04-01

    The transformation of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt (SEB) from its faded, whitened state in 2009-2010 (Fletcher et al., 2011b) to its normal brown appearance is documented via comparisons of thermal-infrared (5-20 μm) and visible-light imaging between November 2010 and November 2011. The SEB revival consisted of convective eruptions triggered over ∼100 days, potentially powered by the latent heat released by the condensation of water. The plumes rise from the water cloud base and ultimately diverge and cool in the stably-stratified upper troposphere. Thermal-IR images from the Very Large Telescope (VLT) were acquired 2 days after the SEB disturbance was first detected as a small white spot by amateur observers on November 9th 2010. Subsequent images over several months revealed the cold, putatively anticyclonic and cloudy plume tops (area 2.5 × 106 km2) surrounded by warm, cloud-free conditions at their peripheries due to subsidence. The latent heating was not directly detectable in the 5-20 μm range. The majority of the plumes erupted from a single source near 140 -160∘ W, coincident with the remnant cyclonic circulation of a brown barge that had formed during the fade. The warm remnant of the cyclone could still be observed in IRTF imaging 5 days before the November 9th eruption. Additional plumes erupted from the leading edge of the central disturbance immediately east of the source, which propagated slowly eastwards to encounter the Great Red Spot. The tropospheric plumes were sufficiently vigorous to excite stratospheric thermal waves over the SEB with a 20 -30∘ longitudinal wavelength and 5-6 K temperature contrasts at 5 mbar, showing a direct connection between moist convection and stratospheric wave activity. The subsidence and compressional heating of dry, unsaturated air warmed the troposphere (particularly to the northwest of the central branch of the revival) and removed the aerosols that had been responsible for the fade. Dark, cloud

  12. Perbandingan Penyembuhan Luka Bakar Derajat Dua antara Rebusan Daun Sirih dan Moist Exposed Burn Ointment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of topical agent is one of the main strategies in management of burn injury. At Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital, moist exposed burn ointment (MEBO is the first line topical agent for treating burn injury, not all places in Indonesia able to use it. Piper betle is one of the traditional agent to treat wound including that caused burn injury. Our experimental study was to compare the second grade burn injury healing process by using Wistar sp. for boiled piper betle leaves, MEBO and as control physiologic sodium chloride for fourteen days (August 25th–September 8th 2009 at Animal Pharmacology Laboratory of Faculty of Medicine Padjadjaran University. The variables which measured were diameter of injury, pus development, evidence of serous and erythematous skin, at 4th, 7th and 14th day of studied. Histopathologic examination was conducted at day 14 to determine the amount of fibroblast, collagen and epithelial. The results according to the measurement of diameter (piper betle leaves group 17.4 mm was smaller than other groups (p<0.001. In pus development control group was higher than other groups (p=0.043. In pathological findings, the control group was at inflammation phase, while in boiled piper betle leaves group was at proliferation phase and in MEBO group at remodeling phase (with epithel score 1.9 which higher than other groups (p<0.001. In conclusions, application of boiled piper betle leaves in treating second degree burn injury gives a better result than physiologic sodium chloride, although MEBO is better for second degree burn injury healing process.

  13. Extreme nitrogen deposition can change methane oxidation rate in moist acidic tundra soil in Arctic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Kim, J.; Kang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, extreme nitrogen(N) deposition events are observed in Arctic regions where over 90% of the annual N deposition occurred in just a few days. Since Arctic ecosystems are typically N-limited, input of extremely high amount of N could substantially affect ecosystem processes. CH4 is a potent greenhouse gas that has 25 times greater global warming potential than CO2 over a 100-year time frame. Ammonium is known as an inhibitor of methane oxidation and nitrate also shows inhibitory effect on it in temperate ecosystems. However, effects of N addition on Arctic ecosystems are still elusive. We conducted a lab-scale incubation experiment with moist acidic tundra (MAT) soil from Council, Alaska to investigate the effect of extreme N deposition events on methane oxidation. Zero point five % methane was added to the head space to determine the potential methane oxidation rate of MAT soil. Three treatments (NH4NO3-AN, (NH4)2SO4-AS, KNO3-PN) were used to compare effects of ammonium, nitrate and salts. All treatments were added in 3 levels: 10μg N gd.w-1(10), 50μg N gd.w-1(50) and 100μg N gd.w-1(100). AN10 and AN50 increased methane oxidation rate 1.7, 6% respectively. However, AN100 shows -8.5% of inhibitory effect. In AS added samples, all 3 concentrations (AN10, AN50, AN100) stimulated methane oxidation rate with 4.7, 8.9, 4%, respectively. On the contrary, PN50 (-9%) and PN100 (-59.5%) exhibited a significant inhibitory effect. We also analyzed the microbial gene abundance and community structures of methane oxidizing bacteria using a DNA-based fingerprinting method (T-RFLP) Our study results suggest that NH4+ can stimulate methane oxidation in Arctic MAT soil, while NO3- can inhibit methane oxidation significantly.

  14. Non-invasive therapy for the prevention of moist desquamation following β-radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, L.; Wilcock, S.; Rezvani, M.; Hsia, C.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In an environment of potential nuclear mishap, effective therapies are lacking for radiation-induced skin burns. In this report we describe an effective, non-invasive therapy for post acute radiation exposure based on skin compression. A pig skin model of β-radiation-induced moist desquamation (MD) was employed in this study. Exposure to 30 Gy was used to induce skin lesions involving >80% MD in prescribed test sites on flank skin of female Large White pigs (n 18 per flank). The animals' left flank was placed under pressure from the weight of the pig's own body for 3 hours, immediately following radiation exposure. The right flank served as control, and was not subject to compression following irradiation. Percentage differences in MD were measured between sites on both flanks based on the the area of the test site containing 50% MD (severe) as determined by clinical assessment using blinded observers. The incidence of MD was significantly higher on the uncompressed right flank as compared to the compressed left flank (p < 0.005). A 61% and 45% reduction of MD was observed in both total and severe MD, respectively, during the 8-week study period. Radiation-induced MD was significantly reduced by immediate, mild skin compression (approx. 1.5 psi) for 3 hours immediately following exposure. This observation suggests that skin lesion development from radiation-induced oxidative damage cascades may be modulated non-invasively. Understanding the mechanism(s) at work and developing devices based on this non-invasive therapeutic principle may provide a novel treatment for consequent skin injury in radiation oncology, cosmetic and therapeutic UV, laser, glycolic and derm abrasion procedures

  15. Occurrence of culturable soil fungi in a tropical moist deciduous forest Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Santanu K; Tayung, Kumanand; Rath, Chandi C; Parida, Debraj

    2015-03-01

    Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR) is a tropical moist deciduous forest dominated by the species Shorea robusta . To the best of our knowledge their rich biodiversity has not been explored in term of its microbial wealth. In the present investigation, soil samples were collected from ten selected sites inside SBR and studied for their physicochemical parameters and culturable soil fungal diversity. The soil samples were found to be acidic in nature with a pH ranging from of 5.1-6.0. Highest percentage of organic carbon and moisture content were observed in the samples collected from the sites, Chahala-1 and Chahala-2. The plate count revealed that fungal population ranged from 3.6 × 10 (4) -2.1 × 10 (5) and 5.1 × 10 (4) -4.7 × 10 (5) cfu/gm of soil in summer and winter seasons respectively. The soil fungus, Aspergillus niger was found to be the most dominant species and Species Important Values Index (SIVI) was 43.4 and 28.6 in summer and winter seasons respectively. Among the sites studied, highest fungal diversity indices were observed during summer in the sites, Natto-2 and Natto-1. The Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices in these two sites were found to be 3.12 and 3.022 and 0.9425 and 0.9373 respectively. However, the highest Fisher's alpha was observed during winter in the sites Joranda, Natto-2, Chahala-1 and Natto-1 and the values were 3.780, 3.683, 3.575 and 3.418 respectively. Our investigation revealed that, fungal population was dependent on moisture and organic carbon (%) of the soil but its diversity was found to be regulated by sporulating species like Aspergillus and Penicillium.

  16. Kinetics of the degradation of sulfur mustard on ambient and moist concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevett, Carol A.S.; Sumpter, Kenneth B.; Nickol, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    The rate of degradation of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard, bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, was measured on ambient and moist concrete using 13 C Solid State Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SSMAS NMR). Three samples of concrete made by the same formulation, but differing in age and alkalinity were used. The sulfur mustard eventually degraded to thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane via the intermediate sulfonium ions CH-TG, H-TG, H-2TG and O(CH 2 CH 2 ) 2 S + CH 2 CH 2 OH on all of the concrete samples, and in addition formed 8-31% vinyl moieties on the newer, more alkaline concrete samples. This is the first observation of the formation of O(CH 2 CH 2 ) 2 S + CH 2 CH 2 OH on a solid substrate. The addition of 2-chloroethanol to concrete on which mustard had fully degraded to thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane resulted in the formation of O(CH 2 CH 2 ) 2 S + CH 2 CH 2 OH, thus demonstrating the reversibility of sulfur mustard degradation pathways. The sulfur mustard degradation half-lives on ambient concrete at 22 deg. C ranged from 3.5 to 54 weeks. When the substrates were moistened, the degradation half-lives at 22 deg. C ranged from 75 to 350 h. The degradation of sulfur mustard occurred more quickly at elevated temperatures and with added water. The non-volatile toxic sulfonium ions persisted for months to years on concrete at 22 deg. C and weeks to months on concrete at 35 deg. C, before decomposing to the relatively non-toxic compounds thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane

  17. Influence of Ice-phase of Hydrometeors on Moist-Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.

    2003-01-01

    Climate models often ignore the influence of ice-phase physics (IPP) of hydrometeors as a second order effect. This has also been true for McRAS (Microphysics of clouds with Relaxed Arakawa Schubert Scheme) developed by the authors. Recognizing that the temperature sounding is critical for moist-convection, and, that IPP would modify it, we investigated the influence of introducing IPP into McRAS coupled to FvGCM (finite volume General Circulation Model with NCAR physics). We analyzed three 3-yr long simulations; the first called Control Case, CC and had no IPP; the other two called Experiments El and E2 had IPP introduced with two different in-cloud freezing assumptions. Simulation El assumed that all hydrometeors remain liquid in the updraft and freeze upon detrainment. Simulation E2 invoked the in-cloud freezing of new condensate generated at subfreezing temperatures in the updraft while old cloud water continued to ascend as liquid. Upon detrainment, this cloud water also froze like in E1. With these assumptions, about 50% of hydrometeors froze in the tower and the rest froze in the anvil. However, in both El and E2, the frozen hydrometeors melted during fall at the first encounter of above freezing ambient temperature. Comparative analysis revealed that El simulated far more mid-level and far less deep clouds while E2 had modified deep and more mid-level clouds as compared to CC along with some major changes around the melt-level. We infer that IPP produced a more realistic response in E2. At the basic level, the results show that ice-phase processes influence convective detrainment at mid- and deep levels in accord with TOGAGOARE observations. The results suggest that IPP can help to mitigate less-than-observed mid-level and over-abundance of deep convective clouds in McRAS.

  18. Snow depth manipulation experiments in a dry and a moist tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, M. J.; Czimczik, C. I.; Jung, J. Y.; Kim, M.; Lee, Y. K.; Nam, S.; Wagner, I.

    2017-12-01

    As a result of global warming, precipitation in the Arctic is expected to increase by 25-50% by the end of this century, mostly in the form of snow. However, precipitation patterns vary considerable in space and time, and future precipitation patterns are highly uncertain at local and regional scales. The amount of snowfall (or snow depth) influences a number of ecosystem properties in Arctic ecosystems, such as soil temperature over winter and soil moisture in the following growing season. These modifications then affect rates of carbon-related soil processes and photosynthesis, thus CO2 exchange rates between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. In this study, we investigate the effects of snow depth on the magnitude, sources and temporal dynamics of CO2 fluxes. We installed snow fences in a dry dwarf-shrub (Cambridge Bay, Canada; 69° N, 105° W) and a moist low-shrub (Council, Alaska, USA; 64° N, 165° W) tundra in summer 2017, and established control, and increased and reduced snow depth plots at each snow fence. Summertime CO2 flux rates (net ecosystem exchange, ecosystem respiration, gross primary production) and the fractions of autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration to ecosystem respiration were measured using manual chambers and radiocarbon signatures. Wintertime CO2 flux rates will be measured using soda lime adsorption technique and forced diffusion chambers. Soil temperature and moisture at multiple depths, as well as changes in soil properties and microbial communities will be also observed, to research whether these changes affect CO2 flux rates or patterns. Our study will elucidate how future snow depth and its impact on soil physical and biogeochemical properties influence the magnitude and sources of tundra-atmosphere CO2 exchange in the rapidly warming Arctic.

  19. Kinetics of the degradation of sulfur mustard on ambient and moist concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevett, Carol A.S. [SAIC, Gunpowder Branch, P.O. Box 68, APG, MD 21010-0068 (United States)], E-mail: carol.brevett@us.army.mil; Sumpter, Kenneth B. [U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, 5183 Blackhawk Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010-5424 (United States); Nickol, Robert G. [SAIC, Gunpowder Branch, P.O. Box 68, APG, MD 21010-0068 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    The rate of degradation of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard, bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, was measured on ambient and moist concrete using {sup 13}C Solid State Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SSMAS NMR). Three samples of concrete made by the same formulation, but differing in age and alkalinity were used. The sulfur mustard eventually degraded to thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane via the intermediate sulfonium ions CH-TG, H-TG, H-2TG and O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}S{sup +}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH on all of the concrete samples, and in addition formed 8-31% vinyl moieties on the newer, more alkaline concrete samples. This is the first observation of the formation of O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}S{sup +}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH on a solid substrate. The addition of 2-chloroethanol to concrete on which mustard had fully degraded to thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane resulted in the formation of O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}S{sup +}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH, thus demonstrating the reversibility of sulfur mustard degradation pathways. The sulfur mustard degradation half-lives on ambient concrete at 22 deg. C ranged from 3.5 to 54 weeks. When the substrates were moistened, the degradation half-lives at 22 deg. C ranged from 75 to 350 h. The degradation of sulfur mustard occurred more quickly at elevated temperatures and with added water. The non-volatile toxic sulfonium ions persisted for months to years on concrete at 22 deg. C and weeks to months on concrete at 35 deg. C, before decomposing to the relatively non-toxic compounds thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane.

  20. Occurrence of culturable soil fungi in a tropical moist deciduous forest Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Santanu K.; Tayung, Kumanand; Rath, Chandi C.; Parida, Debraj

    2015-01-01

    Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR) is a tropical moist deciduous forest dominated by the species Shorea robusta . To the best of our knowledge their rich biodiversity has not been explored in term of its microbial wealth. In the present investigation, soil samples were collected from ten selected sites inside SBR and studied for their physicochemical parameters and culturable soil fungal diversity. The soil samples were found to be acidic in nature with a pH ranging from of 5.1–6.0. Highest percentage of organic carbon and moisture content were observed in the samples collected from the sites, Chahala-1 and Chahala-2. The plate count revealed that fungal population ranged from 3.6 × 10 4 –2.1 × 10 5 and 5.1 × 10 4 –4.7 × 10 5 cfu/gm of soil in summer and winter seasons respectively. The soil fungus, Aspergillus niger was found to be the most dominant species and Species Important Values Index (SIVI) was 43.4 and 28.6 in summer and winter seasons respectively. Among the sites studied, highest fungal diversity indices were observed during summer in the sites, Natto-2 and Natto-1. The Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices in these two sites were found to be 3.12 and 3.022 and 0.9425 and 0.9373 respectively. However, the highest Fisher’s alpha was observed during winter in the sites Joranda, Natto-2, Chahala-1 and Natto-1 and the values were 3.780, 3.683, 3.575 and 3.418 respectively. Our investigation revealed that, fungal population was dependent on moisture and organic carbon (%) of the soil but its diversity was found to be regulated by sporulating species like Aspergillus and Penicillium . PMID:26221092

  1. Activities relating to understanding the initiation, organization and structure of moist convection in the Southeast environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnider, Richard T.

    1992-01-01

    In the spring and summer of 1986, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) will sponsor the Satellite Precipitation And Cloud Experiment (SPACE) to be conducted in the Central Tennessee, Northern Alabama, and Northeastern Mississippi area. The field program will incorporate high altitude flight experiments associated with meteorological remote sensor development for future space flight, and an investigation of precipitation processes associated with mesoscale and small convective systems. In addition to SPACE, the MIcroburst and Severe Thunderstorm (MIST) program, sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the FAA-Lincoln Laboratory Operational Weather Study (FLOWS), sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), will take place concurrently within the SPACE experiment area. All three programs (under the joint acronym COHMEX (COoperative Huntsville Meteorological EXperiment)) will provide a data base for detailed analysis of mesoscale convective systems while providing ground truth comparisons for remote sensor evaluation. The purpose of this document is to outline the experiment design criteria for SPACE, and describe the special observing facilities and data sets that will be available under the COHMEX joint program. In addition to the planning of SPACE-COHMEX, this document covers three other parts of the program. The field program observations' main activity was the operation of an upper air rawinsonde network to provide ground truth for aircraft and spacecraft observations. Another part of the COHMEX program involved using boundary layer mesoscale models to study and simulate the initiation and organization of moist convection due to mesoscale thermal and mechanical circulations. The last part of the program was the collection, archival and distribution of the resulting COHMEX-SPACE data sets.

  2. Occurrence of culturable soil fungi in a tropical moist deciduous forest Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu K. Jena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR is a tropical moist deciduous forest dominated by the species Shorea robusta. To the best of our knowledge their rich biodiversity has not been explored in term of its microbial wealth. In the present investigation, soil samples were collected from ten selected sites inside SBR and studied for their physicochemical parameters and culturable soil fungal diversity. The soil samples were found to be acidic in nature with a pH ranging from of 5.1–6.0. Highest percentage of organic carbon and moisture content were observed in the samples collected from the sites, Chahala-1 and Chahala-2. The plate count revealed that fungal population ranged from 3.6 × 104–2.1 × 105 and 5.1 × 104–4.7 × 105 cfu/gm of soil in summer and winter seasons respectively. The soil fungus, Aspergillus niger was found to be the most dominant species and Species Important Values Index (SIVI was 43.4 and 28.6 in summer and winter seasons respectively. Among the sites studied, highest fungal diversity indices were observed during summer in the sites, Natto-2 and Natto-1. The Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices in these two sites were found to be 3.12 and 3.022 and 0.9425 and 0.9373 respectively. However, the highest Fisher’s alpha was observed during winter in the sites Joranda, Natto-2, Chahala-1 and Natto-1 and the values were 3.780, 3.683, 3.575 and 3.418 respectively. Our investigation revealed that, fungal population was dependent on moisture and organic carbon (% of the soil but its diversity was found to be regulated by sporulating species like Aspergillus and Penicillium.

  3. MERRA 3D IAU Diagnostic, Moist Physics, Time average 3-hourly (1.25x1.25L42) V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAT3CPMST or tavg3_3d_mst_Cp data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 3-Dimensional moist process diagnostic that is time averaged on pressure levels...

  4. MERRA 3D IAU Diagnostic, Moist Physics, Diurnal (1.25x1.25L42) V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATUCPMST or tavgU_3d_mst_Cp data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 3-Dimensional moist process diagnostic that is time averaged on pressure levels...

  5. Moist air state above counterflow wet-cooling tower fill based on Merkel, generalised Merkel and Klimanek & Białecky models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyhlík, Tomáš

    2017-09-01

    The article deals with an evaluation of moist air state above counterflow wet-cooling tower fill. The results based on Klimanek & Białecky model are compared with results of Merkel model and generalised Merkel model. Based on the numerical simulation it is shown that temperature is predicted correctly by using generalised Merkel model in the case of saturated or super-saturated air above the fill, but the temperature is underpredicted in the case of unsaturated moist air above the fill. The classical Merkel model always under predicts temperature above the fill. The density of moist air above the fill, which is calculated using generalised Merkel model, is strongly over predicted in the case of unsaturated moist air above the fill.

  6. Static feed water electrolysis module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Jensen, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    An advanced static feed water electrolysis module (SFWEM) and associated instrumentation for generating breathable O2 was developed. The system also generates a H2 byproduct for use in an air revitalization system for O2 recovery from metabolic CO2. Special attention was given to: (1) eliminating water feed compartment degassing, (2) eliminating need for zero gravity condenser/separators, (3) increasing current density capability, and (4) providing a self contained module so that operation is independent of laboratory instrumentation and complicated startup/shutdown procedures.

  7. Static stars : Some mathematical curiosities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, C.B.

    1977-01-01

    The equations of structure of static Newtonian and general relativistic stars are investigated. By using Lie group theory, it is shown that, in each case, the condition that there should exist a simple ''homologous'' family of similar solutions necessitates precisely those equations of state for the stellar matter that are usually invoked by means of extraneous physical arguments. In the relativistic case, a diagram which depicts these families is drawn, using the qualitative theory of differential equations. This vividly exhibits the nature of the general solutions, and the exceptional character of the Misner--Zapolsky solution. This diagram is contrasted with similar ones obtained by Chandrasekhar in the Newtonian case

  8. Static Analysis of Dynamic Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Magnus

    Dynamic programming languages are highly popular and widely used. Java- Script is often called the lingua franca of the web and it is the de facto standard for client-side web programming. On the server-side the PHP, Python and Ruby languages are prevalent. What these languages have in common...... with static type systems, such as Java and C# , but the same features are rarely available for dynamic languages such as JavaScript. The aim of this thesis is to investigate techniques for improving the tool- support for dynamic programming languages without imposing any artificial restrictions...... of new dataflow analysis techniques to tackle the nature of dynamic programming languages....

  9. Static Validation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, P.

    2005-01-01

    We methodically expand protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to specify some of the checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we demonstrate that these techniques ...... suffice to identify several authentication flaws in symmetric and asymmetric key protocols such as Needham-Schroeder symmetric key, Otway-Rees, Yahalom, Andrew secure RPC, Needham-Schroeder asymmetric key, and Beller-Chang-Yacobi MSR...

  10. Ligand-mediated adhesive mechanics of two static, deformed spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircar, Sarthok; Nguyen, Giang; Kotousov, Andrei; Roberts, Anthony J

    2016-10-01

    A self-consistent model is developed to investigate attachment/detachment kinetics of two static, deformable microspheres with irregular surface and coated with flexible binding ligands. The model highlights how the microscale binding kinetics of these ligands as well as the attractive/repulsive potential of the charged surface affects the macroscale static deformed configuration of the spheres. It is shown that in the limit of smooth, neutrally charged surface (i.e., the dimensionless inverse Debye length, [Formula: see text]), interacting via elastic binders (i.e., the dimensionless stiffness coefficient, [Formula: see text]) the adhesion mechanics approaches the regime of application of the JKR theory, and in this particular limit, the contact radius, R c , scales with the particle radius, R, according to the scaling law, [Formula: see text]. We show that static, deformed, highly charged, ligand-coated surface of micro-spheres exhibit strong adhesion. Normal stress distribution within the contact area adjusts with the binder stiffness coefficient, from a maximum at the center to a maximum at the periphery of the region. Although reported in some in vitro experiments involving particle adhesion, until now a physical interpretation for this variation of the stress distribution for deformable, charged, ligand-coated microspheres is missing. Surface roughness results in a diminished adhesion with a distinct reduction in the pull-off force, larger separation gap, weaker normal stress and limited area of adhesion. These results are in agreement with the published experimental findings.

  11. Effects of Static Stretching and Playing Soccer on Knee Laxity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Christian; Gokeler, Alli; Donath, Lars; Hoppe, Matthias W; Freiwald, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated exercise-induced effects of static stretching and playing soccer on anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the knee joint. Randomized controlled trial. University biomechanics laboratory. Thirty-one athletes were randomly assigned into a stretching (26.9 ± 6.2 years, 1.77 ± 0.09 m, 67.9 ± 10.7 kg) and a control group (27.9 ± 7.4 years, 1.75 ± 0.08 m, 72.0 ± 14.9 kg). Thirty-one amateur soccer players in an additional soccer group (25.1 ± 5.6 years, 1.74 ± 0.10 m, 71.8 ± 14.8 kg). All participants had no history of knee injury requiring surgery and any previous knee ligament or cartilage injury. The stretching group performed 4 different static stretching exercises with a duration of 2 × 20 seconds interspersed with breaks of 10 seconds. The soccer group completed a 90-minute soccer-specific training program. The control group did not perform any physical activity for approximately 30 minutes. Anterior tibial translation was measured with the KT-1000 knee arthrometer at forces of 67 N, 89 N, and maximal manual force (Max) before and after the intervention. There was a significant increase in ATT after static stretching and playing soccer at all applied forces. Maximal manual testing revealed a mean increase of ATT after static stretching of 2.1 ± 1.6 mm (P soccer of 1.0 ± 1.5 mm (P = 0.001). The ATT increase after static stretching at 67 and 89 N is significantly higher than in controls. At maximum manual testing, significant differences were evident between all groups. Static stretching and playing soccer increase ATT and may consequently influence mechanical factors of the anterior cruciate ligament. The ATT increase after static stretching was greater than after playing soccer. The observed increase in ATT after static stretching and playing soccer may be associated with changes in kinesthetic perception and sensorimotor control, activation of muscles, joint stability, overall performance, and higher injury risk.

  12. Hubble expansion in static spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossler, Otto E.; Froehlich, Dieter; Movassagh, Ramis; Moore, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    A recently proposed mechanism for light-path expansion in a static spacetime is based on the moving-lenses paradigm. Since the latter is valid independently of whether space expands or not, a static universe can be used to better see the implications. The moving-lenses paradigm is related to the paradigm of dynamical friction. If this is correct, a Hubble-like law is implicit. It is described quantitatively. A bent in the Hubble-like line is predictably implied. The main underlying assumption is Price's Principle (PI 3 ). If the theory is sound, the greatest remaining problem in cosmology becomes the origin of hydrogen. Since Blandford's jet production mechanism for quasars is too weak, a generalized Hawking radiation hidden in the walls of cosmic voids is invoked. A second prediction is empirical: slow pattern changes in the cosmic microwave background. A third is ultra-high redshifts for Giacconi quasars. Bruno's eternal universe in the spirit of Augustine becomes a bit less outlandish

  13. Occupational exposure of NRM spectrometrists to static and radiofrequency fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlana, Tania; Ubeda, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Occupational exposure to static and radiofrequency fields emitted by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers was assessed through systematic field metering during operation of 19 devices in nine research centers. Whereas no measurable levels of radiofrequency radiation were registered outside the spectrometers, significant exposure to static field was detected, with maximum values recorded at the user s hand (B = 683.00 mT) and head thorax (B = 135.70 mT) during spectrometer manipulation. All values were well below the exposure limits set by the European standard for workers protection against the effects of acute field exposure only. As for potential effects of chronic exposure, waiting for more complete knowledge, adoption of technical and operational strategies for exposure minimizing is advisable. In this respect, the data revealed that compared with standard magnetic shielding, ultra-shield technology allows a 20-65-fold reduction of the field strength received by the operator. (authors)

  14. Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yuan Tseng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.

  15. Nitrogen-oxy compounds formation in moist - N2 gaseous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, G.R.; Das, Tomi Nath

    2015-01-01

    In any high ionizing radiation zone continuous generation of nitrogen compounds such as NO 2 , NO 2 - and NO 3 - in aqueous and gas phase is a normal phenomena. Their formation mechanisms, and the control processes still pose a challenge with reference to the resulting corrosive environment generated, and it's effect on various structural materials used in nuclear industry. The source(s) of nitrogen for these products are mainly air which ingresses into the system, and/or nitrogen compounds such as ammonia, hydrazine, volatile amines used in different parts of the nuclear power plants to control pH and scavenge dissolved oxygen in coolant/moderator systems. Under high radiation environment their subsequent chemistry leads to the formation of various N-O compounds. With the objective to elucidate such reaction mechanisms, we studied and compared the chemistry of nitrogen in water and moist-nitrogen systems under the complimentary initiation techniques of cold plasma, wherein free electrons in eV energy range initiate the radical induced chemistry. In the gas phase, cold plasma produced NO and NO 2 which were confirmed on-line by respective absorbance measurement at 204, 214.5, 226 and 400 nm, while NO 2 - was analyzed as additional product after wet-chemical sampling in sulphanalic acid (0.5%) and N (1-naphthyl) ethylene diamine dihydrochloride (0.1%) mixed solution followed by absorbance measurement at 540 nm. This work was explored in three different systems: (i) N 2 from commercial high purity N 2 gas cylinder, (ii) N 2 from such source pretreated with activated silica gel (to reduce/minimize moisture concentration further) and (iii) N 2 bubbled through water (saturated moisture in N 2 system). The observed concentration of NO 2 - was found to be higher in moisture saturated N 2 system. In this presentation a brief summary of the results on various aspect of the formation of different N-O compounds during radiolysis of aqueous systems and gas phase cold

  16. Vrancea slab earthquakes triggered by static stress transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ganas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the interaction of the Vrancea seismic activity (Romania in space as result of Coulomb, static stress transfer during M=7+ events. In this area, three large events occurred in 1977, 1986 and 1990 at mid-lower, lithospheric depths and with similar focal mechanisms. Assuming elastic rheology for the deforming rocks it is suggested that frictional sliding on pre-existing fault produced the 1986 M=7.1 event (depth 131 km, that was possibly triggered by the 1977 M=7.4 event (depth 94 km. We calculated a static stress transfer of 0.52–0.78 bar to the hypocentre of the 1986 event. On the contrary, the occurrence of the 1990 event is uncertain: it is located inside the relaxed (shadow zone of the combined 1977 and 1986 static stress field considering an azimuth for maximum compression of N307° E. It follows that, the 1990 earthquake most likely represents an unbroken patch (asperity of the 1977 rupture plane that failed due to loading. However, if a different compression azimuth is assumed (N323° E then the 1990 event was also possibly triggered by static stress transfer of the 1977 and 1986 events (combined. Our modeling is a first-order approximation of the kind of earthquake interaction we might expect at intermediate lithospheric depths (80–90 to 130–140 km. It is also suggested that static stress transfer may explain the clustering of Vrancea earthquakes in space by the rupturing of two (possibly three NW-dipping major zones of weakness (faults which accommodate the extension (vertical elongation of the slab.

  17. Static and dynamic thyroid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlstedt, J.

    1986-01-01

    Static images as isolated investigation in thyroid diagnosis mainly provides morphologic information, and therefore sonography is largely applied for this purpose. 99m Tc-pertechnetate scans or 123 I-scans are indicated in cases of malpositions and serve to clarify lesions of unknown dignity. Additionally 201 Tl-chloride is suited for examinations with regard to metabolically active thyroid tissue, whereby differential diagnostic laboratory tests must be carried out to exclude parathyroid adenoma. Dynamic thyroid scans before and after regulation tests (suppression, stimulation) reflect the physiological correlation between the iodine avidity of the thyroid, the peripheral thyroid hormone concentrations and the hypophyseal regulation in the TRH-test. The main application of this procedure is the clarification of thyroid autonomy, i.e. indication, detection, quantification or exclusion of thyroid autonomy. For the treatment of immunogenic thyrotoxicosis, dynamic thyroid scintigraphy provides important information about the onset of remission, thus permitting to end thyreostatic therapy. (orig.) [de

  18. Statics learning from engineering examples

    CERN Document Server

    Emri, Igor

    2016-01-01

    This textbook introduces and explains the basic concepts on which statics is based utilizing real engineering examples. The authors emphasize the learning process by showing a real problem, analyzing it, simplifying it, and developing a way to solve it. This feature teaches students intuitive thinking in solving real engineering problems using the fundamentals of Newton’s laws. This book also: · Stresses representation of physical reality in ways that allow students to solve problems and obtain meaningful results · Emphasizes identification of important features of the structure that should be included in a model and which features may be omitted · Facilitates students' understanding and mastery of the "flow of thinking" practiced by professional engineers.

  19. A static world model. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundman, S.

    1981-01-01

    The static particle model of Part I requires creation of ether proportional to the energy of the particle. It is shown that this ether creation leads to gravitation and a forever expanding universe in agreement with the large-number hypothesis. The age, mass and size of the universe are calculated from atomic constants and G. The model predicts scale-invariance with different scales for gravitational matter, nucleons and electrons. This leads to a fine structure constant decreasing very slowly with time. For each scale there is a different type of dynamic balance governing the expansion of the universe. The model indicates that the universe was initially densely packed with (tau) leptons. It suggests a program for calculating the gravitational constant and the muon-electron mass ratio from other universal constants. Tentative numerological derivation gives these quantities with a higher accuracy than has been achieved experimentally. (Auth.)

  20. Cast Stone Oxidation Front Evaluation: Preliminary Results For Samples Exposed To Moist Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C. A.; Almond, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    The rate of oxidation is important to the long-term performance of reducing salt waste forms because the solubility of some contaminants, e.g., technetium, is a function of oxidation state. TcO 4 - in the salt solution is reduced to Tc(IV) and has been shown to react with ingredients in the waste form to precipitate low solubility sulfide and/or oxide phases. Upon exposure to oxygen, the compounds containing Tc(IV) oxidize to the pertechnetate ion, Tc(VII)O 4 - , which is very soluble. Consequently the rate of technetium oxidation front advancement into a monolith and the technetium leaching profile as a function of depth from an exposed surface are important to waste form performance and ground water concentration predictions. An approach for measuring contaminant oxidation rate (effective contaminant specific oxidation rate) based on leaching of select contaminants of concern is described in this report. In addition, the relationship between reduction capacity and contaminant oxidation is addressed. Chromate (Cr(VI) was used as a non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate, Tc(VII), in Cast Stone samples prepared with 5 M Simulant. Cast Stone spiked with pertechnetate was also prepared and tested. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Cr were cut from Cast Stone exposed to Savannah River Site (SRS) outdoor ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Tc-99 were cut from Cast Stone exposed to laboratory ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Similar conditions are expected to be encountered in the Cast Stone curing container. The leachability of Cr and Tc-99 and the reduction capacities, measured by the Angus-Glasser method, were determined for each subsample as a function of depth from the exposed surface. The results obtained to date were focused on continued method development and are preliminary and apply to the sample composition and curing / exposure conditions described in this report. The Cr oxidation front

  1. Impact of Moist Physics Complexity on Tropical Cyclone Simulations from the Hurricane Weather Research and Forecast System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalina, E. A.; Biswas, M.; Newman, K.; Grell, E. D.; Bernardet, L.; Frimel, J.; Carson, L.

    2017-12-01

    The parameterization of moist physics in numerical weather prediction models plays an important role in modulating tropical cyclone structure, intensity, and evolution. The Hurricane Weather Research and Forecast system (HWRF), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's operational model for tropical cyclone prediction, uses the Scale-Aware Simplified Arakawa-Schubert (SASAS) cumulus scheme and a modified version of the Ferrier-Aligo (FA) microphysics scheme to parameterize moist physics. The FA scheme contains a number of simplifications that allow it to run efficiently in an operational setting, which includes prescribing values for hydrometeor number concentrations (i.e., single-moment microphysics) and advecting the total condensate rather than the individual hydrometeor species. To investigate the impact of these simplifying assumptions on the HWRF forecast, the FA scheme was replaced with the more complex double-moment Thompson microphysics scheme, which individually advects cloud ice, cloud water, rain, snow, and graupel. Retrospective HWRF forecasts of tropical cyclones that occurred in the Atlantic and eastern Pacific ocean basins from 2015-2017 were then simulated and compared to those produced by the operational HWRF configuration. Both traditional model verification metrics (i.e., tropical cyclone track and intensity) and process-oriented metrics (e.g., storm size, precipitation structure, and heating rates from the microphysics scheme) will be presented and compared. The sensitivity of these results to the cumulus scheme used (i.e., the operational SASAS versus the Grell-Freitas scheme) also will be examined. Finally, the merits of replacing the moist physics schemes that are used operationally with the alternatives tested here will be discussed from a standpoint of forecast accuracy versus computational resources.

  2. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    60, No. 3. — journal of. March 2003 physics pp. 415–422. Maximum stellar iron core mass. F W GIACOBBE. Chicago Research Center/American Air Liquide ... iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large .... thermal equilibrium velocities will tend to be non-relativistic.

  3. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs

  4. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore

  5. A portable storage maximum thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayart, Gerard.

    1976-01-01

    A clinical thermometer storing the voltage corresponding to the maximum temperature in an analog memory is described. End of the measurement is shown by a lamp switch out. The measurement time is shortened by means of a low thermal inertia platinum probe. This portable thermometer is fitted with cell test and calibration system [fr

  6. Neutron spectra unfolding with maximum entropy and maximum likelihood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shikoh; Tsunoda, Toshiharu

    1989-01-01

    A new unfolding theory has been established on the basis of the maximum entropy principle and the maximum likelihood method. This theory correctly embodies the Poisson statistics of neutron detection, and always brings a positive solution over the whole energy range. Moreover, the theory unifies both problems of overdetermined and of underdetermined. For the latter, the ambiguity in assigning a prior probability, i.e. the initial guess in the Bayesian sense, has become extinct by virtue of the principle. An approximate expression of the covariance matrix for the resultant spectra is also presented. An efficient algorithm to solve the nonlinear system, which appears in the present study, has been established. Results of computer simulation showed the effectiveness of the present theory. (author)

  7. Degradation of 14C - DDT in soils under moist and flooded conditions with rice straw and green manure amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, S.; Dubey, P.S.; Kale, S.P.; Murthy, N.B.K.

    2001-01-01

    Degradation of 14 C - DDT in moist and flooded soils was studied with rice straw and green manure amendments for 100 days. The mineralization of DDT was not significantly influenced by any of the treatments. Rice straw and green manure in flooded soil brought about decrease in extractable 14 C - residues with concomitant increase in soil bound residues. DDT has a very short residence in flooded soils though radiocarbon was more in extractable residues. DDD is the major degradation product in flooded soils. (author)

  8. Moist wound healing compared with standard care of treatment of primary closed vascular surgical wounds: a prospective randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, Katja C; Uhlyarik, M; Schroeder, Torben V

    2007-01-01

    This study was a randomized-controlled trial comparing the standard type of dry dressing, Mepore, with moist wound healing, using a hydrofiber dressing, Aquacel, in primary closed wounds after vascular surgery. The endpoints were patient comfort, cost-effectiveness, infections, wound complications......, and length of hospital stay. One hundred and sixty patients were randomized to receive either Mepore or Aquacel dressing. There was no significant difference in patient comfort between the two groups, but a higher cost in the Aquacel group despite significantly fewer changes of dressings in these patients...

  9. Evaluation of surface detail reproduction, dimensional stability and gypsum compatibility of monophase polyvinyl-siloxane and polyether elastomeric impression materials under dry and moist conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadapalli, Sriharsha Babu; Atluri, Kaleswararao; Putcha, Madhu Sudhan; Kondreddi, Sirisha; Kumar, N Suman; Tadi, Durga Prasad

    2016-01-01

    This in vitro study was designed to compare polyvinyl-siloxane (PVS) monophase and polyether (PE) monophase materials under dry and moist conditions for properties such as surface detail reproduction, dimensional stability, and gypsum compatibility. Surface detail reproduction was evaluated using two criteria. Dimensional stability was evaluated according to American Dental Association (ADA) specification no. 19. Gypsum compatibility was assessed by two criteria. All the samples were evaluated, and the data obtained were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson's Chi-square tests. When surface detail reproduction was evaluated with modification of ADA specification no. 19, both the groups under the two conditions showed no significant difference statistically. When evaluated macroscopically both the groups showed statistically significant difference. Results for dimensional stability showed that the deviation from standard was significant among the two groups, where Aquasil group showed significantly more deviation compared to Impregum group (P < 0.001). Two conditions also showed significant difference, with moist conditions showing significantly more deviation compared to dry condition (P < 0.001). The results of gypsum compatibility when evaluated with modification of ADA specification no. 19 and by giving grades to the casts for both the groups and under two conditions showed no significant difference statistically. Regarding dimensional stability, both impregum and aquasil performed better in dry condition than in moist; impregum performed better than aquasil in both the conditions. When tested for surface detail reproduction according to ADA specification, under dry and moist conditions both of them performed almost equally. When tested according to macroscopic evaluation, impregum and aquasil performed significantly better in dry condition compared to moist condition. In dry condition, both the materials performed almost equally. In

  10. Static Equilibrium Configurations of Charged Metallic Bodies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Static equilibrium, charged metallic body, potential energy, projected gradient method. ... television, radio, internet, microwave ovens, mobile telephones, satellite communication systems, radar systems, electrical motors, electrical.

  11. Growth of condensed particles at fast cooling-down of moist air in a laval nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, B.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the investigations was to clarify the uncertainty factors contained in the condensation theories as well as to examine different existing growth laws. The measuring method chosen for the study of the progress of condensation was the measurement of the static pressure along the nozzle axis. The investigation of the condensation products with respect to size and number was performed by means of intensity measurements of scattered laser light. The two parameters initial moisture and cooling speed substantially influencing condensation were varied over a wide range. As the scattering behavior of the ice particles formed as condensation products could be described by the Rayleigh-Debye theory, determination of size and number of the condensing particles at every position of the nozzle axis became possible. For the first time particle growth in the nozzle was studied in detail. The results were compared with a number of growth laws. (orig.) [de

  12. Theory and application of maximum magnetic energy in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.K.

    1992-02-01

    The magnetic energy in an inductively driven steady-state toroidal plasma is a maximum for a given rate of dissipation of energy (Poynting flux). A purely resistive steady state of the piecewise force-free configuration, however, cannot exist, as the periodic removal of the excess poloidal flux and pressure, due to heating, ruptures the static equilibrium of the partitioning rational surfaces intermittently. The rupture necessitates a plasma with a negative q'/q (as in reverse field pinches and spheromaks) to have the same α in all its force-free regions and with a positive q'/q (as in tokamaks) to have centrally peaked α's

  13. On Maximum Entropy and Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gresele

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Maximum entropy is a powerful concept that entails a sharp separation between relevant and irrelevant variables. It is typically invoked in inference, once an assumption is made on what the relevant variables are, in order to estimate a model from data, that affords predictions on all other (dependent variables. Conversely, maximum entropy can be invoked to retrieve the relevant variables (sufficient statistics directly from the data, once a model is identified by Bayesian model selection. We explore this approach in the case of spin models with interactions of arbitrary order, and we discuss how relevant interactions can be inferred. In this perspective, the dimensionality of the inference problem is not set by the number of parameters in the model, but by the frequency distribution of the data. We illustrate the method showing its ability to recover the correct model in a few prototype cases and discuss its application on a real dataset.

  14. Maximum Water Hammer Sensitivity Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jalil Emadi; Abbas Solemani

    2011-01-01

    Pressure waves and Water Hammer occur in a pumping system when valves are closed or opened suddenly or in the case of sudden failure of pumps. Determination of maximum water hammer is considered one of the most important technical and economical items of which engineers and designers of pumping stations and conveyance pipelines should take care. Hammer Software is a recent application used to simulate water hammer. The present study focuses on determining significance of ...

  15. Maximum Gene-Support Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Shan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomes and genes diversify during evolution; however, it is unclear to what extent genes still retain the relationship among species. Model species for molecular phylogenetic studies include yeasts and viruses whose genomes were sequenced as well as plants that have the fossil-supported true phylogenetic trees available. In this study, we generated single gene trees of seven yeast species as well as single gene trees of nine baculovirus species using all the orthologous genes among the species compared. Homologous genes among seven known plants were used for validation of the finding. Four algorithms—maximum parsimony (MP, minimum evolution (ME, maximum likelihood (ML, and neighbor-joining (NJ—were used. Trees were reconstructed before and after weighting the DNA and protein sequence lengths among genes. Rarely a gene can always generate the “true tree” by all the four algorithms. However, the most frequent gene tree, termed “maximum gene-support tree” (MGS tree, or WMGS tree for the weighted one, in yeasts, baculoviruses, or plants was consistently found to be the “true tree” among the species. The results provide insights into the overall degree of divergence of orthologous genes of the genomes analyzed and suggest the following: 1 The true tree relationship among the species studied is still maintained by the largest group of orthologous genes; 2 There are usually more orthologous genes with higher similarities between genetically closer species than between genetically more distant ones; and 3 The maximum gene-support tree reflects the phylogenetic relationship among species in comparison.

  16. Results from a global survey of contact lens-wearer satisfaction with OPTI-FREE® PureMoist® Multi-Purpose Disinfecting Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemp J

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jessie Lemp, Jami R Kern Global Medical Affairs, Alcon Laboratories, Inc, Fort Worth, Texas, USA Purpose: The objective of the study reported here was to obtain information on acceptance and satisfaction with OPTI-FREE® PureMoist® Multi-Purpose Disinfecting Solution (MPDS from contact lens wearers globally. Methods: Eligible contact lens wearers provided baseline demographic and lens-wear-regimen information, and advised their ocular dryness/discomfort level and current lens-wear experience. Volunteers received OPTI-FREE PureMoist MPDS and a survey consisting of ten statements about the trial solution. Volunteers were instructed to use the solution daily and to complete the survey after 2 weeks of use. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted on data from the entire group, from the subset of respondents reporting ocular dryness and/or discomfort at trial initiation (symptomatic subgroup, and from each geographic region. Results: Volunteers from nine countries returned 10,610 surveys, in which 50% of respondents classified themselves as having ocular dryness/discomfort. Lens comfort and visual performance responses from the total population and the symptomatic subgroup were significantly more positive after 2 weeks of OPTI-FREE PureMoist use than at baseline, irrespective of the habitual lens-care solution. In the USA, Southeast Asia, and Europe, 14% to 20% more respondents reported that their contact lenses provided all-day comfort after 2 weeks of OPTI-FREE PureMoist use compared with baseline (P<0.0001. Australia reported 31% more patients with all-day comfort after OPTI-FREE PureMoist use (P<0.0001. Approximately four out of five respondents from both populations reported their intent to continue using OPTI-FREE PureMoist. Globally, 39% of all respondents and 58% of symptomatic respondents experienced reduced end-of-day dryness with their contact lenses after use of OPTI-FREE PureMoist (P<0.0001. Conclusion: Results from this large

  17. LCLS Maximum Credible Beam Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.

    2005-01-01

    The maximum credible beam power is defined as the highest credible average beam power that the accelerator can deliver to the point in question, given the laws of physics, the beam line design, and assuming all protection devices have failed. For a new accelerator project, the official maximum credible beam power is determined by project staff in consultation with the Radiation Physics Department, after examining the arguments and evidence presented by the appropriate accelerator physicist(s) and beam line engineers. The definitive parameter becomes part of the project's safety envelope. This technical note will first review the studies that were done for the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SSRL, where a photoinjector similar to the one proposed for the LCLS is being tested. In Section 3 the maximum charge out of the gun for a single rf pulse is calculated. In Section 4, PARMELA simulations are used to track the beam from the gun to the end of the photoinjector. Finally in Section 5 the beam through the matching section and injected into Linac-1 is discussed

  18. Alteration in contractile G-protein coupled receptor expression by moist snuff and nicotine in rat cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, Hardip; Xu, Cang-Bao; Edvinsson, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The cardiovascular risk for users of use of Swedish snus/American snuff (moist tobacco) has been debated for a long time. The present study was designed to examine the effects of water- or lipid-soluble (DMSO-soluble) snus and nicotine, the most important substance in tobacco, on the expression...... kinases (MAPK). However, the effects of moist tobacco on the expression of GPCR are less studied. Rat middle cerebral arteries were isolated and organ cultured in serum-free medium for 24h in the presence of water-soluble snus (WSS), DMSO-soluble snus (DSS), or nicotine. The dose of snus and nicotine...... was kept at plasma level of snus users (25ng nicotine/ml). A high dose (250ng nicotine/ml) was also included due to the previous results showing alteration in the GPCR expression by nicotine at this concentration. Contractile responses to the ET(B) receptor agonist sarafotoxin 6c, 5-HT(1B) receptor agonist...

  19. Prophylactic use of Mepitel Film prevents radiation-induced moist desquamation in an intra-patient randomised controlled clinical trial of 78 breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herst, Patries M.; Bennett, Noelle C.; Sutherland, Annie E.; Peszynski, Ruth I.; Paterson, Dean B.; Jasperse, Marieke L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Safetac-based soft silicone dressings used in a management setting decrease the severity of radiation-induced acute skin reactions but do not affect moist desquamation rates. Here we investigate the prophylactic use of another Safetac product, Mepitel Film, on moist desquamation rates. Material and methods: A total of 80 breast cancer patients receiving radiation therapy were recruited between October 2012 and April 2013; 78 participants contributed data for analysis. Lateral and medial halves of the skin areas to be irradiated were randomised to Mepitel Film or aqueous cream; skin dose was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters; skin reaction severity was assessed using RISRAS and RTOG scales. Results: Overall skin reaction severity was reduced by 92% (p < 0.0001) in favour of Mepitel Film (RISRAS). All patients developed some form of reaction in cream-treated skin which progressed to moist desquamation in 26% of patients (RTOG grades I: 28%; IIA: 46%; IIB: 18%; III: 8%). Only 44% of patients had a skin reaction under the Film, which did not progress to moist desquamation in any of the patients (RTOG grades I: 36%; IIA: 8%). Conclusions: Mepitel Film completely prevented moist desquamation and reduced skin reaction severity by 92% when used prophylactically in our cohort

  20. Static polarizabilities of dielectric nanoclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hye-Young; Sofo, Jorge O.; Cole, Milton W.; Velegol, Darrell; Mukhopadhyay, Gautam

    2005-01-01

    A cluster consisting of many atoms or molecules may be considered, in some circumstances, to be a single large molecule with a well-defined polarizability. Once the polarizability of such a cluster is known, one can evaluate certain properties--e.g. the cluster's van der Waals interactions, using expressions derived for atoms or molecules. In the present work, we evaluate the static polarizability of a cluster using a microscopic method that is exact within the linear and dipolar approximations. Numerical examples are presented for various shapes and sizes of clusters composed of identical atoms, where the term 'atom' actually refers to a generic constituent, which could be any polarizable entity. The results for the clusters' polarizabilities are compared with those obtained by assuming simple additivity of the constituents' atomic polarizabilities; in many cases, the difference is large, demonstrating the inadequacy of the additivity approximation. Comparison is made (for symmetrical geometries) with results obtained from continuum models of the polarizability. Also, the surface effects due to the nonuniform local field near a surface or edge are shown to be significant

  1. Static response of deformable microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Ivan C.; Sidhore, Tanmay C.

    2017-11-01

    Microfluidic channels manufactured from PDMS are a key component of lab-on-a-chip devices. Experimentally, rectangular microchannels are found to deform into a non-rectangular cross-section due to fluid-structure interactions. Deformation affects the flow profile, which results in a nonlinear relationship between the volumetric flow rate and the pressure drop. We develop a framework, within the lubrication approximation (l >> w >> h), to self-consistently derive flow rate-pressure drop relations. Emphasis is placed on handling different types of elastic response: from pure plate-bending, to half-space deformation, to membrane stretching. The ``simplest'' model (Stokes flow in a 3D rectangular channel capped with a linearly elastic Kirchhoff-Love plate) agrees well with recent experiments. We also simulate the static response of such microfluidic channels under laminar flow conditions using ANSYSWorkbench. Simulations are calibrated using experimental flow rate-pressure drop data from the literature. The simulations provide highly resolved deformation profiles, which are difficult to measure experimentally. By comparing simulations, experiments and our theoretical models, we show good agreement in many flow/deformation regimes, without any fitting parameters.

  2. Magnetic resonance in medicine occupational exposure to static magnetic field and radiofrequency radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivkovic, D.; Hrnjak, M.; Ivanovic, C.

    1997-01-01

    Medical personnel working with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) devices could be exposed to static magnetic (M) field, time-varying M fields and radiofrequency (RF) radiation. The aim of work was to investigate the density of magnetic flux of static magnetic field and the power density of RF radiation which appear in the working environment around the 0.5 T MRI unit in one hospital. The density of magnetic flux of static magnetic field was measured with Hall Effect Gauss meter - Magnetech (Great Britain), and the power density of RF radiation was measured with broadband isotropic meter - The Narda Microwave Corp. (USA). The results of measurement show that the density of magnetic flux of static M field on working places are below threshold limit of exposure and the intensities of RF radiation are far below maximum permissible level. (author)

  3. An eight-legged tactile sensor to estimate coefficient of static friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei Chen; Rodpongpun, Sura; Luo, William; Isaacson, Nathan; Kark, Lauren; Khamis, Heba; Redmond, Stephen J

    2015-08-01

    It is well known that a tangential force larger than the maximum static friction force is required to initiate the sliding motion between two objects, which is governed by a material constant called the coefficient of static friction. Therefore, knowing the coefficient of static friction is of great importance for robot grippers which wish to maintain a stable and precise grip on an object during various manipulation tasks. Importantly, it is most useful if grippers can estimate the coefficient of static friction without having to explicitly explore the object first, such as lifting the object and reducing the grip force until it slips. A novel eight-legged sensor, based on simplified theoretical principles of friction is presented here to estimate the coefficient of static friction between a planar surface and the prototype sensor. Each of the sensor's eight legs are straight and rigid, and oriented at a specified angle with respect to the vertical, allowing it to estimate one of five ranges (5 = 8/2 + 1) that the coefficient of static friction can occupy. The coefficient of friction can be estimated by determining whether the legs have slipped or not when pressed against a surface. The coefficients of static friction between the sensor and five different materials were estimated and compared to a measurement from traditional methods. A least-squares linear fit of the sensor estimated coefficient showed good correlation with the reference coefficient with a gradient close to one and an r(2) value greater than 0.9.

  4. Generic maximum likely scale selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    in this work is on applying this selection principle under a Brownian image model. This image model provides a simple scale invariant prior for natural images and we provide illustrative examples of the behavior of our scale estimation on such images. In these illustrative examples, estimation is based......The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...

  5. A reconsideration for forming mechanism of optic fiber probe fabricated by static chemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiru; Shen, Ruiqi

    2016-07-01

    The studies on the mechanism of static chemical etching are supplemented in this paper. Surface tension and diffusion effect are both taken into account. Theoretical analysis and data fitting show that the slant angle of the liquid-liquid interface leads to the maximum liquid rising, when diffusion effect is negligible.

  6. Correlative analysis of shoe insoles acting in moist and cold/warm environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun Barbu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insoles represent a mean by which humans can improve postural comfort or existence and manifestation of posture static and dynamic. The variety of materials and sizes for different kinds of foot insoles are for manufacturers a challenge in terms of getting products flexible, versatile and easily adaptable to a larger range of subjects. Biomechanical foot dysfunction influences plantar load distribution and mechanical tissue stress. Greater influence over plantar loads and tissue stress may lead to optimize the insole design to improve foot biomechanics. Some investigations founded that the use of cushioned insoles reduces the risk of stress fractures and injuries; other research has shown no protective effect. The use of cushioned or shock-absorbing insoles invoked reducing the impact forces associated with running, protecting against injuries. The paper emphasizes a new method for analysis of the insoles materials behavior in different alkalis and acids, similar to those encountered in real situations when walking and standing. The behavior study of composite structure insoles started to establish constructive variants and the modality of exposure of these samples at different degrees of softening in simple water, in water with salinity and under negative and positive temperature, also to mechanical stress.

  7. Extreme Maximum Land Surface Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1992-09-01

    There are numerous reports in the literature of observations of land surface temperatures. Some of these, almost all made in situ, reveal maximum values in the 50°-70°C range, with a few, made in desert regions, near 80°C. Consideration of a simplified form of the surface energy balance equation, utilizing likely upper values of absorbed shortwave flux (1000 W m2) and screen air temperature (55°C), that surface temperatures in the vicinity of 90°-100°C may occur for dry, darkish soils of low thermal conductivity (0.1-0.2 W m1 K1). Numerical simulations confirm this and suggest that temperature gradients in the first few centimeters of soil may reach 0.5°-1°C mm1 under these extreme conditions. The study bears upon the intrinsic interest of identifying extreme maximum temperatures and yields interesting information regarding the comfort zone of animals (including man).

  8. Martian Atmospheric Pressure Static Charge Elimination Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    A Martian pressure static charge elimination tool is currently in development in the Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory (ESPL) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. In standard Earth atmosphere conditions, static charge can be neutralized from an insulating surface using air ionizers. These air ionizers generate ions through corona breakdown. The Martian atmosphere is 7 Torr of mostly carbon dioxide, which makes it inherently difficult to use similar methods as those used for standard atmosphere static elimination tools. An initial prototype has been developed to show feasibility of static charge elimination at low pressure, using corona discharge. A needle point and thin wire loop are used as the corona generating electrodes. A photo of the test apparatus is shown below. Positive and negative high voltage pulses are sent to the needle point. This creates positive and negative ions that can be used for static charge neutralization. In a preliminary test, a floating metal plate was charged to approximately 600 volts under Martian atmospheric conditions. The static elimination tool was enabled and the voltage on the metal plate dropped rapidly to -100 volts. This test data is displayed below. Optimization is necessary to improve the electrostatic balance of the static elimination tool.

  9. Comparison of shear bond strength between unfilled resin to dry enamel and dentin bonding to moist and dry enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasini E.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The use of dentine bondings on enamel and dentin in total etch protocols has recently become popular. Unfilled resin is hydrophobic and dentin bonding is hydrophilic in nature. This chemical difference could be effective in enamel bonding process. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of unfilled resin to dry enamel and dentin bonding to dry and moist enamel. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, a total of 30 incisor teeth were used. The specimens were randomly assigned to three groups of 10. 37% phosphoric acid etchant was applied to the enamel surfaces in each group for 15 seconds, rinsed with water for 20 seconds and dried for 20 seconds with compressed air in groups one and two. After conditioning, group 1 received unfilled resin (Margin Bond, Colten and group 2 received dentin bonding (Single Bond, 3M and in group 3 after conditioning and rinsing with water, a layer of dentin bonding (Single Bond was applied on wet enamel. The enamel and dentin bonding were light cured for 20 seconds. A ring mold 3.5 mm in diameter and 2 mm height was placed over the specimens to receive the composite filling material (Z100, 3M. The composite was cured for 40 seconds. The specimens were thermocycled and shear bond strengths were determined using an Instron Universal Testing Machine. The findings were analyzed by ANOVA One-Way and Tukey HSD tests. Results: Shear bond strength of dentin bonding to dry enamel was significantly less than unfilled resin to dry enamel (P<0.05. There was no significant difference between the bond strength of dentin bonding to moist and dry enamel. In addition bond strength of dentin bonding to wet enamel was not significantly different from unfilled resin to dry enamel. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, it is suggested that enamel surface should remain slightly moist after etching before bonding with single bond but when using unfilled resin, the

  10. System for memorizing maximum values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1992-08-01

    The invention discloses a system capable of memorizing maximum sensed values. The system includes conditioning circuitry which receives the analog output signal from a sensor transducer. The conditioning circuitry rectifies and filters the analog signal and provides an input signal to a digital driver, which may be either linear or logarithmic. The driver converts the analog signal to discrete digital values, which in turn triggers an output signal on one of a plurality of driver output lines n. The particular output lines selected is dependent on the converted digital value. A microfuse memory device connects across the driver output lines, with n segments. Each segment is associated with one driver output line, and includes a microfuse that is blown when a signal appears on the associated driver output line.

  11. Remarks on the maximum luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Ikeda, Taishi; Moore, Christopher J.; Yoo, Chul-Moon

    2018-04-01

    The quest for fundamental limitations on physical processes is old and venerable. Here, we investigate the maximum possible power, or luminosity, that any event can produce. We show, via full nonlinear simulations of Einstein's equations, that there exist initial conditions which give rise to arbitrarily large luminosities. However, the requirement that there is no past horizon in the spacetime seems to limit the luminosity to below the Planck value, LP=c5/G . Numerical relativity simulations of critical collapse yield the largest luminosities observed to date, ≈ 0.2 LP . We also present an analytic solution to the Einstein equations which seems to give an unboundedly large luminosity; this will guide future numerical efforts to investigate super-Planckian luminosities.

  12. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  13. Scintillation counter, maximum gamma aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumim, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  14. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Shiguang; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  15. Determining the annual periodicity of growth rings in seven tree species of a tropical moist forest in Santa Cruz, Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, L.; Villalba, R.; Pena-Claros, M.

    2012-07-01

    To determine the annual periodicity of growth rings in seven tree species from a tropical moist forest in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, a fire scar was used as a marker point to verify the annual nature of tree rings. The number of tree rings formed between the 1995 fire scar and the collection of the cross sections in 2002 was visually identified. The seven species showed annual growth rings. In most cases, boundaries between rings were marked by the presence of marginal parenchyma and wall-thick ed fibers formed at the end of the growing season. Growth lenses and false rings were recorded in some species. Tree rings can be carefully used in Santa Cruz forests to determine rates of growth. This information is crucial for defining forest management practices in tropical regions. (Author) 21 refs.

  16. Effects of moist- and dry-heat cooking on the meat quality, microstructure and sensory characteristics of native chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Chen, Chih-Feng; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of moist- (water-cooking; WC) and dry-heat (oven-cooking; OC) on the quality, microstructure and sensory characteristics of native chicken breast meat. The results revealed that OC meat had a significantly higher cooking time, cooking loss, and shear force values and lower L* values. Protein solubility decreased after cooking in both cooking methods; however, no statistical difference was observed between WC and OC meats, whereas collagen solubility and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI) increased after cooking and WC meat exhibited higher collagen solubility and MFI (P cooking, and fibril shrinkage was noticeable in OC meat (P cooking methods to optimize native chicken meat quality. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Changes in the corneal Na-K ATPase levels in eyes stored in moist chamber at 4°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi B

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This report deals with a chronological measurement of Na-K ATPase enzyme activity in human and bovine corneas stored in a moist chamber at 4°C. Paired human and bovine eyes were sterilized by the standard eye bank procedure and stored up to 6 days. At the desired time, the corneal endothelium was assayed for Na-K ATPase activity. The protein content of each tissue sample was also determined. In a parallel set of experiments, the viability of identical stored corneas was determined by trypan blue and alizarin red staining technique, and morphometric analysis was done to quantify the extent of the corneal endothelial damage. The human corneas showed that there was a significant progressive decrease in the Na-K ATPase activity as the storage time increased. The decrease was related to morphological endothelial damage.

  18. Patterns of diversity and regeneration in unmanaged moist deciduous forests in response to disturbance in Shiwalik Himalayas, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Gautam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied vegetation attributes in Indian tropical moist deciduous unmanaged forests to determine the influence of forest disturbances on them. We enumerated 89 species: 72 under moderate disturbance and 54 under least disturbance. The data from 3399 stems [>5 cm diameter at breast height (dbh] decreased linearly along the disturbance gradient. The basal area was largest in least disturbed forests (61 m2/ha and smallest in intensely disturbed forest (41 m2/ha. Under least and moderate disturbance, tree density-diameter distribution had negative exponential curves, whereas highly disturbed forests had unimodal-shaped curves where a few trees 5–10 cm and >50 cm in diameter were recorded. Most tree and shrub layer species under heavy and intense disturbance had impaired regeneration. Moderate disturbance intensity thus apparently benefits species diversity, stand density, and regeneration. Decline in seedlings and saplings, especially tree species, threaten forest regeneration and the maintenance of species diversity of unmanaged tropical forests.

  19. Research on frost formation in air source heat pump at cold-moist conditions in central-south China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Guangcai; Tang, Jinchen; Lv, Dongyan; Wang, Hongjin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ►A dynamic evaporator model is built up. ► The model involves the ratio of the latent heat to sensible heat of wet air. ►A correlation considering d eq is shown below to predict frost accumulation: (M fr v 3 )/(Ψd eq 2 ) =((T a )/(T w ) ) 0.1 ((vτ)/(d eq ) ) 0.7 (l/(d eq ) ) 1.378 X a 1.228 . ►The changing ratio can characterize the early development of system performance. ►The changing ratio can characterize the early development of frost accumulation. -- Abstract: A dynamic evaporator model of air source heat pump (ASHP), considering the ratio of the latent heat to sensible heat of wet air, is presented to analyze the performance of ASHP under frosting. The performance parameters, such as the heating capacity, COP and the outlet temperature of compressor, are simulated with CYCLEPAD. Then a semi-empirical correlation that predicts frost accumulation on the air-side of fin-tube heat exchanger is developed with dimensionless analysis and also modified by a test conducted under cold-moist conditions in winter. In addition, eight influence factors are considered involving the ambient conditions and structures of heat exchanger, whose effects are analyzed as well. Among them, the equivalent diameter of air flow cross-section in fin-tube d eq is especially proposed. Lastly, the relationships between the ratio, the performance parameters and the frost accumulation are discussed in this paper, followed by an evaluation of an optimal defrosting time interval to improve the ASHP’s energy efficiency and operational reliability at cold-moist conditions in central-south China.

  20. Effects of moist cold stratification on germination, plant growth regulators, metabolites and embryo ultrastructure in seeds of Acer morrisonense (Sapindaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shun-Ying; Chou, Shih-Han; Tsai, Ching-Chu; Hsu, Wen-Yu; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Chien, Ching-Te; Kuo-Huang, Ling-Long

    2015-09-01

    Breaking of seed dormancy by moist cold stratification involves complex interactions in cells. To assess the effect of moist cold stratification on dormancy break in seeds of Acer morrisonense, we monitored percentages and rates of germination and changes in plant growth regulators, sugars, amino acids and embryo ultrastructure after various periods of cold stratification. Fresh seeds incubated at 25/15 °C for 24 weeks germinated to 61%, while those cold stratified at 5 °C for 12 weeks germinated to 87% in 1 week. Neither exogenous GA3 nor GA4 pretreatment significantly increased final seed germination percentage. Total ABA content of seeds cold stratified for 12 weeks was reduced about 3.3-fold, to a concentration similar to that in germinated seeds (radicle emergence). Endogenous GA3 and GA7 were detected in 8-week and 12-week cold stratified seeds but not in fresh seeds. Numerous protein and lipid bodies were present in the plumule, first true leaves and cotyledons of fresh seeds. Protein and lipid bodies decreased greatly during cold stratification, and concentrations of total soluble sugars and amino acids increased. The major non-polar sugars in fresh seeds were sucrose and fructose, but sucrose increased and fructose decreased significantly during cold stratification. The major free amino acids were proline and tryptophan in fresh seeds, and proline increased and tryptophan decreased during cold stratification. Thus, as dormancy break occurs during cold stratification seeds of A. morrisonense undergo changes in plant growth regulators, proteins, lipids, sugars, amino acids and cell ultrastructure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Static potentials from an extended gauge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, R.M.; Helayel Neto, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Static potentials derived from the inclusion of more than one vector field in a single simple group are calculated. A confinement mechanism including colourful unphysical particle is discussed. (Author) [pt

  2. The collapsing of multigroup cross sections in optimization problems solved by means of the Pontryagin maximum principle in nuclear reactor dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, V.

    1979-12-01

    The collapsing formulae for the optimization problems solved by means of the Pontryagin maximum principle in nuclear reactor dynamics are presented. A comparison with the corresponding formulae of the static case is given too. (author)

  3. Static Deadlock Detection in MPI Synchronization Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Xue, Liao; Xiao-Xin, He; Zhi-Hua, Fan

    2007-01-01

    It is very common to use dynamic methods to detect deadlocks in MPI programs for the reason that static methods have some restrictions. To guarantee high reliability of some important MPI-based application software, a model of MPI synchronization communication is abstracted and a type of static method is devised to examine deadlocks in such modes. The model has three forms with different complexity: sequential model, single-loop model and nested-loop model. Sequential model is a base for all ...

  4. Static quarks with improved statistical precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Morte, M.; Duerr, S.; Molke, H.; Heitger, J.

    2003-09-01

    We present a numerical study for different discretisations of the static action, concerning cut-off effects and the growth of statistical errors with Euclidean time. An error reduction by an order of magnitude can be obtained with respect to the Eichten-Hill action, for time separations up to 2 fm, keeping discretization errors small. The best actions lead to a big improvement on the precision of the quark mass M b and F B s in the static approximation. (orig.)

  5. Statics formulas and problems : engineering mechanics 1

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Dietmar; Wriggers, Peter; Schröder, Jörg; Müller, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    This book contains the most important formulas and more than 160 completely solved problems from Statics. It provides engineering students material to improve their skills and helps to gain experience in solving engineering problems. Particular emphasis is placed on finding the solution path and formulating the basic equations. Topics include: - Equilibrium - Center of Gravity, Center of Mass, Centroids - Support Reactions - Trusses - Beams, Frames, Arches - Cables - Work and Potential Energy - Static and Kinetic Friction - Moments of Inertia.

  6. Mechanical performance of carbon-epoxy laminates. Part II: quasi-static and fatigue tensile properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Tarpani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In Part II of this work, quasi-static tensile properties of four aeronautical grade carbon-epoxy composite laminates, in both the as-received and pre-fatigued states, have been determined and compared. Quasi-static mechanical properties assessed were tensile strength and stiffness, tenacity (toughness at the maximum load and for a 50% load drop-off. In general, as-molded unidirectional cross-ply carbon fiber (tape reinforcements impregnated with either standard or rubber-toughened epoxy resin exhibited the maximum performance. The materials also displayed a significant tenacification (toughening after exposed to cyclic loading, resulting from the increased stress (the so-called wear-in phenomenon and/or strain at the maximum load capacity of the specimens. With no exceptions, two-dimensional woven textile (fabric pre-forms fractured catastrophically under identical cyclic loading conditions imposed to the fiber tape architecture, thus preventing their residual properties from being determined.

  7. Static Members of Classes in C#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian LUPASC

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The C# language is object-oriented, which is why the declared member data must be part of a class. Thus, there is no possibility to declare certain variables that can be accessed from anywhere within the application, as it happens, for example, with global variables at the C language level. Making this work in C# is possible through static members of the class. Declaring a class implies defining some of its member data that later receive values when creating each object. A static member of the class can be interpreted as belonging only to the class, not to the objects subsequently created, which means that for the non-static data, there are as many children as there were objects created, while for the static ones there is only one copy, regardless of the number of created objects. In this regard, this paper presents the main aspects that characterize these abstract concepts of object oriented programming in general and C# language in particular, detailing how to develop an application that includes both static and non-static members. At the same time, particularities in the mirror for the two types of data, restrictions on use and potential limitations are presented.

  8. Effects of acute static, ballistic, and PNF stretching exercise on the muscle and tendon tissue properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, A; Stafilidis, S; Tilp, M

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a single static, ballistic, or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching exercise on the various muscle-tendon parameters of the lower leg and to detect possible differences in the effects between the methods. Volunteers (n = 122) were randomly divided into static, ballistic, and PNF stretching groups and a control group. Before and after the 4 × 30 s stretching intervention, we determined the maximum dorsiflexion range of motion (RoM) with the corresponding fascicle length and pennation angle of the gastrocnemius medialis. Passive resistive torque (PRT) and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) were measured with a dynamometer. Observation of muscle-tendon junction (MTJ) displacement with ultrasound allowed us to determine the length changes in the tendon and muscle, respectively, and hence to calculate stiffness. Although RoM increased (static: +4.3%, ballistic: +4.5%, PNF: +3.5%), PRT (static: -11.4%, ballistic: -11.5%, PNF: -13,7%), muscle stiffness (static: -13.1%, ballistic: -20.3%, PNF: -20.2%), and muscle-tendon stiffness (static: -11.3%, ballistic: -10.5%, PNF: -13.7%) decreased significantly in all the stretching groups. Only in the PNF stretching group, the pennation angle in the stretched position (-4.2%) and plantar flexor MVC (-4.6%) decreased significantly. Multivariate analysis showed no clinically relevant difference between the stretching groups. The increase in RoM and the decrease in PRT and muscle-tendon stiffness could be explained by more compliant muscle tissue following a single static, ballistic, or PNF stretching exercise. © 2017 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Maximum entropy and Bayesian methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.R.; Erickson, G.J.; Neudorfer, P.O.

    1992-01-01

    Bayesian probability theory and Maximum Entropy methods are at the core of a new view of scientific inference. These 'new' ideas, along with the revolution in computational methods afforded by modern computers allow astronomers, electrical engineers, image processors of any type, NMR chemists and physicists, and anyone at all who has to deal with incomplete and noisy data, to take advantage of methods that, in the past, have been applied only in some areas of theoretical physics. The title workshops have been the focus of a group of researchers from many different fields, and this diversity is evident in this book. There are tutorial and theoretical papers, and applications in a very wide variety of fields. Almost any instance of dealing with incomplete and noisy data can be usefully treated by these methods, and many areas of theoretical research are being enhanced by the thoughtful application of Bayes' theorem. Contributions contained in this volume present a state-of-the-art overview that will be influential and useful for many years to come

  10. From Static Output Feedback to Structured Robust Static Output Feedback: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sadabadi , Mahdieh ,; Peaucelle , Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the vast literature on static output feedback design for linear time-invariant systems including classical results and recent developments. In particular, we focus on static output feedback synthesis with performance specifications, structured static output feedback, and robustness. The paper provides a comprehensive review on existing design approaches including iterative linear matrix inequalities heuristics, linear matrix inequalities with rank constraints, methods with ...

  11. The ecology and management of moist mixed-conifer forests in eastern Oregon and Washington: a synthesis of the relevant biophysical science and implications for future land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Stine; Paul Hessburg; Thomas Spies; Marc Kramer; Christopher J. Fettig; Andrew Hansen; John Lehmkuhl; Kevin O' Hara; Karl Polivka; Peter Singleton; Susan Charnley; Andrew Merschel; Rachel. White

    2014-01-01

    Land managers in the Pacific Northwest have reported a need for updated scientific information on the ecology and management of mixed-conifer forests east of the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington. Of particular concern are the moist mixed-conifer forests, which have become drought-stressed and vulnerable to high-severity fire after decades of human disturbances...

  12. A comparison of whole body vibration and moist heat on lower extremity skin temperature and skin blood flow in healthy older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Everett B; Sackiriyas, Kanikkai Steni Balan; Bains, Gurinder S; Calandra, Giovanni; Lobo, Crystal; Nakhro, Daniel; Malthankar, Gauri; Paul, Sherwine

    2012-07-01

    Tissue healing is an intricate process that is regulated by circulation. Heat modalities have been shown to improve skin circulation. Recent research supports that passive vibration increases circulation without risk of burns. Study purpose is to compare and determine effects of short duration vibration, moist heat, and a combination of the two on skin blood flow (SBF) and skin temperature (ST) in elderly, non-diabetic individuals following short-term exposure. Ten subjects, 3 female and 7 male (55-73 years of age), received two interventions over three days: 1--Active vibration, 2--passive vibration, 3--moist heat, 4--moist heat combined with passive vibration (MHPV), 5--a commercial massaging heating pad, and 6--no intervention. SBF and ST were measured using a MOOR Laser Doppler before and after the intervention and the third measurement were taken 10 minutes following. Mean SBF following a ten-minute intervention were significantly different in the combination of moist heat and passive vibration from the control, active vibration, and the commercial massaging heating pad. Compared to baseline measurements, this resulted in mean SBF elevation to 450% (at conclusion of 10 minutes of intervention) and 379% (10 minutes post). MHPV (p=0.02) showed significant changes in ST from the commercial massaging heating pad, passive vibration, and active vibration interventions. SBF in the lower legs showed greatest increase with MHPV. Interventions should be selected that are low risk while increasing lower extremity skin blood flow.

  13. Static friction of porous bioceramic beta-TCP on intestinal mucus films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Yu; Han, Ying-Chao; Jiang, Xin; Dai, Hong-Lian; Li, Shi-Pu

    2006-09-01

    The static friction behavior between a porous bioceramic material and an intestinal mucus film was investigated in order to develop a new intestine robotic endoscope. Here, the friction couple is porous beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and an artificial intestine mucus film. The effect of pore size of the beta-TCP material on the friction behavior is investigated. The results illustrated that in this friction system there is a relatively small normal force upon the intestinal mucus film of the intestine wall during locomotion. The maximum static friction force in this friction couple varies with the pore size of the porous beta-TCP material.

  14. Static friction of porous bioceramic β-TCP on intestinal mucus films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinyu; Han Yingchao; Jiang Xin; Dai Honglian; Li Shipu

    2006-01-01

    The static friction behavior between a porous bioceramic material and an intestinal mucus film was investigated in order to develop a new intestine robotic endoscope. Here, the friction couple is porous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and an artificial intestine mucus film. The effect of pore size of the β-TCP material on the friction behavior is investigated. The results illustrated that in this friction system there is a relatively small normal force upon the intestinal mucus film of the intestine wall during locomotion. The maximum static friction force in this friction couple varies with the pore size of the porous β-TCP material

  15. Maximum entropy principal for transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilich, F.; Da Silva, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  16. Last Glacial Maximum Salinity Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, K.; Spivack, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that salinity can be reconstructed from sediment porewater. The goal of our study is to reconstruct high precision salinity during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Salinity is usually determined at high precision via conductivity, which requires a larger volume of water than can be extracted from a sediment core, or via chloride titration, which yields lower than ideal precision. It has been demonstrated for water column samples that high precision density measurements can be used to determine salinity at the precision of a conductivity measurement using the equation of state of seawater. However, water column seawater has a relatively constant composition, in contrast to porewater, where variations from standard seawater composition occur. These deviations, which affect the equation of state, must be corrected for through precise measurements of each ion's concentration and knowledge of apparent partial molar density in seawater. We have developed a density-based method for determining porewater salinity that requires only 5 mL of sample, achieving density precisions of 10-6 g/mL. We have applied this method to porewater samples extracted from long cores collected along a N-S transect across the western North Atlantic (R/V Knorr cruise KN223). Density was determined to a precision of 2.3x10-6 g/mL, which translates to salinity uncertainty of 0.002 gms/kg if the effect of differences in composition is well constrained. Concentrations of anions (Cl-, and SO4-2) and cations (Na+, Mg+, Ca+2, and K+) were measured. To correct salinities at the precision required to unravel LGM Meridional Overturning Circulation, our ion precisions must be better than 0.1% for SO4-/Cl- and Mg+/Na+, and 0.4% for Ca+/Na+, and K+/Na+. Alkalinity, pH and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon of the porewater were determined to precisions better than 4% when ratioed to Cl-, and used to calculate HCO3-, and CO3-2. Apparent partial molar densities in seawater were

  17. Maximum Parsimony on Phylogenetic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic networks are generalizations of phylogenetic trees, that are used to model evolutionary events in various contexts. Several different methods and criteria have been introduced for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Maximum Parsimony is a character-based approach that infers a phylogenetic tree by minimizing the total number of evolutionary steps required to explain a given set of data assigned on the leaves. Exact solutions for optimizing parsimony scores on phylogenetic trees have been introduced in the past. Results In this paper, we define the parsimony score on networks as the sum of the substitution costs along all the edges of the network; and show that certain well-known algorithms that calculate the optimum parsimony score on trees, such as Sankoff and Fitch algorithms extend naturally for networks, barring conflicting assignments at the reticulate vertices. We provide heuristics for finding the optimum parsimony scores on networks. Our algorithms can be applied for any cost matrix that may contain unequal substitution costs of transforming between different characters along different edges of the network. We analyzed this for experimental data on 10 leaves or fewer with at most 2 reticulations and found that for almost all networks, the bounds returned by the heuristics matched with the exhaustively determined optimum parsimony scores. Conclusion The parsimony score we define here does not directly reflect the cost of the best tree in the network that displays the evolution of the character. However, when searching for the most parsimonious network that describes a collection of characters, it becomes necessary to add additional cost considerations to prefer simpler structures, such as trees over networks. The parsimony score on a network that we describe here takes into account the substitution costs along the additional edges incident on each reticulate vertex, in addition to the substitution costs along the other edges which are

  18. Optical characterisation of 3-D static solar concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellami, Nazmi; Mallick, Tapas K.; McNeil, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel static solar concentrator was designed coined the Square Elliptical Hyperboloid, SEH. ► The geometrical profile of the SEH was optimised for a low concentration ratio of 4 suns. ► The SEH has a large acceptance angle of 120° allowing 8 h of sun collection during the day. ► A prototype of the SEH was made and tested in indoors conditions. ► The experimental results validate the optical model. - Abstract: The focus of this research is to develop a solar concentrator which is compact, static and, at the same time, able to collect maximum solar energy. A novel geometry of a 3-D static concentrator has been designed and coined the Square Elliptical Hyperboloid (SEH) to be integrated in glazing windows or facades for photovoltaic application. The 4× SEH is optically optimised for different incident angles of the incoming light rays. The optimised SEH is obtained by investigating its different non-dimensional parameters such as major axis over minor axis of the elliptical entry and the height over side of the exit aperture. Evaluating the best combination of the optical efficiency and the acceptance angle, results confirm that the 4× SEH built from dielectric material, working with total internal reflection, is found to have a constant optical efficiency of 40% for an acceptance angle equal to 120° (−60°, +60°). This enables capture of the sun rays all day long from both direct beam light and diffuse light making it highly suitable for use in northern European countries. A higher optical efficiency of 70% is obtained for different dimensions of the SEH; however, the acceptance angle is only 50°. The optimised SEH concentrator has been manufactured and tested; the experimental results show an agreement with the simulation results thus validating the optical model.

  19. Static loading and vertical displacement at southern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton V. Timofeev

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Seismic method is usually used for elastic parametric estimation. This is why this method presents dynamic parameters of Earth. Frequency seismic range changes greatly from geodynamic modelling time. Now we have opportunity to use geodesy result for some years for elastic parameters estimation. Static solution from elastic theory may be used for the interpretation of long term results. It presents static elastic parameter. The inverse problem for different types of vertical surface loading on one year period is calculated. Two cases of loading with maximal and minimal area are presented. Results are determined by space geodesy and leveling methods. Current relation between atmospheric pressure and vertical displacements was estimated at the center of Siberian Anti Cyclone with size varied from 2000 km to 3000 km. Pressure-displacement coefficients (PDC can be achieved by three years observation (0.997 mm/mbar for NVSK GPS station. It is used for elastic module study of geology medium with maximum thickness up to 600 km. In the context of elastic model, the modulus of rigidity is estimated to be 113 GPa. Vast expanse of anti-cyclone may relate with rheology of crust and upper mantle. Smaller size of surface loading – local loading is seasonal variation of water reservoir. Annual vertical changes were obtained by leveling near the dam of the reservoir. PDC ratio was 1.15 mm/bar for these places. In elastic theory, the Young modulus E = 80 GPa (Poisson ratio = 0.25, the modulus of rigidity = 32 GPa was calculated by sixteen years of leveling measurements. This result can effectively be represented for upper crust. Our results were checked by solution for coseismic displacement of Chyia-Altai earthquake (Sep. 27, 2003, M = 7.3. Coseismic results calculated by static modules agree with experimental coseismic GPS data at 10% level.

  20. The maximum economic depth of groundwater abstraction for irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierkens, M. F.; Van Beek, L. P.; de Graaf, I. E. M.; Gleeson, T. P.

    2017-12-01

    Over recent decades, groundwater has become increasingly important for agriculture. Irrigation accounts for 40% of the global food production and its importance is expected to grow further in the near future. Already, about 70% of the globally abstracted water is used for irrigation, and nearly half of that is pumped groundwater. In many irrigated areas where groundwater is the primary source of irrigation water, groundwater abstraction is larger than recharge and we see massive groundwater head decline in these areas. An important question then is: to what maximum depth can groundwater be pumped for it to be still economically recoverable? The objective of this study is therefore to create a global map of the maximum depth of economically recoverable groundwater when used for irrigation. The maximum economic depth is the maximum depth at which revenues are still larger than pumping costs or the maximum depth at which initial investments become too large compared to yearly revenues. To this end we set up a simple economic model where costs of well drilling and the energy costs of pumping, which are a function of well depth and static head depth respectively, are compared with the revenues obtained for the irrigated crops. Parameters for the cost sub-model are obtained from several US-based studies and applied to other countries based on GDP/capita as an index of labour costs. The revenue sub-model is based on gross irrigation water demand calculated with a global hydrological and water resources model, areal coverage of crop types from MIRCA2000 and FAO-based statistics on crop yield and market price. We applied our method to irrigated areas in the world overlying productive aquifers. Estimated maximum economic depths range between 50 and 500 m. Most important factors explaining the maximum economic depth are the dominant crop type in the area and whether or not initial investments in well infrastructure are limiting. In subsequent research, our estimates of

  1. Acceleration of a Static Observer Near the Event Horizon of a Static Isolated Black Hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Noel A.

    1981-01-01

    Compares the magnitude of the proper acceleration of a static observer in a static, isolated, spherically symmetric space-time region with the Newtonian result including the situation in the interior of a perfect-fluid star. This provides a simple physical interpretation of surface gravity and illustrates the global nature of the event horizon.…

  2. Static solutions in Einstein-Chern-Simons gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisóstomo, J.; Gomez, F.; Mella, P.; Quinzacara, C.; Salgado, P., E-mail: jcrisostomo@udec.cl, E-mail: fernagomez@udec.cl, E-mail: patriciomella@udec.cl, E-mail: cristian.cortesq@uss.cl, E-mail: pasalgad@udec.cl [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile)

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we study static solutions with more general symmetries than the spherical symmetry of the five-dimensional Einstein-Chern-Simons gravity. In this context, we study the coupling of the extra bosonic field h{sup a} with ordinary matter which is quantified by the introduction of an energy-momentum tensor field associated with h{sup a}. It is found that exist (i) a negative tangential pressure zone around low-mass distributions (μ < μ{sub 1}) when the coupling constant α is greater than zero; (ii) a maximum in the tangential pressure, which can be observed in the outer region of a field distribution that satisfies μ < μ{sub 2}; (iii) solutions that behave like those obtained from models with negative cosmological constant. In such a situation, the field h{sup a} plays the role of a cosmological constant.

  3. Buchdahl compactness limit for a pure Lovelock static fluid star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadhich, Naresh; Chakraborty, Sumanta

    2017-03-01

    We obtain the Buchdahl compactness limit for a pure Lovelock static fluid star and verify that the limit following from the uniform-density Schwarzschild's interior solution, which is universal irrespective of the gravitational theory (Einstein or Lovelock), is true in general. In terms of surface potential Φ (r ) , it means at the surface of the star r =r0, Φ (r0)Lovelock order, respectively. For a given N , Φ (r0) is maximum for d =2 N +2 , while it is always 4 /9 , Buchdahl's limit, for d =3 N +1 . It is also remarkable that for N =1 Einstein gravity, or for pure Lovelock in d =3 N +1 , Buchdahl's limit is equivalent to the criterion that gravitational field energy exterior to the star must be less than half its gravitational mass, having no reference to the interior at all.

  4. Statics and rotational dynamics of composite beams

    CERN Document Server

    Ghorashi, Mehrdaad

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive study of the nonlinear statics and dynamics of composite beams and consists of solutions with and without active elements embedded in the beams. The static solution provides the initial conditions for the dynamic analysis. The dynamic problems considered include the analyses of clamped (hingeless) and articulated (hinged) accelerating rotating beams. Two independent numerical solutions for the steady state and the transient responses are presented. The author illustrates that the transient solution of the nonlinear formulation of accelerating rotating beam converges to the steady state solution obtained by the shooting method. Other key areas considered include calculation of the effect of perturbing the steady state solution, coupled nonlinear flap-lag dynamics of a rotating articulated beam with hinge offset and aerodynamic damping, and static and dynamic responses of nonlinear composite beams with embedded anisotropic piezo-composite actuators. The book is intended as a t...

  5. Extending and Enhancing SAS (Static Analysis Suite)

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, David

    2016-01-01

    The Static Analysis Suite (SAS) is an open-source software package used to perform static analysis on C and C++ code, helping to ensure safety, readability and maintainability. In this Summer Student project, SAS was enhanced to improve ease of use and user customisation. A straightforward method of integrating static analysis into a project at compilation time was provided using the automated build tool CMake. The process of adding checkers to the suite was streamlined and simplied by developing an automatic code generator. To make SAS more suitable for continuous integration, a reporting mechanism summarising results was added. This suitability has been demonstrated by inclusion of SAS in the Future Circular Collider Software nightly build system. Scalability of the improved package was demonstrated by using the tool to analyse the ROOT code base.

  6. Sawja: Static Analysis Workshop for Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Laurent; Barré, Nicolas; Besson, Frédéric; Demange, Delphine; Jensen, Thomas; Monfort, Vincent; Pichardie, David; Turpin, Tiphaine

    Static analysis is a powerful technique for automatic verification of programs but raises major engineering challenges when developing a full-fledged analyzer for a realistic language such as Java. Efficiency and precision of such a tool rely partly on low level components which only depend on the syntactic structure of the language and therefore should not be redesigned for each implementation of a new static analysis. This paper describes the Sawja library: a static analysis workshop fully compliant with Java 6 which provides OCaml modules for efficiently manipulating Java bytecode programs. We present the main features of the library, including i) efficient functional data-structures for representing a program with implicit sharing and lazy parsing, ii) an intermediate stack-less representation, and iii) fast computation and manipulation of complete programs. We provide experimental evaluations of the different features with respect to time, memory and precision.

  7. Static Analysis for JavaScript

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Holm

    . This dissertation describes the design and implementation of a static analysis for JavaScript that can assist programmers in finding bugs in code during development. We describe the design of a static analysis tool for JavaScript, built using the monotone framework. This analysis infers detailed type information......Web applications present unique challenges to designers of static analysis tools. One of these challenges is the language JavaScript used for client side scripting in the browser. JavaScript is a complex language with many pitfalls and poor tool support compared to other languages...... about programs. This information can be used to detect bugs such as null pointer dereferences and unintended type coercions. The analysis is sound, enabling it to prove the absence of certain program errors. JavaScript is usually run within the context of the browser and the DOM API. The major...

  8. On the geometric phenomenology of static friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shankar; Merin, A P; Nitsure, Nitin

    2017-09-06

    In this note we introduce a hierarchy of phase spaces for static friction, which give a graphical way to systematically quantify the directional dependence in static friction via subregions of the phase spaces. We experimentally plot these subregions to obtain phenomenological descriptions for static friction in various examples where the macroscopic shape of the object affects the frictional response. The phase spaces have the universal property that for any experiment in which a given object is put on a substrate fashioned from a chosen material with a specified nature of contact, the frictional behaviour can be read off from a uniquely determined classifying map on the control space of the experiment which takes values in the appropriate phase space.

  9. Pheromone Static Routing Strategy for Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mao-Bin; Henry, Y. K. Lau; Ling, Xiang; Jiang, Rui

    2012-12-01

    We adopt the concept of using pheromones to generate a set of static paths that can reach the performance of global dynamic routing strategy [Phys. Rev. E 81 (2010) 016113]. The path generation method consists of two stages. In the first stage, a pheromone is dropped to the nodes by packets forwarded according to the global dynamic routing strategy. In the second stage, pheromone static paths are generated according to the pheromone density. The output paths can greatly improve traffic systems' overall capacity on different network structures, including scale-free networks, small-world networks and random graphs. Because the paths are static, the system needs much less computational resources than the global dynamic routing strategy.

  10. Static Einstein--Maxwell field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.

    1979-01-01

    The static Einstein--Maxwell field equations are investigated in the presence of both electric and magnetic fields. The sources or bodies are assumed to be of finite size and to not affect the connectivity of the associated space. Furthermore, electromagnetic and metric fields are assumed to have reasonable differentiabilities. It is then proved that the electric and magnetic field vectors are constant multiples of one another. Moreover, the static Einstein--Maxwell equations reduce to the static magnetovac case. If, furthermore, the variational derivation of the Einstein--Maxwell equations is assumed, then both the total electric and magnetic charge of each body must vanish. As a physical consequence it is pointed out that if a suspended magnet be electrically charged then it must experience a purely general relativistic torque

  11. Utility of the Static-99 and Static-99R With Latino Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leguízamo, Alejandro; Lee, Seung C; Jeglic, Elizabeth L; Calkins, Cynthia

    2017-12-01

    The predictive validity of the Static-99 measures with ethnic minorities in the United States has only recently been assessed with mixed results. We assessed the predictive validity of the Static-99 and Static-99R with a sample of Latino sex offenders ( N = 483) as well as with two subsamples (U.S.-born, including Puerto Rico, and non-U.S.-born). The overall sexual recidivism rate was very low (1.9%). Both the Static-99 measures were able to predict sexual recidivism for offenders born in the United States and Puerto Rico, but neither was effective in doing so for other Latino immigrants. Calibration analyses ( N = 303) of the Static-99R were consistent with the literature and provided support for the potential use of the measure with Latinos born in the United States and Puerto Rico. These findings and their implications are discussed as they pertain to the assessment of Latino sex offenders.

  12. K-11 students’ creative thinking ability on static fluid: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanni, I. U.; Muslim; Hasanah, L.; Samsudin, A.

    2018-05-01

    Creative thinking is one of the fundamental components of 21st-century education that needs to be possessed and developed in students. Thus, the students have the ability to find many alternative solutions to solve problems in physics learning. The study aimed at providing the students’ creative thinking ability on Static Fluid. A case study has been implemented through a single case, namely embedded design. Participants in this study are 27 K-11 students. The instrument utilized is Test for Creative Thinking-Static Fluid (TCT-SF) which has been validated by the experts. The result shows that 10.74 (approximately 35.8%) of the maximum scores. In conclusion, students’ creative thinking ability on Static Fluid is still stumpy, hence, it is needed to develop creative thinking ability in K-11 students’ context.

  13. Thermal effects in static friction: thermolubricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, A; Bortolani, V; Santoro, G; Brigazzi, M

    2008-10-01

    We present a molecular dynamics analysis of the static friction between two thick slabs. The upper block is formed by N2 molecules and the lower block by Pb atoms. We study the effects of the temperature as well as the effects produced by the structure of the surface of the lower block on the static friction. To put in evidence the temperature effects we will compare the results obtained with the lower block formed by still atoms with those obtained when the atoms are allowed to vibrate (e.g., with phonons). To investigate the importance of the geometry of the surface of the lower block we apply the external force in different directions, with respect to a chosen crystallographic direction of the substrate. We show that the interaction between the lattice dynamics of the two blocks is responsible for the strong dependence of the static friction on the temperature. The lattice dynamics interaction between the two blocks strongly reduces the static friction, with respect to the case of the rigid substrate. This is due to the large momentum transfer between atoms and the N2 molecules which disorders the molecules of the interface layer. A further disorder is introduced by the temperature. We perform calculations at T = 20K which is a temperature below the melting, which for our slab is at 50K . We found that because of the disorder the static friction becomes independent of the direction of the external applied force. The very low value of the static friction seems to indicate that we are in a regime of thermolubricity similar to that observed in dynamical friction.

  14. Two-dimensional maximum entropy image restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brolley, J.E.; Lazarus, R.B.; Suydam, B.R.; Trussell, H.J.

    1977-07-01

    An optical check problem was constructed to test P LOG P maximum entropy restoration of an extremely distorted image. Useful recovery of the original image was obtained. Comparison with maximum a posteriori restoration is made. 7 figures

  15. Static measurements at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed Nahar Bin Syed Hussin Shabuddin; Sharifuldin Bin Salleh, Mohd Amin; Harasawa, Susumu

    1985-06-01

    Static measurements at the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) were made to study the variation of its fuel temperature with reactor power. Some constants that relate power to fuel temperature behaviour were also determined. These constants are reflective of the coolling characteristics in the reactor core. Comparison was also made between the negative temperature coefficient of reactivity obtained from these measurements to those published in the Safety Analysis Report, SAR. The differences between these values are attributable to a delayed effect found in static measurements but not included in the SAR calculation which consider the prompt effect only.

  16. Static compensators (STATCOMs) in power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shahnia, Farhad; Ghosh, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    A static compensator (STATCOM), also known as static synchronous compensator, is a member of the flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices. It is a power-electronics based regulating device which is composed of a voltage source converter (VSC) and is shunt-connected to alternating current electricity transmission and distribution networks. The voltage source is created from a DC capacitor and the STATCOM can exchange reactive power with the network. It can also supply some active power to the network, if a DC source of power is connected across the capacitor. A STATCOM

  17. MEMS linear and nonlinear statics and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Younis, Mohammad I

    2011-01-01

    MEMS Linear and Nonlinear Statics and Dynamics presents the necessary analytical and computational tools for MEMS designers to model and simulate most known MEMS devices, structures, and phenomena. This book also provides an in-depth analysis and treatment of the most common static and dynamic phenomena in MEMS that are encountered by engineers. Coverage also includes nonlinear modeling approaches to modeling various MEMS phenomena of a nonlinear nature, such as those due to electrostatic forces, squeeze-film damping, and large deflection of structures. The book also: Includes examples of nume

  18. Static multiplicities in heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Klavs; Andersen, Torben Ravn; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the results of a bifurcation analysis on heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences are given. Two sequences suitable for ethanol dehydration are compared: The 'direct' and the 'indirect' sequence. It is shown, that the two sequences, despite their similarities, exhibit very...... different static behavior. The method of Petlyuk and Avet'yan (1971), Bekiaris et al. (1993), which assumes infinite reflux and infinite number of stages, is extended to and applied on heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences. The predictions are substantiated through simulations. The static sequence...

  19. de Sitter relativity in static charts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotaescu, Ion I. [West University of Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    2018-02-15

    The relative geodesic motion in static (and spherically symmetric) local charts on the (1 + 3)-dimensional de Sitter spacetimes is studied in terms of conserved quantities. The Lorentzian isometries are derived, relating the coordinates of the local chart of a fixed observer with the coordinates of a mobile chart considered as the rest frame of a massive particle freely moving on a timelike geodesic. The time dilation and Lorentz contraction are discussed pointing out some notable features of the de Sitter relativity in static charts. (orig.)

  20. A systematic review to investigate the effectiveness and acceptability of interventions for moist desquamation in radiotherapy patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedge, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To systematically review the currently available high quality evidence evaluating treatments for moist desquamation in radiotherapy patients. Design: Systematic literature review. Methods: Electronic databases, websites, reference lists, key journals and conference proceedings were searched. Attempts were also made to uncover unpublished material. Relevant studies proceeded to data extraction and quality assessment. Results: Twenty studies were found; 10 were eligible for inclusion. Although many studies were small, none had unacceptably poor quality. No meta-analysis was undertaken as the studies were not homogenous in their interventions or methods. No convincing evidence for any intervention was found. Conclusion: Despite being recommended by many guidelines (College of Radiographers Summary of Intervention for Acute Radiotherapy Induced Skin Reactions in Cancer Patients (London, 2001); NHS Quality Improvement Scotland Best Practice Statement: Skincare of Patients Receiving Radiotherapy (Edinburgh, 2004)); there is mixed evidence concerning the use of hydrogels and hydrocolloid dressings. However, improved patient comfort was sometimes seen, which is arguably equally important. There was limited evidence to support other interventions. Further research is urgently needed.

  1. Shoot cuttings propagation of giant reed (Arundo donax L.) in water and moist soil: The path forward?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceotto, Enrico; Di Candilo, Mario [C.R.A. - Centro di Ricerca per le Colture Industriali, Via di Corticella 133, 40128 Bologna (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is a perennial rhizomatous grass that can be regarded as an ideal crop for bioenergy production, owing to several intrinsic characteristics. Despite to the promising yield results obtained in many plot experiments, the cultivation of giant reed at field scale is still a challenge. Owing to the floral sterility of the species, rhizome propagation has been predominantly used to establish field plots experiments, although this method is unpractical and monetarily expensive. Giant reed is a hydrophytic plant that typically spread in riparian systems by flood-mediated fragmentation and dispersal of vegetative propagules. Since giant reed propagation is strictly dependent on temporary abundance of water, this plant characteristic might be exploited for fostering the diffusion of giant reed as a bioenergy field crop. The objectives of this paper were: i) to disseminate some techniques for shoot cutting propagation of giant reed in water and in moist soil; ii) to address the critical points that remain to be solved for a widespread diffusion of this species as a bioenergy field crop. (author)

  2. The importance of binder moisture content in Metformin HCL high-dose formulations prepared by moist aqueous granulation (MAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Takasaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate binders to improve the flowability of granulates and compactibility of Metformin HCL (Met using the moist aqueous granulation (MAG process. The effect of the binder moisture content on granulate and tablet quality was also evaluated. Vinylpyrrolidone–vinyl acetate copolymer (Kollidon VA64 fine: VA64, polyvidone (Povidone K12: PVP, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC SSL SF: HPC and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Methocel E5 LV: HPMC were evaluated as binders. These granulates, except for HPMC, had a lower yield pressure than Met active pharmaceutical ingredient (API. HPMC Met was not sufficiently granulated with low water volume. No problems were observed with the VA64 Met granulates during the tableting process. However, HPC Met granulates had a bowl-forming tendency, and PVP Met granulates had the tendency to stick during the tableting process. These bowl-forming and sticking tendencies may have been due to the low moisture absorbency of HPC and the high volume of bound water of PVP, respectively. VA64 Met granulates had the highest ambient moisture content (bulk water, bound water and moisture absorbency. It was concluded that the type of binder used for the Met MAG process has an impact on granulate flow and compactibility, as well as moisture absorbency and maintenance of moisture balance.

  3. Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生

    2003-01-01

    Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.

  4. Relationship between maximum dynamic force of inferior members and body balance in strength training apprentices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Martins

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between force and balance show controversy results and has directimplications in exercise prescription practice. The objective was to investigate the relationshipbetween maximum dynamic force (MDF of inferior limbs and the static and dynamic balances.Participated in the study 60 individuals, with 18 to 24 years old, strength training apprentices.The MDF was available by mean the One Maximum Repetition (1MR in “leg press” and “kneeextension” and motor testes to available of static and dynamic balances. The correlation testsand multiple linear regression were applied. The force and balance variables showed correlationin females (p=0.038. The corporal mass and static balance showed correlation for the males(p=0.045. The explication capacity at MDF and practices time were small: 13% for staticbalance in males, 18% and 17%, respectively, for static and dynamic balance in females. Inconclusion: the MDF of inferior limbs showed low predictive capacity for performance in staticand dynamic balances, especially for males.

  5. INTRODUCTION AND STATIC ELECTRICITY, VOLUME 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME, PART OF A TWO-VOLUME SET, PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE MATERIAL COVERS UNITS ON (1) STATIC ELECTRICITY AND ELECTRICAL CHARGES, (2) COULOMB'S LAW, (3) DISTRIBUTION OF CHARGE AND FLOW OF CURRENT, (4) DIFFERENCE OF POTENTIAL, (5) BATTERIES AND CIRCUITS, (6) RESISTANCE AND RESISTORS, (7) POTENTIAL DIVIDER AND WHEATSTONE…

  6. Static Analysis for Java Servlets and JSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Christian; Møller, Anders

    2006-01-01

    We present an approach for statically reasoning about the behavior of Web applications that are developed using Java Servlets and JSP. Specifically, we attack the problems of guaranteeing that all output is well-formed and valid XML and ensuring consistency of XHTML form fields and session state...

  7. Static Analysis of XML Transformations in Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Christian; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael I.

    2004-01-01

    of XML documents to be defined, there are generally no automatic mechanisms for statically checking that a program transforms from one class to another as intended. We introduce Xact, a high-level approach for Java using XML templates as a first-class data type with operations for manipulating XML values...

  8. Static Typing for Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1994-01-01

    We develop a theory of statically typed object-oriented languages. It represents classes as labeled, regular trees, types as finit sets of classes , and sub-classing as a partial order on trees. We show that our sub-classing order strictly generalizes inheritance, and that a novel genericity mech...

  9. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractDynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two

  10. Static timing analysis for nanometer designs

    CERN Document Server

    Bhasker, J

    2009-01-01

    Covers topics such as cell timing and power modeling; interconnect modeling and analysis, delay calculation, crosstalk, noise and the chip timing verification using static timing analysis. For each of these topics, this book provides a theoretical background as well as detailed examples to elaborate the concepts.

  11. Device measures static friction of magnetic tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, P. T.

    1967-01-01

    Device measures the coefficient of static friction of magnetic tape over a range of temperatures and relative humidities. It uses a strain gage to measure the force of friction between a reference surface and the tape drawn at a constant velocity of approximately 0.0001 inch per second relative to the reference surface.

  12. The static gravitational field near spatial infinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beig, R.

    1980-01-01

    A static solution to Einstein's equations, which is asymptotically flat near spatial infinity, is shown to be asymptotically Schwarzschildian. As an application of this result a technical lemma on the existence of asymptotically flat harmonic coordinates near infinity is proved. (author)

  13. Static and evolutionary quantum public goods games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Zeyang; Qin Gan; Hu Lingzhi; Li Songjian; Xu Nanyang [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Du Jiangfeng [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany)], E-mail: djf@ustc.edu.cn

    2008-05-12

    We apply the continuous-variable quantization scheme to quantize public goods game and find that new pure strategy Nash equilibria emerge in the static case. Furthermore, in the evolutionary public goods game, entanglement can also contribute to the persistence of cooperation under various population structures without altruism, voluntary participation, and punishment.

  14. Static electromagnetic properties of giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, W.K.

    1986-03-01

    Static electric monopole and quadrupole matrix elements, which are related to the mean square radius and quadrupole moment respectively, are derived for giant resonances of arbitrary multipolarity. The results furnish information on the size and shape of the nucleus in the excited giant states. (author)

  15. A Progression of Static Equilibrium Laboratory Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Mickey; Kutzner, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Although simple architectural structures like bridges, catwalks, cantilevers, and Stonehenge have been integral in human societies for millennia, as have levers and other simple tools, modern students of introductory physics continue to grapple with Newton's conditions for static equilibrium. As formulated in typical introductory physics…

  16. Automatic incrementalization of Prolog based static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Kahl, Matthias; Saha, Diptikalyan

    2007-01-01

    Modem development environments integrate various static analyses into the build process. Analyses that analyze the whole project whenever the project changes are impractical in this context. We present an approach to automatic incrementalization of analyses that are specified as tabled logic prog...

  17. Model of the static universe within GR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbanovski, V. V.; Tarasova, A. S.; Salimova, A. S.; Bilinskaya, G. V.; Sumbulov, A. N.

    2011-01-01

    Within GR, the problems of the Robertson-Walker universe are discussed. The approach based on transition to a nondiagonal line element is suggested. Within the considered approach, the static universe model is investigated. The possibility of constructing scenarios without an initial singularity and “exotic” matter is discussed. Accordance of the given model to the properties of the observable universe is discussed.

  18. A scanning bi-static SODAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, P; Bradley, S [Physics Department, Auckland University, 38 Princes Street, Auckland (New Zealand); Hunerbein, S von [Acoustics Department, Newton Building, University of Salford, Greater Manchester M5 4WT (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-01

    Field results are given from a bi-static SODAR which uses a single central vertical transmission and three distributed microphone array receivers. Fourier transform delay methods are applied to data sampled from each microphone to retrospectively scan in angle and follow the transmitted pulse. Advantages of sampling a narrow atmospheric column, rather than distributed volumes are discussed.

  19. A scanning bi-static SODAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, P; Bradley, S; Hunerbein, S von

    2008-01-01

    Field results are given from a bi-static SODAR which uses a single central vertical transmission and three distributed microphone array receivers. Fourier transform delay methods are applied to data sampled from each microphone to retrospectively scan in angle and follow the transmitted pulse. Advantages of sampling a narrow atmospheric column, rather than distributed volumes are discussed

  20. Static Checking of Interrupt-driven Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brylow, Dennis; Damgaard, Niels; Palsberg, Jens

    2001-01-01

    at the assembly level. In this paper we present the design and implementation of a static checker for interrupt-driven Z86-based software with hard real-time requirements. For six commercial microcontrollers, our checker has produced upper bounds on interrupt latencies and stack sizes, as well as verified...

  1. Static Equilibrium Configurations of Charged Metallic Bodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we developed a simple numerical scheme to determine the static equilibrium configuration of charged metallic bodies by minimizing the potential energy function. The method developed has some advantages; it combines the general theory and the physical meanings nested in the mathematical model and this ...

  2. Maximum Power from a Solar Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Miller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.

  3. Economic evaluation of flying-qualities design criteria for a transport configured with relaxed static stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    Direct constrained parameter optimization was used to optimally size a medium range transport for minimum direct operating cost. Several stability and control constraints were varied to study the sensitivity of the configuration to specifying the unaugmented flying qualities of transports designed to take maximum advantage of relaxed static stability augmentation systems. Additionally, a number of handling qualities related design constants were studied with respect to their impact on the design.

  4. Influence of Thread Root Radius on Maximum Local Stresses at Large Diameter Bolts under Axial Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cojocaru Vasile

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the thread root area of the threaded bolts submitted to axial loading occur local stresses, higher that nominal stresses calculated for the bolts. These local stresses can generate failure and can reduce the fatigue life of the parts. The paper is focused on the study of the influence of the thread root radius on the maximum local stresses. A large diameter trapezoidal bolt was subjected to a static analysis (axial loading using finite element simulation.

  5. Stimulus-dependent maximum entropy models of neural population codes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Granot-Atedgi

    Full Text Available Neural populations encode information about their stimulus in a collective fashion, by joint activity patterns of spiking and silence. A full account of this mapping from stimulus to neural activity is given by the conditional probability distribution over neural codewords given the sensory input. For large populations, direct sampling of these distributions is impossible, and so we must rely on constructing appropriate models. We show here that in a population of 100 retinal ganglion cells in the salamander retina responding to temporal white-noise stimuli, dependencies between cells play an important encoding role. We introduce the stimulus-dependent maximum entropy (SDME model-a minimal extension of the canonical linear-nonlinear model of a single neuron, to a pairwise-coupled neural population. We find that the SDME model gives a more accurate account of single cell responses and in particular significantly outperforms uncoupled models in reproducing the distributions of population codewords emitted in response to a stimulus. We show how the SDME model, in conjunction with static maximum entropy models of population vocabulary, can be used to estimate information-theoretic quantities like average surprise and information transmission in a neural population.

  6. Characterization of the solid, airborne materials created when UF6 reacts with moist air flowing in single-pass mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickrell, P.W.

    1985-10-01

    A series of experiments has been performed in which UF 6 was released into flowing air in order to characterize the solid particulate material produced under non-static conditions. In two of the experiments, the aerosol was allowed to stagnate in a static chamber after release and examined further but in the other experiments characterization was done only on material collected a few seconds after release. Transmission electron microscopy and mass measurement by cascaded impactor were used to characterize the aerosol particles which were usually single spheroids with little agglomeration in evidence. The goal of the work is to determine the chemistry and physics of the UF 6 -atmospheric moisture reaction under a variety of conditions so that information about resulting species and product morphologies is available for containment and removal (knockdown) studies as well as for dispersion plume modeling and toxicology studies. This report completes the milestone for reporting the information obtained from releases of UF 6 into flowing rather than static air. 26 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Comparison of the decomposition VOC profile during winter and summer in a moist, mid-latitude (Cfb climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shari L Forbes

    Full Text Available The investigation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs associated with decomposition is an emerging field in forensic taphonomy due to their importance in locating human remains using biological detectors such as insects and canines. A consistent decomposition VOC profile has not yet been elucidated due to the intrinsic impact of the environment on the decomposition process in different climatic zones. The study of decomposition VOCs has typically occurred during the warmer months to enable chemical profiling of all decomposition stages. The present study investigated the decomposition VOC profile in air during both warmer and cooler months in a moist, mid-latitude (Cfb climate as decomposition occurs year-round in this environment. Pig carcasses (Sus scrofa domesticus L. were placed on a soil surface to decompose naturally and their VOC profile was monitored during the winter and summer months. Corresponding control sites were also monitored to determine the natural VOC profile of the surrounding soil and vegetation. VOC samples were collected onto sorbent tubes and analyzed using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography--time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS. The summer months were characterized by higher temperatures and solar radiation, greater rainfall accumulation, and comparable humidity when compared to the winter months. The rate of decomposition was faster and the number and abundance of VOCs was proportionally higher in summer. However, a similar trend was observed in winter and summer demonstrating a rapid increase in VOC abundance during active decay with a second increase in abundance occurring later in the decomposition process. Sulfur-containing compounds, alcohols and ketones represented the most abundant classes of compounds in both seasons, although almost all 10 compound classes identified contributed to discriminating the stages of decomposition throughout both seasons. The advantages of GC × GC-TOFMS were

  8. Effects of extruded pellet and moist pellet on growth performance, body composition, and hematology of juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghan Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of two different sizes of extruded pellets (EP (EP1 - 3 mm or EP2 - 5 mm and a moist pellet (MP in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, reared in semi-recirculation system. A total of 450 fish with an average initial weight of 5.0 ± 0.2 g (mean ± SD were fed one of the three experimental diets in triplicate groups. At the end of a 6-week feeding trial, weight gain, specific growth rate, and feed efficiency of fish fed EP diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed MP (P < 0.05. Water quality parameters like turbidity, total ammonia nitrogen, and total phosphorous from tanks of fish fed EP1 and EP2 were significantly lower than those from tanks of fish fed MP. Blood plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glucose concentration were significantly higher in fish fed MP diet compared to fish fed EP diets (P < 0.05. Whole body crude protein contents in fish fed EP diets were higher than those from the fish fed MP diet. Whole body amino acid content like threonine, aspartic acid, serine, tyrosine, and cystine were found to be significantly higher in fish fed EP diets than those in fish fed MP diet. In considering overall performance of olive flounder, EP2 diet could be recommended for the successful aquaculture of this important fish species.

  9. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  10. A cost and clinical effectiveness analysis among moist wound healing dressings versus traditional methods in home care patients with pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souliotis, Kyriakos; Kalemikerakis, Ioannis; Saridi, Maria; Papageorgiou, Manto; Kalokerinou, Athena

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was a cost and clinical effectiveness analysis between moist wound healing dressings and gauze in a homecare set up for the treatment of stage III and IV pressure ulcers up to complete healing. In addition, we assessed the overall economic burden on the Healthcare System. Treatment method for each patient was chosen randomly by using sealed opaque envelopes. The authors monitored the healing progress and recorded treatment costs without interfering with the treatment process. The healing progress was estimated by using surface measurement transparent films. To estimate treatment costs, the authors took into account labor costs, cost of dressings, as well the cost of other materials such as cleansing gauzes, normal saline, syringes, examination gloves, antiseptics and adhesive tape. The patient group under treatment with moist wound healing dressings consisted of 27 men and 20 women aged 75.1 ± 8,6 and had an average ulcer surface of 43.5 ± 30.70 cm(2) ; the patient group under treatment with gauze comprised 25 men and 23 women aged 77.02 ± 8.02 and had an average ulcer surface 41.52 ± 29.41 cm(2) (p = 0.25, 95% CI, Student's t test). The average healing time for the moist wound healing dressings group' was 85.56 ± 52.09 days, while 121.4 ± 52.21 days for the "gauze group" (p = 0.0001, 95% CI, Student's t test). The dressing change frequency per patient was reduced in the "moist wound healing dressings group," 49.5 ± 29.61, compared with a dressing change frequency per patient of 222.6 ± 101.86 for the "gauze group" (p = 0.0001, 95% CI, Student's t test). The use of moist wound healing dressings had a lower total treatment cost of 1,351 € per patient compared with, the use of gauzes (3,888 €). © 2016 by the Wound Healing Society.

  11. Static devices with new permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, J.; Laforest, J.; Pauthenet, R.

    1987-01-01

    The high remanence and coercivity of the new permanent magnet materials are of special interest in the static applications. High ordering temperature and are uniaxial anisotropy at the origin of their good permanent magnet properties are obtained in rare earth-transition metal compounds. Binary SmCo/sub 5/ and Sm/sub 2/Co/sub 17/ and ternary Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 14/B compounds are the basis materials of the best permanent magnets. new concepts of calculations of static devices with these magnets can be applied: the magnetization can be considered as ridig, the density of the surface Amperian current is constant, the relative permeability is approximately 1 and the induction calculations are linear. Examples of hexapoles with Sm-Co and NdFeB magnets are described and the performances are compared. The problems of temperature behavior and corrosion resistance are underlined

  12. Quasi-Static Electric Field Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A generator for producing an electric field for with an inspection technology system is provided. The generator provides the required variable magnitude quasi-static electric fields for the "illumination" of objects, areas and volumes to be inspected by the system, and produces human-safe electric fields that are only visible to the system. The generator includes a casing, a driven, non-conducting and triboelectrically neutral rotation shaft mounted therein, an ungrounded electrostatic dipole element which works in the quasi-static range, and a non-conducting support for mounting the dipole element to the shaft. The dipole element has a wireless motor system and a charging system which are wholly contained within the dipole element and the support that uses an electrostatic approach to charge the dipole element.

  13. On static and radiative space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, H.

    1988-01-01

    The conformal constraint equations on space-like hypersurfaces are discussed near points which represent either time-like or spatial infinity for an asymptotically flat solution of Einstein's vacuum field equations. In the case of time-like infinity a certain 'radiativity condition' is derived which must be satisfied by the data at that point. The case of space-like infinity is analysed in detail for static space-times with non-vanishing mass. It is shown that the conformal structure implied here on a slice of constant Killing time, which extends analytically through infinity, satisfies at spatial infinity the radiativity condition. Thus to any static solution exists a certain 'radiative solution' which has a smooth structure at past null infinity and is regular at past time-like infinity. A characterization of these solutions by their 'free data' is given and non-symmetry properties are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Static magnetotherapy for the treatment of insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Yao Y; Tsai, Fong Y

    2008-01-01

    Magnets have been used for centuries to treat a number of physical disorders. The vast majority of research, however, on static magnet therapy for insomnia has been confined to the auricular type of therapy, with publications limited to Chinese journals. Most of these studies have depended on the subjective self-assessment of participants rather than objective scientific measurements. In this study, the authors report the positive preliminary results of insomnia treatment using pillows with embedded magnets, magnetic insoles and TriPhase bracelets. The analysis is based on objective actigraphic and polysomnographic data. A theory of accelerated transition from wakefulness to sleep is proposed to explain the process of insomnia relief through low-strength static magnetic fields. Analysis by functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is used to further investigate the theory.

  15. tavgU_3d_mst_Cp: MERRA 3D IAU Diagnostic, Moist Physics, Diurnal 1.25 x 1.25 degree V5.2.0 (MATUCPMST) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATUCPMST or tavgU_3d_mst_Cp data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 3-Dimensional moist process diagnostic that is time averaged on pressure levels...

  16. tavgM_3d_mst_Cp: MERRA 3D IAU Diagnostic, Moist Physics, Monthly Mean 1.25 x 1.25 degree V5.2.0 (MATMCPMST) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATMCPMST or tavgM_3d_mst_Cp data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 3-Dimensional moist process diagnostic that is time averaged on pressure levels...

  17. Comparing numerically exact and modelled static friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krengel Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there exists no mechanically consistent “numerically exact” implementation of static and dynamic Coulomb friction for general soft particle simulations with arbitrary contact situations in two or three dimension, but only along one dimension. We outline a differential-algebraic equation approach for a “numerically exact” computation of friction in two dimensions and compare its application to the Cundall-Strack model in some test cases.

  18. A Logical Characterisation of Static Equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Pedersen, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    -order logic for frames with quantification over environment knowledge which, under certain general conditions, characterizes static equivalence and is amenable to construction of characteristic formulae. The logic can be used to reason about environment knowledge and can be adapted to a particular application...... by defining a suitable signature and associated equational theory. The logic can furthermore be extended with modalities to yield a modal logic for e.g. the Applied Pi calculus....

  19. A field theoretic model for static friction

    OpenAIRE

    Mahyaeh, I.; Rouhani, S.

    2013-01-01

    We present a field theoretic model for friction, where the friction coefficient between two surfaces may be calculated based on elastic properties of the surfaces. We assume that the geometry of contact surface is not unusual. We verify Amonton's laws to hold that friction force is proportional to the normal load.This model gives the opportunity to calculate the static coefficient of friction for a few cases, and show that it is in agreement with observed values. Furthermore we show that the ...

  20. Calibration of a pitot-static rake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stump, H. P.

    1977-01-01

    A five-element pitot-static rake was tested to confirm its accuracy and determine its suitability for use at Langley during low-speed tunnel calibration primarily at full-scale tunnel. The rake was tested at one airspeed of 74 miles per hour (33 meters per second) and at pitch and yaw angles of 0 to + or - 20 degrees in 4 deg increments.

  1. Predicting environmental restoration activities through static simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, T.L.; King, D.A.; Wilkins, M.L.; Forward, M.F.

    1994-12-01

    This paper discusses a static simulation model that predicts several performance measures of environmental restoration activities over different remedial strategies. Basic model operation consists of manipulating and processing waste streams via selecting and applying remedial technologies according to the strategy. Performance measure prediction is possible for contaminated soil, solid waste, surface water, groundwater, storage tank, and facility sites. Simulations are performed for the U.S. Department of Energy in support of its Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

  2. Static nuclear polarisation and polarised targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeringa, W.

    1984-12-01

    Recent progress and status of statically polarised nuclear targets are reviewed. Special attention is given to polarised 1 H and 3 He. An important quantity in the determination of the target polarisation is the thermal gradient over the target sample. The dependence of this gradient on heat input, sample geometry, and thermal conductivity of the sample is discussed. Possibilities of performing experiments with proton beams are indicated. (orig.) [de

  3. Static Analysis Alert Audits: Lexicon and Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-04

    1 Audit Rules and Lexicon Date 00, 2016 © 2016 Carnegie Mellon University [DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material has been approved for public...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material has been approved for public release and unlimited distribution. REV-03.18.2016.0 Static Analysis Alert Audits ...Lexicon And Rules William Snavely 2 Audit Rules and Lexicon Date 00, 2016 © 2016 Carnegie Mellon University [DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material

  4. 1Moist Forest R

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2014-11-15

    Nov 15, 2014 ... In addressing the problem of ill-health and risks associated with the use of pesticides, ... model were used to analysed data collected from 480 respondents using multi-stage sampling ..... Quantifying Environmental Health.

  5. Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2009-01-01

    boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...

  6. Modelling maximum canopy conductance and transpiration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is much current interest in predicting the maximum amount of water that can be transpired by Eucalyptus trees. It is possible that industrial waste water may be applied as irrigation water to eucalypts and it is important to predict the maximum transpiration rates of these plantations in an attempt to dispose of this ...

  7. Non-local means filter for trim statics

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yunsong; Wang, Xin; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    this problem, we propose a trim statics inspired by the non-local means algorithm originally developed for image denoising. This method differs from the conventional one in two fundamental respects. First, the trim statics are computed by comparing image

  8. The Static Ladder Problem with Two Sources of Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jonathan; Mauney, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The problem of a ladder leaning against a wall in static equilibrium is a classic example encountered in introductory mechanics texts. Most discussions of this problem assume that the static frictional force between the ladder and wall can be ignored. A few authors consider the case where the static friction coefficients between ladder/wall…

  9. The usefulness of cardiofocal collimator in static renal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evren, I.; Durak, H.; Degirmenci, B.; Derebek, E.; Oezbilek, E.; Capa, G.

    2001-01-01

    Static renal imaging is best performed using pinhole collimator. But this technique takes too much time and generally parallel hole collimators are preferred for static renal imaging in nuclear medicine departments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the cardio-focal collimator used for myocardial perfusion imaging in static renal scintigraphy

  10. Comparison of pressure perception of static and dynamic two point ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the right and left index finger (p<0.05). Conclusion: Age and gender did not affect the perception of static and dynamic two point discrimination while the limb side (left or right) affected the perception of static and dynamic two point discrimination. The index finger is also more sensitive to moving rather static sensations.

  11. Static potential for a string with a topological term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaikov, R.P.; Zlatev, S.I.

    1991-01-01

    We study the static potential for a string in (2+1)-dimensional space-time with action including a topological term. An appropriate static solution is found and the corresponding potential is obtained. Such a solution does not exist beyond a critical distance between the ends of the string. The one-loop corrections to the static potential are calculated. (orig.)

  12. Processes influencing migration of bioavailable organic compounds from polymers - investigated during biotic and abiotic testing under static and non-static conditions with varying S/V-ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Arvin, Erik; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    . The bioavailable migration from the polymer surface was influence by diffusion over the solid-liquid boundary layer under sterile conditions, which resulted in an inversely proportionally relationship between bioavailable migration expressed per unit surface area of material and the surface to volume ratio (S/V-ratio...... the effect of the boundary layer, since bioavailable migration was continuously consumed by the bacteria. Thus the driving force for the diffusion process was maintained at a maximum, thereby enhancing the bioavailable migration from the material surfaces. Thus neither non-static conditions nor varying S/V-ratios...

  13. South Asian Summer Monsoon Rainfall Variability and Trend: Its Links to Indo-Pacific SST Anomalies and Moist Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, V.

    2016-06-01

    The warm (cold) phase of El Niño (La Niña) and its impact on all Indian Summer Monsoon rainfall (AISMR) relationship is explored for the past 100 years. The 103-year (1901-2003) data from the twentieth century reanalysis datasets (20CR) and other major reanalysis datasets for southwest monsoon season (JJAS) is utilized to find out the simultaneous influence of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-AISMR relationship. Two cases such as wet, dry monsoon years associated with ENSO(+) (El Niño), ENSO(-) (La Niña) and Non-ENSO (neutral) events have been discussed in detail using observed rainfall and three-dimensional 20CR dataset. The dry and wet years associated with ENSO and Non-ENSO periods show significant differences in the spatial pattern of rainfall associated with three-dimensional atmospheric composite, the 20CR dataset has captured the anomalies quite well. During wet (dry) years, the rainfall is high (low), i.e. 10 % above (below) average from the long-term mean and this wet or dry condition occur both during ENSO and Non-ENSO phases. The Non-ENSO year dry or wet composites are also focused in detail to understand, where do the anomalous winds come from unlike in the ENSO case. The moisture transport is coherent with the changes in the spatial pattern of AISMR and large-scale feature in the 20CR dataset. Recent 50-year trend (1951-2000) is also analyzed from various available observational and reanalysis datasets to see the influence of Indo-Pacific SST and moist processes on the South Asian summer monsoon rainfall trend. Apart from the Indo-Pacific sea surface temperatures (SST), the moisture convergence and moisture transport among India (IND), Equatorial Indian Ocean (IOC) and tropical western pacific (WNP) is also important in modifying the wet or dry cycles over India. The mutual interaction among IOC, WNP and IND in seasonal timescales is significant in modifying wet and dry cycles over the Indian region and the seasonal anomalies.

  14. MXLKID: a maximum likelihood parameter identifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavel, D.T.

    1980-07-01

    MXLKID (MaXimum LiKelihood IDentifier) is a computer program designed to identify unknown parameters in a nonlinear dynamic system. Using noisy measurement data from the system, the maximum likelihood identifier computes a likelihood function (LF). Identification of system parameters is accomplished by maximizing the LF with respect to the parameters. The main body of this report briefly summarizes the maximum likelihood technique and gives instructions and examples for running the MXLKID program. MXLKID is implemented LRLTRAN on the CDC7600 computer at LLNL. A detailed mathematical description of the algorithm is given in the appendices. 24 figures, 6 tables

  15. QuickChecking Static Analysis Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Møller, Anders

    2015-01-01

    A static analysis can check programs for potential errors. A natural question that arises is therefore: who checks the checker? Researchers have given this question varying attention, ranging from basic testing techniques, informal monotonicity arguments, thorough pen-and-paper soundness proofs...... of a lattice. Moreover, we offer a number of generic, type-safe combinators to check transfer functions and operators on lattices, to help ensure that these are, e.g., monotone, strict, or invariant. We substantiate our claims by quickchecking a type analysis for the Lua programming language...

  16. QuickChecking static analysis properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Møller, Anders

    2017-01-01

    A static analysis can check programs for potential errors. A natural question that arises is therefore: who checks the checker? Researchers have given this question varying attention, ranging from basic testing techniques, informal monotonicity arguments, thorough pen-and-paper soundness proofs....... Moreover, we offer a number of generic, type-safe combinators to check transfer functions and operators on lattices, to help ensure that these are, eg, monotone, strict, or invariant. We substantiate our claims by quickchecking a type analysis for the Lua programming language....

  17. Automatic incrementalization of Prolog based static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Kahl, Matthias; Saha, Diptikalyan

    2007-01-01

    Modem development environments integrate various static analyses into the build process. Analyses that analyze the whole project whenever the project changes are impractical in this context. We present an approach to automatic incrementalization of analyses that are specified as tabled logic...... programs and evaluated using incremental tabled evaluation, a technique for efficiently updating memo tables in response to changes in facts and rules. The approach has been implemented and integrated into the Eclipse IDE. Our measurements show that this technique is effective for automatically...

  18. Superconductor in a weak static gravitational field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ummarino, Giovanni Alberto [Dipartimento DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI-Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gallerati, Antonio [Dipartimento DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy)

    2017-08-15

    We provide the detailed calculation of a general form for Maxwell and London equations that takes into account gravitational corrections in linear approximation. We determine the possible alteration of a static gravitational field in a superconductor making use of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations, providing also an analytic solution in the weak field condition. Finally, we compare the behavior of a high-T{sub c} superconductor with a classical low-T{sub c} superconductor, analyzing the values of the parameters that can enhance the reduction of the gravitational field. (orig.)

  19. Pro-static Agents in Jet Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-16

    recent survey of jet fuels at 10 airports and 3 military bases in the United States [6]. Consequently , the results of the present study can be directly...as quickly as it is generated. Consequently , compounds that increase conductivity above 50 pS/m are not pro-static agents in the sense implied here...Additive Con, 1000 pPm CORROSION INHIBITORS UNiCOrn J COPIOCO T- 60 LU$RIZOL 541 TOLAD 245 OCI 4A] PRO ig ., NALCO 5400 TOLAD 244 , MALCO 5402 GULF 170 "Y2

  20. Static analysis of software the abstract interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Boulanger, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    The existing literature currently available to students and researchers is very general, covering only the formal techniques of static analysis. This book presents real examples of the formal techniques called ""abstract interpretation"" currently being used in various industrial fields: railway, aeronautics, space, automotive, etc. The purpose of this book is to present students and researchers, in a single book, with the wealth of experience of people who are intrinsically involved in the realization and evaluation of software-based safety critical systems. As the authors are people curr

  1. Monotone Comparative Statics for the Industry Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand; Bache, Peter Arendorf

    2015-01-01

    We let heterogeneous firms face decisions on a number of complementary activities in a monopolistically-competitive industry. The endogenous level of competition and selection regarding entry and exit of firms introduces a wedge between monotone comparative statics (MCS) at the firm level and MCS...... for the industry composition. The latter phenomenon is defined as first-order stochastic dominance shifts in the equilibrium distributions of all activities across active firms. We provide sufficient conditions for MCS at both levels of analysis and show that we may have either type of MCS without the other...

  2. Static validation of licence conformance policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2008-01-01

    Policy conformance is a security property gaining importance due to commercial interest like Digital Rights Management. It is well known that static analysis can be used to validate a number of more classical security policies, such as discretionary and mandatory access control policies, as well...... as communication protocols using symmetric and asymmetric cryptography. In this work we show how to develop a Flow Logic for validating the conformance of client software with respect to a licence conformance policy. Our approach is sufficiently flexible that it extends to fully open systems that can admit new...

  3. Static solitons in more than one dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, L.

    1978-01-01

    The most important development of the last decade in particle physics and field theory has undoubtedly been the advent of hidden-symmetric gauge theories. One of the more interesting by-products of this development has been the discovery that hidden-symmetric gauge theories admit static solutions to the field equations which are regular everywhere and for which the energy is finite. Such solutions will be called solitons. The hidden-symmetric gauge solutions exist for n space dimensions, where 1 [de

  4. Mechanics of quasi-static crack growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, J R

    1978-10-01

    Results on the mechanics of quasi-static crack growth are reviewed. These include recent studies on the geometry and stability of crack paths in elastic-brittle solids, and on the thermodynamics of Griffith cracking, including environmental effects. The relation of crack growth criteria to non-elastic rheological models is considered and paradoxes with energy balance approaches, based on singular crack models, are discussed for visco-elastic, diffuso-elastic, and elastic-plastic materials. Also, recent approaches to prediction of stable crack growth in ductile, elastic-plastic solids are discussed.

  5. Static axisymmetric discs and gravitational collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamorro, A.; Gregory, R.; Stewart, J.M.

    1987-09-08

    Regular static axisymmetric vacuum solutions of Einstein's field equations representing the exterior field of a finite thin disc are found. These are used to describe the slow collapse of a disc-like object. If no conditions are placed on the matter, a naked singularity is formed and the cosmic censorship hypothesis would be violated. Imposition of the weak energy condition, however, prevents slow collapse to a singularity and preserves the validity of this hypothesis. The validity of the hoop conjecture is also discussed.

  6. Maximum neutron flux in thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugar, P.V.

    1968-12-01

    Direct approach to the problem is to calculate spatial distribution of fuel concentration if the reactor core directly using the condition of maximum neutron flux and comply with thermal limitations. This paper proved that the problem can be solved by applying the variational calculus, i.e. by using the maximum principle of Pontryagin. Mathematical model of reactor core is based on the two-group neutron diffusion theory with some simplifications which make it appropriate from maximum principle point of view. Here applied theory of maximum principle are suitable for application. The solution of optimum distribution of fuel concentration in the reactor core is obtained in explicit analytical form. The reactor critical dimensions are roots of a system of nonlinear equations and verification of optimum conditions can be done only for specific examples

  7. Maximum allowable load on wheeled mobile manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibnejad Korayem, M.; Ghariblu, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a computational technique for finding the maximum allowable load of mobile manipulator during a given trajectory. The maximum allowable loads which can be achieved by a mobile manipulator during a given trajectory are limited by the number of factors; probably the dynamic properties of mobile base and mounted manipulator, their actuator limitations and additional constraints applied to resolving the redundancy are the most important factors. To resolve extra D.O.F introduced by the base mobility, additional constraint functions are proposed directly in the task space of mobile manipulator. Finally, in two numerical examples involving a two-link planar manipulator mounted on a differentially driven mobile base, application of the method to determining maximum allowable load is verified. The simulation results demonstrates the maximum allowable load on a desired trajectory has not a unique value and directly depends on the additional constraint functions which applies to resolve the motion redundancy

  8. Maximum phytoplankton concentrations in the sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, G.A.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A simplification of plankton dynamics using coagulation theory provides predictions of the maximum algal concentration sustainable in aquatic systems. These predictions have previously been tested successfully against results from iron fertilization experiments. We extend the test to data collect...

  9. EFFECTS OF CYCLIC STATIC STRETCH ON FATIGUE RECOVERY OF TRICEPS SURAE IN FEMALE BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Ghasemia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Static stretch is a safe and feasible method which usually is used before exercise to avoid muscle injury and to improve muscle performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of cyclic static stretch (CSS on fatigue recovery of triceps surae (TS in female basketball players.Nine athlete volunteers between 20 and 30 years participated in this study containing two sessions. After warm-up a pressure cuff was fastened above the knee joint and its pressure was increased to 140 mmHg. The subjects were asked to perform one maximum voluntary contraction (MVC followed by a fatigue test including maximum isometric fatiguing contraction of TS. These steps were similar in both sessions. Then, a two-minute rest was included in the first session while 4 static stretches were performed to TS in the second session. After interventions, one MVC was done and the pressure cuff was released. During these steps, peak torque (PT and electromyography (EMG were recorded. The amount of lower leg pain was determined by the visual analogue scale (VAS. The value of PT increased significantly after CSS but its increase was not significant after rest. It seems that the effects of rest and CSS on the EMG parameters, PT and pain are similar.

  10. Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

    1993-01-01

    Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.

  11. Comparison of static conformal field with multiple noncoplanar arc techniques for stereotactic radiosurgery or stereotactic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Russell J.; Kuchnir, Franca T.; Sweeney, Patrick; Rubin, Steven J.; Dujovny, Manuel; Pelizzari, Charles A.; Chen, George T. Y.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Compare the use of static conformal fields with the use of multiple noncoplanar arcs for stereotactic radiosurgery or stereotactic radiotherapy treatment of intracranial lesions. Evaluate the efficacy of these treatment techniques to deliver dose distributions comparable to those considered acceptable in current radiotherapy practice. Methods and Materials: A previously treated radiosurgery case of a patient presenting with an irregularly shaped intracranial lesion was selected. Using a three-dimensional (3D) treatment-planning system, treatment plans using a single isocenter multiple noncoplanar arc technique and multiple noncoplanar conformal static fields were generated. Isodose distributions and dose volume histograms (DVHs) were computed for each treatment plan. We required that the 80% (of maximum dose) isodose surface enclose the target volume for all treatment plans. The prescription isodose was set equal to the minimum target isodose. The DVHs were analyzed to evaluate and compare the different treatment plans. Results: The dose distribution in the target volume becomes more uniform as the number of conformal fields increases. The volume of normal tissue receiving low doses (> 10% of prescription isodose) increases as the number of static fields increases. The single isocenter multiple arc plan treats the greatest volume of normal tissue to low doses, approximately 1.6 times more volume than that treated by four static fields. The volume of normal tissue receiving high (> 90% of prescription isodose) and intermediate (> 50% of prescription isodose) doses decreases by 29 and 22%, respectively, as the number of static fields is increased from four to eight. Increasing the number of static fields to 12 only further reduces the high and intermediate dose volumes by 10 and 6%, respectively. The volume receiving the prescription dose is more than 3.5 times larger than the target volume for all treatment plans. Conclusions: Use of a multiple noncoplanar

  12. Efficacy of vacuum assisted closure in management of open wounds as compared to moist wound dressing-experience at CMH rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.N.; Sajid, M.T.; Ahmed, Z.; Iqbal, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of vacuum assisted closure (VAC) therapy against regular moist wound dressings in reducing the surface area of open chronic wounds by at least 5 mm/sup 2/ in terms of early closure of wound. Study Design: Randomized controlled trail. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at general surgery department CMH/MH Rawalpindi from Jun 2011 to Dec 2011 over a period of 06 months. Material and Methods: A total of 278 patients (139 in each group) were included in this study. Group A received VAC therapy while moist wound dressings applied in group B. Results: Mean age was 54.9 +-7.2 and 53.4 +- 8.9 years in group A and B, respectively (statistically insignificant (p=0.12). In group A, 96 patients (69.0 percent) and in group B 92 patients (66.2 percent) were male while 43 patients (31.0 percent) in group A and 47 patients (33.8 percent) in group B were female the difference being statistically insignificant (p=0.608). In group A, 63 (45.3 percent) patients showed significant reduction in the size of the wound while only 41 (29.5 percent) patients in group B had adequate wound healing at the end of 04 weeks, the difference being statistically significant (p=0.0064). Conclusion: VAC therapy decreases wound size more effectively than moist wound dressing technique. It definitely reduces hospital stay and ensures early return to work. (author)

  13. Boson-mediated interactions between static sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolsterli, M.

    1983-01-01

    The techniques are now available for doing accurate computations of static potentials arising from the exchange of virtual mesons. Such computations must take account of the fact that different approximation methods must be used in the regions where R is large and where R is small. In the asymptotic region, the distorted-field approximation provides an appropriate starting-point, but it must be improved before trustworthy results are obtained for all but the largest values of R. In the region of small R, accurate strong-coupling methods are based on the use of states with coherent meson pairs. For small R, it is also important to take account of the possibility of meson emission or near-emission. Current work is aimed at applying the techniques described to the case of static sources interacting via pion field. In particular, it will be interesting to see how sensitive the potential is to the value of the cutoff Λ. Other areas of application are the study of the effects of nonlinearity and models of quark-quark and quark-antiquark potentials. 17 references

  14. Static viscoelasticity of biomass polyethylene composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyan Yang

    Full Text Available The biomass polyethylene composites filled with poplar wood flour, rice husk, cotton stalk or corn stalk were prepared by extrusion molding. The static viscoelasticity of composites was investigated by the dynamic thermal mechanical analyzer (DMA. Through the stress-strain scanning, it is found that the linear viscoelasticity interval of composites gradually decreases as the temperature rises, and the critical stress and strain values are 0.8 MPa and 0.03% respectively. The experiment shows that as the temperature rises, the creep compliance of biomass polyethylene composites is increased; under the constant temperature, the creep compliance decreases with the increase of content of biomass and calcium carbonate. The biomass and calcium carbonate used to prepare composites as filler can improve damping vibration attenuation and reduce stress deformation of composites. The stress relaxation modulus of composites is reduced and the relaxation rate increases at the higher temperature. The biomass and calcium carbonate used to prepare composites as filler not only can reduce costs, but also can increase stress relaxation modulus and improve the size thermostability of composites. The corn stalk is a good kind of biomass raw material for composites since it can improve the creep resistance property and the stress relaxation resistance property of composites more effectively than other three kinds of biomass (poplar wood flour, rice husk and cotton stalk. Keywords: Biomass, Composites, Calcium carbonate, Static viscoelasticity, Creep, Stress relaxation

  15. Robot-Crawler: Statically Balanced Gaits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parasuraman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new statically balanced walking technique for a robot-crawler. The gait design and the control of the robot crawler aim to achieve stability while walking. This statically balanced gait has to be designed in a different fashion to a wheeled robot, as there are discrete changes in the support of the robot when its legs are lifted or placed on the ground. The stability of the robot depends on how the legs are positioned relative to the body and also on the sequence and timing with which the legs are lifted and placed. In order to reduce the risk of stability loss while walking, a measure for the robot stability (so-called stability margin is typically used in the gait and motion planning. In this paper different biological behaviours of four-legged animals are studied and mapped on a quad-legrobot-crawler. Experiments were carried out on the forward walking gaits of lizards and horses. Based on these results, the stability margins of different gaits are discussed and compared.

  16. Stability of plasma in static equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krusiial, M D; Oberman, N R [Project Matterhorn, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1958-07-01

    Our purpose is to derive from the Boltzmann equation in the small m/e limit, criteria useful in the discussion of stability of plasmas in static equilibrium. At first we ignore collisions but later show their effects may be taken into account. Our approach yields a generalization of the usual energy principles for investigating the stability of hydromagnetic systems to situations where the effect of heat flow along magnetic lines is not negligible, and hence to situations where the strictly hydrodynamic approach is inapplicable. In the first two sections we characterize our general method of approach and delineate the properties of the small m/e limit which we use to determine the constants of the motion and the condition for static equilibrium. In the next two sections we calculate the first and second variations of the energy and conclude with a statement of the general stability criterion. In the final three sections we state several theorems which relate our stability criterion to those of ordinary hydromagnetic theory, we show how to take into account the effect of collisions, and briefly discuss the remaining problem of incorporating the charge neutrality condition into the present stability theory. (author)

  17. Static Code Analysis with Gitlab-CI

    CERN Document Server

    Datko, Szymon Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Static Code Analysis is a simple but efficient way to ensure that application’s source code is free from known flaws and security vulnerabilities. Although such analysis tools are often coming with more advanced code editors, there are a lot of people who prefer less complicated environments. The easiest solution would involve education – where to get and how to use the aforementioned tools. However, counting on the manual usage of such tools still does not guarantee their actual usage. On the other hand, reducing the required effort, according to the idea “setup once, use anytime without sweat” seems like a more promising approach. In this paper, the approach to automate code scanning, within the existing CERN’s Gitlab installation, is described. For realization of that project, the Gitlab-CI service (the “CI” stands for "Continuous Integration"), with Docker assistance, was employed to provide a variety of static code analysers for different programming languages. This document covers the gene...

  18. Static and Dynamic Criticality: Are They Different?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D E; Clouse, C J; Procassini, R; Little, R C

    2003-01-01

    Let us start by stating that this paper does not contain anything new. It only contains material that has been known for decades, but which is periodically forgotten. As such this paper is intended merely to refresh people's memories. We will also mention that this paper is an example of the occasional discrepancy between textbook methodologies and real world applications, in the sense that the conclusions reached here contradict what it says in most textbooks, i.e., most textbooks incorrectly interpret the methods presented here, particularly with respect to the use of importance sampling to maintain population control. This paper is not intended as a general tutorial on criticality calculations. It is intended only to clarify the accuracy of various methods for solving criticality problems, such as a true time dependent dynamic calculation, versus an alpha or K static calculation. In particular, we address the long standing controversy between users of the TART code [1] with the dynamic method, and users of the MCNP code [2] with the alpha static method. In this paper we will prove which methods are accurate and inaccurate

  19. Static non-reciprocity in mechanical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulais, Corentin; Sounas, Dimitrios; Alù, Andrea

    2017-02-23

    Reciprocity is a general, fundamental principle governing various physical systems, which ensures that the transfer function-the transmission of a physical quantity, say light intensity-between any two points in space is identical, regardless of geometrical or material asymmetries. Breaking this transmission symmetry offers enhanced control over signal transport, isolation and source protection. So far, devices that break reciprocity (and therefore show non-reciprocity) have been mostly considered in dynamic systems involving electromagnetic, acoustic and mechanical wave propagation associated with fields varying in space and time. Here we show that it is possible to break reciprocity in static systems, realizing mechanical metamaterials that exhibit vastly different output displacements under excitation from different sides, as well as one-way displacement amplification. This is achieved by combining large nonlinearities with suitable geometrical asymmetries and/or topological features. In addition to extending non-reciprocity and isolation to statics, our work sheds light on energy propagation in nonlinear materials with asymmetric crystalline structures and topological properties. We anticipate that breaking reciprocity will open avenues for energy absorption, conversion and harvesting, soft robotics, prosthetics and optomechanics.

  20. Order parameters in the Landau–de Gennes theory – the static and dynamic scenarios

    KAUST Repository

    Majumdar, Apala

    2011-01-01

    We obtain quantitative estimates for the scalar order parameters of liquid crystal configurations in three-dimensional geometries, within the Landau-de Gennes framework. We consider both static equilibria and non-equilibrium dynamics and we include external fields and surface anchoring energies in our formulation. Using maximum principle-type arguments, we obtain explicit bounds for the corresponding scalar order parameters in both static and dynamic situations; these bounds are given in terms of the material-dependent thermotropic coefficients, electric field strength and surface anchoring coefficients. These bounds provide estimates for the degree of orientational ordering, quantify the competing effects of the different energetic contributions and can be used to test the accuracy of numerical simulations. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  1. Order parameters in the Landau–de Gennes theory – the static and dynamic scenarios

    KAUST Repository

    Majumdar, Apala

    2011-02-17

    We obtain quantitative estimates for the scalar order parameters of liquid crystal configurations in three-dimensional geometries, within the Landau-de Gennes framework. We consider both static equilibria and non-equilibrium dynamics and we include external fields and surface anchoring energies in our formulation. Using maximum principle-type arguments, we obtain explicit bounds for the corresponding scalar order parameters in both static and dynamic situations; these bounds are given in terms of the material-dependent thermotropic coefficients, electric field strength and surface anchoring coefficients. These bounds provide estimates for the degree of orientational ordering, quantify the competing effects of the different energetic contributions and can be used to test the accuracy of numerical simulations. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  2. Girls with generalized joint hypermobility display changed muscle activity and postural sway during static balance tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, B; Johansen, Kl; Hendriksen, P

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study knee muscle activity and static postural sway in girls with generalized joint hypermobility (GJH). METHOD: Sixteen girls with GJH and 11 girls with non-GJH (NGJH) aged 14 years, randomly recruited among schoolchildren, participated in this study. GJH inclusion criteria were......: Beighton score minimum 6/9 and one hypermobile knee; for NGJH: Beighton score maximum 5/9 and no knees with hypermobility. The participants performed a static two-legged balance test with eyes open (2EO) and eyes closed (2EC) and a one-legged stance test with eyes open (1EO). Postural sway (centre......) of Q, H, and G muscle activity was calculated. Knee function was self-reported using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for children (KOOS-Child). RESULTS: GJH had a significantly lower lateral HQ CCI and a higher medial/lateral HQ CCI ratio in all balance tasks. Group mean EMG varied...

  3. Mathematical modeling of the lithium, thionyl chloride static cell. I. Neutral electrolyte. II - Acid electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsaur, K.C.; Pollard, R.

    1984-05-01

    Mathematical models are presented for a Li-LiAlCl4/SOCl2-C static cell with neutral electrolyte and a Li/SOCl2-C static cell with acid electrolyte. The model for the Li-LiAlCl4/SOCl2-C cell with neutral solution predicts that high internal resistance can develop in the positive electrode as a result of low local porosities which are, in turn, caused by large-volume, solid reaction products. Consequently, the maximum usable cell capacity is dictated by the nonuniformity of the reaction distribution at the front of the positive electrode. In many respects, a cell with acid electrolyte can be regarded as a combination of an equivalent neutral electrolyte system and an acid reservoir. The model for the Li/SOCl2 cell suggests that the cell life depends primarily on the quantity of acid added to the electrolyte. 58 references.

  4. Mathematical modeling of the lithium, thionyl chloride static cell. I - Neutral electrolyte. II - Acid electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaur, K.-C.; Pollard, R.

    1984-05-01

    Mathematical models are presented for a Li-LiAlCl4/SOCl2-C static cell with neutral electrolyte and a Li/SOCl2-C static cell with acid electrolyte. The model for the Li-LiAlCl4/SOCl2-C cell with neutral solution predicts that high internal resistance can develop in the positive electrode as a result of low local porosities which are, in turn, caused by large-volume, solid reaction products. Consequently, the maximum usable cell capacity is dictated by the nonuniformity of the reaction distribution at the front of the positive electrode. In many respects, a cell with acid electrolyte can be regarded as a combination of an equivalent neutral electrolyte system and an acid reservoir. The model for the Li/SOCl2 cell suggests that the cell life depends primarily on the quantity of acid added to the electrolyte.

  5. Structural design concept and static analysis of CANDU spent fuel compact dry storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, K. S.; Yang, K. H.; Paek, C. R.; Jung, J. S.; Lee, H. Y.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, an structural design concept on CANDU spent fuel compact dry storage system MACSTOR/KN-400 module has been established with a view to optimally design the structural members of the system. Design loads, loading combination and structural safety criteria of the module were reviewed assuming W olsung Site. The static analysis of the module showed that compressive stress concentration due to dead load and live load occurred around the center of roof slab. Maximum stress resulted from dead load is about twice as much as the stress from live load, and structural behavior of module caused by wind load was not significant. The static analysis results will have influence on the reinforcement bar design of structural members with other structural analyses

  6. A mesoscopic simulation of static and dynamic wetting using many-body dissipative particle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Najmeh; Pishevar, Ahmadreza

    2018-01-01

    A many-body dissipative particle dynamics simulation is applied here to pave the way for investigating the behavior of mesoscale droplets after impact on horizontal solid substrates. First, hydrophobic and hydrophilic substrates are simulated through tuning the solid-liquid interfacial interaction parameters of an innovative conservative force model. The static contact angles are calculated on homogeneous and several patterned surfaces and compared with the predicted values by the Cassie's law in order to verify the model. The results properly evaluate the amount of increase in surface superhydrophobicity as a result of surface patterning. Then drop impact phenomenon is studied by calculating the spreading factor and dimensionless height versus dimensionless time and the comparisons made between the results and the experimental values for three different static contact angles. The results show the capability of the procedure in calculating the amount of maximum spreading factor, which is a significant concept in ink-jet printing and coating process.

  7. Timing of glacier advances and climate in the High Tatra Mountains (Western Carpathians) during the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makos, Michał; Dzierżek, Jan; Nitychoruk, Jerzy; Zreda, Marek

    2014-07-01

    During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), long valley glaciers developed on the northern and southern sides of the High Tatra Mountains, Poland and Slovakia. Chlorine-36 exposure dating of moraine boulders suggests two major phases of moraine stabilization, at 26-21 ka (LGM I - maximum) and at 18 ka (LGM II). The dates suggest a significantly earlier maximum advance on the southern side of the range. Reconstructing the geometry of four glaciers in the Sucha Woda, Pańszczyca, Mlynicka and Velicka valleys allowed determining their equilibrium-line altitudes (ELAs) at 1460, 1460, 1650 and 1700 m asl, respectively. Based on a positive degree-day model, the mass balance and climatic parameter anomaly (temperature and precipitation) has been constrained for LGM I advance. Modeling results indicate slightly different conditions between northern and southern slopes. The N-S ELA gradient finds confirmation in slightly higher temperature (at least 1 °C) or lower precipitation (15%) on the south-facing glaciers during LGM I. The precipitation distribution over the High Tatra Mountains indicates potentially different LGM atmospheric circulation than at the present day, with reduced northwesterly inflow and increased southerly and westerly inflows of moist air masses.

  8. Case studies related to the management of soil acidity and infertility in the West-African Moist Savannah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanlauwe, B.; Sanginga, N.; Diels, J.; Merckx, R.

    2006-01-01

    Although the soil pH and base status of the soils in the West African Moist Savannah Zone (MSZ) are usually favourable, their buffer capacity is usually low, indicating that while soil acidity may not be a problem initially, inappropriate management of these soils may induce soil-acidity-related problems in the medium to long term. The current paper addresses 3 topics that are closely related to the management of soil pH (acidity) in the West African MSZ. A first experiment addressed the release of P from low reactivity phosphate rock (PR) by mixing it with various N fertilizers. Mixing ammonium-sulphate, urea, and calcium-ammonium nitrate with PR substantially enhanced the soil Olsen-P content, but not for soils with an initial pH above 5.5, while potassium nitrate did not change the Olsen-P content. Changes in soil pH could be predicted based on the production of nitrate from ammonium (nitrification) and the soil buffer capacity. A second experiment examined the changes in topsoil pH as affected by long term management based on the application of organic inputs derived from hedgerow trees (Leucaena leucocephala and Senna siamea), fertilizer, or both. Maize crop yields declined steadily over the 16 years studied, but the least so in the Senna + fertilizer treatment where in 2002 still 2.2 t ha -1 of maize were obtained. The fertilizer only treatment led to a yield of 0.4 t ha -1 in 2002, while the absolute control without any inputs yielded a mere 40 kg ha -1 in the same year. Nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency was usually higher in the Senna treatment compared to the control or the Leucaena treatment. Interactions between fertilizer and organic matter additions were negative for the Leucaena treatments in the first three years, and positive for the Senna treatment in the last 6 years. Trees had a positive effect on the maintenance of exchangeable cations in the topsoil. Exchangeable Ca, Mg and K - and hence ECEC - were only slightly reduced after 16 years of

  9. Static resistance function for steel-plate composite (SC) walls subject to impactive loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruhl, Jakob C., E-mail: jbruhl@purdue.edu; Varma, Amit H., E-mail: ahvarma@purdue.edu; Kim, Joo Min, E-mail: kim1493@purdue.edu

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • An idealized static resistance function for SC walls is proposed. • The influence of design parameters on static resistance is explained. • SDOF models can accurately estimate global response of SC walls to missile impact. - Abstract: Steel-plate composite (SC) walls consist of a plain concrete core reinforced with two steel faceplates on the surfaces. Modules (consisting of steel faceplates, shear connectors and tie-bars) can be shop-fabricated and shipped to the site for erection and concrete casting, which expedites construction schedule and thus economy. SC structures have recently been used in nuclear power plant designs and are being considered for the next generation of small modular reactors. Design for impactive and impulsive loading is an important consideration for SC walls in safety-related nuclear facilities. The authors have previously developed design methods to prevent local failure (perforation) of SC walls due to missile impact. This paper presents the development of static resistance functions for use in single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) analyses to predict the maximum displacement response of SC walls subjected to missile impact and designed to resist local failure (perforation). The static resistance function for SC walls is developed using results of numerical analyses and parametric studies conducted using benchmarked 3D finite element (FE) models. The influence of various design parameters are discussed and used to develop idealized bilinear resistance functions for SC walls with fixed edges and simply supported edges. Results from dynamic non-linear FE analysis of SC panels subjected to rigid missile impact are compared with the maximum displacements predicted by SDOF analyses using the bilinear resistance function.

  10. Static resistance function for steel-plate composite (SC) walls subject to impactive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhl, Jakob C.; Varma, Amit H.; Kim, Joo Min

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An idealized static resistance function for SC walls is proposed. • The influence of design parameters on static resistance is explained. • SDOF models can accurately estimate global response of SC walls to missile impact. - Abstract: Steel-plate composite (SC) walls consist of a plain concrete core reinforced with two steel faceplates on the surfaces. Modules (consisting of steel faceplates, shear connectors and tie-bars) can be shop-fabricated and shipped to the site for erection and concrete casting, which expedites construction schedule and thus economy. SC structures have recently been used in nuclear power plant designs and are being considered for the next generation of small modular reactors. Design for impactive and impulsive loading is an important consideration for SC walls in safety-related nuclear facilities. The authors have previously developed design methods to prevent local failure (perforation) of SC walls due to missile impact. This paper presents the development of static resistance functions for use in single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) analyses to predict the maximum displacement response of SC walls subjected to missile impact and designed to resist local failure (perforation). The static resistance function for SC walls is developed using results of numerical analyses and parametric studies conducted using benchmarked 3D finite element (FE) models. The influence of various design parameters are discussed and used to develop idealized bilinear resistance functions for SC walls with fixed edges and simply supported edges. Results from dynamic non-linear FE analysis of SC panels subjected to rigid missile impact are compared with the maximum displacements predicted by SDOF analyses using the bilinear resistance function.

  11. Maximum gravitational redshift of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.L.; Teukolsky, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    The stability of uniformly rotating, cold white dwarfs is examined in the framework of the Parametrized Post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism of Will and Nordtvedt. The maximum central density and gravitational redshift of a white dwarf are determined as functions of five of the nine PPN parameters (γ, β, zeta 2 , zeta 3 , and zeta 4 ), the total angular momentum J, and the composition of the star. General relativity predicts that the maximum redshifts is 571 km s -1 for nonrotating carbon and helium dwarfs, but is lower for stars composed of heavier nuclei. Uniform rotation can increase the maximum redshift to 647 km s -1 for carbon stars (the neutronization limit) and to 893 km s -1 for helium stars (the uniform rotation limit). The redshift distribution of a larger sample of white dwarfs may help determine the composition of their cores

  12. Maximum entropy analysis of EGRET data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohl, M.; Strong, A.W.

    1997-01-01

    EGRET data are usually analysed on the basis of the Maximum-Likelihood method \\cite{ma96} in a search for point sources in excess to a model for the background radiation (e.g. \\cite{hu97}). This method depends strongly on the quality of the background model, and thus may have high systematic unce...... uncertainties in region of strong and uncertain background like the Galactic Center region. Here we show images of such regions obtained by the quantified Maximum-Entropy method. We also discuss a possible further use of MEM in the analysis of problematic regions of the sky....

  13. The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find...

  14. Shower maximum detector for SDC calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernwein, J.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype for the SDC end-cap (EM) calorimeter complete with a pre-shower and a shower maximum detector was tested in beams of electrons and Π's at CERN by an SDC subsystem group. The prototype was manufactured from scintillator tiles and strips read out with 1 mm diameter wave-length shifting fibers. The design and construction of the shower maximum detector is described, and results of laboratory tests on light yield and performance of the scintillator-fiber system are given. Preliminary results on energy and position measurements with the shower max detector in the test beam are shown. (authors). 4 refs., 5 figs

  15. Topics in Bayesian statistics and maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Cicuttin, A.; Cerdeira, A.; Stanciulescu, C.

    1998-12-01

    Notions of Bayesian decision theory and maximum entropy methods are reviewed with particular emphasis on probabilistic inference and Bayesian modeling. The axiomatic approach is considered as the best justification of Bayesian analysis and maximum entropy principle applied in natural sciences. Particular emphasis is put on solving the inverse problem in digital image restoration and Bayesian modeling of neural networks. Further topics addressed briefly include language modeling, neutron scattering, multiuser detection and channel equalization in digital communications, genetic information, and Bayesian court decision-making. (author)

  16. Density estimation by maximum quantum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, R.N.; Wallstrom, T.; Martz, H.F.

    1993-01-01

    A new Bayesian method for non-parametric density estimation is proposed, based on a mathematical analogy to quantum statistical physics. The mathematical procedure is related to maximum entropy methods for inverse problems and image reconstruction. The information divergence enforces global smoothing toward default models, convexity, positivity, extensivity and normalization. The novel feature is the replacement of classical entropy by quantum entropy, so that local smoothing is enforced by constraints on differential operators. The linear response of the estimate is proportional to the covariance. The hyperparameters are estimated by type-II maximum likelihood (evidence). The method is demonstrated on textbook data sets

  17. EFFICACY OF VACUUM ASSISTED CLOSURE DRESSINGS WHEN COMPARED TO MOIST WOUND DRESSINGS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS : A PROSPECTIVE COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballapalli Hari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: F oot ulceration is mainly responsible for the morbidity of diabetes mellitus. They deprive the patient of quality working days and add to his financial burden. Several novel methods of wound healing came to vogue among which vacuum assisted dressing is becoming quite popular. Present study aim s to evaluate its efficacy when compared to regular moist wound dressings. OBJECTIVES: To study the effectiveness of vacuum assisted dressings in terms of Rate of wound healing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we carried out a prospective study at Narayana medical college hospital on two groups (group A and group B of diabetic foot ulcer patients, whom we selected randomly after considering inclusion and exclusion criteria . Vacuum assisted dressings were done in group A patients and normal moist wound dressings in group B. At the start of the treatment and every week thereafter, size and depth of ulcers were recorded and results were compared at complete wound healing or at the end of 12 weeks of treatment whichever is earlier. S trict glycaemic control was maintaine d throughout the treatment period. RESULTS : significant healing was noticed in group A patients (vacuum assisted dressings group both in terms of ulcer size and depth. Wounds appeared more - healthy i.e. with less slough and more red granulation tissue in g roup A patients. CONCLUSION: vacuum assisted dressing is an efficacious method in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers with significantly reduced hospital stay

  18. R7T7 nuclear waste glass behavior in moist clay: role of the clay mass/glass surface area ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godon, N.; Vernaz, E.

    1989-01-01

    R7T7 glass alteration was investigated in the presence of various moist clays. In contact with smectite 4a, selected in France as a potential engineered barrier material, the glass was significantly corroded: after 6 months the glass corrosion rate was practically the same as the initial alteration rate in double-distilled water. Substantially lower alteration was observed in contact with bentonite 6 activated by sodium carbonate. Smectite 4a consumes silicon released by glass corrosion, and thus retards the rise to high silicon concentrations in solution at which the glass corrosion rate diminishes. Glass can therefore in some cases be altered as much in moist clay as in water with high renewal rates. Other experiments with smaller quantities of smectite 4a showed that the phenomenon becomes less important in time: its duration is proportional to the ratio between the clay mass (C) and the glass surface area (SA). Comparing the results of studies at different C/SA ratios indicates that low glass corrosion rates are obtained more slowly at higher C/SA ratios. Tests with 239 Pu-doped R7T7 glass also showed that the radionuclide retention factor in the alteration film at the glass surface is only 6, compared with a factor of nearly 50 in double-distilled water

  19. Weyl curvature tensor in static spherical sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce de Leon, J.

    1988-01-01

    The role of the Weyl curvature tensor in static sources of the Schwarzschild field is studied. It is shown that in general the contribution from the Weyl curvature tensor (the ''purely gravitational field energy'') to the mass-energy inside the body may be positive, negative, or zero. It is proved that a positive (negative) contribution from the Weyl tensor tends to increase (decrease) the effective gravitational mass, the red-shift (from a point in the sphere to infinity), as well as the gravitational force which acts on a constituent matter element of a body. It is also proved that the contribution from the Weyl tensor always is negative in sources with surface gravitational potential larger than (4/9. It is pointed out that large negative contributions from the Weyl tensor could give rise to the phenomenon of gravitational repulsion. A simple example which illustrates the results is discussed

  20. Structural Encoding of Static Single Assignment Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Andreas; Probst, Christian; Franz, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Static Single Assignment (SSA) form is often used as an intermediate representation during code optimization in Java Virtual Machines. Recently, SSA has successfully been used for bytecode verification. However, constructing SSA at the code consumer is costly. SSAbased mobile code transport formats...... Java bytecode. While the resulting bytecode sequence can still be directly executed by traditional Virtual Machines, our novel VM can infer SSA form and confirm its safety with virtually no overhead....... have been shown to eliminate this cost by shifting SSA creation to the code producer. These new formats, however, are not backward compatible with the established Java class-file format. We propose a novel approach to transport SSA information implicitly through structural code properties of standard...

  1. Construction of STACY (Static Experiment Critical Facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Kiyonobu; Onodera, Seiji; Hirose, Hideyuki

    1998-08-01

    Two critical assemblies, STACY (Static Experiment Critical Facility) and TRACY (Transient Experiment Critical Facility), were constructed in NUCEF (Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility) to promote researches on the criticality safety at a reprocessing facility. STACY aims at providing critical data of uranium nitrate solution, plutonium nitrate solution and their mixture while varying concentration of solution fuel, core tank shape and size and neutron reflecting condition. STACY achieved first criticality in February 1995, and passed the licensing inspection by STA (Science and Technology Agency of Japan) in May. After that a series of critical experiments commenced with 10 w/o enriched uranium solution. This report describes the outline of STACY at the end of FY 1996. (author)

  2. Static Load Distribution in Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Mario

    2010-01-01

    A numerical procedure for computing the internal loading distribution in statically loaded, single-row, angular-contact ball bearings when subjected to a known combined radial and thrust load is presented. The combined radial and thrust load must be applied in order to avoid tilting between inner and outer rings. The numerical procedure requires the iterative solution of Z + 2 simultaneous nonlinear equations - where Z is the number of the balls - to yield an exact solution for axial and radial deflections, and contact angles. Numerical results for a 218 angular-contact ball bearing have been compared with those from the literature and show significant differences in the magnitudes of the ball loads, contact angles, and the extent of the loading zone.

  3. Accelerated particle interaction with static gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hvelplund, P.

    1977-01-01

    This work describes experimental studies of stopping power and electron capture and loss associated with the passage of fast atomic particles through static gas targets. Most of the results, as well as a detailed description of the experimental procedures, have been reported in a series of articles. After an introduction to particle-gas collisions follows a short description of some theoretical approaches used in the field of stopping power and charge-changing collisions. The last part is concerned with a review of the experimental procedures employed in the papers. At the same time, the data reported in these papers are used as a starting point for further discussion of experimental studies of stopping power and charge-changing collisions. (Auth.)

  4. Static and dynamic friction of hierarchical surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costagliola, Gianluca; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M

    2016-12-01

    Hierarchical structures are very common in nature, but only recently have they been systematically studied in materials science, in order to understand the specific effects they can have on the mechanical properties of various systems. Structural hierarchy provides a way to tune and optimize macroscopic mechanical properties starting from simple base constituents and new materials are nowadays designed exploiting this possibility. This can be true also in the field of tribology. In this paper we study the effect of hierarchical patterned surfaces on the static and dynamic friction coefficients of an elastic material. Our results are obtained by means of numerical simulations using a one-dimensional spring-block model, which has previously been used to investigate various aspects of friction. Despite the simplicity of the model, we highlight some possible mechanisms that explain how hierarchical structures can significantly modify the friction coefficients of a material, providing a means to achieve tunability.

  5. Orienting Paramecium with intense static magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, James M., Jr.; Guevorkian, Karine; Quindel, Carl

    2004-03-01

    Recent experiments on cell division suggest the application of intense static magnetic fields as a novel tool for the manipulation of biological systems [1]. The magnetic field appears to couple to the intrinsic anisotropies in the diamagnetic components of the cells. Here, we present measurements of the intrinsic average diamagnetic anisotropy of the whole single celled ciliate, Paramecium Caudatum. Magnetic fields, 2.5 T Paramecium Caudatum that were suspended in a density matched medium. The organisms align with their long axis parallel to the applied magnetic field. Their intrinsic diamagnetic anisotropy is 3x10-11 in cgs units. We will discuss the implications of these results for employing magnetic fields to probe the behavior of swimming Paramecium. [1] J. M. Valles, Jr. et al., Expt. Cell Res.274, 112-118 (2002).

  6. FACET Tolerances for Static and Dynamic Misalignments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federico, Joel

    2012-07-13

    The Facility for AdvancedAccelerator and Experimental Tests (FACET) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is designed to deliver a beam with a transverse spot size on the order of 10 {micro}m x 10 {micro}m in a new beamline constructed at the two kilometer point of the SLAC linac. Commissioning the beamline requires mitigating alignment errors and their effects, which can be significant and result in spot sizes orders of magnitude larger. Sextupole and quadrupole alignment errors in particular can introduce errors in focusing, steering, and dispersion which can result in spot size growth, beta mismatch, and waist movement. Alignment errors due to static misalignments, mechanical jitter, energy jitter, and other physical processes can be analyzed to determine the level of accuracy and precision that the beamline requires. It is important to recognize these effects and their tolerances in order to deliver a beam as designed.

  7. Static analysis of an office desk construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Novotný

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is a static analysis of a desk construction and the determination of its probable mechanical behaviour using Finite Element Method. The construction was modelled and numerically analysed in Autocad Inventor 2011 and the stability of the entire desk was calculated with the size and placement of the loading force based on the standards and cited literature. Possible locations and directions of the deformation were analysed and a solution for its prevention was proposed and the stability of the desk as well as the extreme position of the stand were calculated. The verification of the obtained results in an accredited furniture testing lab is planned using a prototype of the office desk.

  8. Multipoint vibrometry with dynamic and static holograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haist, T.; Lingel, C.; Osten, W. [Institut für Technische Optik, Stuttgart Research Center of Photonic Engineering (SCOPE), University of Stuttgart, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Winter, M.; Giesen, M.; Ritter, F.; Sandfort, K.; Rembe, C. [Polytec GmbH, Polytec-Platz 1-7, D-76337 Waldbronn (Germany); Bendel, K. [Corporate Sector Research and Advanced Engineering, Robert Bosch GmbH, Gerlingen (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    We report on two multipoint vibrometers with user-adjustable position of the measurement spots. Both systems are using holograms for beam deflection. The measurement is based on heterodyne interferometry with a frequency difference of 5 MHz between reference and object beam. One of the systems uses programmable positioning of the spots in the object volume but is limited concerning the light efficiency. The other system is based on static holograms in combination with mechanical adjustment of the measurement spots and does not have such a general efficiency restriction. Design considerations are given and we show measurement results for both systems. In addition, we analyze the sensitivity of the systems which is a major limitation compared to single point scanning systems.

  9. Multipoint vibrometry with dynamic and static holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haist, T; Lingel, C; Osten, W; Winter, M; Giesen, M; Ritter, F; Sandfort, K; Rembe, C; Bendel, K

    2013-12-01

    We report on two multipoint vibrometers with user-adjustable position of the measurement spots. Both systems are using holograms for beam deflection. The measurement is based on heterodyne interferometry with a frequency difference of 5 MHz between reference and object beam. One of the systems uses programmable positioning of the spots in the object volume but is limited concerning the light efficiency. The other system is based on static holograms in combination with mechanical adjustment of the measurement spots and does not have such a general efficiency restriction. Design considerations are given and we show measurement results for both systems. In addition, we analyze the sensitivity of the systems which is a major limitation compared to single point scanning systems.

  10. Static structure of active Brownian hard disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo Biniossek, N.; Löwen, H.; Voigtmann, Th; Smallenburg, F.

    2018-02-01

    We explore the changes in static structure of a two-dimensional system of active Brownian particles (ABP) with hard-disk interactions, using event-driven Brownian dynamics simulations. In particular, the effect of the self-propulsion velocity and the rotational diffusivity on the orientationally-averaged fluid structure factor is discussed. Typically activity increases structural ordering and generates a structure factor peak at zero wave vector which is a precursor of motility-induced phase separation. Our results provide reference data to test future statistical theories for the fluid structure of active Brownian systems. This manuscript was submitted for the special issue of the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter associated with the Liquid Matter Conference 2017.

  11. Canonical quantization of static spherically symmetric geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christodoulakis, T; Dimakis, N; Terzis, P A; Doulis, G; Grammenos, Th; Melas, E; Spanou, A

    2013-01-01

    The conditional symmetries of the reduced Einstein–Hilbert action emerging from a static, spherically symmetric geometry are used as supplementary conditions on the wave function. Based on their integrability conditions, only one of the three existing symmetries can be consistently imposed, while the unique Casimir invariant, being the product of the remaining two symmetries, is calculated as the only possible second condition on the wave function. This quadratic integral of motion is identified with the reparametrization generator, as an implication of the uniqueness of the dynamical evolution, by fixing a suitable parametrization of the r-lapse function. In this parametrization, the determinant of the supermetric plays the role of the mesure. The combined Wheeler – DeWitt and linear conditional symmetry equations are analytically solved. The solutions obtained depend on the product of the two ''scale factors''

  12. Quasi-static acoustic tweezing thromboelastometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, R G; Luo, D; Gruver, N; Khismatullin, D B

    2017-07-01

    Essentials Blood coagulation measurement during contact with an artificial surface leads to unreliable data. Acoustic tweezing thromboelastometry is a novel non-contact method for coagulation monitoring. This method detects differences in the blood coagulation state within 10 min. Coagulation data were obtained using a much smaller sample volume (4 μL) than currently used. Background Thromboelastography is widely used as a tool to assess the coagulation status of critical care patients. It allows observation of changes in material properties of whole blood, beginning with early stages of clot formation and ending with clot lysis. However, the contact activation of the coagulation cascade at surfaces of thromboelastographic systems leads to inherent variability and unreliability in predicting bleeding or thrombosis risks. Objectives To develop acoustic tweezing thromboelastometry as a non-contact method for perioperative assessment of blood coagulation. Methods Acoustic tweezing is used to levitate microliter drops of biopolymer and human blood samples. By quasi-statically changing the acoustic pressure we control the sample drop location and deformation. Sample size, deformation and location are determined by digital imaging at each pressure. Results Simple Newtonian liquid solutions maintain a constant, reversible location vs. deformation curve. In contrast, the location/deformation curves for gelatin, alginate, whole blood and blood plasma uniquely change as the samples solidify. Increasing elasticity causes the sample to deform less, leading to steeper stress/strain curves. By extracting a linear regime slope, we show that whole blood or blood plasma exhibits a unique slope profile as it begins to clot. By exposing blood samples to pro- or antithrombotic agents, the slope profile changes, allowing detection of hyper- or hypocoagulable states. Conclusions We demonstrate that quasi-static acoustic tweezing can yield information about clotting onset, maturation

  13. Assessing Static Performance of the Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge by Monitoring the Correlation between Temperature Field and Its Static Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Xin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of the structural health monitoring system installed on the steel truss arch girder of Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge, the temperature field data and static strain data are collected and analyzed for the static performance assessment of the bridge. Through analysis, it is found that the static strain changes are mainly caused by temperature field (temperature and temperature difference and train. After the train-induced static strains are removed, the correlation between the remaining static strains and the temperature field shows apparent linear characteristics, which can be mathematically modeled for the description of static performance. Therefore, multivariate linear regression function combined with principal component analysis is introduced to mathematically model the correlation. Furthermore, the residual static strains of mathematical model are adopted as assessment indicator and three kinds of degradation regulations of static performance are obtained after simulation of the residual static strains. Finally, it is concluded that the static performance of Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge was in a good condition during that period.

  14. Nonsymmetric entropy and maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengshi

    2009-01-01

    Under the frame of a statistical model, the concept of nonsymmetric entropy which generalizes the concepts of Boltzmann's entropy and Shannon's entropy, is defined. Maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle is proved. Some important distribution laws such as power law, can be derived from this principle naturally. Especially, nonsymmetric entropy is more convenient than other entropy such as Tsallis's entropy in deriving power laws.

  15. Maximum speed of dewetting on a fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Tak Shing; Gueudre, Thomas; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus

    2011-01-01

    A solid object can be coated by a nonwetting liquid since a receding contact line cannot exceed a critical speed. We theoretically investigate this forced wetting transition for axisymmetric menisci on fibers of varying radii. First, we use a matched asymptotic expansion and derive the maximum speed

  16. Maximum potential preventive effect of hip protectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schoor, N.M.; Smit, J.H.; Bouter, L.M.; Veenings, B.; Asma, G.B.; Lips, P.T.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the maximum potential preventive effect of hip protectors in older persons living in the community or homes for the elderly. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Emergency departments in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Hip fracture patients aged 70 and older who

  17. Maximum gain of Yagi-Uda arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, J.H.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Nilsson, E.

    1971-01-01

    Numerical optimisation techniques have been used to find the maximum gain of some specific parasitic arrays. The gain of an array of infinitely thin, equispaced dipoles loaded with arbitrary reactances has been optimised. The results show that standard travelling-wave design methods are not optimum....... Yagi–Uda arrays with equal and unequal spacing have also been optimised with experimental verification....

  18. correlation between maximum dry density and cohesion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    represents maximum dry density, signifies plastic limit and is liquid limit. Researchers [6, 7] estimate compaction parameters. Aside from the correlation existing between compaction parameters and other physical quantities there are some other correlations that have been investigated by other researchers. The well-known.

  19. Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2015-03-01

    The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.

  20. The maximum-entropy method in superspace

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Smaalen, S.; Palatinus, Lukáš; Schneider, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 59, - (2003), s. 459-469 ISSN 0108-7673 Grant - others:DFG(DE) XX Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : maximum-entropy method, * aperiodic crystals * electron density Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.558, year: 2003

  1. Achieving maximum sustainable yield in mixed fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulrich, Clara; Vermard, Youen; Dolder, Paul J.; Brunel, Thomas; Jardim, Ernesto; Holmes, Steven J.; Kempf, Alexander; Mortensen, Lars O.; Poos, Jan Jaap; Rindorf, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Achieving single species maximum sustainable yield (MSY) in complex and dynamic fisheries targeting multiple species (mixed fisheries) is challenging because achieving the objective for one species may mean missing the objective for another. The North Sea mixed fisheries are a representative example

  2. 5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... maximum stipend established under this section. (e) A trainee at a non-Federal hospital, clinic, or medical or dental laboratory who is assigned to a Federal hospital, clinic, or medical or dental... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Student...

  3. Minimal length, Friedmann equations and maximum density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awad, Adel [Center for Theoretical Physics, British University of Egypt,Sherouk City 11837, P.O. Box 43 (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University,Cairo, 11566 (Egypt); Ali, Ahmed Farag [Centre for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,Sheikh Zayed, 12588, Giza (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University,Benha, 13518 (Egypt)

    2014-06-16

    Inspired by Jacobson’s thermodynamic approach, Cai et al. have shown the emergence of Friedmann equations from the first law of thermodynamics. We extend Akbar-Cai derivation http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.75.084003 of Friedmann equations to accommodate a general entropy-area law. Studying the resulted Friedmann equations using a specific entropy-area law, which is motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), reveals the existence of a maximum energy density closed to Planck density. Allowing for a general continuous pressure p(ρ,a) leads to bounded curvature invariants and a general nonsingular evolution. In this case, the maximum energy density is reached in a finite time and there is no cosmological evolution beyond this point which leaves the big bang singularity inaccessible from a spacetime prospective. The existence of maximum energy density and a general nonsingular evolution is independent of the equation of state and the spacial curvature k. As an example we study the evolution of the equation of state p=ωρ through its phase-space diagram to show the existence of a maximum energy which is reachable in a finite time.

  4. Convolutional Sparse Coding for Static and Dynamic Images Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Knyazev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to improve performance of static and dynamic objects recognition. For this purpose a new image representation model and a transformation algorithm are proposed. It is examined and illustrated that limitations of previous methods make it difficult to achieve this objective. Static images, specifically handwritten digits of the widely used MNIST dataset, are the primary focus of this work. Nevertheless, preliminary qualitative results of image sequences analysis based on the suggested model are presented.A general analytical form of the Gabor function, often employed to generate filters, is described and discussed. In this research, this description is required for computing parameters of responses returned by our algorithm. The recursive convolution operator is introduced, which allows extracting free shape features of visual objects. The developed parametric representation model is compared with sparse coding based on energy function minimization.In the experimental part of this work, errors of estimating the parameters of responses are determined. Also, parameters statistics and their correlation coefficients for more than 106 responses extracted from the MNIST dataset are calculated. It is demonstrated that these data correspond well with previous research studies on Gabor filters as well as with works on visual cortex primary cells of mammals, in which similar responses were observed. A comparative test of the developed model with three other approaches is conducted; speed and accuracy scores of handwritten digits classification are presented. A support vector machine with a linear or radial basic function is used for classification of images and their representations while principal component analysis is used in some cases to prepare data beforehand. High accuracy is not attained due to the specific difficulties of combining our model with a support vector machine (a 3.99% error rate. However, another method is

  5. Investigation of two pitot-static tubes at supersonic speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasel, Lowell E; Coletti, Donald E

    1948-01-01

    The results of tests at a Mach number of 1.94 of an ogives-nose cylindrical pitot-static tube and similar tests at Mach numbers of 1.93 and 1.62 of a service pitot-static tube to determine body static pressures and indicated Mach numbers are presented and discussed. The radial pressure distribution on the cylindrical bodies is compared with that calculated by an approximate theory.

  6. Static and Dynamic Path Planning Using Incremental Heuristic Search

    OpenAIRE

    Khattab, Asem

    2018-01-01

    Path planning is an important component in any highly automated vehicle system. In this report, the general problem of path planning is considered first in partially known static environments where only static obstacles are present but the layout of the environment is changing as the agent acquires new information. Attention is then given to the problem of path planning in dynamic environments where there are moving obstacles in addition to the static ones. Specifically, a 2D car-like agent t...

  7. Fast static field CIPT mapping of unpatterned MRAM film stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Daniel; Hansen, Ole; Henrichsen, Henrik Hartmann

    2015-01-01

    Current In-Plane Tunneling (CIPT) method measures both RA and TMR, but the usefulness for uniformity mapping, e.g. for tool optimization, is limited by excessive measurement time. Thus, we develop and demonstrate a fast complementary static magnetic field method focused only on measurement of RA. We...... compare the static field method to the standard CIPT method and find perfect agreement between the extracted RA values and measurement repeatability while the static field method is several times faster. The static field CIPT method is demonstrated for 200 mm wafer mapping showing radial as well...

  8. From Flow Logic to static type systems for coordination languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Nicola, Rocco; Gorla, Daniele; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    checks; therefore, the correctness properties cannot be statically enforced. By contrast, static analysis approaches based on Flow Logic usually guarantee properties statically. In this paper, we show how the insights from the Flow Logic approach can be used to construct a type system for statically......Coordination languages are often used to describe open-ended systems. This makes it challenging to develop tools for guaranteeing the security of the coordinated systems and the correctness of their interaction. Successful approaches to this problem have been based on type systems with dynamic...

  9. From Flow Logic to Static Type Systems in Coordination Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Nicola, Rocco; Gorla, Daniele; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2008-01-01

    ; therefore, the correctness properties cannot be statically enforced. By contrast, static analysis approaches based on Flow Logic usually guarantee properties statically. In this paper we show how to combine these two approaches to obtain a static type system for describing secure access to tuple spaces......Coordination languages are often used to describe open ended systems. This makes it challenging to develop tools for guaranteeing security of the coordinated systems and correctness of their interaction. Successful approaches to this problem have been based on type systems with dynamic checks...

  10. Effects of a low-voltage static electric field on energy metabolism in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R; Peng, L; Hertz, L

    1997-01-01

    Mouse astrocytes (glial cells) in primary cultures were exposed to a low-voltage static DC electric field with no current flow and thus with no generation of magnetic fields. The electric field altered the rate of glycolysis, measured by 2-deoxyglucose accumulation. The magnitude and direction of this effect depended on the polarization of the field and the applied voltage. The maximum effect was an increase of approximately 30%, which occurred with field across the cells at an intensity that can be calculated to be 0.3 mV/cm or less. Reversal of the polarization converted the stimulation to a small but statistically significant inhibition.

  11. Geometry and Topology Optimization of Statically Determinate Beams under Fixed and Most Unfavorably Distributed Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Kozikowska

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper concerns topology and geometry optimization of statically determinate beams with an arbitrary number of pin supports. The beams are simultaneously exposed to uniform dead load and arbitrarily distributed live load and optimized for the absolute maximum bending moment. First, all the beams with fixed topology are subjected to geometrical optimization by genetic algorithm. Strict mathematical formulas for calculation of optimal geometrical parameters are found for all topologies and any ratio of dead to live load. Then beams with the same minimal values of the objective function and different topologies are classified into groups called topological classes. The detailed characteristics of these classes are described.

  12. Static/dynamic Analysis and Optimization of Z-axis Stand of PCB CNC Drilling Machine*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yanjun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The finite element analysis is used for the static and dynamic analysis of the Z axis brace of PCB CNC drilling machine. With its results of maximum displacement deformation and von Mises stress and modal frequency, the defect of original design was found out. On such bases, a variety of optimization scheme is put forward and the best size of the Z axis brace is obtained by the performance comparison of the schemes. This method offers bases for the design and renovation of other machine tool components.

  13. Static properties of small Josephson tunnel junctions in a transverse magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, R.; Aarøe, Morten; Mygind, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    The magnetic field distribution in the barrier of small planar Josephson tunnel junctions is numerically simulated in the case when an external magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the barrier plane. The simulations allow for heuristic analytical solutions for the Josephson static phase...... profile from which the dependence of the maximum Josephson current on the applied field amplitude is derived. The most common geometrical configurations are considered and, when possible, the theoretical findings are compared with the experimental data. ©2008 American Institute of Physics...

  14. Static vs stochastic optimization: A case study of FTSE Bursa Malaysia sectorial indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah@Rozita

    2014-06-01

    Traditional portfolio optimization methods in the likes of Markowitz' mean-variance model and semi-variance model utilize static expected return and volatility risk from historical data to generate an optimal portfolio. The optimal portfolio may not truly be optimal in reality due to the fact that maximum and minimum values from the data may largely influence the expected return and volatility risk values. This paper considers distributions of assets' return and volatility risk to determine a more realistic optimized portfolio. For illustration purposes, the sectorial indices data in FTSE Bursa Malaysia is employed. The results show that stochastic optimization provides more stable information ratio.

  15. Static vs stochastic optimization: A case study of FTSE Bursa Malaysia sectorial indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita [School of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19

    Traditional portfolio optimization methods in the likes of Markowitz' mean-variance model and semi-variance model utilize static expected return and volatility risk from historical data to generate an optimal portfolio. The optimal portfolio may not truly be optimal in reality due to the fact that maximum and minimum values from the data may largely influence the expected return and volatility risk values. This paper considers distributions of assets' return and volatility risk to determine a more realistic optimized portfolio. For illustration purposes, the sectorial indices data in FTSE Bursa Malaysia is employed. The results show that stochastic optimization provides more stable information ratio.

  16. Static vs stochastic optimization: A case study of FTSE Bursa Malaysia sectorial indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita

    2014-01-01

    Traditional portfolio optimization methods in the likes of Markowitz' mean-variance model and semi-variance model utilize static expected return and volatility risk from historical data to generate an optimal portfolio. The optimal portfolio may not truly be optimal in reality due to the fact that maximum and minimum values from the data may largely influence the expected return and volatility risk values. This paper considers distributions of assets' return and volatility risk to determine a more realistic optimized portfolio. For illustration purposes, the sectorial indices data in FTSE Bursa Malaysia is employed. The results show that stochastic optimization provides more stable information ratio

  17. Maximum concentrations at work and maximum biologically tolerable concentration for working materials 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The meaning of the term 'maximum concentration at work' in regard of various pollutants is discussed. Specifically, a number of dusts and smokes are dealt with. The valuation criteria for maximum biologically tolerable concentrations for working materials are indicated. The working materials in question are corcinogeneous substances or substances liable to cause allergies or mutate the genome. (VT) [de

  18. 75 FR 43840 - Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalties for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ...-17530; Notice No. 2] RIN 2130-ZA03 Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum... remains at $250. These adjustments are required by the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990...

  19. Static Posturography in Aging and Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntram W. Ickenstein

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In clinical practise, evaluation of postural control is based on the neurological examination, including Romberg’s test, examination of gait and performance of pull test as part of the Unified Parkinson´s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS. The goal of our study was to identify posturographic parameters since quantitative technical methods for the measurement of postural control are not established in clinical routine yet. Methods: In this cross-sectional study design we examined patients with Parkinson's disease (Hoehn & Yahr <3; PD n=12 on a static posturographic platform (eyes open and eyes closed, performing a standard Romberg’s test during neurological examination and compared the results with an age-matched control group (healthy adult control; HAC n=10 and a healthy young control (HYC n=21.Results: In the platform Romberg’s test with open eyes, the patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD showed a significantly greater mean sway (PD: 14.98 vs. HAC: 8.77 [mm], p<0.003 vs. HYC 7.80 [mm], greater mean radius (PD: 28.31 vs. HAC: 16.36 [mm], p<0.008 vs. HYC: 14.19 [mm] and greater marked area (PD: 2.38 vs. HAC: 0.88 [cm2], p<0.016 vs. HYC: 0.78 [cm2] compared to the healthy adult control (HAC. The Romberg’s test with closed eyes revealed a significantly greater mean sway (PD: 13.83 vs. HAC: 10.12 [mm], p<0.033 vs. HYC: 5.82 [mm] and greater mean radius (PD: 25.03 vs. HAC: 18.15 [mm], p<0.045 vs. HYC: 9.11 [mm] compared to both groups.Conclusions: The platform Romberg test with closed eyes detected significant differences in elderly people and patients with Parkinson's disease, which could be objectively quantified with static posturography testing. Age alone showed significant changes, only detectable with closed eyes. Therefore balance testing with a new computerized approach could help to identify balance problems in a geriatric assessment in clinical routine, especially with the parameters marked area and mean sway.

  20. Spirometry, Static Lung Volumes, and Diffusing Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz Fragoso, Carlos A; Cain, Hilary C; Casaburi, Richard; Lee, Patty J; Iannone, Lynne; Leo-Summers, Linda S; Van Ness, Peter H

    2017-09-01

    Spirometric Z-scores from the Global Lung Initiative (GLI) rigorously account for age-related changes in lung function and are thus age-appropriate when establishing spirometric impairments, including a restrictive pattern and air-flow obstruction. However, GLI-defined spirometric impairments have not yet been evaluated regarding associations with static lung volumes (total lung capacity [TLC], functional residual capacity [FRC], and residual volume [RV]) and gas exchange (diffusing capacity). We performed a retrospective review of pulmonary function tests in subjects ≥40 y old (mean age 64.6 y), including pre-bronchodilator measures for: spirometry ( n = 2,586), static lung volumes by helium dilution with inspiratory capacity maneuver ( n = 2,586), and hemoglobin-adjusted single-breath diffusing capacity ( n = 2,508). Using multivariable linear regression, adjusted least-squares means (adj LS Means) were calculated for TLC, FRC, RV, and hemoglobin-adjusted single-breath diffusing capacity. The adj LS Means were expressed with and without height-cubed standardization and stratified by GLI-defined spirometry, including normal ( n = 1,251), restrictive pattern ( n = 663), and air-flow obstruction (mild, [ n = 128]; moderate, [ n = 150]; and severe, [ n = 394]). Relative to normal spirometry, restrictive-pattern had lower adj LS Means for TLC, FRC, RV, and hemoglobin-adjusted single-breath diffusing capacity ( P ≤ .001). Conversely, relative to normal spirometry, mild, moderate, and severe air-flow obstruction had higher adj LS Means for FRC and RV ( P < .001). However, only mild and moderate air-flow obstruction had higher adj LS Means for TLC ( P < .001), while only moderate and severe air-flow obstruction had higher adj LS Means for RV/TLC ( P < .001) and lower adj LS Means for hemoglobin-adjusted single-breath diffusing capacity ( P < .001). Notably, TLC (calculated as FRC + inspiratory capacity) was not increased in severe air-flow obstruction ( P ≥ .11

  1. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified. (paper)

  2. Maximum-entropy description of animal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Chris H; Subaşı, Yiğit; Calabrese, Justin M

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic.

  3. Pareto versus lognormal: a maximum entropy test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

    2011-08-01

    It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

  4. Maximum likelihood estimation for integrated diffusion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltazar-Larios, Fernando; Sørensen, Michael

    We propose a method for obtaining maximum likelihood estimates of parameters in diffusion models when the data is a discrete time sample of the integral of the process, while no direct observations of the process itself are available. The data are, moreover, assumed to be contaminated...... EM-algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in the diffusion model. As part of the algorithm, we use a recent simple method for approximate simulation of diffusion bridges. In simulation studies for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the CIR process the proposed method works...... by measurement errors. Integrated volatility is an example of this type of observations. Another example is ice-core data on oxygen isotopes used to investigate paleo-temperatures. The data can be viewed as incomplete observations of a model with a tractable likelihood function. Therefore we propose a simulated...

  5. A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibert, Yann

    2015-09-01

    We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope.

  6. Maximum parsimony on subsets of taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Mareike; Thatte, Bhalchandra D

    2009-09-21

    In this paper we investigate mathematical questions concerning the reliability (reconstruction accuracy) of Fitch's maximum parsimony algorithm for reconstructing the ancestral state given a phylogenetic tree and a character. In particular, we consider the question whether the maximum parsimony method applied to a subset of taxa can reconstruct the ancestral state of the root more accurately than when applied to all taxa, and we give an example showing that this indeed is possible. A surprising feature of our example is that ignoring a taxon closer to the root improves the reliability of the method. On the other hand, in the case of the two-state symmetric substitution model, we answer affirmatively a conjecture of Li, Steel and Zhang which states that under a molecular clock the probability that the state at a single taxon is a correct guess of the ancestral state is a lower bound on the reconstruction accuracy of Fitch's method applied to all taxa.

  7. Maximum entropy analysis of liquid diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root, J.H.; Egelstaff, P.A.; Nickel, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    A maximum entropy method for reducing truncation effects in the inverse Fourier transform of structure factor, S(q), to pair correlation function, g(r), is described. The advantages and limitations of the method are explored with the PY hard sphere structure factor as model input data. An example using real data on liquid chlorine, is then presented. It is seen that spurious structure is greatly reduced in comparison to traditional Fourier transform methods. (author)

  8. LES study of the impact of moist thermals on the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere in southern West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosse, Fabien; Leriche, Maud; Mari, Céline; Couvreux, Fleur

    2018-05-01

    The hydroxyl radical (OH) is a highly reactive species and plays a key role in the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. We explore the potential impact of a convective boundary layer on reconciling the calculation-measurement differences for OH reactivity (the inverse of OH lifetime) attributable to the segregation of OH and its reactants by thermals and the resulting modification of averaged reaction rates. The large-eddy simulation version of the Meso-NH model is used, coupled on-line with a detailed chemistry mechanism to simulate two contrasted biogenic and urban chemical regimes. In both environments, the top of the boundary layer is the region with the highest calculated segregation intensities but with the opposite sign. In the biogenic environment, the inhomogeneous mixing of isoprene and OH leads to a maximum decrease of 30 % of the mean reaction rate in this zone. In the anthropogenic case, the effective rate constant for OH reacting with aldehydes is 16 % higher than the averaged value. OH reactivity is always higher by 15 to 40 % inside thermals in comparison to their surroundings as a function of the chemical environment and time of the day. Since thermals occupy a small fraction of the simulated domain, the impact of turbulent motions on domain-averaged total OH reactivity reaches a maximum decrease of 9 % for the biogenic case and a maximum increase of 5 % for the anthropogenic case. Accounting for the segregation of air masses by turbulent motions in regional and global models may increase OH reactivity in urban environments but lower OH reactivity in biogenic environments. In both cases, segregation alone is insufficient for resolving the underestimation between observed and modeled OH reactivity.

  9. A Maximum Resonant Set of Polyomino Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Heping

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A polyomino graph P is a connected finite subgraph of the infinite plane grid such that each finite face is surrounded by a regular square of side length one and each edge belongs to at least one square. A dimer covering of P corresponds to a perfect matching. Different dimer coverings can interact via an alternating cycle (or square with respect to them. A set of disjoint squares of P is a resonant set if P has a perfect matching M so that each one of those squares is M-alternating. In this paper, we show that if K is a maximum resonant set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching. We further prove that the maximum forcing number of a polyomino graph is equal to the cardinality of a maximum resonant set. This confirms a conjecture of Xu et al. [26]. We also show that if K is a maximal alternating set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching.

  10. Automatic maximum entropy spectral reconstruction in NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobli, Mehdi; Maciejewski, Mark W.; Gryk, Michael R.; Hoch, Jeffrey C.

    2007-01-01

    Developments in superconducting magnets, cryogenic probes, isotope labeling strategies, and sophisticated pulse sequences together have enabled the application, in principle, of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy to biomolecular systems approaching 1 megadalton. In practice, however, conventional approaches to NMR that utilize the fast Fourier transform, which require data collected at uniform time intervals, result in prohibitively lengthy data collection times in order to achieve the full resolution afforded by high field magnets. A variety of approaches that involve nonuniform sampling have been proposed, each utilizing a non-Fourier method of spectrum analysis. A very general non-Fourier method that is capable of utilizing data collected using any of the proposed nonuniform sampling strategies is maximum entropy reconstruction. A limiting factor in the adoption of maximum entropy reconstruction in NMR has been the need to specify non-intuitive parameters. Here we describe a fully automated system for maximum entropy reconstruction that requires no user-specified parameters. A web-accessible script generator provides the user interface to the system

  11. maximum neutron flux at thermal nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugar, P.

    1968-10-01

    Since actual research reactors are technically complicated and expensive facilities it is important to achieve savings by appropriate reactor lattice configurations. There is a number of papers, and practical examples of reactors with central reflector, dealing with spatial distribution of fuel elements which would result in higher neutron flux. Common disadvantage of all the solutions is that the choice of best solution is done starting from the anticipated spatial distributions of fuel elements. The weakness of these approaches is lack of defined optimization criteria. Direct approach is defined as follows: determine the spatial distribution of fuel concentration starting from the condition of maximum neutron flux by fulfilling the thermal constraints. Thus the problem of determining the maximum neutron flux is solving a variational problem which is beyond the possibilities of classical variational calculation. This variational problem has been successfully solved by applying the maximum principle of Pontrjagin. Optimum distribution of fuel concentration was obtained in explicit analytical form. Thus, spatial distribution of the neutron flux and critical dimensions of quite complex reactor system are calculated in a relatively simple way. In addition to the fact that the results are innovative this approach is interesting because of the optimization procedure itself [sr

  12. Artificial neural networks for static security assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niebur, D.; Fischl, R.

    1997-12-31

    A reliable, continuous supply of electric energy is essential for the functioning of today`s complex societies. Due to a combination of increasing energy consumption and impediments of various kinds to the extension of existing electric transmission networks, these power systems are operated closer and closer to their limits. This situation requires a significantly less conservative power system operation and control regime which, in turn, is possible only by monitoring the system state in much more detail than was necessary previously. Fortunately, the large quantity of information required can be provided in many cases through recent advances in telecommunications and computing techniques. There is, however, a lack of evaluation techniques required to extract the salient information and to use it for higher-order processing. Whilst the sheer quantity of available information is always a problem, this situation is aggravated in emergency situations when rapid decisions are required. Furthermore, the behaviour of power systems is highly non-linear. Monitoring and control involves several hundred variables which are only partly available by measurements. Load demands and dynamic loads are difficult to model. Therefore models appropriate for normal situations might become invalid in emergency situations. These problems provide important motivation to explore novel data processing and programming techniques from the vast pool of artificial intelligence techniques. The following section gives a short introduction to static security assessment. (Author)

  13. Static Magnetic Cloak without a Superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Ma, Yungui; He, Sailing

    2018-05-01

    Similar to its electromagnetic counterpart, magnetic cloaking also has very important technological applications. However, the traditional method to build a static magnetic cloak requires the use of superconducting materials as the diamagnetic component, which seriously limits the practical potential because of the cryogenic condition. We show that a diamagnetic active current boundary combined with a high-permeability magnetic inner shell (MIS) can be designed to solve this problem, rendering an ideal magnetic cloaking effect at zero frequency. We first theoretically prove that a current boundary could magnetically behave as a superconductor to external observers. Based on this phenomena, we introduce a high-permeability MIS made of magnetically ultrasoft metallic sheets (permeability μ >103 ) and experimentally prove that the bilayer combination can exactly balance out the disturbance to the external probing field and, meanwhile, have a large invisible inner space. We also show that the active boundary currents can be accordingly configured to overcome the permeability and frequency band limits, leading to a robust cloak over the entire quasistatic frequency region. Our work creates an efficient way to circumvent the traditional limits of metamaterials to build magnetic cloaks for ultralow frequencies. The active-passive hybrid approach could be generally extended to yield other artificial magnetic devices or systems as well.

  14. The influence of music on static posturography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forti, Stella; Filipponi, Eliana; Di Berardino, Federica; Barozzi, Stefania; Cesarani, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that high intensity sounds modify balance by activating the saccule, which is sensitive to both vestibular and acoustic stimuli. Few studies have examined the effects of music on the postural responses in healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different types of music (Mozart, Köhler, Köhler with a carrier of 12 KHz and subjects' favourite music) on twelve healthy subjects standing on a stabilometric platform. With each type of music, all subjects underwent static posturography with eyes opened and eyes closed, and with and without foam pads. We evaluated the length and the surface of body sway and the correlation between them, and we analyzed the visual, vestibular and somatosensory sub-components. Listening to different types of music did not significantly change the stabilometric variables, with the exception of listening to Mozart's Jupiter, which caused a significant reduction in the visual component with a consequent increase in both the vestibular and somatosensory inputs. Further studies are needed to determine the effect of Mozart's music in modifying the sensory strategy in the rehabilitation of patients with vestibular impairments.

  15. Static speckle experiments using white synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sant, Tushar; Panzner, Tobias; Pietsch, Ullrich [Solid State Physics Group, University of Siegen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Static speckle experiments were performed using coherent white X-ray radiation from a bending magnet at BESSYII. Semiconductor and polymer surfaces were investigated under incidence condition smaller than the critical angle of total external reflection. The scattering pattern of the sample results from the illumination function modified by the surface undulations. The periodic oscillations are caused by the illumination function whereas other irregular features are associated with sample surface. The speckle map of reflection from a laterally periodic structure like GaAs grating is studied. Under coherent illumination the grating peaks split into speckles because of fluctuations on the sample surface. It is important to understand which length scales on the sample surface are responsible for the oscillations in reflectivity map. To investigate this experiments are done with a triangular shaped sample. Different parts of the sample are illuminated with the footprint on the sample larger or smaller than the actual sample length. This gives prior information about total illuminated area on the sample. Using this additional information a detailed surface profile of the sample is reconstructed.

  16. Liquid methanol under a static electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassone, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.cassone@impmc.upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France); Università degli Studi di Messina, Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra, Contrada Papardo, 98166 Messina (Italy); CNR-IPCF, Viale Ferdinando Stagno d’Alcontres 37, 98158 Messina (Italy); Giaquinta, Paolo V., E-mail: paolo.giaquinta@unime.it [Università degli Studi di Messina, Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra, Contrada Papardo, 98166 Messina (Italy); Saija, Franz, E-mail: saija@ipcf.cnr.it [CNR-IPCF, Viale Ferdinando Stagno d’Alcontres 37, 98158 Messina (Italy); Saitta, A. Marco, E-mail: marco.saitta@impmc.upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-02-07

    We report on an ab initio molecular dynamics study of liquid methanol under the effect of a static electric field. We found that the hydrogen-bond structure of methanol is more robust and persistent for field intensities below the molecular dissociation threshold whose value (≈0.31 V/Å) turns out to be moderately larger than the corresponding estimate obtained for liquid water. A sustained ionic current, with ohmic current-voltage behavior, flows in this material for field intensities above 0.36 V/Å, as is also the case of water, but the resulting ionic conductivity (≈0.40 S cm{sup −1}) is at least one order of magnitude lower than that of water, a circumstance that evidences a lower efficiency of proton transfer processes. We surmise that this study may be relevant for the understanding of the properties and functioning of technological materials which exploit ionic conduction, such as direct-methanol fuel cells and Nafion membranes.

  17. Constitutive equation of butter at static loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the constitutive modelling of finite deformation in the commercially obtained butter (composition is 83 % of milk fat at the temperature 17–20 °C. The specimens from the butter (height L0=14.6 mm and diameter 20 mm have been compressed between two parallel metal plates at a fixed crosshead speed 20 mm/min using of the testing device TIRA TEST. The force F and the deformation ∆L are measured during compression and both quantities are recorded. The experimental records force F – displacement (deformation were obtained. These records have been transformed into stress–strain dependences and into true stress–true strain. The basic data on the strain behaviour of a butter under low strain rates have been obtained. Experimental results show that the behaviour of butter can be described by a hyperelastic material model. In this model, the quasi–static response is defined by compressible hyperelasticity, whereby the strain energy potential is assumed to be representable by a newly proposed polynomial series with three independent parameters. The material parameters in the constitutive model are determined from compression test. A comparison of predictions based on the proposed constitutive equation with experiments shows that the model is able to describe the strain behaviour of the butter examined.

  18. A multinuclear static NMR study of geopolymerisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favier, Aurélie, E-mail: aurelie.favier@epfl.ch [Univ Paris-Est, IFSTTAR, Materials Department, 14-20 bd Newton, F-77447 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 (France); Habert, Guillaume [Institute for Construction and Infrastructure Management, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Roussel, Nicolas [Univ Paris-Est, IFSTTAR, Materials Department, 14-20 bd Newton, F-77447 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 (France); D' Espinose de Lacaillerie, Jean-Baptiste [Ecole Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie Indusrtrielles de la Ville de Paris (ESPCI), ParisTech, PSL Research University, Soft Matter Sciences and Engineering Laboratory SIMM, CNRS UMR 7615, 10 rue Vauquelin, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-09-15

    Geopolymers are inorganic binders obtained by alkali activation of aluminosilicates. While the structure of geopolymers is now well understood, the details of the geopolymerisation reaction and their impact on the rheology of the paste remain uncertain. In this work, we follow the elastic properties of a paste made with metakaolin and sodium silicate solution. After the first sharp increase of elastic modulus occurring a few hundred of seconds after mixing and related to the heterogeneous formation of an alumina–silicate gel with a molar ratio Si/Al < 4 located at the grains boundaries, we focus on the progressive increase in elastic modulus on a period of few hours during the setting of the geopolymer. In this study, we combine the study of rheological properties of the paste with {sup 23}Na, {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si static NMR measurement in order to better understand the origin of this second increase in elastic modulus. Our results show that, after a few hours, Al and Na evolution in the liquid phase are concomitant. This suggests the precipitation of an aluminosilicate phase where Al is in tetrahedral position and Na compensates the charge. Furthermore, Si speciation confirms this result and allows us to identify the precipitation of a product, which has a chemical composition close to the final composition of geopolymer. This study provides strong evidence for a heterogeneous formation of an aluminosilicate glass directly from the first gel and the silicate solution without the need for a reorganisation of Gel 1 into Gel 2.

  19. Mechanical performance of carbon-epoxy laminates. Part I: quasi-static and impact bending properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Tarpani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In Part I of this study, quasi-static and impact bending properties of four aeronautical grade carbon-epoxy laminates have been determined and compared. Materials tested were unidirectional cross-ply (tape and bidirectional woven textile (fabric carbon fiber lay-up architectures, impregnated with standard and rubber-toughened resins, respectively, giving rise to 1.5 mm-thick laminates. Quasi-static mechanical properties assessed in transversal mode loading were modulus of elasticity, flexural strength and tenacity at the maximum load, whereas the net absorbed energy was determined under translaminar impact conditions. Two-dimensional woven carbon fiber reinforcements embedded in a rubber-toughened matrix presented the best mechanical performance under static loading. Under dynamic loading conditions, woven fiber fabric pre-forms were favorably sensitive to increasing impact energies regardless the nature of the employed epoxy resin. However, it was concluded that great care should be taken with this material within the low energy impact regimen.

  20. Slipping and Tipping: Measuring Static Friction with a Straightedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Eric; Aguilar, Isaac

    2012-01-01

    Following a discussion of forces, torques, and the conditions for static equilibrium, I tell my introductory mechanics class that I will show them how to measure the coefficient of static friction, us, between the surfaces of a block and the front bench using "nothing but a straightedge". After a few seconds of hushed anticipation, I nudge the…

  1. Survey of approaches for handling static analysis alarms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muske, T.; Serebrenik, A.

    2016-01-01

    Static analysis tools have showcased their importance and usefulness in automated detection of code anomalies and defects. However, the large number of alarms reported and cost incurred in their manual inspections have been the major concerns with the usage of static analysis tools. Existing studies

  2. Navigating on handheld displays: Dynamic versus Static Keyhole Navigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehra, S.; Werkhoven, P.; Worring, M.

    2006-01-01

    Handheld displays leave little space for the visualization and navigation of spatial layouts representing rich information spaces. The most common navigation method for handheld displays is static peephole navigation: The peephole is static and we move the spatial layout behind it (scrolling). A

  3. Static and dynamical properties of light hadrons in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    The review of QCD determination of static and dynamical properties of hadrons is given. Hadron masses, their transition constants into quark currents, meson formfactors at intermediate momentum transfers, mesonic partial widths and structure functions at small x are considered. A special attention is paid to calculation of static paramaters of hadrons in external fields (nucleon and hyperon magnetic moments, interaction constants with axial currents)

  4. 14 CFR 25.1325 - Static pressure systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... installation of the static pressure system must be such that— (1) Positive drainage of moisture is provided..., the other is blocked off; and (2) Both sources cannot be blocked off simultaneously. (h) For... other static pressure source being open or blocked. [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as...

  5. Non-static vacuum strings: exterior and interior solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein-Schabes, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    New non-static cylindrically symmetric solutions of Einsteins's equations are presented. Some of these solutions represent string-like objects. An exterior vacuum solution is matched to a non-vacuum interior solution for different forms of the energy-momentum tensor. They generalize the standard static string. 12 refs

  6. 14 CFR 27.610 - Lightning and static electricity protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lightning and static electricity protection....610 Lightning and static electricity protection. (a) The rotorcraft must be protected against catastrophic effects from lightning. (b) For metallic components, compliance with paragraph (a) of this section...

  7. 14 CFR 29.610 - Lightning and static electricity protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lightning and static electricity protection... § 29.610 Lightning and static electricity protection. (a) The rotorcraft structure must be protected against catastrophic effects from lightning. (b) For metallic components, compliance with paragraph (a) of...

  8. 14 CFR 25.173 - Static longitudinal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 25.173... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.173 Static... forces (including friction) must be as follows: (a) A pull must be required to obtain and maintain speeds...

  9. 14 CFR 23.173 - Static longitudinal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 23.173... Stability § 23.173 Static longitudinal stability. Under the conditions specified in § 23.175 and with the airplane trimmed as indicated, the characteristics of the elevator control forces and the friction within...

  10. Multiple histogram method and static Monte Carlo sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inda, M.A.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    We describe an approach to use multiple-histogram methods in combination with static, biased Monte Carlo simulations. To illustrate this, we computed the force-extension curve of an athermal polymer from multiple histograms constructed in a series of static Rosenbluth Monte Carlo simulations. From

  11. 40 CFR 53.64 - Test procedure: Static fractionator test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test procedure: Static fractionator test. 53.64 Section 53.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Performance Characteristics of Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 § 53.64 Test procedure: Static...

  12. Static friction of stainless steel wire rope–rubber contacts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeve, A.J.; Krijger, T.; Mugge, W.; Breedveld, P.; Dodou, D.; Dankelman, J.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about static friction of stainless-steel wire ropes ('cables') in contact with soft rubbers, an interface of potential importance for rigidifiable medical instruments. Although friction theories imply that the size and profile of the cables affect static friction, there are no

  13. On the relationship between ontogenetic and static allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélabon, Christophe; Bolstad, Geir H; Egset, Camilla K; Cheverud, James M; Pavlicev, Mihaela; Rosenqvist, Gunilla

    2013-02-01

    Ontogenetic and static allometries describe how a character changes in size when the size of the organism changes during ontogeny and among individuals measured at the same developmental stage, respectively. Understanding the relationship between these two types of allometry is crucial to understanding the evolution of allometry and, more generally, the evolution of shape. However, the effects of ontogenetic allometry on static allometry remain largely unexplored. Here, we first show analytically how individual variation in ontogenetic allometry and body size affect static allometry. Using two longitudinal data sets on ontogenetic and static allometry, we then estimate variances and covariances for the different parameters of the ontogenetic allometry defined in our model and assess their relative contribution to the static allometric slope. The mean ontogenetic allometry is the main parameter that determines the static allometric slope, while the covariance between the ontogenetic allometric slope and body size generates most of the discrepancies between ontogenetic and static allometry. These results suggest that the apparent evolutionary stasis of the static allometric slope is not generated by internal (developmental) constraints but more likely results from external constraints imposed by selection.

  14. CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF HYDROXYPROPYL STARCH IN A STATIC MIXER REACTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LAMMERS, G; STAMHUIS, EJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    A novel type of reactor for the chemical derivatization of starch pastes is presented. The design is based on the application of static mixers. The reactor shows excellent plug flow behaviour with a Peclet number of about 100. The viscosity behaviour of concentrated starch pastes in the static mixer

  15. Hanging an Airplane: A Case Study in Static Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Debora M.

    2009-01-01

    Our classrooms are filled with engineering majors who take a semester-long course in static equilibrium. Many students find this class too challenging and drop their engineering major. In our introductory physics class, we often breeze through static equilibrium; to physicists equilibrium is just a special case of Newton's second law. While it is…

  16. Static and Dynamic Analysis in Design of Exoskeleton Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivánkova, Ol'ga; Méri, Dávid; Vojteková, Eva

    2017-10-01

    This paper introduces a numerical experiment of creating the load bearing system of a high rise building. When designing the high-rise building, it is always an important task to find the right proportion between the height of the building and its perceptive width from the various angles of street view. Investigated high rise building in this article was designed according to these criteria. The load bearing structure of the analysed object consists of a reinforced core, plates and steel tubes of an exoskeleton. Eight models of the building were created using the spatial variant of FEM in Scia Engineer Software. Individual models varied in number and dimensions of diagrids in the exoskeleton. In the models, loadings due to the own weight, weight of external glass cladding, and due to the wind according to the Standard, have been considered. The building was loaded by wind load from all four main directions with respect to its shape. Wind load was calculated using the 3D wind generator, which is a part of the Scia Engineer Software. For each model the static analysis was performed. Its most important criterion was the maximum or minimum horizontal displacement (rotation) of the highest point of the building. This displacement was compared with the limit values of the displacement of the analysed high-rise building. By step-by-step adding diagrids and optimizing their dimensions the building model was obtained that complied with the criteria of the Limit Serviceability State. The last model building was assessed also for the Ultimate Limit State. This model was loaded also by seismic loads for comparison with the load due to the wind.

  17. Measuring Static and Dynamic Properties of Frozen Silty Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furnish, M.D.

    1998-09-30

    A mechanical characterization of frozen silty soils has been conducted to support computer modeling of penetrators. The soils were obtained from the Eilson AFB (Alaska) vicinity. Quasi-static testing with a multiaxial system in a cold room and intermediate strain rate testing with a split Hopkinson pressure bar were conducted. Maximum stresses achieved were slightly above 1 GPa, apparently limiting the observed behavior primarily to elastic compression and pore crushing phenomena. Lower temperatures seem to increase the strength of the material markedly, although not by a simple factor. Lower temperatures and higher strain rates increase the apparent Young's and bulk moduli as well (an increase of {approximately} a factor of two is observed for strain rate increasing from 0.001 s{sup {minus}1} to 800 s{sup {minus}1}). The strength also depends strongly on strain rate. Increasing the strain rate from 0.001 {sup {minus}1} to 0.07 {sup {minus}1} increases the strength by a factor of five to ten (to values of order 1 GPa). However,only a small increase in strength is seen as strain rate is increased to {approximately} 10{sup 2}--10{sup 3} s{sup {minus}1}. The reliability of the strength measurements at strain rates< 1 s{sup {minus}1} is decreased due to details of the experimental geometry, although general trends are observable. A recipe is provided for a simulant soil based on bentonite, sand, clay-rich soil and water to fit the {approximately} 6% air-filled porosity, density and water content of the Alaska soils, based on benchtop mixing and jacketed compression testing of candidate mixes.

  18. Variation with Mach Number of Static and Total Pressures Through Various Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Alfred A

    1946-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Langley 24-inch highspeed tunnel to ascertain the static-pressure and total-pressure losses through screens ranging in mesh from 3 to 12 wires per inch and in wire diameter from 0.023 to 0.041 inch. Data were obtained from a Mach number of approximately 0.20 up to the maximum (choking) Mach number obtainable for each screen. The results of this investigation indicate that the pressure losses increase with increasing Mach number until the choking Mach number, which can be computed, is reached. Since choking imposes a restriction on the mass rate of flow and maximum losses are incurred at this condition, great care must be taken in selecting the screen mesh and wire dimmeter for an installation so that the choking Mach number is

  19. THE EXPERIENCE OF COMPARISON OF STATIC SECURITY CODE ANALYZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Markov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a methodological approach to comparison of static security code analyzers. It substantiates the comparison of the static analyzers as to efficiency and functionality indicators, which are stipulated in the international regulatory documents. The test data for assessment of static analyzers efficiency is represented by synthetic sets of open-source software, which contain vulnerabilities. We substantiated certain criteria for quality assessment of the static security code analyzers subject to standards NIST SP 500-268 and SATEC. We carried out experiments that allowed us to assess a number of the Russian proprietary software tools and open-source tools. We came to the conclusion that it is of paramount importance to develop Russian regulatory framework for testing software security (firstly, for controlling undocumented features and evaluating the quality of static security code analyzers.

  20. An easily implemented static condensation method for structural sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadharan, S. N.; Haftka, R. T.; Nikolaidis, E.

    1990-01-01

    A black-box approach to static condensation for sensitivity analysis is presented with illustrative examples of a cube and a car structure. The sensitivity of the structural response with respect to joint stiffness parameter is calculated using the direct method, forward-difference, and central-difference schemes. The efficiency of the various methods for identifying joint stiffness parameters from measured static deflections of these structures is compared. The results indicate that the use of static condensation can reduce computation times significantly and the black-box approach is only slightly less efficient than the standard implementation of static condensation. The ease of implementation of the black-box approach recommends it for use with general-purpose finite element codes that do not have a built-in facility for static condensation.

  1. Climate effect on forest fire static risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodini, Antonella; Cossu, Antonello; Entrade, Erika; Fiorucci, Paolo; Gaetani, Francesco; Parodi, Ulderica

    2010-05-01

    The availability of a long data series of fire perimeters combined with a detailed knowledge of topography and land cover allow to understand which are the main features involved in forest fire occurrences and their behaviour. In addition, climate indexes obtained from the analysis of time series with more than 20 years of complete records allow to understand the role of climate on fire regime, both in terms of direct effects on fire behaviour and the effect on vegetation cover. In particular, indices of extreme events have been considered like CDD (maximum number of consecutive dry days) and HWDI (heat wave duration index: maximum period > 5 consecutive days with Tmax >5°C above the 1961-1990 daily Tmax normal), together with the usual indices describing rainfall and temperature regimes. As a matter of fact, based on this information it is possible to develop statistical methods for the objective classification of forest fire static risk at regional scale. Two different case studies are presented in this work: Regione Liguria and Regione Sardegna (Italy). Both regions are in the center of the Mediterranean and are characterized by a high number of fires and burned area. However, the two regions have very different fire regimes. Sardinia is affected by the fire phenomenon only in summer whilst Liguria is affected by fires also in winter, with higher number of fires and larger burned area. In addition, the two region are very different in vegetation cover. The presence of Mediterranean conifers, (Pinus Pinaster, Pinus Nigra, Pinus halepensis) is quite spread in Liguria and is almost absent in Sardinia. What is common in the two regions is the widespread presence of shrub species frequently spread by fire. The analysis in the two regions thus allows in a rather limited area to consider almost all the species and the climate conditions that characterize the Mediterranean region. More than 10000 fire perimeters that burnt about 800 km2 were considered in the analysis

  2. Diversity of the ground-dwelling ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of a moist, Montane forest of the semi-arid Brazilian "Nordeste".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hites, N L; Mourão, M A N; Araújo, F O; Melo, M V C; de Biseau, J C; Quinet, Y

    2005-01-01

    Although the so called "green islands" of the semi-arid Brazilian "Nordeste" are economically, socially, and ecologically important. relatively little is known about their biodiversity. We present the results of the first survey of the ground-dwelling ant fauna of a secondary forest in the Serra de Baturité (4 degrees 05'-4 degrees 40' S / 38 degrees 30'-39 degrees 10' W), among the biggest of the moist, montane forests of the state of Ceará, Brazil. From February to March 2001, samples were taken every 50 m along twelve 200 m transects, each separated from the others by at least 50 m and cut on either side of a recreational trail. Where possible, two transects were cut from the same starting point on the trail, one on either side. At each sample site two methods were used, as recommended in the ALL. protocol: a pitfall trap and the treatment of 1 m2 of leaf litter with the Winkler extractor. The myrmecofauna of the Serra de Baturité is quite diverse: individuals from 72 species, 23 genera, and six subfamilies were collected. The observed patterns of specific richness show the same tendencies noted in other tropical regions, particularly the frequency of capture distribution with many rare and few abundant species. Differences with the Atlantic and Amazonian forests were also observed, especially the relative importance of the Ponerinac and Formicinae subfamilies, indicating a possible influence of the surrounding "caatinga" (savanna-like ecosystem) on the myrmecofauna of the moist, montane forest.

  3. Impacts of fire and grazing management on South Africa’s moist highland grasslands: A case study of the Steenkampsberg Plateau, Mpumalanga, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian T. Little

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Grasslands are heavily utilised for livestock agriculture and the resultant degradation through mismanagement contributes to an estimated 60% of this biome being permanently transformed. This study focused on the impact of fire and grazing in moist highland grasslands. Objectives: To determine the contribution of burning frequency and grazing intensity combined (for domestic livestock and indigenous ungulates on vegetation structure heterogeneity and species diversity. Methods: Eight study sites under different management regimes were sampled over two summers. Vegetation structure characteristics and diversity data were collected monthly within multiple replicates in each study site. A disc pasture meter was used to assess standing biomass. Differences in vegetation structure characteristics, plant community composition and plant species assemblage structure across sites were statistically analysed using analyses of variance, indicator species analyses, multidimensional scaling ordinations and two-way cluster analyses. Results: The combination of heavy grazing and annual burning leads to a distinct plant community dominated by disturbance specialist species. Selective grazing by indigenous herbivores promotes a community of unpalatable species. This study illustrates that fenced indigenous herbivores, even at moderate stocking densities, have a greater detrimental impact on plant diversity and structure than do domestic livestock. Conclusion: Intensive grazing and burning have a detrimental impact on plant species diversity and structure. This also affects resultant palatability for grazing livestock and fenced game. To promote both grazing quality and ecological integrity we recommend a minimum sustainable ‘fodder capacity’ or standing phytomass of 5000 kg per large-animal unit per hectare for domestic livestock in moist highland grasslands.

  4. Maximum entropy decomposition of quadrupole mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, U. von; Dose, V.; Golan, A.

    2004-01-01

    We present an information-theoretic method called generalized maximum entropy (GME) for decomposing mass spectra of gas mixtures from noisy measurements. In this GME approach to the noisy, underdetermined inverse problem, the joint entropies of concentration, cracking, and noise probabilities are maximized subject to the measured data. This provides a robust estimation for the unknown cracking patterns and the concentrations of the contributing molecules. The method is applied to mass spectroscopic data of hydrocarbons, and the estimates are compared with those received from a Bayesian approach. We show that the GME method is efficient and is computationally fast

  5. Maximum power operation of interacting molecular motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golubeva, Natalia; Imparato, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    , as compared to the non-interacting system, in a wide range of biologically compatible scenarios. We furthermore consider the case where the motor-motor interaction directly affects the internal chemical cycle and investigate the effect on the system dynamics and thermodynamics.......We study the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of different traffic models for kinesin which are relevant in biological and experimental contexts. We find that motor-motor interactions play a fundamental role by enhancing the thermodynamic efficiency at maximum power of the motors...

  6. Maximum entropy method in momentum density reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzynski, L.; Holas, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) is applied to the reconstruction of the 3-dimensional electron momentum density distributions observed through the set of Compton profiles measured along various crystallographic directions. It is shown that the reconstruction of electron momentum density may be reliably carried out with the aid of simple iterative algorithm suggested originally by Collins. A number of distributions has been simulated in order to check the performance of MEM. It is shown that MEM can be recommended as a model-free approach. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig

  7. On the maximum drawdown during speculative bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotundo, Giulia; Navarra, Mauro

    2007-08-01

    A taxonomy of large financial crashes proposed in the literature locates the burst of speculative bubbles due to endogenous causes in the framework of extreme stock market crashes, defined as falls of market prices that are outlier with respect to the bulk of drawdown price movement distribution. This paper goes on deeper in the analysis providing a further characterization of the rising part of such selected bubbles through the examination of drawdown and maximum drawdown movement of indices prices. The analysis of drawdown duration is also performed and it is the core of the risk measure estimated here.

  8. Multi-Channel Maximum Likelihood Pitch Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a method for multi-channel pitch estimation is proposed. The method is a maximum likelihood estimator and is based on a parametric model where the signals in the various channels share the same fundamental frequency but can have different amplitudes, phases, and noise characteristics....... This essentially means that the model allows for different conditions in the various channels, like different signal-to-noise ratios, microphone characteristics and reverberation. Moreover, the method does not assume that a certain array structure is used but rather relies on a more general model and is hence...

  9. Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastea, S

    2009-01-27

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

  10. Maximum Temperature Detection System for Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankiewicz, Maciej; Kos, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    The paper describes structure and measurement results of the system detecting present maximum temperature on the surface of an integrated circuit. The system consists of the set of proportional to absolute temperature sensors, temperature processing path and a digital part designed in VHDL. Analogue parts of the circuit where designed with full-custom technique. The system is a part of temperature-controlled oscillator circuit - a power management system based on dynamic frequency scaling method. The oscillator cooperates with microprocessor dedicated for thermal experiments. The whole system is implemented in UMC CMOS 0.18 μm (1.8 V) technology.

  11. Maximum entropy PDF projection: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggenstoss, Paul M.

    2017-06-01

    We review maximum entropy (MaxEnt) PDF projection, a method with wide potential applications in statistical inference. The method constructs a sampling distribution for a high-dimensional vector x based on knowing the sampling distribution p(z) of a lower-dimensional feature z = T (x). Under mild conditions, the distribution p(x) having highest possible entropy among all distributions consistent with p(z) may be readily found. Furthermore, the MaxEnt p(x) may be sampled, making the approach useful in Monte Carlo methods. We review the theorem and present a case study in model order selection and classification for handwritten character recognition.

  12. Multiperiod Maximum Loss is time unit invariant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Raimund M; Breuer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Time unit invariance is introduced as an additional requirement for multiperiod risk measures: for a constant portfolio under an i.i.d. risk factor process, the multiperiod risk should equal the one period risk of the aggregated loss, for an appropriate choice of parameters and independent of the portfolio and its distribution. Multiperiod Maximum Loss over a sequence of Kullback-Leibler balls is time unit invariant. This is also the case for the entropic risk measure. On the other hand, multiperiod Value at Risk and multiperiod Expected Shortfall are not time unit invariant.

  13. Maximum a posteriori decoder for digital communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altes, Richard A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A system and method for decoding by identification of the most likely phase coded signal corresponding to received data. The present invention has particular application to communication with signals that experience spurious random phase perturbations. The generalized estimator-correlator uses a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator to generate phase estimates for correlation with incoming data samples and for correlation with mean phases indicative of unique hypothesized signals. The result is a MAP likelihood statistic for each hypothesized transmission, wherein the highest value statistic identifies the transmitted signal.

  14. Improved Maximum Parsimony Models for Phylogenetic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Iersel, Leo; Jones, Mark; Scornavacca, Celine

    2018-05-01

    Phylogenetic networks are well suited to represent evolutionary histories comprising reticulate evolution. Several methods aiming at reconstructing explicit phylogenetic networks have been developed in the last two decades. In this article, we propose a new definition of maximum parsimony for phylogenetic networks that permits to model biological scenarios that cannot be modeled by the definitions currently present in the literature (namely, the "hardwired" and "softwired" parsimony). Building on this new definition, we provide several algorithmic results that lay the foundations for new parsimony-based methods for phylogenetic network reconstruction.

  15. Ancestral sequence reconstruction with Maximum Parsimony

    OpenAIRE

    Herbst, Lina; Fischer, Mareike

    2017-01-01

    One of the main aims in phylogenetics is the estimation of ancestral sequences based on present-day data like, for instance, DNA alignments. One way to estimate the data of the last common ancestor of a given set of species is to first reconstruct a phylogenetic tree with some tree inference method and then to use some method of ancestral state inference based on that tree. One of the best-known methods both for tree inference as well as for ancestral sequence inference is Maximum Parsimony (...

  16. Literature review Quasi-static and Dynamic pile load tests : Primarily report on non-static pile load tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huy, N.Q.

    2010-01-01

    Pile testing, which plays an importance role in the field of deep foundation design, is performed by static and non-static methods to provide information about the following issues: (Poulos, 1998) - The ultimate capacity of a single pile. - The load-displacement behavior of a pile. - The performance

  17. A PSP-based small-signal MOSFET model for both quasi-static and nonquasi-static operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, A.C.T.; Smit, G.D.J.; Scholten, A.J.; Klaassen, D.B.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a small-signal MOSFET model is described, which takes the local effects of both velocity saturation and transverse mobility reduction into account. The model is based on the PSP model and is valid for both quasi-static and nonquasi-static (NQS) operations. Recently, it has been found

  18. The Exergetic, Environmental and Economic Effect of the Hydrostatic Design Static Pressure Level on the Pipe Dimensions of Low-Energy District Heating Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan İbrahim; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    to be used in a low-energy DH network to carry the heat produced by renewable and/or low grade energy sources to low-energy Danish buildings. In this study, a comparison of various design considerations with different levels of maximum design static pressures was performed, and their results evaluated...... in terms of energetic, exergetic, economic, and environmental perspectives....

  19. Static mechanical properties of buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaji, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Hideaki

    1999-11-01

    The buffer material is expected to maintain its low water permeability, self-sealing properties, radionuclides adsorption and retardation properties, thermal conductivity, chemical buffering properties, overpack supporting properties, stress buffering properties, etc. over a long period of time. Natural clay is mentioned as a material that can relatively satisfy above. Among the kinds of natural clay, bentonite when compacted is superior because (i) it has exceptionally low water permeability and properties to control the movement of water in buffer, (ii) it fills void spaces in the buffer and fractures in the host rock as it swells upon water uptake, (iii) it has the ability to exchange cations and to adsorb cationic radioelements. In order to confirm these functions for the purpose of safety assessment, it is necessary to evaluate buffer properties through laboratory tests and engineering-scale tests, and to make assessments based on the ranges in the data obtained. This report describes the procedures, test conditions, results and examinations on the buffer material of unconfined compression tests, one-dimensional consolidation tests, consolidated-undrained triaxial compression tests and consolidated-undrained triaxial creep tests that aim at getting hold of static mechanical properties. We can get hold of the relationship between the dry density and tensile stress etc. by Brazilian tests, between the dry density and unconfined compressive strength etc. by unconfined compression tests, between the consolidation stress and void ratio etc. by one-dimensional consolidation tests, the stress pass of each effective confining pressure etc. by consolidated-undrained triaxial compression tests and the axial strain rate with time of each axial stress etc. by consolidated-undrained triaxial creep tests. (author)

  20. Investigation of Quasi-Static Indentation Response of Inkjet Printed Sandwich Structures under Various Indenter Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Vishwesh; Nagalingam, Arun Prasanth; Yap, Yee Ling; Sing, Swee Leong; Yeong, Wai Yee; Wei, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the quasi-static indentation response and failure mode in three-dimensional (3D) printed trapezoidal core structures, and to characterize the energy absorbed by the structures. In this work, the trapezoidal sandwich structure was designed in the following two ways. Firstly, the trapezoidal core along with its facesheet was 3D printed as a single element comprising a single material for both core and facesheet (type A); Secondly, the trapezoidal core along with facesheet was 3D printed, but with variation in facesheet materials (type B). Quasi-static indentation was carried out using three different indenters, namely standard hemispherical, conical, and flat indenters. Acoustic emission (AE) technique was used to capture brittle cracking in the specimens during indentation. The major failure modes were found to be brittle failure and quasi-brittle fractures. The measured indentation energy was at a maximum when using a conical indenter at 9.40 J and 9.66 J and was at a minimum when using a hemispherical indenter at 6.87 J and 8.82 J for type A and type B series specimens respectively. The observed maximum indenter displacements at failure were the effect of material variations and composite configurations in the facesheet. PMID:28772649

  1. Experimental study on swelling character of statics-compacted bentonite-sand mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Suli; Zhang Huyuan; Liu Jisheng; Liang Jian

    2010-01-01

    In the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) geological disposal projects barrier system, there are two types for constructing buffer/backfill material in preconceived: locale field-pressed and locale-build by prefab lock. Statics-Compacted is needed for both footrill padding in the locale field-pressed and locale-build by prefab lock. Laboratory tests were conducted on statics-compacted mixture of GMZ001 bentonite and quartz sand in different addition. The results obtained indicated that in the semi-log coordinates, the form of the P-time and e-time curves were sigmoid,the same as dynamic-compacted specime. The swelling character of statics-compacted specime were also as well as dynamic-compacted specime, that is with the increase of initial dry density, the maximum swelling pressure were exponential increase and maximum swelling strain increase linearly. These made it clear that the methods of making specime have no effect on the swelling character of bentonite-sand mixture, so methods for constructing buffer/backfill material can be selected free as needed in the construction site. The validity of regression relationship received by dynamic-compacted specime test was verified, and the coefficients for the regression equation were revised in a greater range of initial dry density. Based on the comprehensive analysis of experimental results, it is concluded that addition of 10-30% quartz sand and 1.60-1.80 g/cm 3 for initial dry density to GMZ001 bentonite-sand mixture is suitable for the swelling quality. (authors)

  2. Acute effect of static stretching on muscle force in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Demantova Gurjão

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the acute effect of static stretching on the peak rate of force development (PRFD and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC in older women. Ten women (68.5 ± 7.0 years; 70.9 ± 8.1 kg; 159.4 ± 6.0 cm; body mass index: 28.0 ± 3.8 kg/m2 were studied. MVC and PRFD were determined by leg press exercise before and after the control or stretching condition (three sets of 30 seconds of static stretching of the quadriceps on two different days (interval of 24 hours. PRFD was determined as the steepest slope of the curve, calculated within regular windows of 20 milliseconds (∆force/∆time for the first 200 milliseconds after the onset of contraction. MVC was determined as the highest value recorded in each set. Only one condition was tested on each day and the order of application of each condition was determined randomly. The stretching intensity was evaluated by the muscle pain threshold. Four post-condition assessments (post-treatment, 10, 20, and 30 minutes were performed to monitor muscle strength. ANCOVA 2x5, followed by the Scheffé post-hoc test, showed no significant interactions between conditions vs. times (P > 0.05 for PRFD or MVC. In conclusion, acute bouts of static stretching of the quadriceps femoris do not affect the ability of rapid and maximum muscle force production in older women.

  3. Objective Bayesianism and the Maximum Entropy Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Williamson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Bayesian epistemology invokes three norms: the strengths of our beliefs should be probabilities; they should be calibrated to our evidence of physical probabilities; and they should otherwise equivocate sufficiently between the basic propositions that we can express. The three norms are sometimes explicated by appealing to the maximum entropy principle, which says that a belief function should be a probability function, from all those that are calibrated to evidence, that has maximum entropy. However, the three norms of objective Bayesianism are usually justified in different ways. In this paper, we show that the three norms can all be subsumed under a single justification in terms of minimising worst-case expected loss. This, in turn, is equivalent to maximising a generalised notion of entropy. We suggest that requiring language invariance, in addition to minimising worst-case expected loss, motivates maximisation of standard entropy as opposed to maximisation of other instances of generalised entropy. Our argument also provides a qualified justification for updating degrees of belief by Bayesian conditionalisation. However, conditional probabilities play a less central part in the objective Bayesian account than they do under the subjective view of Bayesianism, leading to a reduced role for Bayes’ Theorem.

  4. Efficient heuristics for maximum common substructure search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Péter; Kovács, Péter

    2015-05-26

    Maximum common substructure search is a computationally hard optimization problem with diverse applications in the field of cheminformatics, including similarity search, lead optimization, molecule alignment, and clustering. Most of these applications have strict constraints on running time, so heuristic methods are often preferred. However, the development of an algorithm that is both fast enough and accurate enough for most practical purposes is still a challenge. Moreover, in some applications, the quality of a common substructure depends not only on its size but also on various topological features of the one-to-one atom correspondence it defines. Two state-of-the-art heuristic algorithms for finding maximum common substructures have been implemented at ChemAxon Ltd., and effective heuristics have been developed to improve both their efficiency and the relevance of the atom mappings they provide. The implementations have been thoroughly evaluated and compared with existing solutions (KCOMBU and Indigo). The heuristics have been found to greatly improve the performance and applicability of the algorithms. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the applied methods and present the experimental results.

  5. Pre-exposure to moving form enhances static form sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S A Wallis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motion-defined form can seem to persist briefly after motion ceases, before seeming to gradually disappear into the background. Here we investigate if this subjective persistence reflects a signal capable of improving objective measures of sensitivity to static form. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We presented a sinusoidal modulation of luminance, masked by a background noise pattern. The sinusoidal luminance modulation was usually subjectively invisible when static, but visible when moving. We found that drifting then stopping the waveform resulted in a transient subjective persistence of the waveform in the static display. Observers' objective sensitivity to the position of the static waveform was also improved after viewing moving waveforms, compared to viewing static waveforms for a matched duration. This facilitation did not occur simply because movement provided more perspectives of the waveform, since performance following pre-exposure to scrambled animations did not match that following pre-exposure to smooth motion. Observers did not simply remember waveform positions at motion offset, since removing the waveform before testing reduced performance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Motion processing therefore interacts with subsequent static visual inputs in a way that can improve performance in objective sensitivity measures. We suggest that the brief subjective persistence of motion-defined forms that can occur after motion offsets is a consequence of the decay of a static form signal that has been transiently enhanced by motion processing.

  6. Prediction of plastic deformation under contact condition by quasi-static and dynamic simulations using explicit finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siswanto, W. A.; Nagentrau, M.; Tobi, A. L. Mohd; Tamin, M. N.

    2016-01-01

    We compared the quasi-static and dynamic simulation responses on elastic-plastic deformation of advanced alloys using Finite element (FE) method with an explicit numerical algorithm. A geometrical model consisting of a cylinder-on-flat surface contact under a normal load and sliding motion was examined. Two aeroengine materials, Ti-6Al-4V and Super CMV (Cr-Mo-V) alloy, were employed in the FE analysis. The FE model was validated by comparative magnitudes of the FE-predicted maximum contact pressure variation along the contact half-width length with the theoretical Hertzian contact solution. Results show that the (compressive) displacement of the initial contact surface steadily increases for the quasi-static load case, but accumulates at an increasing rate to the maximum level for the dynamic loading. However, the relatively higher stiffness and yield strength of the Super CMV alloy resulted in limited deformation and low plastic strain when compared to the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The accumulated equivalent plastic strain of the material point at the initial contact position was nearly a thousand times higher for the dynamic load case (for example, 6.592 for Ti-6Al-4V, 1.0 kN) when compared to the quasi-static loading (only 0.0072). During the loading step, the von Mises stress increased with a decreasing and increasing rate for the quasi-static and dynamic load case, respectively. A sudden increase in the stress magnitude to the respective peak value was registered due to the additional constraint to overcome the static friction of the mating surfaces during the sliding step

  7. Prediction of plastic deformation under contact condition by quasi-static and dynamic simulations using explicit finite element analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siswanto, W. A.; Nagentrau, M.; Tobi, A. L. Mohd [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat (Malaysia); Tamin, M. N. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2016-11-15

    We compared the quasi-static and dynamic simulation responses on elastic-plastic deformation of advanced alloys using Finite element (FE) method with an explicit numerical algorithm. A geometrical model consisting of a cylinder-on-flat surface contact under a normal load and sliding motion was examined. Two aeroengine materials, Ti-6Al-4V and Super CMV (Cr-Mo-V) alloy, were employed in the FE analysis. The FE model was validated by comparative magnitudes of the FE-predicted maximum contact pressure variation along the contact half-width length with the theoretical Hertzian contact solution. Results show that the (compressive) displacement of the initial contact surface steadily increases for the quasi-static load case, but accumulates at an increasing rate to the maximum level for the dynamic loading. However, the relatively higher stiffness and yield strength of the Super CMV alloy resulted in limited deformation and low plastic strain when compared to the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The accumulated equivalent plastic strain of the material point at the initial contact position was nearly a thousand times higher for the dynamic load case (for example, 6.592 for Ti-6Al-4V, 1.0 kN) when compared to the quasi-static loading (only 0.0072). During the loading step, the von Mises stress increased with a decreasing and increasing rate for the quasi-static and dynamic load case, respectively. A sudden increase in the stress magnitude to the respective peak value was registered due to the additional constraint to overcome the static friction of the mating surfaces during the sliding step.

  8. Hydraulic Limits on Maximum Plant Transpiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, S.; Vico, G.; Katul, G. G.; Palmroth, S.; Jackson, R. B.; Porporato, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Photosynthesis occurs at the expense of water losses through transpiration. As a consequence of this basic carbon-water interaction at the leaf level, plant growth and ecosystem carbon exchanges are tightly coupled to transpiration. In this contribution, the hydraulic constraints that limit transpiration rates under well-watered conditions are examined across plant functional types and climates. The potential water flow through plants is proportional to both xylem hydraulic conductivity (which depends on plant carbon economy) and the difference in water potential between the soil and the atmosphere (the driving force that pulls water from the soil). Differently from previous works, we study how this potential flux changes with the amplitude of the driving force (i.e., we focus on xylem properties and not on stomatal regulation). Xylem hydraulic conductivity decreases as the driving force increases due to cavitation of the tissues. As a result of this negative feedback, more negative leaf (and xylem) water potentials would provide a stronger driving force for water transport, while at the same time limiting xylem hydraulic conductivity due to cavitation. Here, the leaf water potential value that allows an optimum balance between driving force and xylem conductivity is quantified, thus defining the maximum transpiration rate that can be sustained by the soil-to-leaf hydraulic system. To apply the proposed framework at the global scale, a novel database of xylem conductivity and cavitation vulnerability across plant types and biomes is developed. Conductivity and water potential at 50% cavitation are shown to be complementary (in particular between angiosperms and conifers), suggesting a tradeoff between transport efficiency and hydraulic safety. Plants from warmer and drier biomes tend to achieve larger maximum transpiration than plants growing in environments with lower atmospheric water demand. The predicted maximum transpiration and the corresponding leaf water

  9. Analogue of Pontryagin's maximum principle for multiple integrals minimization problems

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail, Zelikin

    2016-01-01

    The theorem like Pontryagin's maximum principle for multiple integrals is proved. Unlike the usual maximum principle, the maximum should be taken not over all matrices, but only on matrices of rank one. Examples are given.

  10. Lake Basin Fetch and Maximum Length/Width

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear features representing the Fetch, Maximum Length and Maximum Width of a lake basin. Fetch, maximum length and average width are calcuated from the lake polygon...

  11. Probable Maximum Precipitation in the U.S. Pacific Northwest in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Hossain, Faisal; Leung, L. Ruby

    2017-11-01

    The safety of large and aging water infrastructures is gaining attention in water management given the accelerated rate of change in landscape, climate, and society. In current engineering practice, such safety is ensured by the design of infrastructure for the Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP). Recently, several numerical modeling approaches have been proposed to modernize the conventional and ad hoc PMP estimation approach. However, the underlying physics have not been fully investigated and thus differing PMP estimates are sometimes obtained without physics-based interpretations. In this study, we present a hybrid approach that takes advantage of both traditional engineering practice and modern climate science to estimate PMP for current and future climate conditions. The traditional PMP approach is modified and applied to five statistically downscaled CMIP5 model outputs, producing an ensemble of PMP estimates in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) during the historical (1970-2016) and future (2050-2099) time periods. The hybrid approach produced consistent historical PMP estimates as the traditional estimates. PMP in the PNW will increase by 50% ± 30% of the current design PMP by 2099 under the RCP8.5 scenario. Most of the increase is caused by warming, which mainly affects moisture availability through increased sea surface temperature, with minor contributions from changes in storm efficiency in the future. Moist track change tends to reduce the future PMP. Compared with extreme precipitation, PMP exhibits higher internal variability. Thus, long-time records of high-quality data in both precipitation and related meteorological fields (temperature, wind fields) are required to reduce uncertainties in the ensemble PMP estimates.

  12. Contagion processes on the static and activity driven coupling networks

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Yanjun; Jiang, Xin; Guo, Quantong; Ma, Yifang; Li, Meng; Zheng, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of network structure and the spreading of epidemic are common coexistent dynamical processes. In most cases, network structure is treated either static or time-varying, supposing the whole network is observed in a same time window. In this paper, we consider the epidemic spreading on a network consisting of both static and time-varying structures. At meanwhile, the time-varying part and the epidemic spreading are supposed to be of the same time scale. We introduce a static and a...

  13. Towards a formal definition of static and dynamic electronic correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides-Riveros, Carlos L; Lathiotakis, Nektarios N; Marques, Miguel A L

    2017-05-24

    Some of the most spectacular failures of density-functional and Hartree-Fock theories are related to an incorrect description of the so-called static electron correlation. Motivated by recent progress in the N-representability problem of the one-body density matrix for pure states, we propose a method to quantify the static contribution to the electronic correlation. By studying several molecular systems we show that our proposal correlates well with our intuition of static and dynamic electron correlation. Our results bring out the paramount importance of the occupancy of the highest occupied natural spin-orbital in such quantification.

  14. Static Compression of Hydrous Komatiite Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agee, C. B.

    2005-12-01

    High pressure sink/float experiments have been performed on komatiite with 3 and 10 wt% added H2O in order to investigate the effect of water on magma density at high pressure and to determine if density crossovers between equilibrium olivine and hydrous komatiite can exist in the upper mantle. The starting composition komatiite, from Munro Township, with MgO=28 wt%, has been previously studied using sink/float experiments under anhydrous conditions up to 9.3 GPa (Agee and Walker, 1988, 1993). In the present study the starting material mechanical mixtures consisted of powdered komatiite, brucite, fayalite, and reagent oxides of SiO2, Al203, and CaO. Samples were contained in compression-sealed molybdenum capsules. Sink/float marker spheres implemented were gem quality synthetic forsterite (Fo100) and San Carlos olivine (Fo90). Experimental run times were 30 seconds, thus minimizing sphere-liquid reactions and liquid reaction with capsule and pressure media. All experiments were carried out in a Walker multi-anvil apparatus at the Institute of Meteoritics, University of New Mexico. The komatiite + 3 wt% H2O liquid density was bracketed at 1900-1950°C by a float of Fo100 at 7 GPa and a sink at 6 GPa. Neutral buoyancy of Fo100 was observed at 6.4 GPa. An additional neutral buoyancy of Fo90 was observed at 9 GPa. These preliminary results suggest that a density crossover between equilibrium olivine (Fo93) and hydrous komatiite with up to 3 wt% H2O can exist in the mantle, thus lending support to the water filter hypothesis for the region above the 410 km discontinuity (Bercovici and Karato, 2003). Our results for static compression of komatiite + 3 wt% H2O are in good agreement with diamond sink/float observations by Sakamaki et al.(2005) on MORB + 2 wt% H2O. Our komatiite + 10 wt% H2O liquid density measurements are still in progress; however, flotation of Fo100 has not been observed in these experiments up to 9.2 GPa.

  15. Static sampling of dynamic processes - a paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mälicke, Mirko; Neuper, Malte; Jackisch, Conrad; Hassler, Sibylle; Zehe, Erwin

    2017-04-01

    Environmental systems monitoring aims at its core at the detection of spatio-temporal patterns of processes and system states, which is a pre-requisite for understanding and explaining their baffling heterogeneity. Most observation networks rely on distributed point sampling of states and fluxes of interest, which is combined with proxy-variables from either remote sensing or near surface geophysics. The cardinal question on the appropriate experimental design of such a monitoring network has up to now been answered in many different ways. Suggested approaches range from sampling in a dense regular grid using for the so-called green machine, transects along typical catenas, clustering of several observations sensors in presumed functional units or HRUs, arrangements of those cluster along presumed lateral flow paths to last not least a nested, randomized stratified arrangement of sensors or samples. Common to all these approaches is that they provide a rather static spatial sampling, while state variables and their spatial covariance structure dynamically change in time. It is hence of key interest how much of our still incomplete understanding stems from inappropriate sampling and how much needs to be attributed to an inappropriate analysis of spatial data sets. We suggest that it is much more promising to analyze the spatial variability of processes, for instance changes in soil moisture values, than to investigate the spatial variability of soil moisture states themselves. This is because wetting of the soil, reflected in a soil moisture increase, is causes by a totally different meteorological driver - rainfall - than drying of the soil. We hence propose that the rising and the falling limbs of soil moisture time series belong essentially to different ensembles, as they are influenced by different drivers. Positive and negative temporal changes in soil moisture need, hence, to be analyzed separately. We test this idea using the CAOS data set as a benchmark

  16. Maximum Likelihood Reconstruction for Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Setsompop, Kawin; Ye, Huihui; Cauley, Stephen F; Wald, Lawrence L

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a statistical estimation framework for magnetic resonance (MR) fingerprinting, a recently proposed quantitative imaging paradigm. Within this framework, we present a maximum likelihood (ML) formalism to estimate multiple MR tissue parameter maps directly from highly undersampled, noisy k-space data. A novel algorithm, based on variable splitting, the alternating direction method of multipliers, and the variable projection method, is developed to solve the resulting optimization problem. Representative results from both simulations and in vivo experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach yields significantly improved accuracy in parameter estimation, compared to the conventional MR fingerprinting reconstruction. Moreover, the proposed framework provides new theoretical insights into the conventional approach. We show analytically that the conventional approach is an approximation to the ML reconstruction; more precisely, it is exactly equivalent to the first iteration of the proposed algorithm for the ML reconstruction, provided that a gridding reconstruction is used as an initialization.

  17. Maximum Profit Configurations of Commercial Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of commercial engines with finite capacity low- and high-price economic subsystems and a generalized commodity transfer law [n ∝ Δ (P m] in commodity flow processes, in which effects of the price elasticities of supply and demand are introduced, is presented in this paper. Optimal cycle configurations of commercial engines for maximum profit are obtained by applying optimal control theory. In some special cases, the eventual state—market equilibrium—is solely determined by the initial conditions and the inherent characteristics of two subsystems; while the different ways of transfer affect the model in respects of the specific forms of the paths of prices and the instantaneous commodity flow, i.e., the optimal configuration.

  18. The worst case complexity of maximum parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Amir; Musa-Lempel, Noa; Tsur, Dekel; Ziv-Ukelson, Michal

    2014-11-01

    One of the core classical problems in computational biology is that of constructing the most parsimonious phylogenetic tree interpreting an input set of sequences from the genomes of evolutionarily related organisms. We reexamine the classical maximum parsimony (MP) optimization problem for the general (asymmetric) scoring matrix case, where rooted phylogenies are implied, and analyze the worst case bounds of three approaches to MP: The approach of Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards, the approach of Hendy and Penny, and a new agglomerative, "bottom-up" approach we present in this article. We show that the second and third approaches are faster than the first one by a factor of Θ(√n) and Θ(n), respectively, where n is the number of species.

  19. Modelling maximum likelihood estimation of availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, R.A.; Tietjen, G.L.; Rock, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    Suppose the performance of a nuclear powered electrical generating power plant is continuously monitored to record the sequence of failure and repairs during sustained operation. The purpose of this study is to assess one method of estimating the performance of the power plant when the measure of performance is availability. That is, we determine the probability that the plant is operational at time t. To study the availability of a power plant, we first assume statistical models for the variables, X and Y, which denote the time-to-failure and the time-to-repair variables, respectively. Once those statistical models are specified, the availability, A(t), can be expressed as a function of some or all of their parameters. Usually those parameters are unknown in practice and so A(t) is unknown. This paper discusses the maximum likelihood estimator of A(t) when the time-to-failure model for X is an exponential density with parameter, lambda, and the time-to-repair model for Y is an exponential density with parameter, theta. Under the assumption of exponential models for X and Y, it follows that the instantaneous availability at time t is A(t)=lambda/(lambda+theta)+theta/(lambda+theta)exp[-[(1/lambda)+(1/theta)]t] with t>0. Also, the steady-state availability is A(infinity)=lambda/(lambda+theta). We use the observations from n failure-repair cycles of the power plant, say X 1 , X 2 , ..., Xsub(n), Y 1 , Y 2 , ..., Ysub(n) to present the maximum likelihood estimators of A(t) and A(infinity). The exact sampling distributions for those estimators and some statistical properties are discussed before a simulation model is used to determine 95% simulation intervals for A(t). The methodology is applied to two examples which approximate the operating history of two nuclear power plants. (author)

  20. A maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic-SPE system using a maximum current controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhida, Riza [Osaka Univ., Dept. of Physical Science, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan); Osaka Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Park, Minwon; Dakkak, Mohammed; Matsuura, Kenji [Osaka Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Tsuyoshi, Akira; Michira, Masakazu [Kobe City College of Technology, Nishi-ku, Kobe (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Processes to produce hydrogen from solar photovoltaic (PV)-powered water electrolysis using solid polymer electrolysis (SPE) are reported. An alternative control of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in the PV-SPE system based on the maximum current searching methods has been designed and implemented. Based on the characteristics of voltage-current and theoretical analysis of SPE, it can be shown that the tracking of the maximum current output of DC-DC converter in SPE side will track the MPPT of photovoltaic panel simultaneously. This method uses a proportional integrator controller to control the duty factor of DC-DC converter with pulse-width modulator (PWM). The MPPT performance and hydrogen production performance of this method have been evaluated and discussed based on the results of the experiment. (Author)