Changes in context and perception of maximum reaching height.
Wagman, Jeffrey B; Day, Brian M
2014-01-01
Successfully performing a given behavior requires flexibility in both perception and behavior. In particular, doing so requires perceiving whether that behavior is possible across the variety of contexts in which it might be performed. Three experiments investigated how (changes in) context (ie point of observation and intended reaching task) influenced perception of maximum reaching height. The results of experiment 1 showed that perceived maximum reaching height more closely reflected actual reaching ability when perceivers occupied a point of observation that was compatible with that required for the reaching task. The results of experiments 2 and 3 showed that practice perceiving maximum reaching height from a given point of observation improved perception of maximum reaching height from a different point of observation, regardless of whether such practice occurred at a compatible or incompatible point of observation. In general, such findings show bounded flexibility in perception of affordances and are thus consistent with a description of perceptual systems as smart perceptual devices.
Experiences of ZAMG on mixing height determination
Piringer, M. [Zentralanstalt fuer Meteorologie und Geodynamik, ZAMG, Vienna (Austria)
1997-10-01
Temperature inversions in the boundary layer occur quite often, esp. in mountainous terrain by which Austria is covered to a large extent, and can lead to enhanced pollution at the surface because the air volume available for dilution is then vertically limited. The Department of Environmental Meteorology of ZAMG therefore set up several field programs in the past to study such conditions at a variety of sites in Austria, using tethersondes and Sodars. Early investigations aimed at comparing Sodar echo profiles to the tethersonde temperature profiles to derive mixing heights from the Sodar echo structure. More recently, evolving from KONGEX, the `convective boundary layer experiment`, mixing heights calculated for Vienna by the OML model were compared to those derived from radiosonde and tethersonde potential temperature profiles. Results of these investigations will be presented, focussing on the problems when using the different methods. New efforts to derive mixing heights from data were also undertaken and are discussed separately. (au)
The determination of the mixing height. Current progress and problems
Gryning, S.E.; Beyrich, F.; Batchvarova, E. [eds.
1997-10-01
This report contains extended abstracts of presentations given at a EURASAP Workshop on The Determination of the Mixing Height - Current Progress and Problems. The Workshop, initiated from discussions with Peter Builtjes, was held at Risoe National Laboratory 1-3 October 1997 within the framework of EURASAP (European Association for the Sciences of Air Pollution). The specific topics and chairpersons of the Workshop were: Theoretical Considerations (Sven-Erik Gryning), Mixing Height Estimation from Turbulence Measurements and In-Situ Soundings (Douw Steyn), Mixing Height Determination from NWP-Models (Han van Dop), Climatology and Global Aspects (Werner Klug), Mixing Height Determination from Remote Systems (Werner Klug), Verification of Mixing Height Parameterizations and Models (Frank Beyrich), Mixing Height over Complex Terrain (Ekaterina Batchvarova), Internal Boundary Layers: Mixing Height in Coastal Areas and Over Cities (Allen White). The discussion at the end of the Workshop was chaired by Robert Bornstein. (au)
Mixing-Height Time Series from Operational Ceilometer Aerosol-Layer Heights
Lotteraner, Christoph; Piringer, Martin
2016-07-01
A new method is described to derive mixing-height time series directly from aerosol-layer height data available from a Vaisala CL51 ceilometer. As complete as possible mixing-height time series are calculated by avoiding outliers, filling data gaps by linear interpolation, and smoothing. In addition, large aerosol-layer heights at night that can be interpreted as residual layers are not assigned as mixing heights. The resulting mixing-height time series, converted to an appropriate data format, can be used as input for dispersion calculations. Two case examples demonstrate in detail how the method works. The mixing heights calculated using ceilometer data are compared with values determined from radiosounding data at Vienna by applying the parcel, Heffter, and Richardson methods. The results of the parcel method, obtained from radiosonde profiles at noon, show the best fit to the ceilometer-derived mixing heights. For midnight radiosoundings, larger deviations between mixing heights from the ceilometer and those deduced from the potential temperature profiles of the soundings are found. We use data from two Vaisala CL51 ceilometers, operating in the Vienna area at an urban and rural site, respectively, during an overlapping period of about 1 year. In addition to the case studies, the calculated mixing-height time series are also statistically evaluated and compared, demonstrating that the ceilometer-based mixing height follows an expected daily and seasonal course.
Mixing-Height Time Series from Operational Ceilometer Aerosol-Layer Heights
Lotteraner, Christoph; Piringer, Martin
2016-11-01
A new method is described to derive mixing-height time series directly from aerosol-layer height data available from a Vaisala CL51 ceilometer. As complete as possible mixing-height time series are calculated by avoiding outliers, filling data gaps by linear interpolation, and smoothing. In addition, large aerosol-layer heights at night that can be interpreted as residual layers are not assigned as mixing heights. The resulting mixing-height time series, converted to an appropriate data format, can be used as input for dispersion calculations. Two case examples demonstrate in detail how the method works. The mixing heights calculated using ceilometer data are compared with values determined from radiosounding data at Vienna by applying the parcel, Heffter, and Richardson methods. The results of the parcel method, obtained from radiosonde profiles at noon, show the best fit to the ceilometer-derived mixing heights. For midnight radiosoundings, larger deviations between mixing heights from the ceilometer and those deduced from the potential temperature profiles of the soundings are found. We use data from two Vaisala CL51 ceilometers, operating in the Vienna area at an urban and rural site, respectively, during an overlapping period of about 1 year. In addition to the case studies, the calculated mixing-height time series are also statistically evaluated and compared, demonstrating that the ceilometer-based mixing height follows an expected daily and seasonal course.
Sodar detection of mixing height in flat and mountainous terrain
Hennemuth, B.; Kirtzel, H.-Jürgen
2008-05-01
The atmospheric boundary layer plays an important role in air pollution and dispersion problems because the transport processes are managed within this layer and its top limits the vertical exchange of pollutants. A method for the derivation of the mixing height from measurements of sodar, RASS and sonic anemometer-thermometer is presented for flat terrain. It does not only use vertical profiles of measured parameters but also bulk information like histograms and time evolution. Results from a two-years period are verified by radiosonde-derived mixing height values and show the potential of the combination of the three systems to monitor the mixing height. Difficulties arise at locations in mountainous terrain where thermal wind regimes dominate which are highly non-local. An additional problem is a strong local heat source at an industrial site where even the definition of the mixing height is unclear.
Nomogram for the height of the daytime mixed layer
Nyren, K.; Gryning, Sven-Erik
1999-01-01
A method to construct a nomogram of the daytime mixed-layer-height evolution is presented. The nomogram will be specific for a given location and land surface type and is intended to be an easy tool to achieve a general understanding of mixed-layer behaviour. Also it is a pedagogical graphical one......-pager that displays the bulk of data that controls the evolution of the mixed layer. Nomograms from northern, central and southern Europe are presented and discussed. Comparison with data from two sites shows good agreement although the nomograms overestimated the mixing height when it was low....
Mixing height measurements from UHF wind profiling radar
Angevine, W.M.; Grimsdell, A.W. [CIRES, Univ. of Colorado, and NOAA Aeronomy Lab., Boulder, Colorado (United States)
1997-10-01
Mixing height in convective boundary layers can be detected by wind profiling radars (profilers) operating at or near 915 MHZ. We have made such measurements in a variety of settings including Alabama in 1992; Nova Scotia, Canada, during the North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE) 1993; Tennessee during the Southern Oxidant Study (SOS) 1994; near a 450 m tower in Wisconsin in 1995; and extensively in Illinois during the Flatland95, `96, and `97 experiments, as well as continuous operations at the Flatland Atmospheric Observatory. Profiler mixing height measurements, like all measurements, are subject to some limitations. The most important of these are due to rainfall, minimum height, and height resolution. Profilers are very sensitive to rain, which dominates the reflectivity and prevents the mixing height from being detected. Because the best height resolution is currently 60 m and the minimum height is 120-150 m AGL, the profiler is not suited for detecting mixing height in stable or nocturnal boundary layers. Problems may also arise in very dry or cold environments. (au) 12 refs.
Maximum holding endurance time: Effects of load and load's center of gravity height.
Lee, Tzu-Hsien
2015-01-01
Manual holding task is a potential risk to the development of musculoskeletal injuries since it is prone to induce localized muscle fatigue. Maximum holding endurance time is a significant parameter for the design of manual holding task. This study aimed to examine the effects of load and load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time. Fifteen young and healthy males were recruited as participants. A factorial design was used to examine the effects of load and load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time. Four levels of load (15% , 30% , 45% and 60% of the participant's maximum holding capacity) and two levels of load's COG height in box (0 cm and 40 cm high from the handle position) were examined. Maximum holding endurance time decreased with increasing load and/or increasing load's COG height. The effect of load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time decreased with increasing load. Load, load's COG height, and the interaction of load and load's COG height significantly affected maximum holding endurance time. Practitioners should realize the effects of load, load's COG height, and the interaction of load and load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time when setting the working conditions of holding tasks.
Climatology and evolution of the mixing height over water
Sempreviva, A.M. [Istituto di Fisica dell`Atmosfera, CNR, Rome (Italy); Grynig, S.E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)
1997-10-01
In this paper we present results from an experimental investigation on the height of the mixed layer h, using a meteorological station located on the Danish island of Anholt. The station was operational for two years from September 1990 to October 1992. We present the analysis of two years of radio-sounding showing the average daily evolution of h. Furthermore observations of the mixed layer growth under near-neutral and unstable atmospheric conditions during six consecutive days has been modelled using a simple zero-order mixed-layer height model. Finally we have compared the evolution of the mixing height from the model with the evolution of the correlation coefficient between temperature and humidity to study the influence of the deepness of the convective layer on the mechanism of the correlation between temperature and humidity in the surface layer. (au)
Maximum relative height of elastic interfaces in random media.
Rambeau, Joachim; Bustingorry, Sebastian; Kolton, Alejandro B; Schehr, Grégory
2011-10-01
The distribution of the maximal relative height (MRH) of self-affine one-dimensional elastic interfaces in a random potential is studied. We analyze the ground-state configuration at zero driving force, and the critical configuration exactly at the depinning threshold, both for the random-manifold and random-periodic universality classes. These configurations are sampled by exact numerical methods, and their MRH distributions are compared with those with the same roughness exponent and boundary conditions, but produced by independent Fourier modes with normally distributed amplitudes. Using Pickands' theorem we derive an exact analytical description for the right tail of the latter. After properly rescaling the MRH distributions we find that corrections from the Gaussian independent modes approximation are, in general, small, as previously found for the average width distribution of depinning configurations. In the large size limit all corrections are finite except for the ground state in the random-periodic class whose MRH distribution becomes, for periodic boundary conditions, indistinguishable from the Airy distribution. We find that the MRH distributions are, in general, sensitive to changes of boundary conditions.
Comparison of mixing height parameterizations with profiles measurements
Jaquier, A.; Stuebi, R.; Tercier, P. [Swiss Meteorological Inst., SMI - MeteoSwiss, Payerne (Switzerland)
1997-10-01
Different meteorological pre-processors for dispersion studies are available to derive the atmospheric boundary layer mixing height (MH). The analysis of their performances has been reviewed in the framework of the European COST Action 710. In this project, the computed mixing height values have been compared with data derived mostly from aero-logical sounding analysis and Sodar measurements. Since then, a new analysis of a low-tropospheric wind profiler (WP) data has been performed taking advantage of its high data sampling ({delta}t {approx} 30 sec.). The comparison between these recent results and aero-logical sounding, Sodar data, as well as to meteorological pre-processors calculations are reported for three periods of several days corresponding to different meteorological situations. In convective conditions, the pre-processors give reasonable level, the mixing height growing rate is in fair agreement with the measured one. In stable cloudy daytime conditions, the modeled mixing height does not correspond to any measured height. (LN)
Nomogram for the height of the daytime mixed layer
Nyren, K. [Ericsson EriSoft AB, Umeaa (Sweden); Gryning, S.E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)
1997-10-01
We present a nomogram that provide information about the general behaviour of the mixed layer at a given location. The nomogram is meant to be a practical and easy to use tool to determine the height of the mixed layer for i.e. weather forecaster, air pollution studies and planning of meteorological experiments. Use of the nomogram is restricted to flat, relatively homogeneous terrain. Inhomogeneous terrain with patch scales of 10 km or more might create organised circulation like i.e. lake breezes. The data represented in the nomogram is computed using a meteorological preprocessor and climatological temperature data for the location. The nomogram is simplified but retain main physical processes that control the evolution of the mixed layer and can be easily constructed for any chosen location on land. Nomogram of the mixed layer behavior at the location of Cabauw, the Netherlands is shown and discussed. (au)
Modelling the development of mixing height in near equatorial region
Samah, A.A. [Univ. of Malaya, Air Pollution Research Unit, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
1997-10-01
Most current air pollution models were developed for mid-latitude conditions and as such many of the empirical parameters used were based on observations taken in the mid-latitude boundary layer which is physically different from that of the equatorial boundary layer. In the equatorial boundary layer the Coriolis parameter f is small or zero and moisture plays a more important role in the control of stability and the surface energy balance. Therefore air pollution models such as the OMLMULTI or the ADMS which were basically developed for mid-latitude conditions must be applied with some caution and would need some adaptation to properly simulate the properties of equatorial boundary layer. This work elucidates some of the problems of modelling the evolution of mixing height in the equatorial region. The mixing height estimates were compared with routine observations taken during a severe air pollution episodes in Malaysia. (au)
Mixing height determination using remote sensing systems. General remarks
Beyrich, F. [BTU Cottbus, LS Umweltmeteorologie, Cottbus (Germany)
1997-10-01
Remote sensing systems can be considered today as a real alternative to classical soundings with respect to the MH (mixing height) determination. They have the basic advantage to allow continuous monitoring of the ABL (atmospheric boundary layer). Some technical issues which limit their operational use at present should be solved in the near future (frequency allocation, eye safety, costs). Taking into account specific operating conditions and the formulated-above requirements of a sounding system to be used for MH determination it becomes obvious that none of the available systems meets all of them, i.e., the `Mixing height-meter` does not exist. Therefore, reliable MH determination under a wide variety of conditions can be achieved only by integrating different instruments into a complex sounding system. The S-profiles provide a suitable data base for MH estimation from all types of remote sensing instruments. The criteria to deduce MH-values from these profiles should consider the structure type and the evolution stage of the ABL as well as the shape of the profiles. A certain kind of harmonization concerning these criteria should be achieved. MH values derived automatically from remote sensing data appear to be not yet reliable enough for direct operational use, they should be in any case critically examined by a trained analyst. Contemporary mathematical methods (wavelet transforms, fuzzy logics) are supposed to allow considerable progress in this field in the near future. (au) 19 refs.
Preliminary investigation on the relation between maximum wave height and wave spectra
Tao, Aifeng; Wen, Cheng; Wu, Yuqing; Wu, Haoran; Li, Shuo; Cao, Guangsui
2016-04-01
The maximum wave height is important not only for the determination of design wave parameters but also for the marine disaster defense. While it cannot be predicted straightforwardly at present, since the general numerical models for wave forecasting are all based on phase averaged spectra model. Then it becomes very useful to make clear the relationship between the maximum wave height and wave spectra parameters, such as average wave steepness, spectra width and spectra type, such as one single peak spectra or multi peaks spectra. In order to perform this research procedure, plenty of observed wave data are required. We collected ten years wave data measured from a ship in North Sea, one year wave pressure data from nine points around Korea, four years buoy data from three points along Chinese coast. The preliminary investigation results on the relations between maximum waves and spectra via the mention observed data will be present here.
The effect of maximum open height on operating characteristics of polymer injected pump poppet valve
Zhang, S. C.; Chen, X. D.; Deng, H. Y.
2012-11-01
Reciprocating polymer injected pump is the key injection equipment of tertiary oil recovery, the poppet valve in it exists the problem of large vibration noise, low efficiency and short life when transportation high viscosity medium. So the CFD technique is adopted to simulate and analyze the inner flow fields of fluid end poppet valve. According to the practical structure of the poppet valve, a simplified 2D axis-symmetry geometry model of the flow field is established. Combined with pump speed, plunger stroke and plunger diameter, given the boundary condition of the inlet valve, then the numerical simulation of flow field under six different maximum open heights is done depending on software Fluent. The relationship between open height to valve gap flow velocity, hydraulic loss and lag angle is obtained. The results indicate that, with the increase of open height, the valve gap flow velocity decreases, inlet outlet pressure differential decreases and hydraulic loss decreases. But the lag angle is continuously increasing with the increase of maximum open height, the valve has a good work performance when the open height is 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3mm, but when it reaches 3.5mm, the valve performance becomes poor. The study can offer certain reference to understand operating characteristics of poppet valve, help to reduce the hydraulic losses and raise volume efficiency of the pump.
Mixing height determination from the momentum balance of the neutral or stable PBL
Bergmann, J.C. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)
1997-10-01
The mixing height is defined by the top of the layer of turbulent mixing. This height is equal to the height H of turbulent vertical momentum transport (fiction) in neutral or stable stratification. In very stable cases, the wave induced momentum transport must be excluded if the waves do not have mixing effects (e.g. break) within the frictional layer. Thus the conditions provided by the momentum balance determine the mixing height in most cases of mechanical turbulence. Mixing is a time dependent process and depends also on the height of release of substance to be mixed. It depends on the specific form of the exchange coefficient function whether the mixing time for the mixed layer is finite of infinite. If this time is infinite, an additional mixing time criterion for a substance released close to the ground must be applied for the determination of the corresponding mixing height. (au)
Mixing height computation from a numerical weather prediction model
Jericevic, A. [Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service, Zagreb (Croatia); Grisogono, B. [Univ. of Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia). Andrija Mohorovicic Geophysical Inst., Faculty of Science
2004-07-01
Dispersion models require hourly values of the mixing height, H, that indicates the existence of turbulent mixing. The aim of this study was to investigate a model ability and characteristics in the prediction of H. The ALADIN, limited area numerical weather prediction (NWP) model for short-range 48-hour forecasts was used. The bulk Richardson number (R{sub iB}) method was applied to determine the height of the atmospheric boundary layer at one grid point nearest to Zagreb, Croatia. This specific location was selected because there were available radio soundings and the verification of the model could be done. Critical value of bulk Richardson number R{sub iBc}=0.3 was used. The values of H, modelled and measured, for 219 days at 12 UTC are compared, and the correlation coefficient of 0.62 is obtained. This indicates that ALADIN can be used for the calculation of H in the convective boundary layer. For the stable boundary layer (SBL), the model underestimated H systematically. Results showed that R{sub iBc} evidently increases with the increase of stability. Decoupling from the surface in the very SBL was detected, which is a consequence of the flow ease resulting in R{sub iB} becoming very large. Verification of the practical usage of the R{sub iB} method for H calculations from NWP model was performed. The necessity for including other stability parameters (e.g., surface roughness length) was evidenced. Since ALADIN model is in operational use in many European countries, this study would help the others in pre-processing NWP data for input to dispersion models. (orig.)
Bobbert, Maarten F; Richard Casius, L J
2011-05-27
The purpose of this study was to understand how humans regulate their 'leg stiffness' in hopping, and to determine whether this regulation is intended to minimize energy expenditure. 'Leg stiffness' is the slope of the relationship between ground reaction force and displacement of the centre of mass (CM). Variations in leg stiffness were achieved in six subjects by having them hop at maximum and submaximum heights at a frequency of 1.7 Hz. Kinematics, ground reaction forces and electromyograms were measured. Leg stiffness decreased with hopping height, from 350 N m(-1) kg(-1) at 26 cm to 150 N m(-1) kg(-1) at 14 cm. Subjects reduced hopping height primarily by reducing the amplitude of muscle activation. Experimental results were reproduced with a model of the musculoskeletal system comprising four body segments and nine Hill-type muscles, with muscle stimulation STIM(t) as only input. Correspondence between simulated hops and experimental hops was poor when STIM(t) was optimized to minimize mechanical energy expenditure, but good when an objective function was used that penalized jerk of CM motion, suggesting that hopping subjects are not minimizing energy expenditure. Instead, we speculated, subjects are using a simple control strategy that results in smooth movements and a decrease in leg stiffness with hopping height.
The maximum sloshing wave height evaluation in cylindrical metallic tanks by numerical means
Manser Walid Samir
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The metallic cylindrical storage tanks are very common structures in the field of civil engineering; These facilities are especially used in the industry in which they are used to store all kinds of products-which are for the most toxic or flammable. The tanks are also used in the storing of drinking water. When earthquakes, these structures must be strictly maintained in order to avoid that they lose their precious contents causing reactions that can cause more damage than the earthquake itself. In this study, the effects of the liquid height, the geometric parameters of tanks in the variation of the maximum sloshing wave height are studied: For this purpose, the software ANSYS V11.0 is used for modelling the tanks, the results found are compared with thus given in the Euro code 8
Modelling non-stationary annual maximum flood heights in the lower Limpopo River basin of Mozambique
Daniel Maposa
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In this article we fit a time-dependent generalised extreme value (GEV distribution to annual maximum flood heights at three sites: Chokwe, Sicacate and Combomune in the lower Limpopo River basin of Mozambique. A GEV distribution is fitted to six annual maximum time series models at each site, namely: annual daily maximum (AM1, annual 2-day maximum (AM2, annual 5-day maximum (AM5, annual 7-day maximum (AM7, annual 10-day maximum (AM10 and annual 30-day maximum (AM30. Non-stationary time-dependent GEV models with a linear trend in location and scale parameters are considered in this study. The results show lack of sufficient evidence to indicate a linear trend in the location parameter at all three sites. On the other hand, the findings in this study reveal strong evidence of the existence of a linear trend in the scale parameter at Combomune and Sicacate, whilst the scale parameter had no significant linear trend at Chokwe. Further investigation in this study also reveals that the location parameter at Sicacate can be modelled by a nonlinear quadratic trend; however, the complexity of the overall model is not worthwhile in fit over a time-homogeneous model. This study shows the importance of extending the time-homogeneous GEV model to incorporate climate change factors such as trend in the lower Limpopo River basin, particularly in this era of global warming and a changing climate.Keywords: nonstationary extremes; annual maxima; lower Limpopo River; generalised extreme value
Sadjadi, Firooz A; Mahalanobis, Abhijit
2006-05-01
We report the development of a technique for adaptive selection of polarization ellipse tilt and ellipticity angles such that the target separation from clutter is maximized. From the radar scattering matrix [S] and its complex components, in phase and quadrature phase, the elements of the Mueller matrix are obtained. Then, by means of polarization synthesis, the radar cross section of the radar scatters are obtained at different transmitting and receiving polarization states. By designing a maximum average correlation height filter, we derive a target versus clutter distance measure as a function of four transmit and receive polarization state angles. The results of applying this method on real synthetic aperture radar imagery indicate a set of four transmit and receive angles that lead to maximum target versus clutter discrimination. These optimum angles are different for different targets. Hence, by adaptive control of the state of polarization of polarimetric radar, one can noticeably improve the discrimination of targets from clutter.
Sacramento Corral-Rivas
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Background We used mixed models with random components to develop height-diameter (h-d functions for mixed, uneven-aged stands in northwestern Durango (Mexico, considering the breast height diameter (d and stand variables as predictors. Methods The data were obtained from 44 permanent plots used to monitor stand growth under forest management in the study area. Results The generalized Bertalanffy-Richards model performed better than the other generalized models in predicting the total height of the species under study. For the genera Pinus and Quercus, the models were successfully calibrated by measuring the height of a subsample of three randomly selected trees close to the mean d, whereas for species of the genera Cupressus, Arbutus and Alnus, three trees were also selected, but they are specifically the maximum, minimum and mean d trees. Conclusions The presented equations represent a new tool for the evaluation and management of natural forest in the region.
Igarashi, Yasuhiko; Hori, Takane; Murata, Shin; Sato, Kenichiro; Baba, Toshitaka; Okada, Masato
2016-12-01
We constructed a model to predict the maximum tsunami height by a Gaussian process (GP) that uses pressure gauge data from the Dense Oceanfloor Network System for Earthquakes and Tsunamis (DONET) in the Nankai trough. We found a greatly improved generalization error of the maximum tsunami height by our prediction model. The error is about one third of that by a previous method, which tends to make larger predictions, especially for large tsunami heights (>10 m). These results indicate that GP enables us to get a more accurate prediction of tsunami height by using pressure gauge data.
A maximum entropy distribution for wave heights of non-linear sea waves
无
2007-01-01
Based on the maximum entropy principle, a probability density function (PDF) for the zero-crossing wave height (H)of random waves is derived as the simple form fn (H) = αHγe-βHn ( n is a selectable positive integer) through solving a variational problem subject to some quite general constraints. This PDF maximizes the information entropy of H, and its parameters α, γ and β are expressed ear sea waves with large uncertainty, and its parameters can be simply determined from available data. Comparisons between the PDF with n = 3 and n = 4 and the observed distributions of H from wave records measured in the East China Sea and in a wind-wave tunnel show fairly satisfying agreements.
Low-level mixing height detection in coastal locations with a scanning Doppler lidar
V. Vakkari
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Mixing height is one of the key parameters in describing lower tropospheric dynamics, and capturing the diurnal variability is crucial, especially in interpreting surface observations. In this paper we introduce a method for identifying mixing heights below the vertical minimum range of a scanning Doppler lidar. The method we propose is based on velocity variance in low elevation angle conical scanning, and is applied to measurements in two very different coastal environments: Limassol, Cyprus during summer; and Loviisa, Finland during winter. At both locations, the new method agrees well with mixing heights derived from turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate profiles obtained from vertically-pointing measurements. The low-level scanning routine frequently indicated non-zero mixing heights less than 100 m above the surface. Such low mixing heights were more common at wintertime Loviisa on the Baltic Sea coast than during summertime in Mediterranean Limassol.
Some parameterization formulae for mixing height compared with joint sodar and lidar observations
Bielak, A.; Burzynski, J.; Kaszowski, W.; Walczewski, J. [Inst. for Meteorology and Water Management, Cracow (Poland)
1997-10-01
The mixing height (MH) is most frequently defined in terms of the mixing mechanism: atmospheric turbulence and its variability versus height. From the practical point of view it is more important to know the height of mixing of real polluting substances, than the absolute ceiling of turbulent processes. This approach is followed by many authors, especially those using lidars for observations of aerosol or gas mixing. In this paper effort is made to bring some contribution to these studies. The paper presents the results of selected observations of aerosol mixing height, compared with sodar observations of BL structure and with the MH calculated with use of different formulae taken from literature. All measurements were made in Cracow, Poland. (LN) 20 refs.
Calculation of the mean yearly mixing height over urban areas, from air pollution data.
Benarie, M M
1975-01-01
Conditions for the usefulness of the ventilation-volume or box model in the representation of long-term averages of pollutant concentrations are discussed. It is shown that yearly averages of mixing heights can be calculated from air pollutant concentration data without reference to meteorological observations. With no pretence to high accuracy, average mixing heights thus obtained are adequate to rapidly characterize an urban area in the low, medium or high bracket of pollutant concentrations. Estimates of yearly average mixing heights for six French and two Japanese towns are given.
Mues, Andrea; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Hoor, Peter; Bozem, Heiko; Münkel, Christoph; Lauer, Axel; Butler, Tim
2016-04-01
The properties and the vertical structure of the mixing layer as part of the planetary boundary layer are of key importance for local air quality. They have a substantial impact on the vertical dispersion of pollutants in the lower atmosphere and thus on their concentrations near the surface. In this study, ceilometer measurements taken within the framework of the SusKat project (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley) are used to investigate the mixing layer height in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The applied method is based on the assumption that the aerosol concentration is nearly constant in the vertical and distinctly higher within the mixing layer than in the air above. Thus, the height with the steepest gradient within the ceilometer backscatter profile marks the top of the mixing layer. Ceilometer and black carbon (BC) measurements conducted from March 2013 through February 2014 provide a unique and important dataset for the analysis of the meteorological and air quality conditions in the Kathmandu Valley. In this study the mean diurnal cycle of the mixing layer height in the Kathmandu Valley for each season (pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter season) and its dependency on the meteorological situation is investigated. In addition, the impact of the mixing layer height on the BC concentration is analyzed and compared to the relevance of other important processes such as emissions, horizontal advection and deposition. In all seasons the diurnal cycle is typically characterized by low mixing heights during the night, gradually increasing after sun rise reaching to maximum values in the afternoon before decreasing again. Seasonal differences can be seen particularly in the height of the mixing layer, e.g. from on average 153/1200 m (pre-monsoon) to 241/755 m (monsoon season) during the night/day, and the duration of enhanced mixing layer heights during daytime (around 12 hours (pre-monsoon season) to 8 hours (winter)). During the monsoon
Improved mixing height monitoring through a combination of lidar and radon measurements
A. D. Griffiths
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Surface-based radon (^{222}Rn measurements can be combined with lidar backscatter to obtain a higher quality time series of mixing height within the planetary boundary layer (PBL than is possible from lidar alone, and a more quantitative measure of mixing height than is possible from only radon. The reason why lidar measurements are improved is that there are times when lidar signals are ambiguous, and reliably attributing the mixing height to the correct aerosol layer presents a challenge. By combining lidar with a mixing length scale derived from a time series of radon concentration, automated and robust attribution is possible during the morning transition.
Radon measurements provide mixing information during the night, but concentrations also depend on the strength of surface emissions. After processing radon in combination with lidar, we obtain nightly measurements of radon emissions and are able to normalise the mixing length scale for changing emissions. After calibration with lidar, the radon-derived equivalent mixing height agrees with other measures of mixing on daily and hourly timescales and is a potential method for studying intermittent mixing in nocturnal boundary layers.
An applied model for the height of the daytime mixed layer and the entrainment zone
Batchvarova, E.; Gryning, Sven-Erik
1994-01-01
-layer height: friction velocity, kinematic heat flux near the ground and potential temperature gradient in the free atmosphere above the entrainment zone. When information is available on the horizontal divergence of the large-scale flow field, the model also takes into account the effect of subsidence......A model is presented for the height of the mixed layer and the depth of the entrainment zone under near-neutral and unstable atmospheric conditions. It is based on the zero-order mixed layer height model of Batchvarova and Gryning (1991) and the parameterization of the entrainment zone depth...
Mixing height derived from the DMI-HIRLAM NWP model, and used for ETEX dispersion modelling
Soerensen, J.H.; Rasmussen, A. [Danish Meteorological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)
1997-10-01
For atmospheric dispersion modelling it is of great significance to estimate the mixing height well. Mesoscale and long-range diffusion models using output from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models may well use NWP model profiles of wind, temperature and humidity in computation of the mixing height. This is dynamically consistent, and enables calculation of the mixing height for predicted states of the atmosphere. In autumn 1994, the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX) was carried out with the objective to validate atmospheric dispersion models. The Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) participates in the model evaluations with the Danish Emergency Response Model of the Atmosphere (DERMA) using NWP model data from the DMI version of the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM) as well as from the global model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). In DERMA, calculation of mixing heights are performed based on a bulk Richardson number approach. Comparing with tracer gas measurements for the first ETEX experiment, a sensitivity study is performed for DERMA. Using DMI-HIRLAM data, the study shows that optimum values of the critical bulk Richardson number in the range 0.15-0.35 are adequate. These results are in agreement with recent mixing height verification studies against radiosonde data. The fairly large range of adequate critical values is a signature of the robustness of the method. Direct verification results against observed missing heights from operational radio-sondes released under the ETEX plume are presented. (au) 10 refs.
Improved mixing height monitoring through a combination of lidar and radon measurements
A. D. Griffiths
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Surface-based radon (^{222}Rn measurements can be combined with lidar backscatter to obtain a higher quality time series of mixing height within the Planetary Boundary-Layer (PBL than is possible from lidar alone, and a more quantitative measure of mixing height than is possible from only radon. The lidar measurements benefit because even when aerosol layers are detected, reliably attributing the mixing height to the correct layer presents a challenge. By combining lidar with a mixing length scale derived from a time series of radon concentration, automated and robust attribution is possible during the morning transition.
Radon measurements also provide mixing information during the night and with the addition of lidar these measurements become insensitive to night-to-night changes in radon emissions. After calibration with lidar, the radon-derived equivalent mixing height agrees with other measures of mixing on daily and hourly time scales and is a potential method for studying intermittent mixing in nocturnal boundary layers.
A Maximum-Entropy Compound Distribution Model for Extreme Wave Heights of Typhoon-Affected Sea Areas
WANG Li-ping; SUN Xiao-guang; LU Ke-bo; XU De-lun
2012-01-01
A new compound distribution model for extreme wave heights of typhoon-affected sea areas is proposed on the basis of the maximum-entropy principle.The new model is formed by nesting a discrete distribution in a continuous one,having eight parameters which can be determined in terms of observed data of typhoon occurrence-frequency and extreme wave heights by numerically solving two sets of equations derived in this paper.The model is examined by using it to predict the N-year return-periodwave height at two hydrology stations in the Yellow Sea,and the predicted results are compared with those predicted by use of some other compound distribution models.Examinations and comparisons show that the model has some advantages for predicting the N-year return-period wave height in typhoon-affected sea areas.
Evaluation of Parameterization Schemes in the WRF Model for Estimation of Mixing Height
R. Shrivastava
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of parameterization schemes in the WRF model for estimation of mixing height. Numerical experiments were performed using various combinations of parameterization schemes and the results were compared with the mixing height estimated using the radiosonde observations taken by the India Meteorological Department (IMD at Mangalore site for selected days of the warm and cold season in the years 2004–2007. The results indicate that there is a large variation in the mixing heights estimated by the model using various combinations of parameterization schemes. It was seen that the physics option consisting of Mellor Yamada Janjic (Eta as the PBL scheme, Monin Obukhov Janjic (Eta as the surface layer scheme, and Noah land surface model performs reasonably well in reproducing the observed mixing height at this site for both the seasons as compared to the other combinations tested. This study also showed that the choice of the land surface model can have a significant impact on the simulation of mixing height by a prognostic model.
Comparison of measured and modelled mixing heights during the Borex`95 experiment
Mikkelsen, T.; Astrup, P.; Joergensen, H.E.; Ott, S. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Soerensen, J.H. [Danish Meteorological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Loefstroem, P. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark)
1997-10-01
A real-time modelling system designed for `on-the-fly` assessment of atmospheric dispersion during accidental releases is under establishment within the framework of the European Union. It integrates real-time dispersion models for both local scale and long range transport with wind, turbulence and deposition models. As meteorological input, the system uses both on-situ measured and on-line available meteorology. The resulting real-time dispersion system is called MET-RODOS. This paper focuses on evaluation of the MET-RODOS systems build-in local scale pre-processing software for real-time determination of mixing height, - an important parameter for the local scale dispersion assessments. The paper discusses the systems local scale mixing height algorithms as well as its in-line mixing height acquisition from the DMI-HIRLAM model. Comparisons of the diurnal mixing height evolution is made with measured mixing heights from in-situ radio-sonde data during the Borex`95 field trials, and recently also with remote sensed (LIDAR) aerosol profiles measured at Risoe. (LN)
Mixing heights over hilly terrain - a case study in northern austria
Baumann, K. [Central Inst. for Meteorology and Geodynamics, ZAMG, Vienna (Austria)
1997-10-01
Simultaneous Sodar measurements (Remtech PA2) were conducted from 10 October 1996 to 24 January 1997 at two sites in northern Austria, near the village Allensteig on top of a hill (590 m.s.l.) and in the village Lenzing (460 m.s.l.) near the lake Attersee. The two sites are 145 km apart from each other and differ much according to the complexity of the surrounding terrain, land use and altitude. Mixing height and inversions height estimations from the Sodar measurements are compared with mixing heights derived from radiosonde potential temperature profiles at the next stations Linz and Vienna using the parcel method of Stull (1991) explained by M. Piringer (this volume). The information about the static stability at different Sodar heights, which is provided by the new Sodar software in terms of vertical temperature gradients, is discussed. (au)
Wohrnschimmel, H.; Alonso, A. L.; Ángeles, F.; Sosa, G.; Varela, J.; Cárdenas, B.
2007-12-01
Among the mechanisms that affect air quality there is a variety of meteorological processes. An important process in this context are the changes in the mixing layer height during a day and over the year. The mixing layer height is the portion of the atmosphere close to the surface layer where air pollutants get diluted, without leaving this layer. Therefore, it is important to describe the variations in the height of the mixing layer, i.e. the vertical dilution of air pollution, since this is a process mitigating naturally the impact of emissions. There exist different methods to obtain information on the mixing layer height, among them radio soundings, the application of vertical wind profilers, and launching pilot balloons. In this study, pilot balloons have been used simultaneously over two sites of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MILAGRO campaign in March 2006. The objective was to determine the vertical wind profiles and derive information on the mixing layer height. Daily, four pilot balloons were launched, at 9:00, 12:00, 15:00, and 18:00 hours, over Tenango del Aire (a rural area in the Southeast of Mexico City), and over Ciudad Universitaria, in the Southern metropolitan area. At some occasions, night time measurements have been carried out at 21:00 and 24:00. A variability of the diurnal evolution of the mixing layer was observed along March, which could be related to surface temperature. The diurnal evolution showed a sudden growth of the mixing layer between 9:00 and 12:00 hours. Data intercomparisons were carried out for pilot balloons versus radio soundings during a few days at a third site, Tula, in the North of Mexico City. Both intercomparisons showed that pilot balloons are an effective method to obtain information about the development of the mixing layer.
An extreme value model for maximum wave heights based on weather types
Rueda, Ana; Camus, Paula; Méndez, Fernando J.; Tomás, Antonio; Luceño, Alberto
2016-02-01
Extreme wave heights are climate-related events. Therefore, special attention should be given to the large-scale weather patterns responsible for wave generation in order to properly understand wave climate variability. We propose a classification of weather patterns to statistically downscale daily significant wave height maxima to a local area of interest. The time-dependent statistical model obtained here is based on the convolution of the stationary extreme value model associated to each weather type. The interdaily dependence is treated by a climate-related extremal index. The model's ability to reproduce different time scales (daily, seasonal, and interannual) is presented by means of its application to three locations in the North Atlantic: Mayo (Ireland), La Palma Island, and Coruña (Spain).
Validation of mixing heights derived from the operational NWP models at the German weather service
Fay, B.; Schrodin, R.; Jacobsen, I. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach (Germany); Engelbart, D. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Meteorol. Observ. Lindenberg (Germany)
1997-10-01
NWP models incorporate an ever-increasing number of observations via four-dimensional data assimilation and are capable of providing comprehensive information about the atmosphere both in space and time. They describe not only near surface parameters but also the vertical structure of the atmosphere. They operate daily, are well verified and successfully used as meteorological pre-processors in large-scale dispersion modelling. Applications like ozone forecasts, emission or power plant control calculations require highly resolved, reliable, and routine values of the temporal evolution of the mixing height (MH) which is a critical parameter in determining the mixing and transformation of substances and the resulting pollution levels near the ground. The purpose of development at the German Weather Service is a straightforward mixing height scheme that uses only parameters derived from NWP model variables and thus automatically provides spatial and temporal fields of mixing heights on an operational basis. An universal parameter to describe stability is the Richardson number Ri. Compared to the usual diagnostic or rate equations, the Ri number concept of determining mixing heights has the advantage of using not only surface layer parameters but also regarding the vertical structure of the boundary layer resolved in the NWP models. (au)
Estimation of urban mixed layer height in Zanjan using LIDAR observations and numerical modeling
A A Bidokhti; M Khoshsima; S Sabetghadam; H M Khalesifard
2008-12-01
Air pollution predictions often require the height of atmospheric mixed layer in time especially in big cities. Here, the variation of the height of this layer is estimated from direct measurements and also from a numerical forecast model with a high resolution boundary layer scheme. The height of the daytime mixed layer for the city of Zanjan (48.5°N, 36.7°E, 1700 m above sea level)is measured using a LIDAR (532 nm)system, which works based on aerosols scattering of laser light. The mixed layer height () for Zanjan city, well above mean sea level compared to other major cities in the world,is found to be between 1.4 km typically in spring and 2.2 km in summer, for synoptic calm conditions. Also, the MM5 forecast model with a proper boundary layer scheme (MRF)is used to estimate which shows rather good agreement with direct observations using the LIDAR system. The entrainment zone of the mixed layer was also found to undergo some occasional temporal growth that may be attributed to shear instability that led to more mixed layer growth.
周良明; 郭佩芳; 王强; 杜伊
2004-01-01
Based on the maximum entropy principle, a probability density function (PDF) is derived for the distribution of wave heights in a random wave field, without any more hypothesis. The present PDF, being a non-Rayleigh form, involves two parameters: the average wave height H and the state parameter γ. The role of γ in the distribution of wave heights is examined. It is found that γ may be a certain measure of sea state. A least square method for determining γ from measured data is proposed. In virtue of the method, the values of γ are determined for three sea states from the data measured in the East China Sea. The present PDF is compared with the well known Rayleigh PDF of wave height and it is shown that it much better fits the data than the Rayleigh PDF. It is expected that the present PDF would fit some other wave variables, since its derivation is not restricted only to the wave height.
Sempreviva, A.M.; Gryning, Sven-Erik
2000-01-01
Results from an experimental investigation of the mixing height over inner Danish waters carried out from September 1990 to October 1992, are discussed. The statistical analysis of the mixed-layer height (z(i)) over the sea does not exhibit the daily variation that is characteristic of the mixed ...
Shukla, K. K.; Phanikumar, D. V.; Newsom, Rob K.; Kumar, Niranjan; Ratnam, Venkat; Naja, M.; Singh, Narendra
2014-03-01
A Doppler lidar was installed at Manora Peak, Nainital (29.4 N; 79.2 E, 1958 amsl) to estimate mixing layer height for the first time by using vertical velocity variance as basic measurement parameter for the period September-November 2011. Mixing layer height is found to be located ~0.57 +/- 0.1and 0.45 +/- 0.05km AGL during day and nighttime, respectively. The estimation of mixing layer height shows good correlation (R>0.8) between different instruments and with different methods. Our results show that wavelet co-variance transform is a robust method for mixing layer height estimation.
Espindola, J.
2010-12-01
The method of Carey and Sparks (1986) has been widely applied to estimate the hight of eruptive columns from the dispersal of the maximum clast size. These authors presented curves of maximum downwind range versus crosswind range for different clast diameters and wind speeds obtained from the numerical solution of a column model developed by Sparks(1986). An improved model of eruptive column was later developed by Woods (1988). In this work we present the results of the simulation of clast dispersal following the procedure of Carey and Sparks (1986) and the eruption column of Woods (1988). The numerical calculations were carried out with a code that computes the height of the column and the vertical velocity, the density and the radius along the column. The code determines then the support envelopes for a given clast size and their fall, after leaving the column, are computed from the equations of motion with viscous friction. For the same downwind and crosswind ranges, this method yields column heights about 10% smaller than the method of Carey and Sparks and about 20% higher wind velocities. The height of the crater above sea level plays also a small role in the results. We present comparisons for the 1982 eruption columns from El Chichon volcano. References Carey S and RSJ Sparks (1986) Bull. Volcanol. 48: 109-125 Sparks RSJ (1986) Bull. Volcanol. 48: 3-15 Woods AW (1988) Bull. Volcanol. 50: 169-193
On the geometrical place formed by the maximum heights of projectile motion with air resistance
Hernández-Saldaña, H
2010-01-01
We present an analysis on the geometrical place formed by the set of maxima of the orbits of a projectile launched in a media with linear drag. Such a place is written in term of the Lambert W function in polar coordinates, confirming the special role played by this function in the problem. In order to characterize it, a study of the curvature is presented in two parameterizations, in terms of the launching angle and in the polar one. The angles of maximum curvature are compared with other important angles in the projectile problem.
Mixed integer linear programming for maximum-parsimony phylogeny inference.
Sridhar, Srinath; Lam, Fumei; Blelloch, Guy E; Ravi, R; Schwartz, Russell
2008-01-01
Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees is a fundamental problem in computational biology. While excellent heuristic methods are available for many variants of this problem, new advances in phylogeny inference will be required if we are to be able to continue to make effective use of the rapidly growing stores of variation data now being gathered. In this paper, we present two integer linear programming (ILP) formulations to find the most parsimonious phylogenetic tree from a set of binary variation data. One method uses a flow-based formulation that can produce exponential numbers of variables and constraints in the worst case. The method has, however, proven extremely efficient in practice on datasets that are well beyond the reach of the available provably efficient methods, solving several large mtDNA and Y-chromosome instances within a few seconds and giving provably optimal results in times competitive with fast heuristics than cannot guarantee optimality. An alternative formulation establishes that the problem can be solved with a polynomial-sized ILP. We further present a web server developed based on the exponential-sized ILP that performs fast maximum parsimony inferences and serves as a front end to a database of precomputed phylogenies spanning the human genome.
Comparison of different remote sensing methods for mixing layer height monitoring
Emeis, Stefan; Schäfer, Klaus; Münkel, Christoph; Friedl, Roman; Suppan, Peter
2010-10-01
Since 2006 different remote monitoring methods for mixing layer height have been operated in Augsburg. One method is based on eye-safe commercial mini-lidar systems (ceilometers). The optical backscatter intensities recorded with these ceilometers provide information about the range-dependent aerosol concentration; gradient minima within this profile mark the tops of mixed layers. A special software for these ceilometers provides routine retrievals of lower atmosphere layering. A second method, based on SODAR (Sound Detection and Ranging) observations, detects the height of a turbulent layer characterized by high acoustic backscatter intensities due to thermal fluctuations and a high variance of the vertical velocity component. This information is extended by measurements with a RASS (Radio-Acoustic Sounding System) which provide the vertical temperature profile from the detection of acoustic signal propagation and thus temperature inversions which mark atmospheric layers. These SODAR and RASS data are the input to a software-based determination of mixing layer heights developed with MATLAB. A comparison of results of the three remote sensing methods during simultaneous measurements was performed. The information content of the ceilometer data is assessed by comparing it to the results from the other two instruments and near-by radiosonde data.
Ali, Md. Ayub; Ohtsuki, Fumio
2000-05-01
An attempt was made to estimate the maximum increment age (MIA) in height and weight of Japanese boys and girls during the birth years 1893-1990 through the published data of the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture in Japan. In cases where the same maximum annual increment occurred in two or three successive age classes in a birth year cohort, a new formula (see Eq. 2) was developed to estimate the MIA. The existing formula for estimating MIA was modified to remove the mathematical deficiency (Eq. 1). Estimated MIA shows an overall declining trend, except in birth year cohorts 1934-1951. The effect of World War II on MIA was investigated by a dummy variable regression model. On average, during the birth years 1934-1951, MIA in height decelerated by 1.35 years in boys and 0.54 year in girls, while MIA in weight decelerated by 0.95 year in boys and 0.78 year in girls. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:363-370, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Review and intercomparison of operational methods for the determination of the mixing height
Seibert, P.; Beyrich, F.; Gryning, Sven-Erik
2000-01-01
The height of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) or the mixing height (MH) is a fundamental parameter characterising the structure of the lower troposphere. Two basic possibilities for the practical determination of the MH are its derivation from profile data (measurements or numerical model...... output) and its parameterisation using simple equations or models (which only need a few measured input values). Different methods suggested in the literature are reviewed in this paper. The most important methods have been tested on data sets from three different sites in Europe (Cabauw - NL, Payerne...... - CH, Melpitz - D). Parcel and Richardson number methods applied to radiosonde profiles and the analysis of sodar and wind profiler data have been investigated. Modules for MH determination implemented in five currently used meteorological preprocessors for dispersion models have been tested, too...
Review and intercomparison of operational methods for the determination of the mixing height
Seibert, P.; Beyrich, F.; Gryning, Sven-Erik
2002-01-01
The height of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) or the mixing height (MH) is a fundamental parameter characterising the structure of the lower troposphere. Two basic possibilities for the practical determination of the MH are its derivation from profile data (measurements or numerical model...... output) and its parameterisation using simple equations or models (which only need a few measured input values). Different methods suggested in the literature are reviewed in this paper. The most important methods have been tested on data sets from three different sites in Europe (Cabauw—NL, Payerne......—CH, Melpitz—D). Parcel and Richardson number methods applied to radiosonde profiles and the analysis of sodar and wind profiler data have been investigated. Modules for MH determination implemented in five currently used meteorological preprocessors for dispersion models have been tested, too. Parcel methods...
On determination of the urban mixing height for air quality application
Kallistratova, M.A. [Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lokoschchenko, M.A. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)
1997-10-01
The verification of different estimates of MH (mixing height) through their comparison with the aero-logical profiles of potential temperature is not reliable due to great errors of this method assumed as a standard one. Only results of complex fluctuation measurements of height dependencies of meteoparameters may serve as a standard. The criterion of admissible relative errors in estimating MH depends on the degree of their effect on final results of calculations of the admixture concentration field. Such criteria can depend essentially not only on the type of a dispersion model but also on the character of atmospheric stratification, underlying surface, and synoptic processes. Sodars are the most cost-effective and accessible means of operative estimation of urban MH. Errors in sodar estimates of MH are admissible for elementary dispersion models. This work was partially supported by the Russian Foundation for Fundamental Researches, grants no. 96-05-65741 and 97.05-65697. (au) 17 refs.
A New Approach for Offshore Wind Farm Energy Yields Calculation with Mixed Hub Height Wind Turbines
Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Soltani, Mohsen
2016-01-01
In this paper, a mathematical model for calculating the energy yields of offshore wind farm with mixed types of wind turbines is proposed. The Jensen model is selected as the base and developed to a three dimension wake model to estimate the energy yields. Since the wind turbines are with different...... hub heights, the wind shear effect is also taken into consideration. The results show that the proposed wake model is effective in calculating the wind speed deficit. The calculation framework is applicable for energy yields calculation in offshore wind farms....
Height-Diameter Models for Mixed-Species Forests Consisting of Spruce, Fir, and Beech
Petráš Rudolf
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Height-diameter models define the general relationship between the tree height and diameter at each growth stage of the forest stand. This paper presents generalized height-diameter models for mixed-species forest stands consisting of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst., Silver fir (Abies alba L., and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. from Slovakia. The models were derived using two growth functions from the exponential family: the two-parameter Michailoff and three-parameter Korf functions. Generalized height-diameter functions must normally be constrained to pass through the mean stand diameter and height, and then the final growth model has only one or two parameters to be estimated. These “free” parameters are then expressed over the quadratic mean diameter, height and stand age and the final mathematical form of the model is obtained. The study material included 50 long-term experimental plots located in the Western Carpathians. The plots were established 40-50 years ago and have been repeatedly measured at 5 to 10-year intervals. The dataset includes 7,950 height measurements of spruce, 21,661 of fir and 5,794 of beech. As many as 9 regression models were derived for each species. Although the “goodness of fit” of all models showed that they were generally well suited for the data, the best results were obtained for silver fir. The coefficient of determination ranged from 0.946 to 0.948, RMSE (m was in the interval 1.94-1.97 and the bias (m was -0.031 to 0.063. Although slightly imprecise parameter estimation was established for spruce, the estimations of the regression parameters obtained for beech were quite less precise. The coefficient of determination for beech was 0.854-0.860, RMSE (m 2.67-2.72, and the bias (m ranged from -0.144 to -0.056. The majority of models using Korf’s formula produced slightly better estimations than Michailoff’s, and it proved immaterial which estimated parameter was fixed and which parameters
Angie D González
Full Text Available The high avian biodiversity present in the Neotropical region offers a great opportunity to explore the ecology of host-parasite relationships. We present a survey of avian haemoparasites in a megadiverse country and explore how parasite prevalences are related to physical and ecological host characteristics. Using light microscopy, we documented the presence of haemoparasites in over 2000 individuals belonging to 246 species of wild birds, from nine localities and several ecosystems of Colombia. We analysed the prevalence of six avian haemoparasite taxa in relation to elevation and the following host traits: nest height, nest type, foraging strata, primary diet, sociality, migratory behaviour, and participation in mixed species flocks. Our analyses indicate significant associations between both mixed species flocks and nest height and Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon prevalence. The prevalence of Leucocytozoon increased with elevation, whereas the prevalence of Trypanosoma and microfilariae decreased. Plasmodium and Haemoproteus prevalence did not vary significantly with elevation; in fact, both parasites were found up to 3300 m above sea level. The distribution of parasite prevalence across the phylogeny of bird species included in this study showed little host phylogenetic signal indicating that infection rates in this system are evolutionarily labile. Vector distribution as well as the biology of transmission and the maintenance of populations of avian haemoparasites deserve more detailed study in this system.
González, Angie D; Matta, Nubia E; Ellis, Vincenzo A; Miller, Eliot T; Ricklefs, Robert E; Gutiérrez, H Rafael
2014-01-01
The high avian biodiversity present in the Neotropical region offers a great opportunity to explore the ecology of host-parasite relationships. We present a survey of avian haemoparasites in a megadiverse country and explore how parasite prevalences are related to physical and ecological host characteristics. Using light microscopy, we documented the presence of haemoparasites in over 2000 individuals belonging to 246 species of wild birds, from nine localities and several ecosystems of Colombia. We analysed the prevalence of six avian haemoparasite taxa in relation to elevation and the following host traits: nest height, nest type, foraging strata, primary diet, sociality, migratory behaviour, and participation in mixed species flocks. Our analyses indicate significant associations between both mixed species flocks and nest height and Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon prevalence. The prevalence of Leucocytozoon increased with elevation, whereas the prevalence of Trypanosoma and microfilariae decreased. Plasmodium and Haemoproteus prevalence did not vary significantly with elevation; in fact, both parasites were found up to 3300 m above sea level. The distribution of parasite prevalence across the phylogeny of bird species included in this study showed little host phylogenetic signal indicating that infection rates in this system are evolutionarily labile. Vector distribution as well as the biology of transmission and the maintenance of populations of avian haemoparasites deserve more detailed study in this system.
Daniel, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Rudisill, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2017-07-17
As part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) processing campaign, H-Canyon is planning to begin dissolving High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fuel in late FY17 or early FY18. Each HFIR fuel core contains inner and outer fuel elements which were fabricated from uranium oxide (U_{3}O_{8}) dispersed in a continuous Al phase using traditional powder metallurgy techniques. Fuels fabricated in this manner, like other SNF’s processed in H-Canyon, dissolve by the same general mechanisms with similar gas generation rates and the production of H_{2}. The HFIR fuel cores will be dissolved using a flowsheet developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in either the 6.4D or 6.1D dissolver using a unique insert. Multiple cores will be charged to the same dissolver solution maximizing the concentration of dissolved Al. The recovered U will be down-blended into low-enriched U for subsequent use as commercial reactor fuel. During the development of the HFIR fuel dissolution flowsheet, the cycle time for the initial core was estimated at 28 to 40 h. Once the cycle is complete, H-Canyon personnel will open the dissolver and probe the HFIR insert wells to determine the height of any fuel fragments which did not dissolve. Before the next core can be charged to the dissolver, an analysis of the potential for H_{2} gas generation must show that the combined surface area of the fuel fragments and the subsequent core will not generate H_{2} concentrations in the dissolver offgas which exceeds 60% of the lower flammability limit (LFL) of H_{2} at 200 °C. The objective of this study is to identify the maximum fuel fragment height as a function of the Al concentration in the dissolving solution which will provide criteria for charging successive HFIR cores to an H-Canyon dissolver.
Mu, Yang; Yang, Hou-Yun; Wang, Ya-Zhou; He, Chuan-Shu; Zhao, Quan-Bao; Wang, Yi; Yu, Han-Qing
2014-06-01
Fermentative hydrogen production from wastes has many advantages compared to various chemical methods. Methodology for characterizing the hydrogen-producing activity of anaerobic mixed cultures is essential for monitoring reactor operation in fermentative hydrogen production, however there is lack of such kind of standardized methodologies. In the present study, a new index, i.e., the maximum specific hydrogen-producing activity (SHAm) of anaerobic mixed cultures, was proposed, and consequently a reliable and simple method, named SHAm test, was developed to determine it. Furthermore, the influences of various parameters on the SHAm value determination of anaerobic mixed cultures were evaluated. Additionally, this SHAm assay was tested for different types of substrates and bacterial inocula. Our results demonstrate that this novel SHAm assay was a rapid, accurate and simple methodology for determining the hydrogen-producing activity of anaerobic mixed cultures. Thus, application of this approach is beneficial to establishing a stable anaerobic hydrogen-producing system.
Ulrich, Clara; Vermard, Youen; Dolder, Paul J.
2017-01-01
. An objective method is suggested that provides an optimal set of fishing mortality within the range, minimizing the risk of total allowable catch mismatches among stocks captured within mixed fisheries, and addressing explicitly the trade-offs between the most and least productive stocks.......Achieving single species maximum sustainable yield (MSY) in complex and dynamic fisheries targeting multiple species (mixed fisheries) is challenging because achieving the objective for one species may mean missing the objective for another. The North Sea mixed fisheries are a representative...... ranges to combine long-term single-stock targets with flexible, short-term, mixed-fisheries management requirements applied to the main North Sea demersal stocks. It is shown that sustained fishing at the upper bound of the range may lead to unacceptable risks when technical interactions occur...
Mixing layer height and its implications for air pollution over Beijing, China
Tang, Guiqian; Zhang, Jinqiang; Zhu, Xiaowan; Song, Tao; Münkel, Christoph; Hu, Bo; Schäfer, Klaus; Liu, Zirui; Zhang, Junke; Wang, Lili; Xin, Jinyuan; Suppan, Peter; Wang, Yuesi
2016-03-01
The mixing layer is an important meteorological factor that affects air pollution. In this study, the atmospheric mixing layer height (MLH) was observed in Beijing from July 2009 to December 2012 using a ceilometer. By comparison with radiosonde data, we found that the ceilometer underestimates the MLH under conditions of neutral stratification caused by strong winds, whereas it overestimates the MLH when sand-dust is crossing. Using meteorological, PM2.5, and PM10 observational data, we screened the observed MLH automatically; the ceilometer observations were fairly consistent with the radiosondes, with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.9. Further analysis indicated that the MLH is low in autumn and winter and high in spring and summer in Beijing. There is a significant correlation between the sensible heat flux and MLH, and the diurnal cycle of the MLH in summer is also affected by the circulation of mountainous plain winds. Using visibility as an index to classify the degree of air pollution, we found that the variation in the sensible heat and buoyancy term in turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) is insignificant when visibility decreases from 10 to 5 km, but the reduction of shear term in TKE is near 70 %. When visibility decreases from 5 to 1 km, the variation of the shear term in TKE is insignificant, but the decrease in the sensible heat and buoyancy term in TKE is approximately 60 %. Although the correlation between the daily variation of the MLH and visibility is very poor, the correlation between them is significantly enhanced when the relative humidity increases beyond 80 %. This indicates that humidity-related physicochemical processes is the primary source of atmospheric particles under heavy pollution and that the dissipation of atmospheric particles mainly depends on the MLH. The presented results of the atmospheric mixing layer provide useful empirical information for improving meteorological and atmospheric chemistry models and the forecasting
Yafeng Wang
Full Text Available Little is known about tree height and height growth (as annual shoot elongation of the apical part of vertical stems of coniferous trees growing at various altitudes on the Tibetan Plateau, which provides a high-elevation natural platform for assessing tree growth performance in relation to future climate change. We here investigated the variation of maximum tree height and annual height increment of Smith fir (Abies georgei var. smithii in seven forest plots (30 m×40 m along two altitudinal transects between 3,800 m and 4,200/4,390 m above sea level (a.s.l. in the Sygera Mountains, southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Four plots were located on north-facing slopes and three plots on southeast-facing slopes. At each site, annual shoot growth was obtained by measuring the distance between successive terminal bud scars along the main stem of 25 trees that were between 2 and 4 m high. Maximum/mean tree height and mean annual height increment of Smith fir decreased with increasing altitude up to the tree line, indicative of a stress gradient (the dominant temperature gradient along the altitudinal transect. Above-average mean minimum summer (particularly July temperatures affected height increment positively, whereas precipitation had no significant effect on shoot growth. The time series of annual height increments of Smith fir can be used for the reconstruction of past climate on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. In addition, it can be expected that the rising summer temperatures observed in the recent past and anticipated for the future will enhance Smith fir's growth throughout its altitudinal distribution range.
A Model Chain Application to Estimate Mixing Layer Height Related to PM10 Dispersion Processes
F. Guarnieri
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The mixing layer height (MLH is a crucial parameter in order to investigate the near surface concentrations of air pollutants. The MLH can be estimated by measurements of some atmospheric variables, by indirect estimates based on trace gases concentration or aerosol, or by numerical models. Here, a modelling approach is proposed. The developed modelling system is based on the models WRF-ARW and CALMET. This system is applied on Firenze-Prato-Pistoia area (Central Italy, during 2010, and it is compared with in situ measurements. The aim of this work is to evaluate the use of MLH model estimates to characterize the critical episodes for PM10 in a limited area. In order to find out the meteorological conditions predisposing accumulation of PM10 in the atmosphere’s lower level, some indicators are used: daily mean wind speed, cumulated rainfall, and mean MLH estimates from CALMET model. This indicator is linked to orography, which has important consequences on local weather dynamics. However, during critical events the local emission sources are crucial to the determination of threshold exceeding of PM10. Results show that the modelled MLH, together with cumulative rainfall and wind speed, can identify the meteorological conditions predisposing accumulation of air pollutant at ground level.
Hao Xu
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Tree height and diameter at breast height are two important forest factors. The best model from 23 height-diameter equations was selected as the basic model to fit the height-diameter relationships of Chinese fir with one level (sites or plots effects and nested two levels (nested effects of sites and plots Nonlinear Mixed Effects (NLME models. The best model was chosen by smaller Bias, RMSE and larger Radj2. Then the best random-effects combinations for the NLME models were determined by AIC, BIC and -2LL. The results showed that the basic model with three random effects parameters &Phi &Phi &Phi1 &Phi2 and &Phi3 was considered the best mixed model. The nested two levels NLME model considering heteroscedasticity structure (power function possessed with higher predictable accuracy and significantly improved model performance (LRT = 469.43, p<0.0001. The NLME model would be allowed for estimating accuracy the height-diameter relationships of Chinese fir and provided better height predictions than the models using only fixed-effects parameters.
Li, Meng; Tang, Gui-qian; Huang, Jun; Liu, Zi-rui; An, Jun-lin; Wang, Yue-si
2015-06-01
Atmospheric mixing layer height (MLH) is one of the main factors affecting the atmospheric diffusion and plays an important role in air quality assessment and distribution of the pollutants. Based on the ceilometers data, this paper has made synchronous observation on MLH in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Qinhuangdao) in heavy polluted February 2014 and analyzed the respective overall change and its regional features. Results show that in February 2014,the average of mixing layer height in Qinhuangdao is the highest, up to 865 +/- 268 m, and in Shijiazhuang is the lowest (568 +/- 207 m), Beijing's and Tianjin's are in between, 818 +/- 319 m and 834 +/- 334 m respectively; Combined with the meteorological data, we find that radiation and wind speed are main factors of the mixing layer height; The relationship between the particle concentration and mixing layer height in four sites suggests that mixing layer is less than 800 m, concentration of fine particulate matter in four sites will exceed the national standard (GB 3095-2012, 75 microg x m(-3)). During the period of observation, the proportion of days that mixing layer is less than 800 m in Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Qinhuangdao are 50%, 43%, 80% and 50% respectively. Shijiazhuang though nearly formation contaminant concentration is high, within the atmospheric mixed layer pollutant load is not high. Unfavorable atmospheric diffusion conditions are the main causes of heavy pollution in Shijiazhuang for a long time. The results of the study are of great significance for cognitive Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area pollution distribution, and can provide a scientific reference for reasonable distribution of regional pollution sources.
Long-term study of air urban quality together with mixing layer height
Schäfer, Klaus; Ling, Hong; Münkel, Christoph; Emeis, Stefan
2013-10-01
Air pollution episodes in urban areas often occur during low wind speeds and low mixing layer height (MLH) and can not only be ascribed to increased local anthropogenic emissions. The continuous knowledge of MLH is supporting the understanding of processes directing air quality. If the MLH is located near to the ground, which occurs mainly during winter and night-time, air pollution can be high due to a strongly limited air mass dilution. The Vaisala ceilometer CL31, which is an eye-safe commercial mini-lidar system, is used for long-term continuous remote sensing of MLH. The ceilometer measurements provide information about the range-dependent aerosol concentration; gradient minima within this profile mark the borders of mixed layers. Special software for this ceilometer developed with MATLAB provides routine retrievals of lower atmosphere layering from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. To study the gaseous pollutants and those compounds important for secondary aerosol formation like NO and NO2 as well as O3 The data retrieval software is extended to improve remote sensing of MLH. The original 10-minute-interval values are used to calculate continuous 1-hour-mean values. Gaps and strong variations of the original data are considered. The results of investigations of the meteorological influences and the role of emissions within the context of the air quality in Augsburg are discussed. a DOAS is operated since March 2012 in Augsburg. Information about different road traffic emissions is provided by this one instrument i.e. by path-integrated air pollution information in different directions. The DOAS contains an analyser and an emitter/receiver unit pointing to three retroreflectors. The retroreflectors were installed at lamp masts so that the paths were about 10 m above street level and perpendicular across the streets. The emitter/receiver unit was in a distance of about 20 m to an in situ air pollution measurement station at the ground. Ground
Schäfer, Klaus; Blumenstock, Thomas; Bonn, Boris; Gerwig, Holger; Hase, Frank; Münkel, Christoph; Nothard, Rainer; von Schneidemesser, Erika
2015-10-01
Mixing layer height (MLH) is a key parameter to determine the influence of meteorological parameters upon air pollutants such as trace gas species and particulate concentrations near the surface. Meteorology, and MLH as a key parameter, affect the budget of emission source strengths, deposition, and accumulation. However, greater possibilities for the application of MLH data have been identified in recent years. Here, the results of measurements in Berlin in 2014 are shown and discussed. The concentrations of NO, NO2, O3, CO, PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and about 70 volatile organic compounds (anthropogenic and biogenic of origin) as well as particle size distributions and contributions of SOA and soot species to PM were measured at the urban background station of the Berlin air quality network (BLUME) in Nansenstr./Framstr., Berlin-Neukölln. A Vaisala ceilometer CL51, which is a commercial mini-lidar system, was applied at that site to detect the layers of the lower atmosphere in real time. Special software for these ceilometers with MATLAB provided routine retrievals of MLH from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. Five portable Bruker EM27/SUN FTIR spectrometers were set up around Berlin to detect column averaged abundances of CO2 and CH4 by solar absorption spectrometry. Correlation analyses were used to show the coupling of temporal variations of trace gas compounds and PM with MLH. Significant influences of MLH upon NO, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, PM1 and toluene (marker for traffic emissions) concentrations as well as particle number concentrations in the size modes 70 - 100 nm, 100 - 200 nm and 200 - 500 nm on the basis of averaged diurnal courses were found. Further, MLH was taken as important auxiliary information about the development of the boundary layer during each day of observations, which was required for the proper estimation of CO2 and CH4 source strengths from Berlin on the basis of atmospheric column density measurements.
A MIXED MODE FRACTURE CRITERION BASED ON THE MAXIMUM TANGENTIAL STRESS IN BRITTLE INCLUSION
Ji Changjiang; Li Zhonghua; Sun Jun
2005-01-01
A closed-form solution for predicting the tangential stress of an inclusion located in mixed mode Ⅰ and Ⅱ crack tip field was developed based on the Eshelby equivalent inclusion theory. Then a mixed mode fracture criterion, including the fracture direction and the critical load, was established based on the maximum tangential stress in the inclusion for brittle inclusioninduced fracture materials. The proposed fracture criterion is a function of the inclusion fracture stress, its size and volume fraction, as well as the elastic constants of the inclusion and the matrix material. The present criterion will reduce to the conventional one as the inclusion having the same elastic behavior as the matrix material. The proposed solutions are in good agreement with detailed finite element analysis and measurement.
A mixed relaxed singular maximum principle for linear SDEs with random coefficients
Andersson, Daniel
2008-01-01
We study singular stochastic control of a two dimensional stochastic differential equation, where the first component is linear with random and unbounded coefficients. We derive existence of an optimal relaxed control and necessary conditions for optimality in the form of a mixed relaxed-singular maximum principle in a global form. A motivating example is given in the form of an optimal investment and consumption problem with transaction costs, where we consider a portfolio with a continuum of bonds and where the portfolio weights are modeled as measure-valued processes on the set of times to maturity.
Observed Variability of Global Atmospheric Mixing Layer Height from 1971 to 2014
Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Kaicun
2015-04-01
It is important to determine the mixing layer height (MLH) for understanding the transport process in the troposphere, weather prediction, and climate monitoring. MLH is a key parameter in air pollution models which determines the volume available for pollutants to dispersion. The long-term variation of MLH can drive the change of surface air quality. Many methods have been proposed to estimate MLH from the temperature or atmospheric composition profiles provided by radiosonde and remote sounding systems. Radiosonde data are usually considered as a reference by other methods owing to its long-term history and direct observation. However, disagreements exist between MLHs derived from different variable profiles of radiosonde data. In this study, a method integrating the information of potential temperature, relative humidity, specific humidity, atmospheric refractivity and the effect of cloud on the boundary layer turbulence was applied to the global radiosonde data to generate long-term variation of the global MLH from 1971 to 2014. The radiosonde observations were released by the Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) of National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The MLHs in the North America are fairly deep, with an average value between 1800 and 2200 m, however, the Europe and the Eastern Asia have shallow MLHs between 1200 and 1500 m. The majority of the North America and Australia stations showed a negative trend during the period of 1971 to 2014, while, for the Europe and Japan, the MLHs increased over time. The MLH had a negative correlation with surface relative humidity and a positive association with surface air temperature. Besides the effect of thermodynamic factors, the dynamical factors including the surface wind speed and its shear in the boundary layer influence the development of the boundary layer. However, there is no significant correlation between the surface wind speeds and MLH in this study. Weak negative association was found between
Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Tejero-González, Carlos M; Del Campo-Vecino, Juan; Alonso-Curiel, Dionisio
2013-03-01
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a power training cycle on maximum strength, maximum power, vertical jump height and acceleration in seven high-level 400-meter hurdlers subjected to a specific training program twice a week for 10 weeks. Each training session consisted of five sets of eight jump-squats with the load at which each athlete produced his maximum power. The repetition maximum in the half squat position (RM), maximum power in the jump-squat (W), a squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CSJ), and a 30-meter sprint from a standing position were measured before and after the training program using an accelerometer, an infra-red platform and photo-cells. The results indicated the following statistically significant improvements: a 7.9% increase in RM (Z=-2.03, p=0.021, δc=0.39), a 2.3% improvement in SJ (Z=-1.69, p=0.045, δc=0.29), a 1.43% decrease in the 30-meter sprint (Z=-1.70, p=0.044, δc=0.12), and, where maximum power was produced, a change in the RM percentage from 56 to 62% (Z=-1.75, p=0.039, δc=0.54). As such, it can be concluded that strength training with a maximum power load is an effective means of increasing strength and acceleration in high-level hurdlers.
Meyer, Karin
2007-11-01
WOMBAT is a software package for quantitative genetic analyses of continuous traits, fitting a linear, mixed model; estimates of covariance components and the resulting genetic parameters are obtained by restricted maximum likelihood. A wide range of models, comprising numerous traits, multiple fixed and random effects, selected genetic covariance structures, random regression models and reduced rank estimation are accommodated. WOMBAT employs up-to-date numerical and computational methods. Together with the use of efficient compilers, this generates fast executable programs, suitable for large scale analyses. Use of WOMBAT is illustrated for a bivariate analysis. The package consists of the executable program, available for LINUX and WINDOWS environments, manual and a set of worked example, and can be downloaded free of charge from (http://agbu. une.edu.au/~kmeyer/wombat.html).
Some aspects of estimation of mixing height using vertical sodar records
Walczewski, J. [Inst. for Meteorology and Water Management, Cracow (Poland)
1997-10-01
The changes of the vertical range of sodar, depending on technical parameters, were illustrated by resulting changes of the height distribution of convective and elevated layers echoes. The extent of the difference`s in vertical range may be compartively large. In analyzed case, the maximal heights of convective plumes recorded at the same site with use of 3 types of sodar, were like 1:1.35:1.96. The relations of mean centers of gravity of frequency distributions were like 1:1.4:2.4. (au)
Blache, Yoann; Bobbert, Maarten; Argaud, Sebastien; Pairot de Fontenay, Benoit; Monteil, Karine M
2013-08-01
In experiments investigating vertical squat jumping, the HAT segment is typically defined as a line drawn from the hip to some point proximally on the upper body (eg, the neck, the acromion), and the hip joint as the angle between this line and the upper legs (θUL-HAT). In reality, the hip joint is the angle between the pelvis and the upper legs (θUL-pelvis). This study aimed to estimate to what extent hip joint definition affects hip joint work in maximal squat jumping. Moreover, the initial pelvic tilt was manipulated to maximize the difference in hip joint work as a function of hip joint definition. Twenty-two male athletes performed maximum effort squat jumps in three different initial pelvic tilt conditions: backward (pelvisB), neutral (pelvisN), and forward (pelvisF). Hip joint work was calculated by integrating the hip net joint torque with respect to θUL-HAT (WUL-HAT) or with respect to θUL-pelvis (WUL-pelvis). θUL-HAT was greater than θUL-pelvis in all conditions. WUL-HAT overestimated WULpelvis by 33%, 39%, and 49% in conditions pelvisF, pelvisN, and pelvisB, respectively. It was concluded that θUL-pelvis should be measured when the mechanical output of hip extensor muscles is estimated.
Validity of different prediction equations of the maximum load in mixed martial arts athletes
Jairo Laécio Guerra Filho
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of different prediction equations to the one maximum repetition (1-RM test at the bench press exercise (BP with bar in mixed martial arts (MMA athletes. The sample was composed by 19 male MMA athletes (27.68 ± 6.19 years. The data collection was performed in two different moments: 1 in 1-RM test; 2 in submaximal test and their respective numbers of repetitions. The paired-sample t test was performed and was noted that, among the six equations compared with the 1-RM test, only the Adams (p= 0.337 and O’Conner’s (p= 0.250 equations showed no significant differences. However, there were high Pearson correlation and intraclass correlation coefficients (r= 0.924, ICC= 0.924; r= 0.944, ICC= 0.944, respectively. Nevertheless, all equations showed high correlations that ranged between 0.854 and 0.944. In conclusion, for estimation of 1-RM, the predictive equations based on Adams and O'Conner’s are valid in MMA athletes.
Lewis, J. R.; Welton, E. J.; Hegarty, J. D.; Henderson, J.; McGrath-Spangler, E. L.; Scarino, A. J.; Berkoff, T.; Ferrare, R. A.; Stewart, S. A.; DeCola, P.
2016-12-01
Long-term, continuous measurements of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height are rare, but necessary to ascertain its seasonal and diurnal changes. Autonomous ground-based lidar measurements from the NASA Micropulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) have the potential to contribute to our current knowledge of the PBL. MPLNET is a global network of micropulse lidars which has operated for over 16 years using a standard instrument and suite of processing algorithms. In this work, we investigate the daytime mixing layer height (MLH) determined from aerosol backscatter profiles using the wavelet covariance transform and a fuzzy-logic scheme. First, we evaluate simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model in the Washington D.C. - Baltimore, MD urban corridor during the July 2011 DISCOVER-AQ field campaign. In addition to MPLNET data, this field campaign utilizes data from field-deployed mini-Micropulse lidars, the CALIPSO satellite, and the NASA Langley Airborne High-Spectral Resolution Lidar. Next, we show a multi-year, multi-site comparison of MPLNET retrievals to PBL heights retrieved from the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2). We discuss differences between the modeled and observed quantities and the potential for future research.
Angevine, W. M.; Tucker, S. C.; Fairall, C.; Bariteau, L.; Wolfe, D.; Zagar, M.; Brewer, A.
2007-12-01
During the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study, boundary layer measurements were made by in-situ instruments, lidars, and rawinsondes on the NOAA RV Ronald H. Brown as well as by radar wind profilers on land. Brown also carried instruments to measure surface heat and momentum fluxes. This presentation will emphasize measurements made in Galveston Bay and in the Gulf of Mexico near the Houston area. Details of boundary layer depth and turbulence intensity over these waters have not been well known previously, but are quite important to the understanding of high ozone episodes in Houston. One somewhat surprising result is that the boundary layer over water was almost always slightly unstable, with positive surface heat flux. Mixing depths were moderate, although mixing was generally weak compared to that over land. Boundary layer heights over the water were substantially shallower than daytime heights over land. Experiments in modeling ozone episodes with WRF at 1.5-km grid spacing will be shown and compared with the measurements.
Ilker Ercanli
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Diameter at breast height (DBH is the simplest, most common and most important tree dimension in forest inventory and is closely correlated with wood volume, height and biomass. In this study, a number of linear and nonlinear models predicting diameter at breast height from stump diameter were developed and evaluated for Oriental beech (Fagus orientalisLipsky stands located in the forest region of Ayancık, in the northeast of Turkey. A set of 1,501 pairs of diameter at breast height-stump measurements, originating from 70 sample plots of even-aged Oriental beech stands, were used in this study. About 80 % of the otal data (1,160 trees in 55 sample plots was used to fit a number of linear and nonlinear model parameters; the remaining 341 trees in 15 sample plots were randomly reserved for model validation and calibration response. The power model data set was found to produce the most satisfactory fits with the Adjusted Coefficient of Determination, R2adj (0.990, Root Mean Square Error, RMSE (1.25, Akaike’s Information Criterion, AIC (3820.5, Schwarz’s Bayesian Information Criterion, BIC (3837.2, and Absolute Bias (1.25. The nonlinear mixed-effect modeling approach for power model with R2adj(0.993, AIC (3598, BIC (3610.1, Absolute Bias (0.73 and RMSE (1.04 provided much better fitting and precise predictions for DBH from stump diameter than the conventional nonlinear fixed effect model structures for this model. The calibration response including tree DBH and stump diameter measurements of the four largest trees in a calibrated sample plot in calibration produced the highest Bias, -5.31 %, and RMSE, -6.30 %, the greatest reduction percentage.
Lam, Gilbert Wing Kai; Park, Eun Jung; Lee, Ki-Kwang; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man
2015-01-01
Side-step cutting manoeuvres comprise the coordination between planting and non-planting legs. Increased shoe collar height is expected to influence ankle biomechanics of both legs and possibly respective cutting performance. This study examined the shoe collar height effect on kinematics and kinetics of planting and non-planting legs during an unanticipated side-step cutting. Fifteen university basketball players performed maximum-effort side-step cutting to the left 45° direction or a straight ahead run in response to a random light signal. Seven successful cutting trials were collected for each condition. Athletic performance, ground reaction force, ankle kinematics and kinetics of both legs were analysed using paired t-tests. Results indicated that high-collar shoes resulted in less ankle inversion and external rotation during initial contact for the planting leg. The high-collar shoes also exhibited a smaller ankle range of motion in the sagittal and transverse planes for both legs, respectively. However, no collar effect was found for ankle moments and performance indicators including cutting performance time, ground contact time, propulsion ground reaction forces and impulses. These findings indicated that high-collar shoes altered ankle positioning and restricted ankle joint freedom movements in both legs, while no negative effect was found for athletic cutting performance.
Clovenilson Cláudio Perissato Cano
2004-12-01
Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este experimento, avaliar a massa de forragem (MF, massa de lâmina verde (MLV, massa de colmo + bainha verde (MCV, massa de material morto (MMM, massa de forragem verde (MFV, relação folha/colmo (F/C, taxa de acúmulo de massa seca (TAMS, acúmulo de massa de forragem (AMF, índice de área foliar (IAF, porcentagem de solo descoberto (SD e porcentagem de solo coberto com liteira (SCL em pastagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 manejada em quatro alturas do dossel forrageiro (20, 40, 60 e 80 cm. O método de pastejo utilizado foi o de lotação contínua e taxa de lotação variável, com novilhos da raça Nelore com peso médio de 340 kg. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com duas repetições e realizaram-se cinco avaliações. MLV, MCV, MMM, MFV, MF, IAF, TAMS e AMF aumentaram com o avanço da altura do dossel, sendo que a porcentagem de SD, SCL e material morto diminui em pastos mais altos. O manejo do capim-Tanzânia nas alturas de 40 e 60 cm, apresentou as melhores respostas de composição morfológica, garantindo boa oferta de folhas, de cobertura do solo e taxa de acúmulo de massa seca. As alturas de 20 e 80 cm não devem ser recomendadas para o manejo do capim-Tanzânia quando o objetivo for produção com qualidade e quantidade.This experiment was conducted out to evaluate the forage mass (FM, green leaf lamina mass (GLLM, green stem + leaf sheath mass (GSSM, mass of dead material (MDM, green forage mass (GMF, total forage mass (TFM, leaf/stem ratio (L/S, dry matter accumulation rate (DMAR, leaf area index (LAI, % of bare soil (BS and litter cover percentage (LCP in Tanzaniagrass pasture (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 managed at four different sward heights (20, 40, 60 and 80 cm. The grazing method was the continuous stocking with variable stocking rate, and the grazing animals were Nellore steers with average weight of 340 kg. The completely
Abadi, Ali Salehi Sahl; Mazlomi, Adel; Saraji, Gebraeil Nasl; Zeraati, Hojjat; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Amir Homayoun
2015-10-01
In spite of the widespread use of automation in industry, manual material handling (MMH) is still performed in many occupational settings. The emphasis on ergonomics in MMH tasks is due to the potential risks of workplace accidents and injuries. This study aimed to assess the effect of box size, frequency of lift, and height of lift on maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) on the heart rates of male university students in Iran. This experimental study was conducted in 2015 with 15 male students recruited from Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Each participant performed 18 different lifting tasks that involved three lifting frequencies (1lift/min, 4.3 lifts/min and 6.67 lifts/min), three lifting heights (floor to knuckle, knuckle to shoulder, and shoulder to arm reach), and two box sizes. Each set of experiments was conducted during the 20 min work period using the free-style lifting technique. The working heart rates (WHR) were recorded for the entire duration. In this study, we used SPSS version 18 software and descriptive statistical methods, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the t-test for data analysis. The results of the ANOVA showed that there was a significant difference between the mean of MAWL in terms of frequencies of lifts (p = 0.02). Tukey's post hoc test indicated that there was a significant difference between the frequencies of 1 lift/minute and 6.67 lifts/minute (p = 0. 01). There was a significant difference between the mean heart rates in terms of frequencies of lifts (p = 0.006), and Tukey's post hoc test indicated a significant difference between the frequencies of 1 lift/minute and 6.67 lifts/minute (p = 0.004). But, there was no significant difference between the mean of MAWL and the mean heart rate in terms of lifting heights (p > 0.05). The results of the t-test showed that there was a significant difference between the mean of MAWL and the mean heart rate in terms of the sizes of the two boxes (p = 0.000). Based on the results of
Junfeng Lu
2013-07-01
Full Text Available In recent years, linear mixed models (LMM have become more popular to deal with spatial effects in forestry and ecological data. In this study, different structure specifications of linear mixed model were applied to model tree height-diameter relationships, including LMM with random blocks only (LMM-block, LMM with spatial covariance only (LMM-covariance, and the combination of the last two (LMM-block-covariance. Further, the between-group heterogeneous variances were incorporated into LMM-covariance and LMM-block-covariance. The results indicated that, in general, LMM-covariance significantly reduced spatial autocorrelation in model residuals, while LMM-block was effective in dealing with spatial heterogeneity. LMM-block treated the blocks as random effects and avoided the estimation of parameters of the variogram model. Thus, it produced better model predictions than LMM-covariance. LMM-block-covariance took both block effects and spatial covariance into account, and significantly improve model fitting. However, it did not produce better model predictions due to the increase of model complexity and estimation of the local variogram within each block.
Reduced mixing generates oscillations and chaos in the oceanic deep chlorophyll maximum.
Huisman, Jef; Pham Thi, Nga N; Karl, David M; Sommeijer, Ben
2006-01-19
Deep chlorophyll maxima (DCMs) are widespread in large parts of the world's oceans. These deep layers of high chlorophyll concentration reflect a compromise of phytoplankton growth exposed to two opposing resource gradients: light supplied from above and nutrients supplied from below. It is often argued that DCMs are stable features. Here we show, however, that reduced vertical mixing can generate oscillations and chaos in phytoplankton biomass and species composition of DCMs. These fluctuations are caused by a difference in the timescales of two processes: (1) rapid export of sinking plankton, withdrawing nutrients from the euphotic zone and (2) a slow upward flux of nutrients fuelling new phytoplankton production. Climate models predict that global warming will reduce vertical mixing in the oceans. Our model indicates that reduced mixing will generate more variability in DCMs, thereby enhancing variability in oceanic primary production and in carbon export into the ocean interior.
Ulrich, Clara; Vermard, Youen; Dolder, Paul J.
2016-01-01
ranges to combine long-term single-stock targets with flexible, short-term, mixed-fisheries management requirements applied to the main North Sea demersal stocks. It is shown that sustained fishing at the upper bound of the range may lead to unacceptable risks when technical interactions occur....... An objective method is suggested that provides an optimal set of fishing mortality within the range, minimizing the risk of total allowable catch mismatches among stocks captured within mixed fisheries, and addressing explicitly the trade-offs between the most and least productive stocks....
Saeed, Umar; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Crewell, Susanne
2015-10-01
There are several instruments and methods to retrieve the atmospheric Mixing Layer Height (MLH). However, none of these instruments or methods can measure the development of the MLH under all atmospheric conditions. For example, aerosol signatures measured by backscatter lidars can be used to determine the MLH but this approach is reasonable only when the atmosphere is well-mixed. Microwave Radiometer (MWR) derived profiles have low vertical resolution and cannot resolve fine structures in the boundary layer, especially, at higher altitudes. Here we propose a method which combines data from a ground-based lidar and a MWR, in simulated as well as real measurements scenarios, to overcome these limitations. The method works by fitting an erf-like transition model function to the section of range-corrected lidar backscatter signal. The section of the lidar backscatter signal for fitting the model function is obtained by incorporating the MWR estimates of MLH along with their uncertainties. The fitting is achieved by using an extended Kalman filter (EKF). The proposed approach, by exploiting the synergy between the two instruments, enables to detect MLH with original vertical and temporal resolutions. Test cases combining simulated data for a co-located lidar-ceilometer and a MWR are presented. The simulated data is obtained from the Dutch Atmospheric Large Eddy Simulation (DALES) model for boundary layer studies. Doppler wind lidar along with radiosondes (whenever available) data is used to assess the quality of the synergetic MLH estimates. Data from the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE) campaign at Jülich, Germany is used to test the proposed method.
Popov, A K; George, T F; Shalaev, V M; Bayev, Alexander S.; George, Thomas F.; Shalaev, Vladimir M.
2000-01-01
New feasibity of coherent quantum control of four-wave mixing processes in a resonant Doppler-broadened medium are studied. We propose a technique which enables one to enhance the quantum efficiency of nonlinear optical conversion. At the same time, it allows one to decrease the required intensities of the fundamental beams compared to those necessary in the approach based on coherent population trapping. The major outcomes of the analysis are illustrated with numerical simulation addressed within a practical medium.
Resende Rosangela Maria Simeão; Jank Liana; Valle Cacilda Borges do; Bonato Ana Lídia Variani
2004-01-01
The objectives of this work were to estimate the genetic and phenotypic parameters and to predict the genetic and genotypic values of the selection candidates obtained from intraspecific crosses in Panicum maximum as well as the performance of the hybrid progeny of the existing and projected crosses. Seventy-nine intraspecific hybrids obtained from artificial crosses among five apomictic and three sexual autotetraploid individuals were evaluated in a clonal test with two replications and ten ...
Resende Rosangela Maria Simeão
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to estimate the genetic and phenotypic parameters and to predict the genetic and genotypic values of the selection candidates obtained from intraspecific crosses in Panicum maximum as well as the performance of the hybrid progeny of the existing and projected crosses. Seventy-nine intraspecific hybrids obtained from artificial crosses among five apomictic and three sexual autotetraploid individuals were evaluated in a clonal test with two replications and ten plants per plot. Green matter yield, total and leaf dry matter yields and leaf percentage were evaluated in five cuts per year during three years. Genetic parameters were estimated and breeding and genotypic values were predicted using the restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction procedure (REML/BLUP. The dominant genetic variance was estimated by adjusting the effect of full-sib families. Low magnitude individual narrow sense heritabilities (0.02-0.05, individual broad sense heritabilities (0.14-0.20 and repeatability measured on an individual basis (0.15-0.21 were obtained. Dominance effects for all evaluated characteristics indicated that breeding strategies that explore heterosis must be adopted. Less than 5% increase in the parameter repeatability was obtained for a three-year evaluation period and may be the criterion to determine the maximum number of years of evaluation to be adopted, without compromising gain per cycle of selection. The identification of hybrid candidates for future cultivars and of those that can be incorporated into the breeding program was based on the genotypic and breeding values, respectively. The prediction of the performance of the hybrid progeny, based on the breeding values of the progenitors, permitted the identification of the best crosses and indicated the best parents to use in crosses.
Robert OLENIACZ
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of wind speed and mixing-layer height in shaping the levels of pollutant concentrations in the air of Krakow (Southern Poland. The hourly averaged measurements of concentrations of selected air pollutants and wind speed values from the period of 2014-2015, recorded at two of the air quality monitoring stations within Krakow (both industrial and urban background were used for this purpose. Temporal variability of mixing-layer height in the area of the monitoring stations was determined using numerical modelling with the CALMET model and the measurements derived from, i.a., two upper air stations. It was found that wind speed and mixing-layer height are in at least moderate agreement with the concentration values for some pollutants. For PM10, PM2.5, NO2, NOx, CO and C6H6 correlation coefficient is of negative value, which indicates that the low wind speed and low mixing-layer height may be the dominant reason for elevated concentrations of these substances in the air, especially in the winter months. Moderate but positive correlation was found between O3 concentrations and analysed meteorological parameters, proving that the availability of appropriate precursors and their inflow from the neighbouring areas have an important role in the formation of tropospheric ozone. On the other hand, in case of SO2, a weak both positive and negative correlation coefficient was obtained, depending on the period and location of the station concerned.
Valbuena, Rubén; Heiskanen, Janne; Aynekulu, Ermias; Pitkänen, Sari; Packalen, Petteri
2016-01-01
It has been suggested that above-ground biomass (AGB) inventories should include tree height (H), in addition to diameter (D). As H is a difficult variable to measure, H-D models are commonly used to predict H. We tested a number of approaches for H-D modelling, including additive terms which increased the complexity of the model, and observed how differences in tree-level predictions of H propagated to plot-level AGB estimations. We were especially interested in detecting whether the choice of method can lead to bias. The compared approaches listed in the order of increasing complexity were: (B0) AGB estimations from D-only; (B1) involving also H obtained from a fixed-effects H-D model; (B2) involving also species; (B3) including also between-plot variability as random effects; and (B4) involving multilevel nested random effects for grouping plots in clusters. In light of the results, the modelling approach affected the AGB estimation significantly in some cases, although differences were negligible for some of the alternatives. The most important differences were found between including H or not in the AGB estimation. We observed that AGB predictions without H information were very sensitive to the environmental stress parameter (E), which can induce a critical bias. Regarding the H-D modelling, the most relevant effect was found when species was included as an additive term. We presented a two-step methodology, which succeeded in identifying the species for which the general H-D relation was relevant to modify. Based on the results, our final choice was the single-level mixed-effects model (B3), which accounts for the species but also for the plot random effects reflecting site-specific factors such as soil properties and degree of disturbance.
Rubén Valbuena
Full Text Available It has been suggested that above-ground biomass (AGB inventories should include tree height (H, in addition to diameter (D. As H is a difficult variable to measure, H-D models are commonly used to predict H. We tested a number of approaches for H-D modelling, including additive terms which increased the complexity of the model, and observed how differences in tree-level predictions of H propagated to plot-level AGB estimations. We were especially interested in detecting whether the choice of method can lead to bias. The compared approaches listed in the order of increasing complexity were: (B0 AGB estimations from D-only; (B1 involving also H obtained from a fixed-effects H-D model; (B2 involving also species; (B3 including also between-plot variability as random effects; and (B4 involving multilevel nested random effects for grouping plots in clusters. In light of the results, the modelling approach affected the AGB estimation significantly in some cases, although differences were negligible for some of the alternatives. The most important differences were found between including H or not in the AGB estimation. We observed that AGB predictions without H information were very sensitive to the environmental stress parameter (E, which can induce a critical bias. Regarding the H-D modelling, the most relevant effect was found when species was included as an additive term. We presented a two-step methodology, which succeeded in identifying the species for which the general H-D relation was relevant to modify. Based on the results, our final choice was the single-level mixed-effects model (B3, which accounts for the species but also for the plot random effects reflecting site-specific factors such as soil properties and degree of disturbance.
Mølgaard, Carsten Møller; Olesen Gammelgaard, Christian; Nielsen, R. G.;
2008-01-01
In 1996 Cornwall and McPoil discovered that the static measurement of the rearfoot angle while standing on one leg in a relaxed position, could serve as a clinical indicator of the maximum amount of rearfoot eversion during walking. Due to the close relationship between midfoot and rearfoot motio...... the relationship between static measurements, using Navicual Drop Test and One Leg Standing (OLS) and the dynamic measurements of minimal navicula height loaded (NHL) and navicula drop (ΔNH)...
Lau Nguyen Dinh
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of finding maximum flow in network graph is extremely interesting and practically applicable in many fields in our daily life, especially in transportation. Therefore, a lot of researchers have been studying this problem in various methods. Especially in 2013, we has developed a new algorithm namely, postflow-pull algorithm to find the maximum flow on traditional networks. In this paper, we revised postflow-push methods to solve this problem of finding maximum flow on extended mixed network. In addition, to take more advantage of multi-core architecture of the parallel computing system, we build this parallel algorithm. This is a completely new method not being announced in the world. The results of this paper are basically systematized and proven. The idea of this algorithm is using multi processors to work in parallel by postflow_push algorithm. Among these processors, there is one main processor managing data, sending data to the sub processors, receiving data from the sub-processors. The sub-processors simultaneously execute their work and send their data to the main processor until the job is finished, the main processor will show the results of the problem.
无
2007-01-01
WOMBAT is a software package for quantitative genetic analyses of continuous traits, fitting a linear, mixed model;estimates of covariance components and the resulting genetic parameters are obtained by restricted maximum likelihood. A wide range of models, comprising numerous traits, multiple fixed and random effects, selected genetic covariance structures, random regression models and reduced rank estimation are accommodated. WOMBAT employs up-to-date numerical and computational methods. Together with the use of efficient compilers, this generates fast executable programs, suitable for large scale analyses.Use of WOMBAT is illustrated for a bivariate analysis. The package consists of the executable program, available for LINUX and WINDOWS environments, manual and a set of worked example, and can be downloaded free of charge from http://agbu.une.edu.au/～kmeyer/wombat.html
Esfandiar, Habib; KoraYem, Moharam Habibnejad [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-09-15
In this study, the researchers try to examine nonlinear dynamic analysis and determine Dynamic load carrying capacity (DLCC) in flexible manipulators. Manipulator modeling is based on Timoshenko beam theory (TBT) considering the effects of shear and rotational inertia. To get rid of the risk of shear locking, a new procedure is presented based on mixed finite element formulation. In the method proposed, shear deformation is free from the risk of shear locking and independent of the number of integration points along the element axis. Dynamic modeling of manipulators will be done by taking into account small and large deformation models and using extended Hamilton method. System motion equations are obtained by using nonlinear relationship between displacements-strain and 2nd PiolaKirchoff stress tensor. In addition, a comprehensive formulation will be developed to calculate DLCC of the flexible manipulators during the path determined considering the constraints end effector accuracy, maximum torque in motors and maximum stress in manipulators. Simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the method proposed taking two-link flexible and fixed base manipulators for linear and circular paths into consideration. Experimental results are also provided to validate the theoretical model. The findings represent the efficiency and appropriate performance of the method proposed.
Salces Judit
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reference genes with stable expression are required to normalize expression differences of target genes in qPCR experiments. Several procedures and companion software have been proposed to find the most stable genes. Model based procedures are attractive because they provide a solid statistical framework. NormFinder, a widely used software, uses a model based method. The pairwise comparison procedure implemented in GeNorm is a simpler procedure but one of the most extensively used. In the present work a statistical approach based in Maximum Likelihood estimation under mixed models was tested and compared with NormFinder and geNorm softwares. Sixteen candidate genes were tested in whole blood samples from control and heat stressed sheep. Results A model including gene and treatment as fixed effects, sample (animal, gene by treatment, gene by sample and treatment by sample interactions as random effects with heteroskedastic residual variance in gene by treatment levels was selected using goodness of fit and predictive ability criteria among a variety of models. Mean Square Error obtained under the selected model was used as indicator of gene expression stability. Genes top and bottom ranked by the three approaches were similar; however, notable differences for the best pair of genes selected for each method and the remaining genes of the rankings were shown. Differences among the expression values of normalized targets for each statistical approach were also found. Conclusions Optimal statistical properties of Maximum Likelihood estimation joined to mixed model flexibility allow for more accurate estimation of expression stability of genes under many different situations. Accurate selection of reference genes has a direct impact over the normalized expression values of a given target gene. This may be critical when the aim of the study is to compare expression rate differences among samples under different environmental
Plan, Elodie L; Maloney, Alan; Mentré, France; Karlsson, Mats O; Bertrand, Julie
2012-09-01
Estimation methods for nonlinear mixed-effects modelling have considerably improved over the last decades. Nowadays, several algorithms implemented in different software are used. The present study aimed at comparing their performance for dose-response models. Eight scenarios were considered using a sigmoid E(max) model, with varying sigmoidicity and residual error models. One hundred simulated datasets for each scenario were generated. One hundred individuals with observations at four doses constituted the rich design and at two doses, the sparse design. Nine parametric approaches for maximum likelihood estimation were studied: first-order conditional estimation (FOCE) in NONMEM and R, LAPLACE in NONMEM and SAS, adaptive Gaussian quadrature (AGQ) in SAS, and stochastic approximation expectation maximization (SAEM) in NONMEM and MONOLIX (both SAEM approaches with default and modified settings). All approaches started first from initial estimates set to the true values and second, using altered values. Results were examined through relative root mean squared error (RRMSE) of the estimates. With true initial conditions, full completion rate was obtained with all approaches except FOCE in R. Runtimes were shortest with FOCE and LAPLACE and longest with AGQ. Under the rich design, all approaches performed well except FOCE in R. When starting from altered initial conditions, AGQ, and then FOCE in NONMEM, LAPLACE in SAS, and SAEM in NONMEM and MONOLIX with tuned settings, consistently displayed lower RRMSE than the other approaches. For standard dose-response models analyzed through mixed-effects models, differences were identified in the performance of estimation methods available in current software, giving material to modellers to identify suitable approaches based on an accuracy-versus-runtime trade-off.
Scarino, Amy Jo; Obland, Michael; Fast, Jerome D.; Burton, S. P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Berg, Larry K.; Lefer, Barry; Haman, C.; Hair, John; Rogers, Ray; Butler, Carolyn; Cook, A. L.; Harper, David
2014-06-05
The California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) and Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) field campaigns during May and June 2010 provided a data set appropriate for studying characteristics of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) was deployed to California onboard the NASA LaRC B-200 aircraft to aid incharacterizing aerosol properties during these two field campaigns. Measurements of aerosol extinction (532 nm), backscatter (532 and 1064 nm), and depolarization (532 and 1064 nm) profiles during 31 flights, many in coordination with other research aircraft and ground sites, constitute a diverse data set for use in characterizing the spatial and temporal distribution of aerosols, as well as the depth and variability of the daytime mixed layer (ML), which is a subset within the PBL. This work illustrates the temporal and spatial variability of the ML in the vicinity of Los Angeles and Sacramento, CA. ML heights derived from HSRL measurements are compared to PBL heights derived from radiosonde profiles, ML heights measured from ceilometers, and simulated PBL heights from the Weather Research and Forecasting Chemistry (WRF-Chem) community model. Comparisons between the HSRL ML heights and the radiosonde profiles in Sacramento result in a correlation coefficient value (R) of 0.93 (root7 mean-square (RMS) difference of 157 m and bias difference (HSRL radiosonde) of 5 m). HSRL ML heights compare well with those from the ceilometer in the LA Basin with an R of 0.89 (RMS difference of 108 m and bias difference (HSRL Ceilometer) of -9.7 m) for distances of up to 30 km between the B-200 flight track and the ceilometer site. Simulated PBL heights from WRF-Chem were compared with those obtained from all flights for each campaign, producing an R of 0.58 (RMS difference of 604 m and a bias difference (WRF-Chem HSRL) of -157 m) for CalNex and 0
Pliszka, Steven R.; Matthews, Thomas L.; Braslow, Kenneth J.; Watson, Melissa A.
2006-01-01
Objective: To determine whether methylphenidate (MPH) and mixed salts amphetamine (MSA) have different effects on growth in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Method: Patients treated for at least 1 year with MPH or MSA were identified. A linear regression was performed to determine the effect of stimulant type, patient…
Rasmussen, A.; Soerensen, J.H.; Nielsen, N.W. [Danish Meteorological Inst., DMI, Copenhagen (Denmark)
1997-10-01
A sensitivity study is performed of vertical profiles from the numerical weather prediction model DMI-HIRLAM (DMI-HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model). The study involves profiles of horizontal wind, temperature and humidity in the lower troposphere up to 2500 meter. Detailed comparisons of analysed as well as forecast profiles are made with measured data from several radio-sonde stations throughout Europe. Methods for estimating the Mixing Height (MH) based on a bulk Richardson number method, the Vogelezang and Holtslag method and parcel methods are also studied. The methods are inter-compared, and MH based on data from DMI-HIRLAM are compared with the corresponding MH based on radiosonde data. For convective conditions the MH estimates are also compared with subjective estimates of the MH. In this paper preliminary results mainly based on data from Jaegersborg (Copenhagen) are presented. Results based on data from 1994-95 show that the resemblance between measured profiles and the DMI-HIRLAM profiles is fairly good in general. Also the estimates of the MH based on DMI-HIRLAM data is in general of nearly the same quality as estimations based on observed data. However, especially in convective conditions there is a tendency by DMI-HIRLAM to underestimate the strength of the mixing and thereby relatively large errors in the estimates of the MH can occur. (au)
Lee, Keunjong; Matsuno, Takeshi; Endoh, Takahiro; Ishizaka, Joji; Zhu, Yuanli; Takeda, Shigenobu; Sukigara, Chiho
2017-07-01
In summer, Changjiang Diluted Water (CDW) expands over the shelf region of the northern East China Sea. Dilution of the low salinity water could be caused by vertical mixing through the halocline. Vertical mixing through the pycnocline can transport not only saline water, but also high nutrient water from deeper layers to the surface euphotic zone. It is therefore very important to quantitatively evaluate the vertical mixing to understand the process of primary production in the CDW region. We conducted extensive measurements in the region during the period 2009-2011. Detailed investigations of the relative relationship between the subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM) and the nitracline suggested that there were two patterns relating to the N/P ratio. Comparing the depths of the nitracline and SCM, it was found that the SCM was usually located from 20 to 40 m and just above the nitracline, where the N/P ratio within the nitracline was below 15, whereas it was located from 10 to 30 m and within the nitracline, where the N/P ratio was above 20. The large value of the N/P ratio in the latter case suggests the influence of CDW. Turbulence measurements showed that the vertical flux of nutrients with vertical mixing was large (small) where the N/P ratio was small (large). A comparison with a time series of primary production revealed a consistency with the pattern of snapshot measurements, suggesting that the nutrient supply from the lower layer contributes considerably to the maintenance of SCM.
Theta height and Faltings height
Pazuki, F
2009-01-01
Using original ideas from J.-B. Bost and S. David, we provide an explicit comparison between the Theta height and the stable Faltings height of a principally polarized abelian variety. We also give as an application an explicit upper bound on the number of K-rational points of a curve of genus g>1 over a number filed K under a conjecture of S. Lang and J. Silverman. We complete the study with a comparison between differential lattice structures.
Rathleff, M; Nielsen, RG; Olesen, Christian Gammelgaard;
2008-01-01
position and relaxed standing posture. Excessive movement of the navicula is considered a predisposing factor in the development of shin splits. No single direct static measurement of navicula height has yet shown to predict a high degree of mid foot movement. The purpose of this study was to investigate...
Bronte, Emily
2005-01-01
Wuthering Heights tells the story of a romance between two youngsters: Catherine Earnshaw and an orphan boy, Heathcliff. After she rejects him for a boy from a better background he develops a lust for revenge that takes over his life. In attempting to win her back and destroy those he blames for his
Ansmann, Albert; Bühl, Johannes; Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet; Engelmann, Ronny; Seifert, Patric; Nisantzi, Argyro; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos; Sciare, Jean
2017-04-01
During the six-week Cyprus-2015 field campaign in March and April 2015, conducted in the framework of the BACCHUS project (Impact of Biogenic versus Anthropogenic emissions on Clouds and Climate: towards a Holistic UnderStanding, collaborative project of the seventh EU framework programme, ENV.2013.6.1-2), we observed the evolution of extended liquid-water altocumulus fields with subsequent heterogeneous ice formation. The altocumulus layers developed in aged Saharan dust layers between 3.5 km (-20°C) and 7.5 km height (-35°C cloud top temperature). We observed such altocumulus developments on 12 days. By applying our recently developed polarization-lidar method we estimated the ice-nucleating particle concentration (INPC, immersion freezing) at cloud level (before the clouds developed and after their dissolution). Simultaneously performed Doppler lidar observations of the terminal velocities of falling ice crystals in virga below the shallow altocumulus layers allowed us to estimate the ice crystal number concentration (ICNC) of the falling ice crystals. In this retrieval, a realistic ice crystal size distribution has to be assumed. In addition, the volume extinction coefficient of the ice crystals has to be known (to obtain the total ice crystal concentration), and is obtained from the polarization lidar observations by using classical backscatter or Raman lidar retrieval methods. We assume that all ice crystals, which nucleated in the 300-500 m thick altocumulus layers, grow fast (according to the literature to about 100 µm size within 1 minute) and immediately fall out of the main shallow cloud layer so that the derived ICNC values provide us with the number of nucleated ice crystals as a function of cloud top temperature and given INP conditions. Based on this unique observational approach we investigated, to our knowledge for the first time, the consistency between the INPC and ICNC in mixed-phase clouds. We found reasonable agreement between INPC
Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos
2001-05-01
Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes alturas (24; 26; 43; 45; 52; 62; 73 e 78 cm do pasto sobre a qualidade de forragem e estrutura do perfil do capim-Tanzânia, (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia – 1 (Poaceae. Foram utilizados novilhos da raça Nelore sob pastejo com carga animal variável, por meio da técnica put and take. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. A densidade de matéria seca total (DMT aumentou com o avanço no período experimental, enquanto a densidade de matéria seca de lâminas (DML não foi influenciada pelo período e pela altura do pasto. O estrato superior da pastagem foi a porção de maior qualidade, apresentando maior DML e maior teor de PB. Os estratos inferiores apresentaram menor qualidade, devido à maior DMT e menor DML, acarretando em maiores valores de FDA e FDN e menores teores de PB. O conteúdo de minerais das lâminas foi superior aos colmos, mantendo-se inalterado com relação aos estratos da pastagem.The effect of different sward heights (24; 26; 43; 45; 52; 62; 73 and 78 cm on forage quality and profile structure Tanzania grass, Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania – 1 (Poaceae is provided. Nelore steers were used in grazing at variable stocking rates with put and take technique. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two replications. Total dry matter bulk densitity (TDMD increased during experimental period, while the leaf blade dry matter bulk density (LDMD was not influenced by period on by sward height. The upper layers had the best quality with higher LDMD and CP levels. Lower layers had the worst quality, due the higher TDMD and lower LDMD. This fact caused higher ADF and NDF levels and lower CP levels. Leaf blade mineral content was higher than that of stem, and remained unaltered in relation to the different layers.
Hamrick, Joseph T; Beede, William L; Withee, Joseph R JR
1954-01-01
Modifications A and B of impeller model MFI-1 and A, B, and C of impeller model MFI-2 were investigated experimentally in an attempt to determine what allowance in blade height should be made for boundary layer and viscous losses in an impeller designed for isentropic compressible flow. A gradual increase in blade height was arbitrarily made from inlet to outlet in anticipation of a gradual build-up of boundary layer. Apparently there was a rapid build-up of boundary layer near the inlet in the experimental case rather than a gradual one. Therefore, the proper allowance for boundary layer cannot be described from the data obtained. Decreasing the pressure gradient along the shroud by reducing the blade height allowance apparently did little to increase the overall efficiency. At the design speed of 1400 feet per second, the overall adiabatic efficiency was increased from 0.83 for the MFI-1A to 0.85 for the MFI-1B with reduction in height; however, it is indicated from the theoretical velocity distribution and outlet surveys that the increase was due to a change from decelerating to accelerating flow along the hub rather than from any change along the shroud. It is further indicated that the consequences of a thickened or separated boundary layer depend not only on the design velocity gradients but also on the shape of the passage.
Pau Baya
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Remenat (Catalan (Mixed, "revoltillo" (Scrambled in Spanish, is a dish which, in Catalunya, consists of a beaten egg cooked with vegetables or other ingredients, normally prawns or asparagus. It is delicious. Scrambled refers to the action of mixing the beaten egg with other ingredients in a pan, normally using a wooden spoon Thought is frequently an amalgam of past ideas put through a spinner and rhythmically shaken around like a cocktail until a uniform and dense paste is made. This malleable product, rather like a cake mixture can be deformed pulling it out, rolling it around, adapting its shape to the commands of one’s hands or the tool which is being used on it. In the piece Mixed, the contortion of the wood seeks to reproduce the plasticity of this slow heavy movement. Each piece lays itself on the next piece consecutively like a tongue of incandescent lava slowly advancing but with unstoppable inertia.
袁志辉; 邓云凯; 李飞; 王宇; 柳罡
2013-01-01
In the application of getting the earth surface’s Digital Elevation Model (DEM) through InSAR technology, multichannel (multi-frequency or multi-baseline) InSAR technique can be employed to improve the mapping ability for complex areas with high slopes or strong height discontinuities, and solve the ambiguity problem which existed in the situation of single baseline. This paper compares the performance of Maxmum Likelihood (ML) estimation techniques with Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) estimation techniques, and adds two steps of bad pixels judgment and weighted filtering after the ML estimation. Bad pixels judgment is completed through cluster analysis and the relationship between adjacent pixels. A special weighted mean filter is used to remove the bad pixels. In this way, the advantage of the ML method’s good efficiency is kept, and the accuracy of DEM also is improved. Simulation results indicate that this method can not only keep good accuracy but also improve greatly the computation efficiency under the same condition, which is advantageous for processing large scale of data sets.%在通过InSAR技术获取地表数字高程模型(DEM)的应用中，为了提高该技术对大斜坡或突变等复杂地形的测绘能力，解决单基线情况下的高度模糊问题，可以利用多通道(多频率或多基线)InSAR技术实现。该文比较了最大似然估计法(ML)和最大后验概率估计法(MAP)的性能，并在最大似然估计法的基础上增加了坏点判断和加权均值滤波的环节，通过聚类分析和与相邻点的关系来判断目标像素是否为误差比较大的坏点，然后再利用加权均值滤波的方法将这些坏点剔除。这样，既保留了ML估计法速度快的特点，又提高了DEM的精度。仿真结果表明，在相同条件下，该方法既能保持较好的精度，同时又大大提高了算法的运行效率，非常有利于大规模数据的处理。
Rupšys, P. [Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studenų g. 11, Akademija, Kaunas district, LT – 53361 Lithuania (Lithuania)
2015-10-28
A system of stochastic differential equations (SDE) with mixed-effects parameters and multivariate normal copula density function were used to develop tree height model for Scots pine trees in Lithuania. A two-step maximum likelihood parameter estimation method is used and computational guidelines are given. After fitting the conditional probability density functions to outside bark diameter at breast height, and total tree height, a bivariate normal copula distribution model was constructed. Predictions from the mixed-effects parameters SDE tree height model calculated during this research were compared to the regression tree height equations. The results are implemented in the symbolic computational language MAPLE.
Rupšys, P.
2015-10-01
A system of stochastic differential equations (SDE) with mixed-effects parameters and multivariate normal copula density function were used to develop tree height model for Scots pine trees in Lithuania. A two-step maximum likelihood parameter estimation method is used and computational guidelines are given. After fitting the conditional probability density functions to outside bark diameter at breast height, and total tree height, a bivariate normal copula distribution model was constructed. Predictions from the mixed-effects parameters SDE tree height model calculated during this research were compared to the regression tree height equations. The results are implemented in the symbolic computational language MAPLE.
Stocking equations for regeneration in mixed oak stands
Songlin Fei; Kim C. Steiner; James C. Finley
2007-01-01
Regeneration stocking equations for mixed-oak stands were developed based on data collected from nearly 14,000 plots in the central Appalachians. Maximum stand density was identified by plotting aggregate height against number of seedlings per plot, and was used as the reference level of the average maximum stand density (100 percent stocking or A-level stocking)....
卢军; 张会儒; 雷相东; 杨英军; 王全军
2015-01-01
采用长白山林区2013年调查的12块1 hm2固定样地中5个树种的幼树树高-胸径数据,用35个树高曲线经验模型进行模拟、筛选.结果表明,Curtis于1967年提出的三次多项式h=a0 +a1 d+a2 d2 +a3 d3 能够很好地拟合5个树种幼树的树高-胸径模型,决定系数( R2 )最高可达0.786 5.用独立样本数据对该模型进行检验,结果表明,模型的表现能力良好,能够适用于本地区的云冷杉针阔混交林的幼树树高-胸径模拟.以空间代替时间的方法分析5个树种的幼树树高生长规律,发现色木幼树树高较大;红松和冷杉幼树树高生长类似;云杉幼树树高初期较小,而后期生长很快.本文提出的幼树树高模型可为抚育经营提供参考.%Total tree height ( H ) and diameter at breast height ( D ) outside bark are two most essential variables in most forest inventories, but the height curves for saplings have rarely been developed so far. Using the data from 12 permanent 1-ha sample plots investigated in 2013, we found that, among 35 empirical tree height-diameter at breast height model, the cubic polynomial proposed by Curtis in 1967 ( h=a0 +a1 d+a2 d2 +a3 d3 ) well fit the height-diameter model of saplings of five species in Changbai Mountains, and the coefficient of determination for Pinus koraiensis was the highest (R2 =0. 786 5). The validation of the models showed that all the models performed well and were quite suitable to the saplings in spruce-fir mixed forest in this area. The analysis of tree height growth for the five species by space substitute time indicated that the height of Acer mono was higher than others, the height growth of Pinus koraiensis and Abies nephrolepis was similar, and the height growth of spruce was low in early stage but increased quickly afterwards.
Montes, Carlo; Kiang, Nancy Y.; Ni-Meister, Wenge; Yang, Wenze; Schaaf, Crystal; Aleinov, Igor; Jonas, Jeffrey A.; Zhao, Feng; Yao, Tian; Wang, Zhuosen; Sun, Qingsong; Carrer, Dominique
2016-04-01
Processes determining biosphere-atmosphere coupling are strongly influenced by vegetation structure. Thus, ecosystem carbon sequestration and evapotranspiration affecting global carbon and water balances will depend upon the spatial extent of vegetation, its vertical structure, and its physiological variability. To represent this globally, Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) coupled to General Circulation Models (GCMs) make use of satellite and/or model-based vegetation classifications often composed by homogeneous communities. This work aims at developing a new Global Vegetation Structure Dataset (GVSD) by incorporating varying vegetation heights for mixed plant communities to be used as boundary conditions to the Analytical Clumped Two-Stream (ACTS) canopy radiative transfer scheme (Ni-Meister et al., 2010) incorporated into the NASA Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (TBM), the DGVM coupled to the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM. Information sources about land surface and vegetation characteristics obtained from a number of earth observation platforms and algorithms include the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover and plant functional types (PFTs) (Friedl et al., 2010), soil albedo derived from MODIS (Carrer et al., 2014), along with vegetation height from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on board ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) (Simard et al., 2011; Tang et al., 2014). Three widely used Leaf Area Index (LAI) products are compared as input to the GVSD and ACTS forcing in terms of vegetation albedo: Global Data Sets of Vegetation (LAI)3g (Zhu et al. 2013), Beijing Normal University LAI (Yuan et al., 2011), and MODIS MOD15A2H product (Yang et al., 2006). Further PFT partitioning is performed according to a climate classification utilizing the Climate Research Unit (CRU; Harris et al., 2013) and the NOAA Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC; Scheider et al., 2014) data. Final
Chris B. LeDoux; John E. Baumgras; R. Bryan Selbe
1989-01-01
PROFIT-PC is a menu driven, interactive PC (personal computer) program that estimates optimum product mix and maximum net harvesting revenue based on projected product yields and stump-to-mill timber harvesting costs. Required inputs include the number of trees/acre by species and 2 inches diameter at breast-height class, delivered product prices by species and product...
Encounter Probability of Individual Wave Height
Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.
1998-01-01
wave height corresponding to a certain exceedence probability within a structure lifetime (encounter probability), based on the statistical analysis of long-term extreme significant wave height. Then the design individual wave height is calculated as the expected maximum individual wave height...... associated with the design significant wave height, with the assumption that the individual wave heights follow the Rayleigh distribution. However, the exceedence probability of such a design individual wave height within the structure lifetime is unknown. The paper presents a method for the determination...... of the design individual wave height corresponding to an exceedence probability within the structure lifetime, given the long-term extreme significant wave height. The method can also be applied for estimation of the number of relatively large waves for fatigue analysis of constructions....
Glacial effects limiting mountain height.
Egholm, D L; Nielsen, S B; Pedersen, V K; Lesemann, J-E
2009-08-13
The height of mountain ranges reflects the balance between tectonic rock uplift, crustal strength and surface denudation. Tectonic deformation and surface denudation are interdependent, however, and feedback mechanisms-in particular, the potential link to climate-are subjects of intense debate. Spatial variations in fluvial denudation rate caused by precipitation gradients are known to provide first-order controls on mountain range width, crustal deformation rates and rock uplift. Moreover, limits to crustal strength are thought to constrain the maximum elevation of large continental plateaus, such as those in Tibet and the central Andes. There are indications that the general height of mountain ranges is also directly influenced by the extent of glaciation through an efficient denudation mechanism known as the glacial buzzsaw. Here we use a global analysis of topography and show that variations in maximum mountain height correlate closely with climate-controlled gradients in snowline altitude for many high mountain ranges across orogenic ages and tectonic styles. With the aid of a numerical model, we further demonstrate how a combination of erosional destruction of topography above the snowline by glacier-sliding and commensurate isostatic landscape uplift caused by erosional unloading can explain observations of maximum mountain height by driving elevations towards an altitude window just below the snowline. The model thereby self-consistently produces the hypsometric signature of the glacial buzzsaw, and suggests that differences in the height of mountain ranges mainly reflect variations in local climate rather than tectonic forces.
Challenges in Defining Tsunami Wave Heights
Dunbar, Paula; Mungov, George; Sweeney, Aaron; Stroker, Kelly; Arcos, Nicolas
2017-08-01
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) and co-located World Data Service for Geophysics maintain the global tsunami archive consisting of the historical tsunami database, imagery, and raw and processed water level data. The historical tsunami database incorporates, where available, maximum wave heights for each coastal tide gauge and deep-ocean buoy that recorded a tsunami signal. These data are important because they are used for tsunami hazard assessment, model calibration, validation, and forecast and warning. There have been ongoing discussions in the tsunami community about the correct way to measure and report these wave heights. It is important to understand how these measurements might vary depending on how the data were processed and the definition of maximum wave height. On September 16, 2015, an 8.3 M w earthquake located 48 km west of Illapel, Chile generated a tsunami that was observed all over the Pacific region. We processed the time-series water level data for 57 coastal tide gauges that recorded this tsunami and compared the maximum wave heights determined from different definitions. We also compared the maximum wave heights from the NCEI-processed data with the heights reported by the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers. We found that in the near field different methods of determining the maximum tsunami wave heights could result in large differences due to possible instrumental clipping. We also found that the maximum peak is usually larger than the maximum amplitude (½ peak-to-trough), but the differences for the majority of the stations were definition (maximum peak or amplitude) would have validated the forecasts issued by the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers. Since there is currently only one field in the NCEI historical tsunami database to store the maximum tsunami wave height for each tide gauge and deep-ocean buoy, NCEI will consider adding an additional field for the maximum
Kinkhabwala, Ali
2013-01-01
The most fundamental problem in statistics is the inference of an unknown probability distribution from a finite number of samples. For a specific observed data set, answers to the following questions would be desirable: (1) Estimation: Which candidate distribution provides the best fit to the observed data?, (2) Goodness-of-fit: How concordant is this distribution with the observed data?, and (3) Uncertainty: How concordant are other candidate distributions with the observed data? A simple unified approach for univariate data that addresses these traditionally distinct statistical notions is presented called "maximum fidelity". Maximum fidelity is a strict frequentist approach that is fundamentally based on model concordance with the observed data. The fidelity statistic is a general information measure based on the coordinate-independent cumulative distribution and critical yet previously neglected symmetry considerations. An approximation for the null distribution of the fidelity allows its direct conversi...
Fear of heights and visual height intolerance.
Brandt, Thomas; Huppert, Doreen
2014-02-01
The aim of this review is, first, to cover the different aspects of visual height intolerance such as historical descriptions, definition of terms, phenomenology of the condition, neurophysiological control of gaze, stance and locomotion, and therapy, and, second, to identify warranted epidemiological and experimental studies. Vivid descriptions of fear of heights can be found in ancient texts from the Greek, Roman, and Chinese classics. The life-time prevalence of visual height intolerance is as high as 28% in the general population, and about 50% of those who are susceptible report an impact on quality of life. When exposed to heights, visual exploration by eye and head movements is restricted, and the velocity of locomotion is reduced. Therapy for fear of heights is dominated by the behavioral techniques applied during real or virtual reality exposure. Their efficacy might be facilitated by the administration of D-cycloserine or glucocorticoids. Visual height intolerance has a considerable impact on daily life and interpersonal interactions. It is much more frequent than fear of heights, which is defined as an environmental subtype of a specific phobia. There is certainly a continuum stretching from acrophobia to a less-pronounced visual height intolerance, to which the categorical distinction of a specific phobia does not apply.
[Height vertigo, fear of heights, acrophobia].
Rennert, H
1990-06-01
Height vertigo (acrophobia) is a very frequent phenomenon being of interest for its physiological and psychological background, though usually only of limited significance in neuropsychiatry and otology. The different aspects as to its nature and origin are discussed. If acrophobia has developed into a conditioned reaction of avoidance with pressure of suffering, or acrophobia in persons, who have to work at heights, behavior therapeutic measures with systematic desensibilisation, starting from an imaginative training, are indicated.
Shanna Lara Miglioranzi
2011-12-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a relação entre capacidade vital (CV, tempos máximos de fonação de /e/ fechado emitido de forma áfona (TMF/ė/ e de /s/ (TMF/s/ e estatura em mulheres adultas. MÉTODO: 48 indivíduos do sexo feminino, entre 18 e 44 anos, com ausência de fatores intervenientes nas medidas de interesse (tabagistas, atletas, cantores, alterações pulmonares, articulatórias, tiveram suas medidas de CV, TMF/ė/ e TMF/s/ coletadas, três vezes cada, selecionando-se o maior valor obtido para cada variável, além da estatura auto-referida. Os valores das quatro variáveis do grupo foram comparados entre si por meio de análise estatística. Utilizou-se o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman para verificar sua relação; o teste de Wilcoxon para amostras relacionadas para comparar os TMF/s/ e TMF/ė/, além do cálculo do coeficiente de variação para comparar a homogeneidade dessas variáveis. RESULTADOS: correlação positiva significante entre: CV e TMF/s/ (r=0,326; P=0,024; CV e TMF/ė/ (r=0,379; P=0,008; TMF/s/ e TMF/ė/ (r=0,360; P=0,012; e CV e estatura (r=0,432; P=0,002. TMF/s/ significantemente maior do que TMF/ė/. TMF/ė/ da amostra (10,43s significantemente menor que os valores de referência (PPURPOSE: to check the relation among the values of vital capacity (CV, maximum phonation times (MPT of closed voiceless /e/ (/ė/ and of /s/ and height in adult normal women. METHOD: 48 females, between 18 and 44 years, with no intervening factors in measures of interest (smoking, sport practicing, singing, lung disorder, articulation disorder collected their measures of VC, MPT/ė/ and MPT/s/, three times each, and the highest produced values for each variable were selected for analysis, beyond the self-reported height. All four variables were compared. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to check the relationship; Wilcoxon test for related samples was used to compare MPT/s/ and MPT/ė/, such as the coefficient of variation
Mixing in polymeric microfluidic devices.
Schunk, Peter Randall; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Davis, Robert H. (University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO); Brotherton, Christopher M. (University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO)
2006-04-01
characteristic diffusion time was minimized. Physical constrictions were investigated through simulations. The results show that the maximum mixing occurs when the height of the mixing region is minimized. Finally, experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of using porous polymer monoliths to enhance mixing. The porous polymer monoliths were constructed using a monomer/salt paste. Two salt crystal size ranges were used; 75 to 106 microns and 53 to 180 microns. Mixing in the porous polymer monoliths fabricated with the 75 to 106 micron salt crystal size range was six times higher than a channel without a monolith. Mixing in the monolith fabricated with the 53 to 180 micron salt crystal size range was nine times higher.
A Rational Procedure for Determination of Directional Individual Design Wave Heights
Sterndorff, M.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2001-01-01
crest elevation are available. In Sørensen & Sterndorff (2000) stochastic models for the annual maximum values of the omnidirectional and directional significant wave heights, individual wave heights, and individual crest heights were presented. The models include dependencies between the maximum wave......For code-based LRFD and for reliability-based assessment of offshore structures such as steel platforms it is essential that consistent directional and omnidirectional probability distributions for the maximum significant wave height, the maximum individual wave height, and the maximum individual...
Statistical analysis on extreme wave height
Teena, N.V.; SanilKumar, V.; Sudheesh, K.; Sajeev, R.
the distributions fitted to the GEV with annual maximum approach and GPD with peaks over threshold approach have indicated that both GEV and GPD models gave similar or comparable wave height for the study area since there is no multiple storm event in a year...
Boundary layer heights derived from velocity spectra
Hoejstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Kaellstrand, B. [Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)
1997-10-01
It is a well-known fact that the height of the mixed layer determines the size of the largest and most energetic eddies that can be observed in the unstable boundary layer, and consequently a peak can be observed in the power spectra of the along-wind velocity component at scales comparable to the mixed layer depth. We will now show how the mixed layer depth can be derived from the u-specta and the results will be compared with direct measurements using pibal and tethersonde measurements. (au)
娄明华; 张会儒; 雷相东; 卢军
2016-01-01
Spatial autocorrelation is a common phenomenon in forestry. It directly connects competition and interaction among individuals. Individual height-diameter models are fundamentally important for forest growth, yield modeling and forecasting. Violation of residual independent distribution assumption in ordinary least squares ( OLS) will inflate type 1 errors, lead to biased estimates of the standard errors of model parameters, and decrease the efficiency of estimation in a regression model, if the spatial autocorrelation among the individuals is ignored. Therefore, three simultaneous autoregressive ( SAR ) models, including spatial lag model ( SLM ) , spatial error model ( SEM ) and spatial Durbin model ( SDM) within five spatial weight matrices, including Delaunay triangulation ( DT ) , inverse distance raised to one power ( ID1 ) , inverse distance raised to two powers ( ID2 ) , inverse distance raised to five powers ( ID5 ) and Gaussian variogram ( GV ) , were applied to construct individual height-diameter models of natural spruce-fir and broadleaf mixed stands which are the main forest type in northeast China, with linearization individual height-diameter OLS model as a benchmark model. Model parameters of three SAR models were estimated by maximum likelihood. Model coefficients of OLS and three SAR models were tested by t-test, the autoregressive parameters of three SAR models were all tested by likelihood ratio test. Moran’s I ( MI) was selected to compare autocorrelation of four model residuals. Three statistical indices, i. e. coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE) and Akaike information criterion ( AIC) , were regarded as the appropriate criteria to identify the model fitting among OLS, SLM, SDM and SEM. Mean square error ( MS ) was selected to identify the predictive validity among four models. Results show that residuals of OLS were positive spatial dependence for ignoring the spatial autocorrelation among individuals. The
Rational cutting height for large cutting height fully mechanized top-coal caving
Huang Bingxiang; Li Hongtao; Liu Changyou; Xing Shijun; Xue Weichao
2011-01-01
Large cutting height fully mechanized top-coal caving is a new mining method that improves recovery ratio and single-pass production.It also allows safe and efficient mining.A rational cutting height is one key parameter of this technique.Numerical simulation and a granular-media model experiment were used to analyze the effect of cutting height on the rock pressure of a fully mechanized top-coal caving work face.The recovery ratio was also studied.As the cutting height increases the top-coal thickness is reduced.Changing the ratio of cutting to drawing height intensifies the face pressure and the top-coal shattering.A maximum cutting height exists under a given set of conditions due to issues with surrounding rock-mass control.An increase in cutting height makes the top-coal cave better and the recovery ratio when drawing top-coal is then improved.A method of adjusting the face rock pressure is presented.Changing the cutting to drawing height ratio is the technique used to control face rock pressure.The recovery ratio when cutting coal exceeds that when caving top-coal so the face recovery ratio may be improved by over sizing the cutting height and increasing the top-coal drawing ratio.An optimum ratio of cutting to drawing height exists that maximizes the face recovery ratio.A rational cutting height is determined by comprehensively considering the surrounding rock-mass control and the recovery ratio.At the same time increasing the cutting height can improve single pass mining during fully mechanized top-coal caving.
马春玲
2001-01-01
本文剖析了小说主人公的悲惨命运及时代特征%Through the story of Wuthering Heights,the article analyzes the tragic fate of Heathcliff and the characteristic of the 19th century England.
Narrators in Wuthering Heights
刘俊红
2009-01-01
Wuthering Heights is Emily Bront e's only novel. The narrative is non-linear, involving several flashbacks an dtwo primary narrators. Emily Bronte has adopted the device of introducing two narrators--Mr. Lockwood and Ellen "Nel-ly" Dean so as to achieve certain purpose.
47 CFR 90.635 - Limitations on power and antenna height.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations on power and antenna height. 90.635... and antenna height. (a) The effective radiated power and antenna height for base stations may not... justify power levels and antenna heights requested. (b) The maximum output power of the transmitter...
Childhood height, adult height, and the risk of prostate cancer
Bjerregaard, Lise Geisler; Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael;
2016-01-01
PURPOSE: We previously showed that childhood height is positively associated with prostate cancer risk. It is, however, unknown whether childhood height exerts its effects independently of or through adult height. We investigated whether and to what extent childhood height has a direct effect...... on the risk of prostate cancer apart from adult height. METHODS: We included 5,871 men with height measured at ages 7 and 13 years in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register who also had adult (50-65 years) height measured in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. Prostate cancer status was obtained...... through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Direct and total effects of childhood height on prostate cancer risk were estimated from Cox regressions. RESULTS: From 1996 to 2012, 429 prostate cancers occurred. Child and adult heights were positively and significantly associated with prostate cancer risk...
Tomas Ulitinas
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The article analyzes the task in truss height and in the optimization of the cross-sections of their elements. Element cross-sections are designed of steel profiles considering requirements for strength, stability and rigidity. A mathematical model is formulated as a nonlinear mathematical programming problem. It is solved as an iterative process, using mathematical software package “MATLAB” routine “fmincon”. The ratio of buckling is corrected in the each iteration. Optimization results are compared with those obtained applying software package “Robot Millennium”.Article in Lithuanian
李春明
2011-01-01
以江西省大岗山实验局不同初植密度的杉木林为研究对象,选择修改的 Richards 模型形式,考虑样地效应,采用 SAS 软件进行非线性混合效应模型的模拟,利用 AIC 和 BIC 值评价模型模拟效果.在此基础上考虑优势木平均高连续观测数据的时间序列相关性,并把初植密度以哑变量形式考虑进去,再进行混合模型的模拟.最后,利用验证数据对混合模型方法与传统的非线性回归模拟方法进行精度比较.研究结果表明,修改的 Richards 形式的优势木平均高与林龄关系的非线性混合效应模型,其估计精度比传统的回归模型估计精度明显提高,增加随机效应参数个数能够提高模型的估计精度.一阶白回归误差结构矩阵模型在解释优势木平均高的时间序列相关性时不仅提高了混合模型的模拟精度,而且能够很好的表达连续观测数据间误差分布情况;同时考虑样地的随机效应、观测数据的时间序列相关性及不同初植密度的混合模型模拟精度比传统的非线性回归方法模拟精度高.%The improvement on the dominant height growth implies in better productivity estimation due to the forest height growth is directly related with the site characteristics and forest productivity. A modified Richards growth model with nonlinear mixed effects is simulated used SAS software for modeling fir plantation dominant height growth in conjunction with different plantation density in Dagangshan Experiment Bureau of Jiangxi Province. Akaike Information Criterion(AIC) and Bayesian lnformation Criterion(BIC) were used in model performance evaluation. Within-plot time series error autocorrelation of dominant height growth data and different plantation density expressed with dummy variable were taken into account in mixed model. Finally, the precision of mixed models was compared with the precision of conventional nonlinear ordinary regression analysis method based on
宗心南; 李辉; 张亚钦; 张慧
2014-01-01
Objective Longitudinal studies in height for school-age children and adolescents mainly focused on the velocity,spurt and peak of growth,and currently no changing growth trajectory or channel around the baseline were reported except the shift of percentiles among infants.This study aimed to analyze general characteristic of the growth trajectory of height among children and adolescents so as to provide scientific evidence for early detecting height deviation and evaluating treatment interventions for pediatric clinical and health care professionals.Method Height measurement data of 4 632 school-aged children and adolescents were retrospectively collected from two middle schools in urban Beijing between 2006 and 2012,with physical examination records varying from 1 to 8 times.Corresponding Z-score curve of the first height data of each study subject was defined as the baseline growth trajectory.Interval censored data were determined by calculating and comparing the amount of up or down floating deviation of those follow-up measurements around the baseline trajectory at different time points,and the LIFEREG procedure was used to fit parametric regression model.Defined 0.67 s as isometric growth channel,proportions of follow-up measurements along the baseline or off-baseline channel were calculated at different baseline Z-score interval channel.Result Totally 3 308 subjects with height examination records of 3 times or more were included in this study.Interval censored data of height abide by the exponential distribution based on parametric regression model.The exponential distribution model with two covariates of sex and baseline Z-score interval channel showed that sex was not statistically significant (P =0.186 6).After removing factor of sex,the model only with baseline Z-score channel displayed that those Z-score channels over + 2.00 s (P =0.946 7) and-2.00-1.34 s (P =0.091 1) were not statistically significant with the control of the channel below-2.00 s
Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.
2000-01-01
This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from...
Arno Locks
2005-04-01
Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo das alturas faciais anterior e posterior em 79 crianças brasileiras, sendo 46 do gênero feminino e 33 do masculino, com idades de 8 a 11 anos, portadoras de má oclusão Classe I de Angle, na fase de dentadura mista, não submetidas a tratamento ortodôntico. Esta investigação utilizou duas radiografias cefalométricas em norma lateral, de cada criança, com intervalo de 8 a 16 meses entre uma radiografia e outra, para comparação dos dados cefalométricos. Foram estudadas as proporções faciais anteriores, ou seja, a relação entre as dimensões N-Me (AFT, N-ENA (AFS, ENA-Me (AFI e o relacionamento entre as dimensões Ar-GO (AFP e a distância entre o plano palatino ao mento (AFA , isto é, o Índice da Altura Facial (IAF. Os resultados obtidos, possibilitaram constatar que as tendências de crescimento foram equilibradas em todas as situações estudadas; a dimensão altura facial inferior, contribuiu de forma mais significativa, nas alterações observadas na altura facial total; as proporções faciais anteriores se mantiveram em torno de 42% para a altura facial superior e 58% para a altura facial inferior; o índice da altura facial ou se manteve constante em torno de 0,66 ou apresentou uma tendência a aumentar com a idade; não ocorreu dimorfismo sexual com relação às proporções faciais e índice da altura facial.The objective of this study was to evaluate the anterior and posterior facial heights in 79 non orthodontic brazilian children, 46 females and 33 males, from 8 to 11 years old, presenting Angle Class I malocclusion, in the mixed dentition. Two lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken, with a time interval ranging from 8 to 16 months between radiographs in order to compare the cephalometric data. The anterior facial proportions were studied, based in following dimensions: N-Me (AFT, N-ENA (AFS e ENA-Me (AFI. The Facial Height Index (IAF was also evaluated taking in account the relationship
The height of the atmospheric boundary layer during unstable conditions
Gryning, S.E.
2005-11-01
The height of the convective atmospheric boundary layer, also called the mixed-layer, is one of the fundamental parameters that characterise the structure of the atmosphere near the ground. It has many theoretical and practical applications such as the prediction of air pollution concentrations, surface temperature and the scaling of turbulence. However, as pointed out by Builtjes (2001) in a review paper on Major Twentieth Century Milestones in Air Pollution Modelling and Its Application, the weakest point in meteorology data is still the determination of the height of the mixed-layer, the so-called mixing height. A simple applied model for the height of the mixed-layer over homogeneous terrain is suggested in chapter 2. It is based on a parameterised budget for the turbulent kinetic energy. In the model basically three terms - the spin-up term and the production of mechanical and convective turbulent kinetic energy - control the growth of the mixed layer. The interplay between the three terms is related to the meteorological conditions and the height of the mixed layer. A stable layer, the so-called entrainment zone, which is confined between the mixed layer and the free air above, caps the mixed layer. A parameterisation of the depth of the entrainment zone is also suggested, and used to devise a combined model for the height of the mixed layer and the entrainment zone. Another important aspect of the mixed layer development exists in coastal areas where an internal boundary layer forms downwind from the coastline. A model for the growth of the internal boundary layer is developed in analogy with the model for mixed layer development over homogeneous terrain. The strength of this model is that it can operate on a very fine spatial resolution with minor computer resources. Chapter 3 deals with the validation of the models. It is based in parts on data from the literature, and on own measurements. For the validation of the formation of the internal boundary layer
Prediction of Extreme Significant Wave Height from Daily Maxima
刘德辅; 李华军; 温书勤; 宋艳; 王树青
2001-01-01
For prediction of the extreme significant wave height in the ocean areas where long term wave data are not available, the empirical method of extrapolating short term data (1 ～ 3 years) is used in design practice. In this paper two methods are proposed to predict extreme significant wave height based on short-term daily maxima. According to the daa recorded by the Oceanographic Station of Liaodong Bay at the Bohai Sea, it is supposed that daily maximum wave heights are statistically independent. The data show that daily maximum wave heights obey log-normal distribution, and that the numbers of daily maxima vary from year to year, obeying binomial distribution. Based on these statistical characteristics, the binomial-log-normal compound extremum distribution is derived for prediction of extreme significant wave heights (50～ 100 years). For examination of its accuracy and validity, the prediction of extreme wave heights is based on 12 years′ data at this station, and based on each 3 years′ data respectively. The results show that with consideration of confidence intervals, the predicted wave heights based on 3 years′ data are very close to those based on 12 years′data. The observed data in some ocean areas in the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea show it is not correct to assume that daily maximum wave heights are statistically independent; they are subject to Markov chain condition, obeying log-normal distribution. In this paper an analytical method is derived to predict extreme wave heights in these cases. A comparison of the computations shows that the difference between the extreme wave heights based on the assumption that daily maxima are statistically independent and that they are subject to Markov Chain condition is smaller than 10%.
Experimental study of mixing enhancement using pylon in supersonic flow
Vishwakarma, Manmohan; Vaidyanathan, Aravind
2016-01-01
The Supersonic Combustion Ramjet (SCRAMJET) engine has been recognized as one of the most promising air breathing propulsion system for the supersonic/hypersonic flight mission requirements. Mixing and combustion of fuel inside scramjet engine is one of the major challenging tasks. In the current study the main focus has been to increase the penetration and mixing of the secondary jet inside the test chamber at supersonic speeds. In view of this, experiments are conducted to evaluate the effect of pylon on the mixing of secondary jet injection into supersonic mainstream flow at Mach 1.65. Two different pylons are investigated and the results are compared with those obtained by normal injection from a flat plate. The mixing studies are performed by varying the height of the pylon while keeping all other parameters the same. The study mainly focused on analyzing the area of spread and penetration depth achieved by different injection schemes based on the respective parameters. The measurements involved Mie scattering visualization and the flow features are analyzed using Schlieren images. The penetration height and spread area are the two parameters that are used for analyzing and comparing the performance of the pylons. It is observed that the secondary jet injection carried out from behind the big pylon resulted in maximum penetration and spread area of the jet as compared to the small pylon geometry. Moreover it is also evident that for obtaining maximum spreading and penetration of the jet, the same needs to be achieved at the injection location.
李梦; 唐贵谦; 黄俊; 刘子锐; 安俊琳; 王跃思
2015-01-01
大气混合层高度(MLH)是影响大气扩散的主要因子之一,其对大气质量评估和污染物的存储量及分布起着重要作用。本实验利用云高仪对2014年污染严重的2月京津冀区域4个站点(北京、天津、石家庄和秦皇岛) MLH 进行了同步连续观测,分析了其各自及其区域总体变化特性。结果表明,秦皇岛 MLH 月均值最高,达到865 m ±268 m；石家庄最低,为568 m ±207 m；北京和天津介于这两城市之间,分别为818 m ±319 m 和834 m ±334 m；结合气象数据分析发现,辐射和风速是影响混合层高度的主要因素；对4个站点颗粒物浓度与混合层高度的关系研究表明,混合层低于800 m,4个站点细颗粒物浓度均会超过国家二级标准(GB 3095-2012,75μg•m -3),观测期间北京、天津、石家庄和秦皇岛这4个站点混合层高度低于800 m天数所占比例分别为50％、43％、80％和36％。石家庄虽然近地层污染物浓度较高,但是大气混合层以内污染物负荷并不高,不利的大气垂直扩散条件是石家庄近地面长时间高浓度污染的主要原因。研究结果对于认知京津冀区域污染分布现状具有重要意义,并可为区域内污染源合理分布提供科学参考。%Atmospheric mixing layer height(MLH) is one of the main factors affecting the atmospheric diffusion and plays an important role in air quality assessment and distribution of the pollutants. Based on the ceilometers data, this paper has made synchronous observation on MLH in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region ( Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Qinhuangdao) in heavy polluted February 2014 and analyzed the respective overall change and its regional features. Results show that in February 2014,the average of mixing layer height in Qinhuangdao is the highest, up to 865 ± 268 m, and in Shijiazhuang is the lowest (568 ± 207 m), Beijing’s and Tianjin’s are in between, 818 ± 319 m and 834 ± 334 m respectively; Combined
Evaluation of the Ocean Feedback on Height Characteristics of the Tropical Cyclone Boundary Layer
马占宏; 费建芳; 黄小刚; 程小平; 刘磊
2013-01-01
In this study, the interaction between the tropical cyclone (TC) and the underlying ocean is reproduced by using a coupled atmosphere-ocean model. Based on the simulation results, characteristics of the TC boundary layer depth are investigated in terms of three commonly used definitions, i.e., the height of the mixed layer depth (HVTH), the height of the maximum tangential winds (HTAN), and the inflow layer depth (HRAD). The symmetric height of the boundary layer is shown to be cut down by the ocean response, with the decrease of HVTH slightly smaller than that of HTAN and HRAD. The ocean feedback also leads to evident changes in asymmetric features of the boundary layer depth. The HVTH in the right rear of the TC is significantly diminished due to presence of the cold wake, while the changes of HVTH in other regions are rather small. The decreased surface virtual potential temperature by the cold wake is identified to be dominant in the asymmetric changes in HVTH. The impacts of ocean response on the asymmetric distributions of HTAN are nonetheless not distinct, which is attributed to the highly axisymmetric property of tangential winds. The HRAD possesses remarkable asymmetric features and the inflow layer does not exist in all regions, an indication of the inadequacy of the definition based on symmetric inflow layer depth. Under influences of the cold wake, the peak inflow area rotates counterclockwise distinctly. As a consequence, the HRAD becomes deeper in the east while shallower in the west of the TC.
A global boundary-layer height climatology
Dop, H. van; Krol, M.; Holtslag, B. [Inst. for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, IMAU, Utrecht (Netherlands)
1997-10-01
In principle the ABL (atmospheric boundary layer) height can be retrieved from atmospheric global circulation models since they contain algorithms which determine the intensity of the turbulence as a function of height. However, these data are not routinely available, or on a (vertical) resolution which is too crude in view of the application. This justifies the development of a separate algorithm in order to define the ABL. The algorithm should include the generation of turbulence by both shear and buoyancy and should be based on readily available atmospheric parameters. There is obviously a wide application for boundary heights in off-line global and regional chemistry and transport modelling. It is also a much used parameter in air pollution meteorology. In this article we shall present a theory which is based on current insights in ABL dynamics. The theory is applicable over land and sea surfaces in all seasons. The theory is (for various reasons) not valid in mountainous areas. In areas where boundary-layer clouds or deep cumulus convection are present the theory does not apply. However, the same global atmospheric circulation models contain parameterizations for shallow and deep convection from which separate estimates can be obtained for the extent of vertical mixing. (au)
Height and Tilt Geometric Texture
Andersen, Vedrana; Desbrun, Mathieu; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas
2009-01-01
We propose a new intrinsic representation of geometric texture over triangle meshes. Our approach extends the conventional height field texture representation by incorporating displacements in the tangential plane in the form of a normal tilt. This texture representation offers a good practical...... compromise between functionality and simplicity: it can efficiently handle and process geometric texture too complex to be represented as a height field, without having recourse to full blown mesh editing algorithms. The height-and-tilt representation proposed here is fully intrinsic to the mesh, making...
Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.; Steenfelt, Agnete
2000-01-01
This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from an ordinary non-spatial factor analysis, and they are interpreted in a geological context. It is demonstrated that MAF analysis contrary to ordinary non-spatial factor analysis gives an objective discrimina...
An algorithm to estimate PBL heights from wind profiler data
Molod, A.; Salmun, H.
2016-12-01
An algorithm was developed to estimate planetary boundary layer (PBL) heights from hourlyarchived wind profiler data from the NOAA Profiler Network (NPN) sites located throughoutthe central United States from the period 1992-2012. The long period of record allows ananalysis of climatological mean PBL heights as well as some estimates of year to yearvariability. Under clear conditions, summertime averaged hourly time series of PBL heightscompare well with Richardson-number based estimates at the few NPN stations with hourlytemperature measurements. Comparisons with clear sky MERRA estimates show that the windprofiler (WP) and the Richardson number based PBL heights are lower by approximately 250-500 m.The geographical distribution of daily maximum WP PBL heights corresponds well with theexpected distribution based on patterns of surface temperature and soil moisture. Windprofiler PBL heights were also estimated under mostly cloudy conditions, but the WP estimatesshow a smaller clear-cloudy condition difference than either of the other two PBL height estimates.The algorithm presented here is shown to provide a reliable summer, fall and springclimatology of daytime hourly PBL heights throughout the central United States. The reliabilityof the algorithm has prompted its use to obtain hourly PBL heights from other archived windprofiler data located throughout the world.
Alaska Geoid Heights (GEOID96)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' geoid height grid for Alaska is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 1.1 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in the...
Mexico Geoid Heights (MEXICO97)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Mexico, and North-Central America, is the MEXICO97 geoid model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine gravity...
Maximum likely scale estimation
Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo
2005-01-01
A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...
Encounter Probability of Significant Wave Height
Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.
The determination of the design wave height (often given as the significant wave height) is usually based on statistical analysis of long-term extreme wave height measurement or hindcast. The result of such extreme wave height analysis is often given as the design wave height corresponding to a c...
Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J
2015-01-01
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta......-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence...
replacing orthometric heights with ellipsoidal heights in engineering ...
user
This work investigates the use of ellipsoidal heights in place of orthometric ... be represented mathematically, and therefore enables computation to be .... suitable locations along the levelling routes. The ..... 5.3 Assumptions and theoretical approximations made ... tectonics movement, deformation and land subsidence.
Tree Height Calculator: An Android App for Estimating Tree Height
Burca, V. S.; Htet, N. M.; Huang, X.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Morelli, R.; Gourley, J. R.
2011-12-01
Conventionally, measuring tree height requires a collection of different tools - clinometer, transit, pencil, paper, laptop computer. Results are recorded manually and entered into a spreadsheet or database for future calculation and analysis. Tree Height Calculator is a mobile Android app the integrates the various steps in this process thereby improving the accuracy and dramatically reducing the time required to go from taking measurements to analyzing data. Given the user's height and the distance from the base of the tree (which can be downloaded into the app from a server), the app uses the phone's orientation sensor to calculate the angle of elevation. A simple trigonometric formula is then used to calculate and record the tree's height in the phone's database. When the phone has a WiFi connection, the data are transmitted to a server, from where they can be downloaded directly into a spreadsheet. The application was first tested in an Environmental Science laboratory at Trinity College. On the first trial, 103 data samples were collected, stored, and uploaded to the online database with only couple of dropped data points. On the second trial, 98 data samples were gathered with no loss of data. The app combined the individual measurements taken by the students in the lab, reducing the time required to produce a graph of the class's results from days to hours.
Matthew Brolly
Full Text Available Individual trees have been shown to exhibit strong relationships between DBH, height and volume. Often such studies are cited as justification for forest volume or standing biomass estimation through remote sensing. With resolution of common satellite remote sensing systems generally too low to resolve individuals, and a need for larger coverage, these systems rely on descriptive heights, which account for tree collections in forests. For remote sensing and allometric applications, this height is not entirely understood in terms of its location. Here, a forest growth model (SERA analyzes forest canopy height relationships with forest wood volume. Maximum height, mean, H₁₀₀, and Lorey's height are examined for variability under plant number density, resource and species. Our findings, shown to be allometrically consistent with empirical measurements for forested communities world-wide, are analyzed for implications to forest remote sensing techniques such as LiDAR and RADAR. Traditional forestry measures of maximum height, and to a lesser extent H₁₀₀ and Lorey's, exhibit little consistent correlation with forest volume across modeled conditions. The implication is that using forest height to infer volume or biomass from remote sensing requires species and community behavioral information to infer accurate estimates using height alone. SERA predicts mean height to provide the most consistent relationship with volume of the height classifications studied and overall across forest variations. This prediction agrees with empirical data collected from conifer and angiosperm forests with plant densities ranging between 10²-10⁶ plants/hectare and heights 6-49 m. Height classifications investigated are potentially linked to radar scattering centers with implications for allometry. These findings may be used to advance forest biomass estimation accuracy through remote sensing. Furthermore, Lorey's height with its specific relationship to
Brolly, Matthew; Woodhouse, Iain H; Niklas, Karl J; Hammond, Sean T
2012-01-01
Individual trees have been shown to exhibit strong relationships between DBH, height and volume. Often such studies are cited as justification for forest volume or standing biomass estimation through remote sensing. With resolution of common satellite remote sensing systems generally too low to resolve individuals, and a need for larger coverage, these systems rely on descriptive heights, which account for tree collections in forests. For remote sensing and allometric applications, this height is not entirely understood in terms of its location. Here, a forest growth model (SERA) analyzes forest canopy height relationships with forest wood volume. Maximum height, mean, H₁₀₀, and Lorey's height are examined for variability under plant number density, resource and species. Our findings, shown to be allometrically consistent with empirical measurements for forested communities world-wide, are analyzed for implications to forest remote sensing techniques such as LiDAR and RADAR. Traditional forestry measures of maximum height, and to a lesser extent H₁₀₀ and Lorey's, exhibit little consistent correlation with forest volume across modeled conditions. The implication is that using forest height to infer volume or biomass from remote sensing requires species and community behavioral information to infer accurate estimates using height alone. SERA predicts mean height to provide the most consistent relationship with volume of the height classifications studied and overall across forest variations. This prediction agrees with empirical data collected from conifer and angiosperm forests with plant densities ranging between 10²-10⁶ plants/hectare and heights 6-49 m. Height classifications investigated are potentially linked to radar scattering centers with implications for allometry. These findings may be used to advance forest biomass estimation accuracy through remote sensing. Furthermore, Lorey's height with its specific relationship to remote sensing
Adolph, Karen E; Kretch, Kari S; LoBue, Vanessa
2014-02-01
Based largely on the famous "visual cliff" paradigm, conventional wisdom is that crawling infants avoid crossing the brink of a dangerous drop-off because they are afraid of heights. However, recent research suggests that the conventional wisdom is wrong. Avoidance and fear are conflated, and there is no compelling evidence to support fear of heights in human infants. Infants avoid crawling or walking over an impossibly high drop-off because they perceive affordances for locomotion-the relations between their own bodies and skills and the relevant properties of the environment that make an action such as descent possible or impossible.
Down on heights? One in three has visual height intolerance.
Huppert, Doreen; Grill, Eva; Brandt, Thomas
2013-02-01
The distressing phenomenon of visual height intolerance (vHI) occurs when a visual stimulus causes apprehension of losing control of balance and falling from some height. Epidemiological data of this condition in the general population are lacking. Assignment of prevalence, determinants, and compensation of vHI was performed in a cross-sectional epidemiological study of 3,517 individuals representing the German population. Life-time prevalence of vHI is 28 % (females 32 %). A higher prevalence is associated independently with a family history of vHI, anxiety disorders, migraine, or motion sickness susceptibility. Women aged 50-59 have a higher prevalence than younger women or men of all ages. Initial attacks occur most often (30 %) in the second decade; however, attacks can manifest throughout life. The main symptoms are fearfulness, inner agitation, a queasy-stomach feeling, subjective postural instability with to-and-fro vertigo, and weakness in the knees. Climbing a tower is the first most common precipitating stimulus; the spectrum of such stimuli widens with time in more than 50 % of afflicted individuals. The most frequent reaction to vHI is to avoid the triggering stimuli (>50 %); 11 % of susceptible individuals consult a doctor, most often a general practitioner, neurologist, ENT doctor, or psychiatrist. In brief, visual height intolerance affects one-third of the general population, considerably restricting the majority of these individuals in their daily activities. The data show that the two terms do not indicate a categorical distinction but rather a continuum from slight forms of visual height intolerance to the specific phobia of fear of heights.
Maximum information photoelectron metrology
Hockett, P; Wollenhaupt, M; Baumert, T
2015-01-01
Photoelectron interferograms, manifested in photoelectron angular distributions (PADs), are a high-information, coherent observable. In order to obtain the maximum information from angle-resolved photoionization experiments it is desirable to record the full, 3D, photoelectron momentum distribution. Here we apply tomographic reconstruction techniques to obtain such 3D distributions from multiphoton ionization of potassium atoms, and fully analyse the energy and angular content of the 3D data. The PADs obtained as a function of energy indicate good agreement with previous 2D data and detailed analysis [Hockett et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 223001 (2014)] over the main spectral features, but also indicate unexpected symmetry-breaking in certain regions of momentum space, thus revealing additional continuum interferences which cannot otherwise be observed. These observations reflect the presence of additional ionization pathways and, most generally, illustrate the power of maximum information measurements of th...
Canonical Height Functions For Monomial Maps
Lin, Jan-Li
2012-01-01
We show that the canonical height function defined by Silverman does not have the Northcott finiteness property in general. We develop a new canonical height function for monomial maps. In certain cases, this new canonical height function has nice properties.
Height-Deterministic Pushdown Automata
Nowotka, Dirk; Srba, Jiri
2007-01-01
of regular languages and still closed under boolean language operations, are considered. Several of such language classes have been described in the literature. Here, we suggest a natural and intuitive model that subsumes all the formalisms proposed so far by employing height-deterministic pushdown automata...
Height estimations based on eye measurements throughout a gait cycle.
Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Simonsen, Erik B; Lynnerup, Niels
2014-03-01
Anthropometric measurements (e.g. the height to the head, nose tip, eyes or shoulders) of a perpetrator based on video material may be used in criminal cases. However, several height measurements may be difficult to assess as the perpetrators may be disguised by clothes or headwear. The eye height (EH) measurement, on the other hand, is less prone to concealment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate: (1) how the eye height varies during the gait cycle, and (2) how the eye height changes with head position. The eyes were plotted manually in APAS for 16 test subjects during a complete gait cycle. The influence of head tilt on the EH was investigated in 20 healthy men. Markers were attached to the face and the subjects were instructed to stand relaxed, tilt their head to the right, to the left, forward and backward. The marker data for the right eye were used to calculate the EH. The respective deviation and SD from the relaxed standing EH and the EH in the Frankfurt plane, left tilted, right tilted, forward tilted and backward tilted, in addition to the corresponding head tilt angles were calculated. There was no correlation between the height of the subject and the maximum vertical displacement of the EH throughout the gait cycle nor between height of the subjects and the variation of the EH throughout the gait cycle. The average maximum vertical displacement for the test subject group was 4.76 cm (± 1.56 cm). The average EH was lower when the subjects were standing in the relaxed position than in the Frankfurt plane. The average EH was higher in the relaxed position than when the subjects tilted their heads, except when they tilted their heads backwards. The subjects had a slightly larger range of motion to the right than to the left, which was not significant. The results of this study provide a range for eye height estimates and may be readily implemented in forensic case work. It can be used as a reference in height estimates in cases with height
Maximum Likelihood Associative Memories
Gripon, Vincent; Rabbat, Michael
2013-01-01
Associative memories are structures that store data in such a way that it can later be retrieved given only a part of its content -- a sort-of error/erasure-resilience property. They are used in applications ranging from caches and memory management in CPUs to database engines. In this work we study associative memories built on the maximum likelihood principle. We derive minimum residual error rates when the data stored comes from a uniform binary source. Second, we determine the minimum amo...
Maximum likely scale estimation
Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo
2005-01-01
A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and....../or having different derivative orders. Although the principle is applicable to a wide variety of image models, the main focus here is on the Brownian model and its use for scale selection in natural images. Furthermore, in the examples provided, the simplifying assumption is made that the behavior...... of the measurements is completely characterized by all moments up to second order....
Ware, John; Kort, Eric A; DeCola, Phil; Duren, Riley
2016-08-27
Atmospheric observations of greenhouse gases provide essential information on sources and sinks of these key atmospheric constituents. To quantify fluxes from atmospheric observations, representation of transport-especially vertical mixing-is a necessity and often a source of error. We report on remotely sensed profiles of vertical aerosol distribution taken over a 2 year period in Pasadena, California. Using an automated analysis system, we estimate daytime mixing layer depth, achieving high confidence in the afternoon maximum on 51% of days with profiles from a Sigma Space Mini Micropulse LiDAR (MiniMPL) and on 36% of days with a Vaisala CL51 ceilometer. We note that considering ceilometer data on a logarithmic scale, a standard method, introduces, an offset in mixing height retrievals. The mean afternoon maximum mixing height is 770 m Above Ground Level in summer and 670 m in winter, with significant day-to-day variance (within season σ = 220m≈30%). Taking advantage of the MiniMPL's portability, we demonstrate the feasibility of measuring the detailed horizontal structure of the mixing layer by automobile. We compare our observations to planetary boundary layer (PBL) heights from sonde launches, North American regional reanalysis (NARR), and a custom Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model developed for greenhouse gas (GHG) monitoring in Los Angeles. NARR and WRF PBL heights at Pasadena are both systematically higher than measured, NARR by 2.5 times; these biases will cause proportional errors in GHG flux estimates using modeled transport. We discuss how sustained lidar observations can be used to reduce flux inversion error by selecting suitable analysis periods, calibrating models, or characterizing bias for correction in post processing.
Influences on the Height of the Stable Boundary Layer as seen in LES
Kosovic, B; Lundquist, J
2004-06-15
Climate models, numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, and atmospheric dispersion models often rely on parameterizations of planetary boundary layer height. In the case of a stable boundary layer, errors in boundary layer height estimation can result in gross errors in boundary-layer evolution and in prediction of turbulent mixing within the boundary layer.
Sensitivity of LIDAR Canopy Height Estimate to Geolocation Error
Tang, H.; Dubayah, R.
2010-12-01
Many factors affect the quality of canopy height structure data derived from space-based lidar such as DESDynI. Among these is geolocation accuracy. Inadequate geolocation information hinders subsequent analyses because a different portion of the canopy is observed relative to what is assumed. This is especially true in mountainous terrain where the effects of slope magnify geolocation errors. Mission engineering design must trade the expense of providing more accurate geolocation with the potential improvement in measurement accuracy. The objective of our work is to assess the effects of small errors in geolocation on subsequent retrievals of maximum canopy height for a varying set of canopy structures and terrains. Dense discrete lidar data from different forest sites (from La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica, Sierra National Forest, California, and Hubbard Brook and Bartlett Experimental Forests in New Hampshire) are used to simulate DESDynI height retrievals using various geolocation accuracies. Results show that canopy height measurement errors generally increase as the geolocation error increases. Interestingly, most of the height errors are caused by variation of canopy height rather than topography (slope and aspect).
F. TopsÃƒÂ¸e
2001-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over
Struzik Artur
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Study aim: The elastic potential energy accumulated in the musculotendinous units during the countermovement phase of a jump adds up to the energy supplied by the contracting muscles used in the take-off phase. Consequently, the total mechanical energy used during the jump may reach higher values. Stiffness represents a quantitative measure of a body’s elastic properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the relationship between leg stiffness and the countermovement jump height.
Ratnasamy Muniandy
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA is a gap-graded mix that is gaining popularity worldwide. Generally, gap graded mixes are thought to be weak in fatigue resistance. In this study, cellulose fibers were pre-blended in PG64-22 binder with fiber proportions of 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1.0% by weight of aggregates. The fiber-modified binder showed improved rheological properties and showed that the PG64-22 binder can be modified and raised to PG70-22 grade. The cellulose oil palm fiber (COPF was found to improve the diameteral fatigue performance of SMA design mix. The fatigue life increased to a maximum at a fiber content of about 0.6%, whilst the tensile stress and stiffness also showed a similar trend in performance. The initial strains of the mix were lowest at a fiber content of 0.6%.
Regularized maximum correntropy machine
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2015-02-12
In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.
Tree diversity, tree height and environmental harshness in eastern and western North America.
Marks, Christian O; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Tilman, David
2016-07-01
Does variation in environmental harshness explain local and regional species diversity gradients? We hypothesise that for a given life form like trees, greater harshness leads to a smaller range of traits that are viable and thereby also to lower species diversity. On the basis of a strong dependence of maximum tree height on site productivity and other measures of site quality, we propose maximum tree height as an inverse measure of environmental harshness for trees. Our results show that tree species richness is strongly positively correlated with maximum tree height across multiple spatial scales in forests of both eastern and western North America. Maximum tree height co-varied with species richness along gradients from benign to harsh environmental conditions, which supports the hypothesis that harshness may be a general mechanism limiting local diversity and explaining diversity gradients within a biogeographic region.
Mohaghegh, Kamran; Yazdanbakhsh, Seyed Alireza; Tiedje, Niels Skat
2016-01-01
the same routine to touch the different positions on the polygonised mesh. Each measurement was repeated 5 times. The results of step height measurements on sand surfaces showed a maximum error of ± 12 µm for CMM, while scanner shows only ± 4 µm. Generally speaking, optical step height values were measured...
Khankari, Nikhil K.; Shu, Xiao Ou; Wen, Wanqing; Kraft, Peter; Lindström, Sara; Peters, Ulrike; Schildkraut, Joellen; Schumacher, Fredrick; Bofetta, Paolo; Risch, Angela; Bickeböller, Heike; Amos, Christopher I.; Easton, Douglas; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Gruber, Stephen B.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hunter, David J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Pierce, Brandon L.; Zheng, Wei; Blalock, Kendra; Campbell, Peter T.; Casey, Graham; Conti, David V.; Edlund, Christopher K.; Figueiredo, Jane; James Gauderman, W.; Gong, Jian; Green, Roger C.; Harju, John F.; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Jenkins, Mark A.; Jiao, Shuo; Li, Li; Lin, Yi; Manion, Frank J.; Moreno, Victor; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Raskin, Leon; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Seminara, Daniela; Severi, Gianluca; Stenzel, Stephanie L.; Thomas, Duncan C.; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian; Gibson, Lorna; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Ahsan, Habib; Whittemore, Alice; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Adank, Muriel; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Hofman, Albert; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lichtner, Peter; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckman, Lars; Crisponi, Laura; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Easton, Douglas F.; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Eeles, Rosalind; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham; Neal, David; Donovan, Jenny L.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Wiklund, Fredrik; Gronberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher; Schumacher, Fred; Travis, Ruth; Riboli, Elio; Hunter, David; Gapstur, Susan; Berndt, Sonja; Chanock, Stephen; Han, Younghun; Su, Li; Wei, Yongyue; Hung, Rayjean J.; Brhane, Yonathan; McLaughlin, John; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James D.; Rosenberger, Albert; Houlston, Richard S.; Caporaso, Neil; Teresa Landi, Maria; Heinrich, Joachim; Wu, Xifeng; Ye, Yuanqing; Christiani, David C.
2016-01-01
Background: Observational studies examining associations between adult height and risk of colorectal, prostate, and lung cancers have generated mixed results. We conducted meta-analyses using data from prospective cohort studies and further carried out Mendelian randomization analyses, using height-
Effective Height Upper Bounds on Algebraic Tori
Habegger, Philipp
2012-01-01
The main emphasis will be on height upper bounds in the algebraic torus G^{n}_{m}. By height we will mean the absolute logarithmic Weil height. Section 3.2 contains a precise definition of this and other more general height functions. The first appendix gives a short overview of known results in the abelian case. The second appendix contains a few height bounds in Shimura varieties.
Jiang, Houshuo; Breier, John A.
2014-10-01
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the turbulent flow and species transport of deep-sea high temperature hydrothermal plumes. The model solves numerically the density weighted unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and energy equation and the species transport equation. Turbulent entrainment and mixing is modeled by a k-ε turbulence closure model. The CFD model explicitly considers realistic vent chimney geometry, vent exit fluid temperature and velocity, and background stratification. The model uses field measurements as model inputs and has been validated by field data. These measurements and data, including vent temperature and plume physical structure, were made in the ABE hydrothermal field of the Eastern Lau Spreading Center. A parametric sensitivity study based on this CFD model was conducted to determine the relative importance of vent exit velocity, background stratification, and chimney height on the mixing of vent fluid and seawater. The CFD model was also used to derive several important scalings that are relevant to understanding plume impact on the ocean. These scalings include maximum plume rise height, neutrally buoyant plume height, maximum plume induced turbulent diffusivity, and total plume vertically transported water mass flux. These scaling relationships can be used for constructing simplified 1-dimensional models of geochemistry and microbial activity in hydrothermal plumes. Simulation results show that the classical entrainment assumptions, typically invoked to describe hydrothermal plume transport, only apply up to the vertical level of ~0.6 times the maximum plume rise height. Below that level, the entrainment coefficient remains relatively constant (~0.15). Above that level, the plume flow consists of a pronounced lateral spreading flow, two branches of inward flow immediately above and below the lateral spreading, and recirculation flanking the plume cap region. Both turbulent kinetic energy
Equalized near maximum likelihood detector
2012-01-01
This paper presents new detector that is used to mitigate intersymbol interference introduced by bandlimited channels. This detector is named equalized near maximum likelihood detector which combines nonlinear equalizer and near maximum likelihood detector. Simulation results show that the performance of equalized near maximum likelihood detector is better than the performance of nonlinear equalizer but worse than near maximum likelihood detector.
Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John
2005-01-01
A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].
On the Locus Formed by the Maximum Heights of Projectile Motion with Air Resistance
Hernandez-Saldana, H.
2010-01-01
We present an analysis on the locus formed by the set of maxima of the trajectories of a projectile launched in a medium with linear drag. Such a place, the locus of apexes, is written in terms of the Lambert "W" function in polar coordinates, confirming the special role played by this function in the problem. To characterize the locus, a study of…
Tehsin, Sara; Rehman, Saad; Awan, Ahmad B.; Chaudry, Qaiser; Abbas, Muhammad; Young, Rupert; Asif, Afia
2016-04-01
Sensitivity to the variations in the reference image is a major concern when recognizing target objects. A combinational framework of correlation filters and logarithmic transformation has been previously reported to resolve this issue alongside catering for scale and rotation changes of the object in the presence of distortion and noise. In this paper, we have extended the work to include the influence of different logarithmic bases on the resultant correlation plane. The meaningful changes in correlation parameters along with contraction/expansion in the correlation plane peak have been identified under different scenarios. Based on our research, we propose some specific log bases to be used in logarithmically transformed correlation filters for achieving suitable tolerance to different variations. The study is based upon testing a range of logarithmic bases for different situations and finding an optimal logarithmic base for each particular set of distortions. Our results show improved correlation and target detection accuracies.
An Improved Iterative Fitting Method to Estimate Nocturnal Residual Layer Height
Wei Wang
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The planetary boundary layer (PBL is an atmospheric region near the Earth’s surface. It is significant for weather forecasting and for the study of air quality and climate. In this study, the top of nocturnal residual layers—which are what remain of the daytime mixing layer—are estimated by an elastic backscatter Lidar in Wuhan (30.5°N, 114.4°E, a city in Central China. The ideal profile fitting method is widely applied to determine the nocturnal residual layer height (RLH from Lidar data. However, the method is seriously affected by an optical thick layer. Thus, we propose an improved iterative fitting method to eliminate the optical thick layer effect on RLH detection using Lidar. Two typical case studies observed by elastic Lidar are presented to demonstrate the theory and advantage of the proposed method. Results of case analysis indicate that the improved method is more practical and precise than profile-fitting, gradient, and wavelet covariance transform method in terms of nocturnal RLH evaluation under low cloud conditions. Long-term observations of RLH performed with ideal profile fitting and improved methods were carried out in Wuhan from 28 May 2011 to 17 June 2016. Comparisons of Lidar-derived RLHs with the two types of methods verify that the improved solution is practical. Statistical analysis of a six-year Lidar signal was conducted to reveal the monthly average values of nocturnal RLH in Wuhan. A clear RLH monthly cycle with a maximum mean height of about 1.8 km above ground level was observed in August, and a minimum height of about 0.7 km was observed in January. The variation in monthly mean RLH displays an obvious quarterly dependence, which coincides with the annual variation in local surface temperature.
BINDER DRAINAGE TEST FOR POROUS MIXTURES MADE BY VARYING THE MAXIMUM AGGREGATE SIZES
Hardiman Hardiman
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Binder drainage occurs with mixes of small aggregate surface area particularly porous asphalt. The binder drainage test, developed by the Transport Research Laboratory, UK, is commonly used to set an upper limit on the acceptable binder content for a porous mix. This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation to determine the effects of different binder types on the binder drainage characteristics of porous mix made of various maximum aggregate sizes 20, 14 and 10 mm. Two types of binder were used, conventional 60/70 pen bitumen, and styrene butadiene styrene (SBS modified bitumen. The amount of binder lost through drainage after three hours at the maximum mixing temperature were measured in duplicate for mixes of different maximum sizes and binder contents. The maximum mixing temperature adopted depends on the types of binder used. The retained binder is plotted against the initial mixed binder content, together with the line of equality where the retained binder equals the mixed binder content. The results indicate the significant contribution of using SBS modified bitumen to increase the target bitumen binder content. Their significance is discussed in terms of target binder content, the critical binder content, the maximum mixed binder content and the maximum retained binder content values obtained from the binder drainage test. It was concluded that increasing maximum aggregate sizes decrease the maximum retained binder content, critical binder content, target binder content, maximum mixed binder content, and mixed content for both binders, but however for all mixtures, SBS is the highest.
Improved terahertz quantum cascade laser with variable height barriers
Matyas, Alpar; Chashmahcharagh, Reza; Kovacs, Istvan; Lugli, Paolo; Vijayraghavan, Karun; Belkin, Mikhail A.; Jirauschek, Christian
2012-05-01
Using an ensemble Monte-Carlo analysis, it is found that relaxing the constraint of identical barrier heights can result in an improved temperature performance. Exploiting this additional design degree of freedom, modified structures with non-uniform barrier heights are developed based on the current record temperature design. For an optimized structure with reduced diagonality, we predict an increase of 31 K for the maximum operating temperature. Furthermore, we develop improved designs with the same oscillator strength as for the reference design. Using a genetic algorithm for optimization, an improvement of the maximum operating temperature by 38 K is obtained. These results aim to show the potential of varying the barrier heigths for the design of high temperature performance terahertz quantum cascade lasers.
Etymological study of Wuthering Heights
张倩; 张露
2013-01-01
In Wuthering Heights, the main characters and places have been delicately designed and cautiously named, which have their special implications based on the characters’identity, status and personalities or the features of the places. Therefore, through analyzing the implied meanings of the characters and place names in this novel, this essay illustrates that the author pur-posefully failed Heathcliff’s revenge. Meanwhile, the theme of this novel-Emily’s ultimate concern for the social inequality-is naturally exposed to the reader.
Ware, John; Kort, Eric A.; DeCola, Phil; Duren, Riley
2016-08-01
Atmospheric observations of greenhouse gases provide essential information on sources and sinks of these key atmospheric constituents. To quantify fluxes from atmospheric observations, representation of transport—especially vertical mixing—is a necessity and often a source of error. We report on remotely sensed profiles of vertical aerosol distribution taken over a 2 year period in Pasadena, California. Using an automated analysis system, we estimate daytime mixing layer depth, achieving high confidence in the afternoon maximum on 51% of days with profiles from a Sigma Space Mini Micropulse LiDAR (MiniMPL) and on 36% of days with a Vaisala CL51 ceilometer. We note that considering ceilometer data on a logarithmic scale, a standard method, introduces, an offset in mixing height retrievals. The mean afternoon maximum mixing height is 770 m Above Ground Level in summer and 670 m in winter, with significant day-to-day variance (within season σ = 220m≈30%). Taking advantage of the MiniMPL's portability, we demonstrate the feasibility of measuring the detailed horizontal structure of the mixing layer by automobile. We compare our observations to planetary boundary layer (PBL) heights from sonde launches, North American regional reanalysis (NARR), and a custom Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model developed for greenhouse gas (GHG) monitoring in Los Angeles. NARR and WRF PBL heights at Pasadena are both systematically higher than measured, NARR by 2.5 times; these biases will cause proportional errors in GHG flux estimates using modeled transport. We discuss how sustained lidar observations can be used to reduce flux inversion error by selecting suitable analysis periods, calibrating models, or characterizing bias for correction in post processing.
Counting Young Tableaux of Bounded Height
Bergeron, Francois; Gascon, Francis
2000-03-01
We show that formulas of Gessel, for the generating functions for Young standard tableaux of height bounded by k (see [2]), satisfy linear differential equations, with polynomial coefficients, equivalent to P-recurrences conjectured by Favreau, Krob and the first author (see [1]) for the number of bounded height tableaux and pairs of bounded height tableaux.
Estimating vehicle height using homographic projections
Cunningham, Mark F; Fabris, Lorenzo; Gee, Timothy F; Ghebretati, Jr., Frezghi H; Goddard, James S; Karnowski, Thomas P; Ziock, Klaus-peter
2013-07-16
Multiple homography transformations corresponding to different heights are generated in the field of view. A group of salient points within a common estimated height range is identified in a time series of video images of a moving object. Inter-salient point distances are measured for the group of salient points under the multiple homography transformations corresponding to the different heights. Variations in the inter-salient point distances under the multiple homography transformations are compared. The height of the group of salient points is estimated to be the height corresponding to the homography transformation that minimizes the variations.
Global Unification Problem of the Height System
XU Houze
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Some fundamental problems on the establishment of the global unified height system, including the geometry and gravity definition of the normal height, the global unification of the regional height systems obtained from leveling measurements, and the determination of geoid potential W0 are discussed. The main conclusions are summarized:①The definition of normal height in the sense of geometry leveling and gravity theory is different, so that h-ζ≠HL, here h, ζ and HL are geodetic height, height anomaly and levelling height respectively. Instead of it, we found HL=h-ζ+∂γ/∂hζH, in the mountain area, the last correction term have to be added. ②Based on the merging of GNSS/gravity/regional leveling, the regional leveling height can be transformed into a global relative unified height system, however the value of geoid potential W0 is still needed in order to establish an absolute height system. ③W0 can be determinated from the modern geodetic techniques with a certain accuracy, but it is time variable, so that people may only define a global absolute unified height system in a fixed epoch.
Perceiving action boundaries: Learning effects in perceiving maximum jumping-reach affordances
Ramenzoni, V.C; Davis, T.J; Riley, M.A; Shockley, K
2010-01-01
.... Those estimates were compared with estimates that perceivers made for themselves. In Experiment 1, participants initially underestimated the maximum jumping-reach height both for themselves and for the...
Measuring Palatal Height in Normal Occlusion and Malocclusions
M. Zarringhalam
2004-12-01
Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Due to the appearance of palatal height difference in orthodontic patients we decided to carry out this study.Purpose: The purpose of this research was to determine palatal height in persons with normal occlusion and different malocclusions (class I, II Div I and III and comp aring them with each other.Materials and Methods : In this cross sectional research, 240 subjects were selected. Sixty cases (30 girls and 30 boys with normal occlusion within 16-18 years old were selected inrandom cluster sampling from high schools in Mashhad. Examination technique was direct observation, lateral cephalometric radiography, impression and preparing study model for measuring. For every kind of malocclusion 60 young patients, 30 females and 30 males,within the range of 16-20 years old attended orthodontic treatment in private dental offices or Orthodontics Department of Mashhad Dental School .The examination technique was indirect observation, using lateral cephalometry selected of 5395 lateral cephalograms andrelated study models for measuring. Mean, min imum and maximum and height of the palate was initially determined and then normal occlusion was compared with every kind of malocclusion using SPSS statistical software. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA andt-test (independent groups, and also Duncan test were used for comparison.Results: The ANOVA test showed that there were no statistically significant differences between females in normal occlusion and different malocclusions (P=0.486. In boys the palatal height was significantly higher in class III males than class II and class Imalocclusions and the height of palate for normal boys is significantly higher than class I malocclusion (P<0.05. Comparison of other groups was not significantly different.In each group height of palate was significantly lower in females than males (P<0.001.Conclusion: From this research we concluded that palatal height is different in females and males
Estimating Tree Height-Diameter Models with the Bayesian Method
Xiongqing Zhang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Six candidate height-diameter models were used to analyze the height-diameter relationships. The common methods for estimating the height-diameter models have taken the classical (frequentist approach based on the frequency interpretation of probability, for example, the nonlinear least squares method (NLS and the maximum likelihood method (ML. The Bayesian method has an exclusive advantage compared with classical method that the parameters to be estimated are regarded as random variables. In this study, the classical and Bayesian methods were used to estimate six height-diameter models, respectively. Both the classical method and Bayesian method showed that the Weibull model was the “best” model using data1. In addition, based on the Weibull model, data2 was used for comparing Bayesian method with informative priors with uninformative priors and classical method. The results showed that the improvement in prediction accuracy with Bayesian method led to narrower confidence bands of predicted value in comparison to that for the classical method, and the credible bands of parameters with informative priors were also narrower than uninformative priors and classical method. The estimated posterior distributions for parameters can be set as new priors in estimating the parameters using data2.
Development of large Area Covering Height Model
Jacobsen, K.
2014-04-01
Height information is a basic part of topographic mapping. Only in special areas frequent update of height models is required, usually the update cycle is quite lower as for horizontal map information. Some height models are available free of charge in the internet; for commercial height models a fee has to be paid. Mostly digital surface models (DSM) with the height of the visible surface are given and not the bare ground height, as required for standard mapping. Nevertheless by filtering of DSM, digital terrain models (DTM) with the height of the bare ground can be generated with the exception of dense forest areas where no height of the bare ground is available. These height models may be better as the DTM of some survey administrations. In addition several DTM from national survey administrations are classified, so as alternative the commercial or free of charge available information from internet can be used. The widely used SRTM DSM is available also as ACE-2 GDEM corrected by altimeter data for systematic height errors caused by vegetation and orientation errors. But the ACE-2 GDEM did not respect neighbourhood information. With the worldwide covering TanDEM-X height model, distributed starting 2014 by Airbus Defence and Space (former ASTRIUM) as WorldDEM, higher level of details and accuracy is reached as with other large area covering height models. At first the raw-version of WorldDEM will be available, followed by an edited version and finally as WorldDEM-DTM a height model of the bare ground. With 12 m spacing and a relative standard deviation of 1.2 m within an area of 1° x 1° an accuracy and resolution level is reached, satisfying also for larger map scales. For limited areas with the HDEM also a height model with 6 m spacing and a relative vertical accuracy of 0.5 m can be generated on demand. By bathymetric LiDAR and stereo images also the height of the sea floor can be determined if the water has satisfying transparency. Another method of getting
Heights of varieties in multiprojective spaces and arithmetic Nullstellensatze
D'Andrea, Carlos; Sombra, Martin
2011-01-01
We present bounds for the degree and the height of the polynomials arising in some central problems in effective algebraic geometry including the implicitation of rational maps and the effective Nullstellensatz over a variety. Our treatment is based on arithmetic intersection theory in products of projective spaces and extends to the arithmetic setting constructions and results due to Jelonek. A key role is played by the notion of canonical mixed heights of multiprojective varieties. We study this notion from the point of view of resultant theory and establish some of its basic properties, including its behavior with respect to intersections, projections and products. We obtain analogous results for the function field case, including a parametric Nullstellensatz.
Imagery and fear influence height perception.
Clerkin, Elise M; Cody, Meghan W; Stefanucci, Jeanine K; Proffitt, Dennis R; Teachman, Bethany A
2009-04-01
The current study tested whether height overestimation is related to height fear and influenced by images of falling. To assess perceptual biases, participants high (n=65) versus low (n=64) in height fear estimated the vertical extents of two balconies using a visual matching task. On one of the balconies, participants engaged in an imagery exercise designed to enhance the subjective sense that they were acting in a dangerous environment by picturing themselves falling. As expected, we found that individuals overestimated the balcony's height more after they imagined themselves falling, particularly if they were already afraid of heights. These findings suggest that height fear may serve as a vulnerability factor that leads to perceptual biases when triggered by a stressor (in this case, images of falling).
Statistical distribution of nonlinear random wave height
HOU; Yijun; GUO; Peifang; SONG; Guiting; SONG; Jinbao; YIN; Baoshu; ZHAO; Xixi
2006-01-01
A statistical model of random wave is developed using Stokes wave theory of water wave dynamics. A new nonlinear probability distribution function of wave height is presented. The results indicate that wave steepness not only could be a parameter of the distribution function of wave height but also could reflect the degree of wave height distribution deviation from the Rayleigh distribution. The new wave height distribution overcomes the problem of Rayleigh distribution that the prediction of big wave is overestimated and the general wave is underestimated. The prediction of small probability wave height value of new distribution is also smaller than that of Rayleigh distribution. Wave height data taken from East China Normal University are used to verify the new distribution. The results indicate that the new distribution fits the measurements much better than the Rayleigh distribution.
A comparison of different methods to estimate species proportions by area in mixed stands
Gerald F. Dirnberger
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Aim of the study: This paper presents the most appropriate ways to estimate the species proportions by area in mixed stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst. and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. by comparing stand level and individual tree level approaches. It also investigates whether different ways of describing species proportions by area can result in different judgments on the over- or under-yielding of species in mixtures.Area of the study: Three triplets of pure and mixed stands of Norway spruce and European beech in three locations in the northeast of Austria are investigated. The three locations differ considerably in slope, bedrock and soil type as well as in site index.Material and Methods: In all 9 plots the coordinates of all trees, their dbh, height, height to the crown base and five year increment were measured. The potentially available areas of individual trees are calculated by Voronoi- diagrams and potential densities are estimated from the comparable pure stands, yield tables, and published equations for maximum basal area and Reineke’s maximum density line.Main results: The species proportions estimated by the individual tree approach with leaf area as growth characteristic gave the best fit with the stand approach with the most appropriate, regional maximum basal area equations. By using various definitions of species proportions, in the worst case the mixing effects on individual species can be seriously over- or underestimated while the mixing effects on the total increment is only negligibly affected.Research highlightsMeasures of species proportions by area are needed for comparing growth per hectare of a species in a mixed stand with that of the same species in a pure standSpecies proportions at the stand level are based on estimates of the species’ potential densities, either in terms of maximum basal area or of maximum stand density indexSpecies proportions at the tree level are derived from the area
Adult height, nutrition, and population health.
Perkins, Jessica M; Subramanian, S V; Davey Smith, George; Özaltin, Emre
2016-03-01
In this review, the potential causes and consequences of adult height, a measure of cumulative net nutrition, in modern populations are summarized. The mechanisms linking adult height and health are examined, with a focus on the role of potential confounders. Evidence across studies indicates that short adult height (reflecting growth retardation) in low- and middle-income countries is driven by environmental conditions, especially net nutrition during early years. Some of the associations of height with health and social outcomes potentially reflect the association between these environmental factors and such outcomes. These conditions are manifested in the substantial differences in adult height that exist between and within countries and over time. This review suggests that adult height is a useful marker of variation in cumulative net nutrition, biological deprivation, and standard of living between and within populations and should be routinely measured. Linkages between adult height and health, within and across generations, suggest that adult height may be a potential tool for monitoring health conditions and that programs focused on offspring outcomes may consider maternal height as a potentially important influence.
Grossman, Yuval
1997-01-01
In supersymmetric models with nonvanishing Majorana neutrino masses, the sneutrino and antisneutrino mix. The conditions under which this mixing is experimentally observable are studied, and mass-splitting of the sneutrino mass eigenstates and sneutrino oscillation phenomena are analyzed.
祖笑锋; 倪成才; Gorden Nigh; 覃先林
2015-01-01
empirical best linear unbiased predictor( EBLUP) , and effects of previous observations,age interval of observations and prediction span on prediction accuracy,based upon height data from 79 dominant trees of ponderosa pine in British Columbia,Canada. [Method]We randomly selected 49 trees for fitting mixed-effects models and 30 trees for validating EBLUP. The base models were Richards,Logistic,and Korf. Fit statistics,AIC,BIC and Loglik,were used as evaluation criteria,and mean squared prediction error ( MSPE) for analyzing effects of previous observations,age interval of observations and prediction span on prediction accuracy. We used the nlme function in R for model fitting,and the IML procedure in SAS for analyzing EBLUP prediction. To isolate the effect of one factor,we kept two other factors fixed.[Result]Fitting results showed the Logistic model had the best criteria among the three models of under investigation,indicating that it was the best-fitted model and was chosen for EBLUP prediction analysis. In the analysis of EBLUP prediction,we first introduced how to use EBLUP to predict random effects associated with a stand through a detailed example. Data from six trees, which deviated significantly from population-mean growth process,were used to present relationships among individual growth,population-mean growth, and adjusted values given by EBLUP. The results indicated that EBLUP prediction could fully follow individual growth process,given that there were multiple previous observations with long-enough age intervals. EBLUP analysis results also presented the number of previous observations,age interval of observations and prediction span significantly affected prediction accuracy. MSPE decreased as the number of previous observations increased,particularly when observations separated long enough in age so that they could give more efficient growth information. With respect to prediction span, prediction accuracy decreased as prediction span extended further away
Tatiana Vassileva Stankova
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The height-diameter relationship is an important and extensivelyinvestigated forest model, but generalized and mixed-effects models of wider applicability are currently lacking in the forest modeling literature for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. plantations in Bulgaria. Considering the practical advantages of deterministic and mixed-effects models, the present study aims to derive a generalized deterministic height-diameter relationship and a simple mixed-effects model for plantation-grown Scots pine in Bulgaria. Ten generalized and six local models of adequate mathematical properties were selected and examined in several subsequent steps with a representative data set.A deterministic model was derived for tree height reconstruction fromthe individual tree diameters, stand dominant height and diameter,number of trees per hectare and stand age. Mixed-effects models weredeveloped from the individual-tree and stand diameters and heights applicable to determine the height-diameter relationship in field surveys. Both types of models can be applied with confidence, according to their advantages and specifications, for estimating the height-diameter relationship of Scots pine plantations in Bulgaria, presenting a unique contribution for the particular species, study area and type of model. The choice of the tested models is relevant to the height-diameter relationship investigation of biologically related and geographically close species and types of stands and the study procedure allows repetition of the work to provide reliable solutions of the problem where information on such type of model is deficient or incomplete.
Prediction of Double Layer Grids' Maximum Deflection Using Neural Networks
Reza K. Moghadas
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Efficient neural networks models are trained to predict the maximum deflection of two-way on two-way grids with variable geometrical parameters (span and height as well as cross-sectional areas of the element groups. Backpropagation (BP and Radial Basis Function (RBF neural networks are employed for the mentioned purpose. The inputs of the neural networks are the length of the spans, L, the height, h and cross-sectional areas of the all groups, A and the outputs are maximum deflections of the corresponding double layer grids, respectively. The numerical results indicate that the RBF neural network is better than BP in terms of training time and performance generality.
Eruption column height: a comparison between ground and satellite measurements
Scollo, Simona; Prestifilippo, Michele; Pecora, Emilio; Corradini, Stefano; Merucci, Luca; Spata, Gaetano; Coltelli, Mauro
2014-05-01
The eruption column height estimation is an essential parameter to evaluate the total mass eruption rate, the gas and aerosol plume dispersal and retrievals. The column height may be estimated using different systems (e.g. satellite, aircraft and ground observations) which may present marked differences. In this work we use the calibrated images collected by the video-surveillance system of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Osservatorio Etneo, from the visible camera located in Catania, 27 km from the vent. The analysis is carried out on twenty lava fountains from the New South East Crater during the recent Etna explosive activity. Firstly, we calibrated the camera to estimate its intrinsic parameters and the full camera model. Furthermore, we selected the images which recorded the maximum phase of the eruptive activity. Hence, we applied an appropriate correction to take into account the wind effect. The column height was also evaluated using SEVIRI and MODIS satellite images collected at the same time of the video camera measurements. The satellite column height retrievals is realized by comparing the 11 μm brightness temperature of the most opaque plume pixels with the atmospheric temperature profile measured at Trapani WMO Meteo station (the nearest WMO station to the Etnean area). The comparison between satellite and ground data show a good agreement and the column altitudes ranges between 7.5 and 9 km (upper limit of the camera system). For nine events we evaluated also the thickness of the volcanic plumes in the umbrella region (near the vent) which ranges between 2 and 3 km. The proposed approach help to quantitatively evaluate the column height that may be used by volcanic ash dispersal and sedimentation models for improving forecasts and reducing risks to aviation during volcanic crisis.
Evolutionary perspectives on human height variation
Stulp, Gert; Barrett, Louise
2016-01-01
Human height is a highly variable trait, both within and between populations, has a high heritability, and influences the manner in which people behave and are treated in society. Although we know much about human height, this information has rarely been brought together in a comprehensive, systemat
Local average height distribution of fluctuating interfaces
Smith, Naftali R.; Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V.
2017-01-01
Height fluctuations of growing surfaces can be characterized by the probability distribution of height in a spatial point at a finite time. Recently there has been spectacular progress in the studies of this quantity for the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation in 1 +1 dimensions. Here we notice that, at or above a critical dimension, the finite-time one-point height distribution is ill defined in a broad class of linear surface growth models unless the model is regularized at small scales. The regularization via a system-dependent small-scale cutoff leads to a partial loss of universality. As a possible alternative, we introduce a local average height. For the linear models, the probability density of this quantity is well defined in any dimension. The weak-noise theory for these models yields the "optimal path" of the interface conditioned on a nonequilibrium fluctuation of the local average height. As an illustration, we consider the conserved Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) equation, where, without regularization, the finite-time one-point height distribution is ill defined in all physical dimensions. We also determine the optimal path of the interface in a closely related problem of the finite-time height-difference distribution for the nonconserved EW equation in 1 +1 dimension. Finally, we discuss a UV catastrophe in the finite-time one-point distribution of height in the (nonregularized) KPZ equation in 2 +1 dimensions.
47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...
OECD Maximum Residue Limit Calculator
With the goal of harmonizing the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the OECD has developed an MRL Calculator. View the calculator.
Neutrino Mixing: Theoretical Overview
Altarelli, Guido
2013-01-01
We present a concise review of the recent important experimental developments on neutrino mixing (hints for sterile neutrinos, large $\\theta_{13}$, possible non maximal $\\theta_{23}$, approaching sensitivity on $\\delta_{CP}$) and their implications on models of neutrino mixing. The new data disfavour many models but the surviving ones still span a wide range going from Anarchy (no structure, no symmetry in the lepton sector) to a maximum of symmetry, as for the models based on discrete non-abelian flavour groups that can be improved following the indications from the data.
Lee, S; Dimenna, R; Tamburello, D
2011-02-14
height from zero to 10 ft. The sludge has been characterized and modeled as micron-sized solids, typically 1 to 5 microns, at weight fractions as high as 20 to 30 wt%, specific gravities to 1.4, and viscosities up to 64 cp during motion. The sludge is suspended and mixed through the use of submersible slurry jet pumps. To suspend settled sludge, water is added to the tank as a slurry medium and stirred with the jet pump. Although there is considerable technical literature on mixing and solid suspension in agitated tanks, very little literature has been published on jet mixing in a large-scale tank. One of the main objectives in the waste processing is to provide feed of a uniform slurry composition at a certain weight percentage (e.g. typically {approx}13 wt% at SRS) over an extended period of time. In preparation of the sludge for slurrying, several important questions have been raised with regard to sludge suspension and mixing of the solid suspension in the bulk of the tank: (1) How much time is required to prepare a slurry with a uniform solid composition? (2) How long will it take to suspend and mix the sludge for uniform composition in any particular waste tank? (3) What are good mixing indicators to answer the questions concerning sludge mixing stated above in a general fashion applicable to any waste tank/slurry pump geometry and fluid/sludge combination?
Improved 64-bit Radix-16 Booth Multiplier Based on Partial Product Array Height Reduction
Antelo, Elisardo; Montuschi, Paolo; Nannarelli, Alberto
2016-01-01
In this paper, we describe an optimization for binary radix-16 (modified) Booth recoded multipliers to reduce the maximum height of the partial product columns to ï£®n/4ï£¹ for [Formula: see text] unsigned operands. This is in contrast to the conventional maximum height of ï£®(n+1)/4ï£¹. Therefor...... to be included in the partial product array without increasing the delay. The method can be extended to Booth recoded radix-8 multipliers, signed multipliers, combined signed/unsigned multipliers, and other values of n....
Increased height in diabetes mellitus corresponds to the predicted and the adult height
Scheffer-Marinus, PD; Links, TP; Drayer, NM
1999-01-01
This study was conducted to analyse the effect of childhood-onset diabetes mellitus on adult height. The height at time of diagnosis of 35 children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) was compared with growth reference data. Predictions of the adult height were made at the time of diagno
Maximum margin Bayesian network classifiers.
Pernkopf, Franz; Wohlmayr, Michael; Tschiatschek, Sebastian
2012-03-01
We present a maximum margin parameter learning algorithm for Bayesian network classifiers using a conjugate gradient (CG) method for optimization. In contrast to previous approaches, we maintain the normalization constraints on the parameters of the Bayesian network during optimization, i.e., the probabilistic interpretation of the model is not lost. This enables us to handle missing features in discriminatively optimized Bayesian networks. In experiments, we compare the classification performance of maximum margin parameter learning to conditional likelihood and maximum likelihood learning approaches. Discriminative parameter learning significantly outperforms generative maximum likelihood estimation for naive Bayes and tree augmented naive Bayes structures on all considered data sets. Furthermore, maximizing the margin dominates the conditional likelihood approach in terms of classification performance in most cases. We provide results for a recently proposed maximum margin optimization approach based on convex relaxation. While the classification results are highly similar, our CG-based optimization is computationally up to orders of magnitude faster. Margin-optimized Bayesian network classifiers achieve classification performance comparable to support vector machines (SVMs) using fewer parameters. Moreover, we show that unanticipated missing feature values during classification can be easily processed by discriminatively optimized Bayesian network classifiers, a case where discriminative classifiers usually require mechanisms to complete unknown feature values in the data first.
Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery
Chih-Yuan Tseng
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.
Low Melt Height Solidification of Superalloys
Montakhab, Mehdi; Bacak, Mert; Balikci, Ercan
2016-06-01
Effect of a reduced melt height in the directional solidification of a superalloy has been investigated by two methods: vertical Bridgman (VB) and vertical Bridgman with a submerged baffle (VBSB). The latter is a relatively new technique and provides a reduced melt height ahead of the solidifying interface. A low melt height leads to a larger primary dendrite arm spacing but a lower mushy length, melt-back transition length, and porosity. The VBSB technique yields up to 38 pct reduction in the porosity. This may improve a component's mechanical strength especially in a creep-fatigue type dynamic loading.
Decai Wang; Chen Zhao; Shengsong Huang; Wenyong Huang; Mingguang He
2015-01-01
Purpose:.To understand the growth model of axial length (AL) and height, and to explore the relationship between the two with the passage of time. Methods:.We followed twins in the Guangzhou Twin Eye Study for five years..The AL of both eyes was measured by partial coherence interferometry, and height was measured by a standard scale during each visit..A multivariate multilevel mixed model was adopted for data analysis. Results:.A total of 1217 children were included in the study. Both AL and height increased, but the rate of growth slowed down with age..The mitigation rate of height growth was -0.34 cm/year;.while that of AL growth was -0.01 mm/year. AL was positively related to height,.with a relevant coefficient of R=0.22 (Cov [height intercept, AL intercept] =1.56, 95%CI=1.14 to 1.99). The growth rates of AL and height were al-so positively related, with a relevant coefficient of R=0.18 (Cov [height slope, AL slope] =0.03, 95%CI=0.01 to 0.05). However, taller children had slower rates of height increases, with a relevant coefficient of R=-0.12 (Cov[height intercept, height slope]=-1.33,95%CI=-2.25 to-0.42); but had faster AL growth,.with a relevant coefficient of R=(Cov [height intercept, AL slope] =0.02, 95%CI=-0.05 to 0.08, R=0.02). AL and its growth rate were positively related to each other, with a relevant coefficient of R=(Cov [AL intercept,.AL slope]=0.04, 95%CI=0.03 to 0.05, R=0.3); while the growth rates of AL and height were negatively related to each other, with a relevant coefficient of R=(Cov[AL intercept, height slope]=--0.03 95%CI=-0.16 to 0.1, R=-0.02). Conclusion:.The increase in children's AL is relevant to their height increases..The faster their height increases,.the faster their AL increases.
Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R; David Tamburello, D
2008-11-13
The process of recovering the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank with one to four dual-nozzle jet mixers located within the tank. The typical criteria to establish a mixed condition in a tank are based on the number of pumps in operation and the time duration of operation. To ensure that a mixed condition is achieved, operating times are set conservatively long. This approach results in high operational costs because of the long mixing times and high maintenance and repair costs for the same reason. A significant reduction in both of these costs might be realized by reducing the required mixing time based on calculating a reliable indicator of mixing with a suitably validated computer code. The work described in this report establishes the basis for further development of the theory leading to the identified mixing indicators, the benchmark analyses demonstrating their consistency with widely accepted correlations, and the application of those indicators to SRS waste tanks to provide a better, physically based estimate of the required mixing time. Waste storage tanks at SRS contain settled sludge which varies in height from zero to 10 ft. The sludge has been characterized and modeled as micron-sized solids, typically 1 to 5 microns, at weight fractions as high as 20 to 30 wt%, specific gravities to 1.4, and viscosities up to 64 cp during motion. The sludge is suspended and mixed through the use of submersible slurry jet pumps. To suspend settled sludge, water is added to the tank as a slurry medium and stirred with the jet pump. Although there is considerable technical literature on mixing and solid suspension in agitated tanks, very little literature has been published on jet mixing in a large-scale tank. If shorter mixing times can be shown to support Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) or other feed requirements, longer pump lifetimes can be achieved with associated operational cost and
Is the effect of a countermovement on jump height due to active state development?
Bobbert, Maarten F; Casius, L J Richard
2005-03-01
To investigate whether the difference in jump height between countermovement jumps (CMJ) and squat jumps (SJ) could be explained by a difference in active state during propulsion. Simulations were performed with a model of the human musculoskeletal system comprising four body segments and six muscles. The model's only input was STIM, the stimulation of muscles, which could be switched "off" or "on." After switching "on," STIM increased to its maximum at a fixed rate of change (dSTIM/dt). For various values of dSTIM/dt, stimulation switch times were optimized to produce a maximum height CMJ. From this CMJ, the configuration at the lowest height of the center of gravity (CG) was selected and used as static starting configuration for simulation of SJ. Next, STIM-switch times were optimized to find the maximum height SJ. Simulated CMJ and SJ closely resembled jumps of human subjects. Maximum jump height of the model was greater in CMJ than in SJ, with the difference ranging from 0.4 cm at infinitely high dSTIM/dt to about 2.5 cm at the lowest dSTIM/dt investigated. The greater jump height in CMJ was due to a greater work output of the hip extensor muscles. These muscles could produce more force and work over the first 30% of their shortening range in CMJ, due to the fact that they had a higher active state in CMJ than in SJ. The greater jump height in CMJ than in SJ could be explained by the fact that in CMJ active state developed during the preparatory countermovement, whereas in SJ it inevitably developed during the propulsion phase, so that the muscles could produce more force and work during shortening in CMJ.
Kim, Wonhee; Lee, Yoonje; Kim, Changsun; Lim, Tae Ho; Oh, Jaehoon; Kang, Hyunggoo; Lee, Sanghyun
2016-02-01
We aimed to investigate whether bed height affects intubation performance in the setting of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and which type of laryngoscope shows the best performance at each bed height.A randomized crossover manikin study was conducted. Twenty-one participants were enrolled, and they were randomly allocated to 2 groups: group A (n = 10) and group B (n = 11). The participants underwent emergency endotracheal intubation (ETI) using the Airwayscope (AWS), Glidescope video laryngoscope, and Macintosh laryngoscope in random order while chest compression was performed. Each ETI was conducted at 2 levels of bed height (minimum bed height: 68.9 cm and maximum bed height: 101.3 cm). The primary outcomes were the time to intubation (TTI) and the success rate of ETI. The P value for statistical significance was set at 0.05 and 0.017 in post-hoc test.The success rate of ETI was always 100% regardless of the type of laryngoscope or the bed height. TTI was not significantly different between the 2 bed heights regardless of the type of laryngoscope (all P > 0.05). The time for AWS was the shortest among the 3 laryngoscopes at both bed heights (13.7 ± 3.6 at the minimum bed height and 13.4 ± 4.7 at the maximum bed height) (all P bed height, whether adjusted to the minimum or maximum setting, did not affect intubation performance. In addition, regardless of the bed height, the intubation time with the video laryngoscopes, especially AWS, was significantly shorter than that with the direct laryngoscope during chest compression.
Frobin, W.; Brinckmann, P. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentelle Biomechanik; Kramer, M.; Hartwig, E. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Sektion fuer Unfallchirurgische Forschung und Biomechanik
2001-02-01
The relation between height of lumbar discs (measured from lateral radiographic views) and disc degeneration (classified from MR images) deserves attention in view of the wide, often parallel or interchanged use of both methods. The time sequence of degenerative signs and decrease of disc height is controversial. To clarify the issue, this cross-sectional study documents the relation between disc degeneration and disc height in a selected cohort. Forty-three subjects were selected at random from a cohort examined for potential disc-related disease caused by long-term lifting and carrying. From each subject a lateral radiographic view of the lumbar spine as well as findings from an MR investigation of (in most cases) levels T12/L1 to L5/S1 were available; thus, n = 237 lumbar discs were available for measurement and classification. Disc height was measured from the radiographic views with a new protocol compensating for image distortion and permitting comparison with normal, age- and gender-appropriate disc height. Degeneration as well as disc height were classified twice from MR images by independent observers in a blinded fashion. Disc degeneration classified from MR images is not related to a measurable disc height loss in the first stage of degeneration, whereas progressive degeneration goes along with progressive loss of disc height, though with considerable interindividual variation. Loss of disc height classified from MR images is on average compatible with loss of disc height measured from radiographs. In individual discs, however, classification of height loss from MR images is imprecise. The first sign of disc degeneration (a moderate loss of nucleus signal) precedes disc height decrease. As degeneration progresses, disc height decreases. Disc height decrease and progress of degeneration, however, appear to be only loosely correlated. (orig.)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 26,000 terrestrial and marine gravity data...
Principal Hawaiian Islands Geoid Heights (GEOID96)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 61,000 terrestrial and marine gravity data held...
Height as a basis for interpersonal attraction.
Hensley, W E
1994-01-01
Beginning with the observation of a male-taller basis in date/mate selection, this study investigated a complementary vs. a step function in choosing a dating partner. In addition, the relative advantages or disadvantages of height were examined for both genders in the dating marketplace. Our sample of college students (N = 594) indicated that while we may use a complementary standard in hypothetical date selection, the actual height of a chosen person is more likely to be made on a step function. Second, there appears to be no dating consequences for a female in a height-related sense, but taller males do enjoy a noticeable dating advantage. Finally, there appears to be a "ceiling effect" demonstrated here for the first time; the height advantage for a male seems to diminish when he is taller than six feet. Suggestions are offered which integrate the present findings into past research.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for the conterminous United States is the GEOID96 model. The computation used about 1.8 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in...
Negation of the Self in Wuthering Heights
李敏
2015-01-01
Emily Bronte created one of the greatest novels in19th British literary history---Wuthering Heights.Through this works,the writers tries to severely criticize the feature in western civilization:negation of the self.
Negation of the Self in Wuthering Heights
李敏
2015-01-01
Emily Bronte created one of the greatest novels in 19th British literary history---Wuthering Heights.Through this works,the writers tries to severely criticize the feature in western civilization: negation of the self.
Tsunami focusing and leading wave height
Kanoglu, Utku
2016-04-01
Field observations from tsunami events show that sometimes the maximum tsunami amplitude might not occur for the first wave, such as the maximum wave from the 2011 Japan tsunami reaching to Papeete, Tahiti as a fourth wave 72 min later after the first wave. This might mislead local authorities and give a wrong sense of security to the public. Recently, Okal and Synolakis (2016, Geophys. J. Int. 204, 719-735) discussed "the factors contributing to the sequencing of tsunami waves in the far field." They consider two different generation mechanisms through an axial symmetric source -circular plug; one, Le Mehaute and Wang's (1995, World Scientific, 367 pp.) formalism where irritational wave propagation is formulated in the framework of investigating tsunamis generated by underwater explosions and two, Hammack's formulation (1972, Ph.D. Dissertation, Calif. Inst. Tech., 261 pp., Pasadena) which introduces deformation at the ocean bottom and does not represent an immediate deformation of the ocean surface, i.e. time dependent ocean surface deformation. They identify the critical distance for transition from the first wave being largest to the second wave being largest. To verify sequencing for a finite length source, Okal and Synolakis (2016) is then used NOAA's validated and verified real time forecasting numerical model MOST (Titov and Synolakis, 1998, J. Waterw. Port Coast. Ocean Eng., 124, 157-171) through Synolakis et al. (2008, Pure Appl. Geophys. 165, 2197-2228). As a reference, they used the parameters of the 1 April 2014 Iquique, Chile earthquake over real bathymetry, variants of this source (small, big, wide, thin, and long) over a flat bathymetry, and 2010 Chile and 211 Japan tsunamis over both real and flat bathymetries to explore the influence of the fault parameters on sequencing. They identified that sequencing more influenced by the source width rather than the length. We extend Okal and Synolakis (2016)'s analysis to an initial N-wave form (Tadepalli
[Fear of Heights in Primary School Children].
Huppert, D
2016-03-01
The life-time prevalence of visual height intolerance in adults is 28 percent, whereas in primary school children, as recently shown, it develops in 34 percent. Triggers and symptoms are similar in children and adults. A significant difference in visual height intolerance of prepubertal children compared to adults is the good prognosis with mostly spontaneous remission within a few years, possibly facilitated by repeated exposure to the triggering situations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Ultraprecision machining of steep aspheric parts with large sagittal height
Mu, Lin; Zhao, Rui; Xin, Qiming
2009-05-01
Problems occurred during machining steep aspheric parts with large sagittal height on double-spindle diamond turning machine are presented and the main reasons of the problems are described. And methods of solving these problems are also suggested. When we machine steep aspheric parts with large sagittal height on a 2 axis diamond turning machine, we have such problems as difficult control of part edge accuracy, poor roughness and rapid wear of the cutting tool. The main reasons for these problems lie in: 1) Measurement. To make accurate measurements, the measurement range of the profilometer must fall within the sagittal heights of the aspheric parts, and the measurement angle must also meet the requirements, an insufficient measurement angle, for example, will have a big impact on the measurement and fabrication accuracy of such parts; and 2) Machine and tool, firstly, the diamond cutting tool will suffer a very big force when turning the edge section, resulting in bigger micro-vibration in the tool and tool post, thus affecting the part accuracy and surface roughness. Secondly, the machine itself has location errors in axes X and Z during the processing, leading to the severest destruction in the steep section of the aspheric part by their resultant force. Lastly, anisotropy of diamond cutting tool hardness. The indentation hardness of the diamond is maximum in the direction of of face (100) and the front clearance has the best strength at tool point in the direction of . When cutting a steep aspheric part with large sagittal height, a bigger included angle of the diamond tool point arc will be used, and there will be a more deviation from the lattice direction. So the tool hardness is consistently decreased, resulting in a rapid wear of the cutting tool when turning the steep section of the aspheric part, thus the accuracy and roughness in machining an aspheric part become more difficult to control. The paper is concluded with the solutions of turning steep
Tsunami Run-up Heights at Imwon Port, Korea
Cho, Yong-Sik; Cho, Jeong-Seon
2015-04-01
Tsunami Run-up Heights at Imwon Port, Korea Yong-Sik Cho and Jeong-Seon Cho Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791, Korea. The Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula has been attacked frequently by a number of tsunamis causing severe damages during this century. Among them, 1983 Central East Sea and 1993 Hokkaido Tsunami events were recorded as the most devastating events in Korea. More recently, the Great East Japan Tsunami had also attacked the Korean Peninsula. The Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula is the terminal place where tsunamis climb up inland after it generated along the western coast of Japan. The central part of the coast, in special, is worried as a tsunami danger zone because much tsunami energy is concentrated on by a topographic condition of this region. Recently, several coastal facilities including harbors and breakwaters are built and operated along the Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula. Furthermore, several nuclear power plants are already operating and several more units are now under construction. Residents who lived alongside the coast want free from unexpected danger, so the tsunami hazard mitigation becomes an important issue of coastal problems in Korea. Through the historical tsunami events, the Imwon Port is known as the place where most severe damage occurred, especially in 1983. An effective and economic way for the tsunami hazard mitigation planning is to construct inundation maps along the coast vulnerable to tsunami flooding. These maps should be built based on the historical tsunami events and the projected scenarios. For this purpose, an accurate estimation of tsunami run-up height and inundation process through the numerical model is needed. As a first step to tsunami mitigation program, the maximum run-up heights at the Imwon Port are computed and compared with field observed data. For this, tsunami run-up heights in this region were filed
Kandzia, Claudia; Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor;
In this guidebook most of the known and used in practice methods for achieving mixing air distribution are discussed. Mixing ventilation has been applied to many different spaces providing fresh air and thermal comfort to the occupants. Today, a design engineer can choose from large selection of ...
Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.
1985-01-01
Discusses a series of experiments performed by Thomas Hope in 1805 which show the temperature at which water has its maximum density. Early data cast into a modern form as well as guidelines and recent data collected from the author provide background for duplicating Hope's experiments in the classroom. (JN)
Abolishing the maximum tension principle
Dabrowski, Mariusz P
2015-01-01
We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension $F_{max} = c^2/4G$ represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.
Abolishing the maximum tension principle
Mariusz P. Da̧browski
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension Fmax=c4/4G represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.
Hüser, Imke; Harder, Hartwig; Heil, Angelika; Kaiser, Johannes W.
2017-09-01
Lagrangian particle dispersion models (LPDMs) in backward mode are widely used to quantify the impact of transboundary pollution on downwind sites. Most LPDM applications count particles with a technique that introduces a so-called footprint layer (FL) with constant height, in which passing air tracer particles are assumed to be affected by surface emissions. The mixing layer dynamics are represented by the underlying meteorological model. This particle counting technique implicitly assumes that the atmosphere is well mixed in the FL. We have performed backward trajectory simulations with the FLEXPART model starting at Cyprus to calculate the sensitivity to emissions of upwind pollution sources. The emission sensitivity is used to quantify source contributions at the receptor and support the interpretation of ground measurements carried out during the CYPHEX campaign in July 2014. Here we analyse the effects of different constant and dynamic FL height assumptions. The results show that calculations with FL heights of 100 and 300 m yield similar but still discernible results. Comparison of calculations with FL heights constant at 300 m and dynamically following the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height exhibits systematic differences, with daytime and night-time sensitivity differences compensating for each other. The differences at daytime when a well-mixed PBL can be assumed indicate that residual inaccuracies in the representation of the mixing layer dynamics in the trajectories may introduce errors in the impact assessment on downwind sites. Emissions from vegetation fires are mixed up by pyrogenic convection which is not represented in FLEXPART. Neglecting this convection may lead to severe over- or underestimations of the downwind smoke concentrations. Introducing an extreme fire source from a different year in our study period and using fire-observation-based plume heights as reference, we find an overestimation of more than 60 % by the constant FL height
Love and fear of heights: the pathophysiology and psychology of height imbalance.
Salassa, John R; Zapala, David A
2009-01-01
Individual psychological responses to heights vary on a continuum from acrophobia to height intolerance, height tolerance, and height enjoyment. This paper reviews the English literature and summarizes the physiologic and psychological factors that generate different responses to heights while standing still in a static or motionless environment. Perceptual cues to height arise from vision. Normal postural sway of 2 cm for peripheral objects within 3 m increases as eye-object distance increases. Postural sway >10 cm can result in a fall. A minimum of 20 minutes of peripheral retinal arc is required to detect motion. Trigonometry dictates that a 20-minute peripheral retinal arch can no longer be achieved in a standing position at an eye-object distance of >20 m. At this distance, visual cues conflict with somatosensory and vestibular inputs, resulting in variable degrees of imbalance. Co-occurring deficits in the visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems can significantly increase height imbalance. An individual's psychological makeup, influenced by learned and genetic factors, can influence reactions to height imbalance. Enhancing peripheral vision and vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic functions may improve height imbalance. Psychotherapy may improve the troubling subjective sensations to heights.
Long-term statistics of extreme tsunami height at Crescent City
Dong, Sheng; Zhai, Jinjin; Tao, Shanshan
2017-06-01
Historically, Crescent City is one of the most vulnerable communities impacted by tsunamis along the west coast of the United States, largely attributed to its offshore geography. Trans-ocean tsunamis usually produce large wave runup at Crescent Harbor resulting in catastrophic damages, property loss and human death. How to determine the return values of tsunami height using relatively short-term observation data is of great significance to assess the tsunami hazards and improve engineering design along the coast of Crescent City. In the present study, the extreme tsunami heights observed along the coast of Crescent City from 1938 to 2015 are fitted using six different probabilistic distributions, namely, the Gumbel distribution, the Weibull distribution, the maximum entropy distribution, the lognormal distribution, the generalized extreme value distribution and the generalized Pareto distribution. The maximum likelihood method is applied to estimate the parameters of all above distributions. Both Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and root mean square error method are utilized for goodness-of-fit test and the better fitting distribution is selected. Assuming that the occurrence frequency of tsunami in each year follows the Poisson distribution, the Poisson compound extreme value distribution can be used to fit the annual maximum tsunami amplitude, and then the point and interval estimations of return tsunami heights are calculated for structural design. The results show that the Poisson compound extreme value distribution fits tsunami heights very well and is suitable to determine the return tsunami heights for coastal disaster prevention.
Social inequalities in height: persisting differences today depend upon height of the parents.
Bruna Galobardes
Full Text Available Substantial increases in height have occurred concurrently with economic development in most populations during the last century. In high-income countries, environmental exposures that can limit genetic growth potential appear to have lessened, and variation in height by socioeconomic position may have diminished. The objective of this study is to investigate inequalities in height in a cohort of children born in the early 1990s in England, and to evaluate which factors might explain any identified inequalities.12,830 children from The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, a population based cohort from birth to about 11.5 years of age, were used in this analysis. Gender- and age-specific z-scores of height at different ages were used as outcome variables. Multilevel models were used to take into account the repeated measures of height and to analyze gender- and age-specific relative changes in height from birth to 11.5 years. Maternal education was the main exposure variable used to examine socioeconomic inequalities. The roles of parental and family characteristics in explaining any observed differences between maternal education and child height were investigated. Children whose mothers had the highest education compared to those with none or a basic level of education, were 0.39 cm longer at birth (95% CI: 0.30 to 0.48. These differences persisted and at 11.5 years the height difference was 1.4 cm (95% CI: 1.07 to 1.74. Several other factors were related to offspring height, but few changed the relationship with maternal education. The one exception was mid-parental height, which fully accounted for the maternal educational differences in offspring height.In a cohort of children born in the 1990s, mothers with higher education gave birth to taller boys and girls. Although height differences were small they persisted throughout childhood. Maternal and paternal height fully explained these differences.
CHEN Qing-fa; ZHOU Ke-ping; WANG Li-li
2010-01-01
For improving global stability of mining environment reconstructing structure,the stress field evolution law of the structure with the filling height change of low-grade backfill was studied by ADINA finite element analysis code.Three kinds of filling schemes were designed and calculated,in which the filling heights were 2,4,and 7 m,separately.The results show that there are some rules in the stress field with the increase of the filling height as follows:(1)the maximum value of tension stress of the roof decreases gradually,and stress conditions are improved gradually;(2)the tension stress status in the vertical pillar is transformed into the compressive stress status,and the carrying capacity is improved gradually; however,when the filling height is beyond 2.8 m,the carrying capacity of the vertical pillar grows very slowly,so,there is little significance to continue to fill the low-grade backfill;(3)the bottom pillar suffers the squeezing action from the vertical pillars at first and then the gravity action of the low-grade backfill,and the maximum value of tension stress of the bottom pillar firstly increases and then decreases.Considering the economic factor,security and other factors,the low-grade backfill has the most reasonable height(2.8 m)in the scope of all filling height.
Evaluation of proper height for squatting stool.
Jung, Hwa S; Jung, Hyung-Shik
2008-05-01
Many jobs and activities in people's daily lives have them in squatting postures. Jobs such as housekeeping, farming and welding require various squatting activities. It is speculated that prolonged squatting without any type of supporting stool would gradually and eventually impose musculoskeletal injuries on workers. This study aims to examine the proper height of the stool according to the position of working materials for the squatting worker. A total of 40 male and female college students and 10 female farmers participated in the experiment to find the proper stool height. Student participants were asked to sit and work in three different positions: floor level of 50 mm; ankle level of 200 mm; and knee level of 400 mm. They were then provided with stools of various heights and asked to maintain a squatting work posture. For each working position, they were asked to write down their thoughts on a preferred stool height. A Likert summated rating method as well as pairwise ranking test was applied to evaluate user preference for provided stools under conditions of different working positions. Under a similar experimental procedure, female farmers were asked to indicate their body part discomfort (BPD) on a body chart before and after performing the work. Statistical analysis showed that comparable results were found from both evaluation measures. When working position is below 50 mm, the proper stool height is 100 or should not be higher than 150 mm. When working position is 200 mm, the proper stool height is 150 mm. When working position is 400 mm, the proper stool height is 200 mm. Thus, it is strongly recommended to use proper height of stools with corresponding working position. Moreover, a wearable chair prototype was designed so that workers in a squatting posture do not have to carry and move the stool from one place to another. This stool should ultimately help to relieve physical stress and hence promote the health of squatting workers. This study sought
Global elevation vibration and seasonal changes derived by the analysis of GPS height
朱文耀; 符养; 李彦
2003-01-01
We use the spectral analysis and the multi-resolution wavelet analysis methods to study GPS time series in height component generated from continuously operating stations, which are globally distributed, and separate stationary signals from the non-stationary, then set up discrete models of stationary height signals by using AR model methods. Comparisons made in this paper show that the correlative length of GPS time series in height component varies from 2 days to 31 days, rectifying the integral deficiency from zero in random walk process. After analyzing, both annual and biannual vibrations of integrated expanding and contracting movements in the Earth are detected. The biannual maximum value is found in March-April and October-November while the annual maximum value is in September-November. Meantime, we observe that the movements follow different laws in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The Southern Hemisphere is expanding compared with the Northern Hemisphere.
Prediction of height from knee height in children with cerebral palsy and non-disabled children.
Bell, Kristie L; Davies, Peter S W
2006-01-01
Measurement of height or length is essential in the assessment of nutritional status. In some conditions, for example cerebral palsy (CP), such measurements may be difficult or impossible. Proxy measurements such as knee height have been used to predict height in such cases. We have evaluated two equations in the literature that predict stature from knee height in a group of 17 children with CP and 20 non-disabled children. The two equations performed well on average in the non-disabled children, with the mean predicted height being within 1% of the mean measured height. Nevertheless, the limits of agreement were relatively large. This was also the case for the children with CP. Thus the equations may be accurate at the group level; however they may lead to unacceptable error at the individual level..
Measuring orthometric water heights from lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)
Bandini, Filippo; Olesen, Daniel; Jakobsen, Jakob; Reyna-Gutierrez, Jose Antonio; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter
2016-04-01
A better quantitative understanding of hydrologic processes requires better observations of hydrological variables, such as surface water area, water surface level, its slope and its temporal change. However, ground-based measurements of water heights are restricted to the in-situ measuring stations. Hence, the objective of remote sensing hydrology is to retrieve these hydraulic variables from spaceborne and airborne platforms. The forthcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission will be able to acquire water heights with an expected accuracy of 10 centimeters for rivers that are at least 100 m wide. Nevertheless, spaceborne missions will always face the limitations of: i) a low spatial resolution which makes it difficult to separate water from interfering surrounding areas and a tracking of the terrestrial water bodies not able to detect water heights in small rivers or lakes; ii) a limited temporal resolution which limits the ability to determine rapid temporal changes, especially during extremes. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are one technology able to fill the gap between spaceborne and ground-based observations, ensuring 1) high spatial resolution; 2) tracking of the water bodies better than any satellite technology; 3) timing of the sampling which only depends on the operator 4) flexibility of the payload. Hence, this study focused on categorizing and testing sensors capable of measuring the range between the UAV and the water surface. The orthometric height of the water surface is then retrieved by subtracting the height above water measured by the sensors from the altitude above sea level retrieved by the onboard GPS. The following sensors were tested: a) a radar, b) a sonar c) a laser digital-camera based prototype developed at Technical University of Denmark. The tested sensors comply with the weight constraint of small UAVs (around 1.5 kg). The sensors were evaluated in terms of accuracy, maximum ranging distance and beam
Spatial and temporal variations of wave height in shelf seas around India
SanilKumar, V.; Anoop, T.R.
trend (maximum ~-0.18 cm/year) in wave height is observed in the western Bay of Bengal except along the southern region. At most of the locations weak decreasing trend (0.1–2.5 cm/s/year) is observed for the annual mean wind speed. The conflicting trends...
Maximum Genus of Strong Embeddings
Er-ling Wei; Yan-pei Liu; Han Ren
2003-01-01
The strong embedding conjecture states that any 2-connected graph has a strong embedding on some surface. It implies the circuit double cover conjecture: Any 2-connected graph has a circuit double cover.Conversely, it is not true. But for a 3-regular graph, the two conjectures are equivalent. In this paper, a characterization of graphs having a strong embedding with exactly 3 faces, which is the strong embedding of maximum genus, is given. In addition, some graphs with the property are provided. More generally, an upper bound of the maximum genus of strong embeddings of a graph is presented too. Lastly, it is shown that the interpolation theorem is true to planar Halin graph.
Remizov, Ivan D
2009-01-01
In this note, we represent a subdifferential of a maximum functional defined on the space of all real-valued continuous functions on a given metric compact set. For a given argument, $f$ it coincides with the set of all probability measures on the set of points maximizing $f$ on the initial compact set. This complete characterization lies in the heart of several important identities in microeconomics, such as Roy's identity, Sheppard's lemma, as well as duality theory in production and linear programming.
The Testability of Maximum Magnitude
Clements, R.; Schorlemmer, D.; Gonzalez, A.; Zoeller, G.; Schneider, M.
2012-12-01
Recent disasters caused by earthquakes of unexpectedly large magnitude (such as Tohoku) illustrate the need for reliable assessments of the seismic hazard. Estimates of the maximum possible magnitude M at a given fault or in a particular zone are essential parameters in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), but their accuracy remains untested. In this study, we discuss the testability of long-term and short-term M estimates and the limitations that arise from testing such rare events. Of considerable importance is whether or not those limitations imply a lack of testability of a useful maximum magnitude estimate, and whether this should have any influence on current PSHA methodology. We use a simple extreme value theory approach to derive a probability distribution for the expected maximum magnitude in a future time interval, and we perform a sensitivity analysis on this distribution to determine if there is a reasonable avenue available for testing M estimates as they are commonly reported today: devoid of an appropriate probability distribution of their own and estimated only for infinite time (or relatively large untestable periods). Our results imply that any attempt at testing such estimates is futile, and that the distribution is highly sensitive to M estimates only under certain optimal conditions that are rarely observed in practice. In the future we suggest that PSHA modelers be brutally honest about the uncertainty of M estimates, or must find a way to decrease its influence on the estimated hazard.
Alternative Multiview Maximum Entropy Discrimination.
Chao, Guoqing; Sun, Shiliang
2016-07-01
Maximum entropy discrimination (MED) is a general framework for discriminative estimation based on maximum entropy and maximum margin principles, and can produce hard-margin support vector machines under some assumptions. Recently, the multiview version of MED multiview MED (MVMED) was proposed. In this paper, we try to explore a more natural MVMED framework by assuming two separate distributions p1( Θ1) over the first-view classifier parameter Θ1 and p2( Θ2) over the second-view classifier parameter Θ2 . We name the new MVMED framework as alternative MVMED (AMVMED), which enforces the posteriors of two view margins to be equal. The proposed AMVMED is more flexible than the existing MVMED, because compared with MVMED, which optimizes one relative entropy, AMVMED assigns one relative entropy term to each of the two views, thus incorporating a tradeoff between the two views. We give the detailed solving procedure, which can be divided into two steps. The first step is solving our optimization problem without considering the equal margin posteriors from two views, and then, in the second step, we consider the equal posteriors. Experimental results on multiple real-world data sets verify the effectiveness of the AMVMED, and comparisons with MVMED are also reported.
Effect of cylindrical cavity height on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with spatial confinement
Junfeng, Shao; Tingfeng, Wang; Jin, Guo; Anmin, Chen; Mingxing, Jin
2017-02-01
In this paper, we present a study on the spatial confinement effect of laser-induced plasma with a cylindrical cavity in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The emission intensity with the spatial confinement is dependent on the height of the confinement cavity. It is found that, by selecting the appropriate height of cylindrical cavity, the signal enhancement can be significantly increased. At the cylindrical cavity (diameter = 2 mm) with a height of 6 mm, the enhancement ratio has the maximum value (approximately 8.3), and the value of the relative standard deviation (RSD) (7.6%) is at a minimum, the repeatability of LIBS signal is best. The results indicate that the height of confinement cavity is very important for LIBS technique to reduce the limit of detection and improve the precision.
A new statistical model of wave heights based on the concept of wave breaking critical zone
YANG Jiaxuan; LI Xunqiang; ZHU Shouxian; ZHANG Wenjing; WANG Lei
2015-01-01
When waves propagate from deep water to shallow water, wave heights and steepness increase and then waves roll back and break. This phenomenon is called surf. Currently, the present statistical calculation model of surf was derived mainly from the wave energy conservation equation and the linear wave dispersion relation, but it cannot reflect accurately the process which is a rapid increasing in wave height near the broken point. So, the concept of a surf breaking critical zone is presented. And the nearshore is divided as deep water zone, shallow water zone, surf breaking critical zone and after breaking zone. Besides, the calculation formula for the height of the surf breaking critical zone has founded based on flume experiments, thereby a new statistical calculation model on the surf has been established. Using the new model, the calculation error of wave height maximum is reduced from 17.62% to 6.43%.
Sun, Xiaoqiang; Cai, Yingfeng; Chen, Long; Liu, Yanling; Wang, Shaohua
2016-03-01
The electronic air suspension (EAS) system can improve ride comfort, fuel economy and handling safety of vehicles by adjusting vehicle height. This paper describes the development of a novel controller using the hybrid system approach to adjust the vehicle height (height control) and to regulate the roll and pitch angles of the vehicle body during the height adjustment process (posture control). The vehicle height adjustment system of EAS poses challenging hybrid control problems, since it features different discrete modes of operation, where each mode has an associated linear continuous-time dynamic. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to the modelling and controller design problem for the vehicle height adjustment system of EAS. The system model is described firstly in the hybrid system description language (HYSDEL) to obtain a mixed logical dynamical (MLD) hybrid model. For the resulting model, a hybrid model predictive controller is tuned to improve the vehicle height and posture tracking accuracy and to achieve the on-off statuses direct control of solenoid valves. The effectiveness and performance of the proposed approach are demonstrated by simulations and actual vehicle tests.
An Overview of Neutrino Mixing
Altarelli, G
2013-01-01
We present a concise review of the recent important experimental developments on neutrino mixing (hints for sterile neutrinos, large $\\theta_{13}$, possible non maximal $\\theta_{23}$, approaching sensitivity on $\\delta_{CP}$) and their implications on models of neutrino mixing. The new data disfavour many models but the surviving ones still span a wide range going from Anarchy (no structure, no symmetry in the lepton sector) to a maximum of symmetry, as for the models based on discrete non-abelian flavour groups.
The difference between the Weil height and the canonical height on elliptic curves
Silverman, Joseph H.
1990-10-01
Estimates for the difference of the Weil height and the canonical height of points on elliptic curves are used for many purposes, both theoretical and computational. In this note we give an explicit estimate for this difference in terms of the j-invariant and discriminant of the elliptic curve. The method of proof, suggested by Serge Lang, is to use the decomposition of the canonical height into a sum of local heights. We illustrate one use for our estimate by computing generators for the Mordell-Weil group in three examples.
Assessing Eruption Column Height in Ancient Flood Basalt Eruptions
Glaze, Lori S.; Self, Stephen; Schmidt, Anja; Hunter, Stephen J.
2015-01-01
A buoyant plume model is used to explore the ability of flood basalt eruptions to inject climate-relevant gases into the stratosphere. An example from the 1986 Izu-Oshima basaltic fissure eruption validates the model's ability to reproduce the observed maximum plume heights of 12-16 km above sea level, sustained above fire-fountains. The model predicts maximum plume heights of 13-17 km for source widths of between 4-16 m when 32% (by mass) of the erupted magma is fragmented and involved in the buoyant plume (effective volatile content of 6 wt%). Assuming that the Miocene-age Roza eruption (part of the Columbia River Basalt Group) sustained fire-fountains of similar height to Izu-Oshima (1.6 km above the vent), we show that the Roza eruption could have sustained buoyant ash and gas plumes that extended into the stratosphere at approximately 45 deg N. Assuming 5 km long active fissure segments and 9000 Mt of SO2 released during explosive phases over a 10-15 year duration, the approximately 180 km of known Roza fissure length could have supported approximately 36 explosive events/phases, each with a duration of 3-4 days. Each 5 km fissure segment could have emitted 62 Mt of SO2 per day into the stratosphere while actively fountaining, the equivalent of about three 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruptions per day. Each fissure segment could have had one to several vents, which subsequently produced lava without significant fountaining for a longer period within the decades-long eruption. Sensitivity of plume rise height to ancient atmospheric conditions is explored. Although eruptions in the Deccan Traps (approximately 66 Ma) may have generated buoyant plumes that rose to altitudes in excess of 18 km, they may not have reached the stratosphere because the tropopause was substantially higher in the late Cretaceous. Our results indicate that some flood basalt eruptions, such as Roza, were capable of repeatedly injecting large masses of SO2 into the stratosphere. Thus sustained
Assessing eruption column height in ancient flood basalt eruptions
Glaze, Lori S.; Self, Stephen; Schmidt, Anja; Hunter, Stephen J.
2017-01-01
A buoyant plume model is used to explore the ability of flood basalt eruptions to inject climate-relevant gases into the stratosphere. An example from the 1986 Izu-Oshima basaltic fissure eruption validates the model's ability to reproduce the observed maximum plume heights of 12-16 km above sea level, sustained above fire-fountains. The model predicts maximum plume heights of 13-17 km for source widths of between 4-16 m when 32% (by mass) of the erupted magma is fragmented and involved in the buoyant plume (effective volatile content of 6 wt%). Assuming that the Miocene-age Roza eruption (part of the Columbia River Basalt Group) sustained fire-fountains of similar height to Izu-Oshima (1.6 km above the vent), we show that the Roza eruption could have sustained buoyant ash and gas plumes that extended into the stratosphere at ∼ 45 ° N. Assuming 5 km long active fissure segments and 9000 Mt of SO2 released during explosive phases over a 10-15 year duration, the ∼ 180km of known Roza fissure length could have supported ∼36 explosive events/phases, each with a duration of 3-4 days. Each 5 km fissure segment could have emitted 62 Mt of SO2 per day into the stratosphere while actively fountaining, the equivalent of about three 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruptions per day. Each fissure segment could have had one to several vents, which subsequently produced lava without significant fountaining for a longer period within the decades-long eruption. Sensitivity of plume rise height to ancient atmospheric conditions is explored. Although eruptions in the Deccan Traps (∼ 66Ma) may have generated buoyant plumes that rose to altitudes in excess of 18 km, they may not have reached the stratosphere because the tropopause was substantially higher in the late Cretaceous. Our results indicate that some flood basalt eruptions, such as Roza, were capable of repeatedly injecting large masses of SO2 into the stratosphere. Thus sustained flood basalt eruptions could have influenced
What is the Planetary Boundary Layer Height in a Global Perspective?
Xie, F.; Syndergaard, S.; von Engeln, A.
2014-12-01
The planetary boundary layer (PBL) height is a fundamental parameter characterizing the vertical extent of atmospheric mixing near the surface. It is critical for understanding the PBL process and low cloud evolution and its feedback on the climate system, which remains a key uncertainty in climate modeling. The PBL height is generally defined as the altitude of a transition layer where air temperature or humidity gradient are significant within the lowest 1-5 kilometers above the surface. Numerous thermodynamic parameters, including temperature, humidity (specific/relative humidity) and their derivatives (e.g., potential/virtual potential temperature etc.) have been widely used to define the PBL height. Advances in satellite remote sensing technique allow novel ways to detect the PBL heights from space. Many new parameters are proposed for PBL height detection including GPS radio occultation (RO) measurements (e.g., refractivity, bending angle and dry-temperature) and CALIPSO lidar backscattering measurements (e.g., cloud-top-height). Large discrepancy among various PBL height definitions was revealed from radiosonde analyses, which however are restricted over lands and represent limited horizontal scales of atmospheric conditions. In this talk, we investigate the definition difference in a global perspective by using multi-year high-resolution ERA-interim (1 degree grid with 60 vertical layers) global analysis. Automatic algorithms are applied to compute the PBL heights with various physical parameters (both conventional and GPS RO) at each model grid. The global PBL height seasonal climatology and the difference among the climatologies are derived. Large discrepancy between the thermal-based and humidity-based PBL height definitions is most prominent over tropical and polar regions. Humidity-based PBL heights become problematic over dry regions, especially over high-latitude in winter season. The cloud-top height from CALIPSO is consistent with most physical
Fatrdlová, Adéla
2016-01-01
Bachelor thesis is focused on the evaluation of the marketing mix for company HET, analyzing every individual instruments and the subsequently for the improvements. This thesis is composed of two parts,literature reviewed and with personal advice for solution, which falls under subchapter suggestions and recommendations. The first part of thesis are basic concepts associated, included with marketing and marketing mix with a focus on four basic marketing tools. The second part describes the co...
Dvořák, Michael
2016-01-01
The subject of this thesis, with the official name Marketing mix, is to analyse the actual and future marketing mix in selected company, propose for its improvements and strategy for re-launching traditional footwear company and their products on the Czech market. The theoretical section focuses on the basic concepts of marketing, its history, actual trends and its principles. The theoretical findings are used in the following practical part. The practical section describes the curre...
James L. Croft
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Available behaviors are determined by the fit between features of the individual and reciprocal features of the environment. Beyond some critical boundary certain behaviors become impossible causing sudden transitions from one movement pattern to another. Parkour athletes have developed multiple movement patterns to deal with their momentum during landing. We were interested in whether drop distance would cause a sudden transition between a two-footed (precision landing and a load-distributing roll and whether the transition height could be predicted by dynamic and geometric characteristics of individual subjects. Kinematics and ground reaction forces were measured as Parkour athletes stepped off a box from heights that were incrementally increased or decreased from 0.6 to 2.3 m. Individuals were more likely to roll from higher drops; those with greater body mass and less explosive leg power, were more likely to transition to a roll landing at a lower height. At some height a two-footed landing is no longer feasible but for some athletes this height was well within the maximum drop height used in this study. During low drops the primary task constraint of managing momentum could be achieved with either a precision landing or a roll. This meant that participants were free to select their preferred landing strategy, which was only partially influenced by the physical demands of the task. However, athletes with greater leg power appeared capable of managing impulse absorption through a leg mediated strategy up to a greater drop height.
Maximum tunneling velocities in symmetric double well potentials
Manz, Jörn; Schmidt, Burkhard; Yang, Yonggang
2014-01-01
We consider coherent tunneling of one-dimensional model systems in non-cyclic or cyclic symmetric double well potentials. Generic potentials are constructed which allow for analytical estimates of the quantum dynamics in the non-relativistic deep tunneling regime, in terms of the tunneling distance, barrier height and mass (or moment of inertia). For cyclic systems, the results may be scaled to agree well with periodic potentials for which semi-analytical results in terms of Mathieu functions exist. Starting from a wavepacket which is initially localized in one of the potential wells, the subsequent periodic tunneling is associated with tunneling velocities. These velocities (or angular velocities) are evaluated as the ratio of the flux densities versus the probability densities. The maximum velocities are found under the top of the barrier where they scale as the square root of the ratio of barrier height and mass (or moment of inertia), independent of the tunneling distance. They are applied exemplarily to ...
Venus atmosphere profile from a maximum entropy principle
L. N. Epele
2007-10-01
Full Text Available The variational method with constraints recently developed by Verkley and Gerkema to describe maximum-entropy atmospheric profiles is generalized to ideal gases but with temperature-dependent specific heats. In so doing, an extended and non standard potential temperature is introduced that is well suited for tackling the problem under consideration. This new formalism is successfully applied to the atmosphere of Venus. Three well defined regions emerge in this atmosphere up to a height of 100 km from the surface: the lowest one up to about 35 km is adiabatic, a transition layer located at the height of the cloud deck and finally a third region which is practically isothermal.
Height, Relationship Satisfaction, Jealousy, and Mate Retention
Gayle Brewer
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Male height is associated with high mate value. In particular, tall men are perceived as more attractive, dominant and of a higher status than shorter rivals, resulting in a greater lifetime reproductive success. Female infidelity and relationship dissolution may therefore present a greater risk to short men. It was predicted that tall men would report greater relationship satisfaction and lower jealousy and mate retention behavior than short men. Ninety eight heterosexual men in a current romantic relationship completed a questionnaire. Both linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and relationship satisfaction, cognitive and behavioral jealousy. Tall men reported greater relationship satisfaction and lower levels of cognitive or behavioral jealousy than short men. In addition, linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and a number of mate retention behaviors. Tall and short men engaged in different mate retention behaviors. These findings are consistent with previous research conducted in this area detailing the greater attractiveness of tall men.
Kim, Dong Hyeon; Amanullah, Sardar M; Lee, Hyuk Jun; Joo, Young Ho; Han, Ouk Kyu; Adesogan, Adegbola T; Kim, Sam Churl
2016-09-01
The present study evaluated the effects of different cutting height on nutritive value, fermentation quality, in vitro and in vivo digestibility of whole crop barley silage. Whole crop barley forage (Yuyeon hybrid) was harvested at height of 5, 10, and 15 cm from the ground level. Each cutting height was rolled to make round bale and ensiled for 100 days. After 100 days of ensiling, pH of silage was lower (pcutting height. The content of lactate and lactate to acetate ratio were increased (pcutting height, whereas the acetate content was higher (pcutting height. Aerobic stability was greater (pcutting height. Three total mixed rations (TMR) were formulated with silages from the three different cutting heights (TMR5, TMR10, and TMR15) incorporated as forage at 70:30 ratio with concentrate (dry matter [DM] basis). In vitro dry matter digestibility was higher (pcutting height. The digestibility of DM and neutral detergent fiber were highest (pcutting height, at least up to 10 to 15 cm, of whole crop barley forage at harvest (Yuyeon) may be beneficial for making silage for TMR formulation and increasing digestibility of DM and NDF.
Evidence of inbreeding depression on human height.
Ruth McQuillan
Full Text Available Stature is a classical and highly heritable complex trait, with 80%-90% of variation explained by genetic factors. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS have successfully identified many common additive variants influencing human height; however, little attention has been given to the potential role of recessive genetic effects. Here, we investigated genome-wide recessive effects by an analysis of inbreeding depression on adult height in over 35,000 people from 21 different population samples. We found a highly significant inverse association between height and genome-wide homozygosity, equivalent to a height reduction of up to 3 cm in the offspring of first cousins compared with the offspring of unrelated individuals, an effect which remained after controlling for the effects of socio-economic status, an important confounder (χ(2 = 83.89, df = 1; p = 5.2 × 10(-20. There was, however, a high degree of heterogeneity among populations: whereas the direction of the effect was consistent across most population samples, the effect size differed significantly among populations. It is likely that this reflects true biological heterogeneity: whether or not an effect can be observed will depend on both the variance in homozygosity in the population and the chance inheritance of individual recessive genotypes. These results predict that multiple, rare, recessive variants influence human height. Although this exploratory work focuses on height alone, the methodology developed is generally applicable to heritable quantitative traits (QT, paving the way for an investigation into inbreeding effects, and therefore genetic architecture, on a range of QT of biomedical importance.
Adult height, dietary patterns, and healthy aging.
Ma, Wenjie; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Qi; Rimm, Eric B; Qi, Lu
2017-08-01
Background: Adult height has shown directionally diverse associations with several age-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, decline in cognitive function, and mortality.Objective: We investigated the associations of adult height with healthy aging measured by a full spectrum of health outcomes, including incidence of chronic diseases, memory, physical functioning, and mental health, among populations who have survived to older age, and whether lifestyle factors modified such relations.Design: We included 52,135 women (mean age: 44.2 y) from the Nurses' Health Study without chronic diseases in 1980 and whose health status was available in 2012. Healthy aging was defined as being free of 11 major chronic diseases and having no reported impairment of subjective memory, physical impairment, or mental health limitations.Results: Of all eligible study participants, 6877 (13.2%) were classified as healthy agers. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, we observed an 8% (95% CI: 6%, 11%) decrease in the odds of healthy aging per SD (0.062 m) increase in height. Compared with the lowest category of height (≤1.57 m), the OR of achieving healthy aging in the highest category (≥1.70 m) was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.87; P-trend aging (P-interaction = 0.005), and among the individual dietary factors characterizing the prudent dietary pattern, fruit and vegetable intake showed the strongest effect modification (P-interaction = 0.01). The association of greater height with reduced odds of healthy aging appeared to be more evident among women with higher adherence to the prudent dietary pattern rich in vegetable and fruit intake.Conclusions: Greater height was associated with a modest decrease in the likelihood of healthy aging. A prudent diet rich in fruit and vegetables might modify the relation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height
2003-01-01
This image of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of landforms, including some broad areas of consistent topographic patterns that indicate the
The mental space of pitch height.
Rusconi, Elena; Kwan, Bonnie; Giordano, Bruno; Umiltà, Carlo; Butterworth, Brian
2005-12-01
Through stimulus-response compatibility we tested whether sound frequency (pitch height) elicits a mental spatial representation. Musically untrained and, mostly, trained participants were shown a stimulus-response compatibility effect (Spatial-Musical Association of Response Codes or SMARC effect). When response alternatives were either vertically or horizontally aligned, performance was better when the lower (or leftward) button had to be pressed in response to a low sound and the upper (or rightward) button had to be pressed in response to a high sound, even when pitch height was irrelevant to the task.
Cacti with maximum Kirchhoff index
Wang, Wen-Rui; Pan, Xiang-Feng
2015-01-01
The concept of resistance distance was first proposed by Klein and Randi\\'c. The Kirchhoff index $Kf(G)$ of a graph $G$ is the sum of resistance distance between all pairs of vertices in $G$. A connected graph $G$ is called a cactus if each block of $G$ is either an edge or a cycle. Let $Cat(n;t)$ be the set of connected cacti possessing $n$ vertices and $t$ cycles, where $0\\leq t \\leq \\lfloor\\frac{n-1}{2}\\rfloor$. In this paper, the maximum kirchhoff index of cacti are characterized, as well...
Generic maximum likely scale selection
Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo
2007-01-01
The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...... on second order moments of multiple measurements outputs at a fixed location. These measurements, which reflect local image structure, consist in the cases considered here of Gaussian derivatives taken at several scales and/or having different derivative orders....
Fear of heights and mild visual height intolerance independent of alcohol consumption.
Huppert, Doreen; Grill, Eva; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Brandt, Thomas
2013-09-01
Background Visual height intolerance occurs when a visual stimulus causes apprehension of losing balance and falling from some height. Affecting one-third of the population, it has a broad spectrum of symptoms, ranging from minor distress to fear of heights, which is defined as a specific phobia. Specific phobias are associated with higher alcohol consumption. This has not been specifically shown for susceptibility to the more general visual height intolerance. Methods Representative case-control study nested within a population-based cross-sectional telephone survey to assess epidemiologically 1253 individuals ≥14 years, using a questionnaire on sociodemographic data, typical symptoms, precipitating visual stimuli, and alcohol drinking patterns (overall frequency of alcohol consumption, the daily quantities, and the motives). Results Individuals susceptible or nonsusceptible to visual height intolerance showed no significant differences in drinking patterns. The daily average alcohol consumption was slightly higher in persons susceptible to visual height intolerance (4.1 g/day vs. 3.7 g/day). Of those consuming alcohol, cases and controls reported on average consuming 2.3 glasses per day. The prevalence of visual height intolerance was insignificantly higher in the small minority of those drinking 2-3 times per week versus teetotalers. Conclusions Our study does not provide evidence that visual height intolerance - contrary to various specific phobias - is significantly associated with individual alcohol consumption patterns.
Bleka, Øyvind; Storvik, Geir; Gill, Peter
2016-03-01
We have released a software named EuroForMix to analyze STR DNA profiles in a user-friendly graphical user interface. The software implements a model to explain the allelic peak height on a continuous scale in order to carry out weight-of-evidence calculations for profiles which could be from a mixture of contributors. Through a properly parameterized model we are able to do inference on mixture proportions, the peak height properties, stutter proportion and degradation. In addition, EuroForMix includes models for allele drop-out, allele drop-in and sub-population structure. EuroForMix supports two inference approaches for likelihood ratio calculations. The first approach uses maximum likelihood estimation of the unknown parameters. The second approach is Bayesian based which requires prior distributions to be specified for the parameters involved. The user may specify any number of known and unknown contributors in the model, however we find that there is a practical computing time limit which restricts the model to a maximum of four unknown contributors. EuroForMix is the first freely open source, continuous model (accommodating peak height, stutter, drop-in, drop-out, population substructure and degradation), to be reported in the literature. It therefore serves an important purpose to act as an unrestricted platform to compare different solutions that are available. The implementation of the continuous model used in the software showed close to identical results to the R-package DNAmixtures, which requires a HUGIN Expert license to be used. An additional feature in EuroForMix is the ability for the user to adapt the Bayesian inference framework by incorporating their own prior information.
Economics and Maximum Entropy Production
Lorenz, R. D.
2003-04-01
Price differentials, sales volume and profit can be seen as analogues of temperature difference, heat flow and work or entropy production in the climate system. One aspect in which economic systems exhibit more clarity than the climate is that the empirical and/or statistical mechanical tendency for systems to seek a maximum in production is very evident in economics, in that the profit motive is very clear. Noting the common link between 1/f noise, power laws and Self-Organized Criticality with Maximum Entropy Production, the power law fluctuations in security and commodity prices is not inconsistent with the analogy. There is an additional thermodynamic analogy, in that scarcity is valued. A commodity concentrated among a few traders is valued highly by the many who do not have it. The market therefore encourages via prices the spreading of those goods among a wider group, just as heat tends to diffuse, increasing entropy. I explore some empirical price-volume relationships of metals and meteorites in this context.
Cockburn, M; Savary, P; Kauke, M; Schick, M; Hoehne-Hückstädt, U; Hermanns, I; Ellegast, R
2015-02-01
Milking postures have shifted from seated milking in tethered stalls to milking in a standing position in parlors. However, the musculoskeletal workload of dairy farmers remains high. Previous studies have shown that different working heights affect ergonomics, but they could not objectively evaluate and quantify the workload. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of working height in different milking parlor types on the milker's workload during the task of attaching milking clusters. Computer-assisted recording and long-term analysis of movements were used to record positions of joints and body regions while performing certain tasks in terms of angular degrees of joints (ADJ) according to the neutral zero method. The 5th, 50th, and 95th percentiles described the distribution of angular degree values measured for each joint. The ADJ were evaluated according to international standards and other scientific literature on the issue to assess the muscular load. The workload was compared between 5 parlor types (auto tandem, herringbone 30°, herringbone 50°, parallel, and rotary) on 15 farms with 2 subjects per parlor and 1 milking period per subject. The working height was defined as a coefficient based on the milker's body height, the floor level, and the cow's udder height. The data recorded during the attachment task were analyzed using generalized linear mixed-effects models taking into account the hierarchical experimental design. The results indicated that the interaction of the cow's udder height, the milker's body height, and the parlor type had a larger effect on ergonomics than each parameter had independently. The interaction was significant in at least 1 of the 3 percentiles in 28 out of 31 ADJ. The postural differences between parlor types, however, were minor. A milking health formula was created to calculate the ideal depth of pit by considering the parlor type, the milker's height, and the mean herd udder height. This formula can be
Analytical solution for the convectively-mixed atmospheric boundary layer
Ouwersloot, H.G.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.
2013-01-01
Based on the prognostic equations of mixed-layer theory assuming a zeroth order jump at the entrainment zone, analytical solutions for the boundary-layer height evolution are derived with different degrees of accuracy. First, an exact implicit expression for the boundary-layer height for a situation
Predicting species' maximum dispersal distances from simple plant traits.
Tamme, Riin; Götzenberger, Lars; Zobel, Martin; Bullock, James M; Hooftman, Danny A P; Kaasik, Ants; Pärtel, Meelis
2014-02-01
Many studies have shown plant species' dispersal distances to be strongly related to life-history traits, but how well different traits can predict dispersal distances is not yet known. We used cross-validation techniques and a global data set (576 plant species) to measure the predictive power of simple plant traits to estimate species' maximum dispersal distances. Including dispersal syndrome (wind, animal, ant, ballistic, and no special syndrome), growth form (tree, shrub, herb), seed mass, seed release height, and terminal velocity in different combinations as explanatory variables we constructed models to explain variation in measured maximum dispersal distances and evaluated their power to predict maximum dispersal distances. Predictions are more accurate, but also limited to a particular set of species, if data on more specific traits, such as terminal velocity, are available. The best model (R2 = 0.60) included dispersal syndrome, growth form, and terminal velocity as fixed effects. Reasonable predictions of maximum dispersal distance (R2 = 0.53) are also possible when using only the simplest and most commonly measured traits; dispersal syndrome and growth form together with species taxonomy data. We provide a function (dispeRsal) to be run in the software package R. This enables researchers to estimate maximum dispersal distances with confidence intervals for plant species using measured traits as predictors. Easily obtainable trait data, such as dispersal syndrome (inferred from seed morphology) and growth form, enable predictions to be made for a large number of species.
Aircraft height estimation using 2-D radar
Hakl, H
2010-01-01
Full Text Available A method to infer height information from an aircraft tracked with a single 2-D search radar is presented. The method assumes level flight in the target aircraft and a good estimate of the speed of the aircraft. The method yields good results...
Height as a Basis for Interpersonal Attraction.
Hensley, Wayne E.
Based on the observation that taller males seem to have an advantage in date/mate selection, a study investigated the role that height plays in the choice of a partner. Subjects, 594 student volunteers from communication classes at a large Mid-Atlantic university, completed a questionnaire designed to assess such factors as respondent sex, present…
Intralocus sexual conflict over human height
Stulp, Gert; Kuijper, Bram; Buunk, Abraham P.; Pollet, Thomas V.; Verhulst, Simon
2012-01-01
Intralocus sexual conflict (IASC) occurs when a trait under selection in one sex constrains the other sex from achieving its sex-specific fitness optimum. Selection pressures on body size often differ between the sexes across many species, including humans: among men individuals of average height en
Lang's Height Conjecture and Szpiro's Conjecture
Silverman, Joseph H
2009-01-01
It is known that Szpiro's conjecture, or equivalently the ABC-conjecture, implies Lang's conjecture giving a uniform lower bound for the canonical height of nontorsion points on elliptic curves. In this note we show that a significantly weaker version of Szpiro's conjecture, which we call "prime-depleted," suffices to prove Lang's conjecture.
An Analysis of Personality in Wuthering Heights
Liu Feng
2011-01-01
Compared to other two sisters,Emily Bronte has a few of works,just only one novel and some poets.However,it is the novel Wuthering Heights arousing more and more critics＇ attention after more than 100 years since it was born.The reason that a great works
The Artistic Glamour of Wuthering Heights
Li Wenyan
2012-01-01
Emily Bronte＇s Wuthering Heights is a classical masterpiece,known as＂the most peculiar novel＂in the English literature.The paper focuses on its structure and main idea,so as to reveal its thrilling artistic glamour and its artistic style.
Growth hormone: health considerations beyond height gain
The therapeutic benefit of growth hormone (GH) therapy in improving height in short children is widely recognized; however, GH therapy is associated with other metabolic actions that may be of benefit in these children. Beneficial effects of GH on body composition have been documented in several dif...
Scale height determination of spiral galaxies
计朝晖; 商朝晖; 彭秋和
1997-01-01
The method adopted here is based on the rigorous solution of Poison’s equation for logarithmic disturbance density within finite thickness galaxies. After their spiral arms are fitted directly with logarithmic spirals, the morphological parameters, scale heights and their relative errors for 32 spiral galaxies, such as NGC4814, are ob-tained.
The Roles of Symbols in Wuthering Heights
孙贻红
2015-01-01
In Wuthering Heights, Emily Bronte portrays the love story between Catherine and Heathcliff whose sincere love is killed for their different social status and only prevails beyond the real world. The roles of symbols in revealing this theme will be traced in this article.
Environmental Assessment: Disposition of Maxwell Heights Annex
2005-07-01
Maxwell Support Division May 4, 2005 Mr. David Rabon Tribal Historic Preservation Officer Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma P.O. Box 948 Tahlequah...Oklahoma 74465 RE: Disposal of the Existing Property and Facilities of the Maxwell Heights Annex Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama Dear Mr. Rabon , The
Environmental survey at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1993
Hoffmann, E.L.; Looz, T.
1995-04-01
Results are presented of the environmental survey conducted in the neighbourhood of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories during 1993. No activity which could have originated from these laboratories was found in samples collected from possible human food chains. All low-level liquid and gaseous waste discharges were within authorised limits. The maximum possible annual dose to the general public from airborne discharges during this period is estimated to be less than 0.01 mSv, which is one per cent of the dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council. A list of previous environmental survey reports is attached. 22 refs., 21 tabs., 4 figs.
Environmental survey at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1993
Hoffmann, E.L.; Looz, T.
1995-04-01
Results are presented of the environmental survey conducted in the neighbourhood of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories during 1993. No activity which could have originated from these laboratories was found in samples collected from possible human food chains. All low-level liquid and gaseous waste discharges were within authorised limits. The maximum possible annual dose to the general public from airborne discharges during this period is estimated to be less than 0.01 mSv, which is one per cent of the dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council. A list of previous environmental survey reports is attached. 22 refs., 21 tabs., 4 figs.
Maximum tunneling velocities in symmetric double well potentials
Manz, Jörn [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Laser Spectroscopy, Shanxi University, 92, Wucheng Road, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Schild, Axel [Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Schmidt, Burkhard, E-mail: burkhard.schmidt@fu-berlin.de [Institut für Mathematik, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Yang, Yonggang, E-mail: ygyang@sxu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Laser Spectroscopy, Shanxi University, 92, Wucheng Road, Taiyuan 030006 (China)
2014-10-17
Highlights: • Coherent tunneling in one-dimensional symmetric double well potentials. • Potentials for analytical estimates in the deep tunneling regime. • Maximum velocities scale as the square root of the ratio of barrier height and mass. • In chemical physics maximum tunneling velocities are in the order of a few km/s. - Abstract: We consider coherent tunneling of one-dimensional model systems in non-cyclic or cyclic symmetric double well potentials. Generic potentials are constructed which allow for analytical estimates of the quantum dynamics in the non-relativistic deep tunneling regime, in terms of the tunneling distance, barrier height and mass (or moment of inertia). For cyclic systems, the results may be scaled to agree well with periodic potentials for which semi-analytical results in terms of Mathieu functions exist. Starting from a wavepacket which is initially localized in one of the potential wells, the subsequent periodic tunneling is associated with tunneling velocities. These velocities (or angular velocities) are evaluated as the ratio of the flux densities versus the probability densities. The maximum velocities are found under the top of the barrier where they scale as the square root of the ratio of barrier height and mass (or moment of inertia), independent of the tunneling distance. They are applied exemplarily to several prototypical molecular models of non-cyclic and cyclic tunneling, including ammonia inversion, Cope rearrangement of semibullvalene, torsions of molecular fragments, and rotational tunneling in strong laser fields. Typical maximum velocities and angular velocities are in the order of a few km/s and from 10 to 100 THz for our non-cyclic and cyclic systems, respectively, much faster than time-averaged velocities. Even for the more extreme case of an electron tunneling through a barrier of height of one Hartree, the velocity is only about one percent of the speed of light. Estimates of the corresponding time scales for
Messaoud, Yassine; Chen, Han Y H
2011-02-16
Tree growth has been reported to increase in response to recent global climate change in controlled and semi-controlled experiments, but few studies have reported response of tree growth to increased temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration in natural environments. This study addresses how recent global climate change has affected height growth of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) and black spruce (Picea mariana Mill B.S.) in their natural environments. We sampled 145 stands dominated by aspen and 82 dominated by spruce over the entire range of their distributions in British Columbia, Canada. These stands were established naturally after fire between the 19th and 20th centuries. Height growth was quantified as total heights of sampled dominant and co-dominant trees at breast-height age of 50 years. We assessed the relationships between 50-year height growth and environmental factors at both spatial and temporal scales. We also tested whether the tree growth associated with global climate change differed with spatial environment (latitude, longitude and elevation). As expected, height growth of both species was positively related to temperature variables at the regional scale and with soil moisture and nutrient availability at the local scale. While height growth of trembling aspen was not significantly related to any of the temporal variables we examined, that of black spruce increased significantly with stand establishment date, the anomaly of the average maximum summer temperature between May-August, and atmospheric CO₂ concentration, but not with the Palmer Drought Severity Index. Furthermore, the increase of spruce height growth associated with recent climate change was higher in the western than in eastern part of British Columbia. This study demonstrates that the response of height growth to recent climate change, i.e., increasing temperature and atmospheric CO₂ concentration, did not only differ with tree species, but
Yassine Messaoud
Full Text Available Tree growth has been reported to increase in response to recent global climate change in controlled and semi-controlled experiments, but few studies have reported response of tree growth to increased temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂ concentration in natural environments. This study addresses how recent global climate change has affected height growth of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx and black spruce (Picea mariana Mill B.S. in their natural environments. We sampled 145 stands dominated by aspen and 82 dominated by spruce over the entire range of their distributions in British Columbia, Canada. These stands were established naturally after fire between the 19th and 20th centuries. Height growth was quantified as total heights of sampled dominant and co-dominant trees at breast-height age of 50 years. We assessed the relationships between 50-year height growth and environmental factors at both spatial and temporal scales. We also tested whether the tree growth associated with global climate change differed with spatial environment (latitude, longitude and elevation. As expected, height growth of both species was positively related to temperature variables at the regional scale and with soil moisture and nutrient availability at the local scale. While height growth of trembling aspen was not significantly related to any of the temporal variables we examined, that of black spruce increased significantly with stand establishment date, the anomaly of the average maximum summer temperature between May-August, and atmospheric CO₂ concentration, but not with the Palmer Drought Severity Index. Furthermore, the increase of spruce height growth associated with recent climate change was higher in the western than in eastern part of British Columbia. This study demonstrates that the response of height growth to recent climate change, i.e., increasing temperature and atmospheric CO₂ concentration, did not only differ with tree
Height, sitting height, and leg length in relation with breast cancer risk in the E3N cohort
Fagherazzi, Guy; Vilier, Alice; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Mesrine, Sylvie
2012-01-01
If height is a well-established risk factor for breast cancer, leg length and sitting height are usually considered as better candidate biomarkers of growth hormone exposure than height, respectively...
Tripoli, N K; Cohen, K L; Obla, P; Coggins, J M; Holmgren, D E
1996-06-01
To assess the accuracy with which the Keratron keratoscope (Optikon 2000, Rome, Italy) measured astigmatic test surfaces by a profile reconstruction algorithm within a plane geometry model and to discriminate between error caused by the model and error caused by other factors. Height was reported by the Keratron for eight surfaces with central astigmatism ranging from 4 to 16 diopters. A three-dimensional ray tracing simulation produced theoretic reflected ring patterns on which the Keratron's reconstruction algorithm was performed. The Keratron's measurements were compared with the surfaces' formulas and the ray-traced simulations. With a new mathematical filter for smoothing ring data, now part of the Keratron's software, maximum error was 0.47% of the total height and was usually less than 1% of local power for surfaces with 4 diopters of astigmatism. For surfaces with 16 diopters of astigmatism, maximum error was as high as 2.9% of total height and was usually less than 2.5% of local power. The reconstruction algorithm accounted for 40% and 70% of height error, respectively. The efficacy of keratoscopes cannot be assumed from their design theories but must be tested. Although plane geometry surface reconstruction contributed greatly to total height error, total error was so small that it is unlikely to affect clinical use.
Brabrand, Helle
2010-01-01
Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. Architectonic implementation questions relations between the human body and a body of architecture by the different ways we handle drawing materials. A drawing may explore architectonic problems at other...... levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear...... as possible operational moves....
Sogachev, Andrey; Kelly, Mark
2016-03-01
Displacement height ( d) is an important parameter in the simple modelling of wind speed and vertical fluxes above vegetative canopies, such as forests. Here we show that, aside from implicit definition through a (displaced) logarithmic profile, accepted formulations for d do not consistently predict flow properties above a forest. Turbulent transport can affect the displacement height, and is an integral part of what is called the roughness sublayer. We develop a more general approach for estimation of d, through production of turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent transport, and show how previous stress-based formulations for displacement height can be seen as simplified cases of a more general definition including turbulent transport. Further, we also give a simplified and practical form for d that is in agreement with the general approach, exploiting the concept of vortex thickness scale from mixing-layer theory. We assess the new and previous displacement height formulations by using flow statistics derived from the atmospheric boundary-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes model SCADIS as well as from wind-tunnel observations, for different vegetation types and flow regimes in neutral conditions. The new formulations tend to produce smaller d than stress-based forms, falling closer to the classic logarithmically-defined displacement height. The new, more generally defined, displacement height appears to be more compatible with profiles of components of the turbulent kinetic energy budget, accounting for the combined effects of turbulent transport and shear production. The Coriolis force also plays a role, introducing wind-speed dependence into the behaviour of the roughness sublayer; this affects the turbulent transport, shear production, stress, and wind speed, as well as the displacement height, depending on the character of the forest. We further show how our practical (`mixing-layer') form for d matches the new turbulence-based relation, as well as
Embolization: critical thrombus height, shear rates, and pulsatility. Patency of blood vessels.
Basmadjian, D
1989-11-01
The present article builds on elementary fluid dynamics and previous analyses by the author to delineate approximate boundaries of mural thrombus height Hp, maximum shear rate gamma Max, and flow pulsatility beyond which thrombi are subject to either very high or very low probabilities of embolization. A thrombus height of approximately 0.1 mm emerges as a critical dividing line: Below it, the maximum embolizing shear stress tau s is independent of thrombus height and varies only linearly with shear rate. Above it, tau s quickly approaches a strong quadratic dependence on both thrombus height and shear rate: tau s approximately (Hp gamma)2, significantly increasing the likelihood of an embolizing event. By contrast, convective-diffusive removal of blood components during the initial stages of thrombus formation varies only weakly with gamma 1/3 in all but the smallest vessels. These maximum embolizing stresses are due principally to fluid drag. Acceleration (pulsatile) forces only begin to make their presence felt at gamma less than 500 s-1 and reach parity with fluid drag at gamma approximately 10 s-1, i.e., at a level where the presence of pulsatility is questionable. The results are used to provide maps of domains with high and low probabilities of an embolytic event and of vessel patency. The maps reveal that relatively modest changes in shear rate and/or vessel lumen can cause shifts from high to low likelihood of vessel patency, opening up possible ways of controlling blockage by manipulation of these variables.
Cascaval, Dan; Galaction, Anca-Irina; Turnea, Marius
2007-01-01
The study on mixing distribution for an aerobic stirred bioreactor and simulated (solutions of carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt), yeasts (S. cerevisiae) and fungus (P. chrysogenum pellets and free mycelia) broths indicated the significant variation of mixing time on the bioreactor height. The experiments suggested the possibility to reach a uniform mixing in whole bulk of the real broths for a certain value of rotation speed or biomass concentration domain. For S. cerevisiae broths the optimum rotation speed increased to 500 rpm with the biomass accumulation from 40 to 150 g/l d.w. Irrespective of their morphology, for fungus cultures the existence of optimum rotation speed (500 rpm) has been recorded only for biomass concentration below 24 g/l d.w. The influence of aeration rate depends on the apparent viscosity/biomass concentration and on the impellers and sparger positions. By increasing the apparent viscosity for simulated broths, or biomass amount for real broths, the shape of the curves describing the mixing time variation is significantly changed for all the considered positions. The intensification of the aeration induced the increase of mixing time, which reached a maximum value, decreasing then, due to the flooding phenomena. This variation became more pronounced at higher viscosities for simulated broths, at higher yeasts concentration, and at lower pellets or filamentous fungus concentration, respectively. By means of the experimental data and using MATLAB software, some mathematical correlations for mixing time have been proposed for each broth and considered position inside the bioreactor. These equations offer a good agreement with the experiment, the maximum deviation being +/-7.3% for S. cerevisiae broths.
Objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality
Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan
2015-01-01
We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. The upper bound is attained if and only if the object is transparent for fields of one handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e. helicity preservation upon scattering, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal scatterers to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal scatterers. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar scatterers or as material constitutive relations. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: A twofold resonantly enhanced and background free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle independent helicity filtering glasses.
Maximum mutual information regularized classification
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2014-09-07
In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.
The strong maximum principle revisited
Pucci, Patrizia; Serrin, James
In this paper we first present the classical maximum principle due to E. Hopf, together with an extended commentary and discussion of Hopf's paper. We emphasize the comparison technique invented by Hopf to prove this principle, which has since become a main mathematical tool for the study of second order elliptic partial differential equations and has generated an enormous number of important applications. While Hopf's principle is generally understood to apply to linear equations, it is in fact also crucial in nonlinear theories, such as those under consideration here. In particular, we shall treat and discuss recent generalizations of the strong maximum principle, and also the compact support principle, for the case of singular quasilinear elliptic differential inequalities, under generally weak assumptions on the quasilinear operators and the nonlinearities involved. Our principal interest is in necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of both principles; in exposing and simplifying earlier proofs of corresponding results; and in extending the conclusions to wider classes of singular operators than previously considered. The results have unexpected ramifications for other problems, as will develop from the exposition, e.g. two point boundary value problems for singular quasilinear ordinary differential equations (Sections 3 and 4); the exterior Dirichlet boundary value problem (Section 5); the existence of dead cores and compact support solutions, i.e. dead cores at infinity (Section 7); Euler-Lagrange inequalities on a Riemannian manifold (Section 9); comparison and uniqueness theorems for solutions of singular quasilinear differential inequalities (Section 10). The case of p-regular elliptic inequalities is briefly considered in Section 11.
Winning, Thomas E.; Chen, Yi-Leng; Xie, Feiqin
2017-01-01
Global positioning system radio occultation (GPS RO) refractivity data obtained from the first Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) for the years 2007 to 2012 were used to estimate an overall climatology for the height of the marine boundary layer (MBL) over the central North Pacific Ocean including the Hawaiian Island region (10°N-45°N; 125°W-175°W). The trade wind days are identified based on the six-year National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) global analysis for the same period. About 87% of the RO soundings in summer (June-July-August, JJA) and 47% in winter (December-January-February, DJF) are under trade wind conditions. The MBL height climatology under trade wind conditions is derived and compared to the overall climatology. In general, MBL heights are lowest adjacent to the southern coast of California and gradually increase to the south and west. During the summer (JJA) when the northeasterly trade winds are the dominant surface flow, the median MBL height decreases from 2.0 km over Kauai to 1.9 km over the Big Island with an approximate 2 km maximum that progresses from southwest to northeast throughout the year. If the surface flow is restricted to trade winds only, the maximum MBL heights are located over the same areas, but they increase to a median height of 1.8 km during DJF and 2.1 km during JJA. For the first time, the GPS RO technique allows the depiction of the spatial variations of the MBL height climatology over the central North Pacific.
Tatiana Vassileva Stankova
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The height-diameter relationship is an important and extensively investigated forest model, but generalized and mixed-effects models of wider applicability are currently lacking in the forest modeling literature for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. plantations in Bulgaria. Considering the practical advantages of deterministic and mixed-effects models, the present study aims to derive a generalized deterministic height-diameter relationship and a simple mixed-effects model for plantation-grown Scots pine in Bulgaria. Ten generalized and six local models of adequate mathematical properties were selected and examined in several subsequent steps with a representative data set. A deterministic model was derived for tree height reconstruction from the individual tree diameters, stand dominant height and diameter, number of trees per hectare and stand age. Mixed-effects models were developed from the individual-tree and stand diameters and heights applicable to determine the height-diameter relationship in field surveys. Both types of models can be applied with confidence, according to their advantages and specifications, for estimating the height-diameter relationship of Scots pine plantations in Bulgaria, presenting a unique contribution for the particular species, study area and type of model. The choice of the tested models is relevant to the height-diameter relationship investigation of biologically related and geographically close species and types of stands and the study procedure allows repetition of the work to provide reliable solutions of the problem where information on such type of model is deficient or incomplete.
Route Height Connection Across the Sea by Using the Vertical Deflections and Ellipsoidal Height Data
GUO Jin-yun; CHEN Yong-ning; LIU Xin; ZHONG Shi-xia; MAI Zhao-qiu
2013-01-01
Distance between the main land and island is so long that it is very difficult to precisely connect the height datum across the sea with the traditional method like the trigonometric leveling,or it is very expensive and takes long time to implement the height transfer with the geopotential technique.We combine the data of GPS surveying,astro-geodesy and EGM2008 to precisely connect the orthometric height across the sea with the improved astronomical leveling method in the paper.The Qiongzhou Strait is selected as the test area for the height connection over the sea.We precisely determine the geodetic latitudes,longitudes,heights and deflections of the vertical for four points on both sides across the strait.Modeled deflections of the vertical along the height connecting routes over the sea are determined with EGM2008 model based on the geodetic positions and heights of the sea segmentation points from DNSC08MSS model.Differences of the measured and modeled deflections of the vertical are calculated at four points on both sides and linearly change along the route.So the deflections of the vertical along the route over the sea can be improved by the linear interpolation model.The results are also in accord with those of trigonometirc levelings.The practical case shows that we can precisely connect the orthometric height across the Qiongzhou Strait to satisfy the requirement of order 3 leveling network of China.The method is very efficient to precisely connect the height datum across the sea along the route up to 80 km.
Bang Appel, Helene; Singla, Rashmi
2016-01-01
Despite an increase in cross border intimate relationships and children of mixed parentage, there is little mention or scholarship about them in the area of childhood and migrancy in the Nordic countries. The international literature implies historical pathologisation, contestation and current...
What is the critical height of leading edge roughness for aerodynamics?
Bak, Christian; Gaunaa, Mac; Olsen, Anders Smærup;
2016-01-01
In this paper the critical leading edge roughness height is analyzed in two cases: 1) leading edge roughness influencing the lift-drag ratio and 2) leading edge roughness influencing the maximum lift. The analysis was based on wind tunnel measurements on the airfoils NACA0015, Risoe-B1-18 and Ris...... with panel code predictions of the boundary layer momentum thickness created the basis for determining the impact of roughness on the aerodynamic performance. The critical heights were related to the Reynolds numbers and thereby the size of the wind turbines....
Methods for determining the height of the atmospheric boundary layer
Sugiyama, Gayle [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nasstrom, John S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
1999-02-01
The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) is an operational emergency response program which provides real-time dose assessments of airborne pollutant releases. This report reviews methodologies for determining the height of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), which were investigated for use in the next generation of ARAC diagnostic and dispersion models. The ABL height, h_{ABL}, is an essential parameter in atmospheric dispersion modeling, controlling the extent of the vertical mixing of pollutants near the surface. Although eventually instrumentation (radiosonde, lidar, sodar, etc.) may provide accurate means for determining h_{ABL}, at present the availability of such data is too limited to provide a general capability for ARAC. The current operational ARAC diagnostic models use a fixed value of h_{ABL} for any given time. ARAC's new models support a horizontally-varying atmospheric boundary layer height, which is used to generate meteorological (mean wind, temperature, etc.) and turbulence fields. The purpose of the present work is to develop methods to derive the ABL height for all atmospheric stability regimes. One of our key requirements is to provide approaches which are applicable to routinely available data, which may be of limited temporal and spatial resolution. The final objective is to generate a consistent set of meteorological and turbulence or eddy diffusivity fields to drive the new ARAC dispersion model. A number of alternative definitions of the atmospheric boundary layer exist, leading to different approaches to deriving h_{ABL}. The definitions are based on either the turbulence characteristics of the atmosphere or the vertical structure of one or more meteorological variables. Most diagnostic analyses determine h_{ABL} from profiles of temperature or occasionally wind. A class of methods of considerable current interest are based on Richardson number criteria. Prognostic methods
Assessment of pulse height selection methods for several spectrum shapes in radiation detection
Mainardi, Raul T. E-mail: mainardi@famaf.unc.edu.ar; Plivelic, Tomas S. E-mail: tomas@lnls.br; Derosa, Pedro A. E-mail: derosa@engr.sc.edu
2003-03-01
The minimum pulse height selection method developed more than forty years ago to process the information provided by detectors with an energy spectrum responding to a Landau distribution is extended in this work to consider other information processing criteria such as the maximum pulse height and the pulse height closest to the mode. The latter is a selection method whereby the mode is calculated for a distribution and then, a pulse closest to it is selected from a given set and stored. We analyze the combined resolution of a set of identical sampling detectors in terms of the number of detectors and the shape of the characteristic pulse height distribution from a single detector. To make this treatment as general as possible, five analytical forms are tested as symmetric and asymmetric pulse height distributions, applying to each of them the three selection methods mentioned above. We also compare these results with the average of the pulse heights in each case. For these evaluations, analytical calculations and Monte Carlo simulations were carried out. It was thus possible to select the most appropriate selection method based on the shape parameters of a distribution.
Kim, Dong Hyeon; Amanullah, Sardar M.; Lee, Hyuk Jun; Joo, Young Ho; Han, Ouk Kyu; Adesogan, Adegbola T.; Kim, Sam Churl
2016-01-01
The present study evaluated the effects of different cutting height on nutritive value, fermentation quality, in vitro and in vivo digestibility of whole crop barley silage. Whole crop barley forage (Yuyeon hybrid) was harvested at height of 5, 10, and 15 cm from the ground level. Each cutting height was rolled to make round bale and ensiled for 100 days. After 100 days of ensiling, pH of silage was lower (psilages of 10 and 15 cm of cutting height. Three total mixed rations (TMR) were formulated with silages from the three different cutting heights (TMR5, TMR10, and TMR15) incorporated as forage at 70:30 ratio with concentrate (dry matter [DM] basis). In vitro dry matter digestibility was higher (psilage for TMR formulation and increasing digestibility of DM and NDF. PMID:27165022
Helicity at Photospheric and Chromospheric Heights
Tiwari, S K; Sankarasubramanian, K
2009-01-01
In the solar atmosphere the twist parameter $\\alpha$ has the same sign as magnetic helicity. It has been observed using photospheric vector magnetograms that negative/positive helicity is dominant in the northern/southern hemisphere of the Sun. Chromospheric features show dextral/sinistral dominance in the northern/southern hemisphere and sigmoids observed in X-rays also have a dominant sense of reverse-S/forward-S in the northern/southern hemisphere. It is of interest whether individual features have one-to-one correspondence in terms of helicity at different atmospheric heights. We use UBF \\Halpha images from the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST) and other \\Halpha data from Udaipur Solar Observatory and Big Bear Solar Observatory. Near-simultaneous vector magnetograms from the DST are used to establish one-to-one correspondence of helicity at photospheric and chromospheric heights. We plan to extend this investigation with more data including coronal intensities.
BOREAS AFM-6 Boundary Layer Height Data
Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) site. This data set provides boundary layer height information over the site. The data were collected from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994 and are stored in tabular ASCII files. The boundary layer height data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).
Adaptive Layer Height During DLP Materials Processing
Pedersen, David Bue; Zhang, Yang; Nielsen, Jakob Skov
2016-01-01
for considerable process speedup during the Additive Manufacture of components that contain areas of low cross-section variability, at no loss of surface quality. The adaptive slicing strategy was tested with a purpose built vat polymerisation system and numerical engine designed and constructed to serve as a Next......This research aim to show how manufacturing speeds during vat polymerisation can be vastly increased through an adaptive layer height strategy that takes the geometry into account through analysis of the relationship between layer height, cross-section variability and surface structure. This allows......-Gen technology platform. By means of assessing hemispherical manufactured test specimen and through 3D surface mapping with variable-focus microscopy and confocal microscopy, a balance between minimal loss of surface quality with a maximal increase of manufacturing rate has been identified as a simple angle...
Accurate barrier heights using diffusion Monte Carlo
Krongchon, Kittithat; Wagner, Lucas K
2016-01-01
Fixed node diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) has been performed on a test set of forward and reverse barrier heights for 19 non-hydrogen-transfer reactions, and the nodal error has been assessed. The DMC results are robust to changes in the nodal surface, as assessed by using different mean-field techniques to generate single determinant wave functions. Using these single determinant nodal surfaces, DMC results in errors of 1.5(5) kcal/mol on barrier heights. Using the large data set of DMC energies, we attempted to find good descriptors of the fixed node error. It does not correlate with a number of descriptors including change in density, but does correlate with the gap between the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied orbital energies in the mean-field calculation.
JR Bontha; GR Golcar; N Hannigan
2000-08-29
The BNFL Inc. flowsheet for the pretreatment and vitrification of the Hanford High Level Tank waste includes the use of several hundred Reverse Flow Diverters (RFDs) for sampling and transferring the radioactive slurries and Pulsed Jet mixers to homogenize or suspend the tank contents. The Pulsed Jet mixing and the RFD sampling devices represent very simple and efficient methods to mix and sample slurries, respectively, using compressed air to achieve the desired operation. The equipment has no moving parts, which makes them very suitable for mixing and sampling highly radioactive wastes. However, the effectiveness of the mixing and sampling systems are yet to be demonstrated when dealing with Hanford slurries, which exhibit a wide range of physical and theological properties. This report describes the results of the testing of BNFL's Pulsed Jet mixing and RFD sampling systems in a 13-ft ID and 15-ft height dish-bottomed tank at Battelle's 336 building high-bay facility using AZ-101/102 simulants containing up to 36-wt% insoluble solids. The specific objectives of the work were to: Demonstrate the effectiveness of the Pulsed Jet mixing system to thoroughly homogenize Hanford-type slurries over a range of solids loading; Minimize/optimize air usage by changing sequencing of the Pulsed Jet mixers or by altering cycle times; and Demonstrate that the RFD sampler can obtain representative samples of the slurry up to the maximum RPP-WTP baseline concentration of 25-wt%.
Height predicts jealousy differently for men and women
Buunk, Abraham P.; Park, Justin H.; Zurriaga, Rosario; Klavina, Liga; Massar, Karlijn
Because male height is associated with attractiveness, dominance, and reproductive success, taller men may be less jealous. And because female height has a curvilinear relationship with health and reproductive success (with average-height females having the advantages), female height may have a
Leg length, sitting height and postmenopausal breast cancer risk
Mellemkjær, L; Christensen, J; Frederiksen, K
2012-01-01
Tallness has consistently been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. We investigated the association further by decomposing height into leg length and sitting height.......Tallness has consistently been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. We investigated the association further by decomposing height into leg length and sitting height....
Height predicts jealousy differently for men and women
Buunk, Abraham P.; Park, Justin H.; Zurriaga, Rosario; Klavina, Liga; Massar, Karlijn
2008-01-01
Because male height is associated with attractiveness, dominance, and reproductive success, taller men may be less jealous. And because female height has a curvilinear relationship with health and reproductive success (with average-height females having the advantages), female height may have a curv
Measuring Ice Sheet Height with ICESat-2
Walsh, K.; Smith, B.; Neumann, T.; Hancock, D.
2015-12-01
ICESat-2 is NASA's next-generation laser altimeter, designed to measure changes in ice sheet height and sea ice freeboard. Over the ice sheets, it will use a continuous repeat-track pointing strategy to ensure that it accurately measures elevation changes along a set of reference tracks. Over most of the area of Earth's ice sheets, ICESat-2 will provide coverage with a track-to-track spacing better than ~3 km. The onboard ATLAS instrument will use a photon-counting approach to provide a global geolocated photon point cloud, which is then converted into surface-specific elevation data sets. In this presentation, we will outline our strategy for taking the low-level photon point cloud and turning it into measurements posted at 20 m along-track for a set of pre-defined reference points by (1) selecting groups of photon events (PEs) around each along-track point, (2) refining the initial PE selection by fitting selected PEs with an along-track segment model and eliminating outliers to the model, (3) applying histogram-based corrections to the surface height based on the residuals to the along-track segment model, (4) calculate error estimates based on estimates of relative contributions of signal and noise PEs to the observed PE count, and (5) determining the final location and surface height of the along-track segment. These measurements are then corrected for short-scale (100-200 m) across-track surface topography around the reference points to develop a time series of land ice heights. The resulting data products will allow us to measure ice sheet elevation change with a point-for-point accuracy of a few centimeters over Earth's ice sheets.
Feynman amplitudes and limits of heights
Amini, O.; Bloch, S. J.; Burgos Gil, J. I.; Fresán, J.
2016-10-01
We investigate from a mathematical perspective how Feynman amplitudes appear in the low-energy limit of string amplitudes. In this paper, we prove the convergence of the integrands. We derive this from results describing the asymptotic behaviour of the height pairing between degree-zero divisors, as a family of curves degenerates. These are obtained by means of the nilpotent orbit theorem in Hodge theory.
Maximum entropy production in daisyworld
Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.
2012-05-01
Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.
Maximum stellar iron core mass
F W Giacobbe
2003-03-01
An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is described in this paper. The method employed depends, in part, upon an estimate of the true relativistic mass increase experienced by electrons within a highly compressed iron core, just prior to core collapse, and is signiﬁcantly different from a more typical Chandrasekhar mass limit approach. This technique produced a maximum stellar iron core mass value of 2.69 × 1030 kg (1.35 solar masses). This mass value is very near to the typical mass values found for neutron stars in a recent survey of actual neutron star masses. Although slightly lower and higher neutron star masses may also be found, lower mass neutron stars are believed to be formed as a result of enhanced iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large stars. And, higher mass neutron stars are likely to be formed as a result of fallback or accretion of additional matter after an initial collapse event involving an iron core having a mass no greater than 2.69 × 1030 kg.
Maximum Matchings via Glauber Dynamics
Jindal, Anant; Pal, Manjish
2011-01-01
In this paper we study the classic problem of computing a maximum cardinality matching in general graphs $G = (V, E)$. The best known algorithm for this problem till date runs in $O(m \\sqrt{n})$ time due to Micali and Vazirani \\cite{MV80}. Even for general bipartite graphs this is the best known running time (the algorithm of Karp and Hopcroft \\cite{HK73} also achieves this bound). For regular bipartite graphs one can achieve an $O(m)$ time algorithm which, following a series of papers, has been recently improved to $O(n \\log n)$ by Goel, Kapralov and Khanna (STOC 2010) \\cite{GKK10}. In this paper we present a randomized algorithm based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo paradigm which runs in $O(m \\log^2 n)$ time, thereby obtaining a significant improvement over \\cite{MV80}. We use a Markov chain similar to the \\emph{hard-core model} for Glauber Dynamics with \\emph{fugacity} parameter $\\lambda$, which is used to sample independent sets in a graph from the Gibbs Distribution \\cite{V99}, to design a faster algori...
Farshid VAZIN
2010-12-01
Full Text Available To model light interception and distribution in the mixed canopy of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus rertoflexus with corn, an experiment was carried out in randomized complete blocks design with factorial arrangement in Gonabad during 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 growing seasons. The factors used in this experiment was consisted of three corn densities (7.5, 8.5 and 9.5 plants per meter of row and three densities of redroot pigweed (zero, 2, 4, 6 and 8 plants per meter of row. INTERCOM model was used through replacing parabolic function with triangular function of leaf area density. Vertical distribution of the species� leaf area showed that corn had concentrated the most leaf area in layer of 50 to 150 cm, while redroot pigweed has concentrated in 40-60 cm of canopy height. Model sensitivity analysis showed that leaf area index, species� height, height where maximum leaf area is seen (hm, and extinction coefficient had influenced on light interception rate of any species. In both species, the distribution density of leaf area at the canopy length fit a triangular function, and the height in which maximum leaf area was observed change by increasing the density. There was a correlation between percentage of the radiation absorbed by the weed and percentage of corn seed yield loss (r2 = 0.89. Ideal type of corn was determined until the stage of tasseling in competition with weed. This determination indicates that the corn needs more height and leaf area, as well as less extinction coefficient to successfully fight against the weed.
2011-01-10
...: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure Using Record Evidence, and... facilities of their responsibilities, under Federal integrity management (IM) regulations, to perform... system, especially when calculating Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) or Maximum Operating...
Gravity and Height Variations at Medicina, Italy
Bruni, Sara; Zerbini, Susanna; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio; Wziontek, Hartmut
2017-04-01
Since 1996, at the Medicina station, height and gravity variations are monitored continuously by means of GPS, VLBI and superconducting gravimeter (SG) data. Additionally, absolute gravity observations are performed twice a year and environmental parameters, among others water table levels, are regularly acquired. Levelling between the different monuments at the site area is also carried out repeatedly to constrain local ties in the vertical position. Two GPS systems are located very close to each other, and both are in close proximity to the VLBI antenna. Twenty years of data are now available, which allow investigating both long- and short-period height and gravity signals together with their relevant correlations. Natural land subsidence, which is well known to occur in the area, is a major component of the observed long-term behavior; however, non-linear long-period signatures are also present in the time series. On a shorter time scale, fingerprints of the water table seasonal oscillations can be recognized in the data. The Medicina site is characterized by clayey soil subjected to consolidation effects when the water table lowers during summer periods. The pillar on which the SG is installed is especially affected because of its shallow foundation, causing height decreases in the order of 2.5-3 cm for water table lowering of 2 m. This study presents a comparative analysis of the different data sets with the aim of separating mass and deformation contributions in the SG gravity record.
Algorithmic height compression of unordered trees.
Ben-Naoum, Farah; Godin, Christophe
2016-01-21
By nature, tree structures frequently present similarities between their sub-parts. Making use of this redundancy, different types of tree compression techniques have been designed in the literature to reduce the complexity of tree structures. A popular and efficient way to compress a tree consists of merging its isomorphic subtrees, which produces a directed acyclic graph (DAG) equivalent to the original tree. An important property of this method is that the compressed structure (i.e. the DAG) has the same height as the original tree, thus limiting partially the possibility of compression. In this paper we address the problem of further compressing this DAG in height. The difficulty is that compression must be carried out on substructures that are not exactly isomorphic as they are strictly nested within each-other. We thus introduced a notion of quasi-isomorphism between subtrees that makes it possible to define similar patterns along any given path in a tree. We then proposed an algorithm to detect these patterns and to merge them, thus leading to compressed structures corresponding to DAGs augmented with return edges. In this way, redundant information is removed from the original tree in both width and height, thus achieving minimal structural compression. The complete compression algorithm is then illustrated on the compression of various plant-like structures.
A brief treatment for fear of heights.
Arroll, Bruce; Henwood, Suzanne M; Sundram, Fred I; Kingsford, Douglas W; Mount, Vicki; Humm, Steve P; Wallace, Henry B; Pillai, Avinesh
2017-01-01
Objective To assess the effectiveness of a novel imaginal intervention for people with acrophobia. Methods The design was a randomized controlled trial with concealed randomization and blinded to other participants' intervention. The intervention was a single novel imaginal intervention session or a 15-min meditation. The setting was in Auckland, New Zealand. The participants were a convenience sample of the public with a score >29 on the Heights Interpretation Questionnaire (HIQ), a questionnaire validated against actual height exposure. The primary outcomes were the proportion of participants with a score fear of heights is very much improved. There was a 4.5-point difference in the HIQ score at eight weeks (p = 0.055) on the multiple regression analysis. Conclusions This is the first randomized trial of this novel imaginal intervention which is probably effective, brief, easily learnt, and safe. It may be worth considering doing this prior to some of the longer or more expensive exposure therapies. This study will be of interest to family doctors, psychiatrists, and psychologists.
Resource-constrained maximum network throughput on space networks
Yanling Xing; Ning Ge; Youzheng Wang
2015-01-01
This paper investigates the maximum network through-put for resource-constrained space networks based on the delay and disruption-tolerant networking (DTN) architecture. Specifical y, this paper proposes a methodology for calculating the maximum network throughput of multiple transmission tasks under storage and delay constraints over a space network. A mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) is formulated to solve this problem. Simula-tions results show that the proposed methodology can successful y calculate the optimal throughput of a space network under storage and delay constraints, as wel as a clear, monotonic relationship between end-to-end delay and the maximum network throughput under storage constraints. At the same time, the optimization re-sults shine light on the routing and transport protocol design in space communication, which can be used to obtain the optimal network throughput.
Quantification of gait changes in subjects with visual height intolerance when exposed to heights
Schniepp, Roman; Kugler, Günter; Wuehr, Max; Eckl, Maria; Huppert, Doreen; Huth, Sabrina; Pradhan, Cauchy; Jahn, Klaus; Brandt, Thomas
2014-01-01
Introduction: Visual height intolerance (vHI) manifests as instability at heights with apprehension of losing balance or falling. We investigated contributions of visual feedback and attention on gait performance of subjects with vHI. Materials and Methods: Sixteen subjects with vHI walked over a gait mat (GAITRite®) on a 15-m-high balcony and at ground-level. Subjects walked at different speeds (slow, preferred, fast), during changes of the visual input (gaze straight/up/down; eyes open/closed), and while doing a cognitive task. An rmANOVA with the factors “height situation” and “gait condition” was performed. Subjects were also asked to estimate the height of the balcony over ground level. The individual estimates were used for correlations with the gait parameters. Results: Study participants walked slower at heights, with reduced cadence and stride length. The double support phases were increased (all p vHI; gait was similarly affected when the visual perception of the depth was prevented. Improvement by dual task at heights may be associated by a reduction of the anxiety level. Conclusion: It is conceivable that mental distraction by dual task or increasing the walking speed might be useful recommendations to reduce the imbalance during locomotion in subjects susceptible to vHI. PMID:25538595
Effect of step height on cardiorespiratory responses during aerobic step test in young Indian women
Tirthankar Chatterjee
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Step aerobics is practiced in health centres, fitness training gyms, and academic institutions in India. This exercise module is gaining popularity day by day. But, these kind of aerobic exercise tests are less investigated for Indian women population. Objective: A widely practiced aerobic step test was applied to a group of young female to explore the effect of step height on physiological responses and suggest the best height of stepping. Method: Eight physically fit and active female university students with mean age 19.7 (±2.3 yrs, height 156.2 (±6.5 cm, weight 51.2 (±7.9 kg, and VO2max 35.7 (±4.8 ml.min-1.kg-1 volunteered for the study. Each subject performed 30 minutes of step test in two Reebok steps heights (6 inch and 8 inches with a rhythm of 120 beats.min-1. At this cadence 30 cycles of stepping up and down were completed in 1 min. Relative work load (% VO2 max, energy expenditure (EE, Heart rate (HR, percentage of age predicted maximum HR were measured using K4b2 Cosmed system. Result: The results showed that eight inch step is offering a significant higher value across most of the parameters investigated compared to six inch step. So it can be inferred that the higher the step height the higher will be the physiological responses. Conclusion: The present study clearly demonstrates that aerobic stepping on 6 inch bench height for 30 minutes with a cadence of 120 beats. min-1 may be more suitable and safe exercise module to improve cardio respiratory fitness for Indian young females. Further investigations are required to identify suitable exercise modules in terms of bench height, cadence and duration for different age groups and according to their fitness level (trained/untrained and height on larger sample size.
Maximum twin shear stress factor criterion for sliding mode fracture initiation
黎振兹; 李慧剑; 黎晓峰; 周洪彬; 郝圣旺
2002-01-01
Previous researches on the mixed mode fracture initiation criteria were mostly focused on opening mode fracture. In this study, the authors proposed a new criterion for mixed mode sliding fracture initiation, which is the maximum twin shear stress factor criterion. The authors studied a finite width plate with central slant crack, subject to a far-field uniform uniaxial tensile or compressive stress.
J.J. Lee (Jessica); J.C. Escher (Johanna); M.J. Shuman (Melissa); P.W. Forbes (Peter); L.C. Delemarre (Luçan); B.W. Harr (Brian); M. Kruijer (Marjan); M. Moret (Marlous); S. Allende-Richter (Sophie); R.J. Grand (Richard)
2010-01-01
textabstractBackground: This study was designed to elucidate the contribution of parental height to the stature of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), who often exhibit growth impairment. Accordingly, we compared patients' final adult heights and target heights based on measured parental
Spatio-temporal observations of tertiary ozone maximum
V. F. Sofieva
2009-03-01
Full Text Available We present spatio-temporal distributions of tertiary ozone maximum (TOM, based on GOMOS (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars ozone measurements in 2002–2006. The tertiary ozone maximum is typically observed in the high-latitude winter mesosphere at altitude ~72 km. Although the explanation for this phenomenon has been found recently – low concentrations of odd-hydrogen cause the subsequent decrease in odd-oxygen losses – models have had significant deviations from existing observations until recently. Good coverage of polar night regions by GOMOS data has allowed for the first time obtaining spatial and temporal observational distributions of night-time ozone mixing ratio in the mesosphere.
The distributions obtained from GOMOS data have specific features, which are variable from year to year. In particular, due to a long lifetime of ozone in polar night conditions, the downward transport of polar air by the meridional circulation is clearly observed in the tertiary ozone maximum time series. Although the maximum tertiary ozone mixing ratio is achieved close to the polar night terminator (as predicted by the theory, TOM can be observed also at very high latitudes, not only in the beginning and at the end, but also in the middle of winter. We have compared the observational spatio-temporal distributions of tertiary ozone maximum with that obtained using WACCM (Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model and found that the specific features are reproduced satisfactorily by the model.
Since ozone in the mesosphere is very sensitive to HO_{x} concentrations, energetic particle precipitation can significantly modify the shape of the ozone profiles. In particular, GOMOS observations have shown that the tertiary ozone maximum was temporarily destroyed during the January 2005 and December 2006 solar proton events as a result of the HO_{x} enhancement from the increased ionization.
The Sherpa Maximum Likelihood Estimator
Nguyen, D.; Doe, S.; Evans, I.; Hain, R.; Primini, F.
2011-07-01
A primary goal for the second release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is to include X-ray sources with as few as 5 photon counts detected in stacked observations of the same field, while maintaining acceptable detection efficiency and false source rates. Aggressive source detection methods will result in detection of many false positive source candidates. Candidate detections will then be sent to a new tool, the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE), to evaluate the likelihood that a detection is a real source. MLE uses the Sherpa modeling and fitting engine to fit a model of a background and source to multiple overlapping candidate source regions. A background model is calculated by simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in multiple background regions. This model is used to determine the quality of the fit statistic for a background-only hypothesis in the potential source region. The statistic for a background-plus-source hypothesis is calculated by adding a Gaussian source model convolved with the appropriate Chandra point spread function (PSF) and simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in each observation in the stack. Since a candidate source may be located anywhere in the field of view of each stacked observation, a different PSF must be used for each observation because of the strong spatial dependence of the Chandra PSF. The likelihood of a valid source being detected is a function of the two statistics (for background alone, and for background-plus-source). The MLE tool is an extensible Python module with potential for use by the general Chandra user.
Vestige: Maximum likelihood phylogenetic footprinting
Maxwell Peter
2005-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic footprinting is the identification of functional regions of DNA by their evolutionary conservation. This is achieved by comparing orthologous regions from multiple species and identifying the DNA regions that have diverged less than neutral DNA. Vestige is a phylogenetic footprinting package built on the PyEvolve toolkit that uses probabilistic molecular evolutionary modelling to represent aspects of sequence evolution, including the conventional divergence measure employed by other footprinting approaches. In addition to measuring the divergence, Vestige allows the expansion of the definition of a phylogenetic footprint to include variation in the distribution of any molecular evolutionary processes. This is achieved by displaying the distribution of model parameters that represent partitions of molecular evolutionary substitutions. Examination of the spatial incidence of these effects across regions of the genome can identify DNA segments that differ in the nature of the evolutionary process. Results Vestige was applied to a reference dataset of the SCL locus from four species and provided clear identification of the known conserved regions in this dataset. To demonstrate the flexibility to use diverse models of molecular evolution and dissect the nature of the evolutionary process Vestige was used to footprint the Ka/Ks ratio in primate BRCA1 with a codon model of evolution. Two regions of putative adaptive evolution were identified illustrating the ability of Vestige to represent the spatial distribution of distinct molecular evolutionary processes. Conclusion Vestige provides a flexible, open platform for phylogenetic footprinting. Underpinned by the PyEvolve toolkit, Vestige provides a framework for visualising the signatures of evolutionary processes across the genome of numerous organisms simultaneously. By exploiting the maximum-likelihood statistical framework, the complex interplay between mutational
Ebadian, Behnaz; Talebi, Saeid; Khodaeian, Niloufar; Farzin, Mahmoud
2015-01-01
In this in vitro study, 2 implants were embedded in the interforaminal region of an acrylic model. Two kinds of retention mechanisms were used to construct complete overdentures: ball type and direct abutment (Locator). The ball-type retention mechanism models included 3 different collar heights (1, 2, and 3 mm) with 15 mm occlusal plane height, and 3 different occlusal plane heights (9, 12, and 15 mm) with 1 mm collar height. The direct abutment models included 3 different occlusal plane heights (9, 12, and 15 mm) with 1 mm cuff height. Vertical unilateral and bilateral loads of 150 N were applied to the central fossa of the first molar. The stress of the bone around the implant was analyzed by finite element analysis. The results showed that by increasing vertical restorative space, the maximum stress values around implants were decreased in both unilateral and bilateral loading models. The results also showed that the increase in maximum stress values around implants correlated with the ball attachment collar height. The Locator attachment with a 1 mm cuff height and 9 mm occlusal plane height demonstrated 6.147 and 3.914 MPa in unilateral and bilateral loading conditions, respectively. While a reduction in the collar height of a ball-type retention mechanism and an increase in the vertical restorative space in direct abutment retention mechanisms are both biomechanically favorable, and may result in reduced stress in peri-implant bone, a ball attachment seems to be more favorable in the stress distribution around an implant than a Locator attachment.
Perceiving action boundaries: Learning effects in perceiving maximum jumping-reach affordances
Ramenzoni, V.C.; Davis, T.J.; Riley, M.A.; Shockley, K.
2010-01-01
Coordinating with another person requires that one can perceive what the other is capable of doing. This ability often benefits from opportunities to practice and learn. Two experiments were conducted in which we investigated perceptual learning in the context of perceiving the maximum height to whi
The 220-age equation does not predict maximum heart rate in children and adolescents
Verschuren, Olaf; Maltais, Desiree B.; Takken, Tim
Our primary purpose was to provide maximum heart rate (HR(max)) values for ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). The secondary purpose was to determine the effects of age, sex, ambulatory ability, height, and weight on HR(max). In 362 ambulatory children and adolescents with CP (213 males
Relationship between oral status and maximum bite force in preschool children
Ching-Ming Su
2009-03-01
Conclusion: By combining the results of this study, it was concluded that associations of bite force with factors like age, maximum mouth opening and the number of teeth in contact were clearer than for other variables such as body height, body weight, occlusal pattern, and tooth decay or fillings.
The 220-age equation does not predict maximum heart rate in children and adolescents
Verschuren, Olaf; Maltais, Desiree B.; Takken, Tim
2011-01-01
Our primary purpose was to provide maximum heart rate (HR(max)) values for ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). The secondary purpose was to determine the effects of age, sex, ambulatory ability, height, and weight on HR(max). In 362 ambulatory children and adolescents with CP (213 males an
A tropospheric ozone maximum over the equatorial Southern Indian Ocean
L. Zhang
2012-05-01
Full Text Available We examine the distribution of tropical tropospheric ozone (O_{3} from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS and the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES by using a global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS-Chem. MLS and TES observations of tropospheric O_{3} during 2005 to 2009 reveal a distinct, persistent O_{3} maximum, both in mixing ratio and tropospheric column, in May over the Equatorial Southern Indian Ocean (ESIO. The maximum is most pronounced in 2006 and 2008 and less evident in the other three years. This feature is also consistent with the total column O_{3} observations from the Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS. Model results reproduce the observed May O_{3} maximum and the associated interannual variability. The origin of the maximum reflects a complex interplay of chemical and dynamic factors. The O_{3} maximum is dominated by the O_{3} production driven by lightning nitrogen oxides (NO_{x} emissions, which accounts for 62% of the tropospheric column O_{3} in May 2006. We find the contribution from biomass burning, soil, anthropogenic and biogenic sources to the O_{3} maximum are rather small. The O_{3} productions in the lightning outflow from Central Africa and South America both peak in May and are directly responsible for the O_{3} maximum over the western ESIO. The lightning outflow from Equatorial Asia dominates over the eastern ESIO. The interannual variability of the O_{3} maximum is driven largely by the anomalous anti-cyclones over the southern Indian Ocean in May 2006 and 2008. The lightning outflow from Central Africa and South America is effectively entrained by the anti-cyclones followed by northward transport to the ESIO.
Quantification of gait changes in subjects with visual height intolerance when exposed to heights
Roman eSchniepp
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Visual height intolerance (vHI manifests as instability at heights with apprehension of losing balance or falling. We investigated contributions of visual feedback and attention on gait performance of subjects with vHI. Material and Methods: Sixteen subjects with vHI walked over a gait mat (GAITRite® on a 15-m-high balcony and at ground-level. Subjects walked at different speeds (slow, preferred, fast, during changes of the visual input (gaze straight/ up/ down; eyes open /closed, and while doing a cognitive task. An rmANOVA with the factors height situation and gait condition was performed. Subjects were also asked to estimate the height of the balcony over ground level. The individual estimates were used for correlations with the gait parameters.Results: Study participants walked slower at heights, with reduced cadence and stride length. The double support phases were increased (all p<0.01, which correlated with the estimated height of the balcony (R2=0.453, p<0.05. . These changes were still present when walking with upward gaze or closure of the eyes. Under the conditions walking and looking down to the floor of the balcony, during dual-task and fast walking, there were no differences between the gait performance on the balcony and at ground-level. Discussion: The found gait changes are features of a cautious gait control. Internal, cognitive models with anxiety play an important role for vHI; gait was similarly affected when the visual perception of the depth was prevented. . Improvement by dual task at heights may be associated by a reduction of the anxiety level.Conclusion: It is conceivable that mental distraction by dual task or increasing the walking speed might be useful recommendations to reduce the imbalance during locomotion in subjects susceptible to vHI.
Nitis, T.; Moussiopoulos, N. [Aristotle Univ. Thessaloniki (Greece). Lab. of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering; Klaic, Z.B. [Univ. of Zagreb (Croatia). Andrija Mohorovicic Geophysical Inst., Faculty of Science; Kitsiou, D. [Univ. of the Aegean, Mytilene (Greece). Dept. of Marine Sciences
2004-07-01
The atmospheric boundary layer height is a fundamental parameter characterising the structure of the lower troposphere. The determination of this parameter is important in applications that range from meteorological modelling and forecasting to dispersion problems of atmospheric pollutants. Since substances emitted into the atmospheric boundary layer are dispersed horizontally and vertically through the action of turbulence, they are well-mixed over this layer that is widely known as ''mixing layer''. There are two basic approaches for the practical estimation of this height; the first approach suggests profile measurements, either in-situ or by remote sounding (sodar, clear-air radar, lidar) and the second one, the use of models with only a few measured parameters as input. As far as the second approach is concerned, the majority of the models use relatively crude estimates of the roughness length that is often based on constant values for land cover. Consequently, the model results are not quite accurate. The present work aims firstly to evaluate the effect of alternative calculations of the roughness length on the non-hydrostatic mesoscale model (MEMO) performance, based on the use of satellite data, and secondly, to estimate the mixing layer height and analyze its variability in relation to underlying topography and land use. Rijeka, a region with complex topography and several islands in its surroundings, offers the opportunity to examine the above mentioned relationships. The non-hydrostatic mesoscale model MEMO was applied under summertime anticyclonic weather conditions during two multi-day periods characterised by stagnant meteorological conditions. The results proved MEMO capable of simulating mesoscale wind flow reasonably well, however, the use of AVHRR satellite data for calculating the roughness length based on the calculation of the NDVI parameter, optimised the model performance and resulted to a more accurate determination of
Sputtering and mixing of supported nanoparticles
Jiménez-Sáez, J.C., E-mail: jc.jimenez@upm.es [Dept. Física y Química Aplicadas a la Técnica Aeronaútica, ETSIAE, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pérez-Martín, A.M.C.; Jiménez-Rodríguez, J.J. [Dept. Física Aplicada III (Electricidad y Electrónica), Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), 28040 Madrid (Spain)
2013-12-01
Sputtering and mixing of Co nanoparticles supported in Cu(0 0 1) under 1-keV argon bombardment are studied using molecular-dynamics simulations. Particles of different initial size have been considered. The cluster height decreases exponentially with increasing fluence. In nanoparticles, sputtering yield is significantly enhanced compared to bulk. In fact, the value of this magnitude depends on the cluster height. A theoretical model for sputtering is introduced with acceptable results compared to those obtained by simulation. Discrepancies happen mainly for very small particles. Mixing rate at the interface is quantified; and besides, the influence of border effects for clusters of different initial size is assessed. Mixing rate and border length–surface area ratio for the initial interface show a proportionality relation. The phenomenon of ion-induced burrowing of metallic nanoparticles is analysed.
Comparison of Methods of Height Anomaly Computation
Mazurova, E.; Lapshin, A.; Menshova, A.
2012-04-01
As of today, accurate determination of height anomaly is one of the most difficult problems of geodesy, even with sustainable perfection of mathematical methods, computer possibilities. The most effective methods of height anomaly computation are based on the methods of discrete linear transformations, such as the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT), Fast Wavelet Transform (FWT). The main drawback of the classical FFT is weak localization in the time domain. If it is necessary to define the time interval of a frequency presence the STFT is used that allows one to detect the presence of any frequency signal and the interval of its presence. It expands the possibilities of the method in comparison with the classical Fourier Transform. However, subject to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, it is impossible to tell precisely what frequency signal is present at a given moment of time (it is possible to speak only about the range of frequencies); and it is impossible to tell at what precisely moment of time the frequency signal is present (it is possible to speak only about a time span). A wavelet-transform gives the chance to reduce the influence of the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle on the obtained time-and-frequency representation of the signal. With its help low frequencies have more detailed representation relative to the time, and high frequencies - relative to the frequency. The paper summarizes the results of height anomaly calculations done by the FFT, STFT, FWT methods and represents 3-D models of calculation results. Key words: Fast Fourier Transform(FFT), Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT), Fast Wavelet Transform(FWT), Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.
Optimal Linear Filters for Pulse Height Measurements in the Presence of Noise
Nygaard, K.
1966-07-15
For measurements of nuclear pulse height spectra a linear filter is used between the pulse amplifier and the pulse height recorder so as to improve the signal/noise ratio. The problem of finding the optimal filter is investigated with emphasis on technical realizability. The maximum available signal/noise ratio is theoretically calculated on the basis of all the information which can be found in the output of the pulse amplifier, and on an assumed a priori knowledge of the pulse time of arrival. It is then shown that the maximum available signal/noise ratio can be obtained with practical measurements without any a priori knowledge of pulse time of arrival, and a general description of the optimal linear filter is given. The solution is unique, technically realizable, and based solely on data (noise power spectrum and pulse shape) which can be measured at the output terminals of the pulse amplifier used.
Experimental investigation of terahertz quantum cascade laser with variable barrier heights
Jiang, Aiting; Vijayraghavan, Karun; Belkin, Mikhail A., E-mail: mbelkin@ece.utexas.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Matyas, Alpar; Jirauschek, Christian [Institute for Nanoelectronics, Technische Universität München, D-80333 Munich (Germany); Wasilewski, Zbig R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G (Canada)
2014-04-28
We report an experimental study of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with variable barrier heights based on the Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1–x}As/GaAs material system. Two new designs are developed based on semiclassical ensemble Monte Carlo simulations using state-of-the-art Al{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}As/GaAs three-quantum-well resonant phonon depopulation active region design as a reference. The new designs achieved maximum lasing temperatures of 188 K and 172 K, as compared to the maximum lasing temperature of 191 K for the reference structure. These results demonstrate that terahertz quantum cascade laser designs with variable barrier heights provide a viable alternative to the traditional active region designs with fixed barrier composition. Additional design space offered by using variable barriers may lead to future improvements in the terahertz quantum cascade laser performance.
Scale heights of 84 northern spiral galaxies
马骏; 彭秋和
1997-01-01
Using the method proposed by Peng (1988) on the basis of density waves theory and the solution of three-dimensional Poisson s equation for a logarithmic disturbance of density,and analyzing the spiral patterns,the scale heights of 84 northern spiral galaxies,whose images are taken from the Digitized Sky Survey at Xinglong Observational Station of Beijing Observatory,are measured.The spiral arms of all these galaxies have been fitted on their photographs with some logarithmic spiral curves for getting their correct inclinations.
Patella height changes post high tibial osteotomy
Siew Ghim Gooi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO is a well-described treatment in early medial compartmental osteoarthritis of the knee. However, two undesirable sequelae may follow –patella baja and changes in the posterior tibial slope (TS. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study in patients who underwent HTO in our center between September 2009 and February 2017. Preoperative and 6-week postoperative long-leg weight bearing films and lateral knee radiographs were assessed. Pre- and postoperative radiological measurements include the Caton-Deschamps Index (CDI, the mechanical axis deviation (MAD, and the posterior TS. Independant t-test and Pearson correlation test were performed. Results: A total of 106 knees were recruited. The mean age was 48.8 ± 10.8 years. 66 (62.3% and 40 (37.7% knees were from males and females, respectively. The mean pre- and postoperative measurements was (−9.70° ± 3.67° to 0.08° ± 2.80° (−varus; +valgus for the MAD, (7.14° ± 1.78° to 8.72° ± 3.11° for posterior TS, and (0.93° ± 0.084° to 0.82° ± 0.13° for CDI (P ≤ 0.001 for all. The association between patella height change and the level of osteotomy (supra-tubercle vs. infra-tubercle was statistically significant (P < 0.001. A supra-tubercle osteotomy cut significantly lowering patella height (P = 0.011. There was otherwise no statistically significant correlations between patella height changes and the correction angle (P = 0.187 or posterior TS change (P = 0.744. Conclusions: A medial opening wedge HTO above the tibial tubercle was significantly associated with lowering patella height or reducing CDI postoperatively. Based on our results, we would recommend the use of an infra-tubercle osteotomy during the corrective surgery to prevent the complication of patella baja.
Bonde, Anders; Aagaard, Morten; Hansen, Allan Grutt
This book is about using recent developments in the fields of data analytics and data visualization to frame new ways of identifying target groups in media communication. Based on a mixed-methods approach, the authors combine psychophysiological monitoring (galvanic skin response) with textual...... content analysis and audience segmentation in a single-source perspective. The aim is to explain and understand target groups in relation to, on the one hand, emotional response to commercials or other forms of audio-visual communication and, on the other hand, living preferences and personality traits...
Mixed layer depth variations in the Kuroshio Extension in relation to Japanese sardine
Yasuda, I.; Nishikawa, H.; Itoh, S.
2008-12-01
Mixed layer depths in and south of the Kuroshio Extension changed from deep to shallow states in the late- 1980s and early-1990s. This change corresponded to the collapse of Japanese sardine (Sardinops melanostictus). This mixed layer shoaling was accompanied by lower temperature in 200-400m depths and higher temperature near the surface. Wintertime field survey in 2006 (Hakuho-maru KH06-1 cruise) demonstrated that late winter maximum mixed layer depth reach deeper with the greater isothermal depth of 14-15degC and higher temperature in 300-400m depth. High-resolution ocean model hindcast data suggests that the accelerated near-surface Kuroshio/Kuroshio Extension associated with the elevated sea-surface height anomaly enhanced the heat transport near the surface. This greater heat advection near the surface overrides the cooler subtropical mode water that was created in the previous years possibly causes the shallower winter mixed layer and collapse of the Japanese sardine.
Abidin, Nahdiya Zainal; Adam, Mohd Bakri
2013-01-01
Vertical jump is an index representing leg/kick power. The explosive movement of the kick is the key to scoring in martial arts competitions. It is important to determine factors that influence the vertical jump to help athletes improve their leg power. The objective of the present study is to identify anthropometric factors that influence vertical jump height for male and female martial arts athletes. Twenty-nine male and 25 female athletes participated in this study. Participants were Malaysian undergraduate students whose ages ranged from 18 to 24 years old. Their heights were measured using a stadiometer. The subjects were weighted using digital scale. Body mass index was calculated by kg/m(2). Waist-hip ratio was measured from the ratio of waist to hip circumferences. Body fat % was obtained from the sum of four skinfold thickness using Harpenden callipers. The highest vertical jump from a stationary standing position was recorded. The maximum grip was recorded using a dynamometer. For standing back strength, the maximum pull upwards using a handle bar was recorded. Multiple linear regression was used to obtain the relationship between vertical jump height and explanatory variables with gender effect. Body fat % has a significant negative relationship with vertical jump height (P martial arts athletes can be predicted by body fat %. The vertical jump for male is higher than for their female counterparts. Reducing body fat by proper dietary planning will help to improve leg power.
Height Determination Techniques for the Next National Height System of Finland- A Case Study
Saari, T.; Saaranen, V.; Kaartinen, H.; Poutanen, M.; Kukko, A.; Nyberg, S.
2014-11-01
Precise levelling is known for its accuracy and reliability in height determination, but the process itself is slow, laborious and expensive. FGI has started a project to develop methods for height determination that could decrease the creation time of national height systems without losing the required accuracy. In this pilot project, we studied precise levelling and alternative techniques: MLS (Mobile Laser Scanning) and GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) levelling, which included static GPS (Global Positioning System) and VRS (Virtual Reference Station) measurements.We compared the techniques in a field test, where the height difference of two known benchmarks were measured. All of the height differences were within 16 mm from each other, where the results from the precise levelling and the GPS levelling differed from 0.5-1.0 mm. Results from the MLS measurements were more than 5.0 mm off from the others and the average of the VRS measurements was 10.0 mm off. The uncertainties are compatible with the results, since the largest RMS values were calculated from the MLS and the VRS measurements.This research highlighted the differences of the techniques, but none of them is yet to be abandoned. The study should be expanded into a larger scale to better evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the techniques.
Steinman, Shari A; Teachman, Bethany A
2014-06-01
Cognitive models of anxiety disorders posit that biases in interpretation maintain, and potentially cause, anxiety. This study tested whether it is possible to decrease height fear symptoms through cognitive bias modification for interpretations (CBM-I). Additionally, the clinical utility of CBM-I was tested by comparing it to an already established treatment: exposure therapy. Extremely height fearful individuals (N = 110) participated in the study. Acrophobic symptoms were measured before and after 2 sessions of CBM-I and were compared to the standard treatment for acrophobia (exposure therapy), a combination of CBM-I and exposure therapy, and a Control condition. In line with hypotheses, participants in the 3 active conditions showed greater response to treatment than the Control condition in height-relevant interpretation bias, symptoms, and behavioral avoidance on a height stressor, with few differences between the active conditions. Further, symptom change was mediated by change in interpretation bias. Overall, findings suggest that different pathways to fear reduction (exposure vs. shifting interpretations) can lead to similar reductions in height fear. This study provides the first evidence that directly shifting cognitive processing, even with no therapist involvement, can reduce symptoms as effectively as the gold standard, therapist-directed exposure therapy. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Francesco Pirotti
2010-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an assessment of a method using a correlation filter over a lidar-derived digital canopy height model (CHM is presented. The objective of the procedure is to obtain stem density, position, and height values, on a stand with the following characteristics: ellipsoidal canopy shape (Pinus pinaster, even-aged and single-layer structure. The process consists of three steps: extracting a correlation map from CHM by applying a template whose size and shape resembles the canopy to be detected, applying a threshold mask to the correlation map to keep a subset of candidate-pixels, and then applying a local maximum filter to the remaining pixel groups. The method performs satisfactorily considering the experimental conditions. The mean tree extraction percentage is 65% with a coefficient of agreement of 0.4. The mean absolute error of height is ~0.5 m for all plots except one. It can be considered a valid approach for extracting tree density and height in regularly spaced stands (i.e., poplar plantations which are fundamental for extracting related forest parameters such as volume and biomass.
Revised Height/Weight Sizing Programs for Men’s Protective Flight Garments
1979-04-01
shirt sized on neck circum- ference and sleeve length may be made in 20 sizes with four sleeve lengths for each of five neck sizes. By doubling the...Lateral Malleolus Height 21. Neck Circumference, Maximum 22. Shoulder Circumference 27. Wrist Circumference 29 A® ) 23. Scye Circumference 24. Biceps...ference 35. Upper Thigh Circum- ference, Sitting 36. Knee Circumference 31 I® 37. Kee Circuference , Sitting 38. Calf Circumference ൯- Ankle
Space-time extreme wind waves: Analysis and prediction of shape and height
Alvise, Benetazzo; Francesco, Barbariol; Filippo, Bergamasco; Sandro, Carniel; Mauro, Sclavo
2017-05-01
In this study, we present the analysis of the temporal profile and height of space-time (ST) extreme wind waves. Wave data were gathered from an observational ST sample of sea surface elevations collected during an active sea state, and they were examined to detect the highest waves (exceeding the rogue wave threshold) of specific 3D wave groups close to the apex of their development. Two different investigations are conducted. Firstly, local maximum elevations of the groups are examined within the framework of statistical models for ST extreme waves, and compared with observations and predictions of maxima derived by one-point time series of sea surface elevations. Secondly, the temporal profile near the maximum wave crests is analyzed and compared with the expectations of the linear and second-order nonlinear extension of the Quasi-Determinism (QD) theory. Our goal is to verify, with real sea data, to what extent, one can estimate the shape and the crest-to-trough height of near-focusing large 3D wave groups using the QD and ST extreme model results. From this study, it emerges that the elevations close to the crest apex are narrowly distributed around a mean profile, whilst a larger dispersion is observed away from the maximum elevation. Yet the QD model furnishes, on average, a fair prediction of the maximum wave heights, especially when nonlinearities are taken into account. Moreover, we discuss how the combination of ST extreme and QD model predictions allows establishing, for a given sea condition, the portrait of waves with very large crest height. Our results show that these theories have the potential to be implemented in a numerical spectral model for wave extreme prediction.
Lysenko, E.; Rusina, V.
Statistical analysis was applied to series of weekly temperatures measured by meteorological rockets at heights of 25-75 km over Heiss Island (80.6N), Volgograd (48.7N), Thumba (8.5N) and Molodezhnaya (67.7S) stations during 1969-1995. A linear approximation of time series for each month, with the long-period component filtered out, was used to construct vertical profiles of temperature and to estimate variations in the stratopause height during the entire period of rocket measurements. A statistically significant decrease (with a confidence of P=0.95) was established in the stratopause height over Heiss Island (0.4 km), Thumba (0.5 km) and, especially strongly (2.4 km), over Volgograd. Over Molodezhnaya station, the annual mean stratopause height did not vary. Decrease of the stratopause height from the data measured at Volgograd and Thumba was found to occur in all seasons except for the spring months. The maximum decrease in the stratopause height by 5-7 km was observed over Volgograd station in winter. The stratopause height over Heiss Island decreased only in January (2.4 km), February (4.5 km), and insignificantly in March (1.0 km). Alteration of the middle atmosphere dynamic play an important role in changes of the stratopause parameters. However, the assumption that ozone depletion in the mesosphere during the last decades of XX century is the main cause of the observed decrease in the stratopause height is discussed.
Growth evaluation: parent and child specific height standards.
Sorva, R; Tolppanen, E M; Lankinen, S; Perheentupa, J
1989-01-01
Data on the growth of 1063 children and their parents were analysed. Of the variation in height at prepuberty about 20%, and of the final height 30-46%, were explained by the variation in parental heights; the children's own height at the age of 1.0 year increased the proportion explained to half. Two equations were developed for increasing the accuracy of the evaluation of growth. One defines parent specific mean height standard deviation score, and the other includes the parents' heights an...
Vázquez-Vázquez, Adriana; Azcorra, Hugo; Falfán, Ina; Dickinson, Federico
2013-05-01
Variation in height among young adults has been linked to the living conditions of different social groups. The aim of this study was to measure variation in the height and knee height of young adults by head of household employment level and family income. The sample comprised 180 individuals (90 girls) aged 16 and 17 years living in the city of Merida, Mexico. Height and knee height were measured by anthropometry, and individuals' family social and economic data collected from their mothers. Variation in these measurements was analysed by three categories of employment and family income terciles. One-way ANOVAs were done by sex to compare mean height and knee height by employment and family income. Coefficients of variation were calculated and a Bartlett test applied. Significant differences in height and knee height were observed only between family income terciles. Both sexes were taller at the highest levels of family income (p<0.05) and men had the highest (p<0.05) knee height. Highest family income individuals exhibited the least variation in height and knee height. Similarity in socioeconomic conditions for families in the lowest family income tercile and with employee heads of household was not associated with lower variation of height and knee height.
Equations of bark thickness and volume profiles at different heights with easy-measurement variables
Cellini, J. M.; Galarza, M.; Burns, S. L.; Martinez-Pastur, G. J.; Lencinas, M. V.
2012-11-01
The objective of this work was to develop equations of thickness profile and bark volume at different heights with easy-measurement variables, taking as a study case Nothofagus pumilio forests, growing in different site qualities and growth phases in Southern Patagonia. Data was collected from 717 harvested trees. Three models were fitted using multiple, non-lineal regression and generalized linear model, by stepwise methodology, iteratively reweighted least squares method for maximum likelihood estimation and Marquardt algorithm. The dependent variables were diameter at 1.30 m height (DBH), relative height (RH) and growth phase (GP). The statistic evaluation was made through the adjusted determinant coefficient (r2-adj), standard error of the estimation (SEE), mean absolute error and residual analysis. All models presented good fitness with a significant correlation with the growth phase. A decrease in the thickness was observed when the relative height increase. Moreover, a bark coefficient was made to calculate volume with and without bark of individual trees, where significant differences according to site quality of the stands and DBH class of the trees were observed. It can be concluded that the prediction of bark thickness and bark coefficient is possible using DBH, height, site quality and growth phase, common and easy measurement variables used in forest inventories. (Author) 23 refs.
Perching behaviour and perch height preference of laying hens in furnished cages varying in height.
Struelens, E; Tuyttens, F A M; Duchateau, L; Leroy, T; Cox, M; Vranken, E; Buyse, J; Zoons, J; Berckmans, D; Odberg, F; Sonck, B
2008-07-01
1. The objective was to investigate the effect of cage height on perch height preference and perching behaviour in laying hens. Twelve groups of two hens and 12 groups of 14 hens were tested in furnished cages equipped with two wooden perches. These stepwise perches were designed such that hens could choose between 7 different heights (6, 11, 16, 21, 26, 31 and 36 cm). Day- and night-time perching behaviour was observed on 4 consecutive days with a different cage height each day: 150, 55, 50 and 45 cm. 2. Given that a minimum perch-roof distance of 19 to 24 cm was available, hens preferred to roost on the highest perches at night. 3. Lowering cage height not only forced hens to use lower perches, but also reduced time spent on the perches during the day (two-hen and 14-hen test) and night (14-hen test). Moreover, it affected daytime behavioural activities (more standing and less preening) on the perches in the two-hen tests (but not in the 14-hen tests). 4. During the day lower perches were used more for standing and walking, higher perches more for sitting and sleeping. This behavioural differentiation was most pronounced in the highest cages. 5. Perch preference and perching behaviour depend on both the floor-perch distance and the perch-roof distance. Higher cages provide more opportunity for higher perches (which hens prefer), for better three-dimensional spacing (and consequently reduced density at floor level) and for behavioural differentiation according to perch height.
Vowel category dependence of the relationship between palate height, tongue height, and oral area.
Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark; Pizza, Shamala; Alwan, Abeer; Cha, Jul Setsu; Haker, Katherine
2003-06-01
This article evaluates intertalker variance of oral area, logarithm of the oral area, tongue height, and formant frequencies as a function of vowel category. The data consist of coronal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences and acoustic recordings of 5 talkers, each producing 11 different vowels. Tongue height (left, right, and midsagittal), palate height, and oral area were measured in 3 coronal sections anterior to the oropharyngeal bend and were subjected to multivariate analysis of variance, variance ratio analysis, and regression analysis. The primary finding of this article is that oral area (between palate and tongue) showed less intertalker variance during production of vowels with an oral place of articulation (palatal and velar vowels) than during production of vowels with a uvular or pharyngeal place of articulation. Although oral area variance is place dependent, percentage variance (log area variance) is not place dependent. Midsagittal tongue height in the molar region was positively correlated with palate height during production of palatal vowels, but not during production of nonpalatal vowels. Taken together, these results suggest that small oral areas are characterized by relatively talker-independent vowel targets and that meeting these talker-independent targets is important enough that each talker adjusts his or her own tongue height to compensate for talker-dependent differences in constriction anatomy. Computer simulation results are presented to demonstrate that these results may be explained by an acoustic control strategy: When talkers with very different anatomical characteristics try to match talker-independent formant targets, the resulting area variances are minimized near the primary vocal tract constriction.
Domire, Zachary J; Challis, John H
2010-12-01
The maximum velocity of shortening of a muscle is an important parameter in musculoskeletal models. The most commonly used values are derived from animal studies; however, these values are well above the values that have been reported for human muscle. The purpose of this study was to examine the sensitivity of simulations of maximum vertical jumping performance to the parameters describing the force-velocity properties of muscle. Simulations performed with parameters derived from animal studies were similar to measured jump heights from previous experimental studies. While simulations performed with parameters derived from human muscle were much lower than previously measured jump heights. If current measurements of maximum shortening velocity in human muscle are correct, a compensating error must exist. Of the possible compensating errors that could produce this discrepancy, it was concluded that reduced muscle fibre excursion is the most likely candidate.
An investigation of rugby scrimmaging posture and individual maximum pushing force.
Wu, Wen-Lan; Chang, Jyh-Jong; Wu, Jia-Hroung; Guo, Lan-Yuen
2007-02-01
Although rugby is a popular contact sport and the isokinetic muscle torque assessment has recently found widespread application in the field of sports medicine, little research has examined the factors associated with the performance of game-specific skills directly by using the isokinetic-type rugby scrimmaging machine. This study is designed to (a) measure and observe the differences in the maximum individual pushing forward force produced by scrimmaging in different body postures (3 body heights x 2 foot positions) with a self-developed rugby scrimmaging machine and (b) observe the variations in hip, knee, and ankle angles at different body postures and explore the relationship between these angle values and the individual maximum pushing force. Ten national rugby players were invited to participate in the examination. The experimental equipment included a self-developed rugby scrimmaging machine and a 3-dimensional motion analysis system. Our results showed that the foot positions (parallel and nonparallel foot positions) do not affect the maximum pushing force; however, the maximum pushing force was significantly lower in posture I (36% body height) than in posture II (38%) and posture III (40%). The maximum forward force in posture III (40% body height) was also slightly greater than for the scrum in posture II (38% body height). In addition, it was determined that hip, knee, and ankle angles under parallel feet positioning are factors that are closely negatively related in terms of affecting maximum pushing force in scrimmaging. In cross-feet postures, there was a positive correlation between individual forward force and hip angle of the rear leg. From our results, we can conclude that if the player stands in an appropriate starting position at the early stage of scrimmaging, it will benefit the forward force production.
Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution
吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生
2003-01-01
Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.
Estimation of wind speed and wave height during cyclones
SanilKumar, V.; Mandal, S.; AshokKumar, K.
reported by ships were comparable. Empirical expressions relating wind speed, wave height and wave period to storm parameters were derived. The design wave height for different return periods was obtained by fitting a two-parameter Weibull distribution...
Monitoring the Madden-Julian oscillation with geopotential height
Leung, Jeremy Cheuk-Hin; Qian, Weihong
2017-09-01
This paper examines the three-dimensional geopotential height structure of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) and proposes that the MJO convection signals can be well reflected by upper-tropospheric zonal anomalous height gradient (ZAHG, \
Fundal Height: An Accurate Indicator of Fetal Growth?
Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week What's the significance of a fundal height measurement? Answers from Yvonne Butler Tobah, M. ... 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/expert-answers/fundal-height/faq- ...
Maximum Power from a Solar Panel
Michael Miller
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.
On the Predictability of Hub Height Winds
Draxl, Caroline
Wind energy is a major source of power in over 70 countries across the world, and the worldwide share of wind energy in electricity consumption is growing. The introduction of signicant amounts of wind energy into power systems makes accurate wind forecasting a crucial element of modern electrical...... grids. These systems require forecasts with temporal scales of tens of minutes to a few days in advance at wind farm locations. Traditionally these forecasts predict the wind at turbine hub heights; this information is then converted by transmission system operators and energy companies into predictions...... of power output at wind farms. Since the power available in the wind is proportional to the wind speed cubed, even small wind forecast errors result in large power prediction errors. Accurate wind forecasts are worth billions of dollars annually; forecast improvements will result in reduced costs...
Simulation of sludge blanket height in clarifiers
ZHOU Zhen; WU Zhi-chao; WANG Zhi-wei; GU Guo-wei
2009-01-01
Sludge blanket height (SBH) is an important parameter in the clarifier design,operation and control.Based on an overview and classification of SBH algorithms,a modifed SBH algorithm is proposed by incorporating a threshold concentration limit into a relative concentration sharp change algorithm to eliminate the disturbance of compression interfaces on the correct simulation of SBH.Pilot-scale test data are adopted to compare reliability of three SBH algorithms reported in literature and the modified SBH algorithm developed in this paper.Calculated results demonstrate that the three SBH algorithms give results with large deviation (＞50%) from measured SBH,especially under low solid flux conditions.The modified algorithm is computationally efficient and reliable in matching the measured data.It is incorporated into a onedimensional clarifier model for stable simulation of pilot-scale experimental clarifier data and into dynamic simulation of a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) clarifier data.
Is height a core geometric cue for navigation? Young children's use of height in reorientation.
Hu, Qingfen; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Di; Shao, Yi
2015-02-01
With respect to reorientation, children older than 1.5 to 2 years can use geometric cues (distance and left/right sense). However, because previous studies have focused mainly on the plane geometric properties, little is known about the role of information with respect to vertical dimension in children's reorientation. The current study aimed to examine whether and how 3- and 4-year-old children use height information to search for a hidden toy when disoriented in a small enclosure. In a slant-ceiling rectangular room and a slant-ceiling square room, 4-year-olds were able to use height information to reorient and search for the toy in the correct corner, whereas 3-year-olds were not able to do so. Our results suggest that children can, at least by the age of 4 years, use height information and that height is not used as early as other geometric properties that are in the core geometry system for navigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Sine Method: An Alternative Height Measurement Technique
Don C. Bragg; Lee E. Frelich; Robert T. Leverett; Will Blozan; Dale J. Luthringer
2011-01-01
Height is one of the most important dimensions of trees, but few observers are fully aware of the consequences of the misapplication of conventional height measurement techniques. A new approach, the sine method, can improve height measurement by being less sensitive to the requirements of conventional techniques (similar triangles and the tangent method). We studied...
Estimation of Total Tree Height from Renewable Resources Evaluation Data
Charles E. Thomas
1981-01-01
Many ecological, biological, and genetic studies use the measurement of total tree height. Until recently, the Southern Forest Experiment Station's inventory procedures through Renewable Resources Evaluation (RRE) have not included total height measurements. This note provides equations to estimate total height based on other RRE measurements.
What's the Right Weight for My Height? (For Teens)
... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness What's the Right Weight for My Height? KidsHealth > For Teens > What's the Right Weight for My Height? A A A What's ... el peso adecuado para mi altura? "What's the right weight for my height?" is one of the ...
The Perceptual Distortion of Height in Intercollegiate Debate.
Hensley, Wayne E.; Angoli, Marilyn
Both balance and reinforcement theories were used in an examination of the perceptual distortion of height among 146 college debaters. Balance theory predicted that losers would distort winners' heights upward; reinforcement theory predicted that winners would distort losers' heights upward. The results confirmed both predictions. The possibility…
47 CFR 80.763 - Effective antenna height.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective antenna height. 80.763 Section 80.763... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.763 Effective antenna height. The effective height of the antenna is the vertical distance between the center of the...
The analysis and kinetic energy balance of an upper-level wind maximum during intense convection
Fuelberg, H. E.; Jedlovec, G. J.
1982-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the formation and maintenance of the upper-level wind maximum which formed between 1800 and 2100 GMT, April 10, 1979, during the AVE-SESAME I period, when intense storms and tornadoes were experienced (the Red River Valley tornado outbreak). Radiosonde stations participating in AVE-SESAME I are plotted (centered on Oklahoma). National Meteorological Center radar summaries near the times of maximum convective activity are mapped, and height and isotach plots are given, where the formation of an upper-level wind maximum over Oklahoma is the most significant feature at 300 mb. The energy balance of the storm region is seen to change dramatically as the wind maximum forms. During much of its lifetime, the upper-level wind maximum is maintained by ageostrophic flow that produces cross-contour generation of kinetic energy and by the upward transport of midtropospheric energy. Two possible mechanisms for the ageostrophic flow are considered.
Development of MCNPX-ESUT computer code for simulation of neutron/gamma pulse height distribution
Abolfazl Hosseini, Seyed; Vosoughi, Naser; Zangian, Mehdi
2015-05-01
In this paper, the development of the MCNPX-ESUT (MCNPX-Energy Engineering of Sharif University of Technology) computer code for simulation of neutron/gamma pulse height distribution is reported. Since liquid organic scintillators like NE-213 are well suited and routinely used for spectrometry in mixed neutron/gamma fields, this type of detectors is selected for simulation in the present study. The proposed algorithm for simulation includes four main steps. The first step is the modeling of the neutron/gamma particle transport and their interactions with the materials in the environment and detector volume. In the second step, the number of scintillation photons due to charged particles such as electrons, alphas, protons and carbon nuclei in the scintillator material is calculated. In the third step, the transport of scintillation photons in the scintillator and lightguide is simulated. Finally, the resolution corresponding to the experiment is considered in the last step of the simulation. Unlike the similar computer codes like SCINFUL, NRESP7 and PHRESP, the developed computer code is applicable to both neutron and gamma sources. Hence, the discrimination of neutron and gamma in the mixed fields may be performed using the MCNPX-ESUT computer code. The main feature of MCNPX-ESUT computer code is that the neutron/gamma pulse height simulation may be performed without needing any sort of post processing. In the present study, the pulse height distributions due to a monoenergetic neutron/gamma source in NE-213 detector using MCNPX-ESUT computer code is simulated. The simulated neutron pulse height distributions are validated through comparing with experimental data (Gohil et al. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 664 (2012) 304-309.) and the results obtained from similar computer codes like SCINFUL, NRESP7 and Geant4. The simulated gamma pulse height distribution for a 137Cs
Ferri Clodoveo
2008-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC, type II and type III, refers to the presence of circulating cryoprecipitable immune complexes in the serum and manifests clinically by a classical triad of purpura, weakness and arthralgias. It is considered to be a rare disorder, but its true prevalence remains unknown. The disease is more common in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe or Northern America. The prevalence of 'essential' MC is reported as approximately 1:100,000 (with a female-to-male ratio 3:1, but this term is now used to refer to a minority of MC patients only. MC is characterized by variable organ involvement including skin lesions (orthostatic purpura, ulcers, chronic hepatitis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, peripheral neuropathy, diffuse vasculitis, and, less frequently, interstitial lung involvement and endocrine disorders. Some patients may develop lymphatic and hepatic malignancies, usually as a late complication. MC may be associated with numerous infectious or immunological diseases. When isolated, MC may represent a distinct disease, the so-called 'essential' MC. The etiopathogenesis of MC is not completely understood. Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is suggested to play a causative role, with the contribution of genetic and/or environmental factors. Moreover, MC may be associated with other infectious agents or immunological disorders, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection or primary Sjögren's syndrome. Diagnosis is based on clinical and laboratory findings. Circulating mixed cryoglobulins, low C4 levels and orthostatic skin purpura are the hallmarks of the disease. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis involving medium- and, more often, small-sized blood vessels is the typical pathological finding, easily detectable by means of skin biopsy of recent vasculitic lesions. Differential diagnoses include a wide range of systemic, infectious and neoplastic disorders, mainly autoimmune hepatitis, Sjögren's syndrome
Quantifying mixing using equilibrium reactions
Wheat, Philip M.; Posner, Jonathan D.
2009-03-01
A method of quantifying equilibrium reactions in a microchannel using a fluorometric reaction of Fluo-4 and Ca2+ ions is presented. Under the proper conditions, equilibrium reactions can be used to quantify fluid mixing without the challenges associated with constituent mixing measures such as limited imaging spatial resolution and viewing angle coupled with three-dimensional structure. Quantitative measurements of CaCl and calcium-indicating fluorescent dye Fluo-4 mixing are measured in Y-shaped microchannels. Reactant and product concentration distributions are modeled using Green's function solutions and a numerical solution to the advection-diffusion equation. Equilibrium reactions provide for an unambiguous, quantitative measure of mixing when the reactant concentrations are greater than 100 times their dissociation constant and the diffusivities are equal. At lower concentrations and for dissimilar diffusivities, the area averaged fluorescence signal reaches a maximum before the species have interdiffused, suggesting that reactant concentrations and diffusivities must be carefully selected to provide unambiguous, quantitative mixing measures. Fluorometric equilibrium reactions work over a wide range of pH and background concentrations such that they can be used for a wide variety of fluid mixing measures including industrial or microscale flows.
Dynamics of nitrogen oxides and ozone above and within a mixed hardwood forest in northern Michigan
B. Seok
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The dynamic behavior of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2 and ozone (O3 above and within the canopy at the University of Michigan Biological Station AmeriFlux (UMBS Flux site was investigated by continuous multi-height vertical gradient measurements during the summer and the fall of 2008. A daily maximum in nitric oxide (NO mixing ratios was consistently observed during the morning hours between 06:00 and 09:00 EST above the canopy. Daily NO maxima ranged between 0.1 and 2 ppbv (with a median of 0.3 ppbv, which were 2 to 20 times above the atmospheric background. The sources and causes of the morning NO maximum were evaluated using NOx and O3 measurements and synoptic and micrometeorological data. Numerical simulations with a multi-layer canopy-exchange model were done to further support this analysis. The observations indicated that the morning NO maximum was caused by the photolysis of NO2 from non-local air masses, which were transported into the canopy from aloft during the morning breakup of the nocturnal boundary layer. The analysis of simulated process tendencies indicated that the downward turbulent transport of NOx into the canopy compensates for the removal of NOx through chemistry and dry deposition. The sensitivity of NOx and O3 concentrations to soil and foliage NOx emissions was also assessed with the model. Uncertainties associated with the emissions of NOx from the soil or from leaf-surface nitrate photolysis did not explain the observed diurnal behavior in NOx (and O3 and, in particular, the morning peak in NOx mixing ratios. However, a ~30% increase in early morning NOx and NO peak mixing ratios was simulated when a foliage exchange NO2 compensation point was considered. This increase suggests the potential importance of leaf-level, bidirectional exchange of NO2 in understanding the observed temporal variability in NOx at UMBS.
Statistical Analysis of Wave Climate Data Using Mixed Distributions and Extreme Wave Prediction
Wei Li
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The investigation of various aspects of the wave climate at a wave energy test site is essential for the development of reliable and efficient wave energy conversion technology. This paper presents studies of the wave climate based on nine years of wave observations from the 2005–2013 period measured with a wave measurement buoy at the Lysekil wave energy test site located off the west coast of Sweden. A detailed analysis of the wave statistics is investigated to reveal the characteristics of the wave climate at this specific test site. The long-term extreme waves are estimated from applying the Peak over Threshold (POT method on the measured wave data. The significant wave height and the maximum wave height at the test site for different return periods are also compared. In this study, a new approach using a mixed-distribution model is proposed to describe the long-term behavior of the significant wave height and it shows an impressive goodness of fit to wave data from the test site. The mixed-distribution model is also applied to measured wave data from four other sites and it provides an illustration of the general applicability of the proposed model. The methodologies used in this paper can be applied to general wave climate analysis of wave energy test sites to estimate extreme waves for the survivability assessment of wave energy converters and characterize the long wave climate to forecast the wave energy resource of the test sites and the energy production of the wave energy converters.
Sliding Mode Robustness Control Strategy for Shearer Height Adjusting System
Xiuping Su
2013-09-01
Full Text Available This paper firstly established mathematical model of height adjusting hydro cylinder of the shearer, as well as the state space equation of the shearer height adjusting system. Secondly we designed a shearer automatic height adjusting controller adopting the sliding mode robustness control strategy. The height adjusting controller includes the sliding mode surface switching function based on Ackermann formula, as well as sliding mode control function with the improved butterworth filter. Then simulation of the height adjustment controller shows that the sliding mode robustness control solves buffeting of typical controller, and achieves automatic control for the rolling drum of the shearer.
The inverse maximum dynamic flow problem
BAGHERIAN; Mehri
2010-01-01
We consider the inverse maximum dynamic flow (IMDF) problem.IMDF problem can be described as: how to change the capacity vector of a dynamic network as little as possible so that a given feasible dynamic flow becomes a maximum dynamic flow.After discussing some characteristics of this problem,it is converted to a constrained minimum dynamic cut problem.Then an efficient algorithm which uses two maximum dynamic flow algorithms is proposed to solve the problem.
Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula
2002-01-01
Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, lying between the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and the Bering Sea and Pacific Ocean to the east, is one of the most active volcanic regions along the Pacific Ring of Fire. It covers an area about the size of Colorado but contains more than 100 volcanoes stretching across the 1000-kilometer-long (620-mile-long) land mass. A dozen or more of these have active vents, with the youngest located along the eastern half of the peninsula. This color-coded shaded relief image, generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), shows Kamchatka's volcanic nature to dramatic effect.Kliuchevskoi, one of the most active and renowned volcanoes in the world, dominates the main cluster of volcanoes called the Kliuchi group, visible as a circular feature in the center-right of the image. The two other main volcanic ranges lie along northeast-southwest lines, with the older, less active range occupying the center and western half of Kamchatka. The younger, more active belt begins at the southernmost point of the peninsula and continues upward along the Pacific coastline.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction, so northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission flew aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (200
Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors
Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)
2014-06-15
Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.
Kiang, N. Y.; Yang, W.; Ni-Meister, W.; Aleinov, I. D.; Jonas, J.
2014-12-01
Vegetation cover was introduced into general circulations models (GCMs) in the 1980's to account for the effect of land surface albedo and water vapor conductance on the Earth's climate. Schemes assigning canopy albedoes by broad biome type have been superceded in 1990's by canopy radiative transfer schemes for homogeneous canopies obeying Beer's Law extinction as a function of leaf area index (LAI). Leaf albedo and often canopy height are prescribed by plant functional type (PFT). It is recognized that this approach does not effectively describe geographic variation in the radiative transfer of vegetated cover, particularly for mixed and sparse canopies. GCM-coupled dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) have retained these simple canopy representations, with little further evaluation of their albedos. With the emergence lidar-derived canopy vertical structure data, DGVM modelers are now revisiting albedo simulation. We present preliminary prognostic global land surface albedo produced by the Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (TBM), a DGVM coupled to the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM. The Ent TBM is a next generation DGVM designed to incorporate variation in canopy heights, and mixed and sparse canopies. For such dynamically varying canopy structure, it uses the Analytical Clumped Two-Stream (ACTS) canopy radiative transfer model, which is derived from gap probability theory for canopies of tree cohorts with ellipsoidal crowns, and accounts for soil, snow, and bare stems. We have developed a first-order global vegetation structure data set (GVSD), which gives a year of satellite-derived geographic variation in canopy height, maximum canopy leaf area, and seasonal LAI. Combined with Ent allometric relations, this data set provides population density and foliage clumping within crowns. We compare the Ent prognostic albedoes to those of the previous GISS GCM scheme, and to satellite estimates. The impact of albedo differences on surface
Height-related changes in leaf photosynthetic traits in diverse Bornean tropical rain forest trees.
Kenzo, Tanaka; Inoue, Yuta; Yoshimura, Mitsunori; Yamashita, Megumi; Tanaka-Oda, Ayumi; Ichie, Tomoaki
2015-01-01
Knowledge of variations in morphophysiological leaf traits with forest height is essential for quantifying carbon and water fluxes from forest ecosystems. Here, we examined changes in leaf traits with forest height in diverse tree species and their role in environmental acclimation in a tropical rain forest in Borneo that does not experience dry spells. Height-related changes in leaf physiological and morphological traits [e.g., maximum photosynthetic rate (Amax), stomatal conductance (gs), dark respiration rate (Rd), carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)C), nitrogen (N) content, and leaf mass per area (LMA)] from understory to emergent trees were investigated in 104 species in 29 families. We found that many leaf area-based physiological traits (e.g., A(max-area), Rd, gs), N, δ(13)C, and LMA increased linearly with tree height, while leaf mass-based physiological traits (e.g., A(max-mass)) only increased slightly. These patterns differed from other biomes such as temperate and tropical dry forests, where trees usually show decreased photosynthetic capacity (e.g., A(max-area), A(max-mass)) with height. Increases in photosynthetic capacity, LMA, and δ(13)C are favored under bright and dry upper canopy conditions with higher photosynthetic productivity and drought tolerance, whereas lower R d and LMA may improve shade tolerance in lower canopy trees. Rapid recovery of leaf midday water potential to theoretical gravity potential during the night supports the idea that the majority of trees do not suffer from strong drought stress. Overall, leaf area-based photosynthetic traits were associated with tree height and the degree of leaf drought stress, even in diverse tropical rain forest trees.
Pulse Jet Mixing Tests With Noncohesive Solids
Meyer, Perry A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fort, James A.; Wells, Beric E.; Sundaram, S. K.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.; Smith, Gary L.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Baer, Ellen BK; Snyder, Sandra F.; White, Michael K.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro
2012-02-17
This report summarizes results from pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid. The tests were conducted during FY 2007 and 2008 to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tests were conducted at three geometric scales using noncohesive simulants, and the test data were used to develop models predicting two measures of mixing performance for full-scale WTP vessels. The models predict the cloud height (the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action) and the critical suspension velocity (the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids are suspended off the floor, though not fully mixed). From the cloud height, the concentration of solids at the pump inlet can be estimated. The predicted critical suspension velocity for lifting all solids is not precisely the same as the mixing requirement for 'disturbing' a sufficient volume of solids, but the values will be similar and closely related. These predictive models were successfully benchmarked against larger scale tests and compared well with results from computational fluid dynamics simulations. The application of the models to assess mixing in WTP vessels is illustrated in examples for 13 distinct designs and selected operational conditions. The values selected for these examples are not final; thus, the estimates of performance should not be interpreted as final conclusions of design adequacy or inadequacy. However, this work does reveal that several vessels may require adjustments to design, operating features, or waste feed properties to ensure confidence in operation. The models described in this report will prove to be valuable engineering tools to evaluate options as designs are finalized for the WTP. Revision 1 refines data sets used for model development and summarizes models developed since the completion of Revision 0.
Analytical study of building height effects over Steel Plate Shear Wall Behavior
Benyamin Kioumarsi
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In the latest three decades, the steel plate shear walls (SPSW system has emerged as a promising lateral load resisting system for both construction new buildings and retrofit of existing buildings. This system has acceptable stiffness for control of structure displacement, ductile failure mechanism and high energy absorption. This paper will quantify the effect of increasing the height over analytical behavior of SPSW (height effect. Considering abundant emergence of high-rise buildings all over the world in recent years and their need for strengthening, the importance of the studies presented in this paper cannot be overemphasized for optimum height usage of SPSW lateral resisting system. The study was performed through design of four models of dual system with special moment frames capable of resisting at least 25% of prescribed seismic forces. In this article, structure buildings consisting of 5, 10, 15 and 20 stories have been modelled. Results consisting of story shear absorption, support reaction forces, lateral story displacement and drift index have investigated for different cases. Results show that SPSW absorbs more shears at the lower stories than top stories. Furthermore, axial reaction of edge supports experience decreasing rate corresponding to increase in the story numbers. Drift magnitude of steel plate shear wall with the 5 stories has the maximum value at the top story while the systems with the 10 and the 15 stories have maximum drift at lower stories.
Height, weight, weight change and risk of breast cancer in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Anelise Bezerra de Vasconcelos
Full Text Available CONTEXT: The relationship between body size and breast cancer still remains controversial in considering menopausal status. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of height, weight and weight changes with breast cancer in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: National Cancer Institute (INCA, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ. SAMPLE: 177 incident cases of invasive breast cancer admitted to the main hospital of INCA between May 1995 and February 1996, and 377 controls recruited from among female visitors to the same hospital. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Height and weight were measured and information on maximum weight, weight at ages 18 and 30 years, and potential risk factors were ascertained by interview at the hospital. RESULTS: Height was not related to risk of breast cancer among both pre and postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, women in this study were shorter than in studies that have found a positive association. Premenopausal women in the upper quartile of recent body mass index (BMI and maximum BMI showed a reduced risk of breast cancer (P for trend <= 0.03. Weight loss between ages 18 and 30 years and from 18 years to present was also associated with breast cancer among premenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may merely indicate the known association between leanness and breast cancer. Further studies should explore the role of weight loss on breast cancer risk.
A New Approach to Estimating the T-Year Return-Period Wave Height
ZHANG Jun; SONG Wenpeng; GE Yong
2011-01-01
The paper introduces a new approach to estimating the T-year return-period wave height (TRPW),i.e.the wave height expected to occur in T-year,from two sets of observed extreme data and on the basis of the maximum entropy principle.The main points of the approach are as follows.1) A maximum entropy probability density function (PDF) for the extreme wave height H is derived from a Euler equation subject to some necessary and rational constraints.2) The parameters in the function are expressed in terms of the mth moment of H.3) This PDF is convenient to theoretical and practical applications as it is simple and its four parameters are easy to be determined from observed extreme data.An example is given for estimating the TRPW in 50 and 100 years by the present approach and by some currently used methods using observed data at two hydrographic stations.The comparison of the estimated results shows that the present approach is quite similar to the Pearson-Ⅲ and Gumbel methods.
Generalised maximum entropy and heterogeneous technologies
Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.
1999-01-01
Generalised maximum entropy methods are used to estimate a dual model of production on panel data of Dutch cash crop farms over the period 1970-1992. The generalised maximum entropy approach allows a coherent system of input demand and output supply equations to be estimated for each farm in the sam
20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.
2010-04-01
... month on one person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family maximum used to adjust the social security overall minimum rate is based on the employee's Overall..., when any of the persons entitled to benefits on the insured individual's compensation would, except...
The maximum rotation of a galactic disc
Bottema, R
1997-01-01
The observed stellar velocity dispersions of galactic discs show that the maximum rotation of a disc is on average 63% of the observed maximum rotation. This criterion can, however, not be applied to small or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies because such systems show, in general, a continuously
Duality of Maximum Entropy and Minimum Divergence
Shinto Eguchi
2014-06-01
Full Text Available We discuss a special class of generalized divergence measures by the use of generator functions. Any divergence measure in the class is separated into the difference between cross and diagonal entropy. The diagonal entropy measure in the class associates with a model of maximum entropy distributions; the divergence measure leads to statistical estimation via minimization, for arbitrarily giving a statistical model. The dualistic relationship between the maximum entropy model and the minimum divergence estimation is explored in the framework of information geometry. The model of maximum entropy distributions is characterized to be totally geodesic with respect to the linear connection associated with the divergence. A natural extension for the classical theory for the maximum likelihood method under the maximum entropy model in terms of the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy is given. We discuss the duality in detail for Tsallis entropy as a typical example.
Petras Rupšys
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A stochastic modeling approach based on the Bertalanffy law gained interest due to its ability to produce more accurate results than the deterministic approaches. We examine tree crown width dynamic with the Bertalanffy type stochastic differential equation (SDE and mixed-effects parameters. In this study, we demonstrate how this simple model can be used to calculate predictions of crown width. We propose a parameter estimation method and computational guidelines. The primary goal of the study was to estimate the parameters by considering discrete sampling of the diameter at breast height and crown width and by using maximum likelihood procedure. Performance statistics for the crown width equation include statistical indexes and analysis of residuals. We use data provided by the Lithuanian National Forest Inventory from Scots pine trees to illustrate issues of our modeling technique. Comparison of the predicted crown width values of mixed-effects parameters model with those obtained using fixed-effects parameters model demonstrates the predictive power of the stochastic differential equations model with mixed-effects parameters. All results were implemented in a symbolic algebra system MAPLE.
Wang, Yunzhi; Xie, Fang; Ma, Sen; Chen, Liang
2015-03-01
An optical fiber multiplexing low coherence and high coherence interferometric system, which includes a Fizeau interferometer as the sensing element and a Michelson interferometer as the demodulating element, is designed for remote and high precision step height measurement. The Fizeau interferometer is placed in the remote field for sensing the measurand, while the Michelson interferometer which works in both modes of low coherence interferometry and high coherence interferometry is employed for demodulating the measurand. The range of the step height is determined by the low coherence interferometry and the value of it is measured precisely by the high coherence interferometry. High precision has been obtained by searching precisely the peak of the low coherence interferogram symmetrically from two sides of the low coherence interferogram and stabilizing the Michelson interferometer with a feedback loop. The maximum step height that could be measured is 6 mm while the measurement resolution is less than 1 nm. The standard deviation of 10 times measurement results of a step height of 1 mm configurated with two gauge blocks is 0.5 nm.
Wang, Yunzhi; Xie, Fang; Ma, Sen; Chen, Liang
2015-02-01
In this paper, an optical fiber multiplexing interferometric system including a Fizeau interferometer and a Michelson interferometer is designed for remote and high precision step height measurement. The Fizeau interferometer which is inserted in the remote sensing field is used for sensing the measurand, while the Michelson interferometer which is stabilized by a feedback loop works in both modes of low coherence interferometry and high coherence interferometry to demodulate the measurand. The range of the step height is determined by the low coherence interferometry and the value of it is measured precisely by the high coherence interferometry. High precision has been obtained by using the symmetrical peak-searching method to address the peak of the low coherence interferogram precisely and stabilizing the Michelson interferometer with a feedback loop. The maximum step height that could be measured is 6 mm while the measurement resolution is less than 1 nm. The standard deviation of 10 times measurement results of a step height of 1 mm configurated with two gauge blocks is 0.5 nm.
In-Field High-Throughput Phenotyping of Cotton Plant Height Using LiDAR
Shangpeng Sun
2017-04-01
Full Text Available A LiDAR-based high-throughput phenotyping (HTP system was developed for cotton plant phenotyping in the field. The HTP system consists of a 2D LiDAR and an RTK-GPS mounted on a high clearance tractor. The LiDAR scanned three rows of cotton plots simultaneously from the top and the RTK-GPS was used to provide the spatial coordinates of the point cloud during data collection. Configuration parameters of the system were optimized to ensure the best data quality. A height profile for each plot was extracted from the dense three dimensional point clouds; then the maximum height and height distribution of each plot were derived. In lab tests, single plants were scanned by LiDAR using 0.5° angular resolution and results showed an R2 value of 1.00 (RMSE = 3.46 mm in comparison to manual measurements. In field tests using the same angular resolution; the LiDAR-based HTP system achieved average R2 values of 0.98 (RMSE = 65 mm for cotton plot height estimation; compared to manual measurements. This HTP system is particularly useful for large field application because it provides highly accurate measurements; and the efficiency is greatly improved compared to similar studies using the side view scan.
Modeling nonstationary extreme wave heights in present and future climate of Greek Seas
Panagiota Galiatsatou
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this study the generalized extreme value (GEV distribution function was used to assess nonstationarity in annual maximum wave heights for selected locations in the Greek Seas, both in the present and future climate. The available significant wave height data were divided into groups corresponding to the present period (1951 to 2000, a first future period (2001 to 2050, and a second future period (2051 to 2100. For each time period, the parameters of the GEV distribution were specified as functions of time-varying covariates and estimated using the conditional density network (CDN. For each location and selected time period, a total number of 29 linear and nonlinear models were fitted to the wave data, for a given combination of covariates. The covariates used in the GEV-CDN models consisted of wind fields resulting from the Regional Climate Model version 3 (RegCM3 developed by the International Center for Theoritical Physics (ICTP with a spatial resolution of 10 km × 10 km, after being processed using principal component analysis (PCA. The results obtained from the best fitted models in the present and future periods for each location were compared, revealing different patterns of relationships between wind components and extreme wave height quantiles in different parts of the Greek Seas and different periods. The analysis demonstrates an increase of extreme wave heights in the first future period as compared with the present period, causing a significant threat to Greek coastal areas in the North Aegean Sea and the Ionian Sea.
Guiana Highlands, Shaded Relief and Colored Height
2003-01-01
Doyle's 1912 best-seller 'The Lost World.'Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.Location: 0.2 South to 8.7 degrees North latitude, 60 to 67.9 degrees West longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM30 and GTOPO30 elevation models Data Resolution: SRTM 30 arcsecond (about 928 meters or 1496 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 for SRTM
Height System Unification in North America
Sideris, Michael; Amjadiparvar, Babak
2015-04-01
GOCE has contributed important gravity information towards the definition and realization of the new North American height reference system. In addition to the new gravimetric geoid models based on GOCE, offsets of the classical levelling-based vertical datums in North America, namely CGVD28 in Canada and NAVD88 in the USA and Mexico, can be computed with respect to a global equipotential surface defined by means of a GOCE-based geoid. Although the two datums will eventually be replaced by a common and continent-wide vertical datum (and in fact the new Canadian height datum established in 2013 is already geoid based), their connection and unification is of great interest to the scientific and user communities. This study investigates the practical implementation of the geodetic boundary value problem (GBVP) approach as a rigorous method for unifying classical levelling-based vertical datums. The so-called indirect bias term, the effect of the GOCE geoid omission error, the effect of the systematic levelling datum errors and distortions, and the effect of the data errors on the datum unification are of great importance for the practical implementation of this approach. These factors are investigated numerically using the GNSS-levelling and tide gauge (TG) stations in Canada, the USA, Alaska, and Mexico. The results show that the indirect bias term can be omitted if a GOCE-based global geopotential model is used in geoid computation. This is significant because the omission of the indirect bias term simplifies the geoid computations as well as the linear system of equations for the estimation of datum offsets. Because of the existing systematic levelling errors and distortions in the Canadian and US levelling networks, the datum offsets are investigated in eight smaller regions along Canadian and US coastal areas instead of over the whole North American land mass. The effect of the omission error on the datum offsets decreases significantly in areas with good
Olduvai Gorge, Shaded Relief and Colored Height
2004-01-01
topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. Location: 3 degrees south latitude, 35 degrees east longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 223 by 223 kilometers (138 by 138 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000
Maximum Entropy Estimation of n-Year Extreme Waveheights
徐德伦; 张军; 郑桂珍
2004-01-01
A new method for estimating the n (50 or 100) -year return-period waveheight, namely, the extreme waveheightexpected to occur in n years, is presented on the basis of the maximum entropy principle. The main points of the method are as follows: ( 1 ) based on the Hamiltonian principle, a maximum entropy probability density function for the extreme waveheight H, f(H)= αHγe-βΗ4 is derived from a Lagrangian function subject to some necessary and rational constraints; (2) the parametersα,β, andγin the function are expressed in terms of the mean H, variance V = ( H - H)2and bias B = ( H- H)3; and (3) with H, V and B estimated from observed data, the n-year return-period wave height Hn is computed in accordance with the formula 1/1 - F(Hn) = n, where F(Hn) is defined as F(Hn) =n Hn Of(H)dH.Examples of estimating the 50 and 100-year retum period waveheights by the present method and by some currently used method from observed data acquired from two hydrographic stations are given. A comparison of the estimated results shows that the present method is superior to the others.
Maximum Allowable Dynamic Load of Mobile Manipulators with Stability Consideration
Heidary H. R.
2015-09-01
Full Text Available High payload to mass ratio is one of the advantages of mobile robot manipulators. In this paper, a general formula for finding the maximum allowable dynamic load (MADL of wheeled mobile robot is presented. Mobile manipulators operating in field environments will be required to manipulate large loads, and to perform such tasks on uneven terrain, which may cause the system to reach dangerous tip-over instability. Therefore, the method is expanded for finding the MADL of mobile manipulators with stability consideration. Moment-Height Stability (MHS criterion is used as an index for the system stability. Full dynamic model of wheeled mobile base and mounted manipulator is considered with respect to the dynamic of non-holonomic constraint. Then, a method for determination of the maximum allowable loads is described, subject to actuator constraints and by imposing the stability limitation as a new constraint. The actuator torque constraint is applied by using a speed-torque characteristics curve of a typical DC motor. In order to verify the effectiveness of the presented algorithm, several simulation studies considering a two-link planar manipulator, mounted on a mobile base are presented and the results are discussed.
IDENTIFICATION OF IDEOTYPES BY CANONICAL ANALYSIS IN Panicum maximum
Janaina Azevedo Martuscello
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Grouping of genotypes by canonical variable analysis is an important tool in breeding. It allows the grouping of individuals with similar characteristics that are associated with superior agronomic performance and may indicate the ideal profile of a plant for the region. The objective of the present study was to define, by canonical analysis, the agronomic profile of Panicum maximum plants adapted to the Agreste region. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 28 treatments, 22 genotypes of Panicum maximum, and cultivars Mombasa, Tanzania, Massai, Milenio, BRS Zuri, and BRS Tamani in triplicate in 4-m² plots. Plots were harvested five times and the following traits were evaluated: plant height; total, leaf, and stem; dead dry matter yields; leaf:stem ratio; leaf percentage; and volumetric density of forage. The analysis of canonical variables was performed based on the phenotypic means of the evaluated traits and on the residual variance and covariance matrix. Genotype PM34 showed higher mean leaf dry matter yield under the conditions of the Agreste of Alagoas (on average 53% higher than cultivars Mombasa, Tanzania, Milenio and Massai. It was possible to summarize the variation observed in eight agronomic characteristics in only two canonical variables accounting for 81.44 % of the data variation. The ideotype plant adapted to the conditions of the Agreste should be tall and present high leaf yield, leaf percentage, and leaf:stem ratio, and intermediate values of volumetric density of forage.
Effects of Specimen Height on the Acoustic Emission Rate Value ‘a’ for Cement Mortar
WANG Yan; HU Hongxiang; LU Guijuan; CHEN Shijie; LIU Shaojun; WANG Yao
2016-01-01
In order to study the size effect on the AE rate ‘a’ value, three kinds of mix ratios were set up by different particle sizes and water cement ratios, 45 cement mortar specimens with ifve different heights were tested under axial compression. And the whole damage processes were monitored by full-digital acoustic emission acquisition system, followed by an analysis of mechanical behavior and AE activity. The experimental results show that the height of the cement specimen has signiifcant effects on the compressive strength and the acoustic emission rate ‘a’ value, but a slight effect on the accumulated AE hits number, which is analyzed from aspects of failure process of cement mortar specimens.
C. A. Keller
2010-06-01
Full Text Available A new method for measuring air temperature profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer at high spatial and temporal resolution is presented. The measurements are based on Raman scattering distributed temperature sensing (DTS with a fiber optic cable attached to a tethered balloon. These data were used to estimate the height of the stable nocturnal boundary layer. The experiment was successfully deployed during a two-day campaign in September 2009, providing evidence that DTS is well suited for this atmospheric application. Observed stable temperature profiles exhibit an exponential shape confirming similarity concepts of the temperature inversion close to the surface. The atmospheric mixing height (MH was estimated to vary between 5 m and 50 m as a result of the nocturnal boundary layer evolution. This value is in good agreement to the MH derived from concurrent Radon-222 (^{222}Rn measurements and in previous studies.
C. A. Keller
2011-02-01
Full Text Available A new method for measuring air temperature profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer at high spatial and temporal resolution is presented. The measurements are based on Raman scattering distributed temperature sensing (DTS with a fiber optic cable attached to a tethered balloon. These data were used to estimate the height of the stable nocturnal boundary layer. The experiment was successfully deployed during a two-day campaign in September 2009, providing evidence that DTS is well suited for this atmospheric application. Observed stable temperature profiles exhibit an exponential shape confirming similarity concepts of the temperature inversion close to the surface. The atmospheric mixing height (MH was estimated to vary between 5 m and 50 m as a result of the nocturnal boundary layer evolution. This value is in good agreement with the MH derived from concurrent Radon-222 (^{222}Rn measurements and in previous studies.
Gutmann, Anne K; Bertram, John Ea
2016-03-01
The maximum hop height attainable for a given hop frequency falls well below the theoretical limit dictated by gravity, h = g/8f(2). However, maximum hop height is proportional to 1/f(2), suggesting that ground reaction force and, hence, force production capabilities of the leg muscles limit human hopping performance. Curiously, during one-legged hopping, subjects were able to produce substantially more than 50% the ground reaction force produced during two-legged maximum height hopping-66% on average and as much as 90% the total force produced during two-legged hopping. This implies that two legs together should be able to produce an average of 1.32 times and as much as 1.8 times the force actually measured during two-legged maximum height hopping. Why were our subjects unable to access this extra force capacity when hopping on two legs? Here, we show that this apparent bilateral deficit and other features of maximum height hopping can be explained by the interaction of the mechanical requirements of hopping with the force-velocity and force-length relationships that dictate the force production capacity of the leg muscles. Identifying the factors that limit performance in hopping provides an opportunity to understand how functional limits are determined in more complex activities such as running and jumping.
Hernandez, David; Sanchez, Miguel Angel; Medina, Pablo
2010-05-01
A laboratory experimental set - up for studying the behaviour of sediment in presence of a turbulent field with zero mean flow is compared with the behaviour of turbidity currents [1] . Particular interest is shown on the initiation of sediment motion and in the sediment lift - off. The behaviour of the turbidity current in a flat ground is compared with the zero mean flow oscilating grid generated turbulence as when wave flow lifts off suspended sediments [2,3]. Some examples of the results obtained with this set-up relating the height of the head of the turbidity current to the equilibrium level of stirred lutoclines are shown. A turbulent velocity u' lower than that estimated by the Shield diagram is required to start sediment motion. The minimum u' required to start sediment lift - off, is a function of sediment size, cohesivity and resting time. The lutocline height depends on u', and the vorticity at the lutocline seems constant for a fixed sediment size [1,3]. Combining grid stirring and turbidty current head shapes analyzed by means of advanced image analysis, sediment vertical fluxes and settling speeds can be measured [4,5]. [1] D. Hernandez Turbulent structure of turbidity currents and sediment transport Ms Thesis ETSECCPB, UPC. Barcelona 2009. [2] A. Sánchez-Arcilla; A. Rodríguez; J.C. Santás; J.M. Redondo; V. Gracia; R. K'Osyan; S. Kuznetsov; C. Mösso. Delta'96 Surf-zone and nearshore measurements at the Ebro Delta. A: International Conference on Coastal Research through large Scale Experiments (Coastal Dynamics '97). University of Plymouth, 1997, p. 186-187. [3] P. Medina, M. A. Sánchez and J. M. Redondo. Grid stirred turbulence: applications to the initiation of sediment motion and lift-off studies Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere. 26, Issue 4, 2001, Pages 299-304 [4] M.O. Bezerra, M. Diez, C. Medeiros, A. Rodriguez, E. Bahia., A. Sanchez-Arcilla and J.M. Redondo. Study on the influence of waves on
Hapsari, Vaniessa Dewi; Xiong, Shuping
2016-01-01
This study aimed to examine the effects of high heeled shoes (HHS) wearing experience and heel height on human standing balance and functional mobility. Thirty young and healthy females (ten experienced and twenty inexperienced HHS wearers) participated in a series of balance tests when they wore shoes of four different heel heights: 1 cm (flat), 4 cm (low), 7 cm (medium) and 10 cm (high). Experimental results show that regardless of the wearing experience, the heel elevation induces more effort from lower limb muscles (particularly calf muscles) and results in worse functional mobility starting at 7 cm heel height. While the heel height increased to 10 cm, the standing balance also becomes worse. Experienced HHS wearers do not show significantly better overall performance on standing balance and functional mobility than inexperienced controls, even though they have better directional control (76.8% vs. 74.4%) and larger maximum excursion (93.3% vs. 89.7%). To maintain standing balance, experienced wearers exert less effort on tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis and erector spinae muscles at the cost of more intensive effort from gastrocnemius medialis muscle. Many women wear high heeled shoes (HHS) to increase female attractiveness. This study shows that HHS induce more muscular effort and worse human standing balance and functional mobility, especially when heel height reaches 10 cm. HHS wearing experience only provides certain advantages to wearers on limits of stability in terms of larger maximum excursion and better directional control.
Cenci, Luca; Boni, Giorgio; Pulvirenti, Luca; Gabellani, Simone; Gardella, Fabio; Squicciarino, Giuseppe; Pierdicca, Nazzareno; Benedetto, Catia
2016-04-01
In a reservoir, water level monitoring is important for emergency management purposes. This information can be used to estimate the degree of filling of the water body, thus helping decision makers in flood control operations. Furthermore, if assimilated in hydrological models and coupled with rainfall forecasts, this information can be used for flood forecast and early warning. In many cases, water level is not known (e.g. data-scarce environments), or not shared by operators. Remote sensing may allow overcoming these limitations, enabling its estimation. The objective of this work is to present the Shoreline to Height (S2H) algorithm, developed to retrieve the height of the water stored in reservoirs from satellite images. To this aim, some auxiliary data are needed: a DEM and the maximum/minimum height that can be reached by the water. In data-scarce environments, these information can be easily obtained on the Internet (e.g. free, worldwide DEM and design data for artificial reservoirs). S2H was tested with different satellite data, both optical and SAR (Landsat and Cosmo SkyMed®-CSK®) in order to assess the impact of different sensors on the final estimates. The study area was the Place-Moulin Lake (Valle d'Aosta-VdA, Italy), where it is present a monitoring network that can provide reliable ground-truths for validating the algorithm and assessing its accuracy. When the algorithm was developed, it was assumed to be in absence of any "official"-auxiliary data. Therefore, two DEMs (SRTM 1 arc-second and ASTER GDEM) were used to evaluate their performances. The maximum/minimum water height values were found on the website of VdA Region. The S2H is based on three steps: i) satellite data preprocessing (Landsat: atmospheric correction; CSK®: geocoding and speckle filtering); ii) water mask generation (using a thresholding and region growing algorithm) and shoreline extraction; iii) retrieval of the shoreline height according to the reference DEMs (adopting a
Long Distance Transference of Height Daum Across Seas
无
2002-01-01
This paper focuses on studying long distance transference of height datum across seas by combining ellipsoidal height derived from GPS with gravimetric geoid height.The Yellow Sea Height Datum is transferred to Yangshan Island which is 30 km away from Luchaogang in Shanghai.The stations heights derived in this way are compared with those determined from two independent sets of the tidal observations taken in two years,and the difference values are 1.0 cm and 6.0 cm,respectively.Moreover,the derived height differences between two sections on the island are also compared with the values derived from precise leveling with respect to the same section.The result shows that the inconsistencies are only 0.2 cm and 0.7 cm,respectively.
The Star Height Hierarchy Vs. The Variable Hierarchy
Belkhir, Walid
2009-01-01
The star height hierarchy (resp. the variable hierarchy) results in classifying $\\mu$-terms into classes according to the nested depth of fixed point operators (resp. to the number of bound variables). We prove, under some assumptions, that the variable hierarchy is a proper refinement of the star height hierarchy. We mean that the non collapse of the variable hierarchy implies the non collapse of the star height hierarchy. The proof relies on the combinatorial characterization of the two hie...
Choice Overload and Height Ranking of Menus in Partially-Ordered Sets
Marcello Basili
2015-10-01
Full Text Available When agents face incomplete information and their knowledge about the objects of choice is vague and imprecise, they tend to consider fewer choices and to process a smaller portion of the available information regarding their choices. This phenomenon is well-known as choice overload and is strictly related to the existence of a considerable amount of option-pairs that are not easily comparable. Thus, we use a finite partially-ordered set (poset to model the subset of easily-comparable pairs within a set of options/items. The height ranking, a new ranking rule for menus, namely subposets of a finite poset, is then introduced and characterized. The height ranking rule ranks subsets of options in terms of the size of the longest chain that they include and is therefore meant to assess menus of available options in terms of the maximum number of distinct and easily-comparable alternative options that they offer.
Discrete particle simulation of mixed sand transport
Fengjun Xiao; Liejin Guo; Debiao Li; Yueshe Wang
2012-01-01
An Eulerian/Lagrangian numerical simulation is performed on mixed sand transport.Volume averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved to calculate gas motion,and particle motion is calculated using Newton's equation,involving a hard sphere model to describe particle-to-particle and particle-to-wall collisions.The influence of wall characteristics,size distribution of sand particles and boundary layer depth on vertical distribution of sand mass flux and particle mean horizontal velocity is analyzed,suggesting that all these three factors affect sand transport at different levels.In all cases,for small size groups,sand mass flux first increases with height and then decreases while for large size groups,it decreases exponentially with height and for middle size groups the behavior is in-between.The mean horizontal velocity for all size groups well fits experimental data,that is,increasing logarithmically with height in the middle height region.Wall characteristics greatly affects particle to wall collision and makes the flat bed similar to a Gobi surface and the rough bed similar to a sandy surface.Particle size distribution largely affects the sand mass flux and the highest heights they can reach especially for larger particles.
HuangRuxun(黄如训); Zeng Jinsheng(曾进胜)
2000-01-01
Purpose To summarize the chnical, autoptic and animal experimental dala of stroke, propose the concept of mixed stroke (MS) and demonstrate the enoiogy, pathogenesis, clinical mainfestations, prophylaxis and treatment of MS Background At present. stroke still is classified in the national and international academic fields as two main groups: hemorrhage and ischema In fact, thc cerebral vascular disease with hemorrhage forus and ischema focus at the same time is not rare moreover, this type of stroke has special etiology, pathogenesis and clinical manifestations. But it is always made a main dagnosis and neglected the other nature of coexistent focus on either clinical or pathological diagnosis according to traditional classification of stroke Data sources and methods Mort of pablished originsl articles about MS in our department and laboralory wcre reviewed. Resulta The clinical autoptic and animal experimental dats all prcved that hemorrhage and infarction could occur in the course of a stroke simultaneously or in suecession during a short time, which demonstrated the existence of MS It was found clinically that MS patients all had the hustory of hypcrtension and in the autoptic data the MS patients dying of stroke all had typical hypertensive changes in the heart and kidney. and had hypertensive arteriosclerosis in the cerebral arteriole and small artery. MS was cas lily thdueed in stroke-prone renovascular hypertensivc rats This kind of rats are free from genetic deficiency and arc not affected by senile factor, so their cerebral vascular foci are mainly induced by the single factor -hypertension. TThese indicate definitely that hypertensive cerebral vascular lesion is the basis inducing MS. The main lesions of hypertensive cerebral arteriole and small artery were hyalinosis and fibrinoid of the walls, and the formation of microaneurysms or hyperplasla of iniernal and external layers The math lcsions of hypertensive cerebral capillaries were increasing vascular
Yanli Huang
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Based on techniques of close upper protective coal-rock layer mining, relieved gas extraction, and underground gangue washing-discharging-backfilling, this paper initiates the concept of mixed fully-mechanized coal mining, which combines a solid backfilling method and a caving method (hereinafter referred to as “backfill and caving mixed mining”. After the principle and key techniques are introduced, a physical simulation experiment and a numerical simulation are used to study the characteristics of the overlying strata’s fracture development, the main roof subsidence, the stress field and its influence area in the transition area with the length ratios of the backfilling section and the caving section, and the advancing distance of the mixed longwall face. Thus, the lengths of the caving section and the backfilling section, the parameters of the support system in the transition section, and the design process of the mixed longwall face are presented. In practice, the mixed longwall face Ji15-31010 in Ping-dingshan No. 12 Colliery proves that the designed lengths of 120 m and 100 m for the backfilling section and the caving section, respectively, are appropriate. The monitoring results of the hydraulic support working resistance show that the supports were working well in general; the maximum growth height of the overlying strata fracture is 18 m; the gas drainage efficiency is up to 80% and the average gas concentration is 0.1 g/m3; a large quantity of gangue generated in the Ji14 seam is disposed underground; coal and gas are extracted simultaneously; and significant environmental and economic benefits are realized.
[Regulation of plant height by gibberellins biosynthesis and signal transduction].
Wei, Lingzhu; Cheng, Jianhui; Li, Lin; Wu, Jiang
2012-02-01
Plant height is one of the most important agronomic traits that could affect both crop yield and quality. Among all the hormones, gibberellins are crucial to regulate plant height. Cloning and molecular mechanism research of the plant height genes associated gibberellins have extremely important value for the regulation of crop growth and agricultural production, and have been widely used in rice, wheat and other grain crops breeding. In order to promote utilization of gibberellins in fruit trees, flowers and other horticultural crops breeding, we reviewed the regulation of plant height by gibberellins biosynthesis and signal transduction at the molecular level in this paper.
Measuring the height-to-height correlation function of corrugation in suspended graphene
Kirilenko, D.A., E-mail: Demid.Kirilenko@mail.ioffe.ru [Ioffe Institute, Politekhnicheskaya ul. 26, 194021 St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); EMAT, Universiteit Antwerpen, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Brunkov, P.N. [Ioffe Institute, Politekhnicheskaya ul. 26, 194021 St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); ITMO University, Kronverksky pr. 49, 197101 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)
2016-06-15
Nanocorrugation of 2D crystals is an important phenomenon since it affects their electronic and mechanical properties. The corrugation may have various sources; one of them is flexural phonons that, in particular, are responsible for the thermal conductivity of graphene. A study of corrugation of just the suspended graphene can reveal much of valuable information on the physics of this complicated phenomenon. At the same time, the suspended crystal nanorelief can hardly be measured directly because of high flexibility of the 2D crystal. Moreover, the relief portion related to rapid out-of-plane oscillations (flexural phonons) is also inaccessible by such measurements. Here we present a technique for measuring the Fourier components of the height–height correlation function H(q) of suspended graphene which includes the effect of flexural phonons. The technique is based on the analysis of electron diffraction patterns. The H(q) is measured in the range of wavevectors q≈0.4–4.5 nm{sup −1}. At the upper limit of this range H(q) does follow the T/κq{sup 4} law. So, we measured the value of suspended graphene bending rigidity κ=1.2±0.4 eV at ambient temperature T≈300 K. At intermediate wave vectors, H(q) follows a slightly weaker exponent than theoretically predicted q{sup −3.15} but is closer to the results of the molecular dynamics simulation. At low wave vectors, the dependence becomes even weaker, which may be a sign of influence of charge carriers on the dynamics of undulations longer than 10 nm. The technique presented can be used for studying physics of flexural phonons in other 2D materials. - Highlights: • A technique for measuring free-standing 2D crystal corrugation is proposed. • The height-to-height correlation function of the suspended graphene corrugation is measured. • Various parameters of the intrinsic graphene properties are experimentally determined.
Boundary condition effects on maximum groundwater withdrawal in coastal aquifers.
Lu, Chunhui; Chen, Yiming; Luo, Jian
2012-01-01
Prevention of sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers subject to groundwater withdrawal requires optimization of well pumping rates to maximize the water supply while avoiding sea water intrusion. Boundary conditions and the aquifer domain size have significant influences on simulating flow and concentration fields and estimating maximum pumping rates. In this study, an analytical solution is derived based on the potential-flow theory for evaluating maximum groundwater pumping rates in a domain with a constant hydraulic head landward boundary. An empirical correction factor, which was introduced by Pool and Carrera (2011) to account for mixing in the case with a constant recharge rate boundary condition, is found also applicable for the case with a constant hydraulic head boundary condition, and therefore greatly improves the usefulness of the sharp-interface analytical solution. Comparing with the solution for a constant recharge rate boundary, we find that a constant hydraulic head boundary often yields larger estimations of the maximum pumping rate and when the domain size is five times greater than the distance between the well and the coastline, the effect of setting different landward boundary conditions becomes insignificant with a relative difference between two solutions less than 2.5%. These findings can serve as a preliminary guidance for conducting numerical simulations and designing tank-scale laboratory experiments for studying groundwater withdrawal problems in coastal aquifers with minimized boundary condition effects.
Physical fitness and anthropometric profile of mixed martial arts athletes
Bruno Ferreira Marinho
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the physical fitness and anthropometric profile of mixed martial arts (MMA athletes and the correlations between these variables.Subjects and methods: Thirteen male MMA athletes (30 ± 4 years-old participated in this study. They were submitted to anthropometric measurements and the following tests: adapted flexitest, sit-ups, push-ups, long jump, flexed arm hang, 1RM bench press and squat.Results: Main results are as follows: body mass (kg: 82.1 ± 10.9; body fat (%: 11.87 ± 5.11; flexibility (score: 18.38 ± 4.07; sit-ups (rep: 43 ± 11; push-ups (rep: 41 ± 9; long jump (m: 2.19 ± 0.25; flexed arm hang (s: 34 ± 11, 1RM bench- press (kg: 76 ± 23; 1RM squat (kg: 73 ± 15. Furthermore we observed results showed significant correlations between anthropometric variables and physical fitness: body fat and long jump (R = -0.75; body fat and flexed arm hang (R= -0.67; height and squat 1RM (R = 0.67; arm circumference and bench press 1RM (R = 0.77.Conclusion: MMA athletes involved in this investigation have showed poor neuromuscular performance. Body fat was negatively correlated with both power and strength endurance performance, while arm circumference was positively related to upper body maximum strength.
Study and Evaluation of Ultrasound System for Detecting the Height of Corn Canopy
T Mesri Gundoshmian
2017-10-01
system design The height measurement electronic system includes: 40 kHz Ultrasonic transmitter with diameter of 10 mm, 67 db ultrasonic receiver, Signal amplifier circuit (op-amp, AVR Microcontroller, (atmega 128 and a 64×128 pi LCD. Electronic part of system produces 40 kHz pulse initially and locates on one of the outlet bases of microcontroller. Then, this pulse is amplified and sent to ultrasonic sensor transmitter for maximum performance of the transmitter. The received pulse has low power so it shoud be amplified by an amplifier to be recognizable by the microcontroller. The received signal transmitted to digital signal by a high-speed 128 AVR atmega microcontroller. The sensor calibrated in the first phase using artificial barriers, the data analyzed by linear regression and paired mean comparison test in SPSS and EXCEL software. Results and Discussion Corn height measured by designed system in a test by 100 plots and 10 blocks. Thus, the blocks had a dimension of 1m length and 10cm width. System output recorded in first block and the block length passed by system with 10cm distances. Actual measurement accuracy comprised as pixels to data from manual measurement. The results didn’t show any significant difference between means. The regression coefficient of model was calculated 99%. The operating phase continued in a lab to measure maize height. The results showed high linear correlation between ultrasonic output voltage and manual measurement. This linear correlation led to present a linear regression model with the regression coefficient of 95%. Correlated mean comparison used for all of data too, i.e. the data obtained by the two measurement methods were compared by t-paired test. So it’s defensible that with 99% confidence, sensor can estimate the real value of height with high accuracy. Conclusions Utilization of measurement technologies and accuracy enhancement in agricultural production systems are unavoidable. In this research, corn height was
A dual method for maximum entropy restoration
Smith, C. B.
1979-01-01
A simple iterative dual algorithm for maximum entropy image restoration is presented. The dual algorithm involves fewer parameters than conventional minimization in the image space. Minicomputer test results for Fourier synthesis with inadequate phantom data are given.
Maximum Throughput in Multiple-Antenna Systems
Zamani, Mahdi
2012-01-01
The point-to-point multiple-antenna channel is investigated in uncorrelated block fading environment with Rayleigh distribution. The maximum throughput and maximum expected-rate of this channel are derived under the assumption that the transmitter is oblivious to the channel state information (CSI), however, the receiver has perfect CSI. First, we prove that in multiple-input single-output (MISO) channels, the optimum transmission strategy maximizing the throughput is to use all available antennas and perform equal power allocation with uncorrelated signals. Furthermore, to increase the expected-rate, multi-layer coding is applied. Analogously, we establish that sending uncorrelated signals and performing equal power allocation across all available antennas at each layer is optimum. A closed form expression for the maximum continuous-layer expected-rate of MISO channels is also obtained. Moreover, we investigate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels, and formulate the maximum throughput in the asympt...
Photoemission spectromicroscopy with MAXIMUM at Wisconsin
Ng, W.; Ray-Chaudhuri, A.K.; Cole, R.K.; Wallace, J.; Crossley, S.; Crossley, D.; Chen, G.; Green, M.; Guo, J.; Hansen, R.W.C.; Cerrina, F.; Margaritondo, G. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Dept. of Physics and Synchrotron Radiation Center, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA)); Underwood, J.H.; Korthright, J.; Perera, R.C.C. (Center for X-ray Optics, Accelerator and Fusion Research Div., Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))
1990-06-01
We describe the development of the scanning photoemission spectromicroscope MAXIMUM at the Wisoncsin Synchrotron Radiation Center, which uses radiation from a 30-period undulator. The article includes a discussion of the first tests after the initial commissioning. (orig.).
Maximum-likelihood method in quantum estimation
Paris, M G A; Sacchi, M F
2001-01-01
The maximum-likelihood method for quantum estimation is reviewed and applied to the reconstruction of density matrix of spin and radiation as well as to the determination of several parameters of interest in quantum optics.
无
2002-01-01
It is an attractive method to combine GPS observations with the information from other surveying system to improve the ambiguity resolution. This research is conducted to investigate how to obtain the prior height information in bathymetric surveying by GPS positioning and how to use the prior height information and to obtain a robust result. The authors deal with the collection and the description of the prior height and the method using height validation to improve the ambiguity resolution. The principle of the method, the relationships between the height threshold and the ambiguity search space are presented. A method to determine the threshold for the height validation is suggested. The field tests are carried out to show the feasibility of the proposed methods.
Mixed plastics recycling technology
Hegberg, Bruce
1995-01-01
Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.
The maximum entropy technique. System's statistical description
Belashev, B Z
2002-01-01
The maximum entropy technique (MENT) is applied for searching the distribution functions of physical values. MENT takes into consideration the demand of maximum entropy, the characteristics of the system and the connection conditions, naturally. It is allowed to apply MENT for statistical description of closed and open systems. The examples in which MENT had been used for the description of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium states and the states far from the thermodynamical equilibrium are considered
19 CFR 114.23 - Maximum period.
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum period. 114.23 Section 114.23 Customs... CARNETS Processing of Carnets § 114.23 Maximum period. (a) A.T.A. carnet. No A.T.A. carnet with a period of validity exceeding 1 year from date of issue shall be accepted. This period of validity cannot be...
Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM
Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.
1993-01-01
Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.
Kessler, Michael; Toivonen, Johanna M; Sylvester, Steven P; Kluge, Jürgen; Hertel, Dietrich
2014-01-01
We studied tree height in stands of high-Andean Polylepis forests in two cordilleras near Cuzco (Peru) with respect to variations in human impact and climatic conditions, and compared air and soil temperatures between qualitatively defined dry and humid slopes. We studied 46 forest plots of 100 m(2) of five Polylepis species at 3560-4680 m. We measured diameter at breast height (dbh) and tree height in the stands (1229 trees in total), as well as air and soil temperatures in a subset of plots. The data was analyzed combining plots of given species from different sites at the same elevation (±100 m). There was no elevational decrease of mean maximum tree height across the entire data set. On humid slopes, tree height decreased continuously with elevation, whereas on dry slopes it peaked at middle elevations. With mean maximum tree heights of 9 m at 4530 m on the humid slopes and of 13 m at 4650 m on the dry slopes, we here document the tallest high-elevation forests found so far worldwide. These highest stands grow under cold mean growing season air temperatures (3.6 and 3.8°C on humid vs. dry slopes) and mean growing season soil temperatures (5.1 vs. 4.6°C). Mean annual air and soil temperature both decreased with elevation. Dry slopes had higher mean and maximum growing season air temperatures than humid slopes. Mean annual soil temperatures did not significantly differ and mean annual air temperatures only slightly differed between slopes. However, maximum air temperatures differed on average by 6.6 K between dry and humid slopes. This suggests that the differences in tree height between the two slopes are most likely due to differences in solar radiation as reflected by maximum air temperatures. Our study furthermore provides evidence that alpine Polylepis treelines grow under lower temperature conditions than global high-elevation treelines on average, suggesting that Polylepis species may have evolved special physiological adaptations to low temperatures.
Michael eKessler
2014-05-01
Full Text Available We studied tree height in stands of high-Andean Polylepis forests in two cordilleras near Cuzco (Peru with respect to variations in human impact and climatic conditions, and compared air and soil temperatures between qualitatively defined dry and humid slopes. We studied 46 forest plots of 100 m2 of five Polylepis species at 3560-4680 m. We measured diameter at breast height (dbh and tree height in the stands (1229 trees in total, as well as air and soil temperatures in a subset of plots. The data was analysed combining plots of given species from different sites at the same elevation (±100 m. There was no elevational decrease of mean maximum tree height across the entire data set. On humid slopes, tree height decreased continuously with elevation, whereas on dry slopes it peaked at middle elevations. With mean maximum tree heights of 9 m at 4530 m on the humid slopes and of 13 m at 4650 m on the dry slopes, we here document the tallest high-elevation forests found so far worldwide. These highest stands grow under cold mean growing season air temperatures (3.6 °C and 3.8 °C on humid vs. dry slopes and mean growing season soil temperatures (5.1 °C vs. 4.6 °C. Mean annual air and soil temperature both decreased with elevation. Dry slopes had higher mean and maximum growing season air temperatures than humid slopes. Mean annual soil temperatures did not significantly differ and mean annual air temperatures only slightly differed between slopes. However, maximum air temperatures differed on average by 6.6 K between dry and humid slopes. This suggests that the differences in tree height between the two slopes are most likely due to differences in solar radiation as reflected by maximum air temperatures. Our study furthermore provides evidence that alpine Polylepis treelines grow under lower temperature conditions than global high-elevation treelines on average, suggesting that Polylepis species may have evolved special physiological adaptations
SEXUAL DIMORPHISM OF MAXIMUM FEMORAL LENGTH
Pandya A M
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Sexual identification from the skeletal parts has medico legal and anthropological importance. Present study aims to obtain values of maximum femoral length and to evaluate its possible usefulness in determining correct sexual identification. Study sample consisted of 184 dry, normal, adult, human femora (136 male & 48 female from skeletal collections of Anatomy department, M. P. Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat. Maximum length of femur was considered as maximum vertical distance between upper end of head of femur and the lowest point on femoral condyle, measured with the osteometric board. Mean Values obtained were, 451.81 and 417.48 for right male and female, and 453.35 and 420.44 for left male and female respectively. Higher value in male was statistically highly significant (P< 0.001 on both sides. Demarking point (D.P. analysis of the data showed that right femora with maximum length more than 476.70 were definitely male and less than 379.99 were definitely female; while for left bones, femora with maximum length more than 484.49 were definitely male and less than 385.73 were definitely female. Maximum length identified 13.43% of right male femora, 4.35% of right female femora, 7.25% of left male femora and 8% of left female femora. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 67-70
Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation and the Influence of Room Height and Heat Load Distribution
Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Vilsbøll, Rasmus W; Liu, Li;
2015-01-01
Diffuse ceiling (inlet) ventilation is an air distribution system that supplies air from the entire ceiling surface, giving a low supply velocity. The flow pattern in the room is controlled by the heat sources. The system generates high mixing flow and the air velocities in the room are expected...... with a large room height and it decreases in connection with certain heat load distributions. Room geometries and heat load distributions that are optimal for diffuse ceiling ventilation are discussed. A simplified design procedure is introduced....
Effect of slope on treetop detection using a LiDAR Canopy Height Model
Khosravipour, Anahita; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Wang, Tiejun; Isenburg, Martin; Khoshelham, Kourosh
2015-06-01
Canopy Height Models (CHMs) or normalized Digital Surface Models (nDSM) derived from LiDAR data have been applied to extract relevant forest inventory information. However, generating a CHM by height normalizing the raw LiDAR points is challenging if trees are located on complex terrain. On steep slopes, the raw elevation values located on either the downhill or the uphill part of a tree crown are height-normalized with parts of the digital terrain model that may be much lower or higher than the tree stem base, respectively. In treetop detection, a highest crown return located in the downhill part may prove to be a "false" local maximum that is distant from the true treetop. Based on this observation, we theoretically and experimentally quantify the effect of slope on the accuracy of treetop detection. The theoretical model presented a systematic horizontal displacement of treetops that causes tree height to be systematically displaced as a function of terrain slope and tree crown radius. Interestingly, our experimental results showed that the effect of CHM distortion on treetop displacement depends not only on the steepness of the slope but more importantly on the crown shape, which is species-dependent. The influence of the systematic error was significant for Scots pine, which has an irregular crown pattern and weak apical dominance, but not for mountain pine, which has a narrow conical crown with a distinct apex. Based on our findings, we suggest that in order to minimize the negative effect of steep slopes on the CHM, especially in heterogeneous forest with multiple species or species which change their morphological characteristics as they mature, it is best to use raw elevation values (i.e., use the un-normalized DSM) and compute the height after treetop detection.
Jeffrey O. Dawson; Edward A. Hansen
1983-01-01
Height growth of hybrid Populusand soil nitrogen concentration around Alnus glutinosa stems differed significantly both spatially and with the Alnus/Populus mixture in a short-rotation intensively cultured mixed planting. Populus height growth comparable to that obtained from optimal rates of...
Jacobsen, P H; Wakefieldt, A J; O'Doherty, D M; Rees, J S
2006-12-01
Three dimensional finite element models of an upper second premolar and molar with full veneer gold crown preparations were developed from extracted samples. The cement lute width was kept constant at 40 microm, but the height and preparation taper were varied. For both models the preparation height was either 1.5 mm (short preparation) or 3 mm (long preparation). The preparation taper was either 10 degree or 30 degree, giving a total of eight models. Each model was loaded with a 10 N horizontal load, a 10 N vertical load or a 10 N load distributed across the occlusal surface. The maximum shear stress and the maximum Von Mises' stress in the cement lute of each model were recorded. For the premolar, the maximum shear stresses ranged from 0.3-5.43 MPa and the maximum Von Mises' stress ranged from 1.44-14.98 MPa. For the molar, the maximum shear stresses ranged from 0.15-5.22 MPa and the maximum Von Mises' stress ranged from 0.3 7-15.02 MPa. The stress fields were consistently higher in the premolar with a 30 degree preparation taper compared to the 10 degree taper. The attainment of a cavity taper of 100 is still important to minimise stress in the cement lute and is particularly important in teeth with a lower preparation surface area such as a premolar
A century of trends in adult human height
Bentham, J. (James); Di Cesare, M. (Mariachiara); Stevens, G.A. (Gretchen A.); Zhou, B. (Bin); Bixby, H. (Honor); Cowan, M. (Melanie); Fortunato, L. (Léa); Bennett, J.E. (James E.); G. Danaei (Goodarz); Hajifathalian, K. (Kaveh); Lu, Y. (Yuan); Riley, L.M. (Leanne M.); Laxmaiah, A. (Avula); Kontis, V. (Vasilis); Paciorek, C.J. (Christopher J.); M. Ezzati (Majid); Abdeen, Z.A. (Ziad A.); Hamid, Z.A. (Zargar Abdul); Abu-Rmeileh, N.M. (Niveen M.); Acosta-Cazares, B. (Benjamin); Adams, R. (Robert); Aekplakorn, W. (Wichai); C.A. Aguilar-Salinas (Carlos A.); C.O. Agyemang (Charles); Ahmadvand, A. (Alireza); W. Ahrens (W.); Al-Hazzaa, H.M. (Hazzaa M.); Al-Othman, A.R. (Amani Rashed); Raddadi, R.A. (Rajaa Al); Ali, M.M. (Mohamed M.); Alkerwi, A. (Ala’a); M. Alvarez-Pedrerol (Mar); Aly, E. (Eman); P. Amouyel (Philippe); A. Amuzu (Antoinette); Andersen, L.B. (Lars Bo); Anderssen, S.A. (Sigmund A.); Anjana, R.M. (Ranjit Mohan); Aounallah-Skhiri, H. (Hajer); Ariansen, I. (Inger); Aris, T. (Tahir); Arlappa, N. (Nimmathota); Arveiler, D. (Dominique); Assah, F.K. (Felix K.); Avdicová, M. (Mária); J. Azizi (Joshan); Babu, B.V. (Bontha V.); Bahijri, S. (Suhad); Balakrishna, N. (Nagalla); Bandosz, P. (Piotr); Banegas, J.R. (José R.); Barbagallo, C.M. (Carlo M.); Barceló, A. (Alberto); Barkat, A. (Amina); Barros, M.V. (Mauro V.); Bata, I. (Iqbal); Batieha, A.M. (Anwar M.); Batista, R.L. (Rosangela L.); Baur, L.A. (Louise A.); Beaglehole, R. (Robert); Romdhane, H.B. (Habiba Ben); Benet, M. (Mikhail); Bernabe-Ortiz, A. (Antonio); Bernotiene, G. (Gailute); Bettiol, H. (Heloisa); Bhagyalaxmi, A. (Aroor); Bharadwaj, S. (Sumit); Bhargava, S.K. (Santosh K.); Bhatti, Z. (Zaid); Z.A. Bhutta (Zulfiqar A); Bi, H. (Hongsheng); Bi, Y. (Yufang); Bjerregaard, P. (Peter); Bjertness, E. (Espen); Bjertness, M.B. (Marius B.); Björkelund, C. (Cecilia); Blokstra, A. (Anneke); Bo, S. (Simona); M. Bobak (Martin); Boddy, L.M. (Lynne M.); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); H. Boeing (Heiner); Boissonnet, C.P. (Carlos P.); Bongard, V. (Vanina); P. Bovet (Pascal); Braeckman, L. (Lutgart); Bragt, M.C.E. (Marjolijn C. E.); Brajkovich, I. (Imperia); Branca, F. (Francesco); Breckenkamp, J. (Juergen); H. Brenner (Hermann); L.M. Brewster (Lizzy); Brian, G.R. (Garry R.); Bruno, G. (Graziella); Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B. (H. Bas); Bugge, A. (Anna); Burns, C. (Con); De León, A.C. (Antonio Cabrera); Cacciottolo, J. (Joseph); Cama, T. (Tilema); Cameron, C. (Christine); Camolas, J. (José); G. Can (Günay); Cândido, A.P.C. (Ana Paula C.); Capuano, V. (Vincenzo); Cardoso, V.C. (Viviane C.); Carlsson, A.C. (Axel C.); Carvalho, M.J. (Maria J.); Casanueva, F.F. (Felipe F.); J.P. Casas (Juan Pablo); Caserta, C.A. (Carmelo A.); Chamukuttan, S. (Snehalatha); A.W.M. Chan (Angelique); Chan, Q. (Queenie); Chaturvedi, H.K. (Himanshu K.); Chaturvedi, N. (Nishi); Chen, C.-J. (Chien-Jen); Chen, F. (Fangfang); Chen, H. (Huashuai); Chen, S. (Shuohua); Chen, Z. (Zhengming); Cheng, C.-Y. (Ching-Yu); A. Chetrit (Angela); Chiolero, A. (Arnaud); Chiou, S.-T. (Shu-Ti); Chirita-Emandi, A. (Adela); Cho, B. (Belong); Cho, Y. (Yumi); Christensen, K. (Kaare); Chudek, J. (Jerzy); R. Cifkova (Renata); F. Claessens; E. Clays (Els); Concin, H. (Hans); C. Cooper (Charles); Cooper, R. (Rachel); Coppinger, T.C. (Tara C.); Costanzo, S. (Simona); D. Cottel (Dominique); Cowell, C. (Chris); Craig, C.L. (Cora L.); Crujeiras, A.B. (Ana B.); D’Arrigo, G. (Graziella); d’Orsi, E. (Eleonora); J. Dallongeville; Damasceno, A. (Albertino); Damsgaard, C.T. (Camilla T.); Dankner, R. (Rachel); Dauchet, L. (Luc); G. De Backer (Guy); D. De Bacquer (Dirk); de Gaetano, G. (Giovanni); De Henauw, S. (Stefaan); D. De Smedt (Delphine); Deepa, M. (Mohan); Deev, A.D. (Alexander D.); A. Dehghan (Abbas); Delisle, H. (Hélène); Delpeuch, F. (Francis); Deschamps, V. (Valérie); K. Dhana (Klodian); Di Castelnuovo, A.F. (Augusto F.); Dias-da-Costa, J.S. (Juvenal Soares); Diaz, A. (Alejandro); Djalalinia, S. (Shirin); Do, H.T.P. (Ha T. P.); Dobson, A.J. (Annette J.); C. Donfrancesco (Chiara); Donoso, S.P. (Silvana P.); A. Döring (Angela); Doua, K. (Kouamelan); Drygas, W. (Wojciech); Dzerve, V. (Vilnis); Egbagbe, E.E. (Eruke E.); Eggertsen, R. (Robert); U. Ekelund (Ulf); El Ati, J. (Jalila); P. Elliott (Paul); Engle-Stone, R. (Reina); Erasmus, R.T. (Rajiv T.); Erem, C. (Cihangir); Eriksen, L. (Louise); Escobedo-de la Peña, J. (Jorge); A. Evans (Alun); Faeh, D. (David); Fall, C.H. (Caroline H.); F. Farzadfar (Farshad); Felix-Redondo, F.J. (Francisco J.); Ferguson, T.S. (Trevor S.); Fernández-Bergés, D. (Daniel); Ferrante, D. (Daniel); Ferrari, M. (Marika); Ferreccio, C. (Catterina); J. Ferrieres (Jean); Finn, J.D. (Joseph D.); K. Fischer (Krista); Flores, E.M. (Eric Monterubio); Föger, B. (Bernhard); Foo, L.H. (Leng Huat); Forslund, A.-S. (Ann-Sofie); Forsner, M. (Maria); S.P. Fortmann (Stephen); Fouad, H.M. (Heba M.); Francis, D.K. (Damian K.); Do Carmo Franco, M. (Maria); O.H. Franco (Oscar); Frontera, G. (Guillermo); Fuchs, F.D. (Flavio D.); Fuchs, S.C. (Sandra C.); Fujita, Y. (Yuki); Furusawa, T. (Takuro); Gaciong, Z. (Zbigniew); Gafencu, M. (Mihai); Gareta, D. (Dickman); Garnett, S.P. (Sarah P.); J.-M. Gaspoz (Jean-Michel); Gasull, M. (Magda); Gates, L. (Louise); J.M. Geleijnse (Marianne); Ghasemian, A. (Anoosheh); S. Giampaoli (Simona); F. Gianfagna (Francesco); Giovannelli, J. (Jonathan); A. Giwercman (Aleksander); Goldsmith, R.A. (Rebecca A.); Gonçalves, H. (Helen); M. Gross; González Rivas, J.P. (Juan P.); Gorbea, M.B. (Mariano Bonet); Gottrand, F. (Frederic); Graff-Iversen, S. (Sidsel); Grafnetter, D. (Dušan); Grajda, A. (Aneta); Grammatikopoulou, M.G. (Maria G.); Gregor, R.D. (Ronald D.); T. Grodzicki (Tomasz); Grøntved, A. (Anders); Gruden, G. (Grabriella); Grujic, V. (Vera); Gu, D. (Dongfeng); Gualdi-Russo, E. (Emanuela); Guan, O.P. (Ong Peng); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); Guerrero, R. (Ramiro); I. Guessous (Idris); Guimaraes, A.L. (Andre L.); Gulliford, M.C. (Martin C.); Gunnlaugsdottir, J. (Johanna); Gunter, M. (Marc); Guo, X. (Xiuhua); Guo, Y. (Yin); Gupta, P.C. (Prakash C.); Gureje, O. (Oye); Gurzkowska, B. (Beata); Gutierrez, L. (Laura); Gutzwiller, F. (Felix); J. Halkjær; Hambleton, I.R. (Ian R.); R. Hardy; Kumar, R.H. (Rachakulla Hari); Hata, J. (Jun); Hayes, A.J. (Alison J.); He, J. (Jiang); M.E. Hendriks (Marleen); Cadena, L.H. (Leticia Hernandez); Herrala, S. (Sauli); Heshmat, R. (Ramin); Hihtaniemi, I.T. (Ilpo Tapani); Ho, S.Y. (Sai Yin); Ho, S.C. (Suzanne C.); Hobbs, M. (Michael); Hofman, A. (Albert); Hormiga, C.M. (Claudia M.); Horta, B.L. (Bernardo L.); Houti, L. (Leila); Howitt, C. (Christina); Htay, T.T. (Thein Thein); Htet, A.S. (Aung Soe); Htike, M.M.T. (Maung Maung Than); Hu, Y. (Yonghua); A. Husseini (Abdullatif); Huu, C.N. (Chinh Nguyen); Huybrechts, I. (Inge); Hwalla, N. (Nahla); L. Iacoviello (Licia); Iannone, A.G. (Anna G.); Ibrahim, M.M. (Mohsen M.); Ikeda, N. (Nayu); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); V. Irazola (Vilma); M. Islam (Muhammad); Ivkovic, V. (Vanja); Iwasaki, M. (Masanori); Jackson, R.T. (Rod T.); Jacobs, J.M. (Jeremy M.); T.H. Jafar (Tazeen); Jamil, K.M. (Kazi M.); K. Jamrozik; Janszky, I. (Imre); Jasienska, G. (Grazyna); Jelakovic, B. (Bojan); Jiang, C.Q. (Chao Qiang); Joffres, M. (Michel); M. Johansson (Mattias); J.B. Jonas (Jost B.); T. Jorgensen (Torben); Joshi, P. (Pradeep); Juolevi, A. (Anne); Jurak, G. (Gregor); Jureša, V. (Vesna); R. Kaaks (Rudolf); Kafatos, A. (Anthony); Kalter-Leibovici, O. (Ofra); Kapantais, E. (Efthymios); Kasaeian, A. (Amir); Katz, J. (Joanne); Kaur, P. (Prabhdeep); M. Kavousi (Maryam); M. Keil (Mark); Boker, L.K. (Lital Keinan); S. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi (Sirkka); Kelishadi, R. (Roya); H.C.G. Kemper; A.P. Kengne (Andre Pascal); Kersting, M. (Mathilde); T. Key (Tim); Y.S. Khader (Yousef Saleh); D. Khalili (Davood); Khang, Y.-H. (Young-Ho); K.-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); Khouw, I.M.S.L. (Ilse M. S. L.); S. Kiechl (Stefan); Killewo, J. (Japhet); Kim, J. (Jeongseon); Klimont, J. (Jeannette); J. Klumbiene (Jurate); Koirala, B. (Bhawesh); Kolle, E. (Elin); P. Kolsteren (Patrick); Korrovits, P. (Paul); S. Koskinen (Seppo); Kouda, K. (Katsuyasu); Koziel, S. (Slawomir); W. Kratzer (Wolfgang); Krokstad, S. (Steinar); Kromhout, D. (Daan); Kruger, H.S. (Herculina S.); R. Kubinova; U.M. Kujala (Urho); Kula, K. (Krzysztof); Kulaga, Z. (Zbigniew); Krishna Kumar, R.; Kurjata, P. (Pawel); Kusuma, Y.S. (Yadlapalli S.); K. Kuulasmaa (Kari); Kyobutungi, C. (Catherine); Laamiri, F.Z. (Fatima Zahra); T. Laatikainen (Tiina); C. Lachat (Carl); Laid, Y. (Youcef); Lam, T.H. (Tai Hing); Landrove, O. (Orlando); Lanska, V. (Vera); Lappas, G. (Georg); Larijani, B. (Bagher); L.E. Laugsand (Lars E.); Bao, K.L.N. (Khanh Le Nguyen); Le, T.D. (Tuyen D.); Leclercq, C. (Catherine); J.J.M. Lee (Jeannette); Lee, J. (Jeonghee); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Lekhraj, R. (Rampal); León-Muñoz, L.M. (Luz M.); Y. Li (Yanping); Lilly, C.L. (Christa L.); W.-Y. Lim (Wei-Yen); Fernanda Lima-Costa, M.; Lin, H.-H. (Hsien-Ho); X. Lin (Xu); A. Linneberg (Allan); L. Lissner (Lauren); Litwin, M. (Mieczyslaw); Liu, J. (Jing); R. Lorbeer (Roberto); P.A. Lotufo (Paulo A); Lozano, J.E. (José Eugenio); Luksiene, D. (Dalia); A. Lundqvist (Annamari); Lunet, N. (Nuno); Lytsy, P. (Per); Ma, G. (Guansheng); Ma, J. (Jun); Machado-Coelho, G.L.L. (George L. L.); Machi, S. (Suka); Maggi, S. (Stefania); D.J. Magliano; Maire, B. (Bernard); Makdisse, M. (Marcia); R. Malekzadeh (Reza); Malhotra, R. (Rahul); Rao, K.M. (Kodavanti Mallikharjuna); S. Malyutina; Y. Manios; Mann, J.I. (Jim I.); Manzato, E. (Enzo); Margozzini, P. (Paula); Markey, O. (Oonagh); P. Marques-Vidal (Pedro); J. Marrugat (Jaume); Martin-Prevel, Y. (Yves); Martorell, R. (Reynaldo); Masoodi, S.R. (Shariq R.); E.B. Mathiesen (Ellisiv); Matsha, T.E. (Tandi E.); Mazur, A. (Artur); Mbanya, J.C.N. (Jean Claude N.); McFarlane, S.R. (Shelly R.); McGarvey, S.T. (Stephen T.); McKee, M. (Martin); S. McLachlan (Stela); McLean, R.M. (Rachael M.); McNulty, B.A. (Breige A.); Yusof, S.M. (Safiah Md); Mediene-Benchekor, S. (Sounnia); A. Meirhaeghe (Aline); C. Meisinger (Christa); Menezes, A.M.B. (Ana Maria B.); Mensink, G.B.M. (Gert B. M.); Meshram, I.I. (Indrapal I.); A. Metspalu (Andres); J. Mi (Jie); K.F. Michaelsen; Mikkel, K. (Kairit); Miller, J.C. (Jody C.); Miquel, J.F. (Juan Francisco); Jaime Miranda, J.; Mišigoj-Durakovic, M. (Marjeta); Mohamed, M.K. (Mostafa K.); K. Mohammad (Kazem); Mohammadifard, N. (Noushin); V. Mohan (Viswanathan); Yusoff, M.F.M. (Muhammad Fadhli Mohd); Molbo, D. (Drude); Møller, N.C. (Niels C.); Molnár, D. (Dénes); Mondo, C.K. (Charles K.); Monterrubio, E.A. (Eric A.); Monyeki, K.D.K. (Kotsedi Daniel K.); Moreira, L.B. (Leila B.); Morejon, A. (Alain); Moreno, L.A. (Luis A.); Morgan, K. (Karen); Mortensen, E.L. (Erik Lykke); G. Moschonis; Mossakowska, M. (Malgorzata); Mostafa, A. (Aya); Mota, J. (Jorge); Motlagh, M.E. (Mohammad Esmaeel); Motta, J. (Jorge); Mu, T.T. (Thet Thet); M.L. Muiesan (Maria Lorenza); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); Murphy, N. (Neil); Mursu, J. (Jaakko); Murtagh, E.M. (Elaine M.); Musa, K.I. (Kamarul Imran); Musil, V. (Vera); Nagel, G. (Gabriele); Nakamura, H. (Harunobu); Námešná, J. (Jana); Nang, E.E.K. (Ei Ei K.); M. Nangia (Monika); Nankap, M. (Martin); Narake, S. (Sameer); E.M. Navarrete-Muñoz; Neal, W.A. (William A.); Nenko, I. (Ilona); Neovius, M. (Martin); Nervi, F. (Flavio); Neuhauser, H.K. (Hannelore K.); Nguyen, N.D. (Nguyen D.); Nguyen, Q.N. (Quang Ngoc); Nieto-Martínez, R.E. (Ramfis E.); Ning, G. (Guang); T. Ninomiya (Toshiharu); Nishtar, S. (Sania); Noale, M. (Marianna); Norat, T. (Teresa); Noto, D. (Davide); Nsour, M.A. (Mohannad Al); O’Reilly, D. (Dermot); Oh, K. (Kyungwon); Olayan, I.H. (Iman H.); Olinto, M.T.A. (Maria Teresa Anselmo); Oltarzewski, M. (Maciej); Omar, M.A. (Mohd A.); A. Onat (Altan); Ordunez, P. (Pedro); Ortiz, A.P. (Ana P.); Osler, M. (Merete); Osmond, C. (Clive); Ostojic, S.M. (Sergej M.); Otero, J.A. (Johanna A.); K. Overvad (Kim); E. Owusu-Dabo (Ellis); Paccaud, F.M. (Fred Michel); Padez, C. (Cristina); Pahomova, E. (Elena); A. Pajak (Andrzej); D. Palli (Domenico); Palloni, A. (Alberto); Palmieri, L. (Luigi); S. Panda-Jonas (Songhomitra); F. Panza (Francesco); Parnell, W.R. (Winsome R.); Parsaeian, M. (Mahboubeh); Pecin, I. (Ivan); Pednekar, M.S. (Mangesh S.); P.H.M. Peeters; Peixoto, S.V. (Sergio Viana); Peltonen, M. (Markku); A. Pereira (A.); Pérez, C.M. (Cynthia M.); A. Peters; Petkeviciene, J. (Janina); Peykari, N. (Niloofar); Pham, S.T. (Son Thai); Pigeot, I. (Iris); H. Pikhart (Hynek); Pilav, A. (Aida); A. Pilotto (Alberto); Pistelli, F. (Francesco); Pitakaka, F. (Freda); Piwonska, A. (Aleksandra); Plans-Rubió, P. (Pedro); Poh, B.K. (Bee Koon); M. Porta; M.L.P. Portegies (Marileen); Poulimeneas, D. (Dimitrios); Pradeepa, R. (Rajendra); Prashant, M. (Mathur); J.F. Price (Jackie F.); Puiu, M. (Maria); M. Punab (Margus); Qasrawi, R.F. (Radwan F.); Qorbani, M. (Mostafa); Bao, T.Q. (Tran Quoc); Radic, I. (Ivana); Radisauskas, R. (Ricardas); Rahman, M.-M. (Mah-mudur); O. Raitakari (Olli); Raj, M. (Manu); Rao, S.R. (Sudha Ramachandra); Ramachandran, A. (Ambady); Ramke, J. (Jacqueline); Ramos, R. (Rafel); Rampal, S. (Sanjay); Rasmussen, F. (Finn); J. Redón (Josep); Reganit, P.F.M. (Paul Ferdinand M.); Ribeiro, R. (Robespierre); Riboli, E. (Elio); Rigo, F. (Fernando); T.F. Rinke de Wit (Tobias); Ritti-Dias, R.M. (Raphael M.); Rivera, J.A. (Juan A.); S.M. Robinson (Siân); Robitaille, C. (Cynthia); F. Rodríguez Artalejo (Fernando); Del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez, M. (María); Rodríguez-Villamizar, L.A. (Laura A.); Rojas-Martinez, R. (Rosalba); Rojroong-Wasinkul, N. (Nipa); Romaguera, D. (Dora); K. Ronkainen (Kimmo); A. Rosengren (Annika); Rouse, I. (Ian); Rubinstein, A. (Adolfo); Rühli, F.J. (Frank J.); Rui, O. (Ornelas); Ruiz-Betancourt, B.S. (Blanca Sandra); Russo Horimoto, A.R.V. (Andrea R. V.); Rutkowski, M. (Marcin); C. Sabanayagam (Charumathi); Sachdev, H.S. (Harshpal S.); Saidi, O. (Olfa); Salanave, B. (Benoit); Martinez, E.S. (Eduardo Salazar); V. Salomaa (Veikko); Salonen, J.T. (Jukka T.); M. Salvetti (Massimo); Sánchez-Abanto, J. (Jose); Sandjaja,; S. Sans (Susana); Santos, D.A. (Diana A.); Santos, O. (Osvaldo); Dos Santos, R.N. (Renata Nunes); Santos, R. (Rute); J. Saramies (Jouko); Sardinha, L.B. (Luis B.); Sarrafzadegan, N. (Nizal); Saum, K.-U. (Kai-Uwe); S. Savva; Scazufca, M. (Marcia); Rosario, A.S. (Angelika Schaffrath); Schargrodsky, H. (Herman); Schienkiewitz, A. (Anja); Schmidt, I.M. (Ida Maria); I.J.C. Schneider (Ione J C); C. Schultsz (Constance); Schutte, A.E. (Aletta E.); Sein, A.A. (Aye Aye); Sen, A. (Abhijit); Senbanjo, I.O. (Idowu O.); S.G. Sepanlou (Sadaf G); Shalnova, S.A. (Svetlana A.); Sharma, S.K. (Sanjib K.); J.E. Shaw; K. Shibuya (Kenji); Shin, D.W. (Dong Wook); Y. Shin (Youchan); R. Shiri (Rahman); R. Siantar (Rosalynn); Sibai, A.M. (Abla M.); Silva, A.M. (Antonio M.); Silva, D.A.S. (Diego Augusto Santos); Simon, M. (Mary); J. Simons (Judith); L.A. Simons (Leon); Sjostrom, M. (Michael); J. Slowikowska-Hilczer (Jolanta); Slusarczyk, P. (Przemyslaw); L. Smeeth (Liam); Smith, M.C. (Margaret C.); M.B. Snijder (Marieke); So, H.-K. (Hung-Kwan); Sobngwi, E. (Eugène); S. Söderberg (Stefan); Soekatri, M.Y.E. (Moesijanti Y. E.); Solfrizzi, V. (Vincenzo); E. Sonestedt (Emily); Song, Y. (Yi); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); Soric, M. (Maroje); Jérome, C.S. (Charles Sossa); Soumare, A. (Aicha); J.A. Staessen (Jan); Starc, G. (Gregor); Stathopoulou, M.G. (Maria G.); Staub, K. (Kaspar); Stavreski, B. (Bill); Steene-Johannessen, J. (Jostein); Stehle, P. (Peter); Stein, A.D. (Aryeh D.); Stergiou, G.S. (George S.); Stessman, J. (Jochanan); Stieber, J. (Jutta); D. Stöckl (Doris); Stocks, T. (Tanja); Stokwiszewski, J. (Jakub); Stratton, G. (Gareth); K. Stronks (Karien); Strufaldi, M.W. (Maria Wany); Sun, C.-A. (Chien-An); Sundström, J. 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2016-01-01
textabstractBeing taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The larges
Height inequality of algebraic points on curves over functional fields
Tan, S L
1995-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to give a linear and effective height inequality for algebraic points on curves over functional fields. Our height inequality can be viewed as the logarithmic canonical class inequality of a punctured curve over a functional field (a fibered surface minus a section). This paper will appear in J. reine angew. Math.
Height estimations based on eye measurements throughout a gait cycle
Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine
2014-01-01
Anthropometric measurements (e.g. the height to the head, nose tip, eyes or shoulders) of a perpetrator based on video material may be used in criminal cases. However, several height measurements may be difficult to assess as the perpetrators may be disguised by clothes or headwear. The eye heigh...
High and mighty : Height increases authority in professional refereeing
Stulp, Gert; Buunk, Abraham P.; Verhulst, Simon; Pollet, Thomas V.
2012-01-01
Throughout the animal kingdom, larger males are more likely to attain social dominance. Several lines of evidence suggest that this relationship extends to humans, as height is positively related to dominance, status and authority. We hypothesized that height is also a determinant of authority in pr
Modeling low-height vegetation with airborne LiDAR
Low-height vegetation, common in semiarid regions, is difficult to characterize with LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) due to similarities, in time and space, of the point returns of vegetation and ground. Other complications may occur due to the low-height vegetation structural characteristics a...
Effect of severing method and stump height on coppice growth
John B. Crist; James A. Mattson; Sharon A. Winsauer
1983-01-01
In this study we evaluated the effect of stem severing method and stump height on coppice growth in a short-rotation intensively cultured Populus plantation 1, 2, and 3 years after cutting. Initially, stumps 46 cm high had smaller and significantly more sprouts than either 8 or 15 cm high stumps. However, the dominant sprouts were not affected by the stump height....
A century of trends in adult human height
Bentham, J. (James); Di Cesare, M. (Mariachiara); Stevens, G.A. (Gretchen A.); Zhou, B. (Bin); Bixby, H. (Honor); Cowan, M. (Melanie); Fortunato, L. (Léa); Bennett, J.E. (James E.); G. Danaei (Goodarz); Hajifathalian, K. (Kaveh); Lu, Y. (Yuan); Riley, L.M. (Leanne M.); Laxmaiah, A. (Avula); Kontis, V. (Vasilis); Paciorek, C.J. (Christopher J.); M. Ezzati (Majid); Abdeen, Z.A. (Ziad A.); Hamid, Z.A. (Zargar Abdul); Abu-Rmeileh, N.M. (Niveen M.); Acosta-Cazares, B. (Benjamin); Adams, R. (Robert); Aekplakorn, W. (Wichai); C.A. Aguilar-Salinas (Carlos A.); C.O. Agyemang (Charles); Ahmadvand, A. (Alireza); W. Ahrens (W.); Al-Hazzaa, H.M. (Hazzaa M.); Al-Othman, A.R. (Amani Rashed); Raddadi, R.A. (Rajaa Al); Ali, M.M. (Mohamed M.); Alkerwi, A. (Ala’a); M. Alvarez-Pedrerol (Mar); Aly, E. (Eman); P. Amouyel (Philippe); A. Amuzu (Antoinette); Andersen, L.B. (Lars Bo); Anderssen, S.A. (Sigmund A.); Anjana, R.M. (Ranjit Mohan); Aounallah-Skhiri, H. (Hajer); Ariansen, I. (Inger); Aris, T. (Tahir); Arlappa, N. (Nimmathota); Arveiler, D. (Dominique); Assah, F.K. (Felix K.); Avdicová, M. (Mária); J. Azizi (Joshan); Babu, B.V. (Bontha V.); Bahijri, S. (Suhad); Balakrishna, N. (Nagalla); Bandosz, P. (Piotr); Banegas, J.R. (José R.); Barbagallo, C.M. (Carlo M.); Barceló, A. (Alberto); Barkat, A. (Amina); Barros, M.V. (Mauro V.); Bata, I. (Iqbal); Batieha, A.M. (Anwar M.); Batista, R.L. (Rosangela L.); Baur, L.A. (Louise A.); Beaglehole, R. (Robert); Romdhane, H.B. (Habiba Ben); Benet, M. (Mikhail); Bernabe-Ortiz, A. (Antonio); Bernotiene, G. (Gailute); Bettiol, H. (Heloisa); Bhagyalaxmi, A. (Aroor); Bharadwaj, S. (Sumit); Bhargava, S.K. (Santosh K.); Bhatti, Z. (Zaid); Z.A. Bhutta (Zulfiqar A); Bi, H. (Hongsheng); Bi, Y. (Yufang); Bjerregaard, P. (Peter); Bjertness, E. (Espen); Bjertness, M.B. (Marius B.); Björkelund, C. (Cecilia); Blokstra, A. (Anneke); Bo, S. (Simona); M. Bobak (Martin); Boddy, L.M. (Lynne M.); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); H. Boeing (Heiner); Boissonnet, C.P. (Carlos P.); Bongard, V. (Vanina); P. Bovet (Pascal); Braeckman, L. (Lutgart); Bragt, M.C.E. (Marjolijn C. E.); Brajkovich, I. (Imperia); Branca, F. (Francesco); Breckenkamp, J. (Juergen); H. Brenner (Hermann); L.M. Brewster (Lizzy); Brian, G.R. (Garry R.); Bruno, G. (Graziella); Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B. (H. Bas); Bugge, A. (Anna); Burns, C. (Con); De León, A.C. (Antonio Cabrera); Cacciottolo, J. (Joseph); Cama, T. (Tilema); Cameron, C. (Christine); Camolas, J. (José); G. Can (Günay); Cândido, A.P.C. (Ana Paula C.); Capuano, V. (Vincenzo); Cardoso, V.C. (Viviane C.); Carlsson, A.C. (Axel C.); Carvalho, M.J. (Maria J.); Casanueva, F.F. (Felipe F.); J.P. Casas (Juan Pablo); Caserta, C.A. (Carmelo A.); Chamukuttan, S. (Snehalatha); A.W.M. Chan (Angelique); Chan, Q. (Queenie); Chaturvedi, H.K. (Himanshu K.); Chaturvedi, N. (Nishi); Chen, C.-J. (Chien-Jen); Chen, F. (Fangfang); Chen, H. (Huashuai); Chen, S. (Shuohua); Chen, Z. (Zhengming); Cheng, C.-Y. (Ching-Yu); A. Chetrit (Angela); Chiolero, A. (Arnaud); Chiou, S.-T. (Shu-Ti); Chirita-Emandi, A. (Adela); Cho, B. (Belong); Cho, Y. (Yumi); Christensen, K. (Kaare); Chudek, J. (Jerzy); R. Cifkova (Renata); F. Claessens; E. Clays (Els); Concin, H. (Hans); C. Cooper (Charles); Cooper, R. (Rachel); Coppinger, T.C. (Tara C.); Costanzo, S. (Simona); D. Cottel (Dominique); Cowell, C. (Chris); Craig, C.L. (Cora L.); Crujeiras, A.B. (Ana B.); D’Arrigo, G. (Graziella); d’Orsi, E. (Eleonora); J. Dallongeville; Damasceno, A. (Albertino); Damsgaard, C.T. (Camilla T.); Dankner, R. (Rachel); Dauchet, L. (Luc); G. De Backer (Guy); D. De Bacquer (Dirk); de Gaetano, G. (Giovanni); De Henauw, S. (Stefaan); D. De Smedt (Delphine); Deepa, M. (Mohan); Deev, A.D. (Alexander D.); A. Dehghan (Abbas); Delisle, H. (Hélène); Delpeuch, F. (Francis); Deschamps, V. (Valérie); K. Dhana (Klodian); Di Castelnuovo, A.F. (Augusto F.); Dias-da-Costa, J.S. (Juvenal Soares); Diaz, A. (Alejandro); Djalalinia, S. (Shirin); Do, H.T.P. (Ha T. P.); Dobson, A.J. (Annette J.); C. Donfrancesco (Chiara); Donoso, S.P. (Silvana P.); A. Döring (Angela); Doua, K. (Kouamelan); Drygas, W. (Wojciech); Dzerve, V. (Vilnis); Egbagbe, E.E. (Eruke E.); Eggertsen, R. (Robert); U. Ekelund (Ulf); El Ati, J. (Jalila); P. Elliott (Paul); Engle-Stone, R. (Reina); Erasmus, R.T. (Rajiv T.); Erem, C. (Cihangir); Eriksen, L. (Louise); Escobedo-de la Peña, J. (Jorge); A. Evans (Alun); Faeh, D. (David); Fall, C.H. (Caroline H.); F. Farzadfar (Farshad); Felix-Redondo, F.J. (Francisco J.); Ferguson, T.S. (Trevor S.); Fernández-Bergés, D. (Daniel); Ferrante, D. (Daniel); Ferrari, M. (Marika); Ferreccio, C. (Catterina); J. Ferrieres (Jean); Finn, J.D. (Joseph D.); K. Fischer (Krista); Flores, E.M. (Eric Monterubio); Föger, B. (Bernhard); Foo, L.H. (Leng Huat); Forslund, A.-S. (Ann-Sofie); Forsner, M. (Maria); S.P. Fortmann (Stephen); Fouad, H.M. (Heba M.); Francis, D.K. (Damian K.); Do Carmo Franco, M. (Maria); O.H. Franco (Oscar); Frontera, G. (Guillermo); Fuchs, F.D. (Flavio D.); Fuchs, S.C. (Sandra C.); Fujita, Y. (Yuki); Furusawa, T. (Takuro); Gaciong, Z. (Zbigniew); Gafencu, M. (Mihai); Gareta, D. (Dickman); Garnett, S.P. (Sarah P.); J.-M. Gaspoz (Jean-Michel); Gasull, M. (Magda); Gates, L. (Louise); J.M. Geleijnse (Marianne); Ghasemian, A. (Anoosheh); S. Giampaoli (Simona); F. Gianfagna (Francesco); Giovannelli, J. (Jonathan); A. Giwercman (Aleksander); Goldsmith, R.A. (Rebecca A.); Gonçalves, H. (Helen); M. Gross; González Rivas, J.P. (Juan P.); Gorbea, M.B. (Mariano Bonet); Gottrand, F. (Frederic); Graff-Iversen, S. (Sidsel); Grafnetter, D. (Dušan); Grajda, A. (Aneta); Grammatikopoulou, M.G. (Maria G.); Gregor, R.D. (Ronald D.); T. Grodzicki (Tomasz); Grøntved, A. (Anders); Gruden, G. (Grabriella); Grujic, V. (Vera); Gu, D. (Dongfeng); Gualdi-Russo, E. (Emanuela); Guan, O.P. (Ong Peng); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); Guerrero, R. (Ramiro); I. Guessous (Idris); Guimaraes, A.L. (Andre L.); Gulliford, M.C. (Martin C.); Gunnlaugsdottir, J. (Johanna); Gunter, M. (Marc); Guo, X. (Xiuhua); Guo, Y. (Yin); Gupta, P.C. (Prakash C.); Gureje, O. (Oye); Gurzkowska, B. (Beata); Gutierrez, L. (Laura); Gutzwiller, F. (Felix); J. Halkjær; Hambleton, I.R. (Ian R.); R. Hardy; Kumar, R.H. (Rachakulla Hari); Hata, J. (Jun); Hayes, A.J. (Alison J.); He, J. (Jiang); M.E. Hendriks (Marleen); Cadena, L.H. (Leticia Hernandez); Herrala, S. (Sauli); Heshmat, R. (Ramin); Hihtaniemi, I.T. (Ilpo Tapani); Ho, S.Y. (Sai Yin); Ho, S.C. (Suzanne C.); Hobbs, M. (Michael); Hofman, A. (Albert); Hormiga, C.M. (Claudia M.); Horta, B.L. (Bernardo L.); Houti, L. (Leila); Howitt, C. (Christina); Htay, T.T. (Thein Thein); Htet, A.S. (Aung Soe); Htike, M.M.T. (Maung Maung Than); Hu, Y. (Yonghua); A. Husseini (Abdullatif); Huu, C.N. (Chinh Nguyen); Huybrechts, I. (Inge); Hwalla, N. (Nahla); L. Iacoviello (Licia); Iannone, A.G. (Anna G.); Ibrahim, M.M. (Mohsen M.); Ikeda, N. (Nayu); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); V. Irazola (Vilma); M. Islam (Muhammad); Ivkovic, V. (Vanja); Iwasaki, M. (Masanori); Jackson, R.T. (Rod T.); Jacobs, J.M. (Jeremy M.); T.H. Jafar (Tazeen); Jamil, K.M. (Kazi M.); K. Jamrozik; Janszky, I. (Imre); Jasienska, G. (Grazyna); Jelakovic, B. (Bojan); Jiang, C.Q. (Chao Qiang); Joffres, M. (Michel); M. Johansson (Mattias); J.B. Jonas (Jost B.); T. Jorgensen (Torben); Joshi, P. (Pradeep); Juolevi, A. (Anne); Jurak, G. (Gregor); Jureša, V. (Vesna); R. Kaaks (Rudolf); Kafatos, A. (Anthony); Kalter-Leibovici, O. (Ofra); Kapantais, E. (Efthymios); Kasaeian, A. (Amir); Katz, J. (Joanne); Kaur, P. (Prabhdeep); M. Kavousi (Maryam); M. Keil (Mark); Boker, L.K. (Lital Keinan); S. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi (Sirkka); Kelishadi, R. (Roya); H.C.G. Kemper; A.P. Kengne (Andre Pascal); Kersting, M. (Mathilde); T. Key (Tim); Y.S. Khader (Yousef Saleh); D. Khalili (Davood); Khang, Y.-H. (Young-Ho); K.-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); Khouw, I.M.S.L. (Ilse M. S. L.); S. Kiechl (Stefan); Killewo, J. (Japhet); Kim, J. (Jeongseon); Klimont, J. (Jeannette); J. Klumbiene (Jurate); Koirala, B. (Bhawesh); Kolle, E. (Elin); P. Kolsteren (Patrick); Korrovits, P. (Paul); S. Koskinen (Seppo); Kouda, K. (Katsuyasu); Koziel, S. (Slawomir); W. Kratzer (Wolfgang); Krokstad, S. (Steinar); Kromhout, D. (Daan); Kruger, H.S. (Herculina S.); R. Kubinova; U.M. Kujala (Urho); Kula, K. (Krzysztof); Kulaga, Z. (Zbigniew); Krishna Kumar, R.; Kurjata, P. (Pawel); Kusuma, Y.S. (Yadlapalli S.); K. Kuulasmaa (Kari); Kyobutungi, C. (Catherine); Laamiri, F.Z. (Fatima Zahra); T. Laatikainen (Tiina); C. Lachat (Carl); Laid, Y. (Youcef); Lam, T.H. (Tai Hing); Landrove, O. (Orlando); Lanska, V. (Vera); Lappas, G. (Georg); Larijani, B. (Bagher); L.E. Laugsand (Lars E.); Bao, K.L.N. (Khanh Le Nguyen); Le, T.D. (Tuyen D.); Leclercq, C. (Catherine); J.J.M. Lee (Jeannette); Lee, J. (Jeonghee); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Lekhraj, R. (Rampal); León-Muñoz, L.M. (Luz M.); Y. Li (Yanping); Lilly, C.L. (Christa L.); W.-Y. Lim (Wei-Yen); Fernanda Lima-Costa, M.; Lin, H.-H. (Hsien-Ho); X. Lin (Xu); A. Linneberg (Allan); L. Lissner (Lauren); Litwin, M. (Mieczyslaw); Liu, J. (Jing); R. Lorbeer (Roberto); P.A. Lotufo (Paulo A); Lozano, J.E. (José Eugenio); Luksiene, D. (Dalia); A. Lundqvist (Annamari); Lunet, N. (Nuno); Lytsy, P. (Per); Ma, G. (Guansheng); Ma, J. (Jun); Machado-Coelho, G.L.L. (George L. L.); Machi, S. (Suka); Maggi, S. (Stefania); D.J. Magliano; Maire, B. (Bernard); Makdisse, M. (Marcia); R. Malekzadeh (Reza); Malhotra, R. (Rahul); Rao, K.M. (Kodavanti Mallikharjuna); S. Malyutina; Y. Manios; Mann, J.I. (Jim I.); Manzato, E. (Enzo); Margozzini, P. (Paula); Markey, O. (Oonagh); P. Marques-Vidal (Pedro); J. Marrugat (Jaume); Martin-Prevel, Y. (Yves); Martorell, R. (Reynaldo); Masoodi, S.R. (Shariq R.); E.B. Mathiesen (Ellisiv); Matsha, T.E. (Tandi E.); Mazur, A. (Artur); Mbanya, J.C.N. (Jean Claude N.); McFarlane, S.R. (Shelly R.); McGarvey, S.T. (Stephen T.); McKee, M. (Martin); S. McLachlan (Stela); McLean, R.M. (Rachael M.); McNulty, B.A. (Breige A.); Yusof, S.M. (Safiah Md); Mediene-Benchekor, S. (Sounnia); A. Meirhaeghe (Aline); C. Meisinger (Christa); Menezes, A.M.B. (Ana Maria B.); Mensink, G.B.M. (Gert B. M.); Meshram, I.I. (Indrapal I.); A. Metspalu (Andres); J. Mi (Jie); K.F. Michaelsen; Mikkel, K. (Kairit); Miller, J.C. (Jody C.); Miquel, J.F. (Juan Francisco); Jaime Miranda, J.; Mišigoj-Durakovic, M. (Marjeta); Mohamed, M.K. (Mostafa K.); K. Mohammad (Kazem); Mohammadifard, N. (Noushin); V. Mohan (Viswanathan); Yusoff, M.F.M. (Muhammad Fadhli Mohd); Molbo, D. (Drude); Møller, N.C. (Niels C.); Molnár, D. (Dénes); Mondo, C.K. (Charles K.); Monterrubio, E.A. (Eric A.); Monyeki, K.D.K. (Kotsedi Daniel K.); Moreira, L.B. (Leila B.); Morejon, A. (Alain); Moreno, L.A. (Luis A.); Morgan, K. (Karen); Mortensen, E.L. (Erik Lykke); G. Moschonis; Mossakowska, M. (Malgorzata); Mostafa, A. (Aya); Mota, J. (Jorge); Motlagh, M.E. (Mohammad Esmaeel); Motta, J. (Jorge); Mu, T.T. (Thet Thet); M.L. Muiesan (Maria Lorenza); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); Murphy, N. (Neil); Mursu, J. (Jaakko); Murtagh, E.M. (Elaine M.); Musa, K.I. (Kamarul Imran); Musil, V. (Vera); Nagel, G. (Gabriele); Nakamura, H. (Harunobu); Námešná, J. (Jana); Nang, E.E.K. (Ei Ei K.); M. Nangia (Monika); Nankap, M. (Martin); Narake, S. (Sameer); E.M. Navarrete-Muñoz; Neal, W.A. (William A.); Nenko, I. (Ilona); Neovius, M. (Martin); Nervi, F. (Flavio); Neuhauser, H.K. (Hannelore K.); Nguyen, N.D. (Nguyen D.); Nguyen, Q.N. (Quang Ngoc); Nieto-Martínez, R.E. (Ramfis E.); Ning, G. (Guang); T. Ninomiya (Toshiharu); Nishtar, S. (Sania); Noale, M. (Marianna); Norat, T. (Teresa); Noto, D. (Davide); Nsour, M.A. (Mohannad Al); O’Reilly, D. (Dermot); Oh, K. (Kyungwon); Olayan, I.H. (Iman H.); Olinto, M.T.A. (Maria Teresa Anselmo); Oltarzewski, M. (Maciej); Omar, M.A. (Mohd A.); A. Onat (Altan); Ordunez, P. (Pedro); Ortiz, A.P. (Ana P.); Osler, M. (Merete); Osmond, C. (Clive); Ostojic, S.M. (Sergej M.); Otero, J.A. (Johanna A.); K. Overvad (Kim); E. Owusu-Dabo (Ellis); Paccaud, F.M. (Fred Michel); Padez, C. (Cristina); Pahomova, E. (Elena); A. Pajak (Andrzej); D. Palli (Domenico); Palloni, A. (Alberto); Palmieri, L. (Luigi); S. Panda-Jonas (Songhomitra); F. Panza (Francesco); Parnell, W.R. (Winsome R.); Parsaeian, M. (Mahboubeh); Pecin, I. (Ivan); Pednekar, M.S. (Mangesh S.); P.H.M. Peeters; Peixoto, S.V. (Sergio Viana); Peltonen, M. (Markku); A. Pereira (A.); Pérez, C.M. (Cynthia M.); A. Peters; Petkeviciene, J. (Janina); Peykari, N. (Niloofar); Pham, S.T. (Son Thai); Pigeot, I. (Iris); H. Pikhart (Hynek); Pilav, A. (Aida); A. Pilotto (Alberto); Pistelli, F. (Francesco); Pitakaka, F. (Freda); Piwonska, A. (Aleksandra); Plans-Rubió, P. (Pedro); Poh, B.K. (Bee Koon); M. Porta; M.L.P. Portegies (Marileen); Poulimeneas, D. (Dimitrios); Pradeepa, R. (Rajendra); Prashant, M. (Mathur); J.F. Price (Jackie F.); Puiu, M. (Maria); M. Punab (Margus); Qasrawi, R.F. (Radwan F.); Qorbani, M. (Mostafa); Bao, T.Q. (Tran Quoc); Radic, I. (Ivana); Radisauskas, R. (Ricardas); Rahman, M.-M. (Mah-mudur); O. Raitakari (Olli); Raj, M. (Manu); Rao, S.R. (Sudha Ramachandra); Ramachandran, A. (Ambady); Ramke, J. (Jacqueline); Ramos, R. (Rafel); Rampal, S. (Sanjay); Rasmussen, F. (Finn); J. Redón (Josep); Reganit, P.F.M. (Paul Ferdinand M.); Ribeiro, R. (Robespierre); Riboli, E. (Elio); Rigo, F. (Fernando); T.F. Rinke de Wit (Tobias); Ritti-Dias, R.M. (Raphael M.); Rivera, J.A. (Juan A.); S.M. Robinson (Siân); Robitaille, C. (Cynthia); F. Rodríguez Artalejo (Fernando); Del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez, M. (María); Rodríguez-Villamizar, L.A. (Laura A.); Rojas-Martinez, R. (Rosalba); Rojroong-Wasinkul, N. (Nipa); Romaguera, D. (Dora); K. Ronkainen (Kimmo); A. Rosengren (Annika); Rouse, I. (Ian); Rubinstein, A. (Adolfo); Rühli, F.J. (Frank J.); Rui, O. (Ornelas); Ruiz-Betancourt, B.S. (Blanca Sandra); Russo Horimoto, A.R.V. (Andrea R. V.); Rutkowski, M. (Marcin); C. Sabanayagam (Charumathi); Sachdev, H.S. (Harshpal S.); Saidi, O. (Olfa); Salanave, B. (Benoit); Martinez, E.S. (Eduardo Salazar); V. Salomaa (Veikko); Salonen, J.T. (Jukka T.); M. Salvetti (Massimo); Sánchez-Abanto, J. (Jose); Sandjaja,; S. Sans (Susana); Santos, D.A. (Diana A.); Santos, O. (Osvaldo); Dos Santos, R.N. (Renata Nunes); Santos, R. (Rute); J. Saramies (Jouko); Sardinha, L.B. (Luis B.); Sarrafzadegan, N. (Nizal); Saum, K.-U. (Kai-Uwe); S. Savva; Scazufca, M. (Marcia); Rosario, A.S. (Angelika Schaffrath); Schargrodsky, H. (Herman); Schienkiewitz, A. (Anja); Schmidt, I.M. (Ida Maria); I.J.C. Schneider (Ione J C); C. Schultsz (Constance); Schutte, A.E. (Aletta E.); Sein, A.A. (Aye Aye); Sen, A. (Abhijit); Senbanjo, I.O. (Idowu O.); S.G. Sepanlou (Sadaf G); Shalnova, S.A. (Svetlana A.); Sharma, S.K. (Sanjib K.); J.E. Shaw; K. Shibuya (Kenji); Shin, D.W. (Dong Wook); Y. Shin (Youchan); R. Shiri (Rahman); R. Siantar (Rosalynn); Sibai, A.M. (Abla M.); Silva, A.M. (Antonio M.); Silva, D.A.S. (Diego Augusto Santos); Simon, M. (Mary); J. Simons (Judith); L.A. Simons (Leon); Sjostrom, M. (Michael); J. Slowikowska-Hilczer (Jolanta); Slusarczyk, P. (Przemyslaw); L. Smeeth (Liam); Smith, M.C. (Margaret C.); M.B. Snijder (Marieke); So, H.-K. (Hung-Kwan); Sobngwi, E. (Eugène); S. Söderberg (Stefan); Soekatri, M.Y.E. (Moesijanti Y. E.); Solfrizzi, V. (Vincenzo); E. Sonestedt (Emily); Song, Y. (Yi); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); Soric, M. (Maroje); Jérome, C.S. (Charles Sossa); Soumare, A. (Aicha); J.A. Staessen (Jan); Starc, G. (Gregor); Stathopoulou, M.G. (Maria G.); Staub, K. (Kaspar); Stavreski, B. (Bill); Steene-Johannessen, J. (Jostein); Stehle, P. (Peter); Stein, A.D. (Aryeh D.); Stergiou, G.S. (George S.); Stessman, J. (Jochanan); Stieber, J. (Jutta); D. Stöckl (Doris); Stocks, T. (Tanja); Stokwiszewski, J. (Jakub); Stratton, G. (Gareth); K. Stronks (Karien); Strufaldi, M.W. (Maria Wany); Sun, C.-A. (Chien-An); Sundström, J. (Johan); Sung, Y.-T. (Yn-Tz); J. Sunyer (Jordi); Suriyawongpaisal, P. (Paibul); Swinburn, B.A. (Boyd A.); Sy, R.G. (Rody G.); Szponar, L. (Lucjan); E. Shyong Tai; M.L. Tammesoo; A. Tamosiunas (Abdonas); Tang, L. (Line); Tang, X. (Xun); F. Tanser (Frank); Tao, Y. (Yong); Tarawneh, M.R. (Mohammed Rasoul); Tarp, J. (Jakob); Tarqui-Mamani, C.B. (Carolina B.); Taylor, A. (Anne); Tchibindat, F. (Félicité); Theobald, H. (Holger); L. Thijs (Lutgarde); L. Thuesen (Leif); A. Tjønneland (Anne); Tolonen, H.K. (Hanna K.); Tolstrup, J.S. (Janne S.); Topbas, M. (Murat); Topór-Madry, R. (Roman); M. Torrent (Maties); Toselli, S. (Stefania); Traissac, P. (Pierre); A. Trichopoulou (Antonia); Trichopoulos, D. (Dimitrios); Trinh, O.T.H. (Oanh T. H.); Trivedi, A. (Atul); Tshepo, L. (Lechaba); Tulloch-Reid, M.K. (Marshall K.); Tuomainen, T.-P. (Tomi-Pekka); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); Turley, M.L. (Maria L.); Tynelius, P. (Per); Tzotzas, T. (Themistoklis); C. Tzourio (Christophe); Ueda, P. (Peter); Ukoli, F.A.M. (Flora A. M.); Ulmer, H. (Hanno); Unal, B. (Belgin); Uusitalo, H.M.T. (Hannu M. T.); Valdivia, G. (Gonzalo); Vale, S. (Susana); D. Valvi (Damaskini); Y.T. van der Schouw (Yvonne); Van Herck, K. (Koen); Van Minh, H. (Hoang); L. van Rossem (Lenie); I. van Valkengoed (Irene); D. Vanderschueren (Dirk); D. Vanuzzo (Diego); L. Vatten (Lars); Vega, T. (Tomas); Velasquez-Melendez, G. (Gustavo); G. Veronesi (Giovanni); Monique Verschuren, W.M.; Verstraeten, R. (Roosmarijn); Victora, C.G. (Cesar G.); G. Viegi; L. Viet (Lucie); E. Viikari-Juntura (Eira); P. Vineis (Paolo); J. Vioque (Jesus); Virtanen, J.K. (Jyrki K.); S. Visvikis-Siest (Sophie); B. Viswanathan (Bharathi); P. Vollenweider (Peter); Voutilainen, S. (Sari); Vrdoljak, A. (Ana); M. Vrijheid (Martine); Wade, A.N. (Alisha N.); Wagner, A. (Aline); Walton, J. (Janette); Mohamud, W.N.W. (Wan Nazaimoon Wan); Wang, M.-D. (Ming-Dong); Wang, Q. (Qian); Y. Wang (Ying); Goya Wannamethee, S.; N.J. Wareham (Nick); Weerasekera, D. (Deepa); P.H. Whincup (Peter); Widhalm, K. (Kurt); Widyahening, I.S. (Indah S.); Wiecek, A. (Andrzej); A.H. Wijga (Alet); Wilks, R.J. (Rainford J.); J. Willeit (Johann); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); B. Wojtyniak (Bogdan); Wong, J.E. (Jyh Eiin); Wong, T.Y. (Tien Yin); Woo, J. (Jean); M. Woodward (Mark); F.C.W. Wu (Frederick C.); Wu, J. (Jianfeng); Wu, S.L. (Shou Ling); Xu, H. (Haiquan); Xu, L. (Liang); Yamborisut, U. (Uruwan); Yan, W. (Weili); Yang, X. (Xiaoguang); Yardim, N. (Nazan); X. Ye (Xingwang); P.K. Yiallouros (P.); Yoshihara, A. (Akihiro); You, Q.S. (Qi Sheng); Younger-Coleman, N.O. (Novie O.); Yusoff, A.F. (Ahmad F.); Zainuddin, A.A. (Ahmad A.); Zambon, S. (Sabina); T. Zdrojewski (T.); Zeng, Y. (Yi); Zhao, D. (Dong); Zhao, W. (Wenhua); Y. Zheng (Yingfeng); M. Zhou (Ming); Zhu, D. (Dan); E. Zimmermann; Cisneros, J.Z. (Julio Zuñiga)
2016-01-01
textabstractBeing taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The larges
A century of trends in adult human height
Sørensen, Thorkild Ingvor A; Zimmermann, Esther
2016-01-01
in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over...
Quantitative vertebral compression fracture evaluation using a height compass
Yao, Jianhua; Burns, Joseph E.; Wiese, Tatjana; Summers, Ronald M.
2012-03-01
Vertebral compression fractures can be caused by even minor trauma in patients with pathological conditions such as osteoporosis, varying greatly in vertebral body location and compression geometry. The location and morphology of the compression injury can guide decision making for treatment modality (vertebroplasty versus surgical fixation), and can be important for pre-surgical planning. We propose a height compass to evaluate the axial plane spatial distribution of compression injury (anterior, posterior, lateral, and central), and distinguish it from physiologic height variations of normal vertebrae. The method includes four steps: spine segmentation and partition, endplate detection, height compass computation and compression fracture evaluation. A height compass is computed for each vertebra, where the vertebral body is partitioned in the axial plane into 17 cells oriented about concentric rings. In the compass structure, a crown-like geometry is produced by three concentric rings which are divided into 8 equal length arcs by rays which are subtended by 8 common central angles. The radius of each ring increases multiplicatively, with resultant structure of a central node and two concentric surrounding bands of cells, each divided into octants. The height value for each octant is calculated and plotted against octants in neighboring vertebrae. The height compass shows intuitive display of the height distribution and can be used to easily identify the fracture regions. Our technique was evaluated on 8 thoraco-abdominal CT scans of patients with reported compression fractures and showed statistically significant differences in height value at the sites of the fractures.
Socioeconomic development and secular trend in height in China.
Zong, Xin-Nan; Li, Hui; Wu, Hua-Hong; Zhang, Ya-Qin
2015-12-01
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of socioeconomic development on secular trend in height among children and adolescents in China. Body height and spermarcheal/menarcheal ages were obtained from two periodic large-scale national representative surveys in China between 1975 and 2010. Chinese socioeconomic development indicators were obtained from the United Nations world population prospects. The effects of plausible determinants were assessed by partial least-squares regression. The average height of children and adolescents improved in tandem with socioeconomic development, without any tendency to plateau. The increment of height trend presented larger around puberty than earlier or later ages. The partial least-squares regressions with gross national income, life expectancy and spermarcheal/menarcheal age accounted for increment of height trend from 88.3% to 98.3% for males and from 82.9% to 97.3% for females in adolescence. Further, through the analysis of the variable importance for projection, the contributions of gross national income and life expectancy on height increment were confirmed to be significant in childhood and adolescence, and the contribution of spermarcheal/menarcheal age was superior to both of them in adolescence. We concluded that positive secular trend in height in China was significantly associated with socioeconomic status (GNI as indicator) and medical and health conditions (life expectancy as indicator). Earlier onset of spermarche and menarche proved to be an important role in larger increment of the trend over time of height at puberty for a population.
A hierarchical linear model for tree height prediction.
Vicente J. Monleon
2003-01-01
Measuring tree height is a time-consuming process. Often, tree diameter is measured and height is estimated from a published regression model. Trees used to develop these models are clustered into stands, but this structure is ignored and independence is assumed. In this study, hierarchical linear models that account explicitly for the clustered structure of the data...
Statistical distribution of nonlinear random wave height in shallow water
无
2010-01-01
Here we present a statistical model of random wave,using Stokes wave theory of water wave dynamics,as well as a new nonlinear probability distribution function of wave height in shallow water.It is more physically logical to use the wave steepness of shallow water and the factor of shallow water as the parameters in the wave height distribution.The results indicate that the two parameters not only could be parameters of the distribution function of wave height but also could reflect the degree of wave height distribution deviation from the Rayleigh distribution.The new wave height distribution overcomes the problem of Rayleigh distribution that the prediction of big wave is overestimated and the general wave is underestimated.The prediction of small probability wave height value of new distribution is also smaller than that of Rayleigh distribution.The effect of wave steepness in shallow water is similar to that in deep water;but the factor of shallow water lowers the wave height distribution of the general wave with the reduced factor of wave steepness.It also makes the wave height distribution of shallow water more centralized.The results indicate that the new distribution fits the in situ measurements much better than other distributions.
A century of trends in adult human height
Bentham, J. (James); Di Cesare, M. (Mariachiara); Stevens, G.A. (Gretchen A.); Zhou, B. (Bin); Bixby, H. (Honor); Cowan, M. (Melanie); Fortunato, L. (Léa); Bennett, J.E. (James E.); G. Danaei (Goodarz); Hajifathalian, K. (Kaveh); Lu, Y. (Yuan); Riley, L.M. (Leanne M.); Laxmaiah, A. (Avula); Kontis, V. (Vasilis); Paciorek, C.J. (Christopher J.); M. Ezzati (Majid); Abdeen, Z.A. (Ziad A.); Hamid, Z.A. (Zargar Abdul); Abu-Rmeileh, N.M. (Niveen M.); Acosta-Cazares, B. (Benjamin); Adams, R. (Robert); Aekplakorn, W. (Wichai); C.A. Aguilar-Salinas (Carlos A.); C.O. Agyemang (Charles); Ahmadvand, A. (Alireza); W. Ahrens (W.); Al-Hazzaa, H.M. (Hazzaa M.); Al-Othman, A.R. (Amani Rashed); Raddadi, R.A. (Rajaa Al); Ali, M.M. (Mohamed M.); Alkerwi, A. (Ala’a); M. Alvarez-Pedrerol (Mar); Aly, E. (Eman); P. Amouyel (Philippe); A. Amuzu (Antoinette); Andersen, L.B. (Lars Bo); Anderssen, S.A. (Sigmund A.); Anjana, R.M. (Ranjit Mohan); Aounallah-Skhiri, H. (Hajer); Ariansen, I. (Inger); Aris, T. (Tahir); Arlappa, N. (Nimmathota); Arveiler, D. (Dominique); Assah, F.K. (Felix K.); Avdicová, M. (Mária); J. Azizi (Joshan); Babu, B.V. (Bontha V.); Bahijri, S. (Suhad); Balakrishna, N. (Nagalla); Bandosz, P. (Piotr); Banegas, J.R. (José R.); Barbagallo, C.M. (Carlo M.); Barceló, A. (Alberto); Barkat, A. (Amina); Barros, M.V. (Mauro V.); Bata, I. (Iqbal); Batieha, A.M. (Anwar M.); Batista, R.L. (Rosangela L.); Baur, L.A. (Louise A.); Beaglehole, R. (Robert); Romdhane, H.B. (Habiba Ben); Benet, M. (Mikhail); Bernabe-Ortiz, A. (Antonio); Bernotiene, G. (Gailute); Bettiol, H. (Heloisa); Bhagyalaxmi, A. (Aroor); Bharadwaj, S. (Sumit); Bhargava, S.K. (Santosh K.); Bhatti, Z. (Zaid); Z.A. Bhutta (Zulfiqar A); Bi, H. (Hongsheng); Bi, Y. (Yufang); Bjerregaard, P. (Peter); Bjertness, E. (Espen); Bjertness, M.B. (Marius B.); Björkelund, C. (Cecilia); Blokstra, A. (Anneke); Bo, S. (Simona); M. Bobak (Martin); Boddy, L.M. (Lynne M.); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); H. Boeing (Heiner); Boissonnet, C.P. (Carlos P.); Bongard, V. (Vanina); P. Bovet (Pascal); Braeckman, L. (Lutgart); Bragt, M.C.E. (Marjolijn C. E.); Brajkovich, I. (Imperia); Branca, F. (Francesco); Breckenkamp, J. (Juergen); H. Brenner (Hermann); L.M. Brewster (Lizzy); Brian, G.R. (Garry R.); Bruno, G. (Graziella); Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B. (H. Bas); Bugge, A. (Anna); Burns, C. (Con); De León, A.C. (Antonio Cabrera); Cacciottolo, J. (Joseph); Cama, T. (Tilema); Cameron, C. (Christine); Camolas, J. (José); G. Can (Günay); Cândido, A.P.C. (Ana Paula C.); Capuano, V. (Vincenzo); Cardoso, V.C. (Viviane C.); Carlsson, A.C. (Axel C.); Carvalho, M.J. (Maria J.); Casanueva, F.F. (Felipe F.); J.P. Casas (Juan Pablo); Caserta, C.A. (Carmelo A.); Chamukuttan, S. (Snehalatha); A.W.M. Chan (Angelique); Chan, Q. (Queenie); Chaturvedi, H.K. (Himanshu K.); Chaturvedi, N. (Nishi); Chen, C.-J. (Chien-Jen); Chen, F. (Fangfang); Chen, H. (Huashuai); Chen, S. (Shuohua); Chen, Z. (Zhengming); Cheng, C.-Y. (Ching-Yu); A. Chetrit (Angela); Chiolero, A. (Arnaud); Chiou, S.-T. (Shu-Ti); Chirita-Emandi, A. (Adela); Cho, B. (Belong); Cho, Y. (Yumi); Christensen, K. (Kaare); Chudek, J. (Jerzy); R. Cifkova (Renata); F. Claessens; E. Clays (Els); Concin, H. (Hans); C. Cooper (Charles); Cooper, R. (Rachel); Coppinger, T.C. (Tara C.); Costanzo, S. (Simona); D. Cottel (Dominique); Cowell, C. (Chris); Craig, C.L. (Cora L.); Crujeiras, A.B. (Ana B.); D’Arrigo, G. (Graziella); d’Orsi, E. (Eleonora); J. Dallongeville; Damasceno, A. (Albertino); Damsgaard, C.T. (Camilla T.); Dankner, R. (Rachel); Dauchet, L. (Luc); G. De Backer (Guy); D. De Bacquer (Dirk); de Gaetano, G. (Giovanni); De Henauw, S. (Stefaan); D. De Smedt (Delphine); Deepa, M. (Mohan); Deev, A.D. (Alexander D.); A. Dehghan (Abbas); Delisle, H. (Hélène); Delpeuch, F. (Francis); Deschamps, V. (Valérie); K. Dhana (Klodian); Di Castelnuovo, A.F. (Augusto F.); Dias-da-Costa, J.S. (Juvenal Soares); Diaz, A. (Alejandro); Djalalinia, S. (Shirin); Do, H.T.P. (Ha T. P.); Dobson, A.J. (Annette J.); C. Donfrancesco (Chiara); Donoso, S.P. (Silvana P.); A. Döring (Angela); Doua, K. (Kouamelan); Drygas, W. (Wojciech); Dzerve, V. (Vilnis); Egbagbe, E.E. (Eruke E.); Eggertsen, R. (Robert); U. Ekelund (Ulf); El Ati, J. (Jalila); P. Elliott (Paul); Engle-Stone, R. (Reina); Erasmus, R.T. (Rajiv T.); Erem, C. (Cihangir); Eriksen, L. (Louise); Escobedo-de la Peña, J. (Jorge); A. Evans (Alun); Faeh, D. (David); Fall, C.H. (Caroline H.)
2016-01-01
textabstractBeing taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The
Measuring perceived ceiling height in a visual comparison task.
von Castell, Christoph; Hecht, Heiko; Oberfeld, Daniel
2017-03-01
When judging interior space, a dark ceiling is judged to be lower than a light ceiling. The method of metric judgments (e.g., on a centimetre scale) that has typically been used in such tasks may reflect a genuine perceptual effect or it may reflect a cognitively mediated impression. We employed a height-matching method in which perceived ceiling height had to be matched with an adjustable pillar, thus obtaining psychometric functions that allowed for an estimation of the point of subjective equality (PSE) and the difference limen (DL). The height-matching method developed in this paper allows for a direct visual match and does not require metric judgment. It has the added advantage of providing superior precision. Experiment 1 used ceiling heights between 2.90 m and 3.00 m. The PSE proved sensitive to slight changes in perceived ceiling height. The DL was about 3% of the physical ceiling height. Experiment 2 found similar results for lower (2.30 m to 2.50 m) and higher (3.30 m to 3.50 m) ceilings. In Experiment 3, we additionally varied ceiling lightness (light grey vs. dark grey). The height matches showed that the light ceiling appeared significantly higher than the darker ceiling. We therefore attribute the influence of ceiling lightness on perceived ceiling height to a direct perceptual rather than a cognitive effect.
Passion, Anguish and Revenge--On Emily Brontes Wuthering Heights
张美玉
2001-01-01
Wuthering Heights, Emilys only novel, is unique in its fascinating and compelling portrait of the distinct individuality of the characters. Emily, in Wuthering Heights,reveals her intense awareness of conflict. She gives the powerful expression of passion, anguish and revenge
Birth Weight and Length as Predictors for Adult Height
Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Sabroe, Svend; Rothman, Kenneth J.;
1999-01-01
Adult height has been found to be inversely associated with mortality. Recently, it has been suggested that growth in utero is linked with adult risk of several chronic diseases. The authors examined possible associations between birth weight, birth length, and adult height in young Danish men. T...
Growth and final height after liver transplantation during childhood
Scheenstra, Rene; Gerver, Willem Jan; Odink, Roelof J.; van Soest, Hanneke; Peelers, Paul M. J. G.; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.
2008-01-01
Objective: To evaluate the effect of end-stage pediatric liver disease and liver transplantation on growth and final height. Patients and Methods: We evaluated growth at 2 years (n = 101) and 5 years (n = 63) after pediatric liver transplantation (LTx). Twenty-three children reached final height. He
High and mighty : Height increases authority in professional refereeing
Stulp, Gert; Buunk, Abraham P.; Verhulst, Simon; Pollet, Thomas V.
2012-01-01
Throughout the animal kingdom, larger males are more likely to attain social dominance. Several lines of evidence suggest that this relationship extends to humans, as height is positively related to dominance, status and authority. We hypothesized that height is also a determinant of authority in
Height among Women is Curvilinearly Related to Life History Strategy
Abraham P. Buunk
2009-10-01
Full Text Available It was hypothesized that women of medium height would show a more secure, long-term mating pattern characterized by less jealousy, less intrasexual competition and a “slower” life history strategy. In three samples of female undergraduate students clear support was found for these hypotheses. In Study 1, among 120 participants, height was curvilinearly related to well-established measures of possessive and reactive jealousy, with women of medium height being less jealous than tall as well as short women. In Study 2, among 40 participants, height was curvilinearly related to intrasexual competition, with women of medium height being less competitive towards other women than tall as well as short women. In Study 3, among 299 participants, height was curvilinearly related to the Mini-K, a well-validated measure of “slower” life history strategy, with women of medium height having a slower life history strategy than tall as well as short women. The results suggest that women of medium height tend to follow a different mating strategy than either tall or short women. Various explanations and implications of these results are discussed.
Production and optimization of biodiesel using mixed immobilized biocatalysts in packed bed reactor.
Bakkiyaraj, S; Syed, Mahin Basha; Devanesan, M G; Thangavelu, Viruthagiri
2016-05-01
Vegetable oils are used as raw materials for biodiesel production using transesterification reaction. Several methods for the production of biodiesel were developed using chemical (alkali and acidic compounds) and biological catalysts (lipases). Biodiesel production catalyzed by lipases is energy and cost-saving processes and is carried out at normal temperature and pressure. The need for an efficient method for screening larger number of variables has led to the adoption of statistical experimental design. In the present study, packed bed reactor was designed to study with mixed immobilized biocatalysts to have higher productivity under optimum conditions. Contrary to the single-step acyl migration mechanism, a two-step stepwise reaction mechanism involving immobilized Candida rugosa lipase and immobilized Rhizopus oryzae cells was employed for the present work. This method was chosen because enzymatic hydrolysis followed by esterification can tolerate high free fatty acid containing oils. The effects of flow rate and bed height on biodiesel yield were studied using two factors five-level central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM). Maximum biodiesel yield of 85 and 81 % was obtained for jatropha oil and karanja oil with the optimum bed height and optimum flow rate of 32.6 cm and 1.35 L/h, and 32.6 cm and 1.36 L/h, respectively.
Predicting tree heights for biomass estimates in tropical forests
Q. Molto
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The recent development of REDD+ mechanisms require reliable estimation of carbon stocks, especially in tropical forests that are particularly threatened by global changes. Even if tree height is a crucial variable to compute the above-ground forest biomass, tree heights are rarely measured in large-scale forest census because it requires consequent extra-effort. Tree height have thus to be predicted thanks to height models. Height and diameter of all trees above 10 cm of diameter were measured in thirty-three half-ha plots and nine one-ha plots throughout the northern French Guiana, an area with substantial climate and environmental gradients. We compared four different model shapes and found that the Michaelis–Menten shape was the most appropriate for the tree biomass prediction. Model parameters values were significantly different from one forest plot to another and neglecting these differences would lead to large errors in biomass estimates. Variables from the forest stand structure explained a sufficient part of the plot-to-plot variations of the height model parameters to affect the AGB predictions. In the forest stands dominated by small trees, the trees were found to have rapid height growth for small diameters. In forest stands dominated by larger trees, the trees were found to have the greatest heights for large diameters. The above-ground biomass estimation uncertainty of the forest plots was reduced by the use of the forest structure-based height model. It demonstrates the feasibility and the importance of height modeling in tropical forest for carbon mapping. Tree height is definitely an important variable for AGB estimations. When the tree heights are not measured in an inventory, they can be predicted with a height-diameter model. This model can account for plot-to plot variations in height-diameter relationship thank to variables describing the plots. The variables describing the stand structure of the plots are efficient for
Research on ionospheric tomography based on variable pixel height
Zheng, Dunyong; Li, Peiqing; He, Jie; Hu, Wusheng; Li, Chaokui
2016-05-01
A novel ionospheric tomography technique based on variable pixel height was developed for the tomographic reconstruction of the ionospheric electron density distribution. The method considers the height of each pixel as an unknown variable, which is retrieved during the inversion process together with the electron density values. In contrast to conventional computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT), which parameterizes the model with a fixed pixel height, the variable-pixel-height computerized ionospheric tomography (VHCIT) model applies a disturbance to the height of each pixel. In comparison with conventional CIT models, the VHCIT technique achieved superior results in a numerical simulation. A careful validation of the reliability and superiority of VHCIT was performed. According to the results of the statistical analysis of the average root mean square errors, the proposed model offers an improvement by 15% compared with conventional CIT models.
The effect of stimulus height on visual discrimination in horses.
Hall, C A; Cassaday, H J; Derrington, A M
2003-07-01
This study investigated the effect of stimulus height on the ability of horses to learn a simple visual discrimination task. Eight horses were trained to perform a two-choice, black/white discrimination with stimuli presented at one of two heights: ground level or at a height of 70 cm from the ground. The height at which the stimuli were presented was alternated from one session to the next. All trials within a single session were presented at the same height. The criterion for learning was four consecutive sessions of 70% correct responses. Performance was found to be better when stimuli were presented at ground level with respect to the number of trials taken to reach the criterion (P discrimination could be enhanced by placing the stimuli on the ground. In addition, the results of the present study suggest that the visual appearance of ground surfaces is an important factor in both horse management and training.
Pressure Interaction of Mixing Particulate Material Along the Blade Length
Peciar Peter; Peciar Marián; Fekete Roman; Úradníček Juraj
2015-01-01
To assess the energy intensity of particulate materials mixing, it is necessary to know the state of stress in the particulate material in front of mixing elements. The theoretical background of this process results from the theory of the equilibrium limit of the particulate material, and this state may by described by Mohr’s circle theory and the Novosad model. Based on the above assumptions, it is possible to derive the pressure distribution along the blade height, but only for an infinitel...
The maximum rotation of a galactic disc
Bottema, R
1997-01-01
The observed stellar velocity dispersions of galactic discs show that the maximum rotation of a disc is on average 63% of the observed maximum rotation. This criterion can, however, not be applied to small or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies because such systems show, in general, a continuously rising rotation curve until the outermost measured radial position. That is why a general relation has been derived, giving the maximum rotation for a disc depending on the luminosity, surface brightness, and colour of the disc. As a physical basis of this relation serves an adopted fixed mass-to-light ratio as a function of colour. That functionality is consistent with results from population synthesis models and its absolute value is determined from the observed stellar velocity dispersions. The derived maximum disc rotation is compared with a number of observed maximum rotations, clearly demonstrating the need for appreciable amounts of dark matter in the disc region and even more so for LSB galaxies. Matters h...
Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors
Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.; Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C.
2014-06-01
Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (Ic) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the Ic degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.
Computing Rooted and Unrooted Maximum Consistent Supertrees
van Iersel, Leo
2009-01-01
A chief problem in phylogenetics and database theory is the computation of a maximum consistent tree from a set of rooted or unrooted trees. A standard input are triplets, rooted binary trees on three leaves, or quartets, unrooted binary trees on four leaves. We give exact algorithms constructing rooted and unrooted maximum consistent supertrees in time O(2^n n^5 m^2 log(m)) for a set of m triplets (quartets), each one distinctly leaf-labeled by some subset of n labels. The algorithms extend to weighted triplets (quartets). We further present fast exact algorithms for constructing rooted and unrooted maximum consistent trees in polynomial space. Finally, for a set T of m rooted or unrooted trees with maximum degree D and distinctly leaf-labeled by some subset of a set L of n labels, we compute, in O(2^{mD} n^m m^5 n^6 log(m)) time, a tree distinctly leaf-labeled by a maximum-size subset X of L that all trees in T, when restricted to X, are consistent with.
Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection
McGarr, Arthur F.
2014-01-01
Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.
Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection
McGarr, A.
2014-02-01
Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.
Jennifer L. R. Jensen
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We examine the utility of Structure from Motion (SfM point cloud products to generate a digital terrain model (DTM and estimate canopy heights in a woodland ecosystem in the Texas Hill Country, USA. Very high spatial resolution images were acquired with a Canon PowerShot A800 digital camera mounted on an unmanned aerial system. Image mosaicking and dense point matching were accomplished using Agisoft PhotoScan. The resulting point cloud was classified according to ground/non-ground classes and used to interpolate a high resolution DTM which was both compared to a DTM from an existing lidar dataset and used to model vegetation height for fifteen 20 × 20 m plots. Differences in the interpolated DTM surfaces demonstrate that the SfM surface overestimates lidar-modeled ground height with a mean difference of 0.19 m and standard deviation of 0.66 m. Height estimates obtained solely from SfM products were successful with R2 values of 0.91, 0.90, and 0.89 for mean, median, and maximum canopy height, respectively. Use of the lidar DTM in the analyses resulted in R2 values of 0.90, 0.89, and 0.89 for mean, median, and maximum canopy height. Our results suggest that SfM-derived point cloud products function as well as lidar data for estimating vegetation canopy height for our specific study area.
A STUDY OF EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SPINE INJURY IN FALL FROM HEIGHT
Amel Antony
2016-09-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND This study puts in a sincere effort to study the spinal cord injuries in cases of fall from height. This study is intended to help the fellow radiologists to identify and thus help the individuals to cut down the progression of the disease. Identifying the spinal trauma and its clinic - epidemiological aspects will help further the practicing clinicians. The study can also help in formulation of preventive measures and putting forward management protocols in cases of spinal injury. METHODS This study was done in the Department of Radiology, Travancore Medical College, Kollam. This study was done from June 2104 to march 2016. Thirty two cases were identified and were taken up for the study. INCLUSION CRITERIA Spinal injuries following fall from height. EXCLUSION CRITERIA 1. Other spinal pathologies were not considered for the study. 2. Diabetic patients were excluded. RESULTS In the present study male sex amounted to ninety percent which amounted to twenty nine cases of spinal injury followed by female sex which amounted to ten percent which amounted to three cases. The age wise distribution of cases showed that age group of twenty to forty years showed maximum number of cases which amounted to sixteen admissions followed by age group of forty to sixty years which amounted to seven cases followed by age group of zero to twenty years which amounted to five cases, followed by age group of more than sixty years which amounted to four cases. Based on approximate height from which the fall occurred seventeen cases fell from the height of more than twenty feet, followed by nine cases which fell from the height of ten to twenty feet and six cases fell from the height of less than ten feet. The CT scan showed that eighteen cases had displaced spinal fractures followed by forteen cases which had undisplaced spinal fractures. Cord injury was seen in six cases. Based on the level of spine injury twenty six cases had lumbar spine injury, eleven
Healthy adults maximum oxygen uptake prediction from a six minute walking test
Nury Nusdwinuringtyas
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Background: A parameter is needed in medical activities or services to determine functional capacity. This study is aimed to produce functional capacity parameter for Indonesian adult as maximum O2.Methods: This study used 123 Indonesian healthy adult subjects (58 males and 65 females with a sedentary lifestyle, using a cross-sectional method.Results: Designed by using the followings: distance, body height, body weight, sex, age, maximum heart rate of six minute walking test and lung capacity (FEV and FVC, the study revealed a good correlation (except body weight with maximum O2. Three new formulas were proposed, which consisted of eight, six, and five variable respectively. Test of the new formula gave result of maximum O2 that is relevant to the golden standard maximum O2 using Cosmed® C-Pex.Conclusion: The Nury formula is the appropriate predictor of maximum oxygen uptake for healthy Indonesians adult as it is designed using Indonesian subjects (Mongoloid compared to the Cahalin’s formula (Caucasian. The Nury formula which consists of five variables is more applicable because it does not require any measurement tools neither specific competency. (Med J Indones 2011;20:195-200Keywords: maximum O2, Nury’s formula, six minute walking test
Bravo-Oviedo, Andres; Pretzsch, Hans; Ammer, Christian;
2014-01-01
Aim of study: We aim at (i) developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii) review the research perspectives in mixed forests. Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide. Material...... and Methods: Review of existent definitions of mixed forests based and literature review encompassing dynamics, management and economic valuation of mixed forests. Main results: A mixed forest is defined as a forest unit, excluding linear formations, where at least two tree species coexist at any...... density in mixed forests, (iii) conversion of monocultures to mixed-species forest and (iv) economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by mixed forests. Research highlights: The definition is considered a high-level one which encompasses previous attempts to define mixed forests. Current fields...
Weighted Maximum-a-Posteriori Estimation in Tests Composed of Dichotomous and Polytomous Items
Sun, Shan-Shan; Tao, Jian; Chang, Hua-Hua; Shi, Ning-Zhong
2012-01-01
For mixed-type tests composed of dichotomous and polytomous items, polytomous items often yield more information than dichotomous items. To reflect the difference between the two types of items and to improve the precision of ability estimation, an adaptive weighted maximum-a-posteriori (WMAP) estimation is proposed. To evaluate the performance of…
Weighted Maximum-a-Posteriori Estimation in Tests Composed of Dichotomous and Polytomous Items
Sun, Shan-Shan; Tao, Jian; Chang, Hua-Hua; Shi, Ning-Zhong
2012-01-01
For mixed-type tests composed of dichotomous and polytomous items, polytomous items often yield more information than dichotomous items. To reflect the difference between the two types of items and to improve the precision of ability estimation, an adaptive weighted maximum-a-posteriori (WMAP) estimation is proposed. To evaluate the performance of…
Maximum Multiflow in Wireless Network Coding
Zhou, Jin-Yi; Jiang, Yong; Zheng, Hai-Tao
2012-01-01
In a multihop wireless network, wireless interference is crucial to the maximum multiflow (MMF) problem, which studies the maximum throughput between multiple pairs of sources and sinks. In this paper, we observe that network coding could help to decrease the impacts of wireless interference, and propose a framework to study the MMF problem for multihop wireless networks with network coding. Firstly, a network model is set up to describe the new conflict relations modified by network coding. Then, we formulate a linear programming problem to compute the maximum throughput and show its superiority over one in networks without coding. Finally, the MMF problem in wireless network coding is shown to be NP-hard and a polynomial approximation algorithm is proposed.
Jiang Zhu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Some delta-nabla type maximum principles for second-order dynamic equations on time scales are proved. By using these maximum principles, the uniqueness theorems of the solutions, the approximation theorems of the solutions, the existence theorem, and construction techniques of the lower and upper solutions for second-order linear and nonlinear initial value problems and boundary value problems on time scales are proved, the oscillation of second-order mixed delat-nabla differential equations is discussed and, some maximum principles for second order mixed forward and backward difference dynamic system are proved.
The Wiener maximum quadratic assignment problem
Cela, Eranda; Woeginger, Gerhard J
2011-01-01
We investigate a special case of the maximum quadratic assignment problem where one matrix is a product matrix and the other matrix is the distance matrix of a one-dimensional point set. We show that this special case, which we call the Wiener maximum quadratic assignment problem, is NP-hard in the ordinary sense and solvable in pseudo-polynomial time. Our approach also yields a polynomial time solution for the following problem from chemical graph theory: Find a tree that maximizes the Wiener index among all trees with a prescribed degree sequence. This settles an open problem from the literature.
Maximum confidence measurements via probabilistic quantum cloning
Zhang Wen-Hai; Yu Long-Bao; Cao Zhuo-Liang; Ye Liu
2013-01-01
Probabilistic quantum cloning (PQC) cannot copy a set of linearly dependent quantum states.In this paper,we show that if incorrect copies are allowed to be produced,linearly dependent quantum states may also be cloned by the PQC.By exploiting this kind of PQC to clone a special set of three linearly dependent quantum states,we derive the upper bound of the maximum confidence measure of a set.An explicit transformation of the maximum confidence measure is presented.
Maximum floodflows in the conterminous United States
Crippen, John R.; Bue, Conrad D.
1977-01-01
Peak floodflows from thousands of observation sites within the conterminous United States were studied to provide a guide for estimating potential maximum floodflows. Data were selected from 883 sites with drainage areas of less than 10,000 square miles (25,900 square kilometers) and were grouped into regional sets. Outstanding floods for each region were plotted on graphs, and envelope curves were computed that offer reasonable limits for estimates of maximum floods. The curves indicate that floods may occur that are two to three times greater than those known for most streams.
Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper
Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu
2009-01-01
The strength of polycrystalline materials increases with decreasing grain size. Below a critical size, smaller grains might lead to softening, as suggested by atomistic simulations. The strongest size should arise at a transition in deformation mechanism from lattice dislocation activities to grain...... boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...
The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem
Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.
2006-01-01
Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find...
Maximum entropy analysis of EGRET data
Pohl, M.; Strong, A.W.
1997-01-01
EGRET data are usually analysed on the basis of the Maximum-Likelihood method \\cite{ma96} in a search for point sources in excess to a model for the background radiation (e.g. \\cite{hu97}). This method depends strongly on the quality of the background model, and thus may have high systematic unce...... uncertainties in region of strong and uncertain background like the Galactic Center region. Here we show images of such regions obtained by the quantified Maximum-Entropy method. We also discuss a possible further use of MEM in the analysis of problematic regions of the sky....
Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper
Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu
2009-01-01
The strength of polycrystalline materials increases with decreasing grain size. Below a critical size, smaller grains might lead to softening, as suggested by atomistic simulations. The strongest size should arise at a transition in deformation mechanism from lattice dislocation activities to grain...... boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...
Maximum phytoplankton concentrations in the sea
Jackson, G.A.; Kiørboe, Thomas
2008-01-01
A simplification of plankton dynamics using coagulation theory provides predictions of the maximum algal concentration sustainable in aquatic systems. These predictions have previously been tested successfully against results from iron fertilization experiments. We extend the test to data collected...... in the North Atlantic as part of the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series program as well as data collected off Southern California as part of the Southern California Bight Study program. The observed maximum particulate organic carbon and volumetric particle concentrations are consistent with the predictions...
Grzegorz Teresiński
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Aim of the study : One of the basic issues discussed in forensic literature regarding falls from a height is determination of fall heights and differentiation between suicidal and accidental falls. The aim of the study was to verify the usefulness of the available methods for the purposes of forensic expertises. Material and methods : The study encompassed fatalities of falls from a height whose autopsies were performed in the Department of Forensic Medicine in Lublin. Results : Similarly to other authors, the severity of injuries was assessed using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS and injury severity score (ISS. The study findings demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between the fall height and the severity of injuries according to ISS and a statistically significant difference in fall heights between the groups of accidents and suicides.
Marginal Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Item Response Models in R
Matthew S. Johnson
2007-02-01
Full Text Available Item response theory (IRT models are a class of statistical models used by researchers to describe the response behaviors of individuals to a set of categorically scored items. The most common IRT models can be classified as generalized linear fixed- and/or mixed-effect models. Although IRT models appear most often in the psychological testing literature, researchers in other fields have successfully utilized IRT-like models in a wide variety of applications. This paper discusses the three major methods of estimation in IRT and develops R functions utilizing the built-in capabilities of the R environment to find the marginal maximum likelihood estimates of the generalized partial credit model. The currently available R packages ltm is also discussed.
Psychophysical basis for maximum pushing and pulling forces: A review and recommendations.
Garg, Arun; Waters, Thomas; Kapellusch, Jay; Karwowski, Waldemar
2014-03-01
The objective of this paper was to perform a comprehensive review of psychophysically determined maximum acceptable pushing and pulling forces. Factors affecting pushing and pulling forces are identified and discussed. Recent studies show a significant decrease (compared to previous studies) in maximum acceptable forces for males but not for females when pushing and pulling on a treadmill. A comparison of pushing and pulling forces measured using a high inertia cart with those measured on a treadmill shows that the pushing and pulling forces using high inertia cart are higher for males but are about the same for females. It is concluded that the recommendations of Snook and Ciriello (1991) for pushing and pulling forces are still valid and provide reasonable recommendations for ergonomics practitioners. Regression equations as a function of handle height, frequency of exertion and pushing/pulling distance are provided to estimate maximum initial and sustained forces for pushing and pulling acceptable to 75% male and female workers. At present it is not clear whether pushing or pulling should be favored. Similarly, it is not clear what handle heights would be optimal for pushing and pulling. Epidemiological studies are needed to determine relationships between psychophysically determined maximum acceptable pushing and pulling forces and risk of musculoskeletal injuries, in particular to low back and shoulders.
Improved Approximation for Orienting Mixed Graphs
Gamzu, Iftah
2012-01-01
An instance of the maximum mixed graph orientation problem consists of a mixed graph and a collection of source-target vertex pairs. The objective is to orient the undirected edges of the graph so as to maximize the number of pairs that admit a directed source-target path. This problem has recently arisen in the study of biological networks, and it also has applications in communication networks. In this paper, we identify an interesting local-to-global orientation property. This property enables us to modify the best known algorithms for maximum mixed graph orientation and some of its special structured instances, due to Elberfeld et al. (CPM '11), and obtain improved approximation ratios. We further proceed by developing an algorithm that achieves an even better approximation guarantee for the general setting of the problem. Finally, we study several well-motivated variants of this orientation problem.
Thouvenin, Olivier; Fink, Mathias; Boccara, A. Claude
2017-02-01
Understanding volume regulation during mitosis is technically challenging. Indeed, a very sensitive non invasive imaging over time scales ranging from seconds to hours and over large fields is required. Therefore, Quantitative Phase Imaging (QPI) would be a perfect tool for such a project. However, because of asymmetric protein segregation during mitosis, an efficient separation of the refractive index and the height in the phase signal is required. Even though many strategies to make such a separation have been developed, they usually are difficult to implement, have poor sensitivity, or cannot be performed in living cells, or in a single shot. In this paper, we will discuss the use of a new technique called fluorescence exclusion to perform volume measurements. By coupling such technique with a simultaneous phase measurement, we were also able to recover the refractive index inside the cells. Fluorescence exclusion is a versatile and powerful technique that allows the volume measurement of many types of cells. A fluorescent dye, which cannot penetrate inside the cells, is mixed with the external medium in a confined environment. Therefore, the fluorescent signal depends on the inverse of the object's height. We could demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically that fluorescence exclusion can accurately measure cell volumes, even for cells much higher than the depth of focus of the objective. A local accurate height and RI measurement can also be obtained for smaller cells. We will also discuss the way to optimize the confinement of the observation chamber, either mechanically or optically.
Maximum likelihood estimation of fractionally cointegrated systems
Lasak, Katarzyna
to the equilibrium parameters and the variance-covariance matrix of the error term. We show that using ML principles to estimate jointly all parameters of the fractionally cointegrated system we obtain consistent estimates and provide their asymptotic distributions. The cointegration matrix is asymptotically mixed...
Estimation of Volcanic Ash Plume Top Height using AATSR
Virtanen, Timo; Kolmonen, Pekka; Sogacheva, Larisa; Sundström, Anu-Maija; Rodriguez, Edith; de Leeuw, Gerrit
2015-04-01
The AATSR Correlation Method (ACM) height estimation algorithm is presented. The algorithm uses Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) satellite data to detect volcanic ash plumes and to estimate the plume top height. The height estimate is based on the stereo-viewing capability of the AATSR instrument, which allows to determine the parallax between the satellite's 55° forward and nadir views, and thus the corresponding height. Besides the stereo view, AATSR provides another advantage compared to other satellite based instruments. With AATSR it is possible to detect ash plumes using brightness temperature difference between thermal infrared (TIR) channels centered at 11 and 12 µm. The automatic ash detection makes the algorithm efficient in processing large quantities of data: the height estimate is calculated only for the ash-flagged pixels. In addition, it is possible to study the effect of using different wavelengths in the height estimate, ranging from visible (555 nm) to thermal infrared (12 µm). The ACM algorithm can be applied to the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR), scheduled for launch at the end of 2015. Accurate information on the volcanic ash position is important for air traffic safety. The ACM algorithm can provide valuable data of both horizontal and vertical ash dispersion. These data may be useful for comparisons with existing volcanic ash dispersion models and retrieval methods. We present ACM plume top height estimate results for the Eyjafjallajökull eruption, and comparisons against available ground based and satellite observations.
Global patterns and determinants of forest canopy height.
Tao, Shengli; Guo, Qinghua; Li, Chao; Wang, Zhiheng; Fang, Jingyun
2016-12-01
Forest canopy height is an important indicator of forest biomass, species diversity, and other ecosystem functions; however, the climatic determinants that underlie its global patterns have not been fully explored. Using satellite LiDAR-derived forest canopy heights and field measurements of the world's giant trees, combined with climate indices, we evaluated the global patterns and determinants of forest canopy height. The mean canopy height was highest in tropical regions, but tall forests (>50 m) occur at various latitudes. Water availability, quantified by the difference between annual precipitation and annual potential evapotranspiration (P-PET), was the best predictor of global forest canopy height, which supports the hydraulic limitation hypothesis. However, in striking contrast with previous studies, the canopy height exhibited a hump-shaped curve along a gradient of P-PET: it initially increased, then peaked at approximately 680 mm of P-PET, and finally declined, which suggests that excessive water supply negatively affects the canopy height. This trend held true across continents and forest types, and it was also validated using forest inventory data from China and the United States. Our findings provide new insights into the climatic controls of the world's giant trees and have important implications for forest management and improvement of forest growth models.
Properties of Star Clusters - II: Scale Height Evolution of Clusters
Buckner, Anne S M
2014-01-01
Until now it has been impossible to observationally measure how star cluster scale height evolves beyond 1Gyr as only small samples have been available. Here we establish a novel method to determine the scale height of a cluster sample using modelled distributions and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. This allows us to determine the scale height with a 25% accuracy for samples of 38 clusters or more. We apply our method to investigate the temporal evolution of cluster scale height, using homogeneously selected sub-samples of Kharchenko et al. (MWSC), Dias et al. (DAML02), WEBDA, and Froebrich et al. (FSR). We identify a linear relationship between scale height and log(age/yr) of clusters, considerably different from field stars. The scale height increases from about 40pc at 1Myr to 75pc at 1Gyr, most likely due to internal evolution and external scattering events. After 1Gyr, there is a marked change of the behaviour, with the scale height linearly increasing with log(age/yr) to about 550pc at 3.5Gyr. The most likely...
Martian Mixed Layer during Pathfinder Mission
Martinez, G. M.; Valero, F.; Vazquez, L.
2008-09-01
In situ measurements of the Martian Planetary Boundary Layer (MPBL) encompass only the sur- face layer. Therefore, in order to fully address the MPBL, it becomes necessary to simulate somehow the behaviour of the martian mixed layer. The small-scale processes that happen in the MPBL cause GCM's ([1], [2]) to describe only partially the turbulent statistics, height, convective scales, etc, of the surface layer and the mixed layer. For this reason, 2D and 3D martian mesoscale models ([4], [5]), and large eddy simulations ([4], [6], [7], [8]) have been designed in the last years. Although they are expected to simulate more accurately the MPBL, they take an extremely expensive compu- tational time. Alternatively, we have derived the main turbu- lent characteristics of the martian mixed layer by using surface layer and mixed layer similarity ([9], [10]). From in situ temperature and wind speed measurements, together with quality-tested simu- lated ground temperature [11], we have character- ized the martian mixed layer during the convective hours of Pathfinder mission Sol 25. Mean mixed layer turbulent statistics like tem- perature variance , horizontal wind speed variance , vertical wind speed variance , viscous dissipation rate , and turbu- lent kinetic energy have been calculated, as well as the mixed layer height zi, and the convective scales of wind w? and temperature θ?. Our values, obtained with negligible time cost, match quite well with some previously obtained results via LES's ([4] and [8]). A comparisson between the above obtained mar- tian values and the typical Earth values are shown in Table 1. Convective velocity scale w doubles its counterpart terrestrial typical value, as it does the mean wind speed variances and . On the other hand, the temperature scale θ? and the mean temperature variance are virtually around one order higher on Mars. The limitations of these results concern the va- lidity of the convective mixed layer similarity. This theory
Changes in biomechanical properties during drop jumps of incremental height.
Peng, Hsien-Te
2011-09-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate changing biomechanical properties with increasing drop jump height. Sixteen physically active college students participated in this study and performed drop jumps from heights of 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 cm (DJ20-DJ60). Kinematic and kinetic data were collected using 11 Eagle cameras and 2 force platforms. Data pertaining to the dominant leg for each of 3 trials for each drop height were recorded and analyzed. Statistical comparisons of vertical ground reaction force (vGRF), impulse, moment, power, work, and stiffness were made between different drop jump heights. The peak vGRF of the dominant leg exceeded 3 times the body weight during DJ50 and DJ60; these values were significantly greater than those for DJ20, DJ30, and DJ40 (all p height jumped during DJ60 was significantly less than that during DJ20 and DJ30 (both p = 0.010). Both the landing impulse and total impulse during the contact phase were significantly different between each drop height (all p height. There were no significant differences in the takeoff impulse. Peak and mean power absorption and negative work at the knee and ankle joints during DJ40, DJ50, and DJ60 were significantly greater than those during DJ20 and DJ30 (all p heights >40 cm offered no advantages in terms of mechanical efficiency (SSC power output) and stiffness. Drop jumps from heights in excess of 60 cm are not recommended because of the lack of biomechanical efficiency and the potentially increased risk of injury.
Fracture mechanics solution of confined water progressive intrusion height of mining fracture floor
Lu Haifeng; Yao Duoxi; Shen Dan; Cao Jiyang
2015-01-01
In order to obtain the value of confined water progressive intrusion height of mining fracture floor, the analysis equation was deduced based on the fracture extension theory of the fracture mechanics. Further-more, the influence of some parameters (e.g., advancing distance of working face, water pressure, initial fracture length and its angle) on confined water progressive intrusion height were analyzed. The results indicate that tension-shearing fracture of floor is extended more easily than compression-shearing frac-ture under the same conditions. When floor fracture dip angle is less than 90?, tension-shearing extension occurs more easily on the left edge of the goaf. If fracture dip angle is larger than 90?, it occurs more easily on the right edge of the goaf. The longer the advancing distance of working face is, the greater initial frac-ture length goes; or the larger water pressure is, the greater possibility of tension-shearing extension occurs. The confined water progressive intrusion height reaches the maximum on the edge of the goaf. Field in situ test is consistent with the theoretical analysis result.
Analysis of Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Trackers
Veerachary, Mummadi
The photovoltaic generator exhibits a non-linear i-v characteristic and its maximum power point (MPP) varies with solar insolation. An intermediate switch-mode dc-dc converter is required to extract maximum power from the photovoltaic array. In this paper buck, boost and buck-boost topologies are considered and a detailed mathematical analysis, both for continuous and discontinuous inductor current operation, is given for MPP operation. The conditions on the connected load values and duty ratio are derived for achieving the satisfactory maximum power point operation. Further, it is shown that certain load values, falling out of the optimal range, will drive the operating point away from the true maximum power point. Detailed comparison of various topologies for MPPT is given. Selection of the converter topology for a given loading is discussed. Detailed discussion on circuit-oriented model development is given and then MPPT effectiveness of various converter systems is verified through simulations. Proposed theory and analysis is validated through experimental investigations.
On maximum cycle packings in polyhedral graphs
Peter Recht
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses upper and lower bounds for the cardinality of a maximum vertex-/edge-disjoint cycle packing in a polyhedral graph G. Bounds on the cardinality of such packings are provided, that depend on the size, the order or the number of faces of G, respectively. Polyhedral graphs are constructed, that attain these bounds.
Hard graphs for the maximum clique problem
Hoede, Cornelis
1988-01-01
The maximum clique problem is one of the NP-complete problems. There are graphs for which a reduction technique exists that transforms the problem for these graphs into one for graphs with specific properties in polynomial time. The resulting graphs do not grow exponentially in order and number. Gra
Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Search Costs
J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); M.R. Wildenbeest (Matthijs)
2006-01-01
textabstractIn a recent paper Hong and Shum (forthcoming) present a structural methodology to estimate search cost distributions. We extend their approach to the case of oligopoly and present a maximum likelihood estimate of the search cost distribution. We apply our method to a data set of online p
Weak Scale From the Maximum Entropy Principle
Hamada, Yuta; Kawana, Kiyoharu
2015-01-01
The theory of multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the $S^{3}$ universe at the final stage $S_{rad}$ becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the Standard Model, we can check whether $S_{rad}$ actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard $S_{rad}$ at the final stage as a function of the weak scale ( the Higgs expectation value ) $v_{h}$, and show that it becomes maximum around $v_{h}={\\cal{O}}(300\\text{GeV})$ when the dimensionless couplings in the Standard Model, that is, the Higgs self coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by \\begin{equation} v_{h}\\sim\\frac{T_{BBN}^{2}}{M_{pl}y_{e}^{5}},\