WorldWideScience

Sample records for maximum incident power

  1. Maximum Credible Incidents

    CERN Document Server

    Strait, J

    2009-01-01

    Following the incident in sector 34, considerable effort has been made to improve the systems for detecting similar faults and to improve the safety systems to limit the damage if a similar incident should occur. Nevertheless, even after the consolidation and repairs are completed, other faults may still occur in the superconducting magnet systems, which could result in damage to the LHC. Such faults include both direct failures of a particular component or system, or an incorrect response to a “normal” upset condition, for example a quench. I will review a range of faults which could be reasonably expected to occur in the superconducting magnet systems, and which could result in substantial damage and down-time to the LHC. I will evaluate the probability and the consequences of such faults, and suggest what mitigations, if any, are possible to protect against each.

  2. Maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enslin, J.H.R.

    1990-01-01

    A well engineered renewable remote energy system, utilizing the principal of Maximum Power Point Tracking can be m ore cost effective, has a higher reliability and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. This paper reports that a high-efficient power electronic converter, for converting the output voltage of a solar panel, or wind generator, to the required DC battery bus voltage has been realized. The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the input source under varying input and output parameters. Maximum power point tracking for relative small systems is achieved by maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor based algorithm. Through practical field measurements it is shown that a minimum input source saving of 15% on 3-5 kWh/day systems can easily be achieved. A total cost saving of at least 10-15% on the capital cost of these systems are achievable for relative small rating Remote Area Power Supply systems. The advantages at larger temperature variations and larger power rated systems are much higher. Other advantages include optimal sizing and system monitor and control

  3. Maximum power demand cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.

    1998-01-01

    The charging for a service is a supplier's remuneration for the expenses incurred in providing it. There are currently two charges for electricity: consumption and maximum demand. While no problem arises about the former, the issue is more complicated for the latter and the analysis in this article tends to show that the annual charge for maximum demand arbitrarily discriminates among consumer groups, to the disadvantage of some [it

  4. LCLS Maximum Credible Beam Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.

    2005-01-01

    The maximum credible beam power is defined as the highest credible average beam power that the accelerator can deliver to the point in question, given the laws of physics, the beam line design, and assuming all protection devices have failed. For a new accelerator project, the official maximum credible beam power is determined by project staff in consultation with the Radiation Physics Department, after examining the arguments and evidence presented by the appropriate accelerator physicist(s) and beam line engineers. The definitive parameter becomes part of the project's safety envelope. This technical note will first review the studies that were done for the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SSRL, where a photoinjector similar to the one proposed for the LCLS is being tested. In Section 3 the maximum charge out of the gun for a single rf pulse is calculated. In Section 4, PARMELA simulations are used to track the beam from the gun to the end of the photoinjector. Finally in Section 5 the beam through the matching section and injected into Linac-1 is discussed

  5. Maximum Power from a Solar Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Miller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.

  6. Maximum power point tracker based on fuzzy logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoud, A.; Midoun, A.

    2006-01-01

    The solar energy is used as power source in photovoltaic power systems and the need for an intelligent power management system is important to obtain the maximum power from the limited solar panels. With the changing of the sun illumination due to variation of angle of incidence of sun radiation and of the temperature of the panels, Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) enables optimization of solar power generation. The MPPT is a sub-system designed to extract the maximum power from a power source. In the case of solar panels power source. the maximum power point varies as a result of changes in its electrical characteristics which in turn are functions of radiation dose, temperature, ageing and other effects. The MPPT maximum the power output from panels for a given set of conditions by detecting the best working point of the power characteristic and then controls the current through the panels or the voltage across them. Many MPPT methods have been reported in literature. These techniques of MPPT can be classified into three main categories that include: lookup table methods, hill climbing methods and computational methods. The techniques vary according to the degree of sophistication, processing time and memory requirements. The perturbation and observation algorithm (hill climbing technique) is commonly used due to its ease of implementation, and relative tracking efficiency. However, it has been shown that when the insolation changes rapidly, the perturbation and observation method is slow to track the maximum power point. In recent years, the fuzzy controllers are used for maximum power point tracking. This method only requires the linguistic control rules for maximum power point, the mathematical model is not required and therefore the implementation of this control method is easy to real control system. In this paper, we we present a simple robust MPPT using fuzzy set theory where the hardware consists of the microchip's microcontroller unit control card and

  7. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified. (paper)

  8. Design and Implementation of Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawaz S. Abdullah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available  The power supplied by any solar array depends upon the environmental conditions as weather conditions (temperature and radiation intensity and the incident angle of the radiant source. The work aims to study the maximum power tracking schemes that used to compare the system performance without and with different types of controllers. The maximum power points of the solar panel under test studied and compared with two controller's types.  The first controller is the proportional- integral - derivative controller type and the second is the perturbation and observation algorithm controller. The associated converter system is a microcontroller based type, whereas the results studied and compared of greatest power point of the Photovoltaic panels under the different two controllers. The experimental tests results compared with simulation results to verify accurate performance.

  9. Maximum power operation of interacting molecular motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golubeva, Natalia; Imparato, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    , as compared to the non-interacting system, in a wide range of biologically compatible scenarios. We furthermore consider the case where the motor-motor interaction directly affects the internal chemical cycle and investigate the effect on the system dynamics and thermodynamics.......We study the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of different traffic models for kinesin which are relevant in biological and experimental contexts. We find that motor-motor interactions play a fundamental role by enhancing the thermodynamic efficiency at maximum power of the motors...

  10. Maximum Safety Regenerative Power Tracking for DC Traction Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guifu Du

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Direct current (DC traction power systems are widely used in metro transport systems, with running rails usually being used as return conductors. When traction current flows through the running rails, a potential voltage known as “rail potential” is generated between the rails and ground. Currently, abnormal rises of rail potential exist in many railway lines during the operation of railway systems. Excessively high rail potentials pose a threat to human life and to devices connected to the rails. In this paper, the effect of regenerative power distribution on rail potential is analyzed. Maximum safety regenerative power tracking is proposed for the control of maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption during the operation of DC traction power systems. The dwell time of multiple trains at each station and the trigger voltage of the regenerative energy absorbing device (READ are optimized based on an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm to manage the distribution of regenerative power. In this way, the maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption of DC traction power systems can be reduced. The operation data of Guangzhou Metro Line 2 are used in the simulations, and the results show that the scheme can reduce the maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption effectively and guarantee the safety in energy saving of DC traction power systems.

  11. Maximum power flux of auroral kilometric radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, R.F.; Fainberg, J.

    1991-01-01

    The maximum auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) power flux observed by distant satellites has been increased by more than a factor of 10 from previously reported values. This increase has been achieved by a new data selection criterion and a new analysis of antenna spin modulated signals received by the radio astronomy instrument on ISEE 3. The method relies on selecting AKR events containing signals in the highest-frequency channel (1980, kHz), followed by a careful analysis that effectively increased the instrumental dynamic range by more than 20 dB by making use of the spacecraft antenna gain diagram during a spacecraft rotation. This analysis has allowed the separation of real signals from those created in the receiver by overloading. Many signals having the appearance of AKR harmonic signals were shown to be of spurious origin. During one event, however, real second harmonic AKR signals were detected even though the spacecraft was at a great distance (17 R E ) from Earth. During another event, when the spacecraft was at the orbital distance of the Moon and on the morning side of Earth, the power flux of fundamental AKR was greater than 3 x 10 -13 W m -2 Hz -1 at 360 kHz normalized to a radial distance r of 25 R E assuming the power falls off as r -2 . A comparison of these intense signal levels with the most intense source region values (obtained by ISIS 1 and Viking) suggests that multiple sources were observed by ISEE 3

  12. Accurate modeling and maximum power point detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accurate modeling and maximum power point detection of photovoltaic ... Determination of MPP enables the PV system to deliver maximum available power. ..... adaptive artificial neural network: Proposition for a new sizing procedure.

  13. Maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcidiacono, V.; Corsi, S.; Lambri, L.

    The paper describes two different closed-loop control criteria for the maximum power point tracking of the voltage-current characteristic of a photovoltaic generator. The two criteria are discussed and compared, inter alia, with regard to the setting-up problems that they pose. Although a detailed analysis is not embarked upon, the paper also provides some quantitative information on the energy advantages obtained by using electronic maximum power point tracking systems, as compared with the situation in which the point of operation of the photovoltaic generator is not controlled at all. Lastly, the paper presents two high-efficiency MPPT converters for experimental photovoltaic plants of the stand-alone and the grid-interconnected type.

  14. Maximum Power Training and Plyometrics for Cross-Country Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebben, William P.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a rationale for maximum power training and plyometrics as conditioning strategies for cross-country runners, examining: an evaluation of training methods (strength training and maximum power training and plyometrics); biomechanic and velocity specificity (role in preventing injury); and practical application of maximum power training and…

  15. 40 CFR 1042.140 - Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cylinders having an internal diameter of 13.0 cm and a 15.5 cm stroke length, the rounded displacement would... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum engine power, displacement... Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed. This section describes...

  16. A maximum power point tracking algorithm for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelatury, Sudarshan R.; Gray, Robert

    2013-05-01

    The voltage and current characteristic of a photovoltaic (PV) cell is highly nonlinear and operating a PV cell for maximum power transfer has been a challenge for a long time. Several techniques have been proposed to estimate and track the maximum power point (MPP) in order to improve the overall efficiency of a PV panel. A strategic use of the mean value theorem permits obtaining an analytical expression for a point that lies in a close neighborhood of the true MPP. But hitherto, an exact solution in closed form for the MPP is not published. This problem can be formulated analytically as a constrained optimization, which can be solved using the Lagrange method. This method results in a system of simultaneous nonlinear equations. Solving them directly is quite difficult. However, we can employ a recursive algorithm to yield a reasonably good solution. In graphical terms, suppose the voltage current characteristic and the constant power contours are plotted on the same voltage current plane, the point of tangency between the device characteristic and the constant power contours is the sought for MPP. It is subject to change with the incident irradiation and temperature and hence the algorithm that attempts to maintain the MPP should be adaptive in nature and is supposed to have fast convergence and the least misadjustment. There are two parts in its implementation. First, one needs to estimate the MPP. The second task is to have a DC-DC converter to match the given load to the MPP thus obtained. Availability of power electronics circuits made it possible to design efficient converters. In this paper although we do not show the results from a real circuit, we use MATLAB to obtain the MPP and a buck-boost converter to match the load. Under varying conditions of load resistance and irradiance we demonstrate MPP tracking in case of a commercially available solar panel MSX-60. The power electronics circuit is simulated by PSIM software.

  17. Microprocessor Controlled Maximum Power Point Tracker for Photovoltaic Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiya, J. D.; Tahirou, G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a microprocessor controlled maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic module. Input current and voltage are measured and multiplied within the microprocessor, which contains an algorithm to seek the maximum power point. The duly cycle of the DC-DC converter, at which the maximum power occurs is obtained, noted and adjusted. The microprocessor constantly seeks for improvement of obtained power by varying the duty cycle

  18. Maximum power per VA control of vector controlled interior ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thakur Sumeet Singh

    2018-04-11

    Apr 11, 2018 ... Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New ... The MPVA operation allows maximum-utilization of the drive-system. ... Permanent magnet motor; unity power factor; maximum VA utilization; ...

  19. The power and robustness of maximum LOD score statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Y J; Mendell, N R

    2008-07-01

    The maximum LOD score statistic is extremely powerful for gene mapping when calculated using the correct genetic parameter value. When the mode of genetic transmission is unknown, the maximum of the LOD scores obtained using several genetic parameter values is reported. This latter statistic requires higher critical value than the maximum LOD score statistic calculated from a single genetic parameter value. In this paper, we compare the power of maximum LOD scores based on three fixed sets of genetic parameter values with the power of the LOD score obtained after maximizing over the entire range of genetic parameter values. We simulate family data under nine generating models. For generating models with non-zero phenocopy rates, LOD scores maximized over the entire range of genetic parameters yielded greater power than maximum LOD scores for fixed sets of parameter values with zero phenocopy rates. No maximum LOD score was consistently more powerful than the others for generating models with a zero phenocopy rate. The power loss of the LOD score maximized over the entire range of genetic parameters, relative to the maximum LOD score calculated using the correct genetic parameter value, appeared to be robust to the generating models.

  20. A maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic-SPE system using a maximum current controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhida, Riza [Osaka Univ., Dept. of Physical Science, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan); Osaka Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Park, Minwon; Dakkak, Mohammed; Matsuura, Kenji [Osaka Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Tsuyoshi, Akira; Michira, Masakazu [Kobe City College of Technology, Nishi-ku, Kobe (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Processes to produce hydrogen from solar photovoltaic (PV)-powered water electrolysis using solid polymer electrolysis (SPE) are reported. An alternative control of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in the PV-SPE system based on the maximum current searching methods has been designed and implemented. Based on the characteristics of voltage-current and theoretical analysis of SPE, it can be shown that the tracking of the maximum current output of DC-DC converter in SPE side will track the MPPT of photovoltaic panel simultaneously. This method uses a proportional integrator controller to control the duty factor of DC-DC converter with pulse-width modulator (PWM). The MPPT performance and hydrogen production performance of this method have been evaluated and discussed based on the results of the experiment. (Author)

  1. Size dependence of efficiency at maximum power of heat engine

    KAUST Repository

    Izumida, Y.; Ito, N.

    2013-01-01

    We perform a molecular dynamics computer simulation of a heat engine model to study how the engine size difference affects its performance. Upon tactically increasing the size of the model anisotropically, we determine that there exists an optimum size at which the model attains the maximum power for the shortest working period. This optimum size locates between the ballistic heat transport region and the diffusive heat transport one. We also study the size dependence of the efficiency at the maximum power. Interestingly, we find that the efficiency at the maximum power around the optimum size attains a value that has been proposed as a universal upper bound, and it even begins to exceed the bound as the size further increases. We explain this behavior of the efficiency at maximum power by using a linear response theory for the heat engine operating under a finite working period, which naturally extends the low-dissipation Carnot cycle model [M. Esposito, R. Kawai, K. Lindenberg, C. Van den Broeck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150603 (2010)]. The theory also shows that the efficiency at the maximum power under an extreme condition may reach the Carnot efficiency in principle.© EDP Sciences Società Italiana di Fisica Springer-Verlag 2013.

  2. Size dependence of efficiency at maximum power of heat engine

    KAUST Repository

    Izumida, Y.

    2013-10-01

    We perform a molecular dynamics computer simulation of a heat engine model to study how the engine size difference affects its performance. Upon tactically increasing the size of the model anisotropically, we determine that there exists an optimum size at which the model attains the maximum power for the shortest working period. This optimum size locates between the ballistic heat transport region and the diffusive heat transport one. We also study the size dependence of the efficiency at the maximum power. Interestingly, we find that the efficiency at the maximum power around the optimum size attains a value that has been proposed as a universal upper bound, and it even begins to exceed the bound as the size further increases. We explain this behavior of the efficiency at maximum power by using a linear response theory for the heat engine operating under a finite working period, which naturally extends the low-dissipation Carnot cycle model [M. Esposito, R. Kawai, K. Lindenberg, C. Van den Broeck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150603 (2010)]. The theory also shows that the efficiency at the maximum power under an extreme condition may reach the Carnot efficiency in principle.© EDP Sciences Società Italiana di Fisica Springer-Verlag 2013.

  3. A simple maximum power point tracker for thermoelectric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraskevas, Alexandros; Koutroulis, Eftichios

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) method for thermoelectric generators is proposed. • A power converter is controlled to operate on a pre-programmed locus. • The proposed MPPT technique has the advantage of operational and design simplicity. • The experimental average deviation from the MPP power of the TEG source is 1.87%. - Abstract: ThermoElectric Generators (TEGs) are capable to harvest the ambient thermal energy for power-supplying sensors, actuators, biomedical devices etc. in the μW up to several hundreds of Watts range. In this paper, a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) method for TEG elements is proposed, which is based on controlling a power converter such that it operates on a pre-programmed locus of operating points close to the MPPs of the power–voltage curves of the TEG power source. Compared to the past-proposed MPPT methods for TEGs, the technique presented in this paper has the advantage of operational and design simplicity. Thus, its implementation using off-the-shelf microelectronic components with low-power consumption characteristics is enabled, without being required to employ specialized integrated circuits or signal processing units of high development cost. Experimental results are presented, which demonstrate that for MPP power levels of the TEG source in the range of 1–17 mW, the average deviation of the power produced by the proposed system from the MPP power of the TEG source is 1.87%.

  4. Parametric optimization of thermoelectric elements footprint for maximum power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezania, A.; Rosendahl, Lasse; Yin, Hao

    2014-01-01

    The development studies in thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems are mostly disconnected to parametric optimization of the module components. In this study, optimum footprint ratio of n- and p-type thermoelectric (TE) elements is explored to achieve maximum power generation, maximum cost......-performance, and variation of efficiency in the uni-couple over a wide range of the heat transfer coefficient on the cold junction. The three-dimensional (3D) governing equations of the thermoelectricity and the heat transfer are solved using the finite element method (FEM) for temperature dependent properties of TE...... materials. The results, which are in good agreement with the previous computational studies, show that the maximum power generation and the maximum cost-performance in the module occur at An/Ap

  5. Wireless power transfer: control algorithm to transfer the maximum power

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Urbano, Javier Arturo

    2016-01-01

    This job is developed as part of “Health aware enhanced range wireless power transfer systems", known as ETHER. It is a cooperation project where Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) and Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña (UPC) research groups are mainly involved. ETHER objective is to develop a wireless power transfer system for medical applications, specifically a pacemaker charger to improve patient’s lifestyle decreasing the number of required operations to replace pacemaker batter...

  6. Beat the Deviations in Estimating Maximum Power of Thermoelectric Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Junling; Chen, Min

    2013-01-01

    Under a certain temperature difference, the maximum power of a thermoelectric module can be estimated by the open-circuit voltage and the short-circuit current. In practical measurement, there exist two switch modes, either from open to short or from short to open, but the two modes can give...... different estimations on the maximum power. Using TEG-127-2.8-3.5-250 and TEG-127-1.4-1.6-250 as two examples, the difference is about 10%, leading to some deviations with the temperature change. This paper analyzes such differences by means of a nonlinear numerical model of thermoelectricity, and finds out...... that the main cause is the influence of various currents on the produced electromotive potential. A simple and effective calibration method is proposed to minimize the deviations in specifying the maximum power. Experimental results validate the method with improved estimation accuracy....

  7. Efficiency of autonomous soft nanomachines at maximum power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Udo

    2011-01-14

    We consider nanosized artificial or biological machines working in steady state enforced by imposing nonequilibrium concentrations of solutes or by applying external forces, torques, or electric fields. For unicyclic and strongly coupled multicyclic machines, efficiency at maximum power is not bounded by the linear response value 1/2. For strong driving, it can even approach the thermodynamic limit 1. Quite generally, such machines fall into three different classes characterized, respectively, as "strong and efficient," "strong and inefficient," and "balanced." For weakly coupled multicyclic machines, efficiency at maximum power has lost any universality even in the linear response regime.

  8. Maximum Power Point Tracking Based on Sliding Mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimrod Vázquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar panels, which have become a good choice, are used to generate and supply electricity in commercial and residential applications. This generated power starts with the solar cells, which have a complex relationship between solar irradiation, temperature, and output power. For this reason a tracking of the maximum power point is required. Traditionally, this has been made by considering just current and voltage conditions at the photovoltaic panel; however, temperature also influences the process. In this paper the voltage, current, and temperature in the PV system are considered to be a part of a sliding surface for the proposed maximum power point tracking; this means a sliding mode controller is applied. Obtained results gave a good dynamic response, as a difference from traditional schemes, which are only based on computational algorithms. A traditional algorithm based on MPPT was added in order to assure a low steady state error.

  9. Determing and monitoring of maximum permissible power for HWRR-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Zhanli; Xiao Shigang; Jin Huajin; Lu Changshen

    1987-01-01

    The operating power of a reactor is an important parameter to be monitored. This report briefly describes the determining and monitoring of maximum permissiable power for HWRR-3. The calculating method is described, and the result of calculation and analysis of error are also given. On-line calculation and real time monitoring have been realized at the heavy water reactor. It provides the reactor with a real time and reliable supervision. This makes operation convenient and increases reliability

  10. Study of forecasting maximum demand of electric power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, B.C.; Hwang, Y.J. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    As far as the past performances of power supply and demand in Korea is concerned, one of the striking phenomena is that there have been repeated periodic surpluses and shortages of power generation facilities. Precise assumption and prediction of power demands is the basic work in establishing a supply plan and carrying out the right policy since facilities investment of the power generation industry requires a tremendous amount of capital and a long construction period. The purpose of this study is to study a model for the inference and prediction of a more precise maximum demand under these backgrounds. The non-parametric model considered in this study, paying attention to meteorological factors such as temperature and humidity, does not have a simple proportionate relationship with the maximum power demand, but affects it through mutual complicated nonlinear interaction. I used the non-parametric inference technique by introducing meteorological effects without importing any literal assumption on the interaction of temperature and humidity preliminarily. According to the analysis result, it is found that the non-parametric model that introduces the number of tropical nights which shows the continuity of the meteorological effect has better prediction power than the linear model. The non- parametric model that considers both the number of tropical nights and the number of cooling days at the same time is a model for predicting maximum demand. 7 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. SIMULATION OF NEW SIMPLE FUZZY LOGIC MAXIMUM POWER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-06-30

    Jun 30, 2010 ... Basic structure photovoltaic system Solar array mathematic ... The equivalent circuit model of a solar cell consists of a current generator and a diode .... control of boost converter (tracker) such that maximum power is achieved at the output of the solar panel. Fig.11. The membership function of input. Fig.12.

  12. Distributed maximum power point tracking in wind micro-grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Ramos-Paja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of reducing the hardware requirements in micro-grids based on wind generators, a distributed maximum power point tracking algorithm is proposed. Such a solution reduces the amount of current sensors and processing devices to maximize the power extracted from the micro-grid, reducing the application cost. The analysis of the optimal operating points of the wind generator was performed experimentally, which in addition provides realistic model parameters. Finally, the proposed solution was validated by means of detailed simulations performed in the power electronics software PSIM, contrasting the achieved performance with traditional solutions.

  13. A performance analysis for MHD power cycles operating at maximum power density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Bahri; Kodal, Ali; Yavuz, Hasbi

    1996-01-01

    An analysis of the thermal efficiency of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power cycle at maximum power density for a constant velocity type MHD generator has been carried out. The irreversibilities at the compressor and the MHD generator are taken into account. The results obtained from power density analysis were compared with those of maximum power analysis. It is shown that by using the power density criteria the MHD cycle efficiency can be increased effectively. (author)

  14. Noncircular Chainrings Do Not Influence Maximum Cycling Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Chee-Hoi; Elmer, Steven J; Martin, James C

    2017-12-01

    Noncircular chainrings could increase cycling power by prolonging the powerful leg extension/flexion phases, and curtailing the low-power transition phases. We compared maximal cycling power-pedaling rate relationships, and joint-specific kinematics and powers across 3 chainring eccentricities (CON = 1.0; LOW ecc  = 1.13; HIGH ecc  = 1.24). Part I: Thirteen cyclists performed maximal inertial-load cycling under 3 chainring conditions. Maximum cycling power and optimal pedaling rate were determined. Part II: Ten cyclists performed maximal isokinetic cycling (120 rpm) under the same 3 chainring conditions. Pedal and joint-specific powers were determined using pedal forces and limb kinematics. Neither maximal cycling power nor optimal pedaling rate differed across chainring conditions (all p > .05). Peak ankle angular velocity for HIGH ecc was less than CON (p pedal system allowed cyclists to manipulate ankle angular velocity to maintain their preferred knee and hip actions, suggesting maximizing extension/flexion and minimizing transition phases may be counterproductive for maximal power.

  15. Novel TPPO Based Maximum Power Point Method for Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABBASI, M. A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV system has a great potential and it is installed more when compared with other renewable energy sources nowadays. However, the PV system cannot perform optimally due to its solid reliance on climate conditions. Due to this dependency, PV system does not operate at its maximum power point (MPP. Many MPP tracking methods have been proposed for this purpose. One of these is the Perturb and Observe Method (P&O which is the most famous due to its simplicity, less cost and fast track. But it deviates from MPP in continuously changing weather conditions, especially in rapidly changing irradiance conditions. A new Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT method, Tetra Point Perturb and Observe (TPPO, has been proposed to improve PV system performance in changing irradiance conditions and the effects on characteristic curves of PV array module due to varying irradiance are delineated. The Proposed MPPT method has shown better results in increasing the efficiency of a PV system.

  16. Maximum wind energy extraction strategies using power electronic converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quincy Qing

    2003-10-01

    This thesis focuses on maximum wind energy extraction strategies for achieving the highest energy output of variable speed wind turbine power generation systems. Power electronic converters and controls provide the basic platform to accomplish the research of this thesis in both hardware and software aspects. In order to send wind energy to a utility grid, a variable speed wind turbine requires a power electronic converter to convert a variable voltage variable frequency source into a fixed voltage fixed frequency supply. Generic single-phase and three-phase converter topologies, converter control methods for wind power generation, as well as the developed direct drive generator, are introduced in the thesis for establishing variable-speed wind energy conversion systems. Variable speed wind power generation system modeling and simulation are essential methods both for understanding the system behavior and for developing advanced system control strategies. Wind generation system components, including wind turbine, 1-phase IGBT inverter, 3-phase IGBT inverter, synchronous generator, and rectifier, are modeled in this thesis using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The simulation results have been verified by a commercial simulation software package, PSIM, and confirmed by field test results. Since the dynamic time constants for these individual models are much different, a creative approach has also been developed in this thesis to combine these models for entire wind power generation system simulation. An advanced maximum wind energy extraction strategy relies not only on proper system hardware design, but also on sophisticated software control algorithms. Based on literature review and computer simulation on wind turbine control algorithms, an intelligent maximum wind energy extraction control algorithm is proposed in this thesis. This algorithm has a unique on-line adaptation and optimization capability, which is able to achieve maximum wind energy conversion efficiency through

  17. Maximum power point tracking of partially shaded solar photovoltaic arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy Chowdhury, Shubhajit; Saha, Hiranmay [IC Design and Fabrication Centre, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University (India)

    2010-09-15

    The paper presents the simulation and hardware implementation of maximum power point (MPP) tracking of a partially shaded solar photovoltaic (PV) array using a variant of Particle Swarm Optimization known as Adaptive Perceptive Particle Swarm Optimization (APPSO). Under partially shaded conditions, the photovoltaic (PV) array characteristics get more complex with multiple maxima in the power-voltage characteristic. The paper presents an algorithmic technique to accurately track the maximum power point (MPP) of a PV array using an APPSO. The APPSO algorithm has also been validated in the current work. The proposed technique uses only one pair of sensors to control multiple PV arrays. This result in lower cost and higher accuracy of 97.7% compared to earlier obtained accuracy of 96.41% using Particle Swarm Optimization. The proposed tracking technique has been mapped onto a MSP430FG4618 microcontroller for tracking and control purposes. The whole system based on the proposed has been realized on a standard two stage power electronic system configuration. (author)

  18. Small scale wind energy harvesting with maximum power tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that energy harvesting from wind can be used to power remote monitoring systems. There are several studies that use wind energy in small-scale systems, mainly with wind turbine vertical axis. However, there are very few studies with actual implementations of small wind turbines. This paper compares the performance of horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines for energy harvesting on wireless sensor network applications. The problem with the use of wind energy is that most of the time the wind speed is very low, especially at urban areas. Therefore, this work includes a study on the wind speed distribution in an urban environment and proposes a controller to maximize the energy transfer to the storage systems. The generated power is evaluated by simulation and experimentally for different load and wind conditions. The results demonstrate the increase in efficiency of wind generators that use maximum power transfer tracking, even at low wind speeds.

  19. Statistic method of research reactors maximum permissible power calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosheva, N.A.; Kirsanov, G.A.; Konoplev, K.A.; Chmshkyan, D.V.

    1998-01-01

    The technique for calculating maximum permissible power of a research reactor at which the probability of the thermal-process accident does not exceed the specified value, is presented. The statistical method is used for the calculations. It is regarded that the determining function related to the reactor safety is the known function of the reactor power and many statistically independent values which list includes the reactor process parameters, geometrical characteristics of the reactor core and fuel elements, as well as random factors connected with the reactor specific features. Heat flux density or temperature is taken as a limiting factor. The program realization of the method discussed is briefly described. The results of calculating the PIK reactor margin coefficients for different probabilities of the thermal-process accident are considered as an example. It is shown that the probability of an accident with fuel element melting in hot zone is lower than 10 -8 1 per year for the reactor rated power [ru

  20. Modeling of Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller for Solar Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryuanto Soetedjo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT controller for solar power system is modeled using MATLAB Simulink. The model consists of PV module, buck converter, and MPPT controller. The contribution of the work is in the modeling of buck converter that allowing the input voltage of the converter, i.e. output voltage of PV is changed by varying the duty cycle, so that the maximum power point could be tracked when the environmental changes. The simulation results show that the developed model performs well in tracking the maximum power point (MPP of the PV module using Perturb and Observe (P&O Algorithm.

  1. Maximum-power-point tracking control of solar heating system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2012-11-01

    The present study developed a maximum-power point tracking control (MPPT) technology for solar heating system to minimize the pumping power consumption at an optimal heat collection. The net solar energy gain Q net (=Q s-W p/η e) was experimentally found to be the cost function for MPPT with maximum point. The feedback tracking control system was developed to track the optimal Q net (denoted Q max). A tracking filter which was derived from the thermal analytical model of the solar heating system was used to determine the instantaneous tracking target Q max(t). The system transfer-function model of solar heating system was also derived experimentally using a step response test and used in the design of tracking feedback control system. The PI controller was designed for a tracking target Q max(t) with a quadratic time function. The MPPT control system was implemented using a microprocessor-based controller and the test results show good tracking performance with small tracking errors. It is seen that the average mass flow rate for the specific test periods in five different days is between 18.1 and 22.9kg/min with average pumping power between 77 and 140W, which is greatly reduced as compared to the standard flow rate at 31kg/min and pumping power 450W which is based on the flow rate 0.02kg/sm 2 defined in the ANSI/ASHRAE 93-1986 Standard and the total collector area 25.9m 2. The average net solar heat collected Q net is between 8.62 and 14.1kW depending on weather condition. The MPPT control of solar heating system has been verified to be able to minimize the pumping energy consumption with optimal solar heat collection. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Emf, maximum power and efficiency of fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaggioli, R.A.; Dunbar, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the ideal voltage of steady-flow fuel cells usually expressed by Emf = -ΔG/nF where ΔG is the Gibbs free energy of reaction for the oxidation of the fuel at the supposed temperature of operation of the cell. Furthermore, the ideal power of the cell is expressed as the product of the fuel flow rate with this emf, and the efficiency of a real fuel cell, sometimes called the Gibbs efficiency, is defined as the ratio of the actual power output to this ideal power. Such viewpoints are flawed in several respects. While it is true that if a cell operates isothermally the maximum conceivable work output is equal to the difference between the Gibbs free energy of the incoming reactants and that of the leaving products, nevertheless, even if the cell operates isothermally, the use of the conventional ΔG of reaction assumes that the products of reaction leave separately from one another (and from any unused fuel), and when ΔS of reaction is positive it assumes that a free heat source exists at the operating temperature, whereas if ΔS is negative it neglects the potential power which theoretically could be obtained form the heat released during oxidation. Moreover, the usual cell does not operate isothermally but (virtually) adiabatically

  3. Maximum power analysis of photovoltaic module in Ramadi city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahatha Salim, Majid; Mohammed Najim, Jassim [College of Science, University of Anbar (Iraq); Mohammed Salih, Salih [Renewable Energy Research Center, University of Anbar (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    Performance of photovoltaic (PV) module is greatly dependent on the solar irradiance, operating temperature, and shading. Solar irradiance can have a significant impact on power output of PV module and energy yield. In this paper, a maximum PV power which can be obtain in Ramadi city (100km west of Baghdad) is practically analyzed. The analysis is based on real irradiance values obtained as the first time by using Soly2 sun tracker device. Proper and adequate information on solar radiation and its components at a given location is very essential in the design of solar energy systems. The solar irradiance data in Ramadi city were analyzed based on the first three months of 2013. The solar irradiance data are measured on earth's surface in the campus area of Anbar University. Actual average data readings were taken from the data logger of sun tracker system, which sets to save the average readings for each two minutes and based on reading in each one second. The data are analyzed from January to the end of March-2013. Maximum daily readings and monthly average readings of solar irradiance have been analyzed to optimize the output of photovoltaic solar modules. The results show that the system sizing of PV can be reduced by 12.5% if a tracking system is used instead of fixed orientation of PV modules.

  4. 40 CFR 1045.140 - What is my engine's maximum engine power?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Maximum engine power for an engine family is generally the weighted average value of maximum engine power... engine family's maximum engine power apply in the following circumstances: (1) For outboard or personal... value for maximum engine power from all the different configurations within the engine family to...

  5. Flow Control in Wells Turbines for Harnessing Maximum Wave Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Aitor J.; Garrido, Izaskun; Otaola, Erlantz; Maseda, Javier

    2018-01-01

    Oceans, and particularly waves, offer a huge potential for energy harnessing all over the world. Nevertheless, the performance of current energy converters does not yet allow us to use the wave energy efficiently. However, new control techniques can improve the efficiency of energy converters. In this sense, the plant sensors play a key role within the control scheme, as necessary tools for parameter measuring and monitoring that are then used as control input variables to the feedback loop. Therefore, the aim of this work is to manage the rotational speed control loop in order to optimize the output power. With the help of outward looking sensors, a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is employed to maximize the system efficiency. Then, the control decisions are based on the pressure drop measured by pressure sensors located along the turbine. A complete wave-to-wire model is developed so as to validate the performance of the proposed control method. For this purpose, a novel sensor-based flow controller is implemented based on the different measured signals. Thus, the performance of the proposed controller has been analyzed and compared with a case of uncontrolled plant. The simulations demonstrate that the flow control-based MPPT strategy is able to increase the output power, and they confirm both the viability and goodness. PMID:29439408

  6. Flow Control in Wells Turbines for Harnessing Maximum Wave Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekube, Jon; Garrido, Aitor J; Garrido, Izaskun; Otaola, Erlantz; Maseda, Javier

    2018-02-10

    Oceans, and particularly waves, offer a huge potential for energy harnessing all over the world. Nevertheless, the performance of current energy converters does not yet allow us to use the wave energy efficiently. However, new control techniques can improve the efficiency of energy converters. In this sense, the plant sensors play a key role within the control scheme, as necessary tools for parameter measuring and monitoring that are then used as control input variables to the feedback loop. Therefore, the aim of this work is to manage the rotational speed control loop in order to optimize the output power. With the help of outward looking sensors, a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is employed to maximize the system efficiency. Then, the control decisions are based on the pressure drop measured by pressure sensors located along the turbine. A complete wave-to-wire model is developed so as to validate the performance of the proposed control method. For this purpose, a novel sensor-based flow controller is implemented based on the different measured signals. Thus, the performance of the proposed controller has been analyzed and compared with a case of uncontrolled plant. The simulations demonstrate that the flow control-based MPPT strategy is able to increase the output power, and they confirm both the viability and goodness.

  7. Performance analysis and comparison of an Atkinson cycle coupled to variable temperature heat reservoirs under maximum power and maximum power density conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, P.-Y.; Hou, S.-S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, performance analysis and comparison based on the maximum power and maximum power density conditions have been conducted for an Atkinson cycle coupled to variable temperature heat reservoirs. The Atkinson cycle is internally reversible but externally irreversible, since there is external irreversibility of heat transfer during the processes of constant volume heat addition and constant pressure heat rejection. This study is based purely on classical thermodynamic analysis methodology. It should be especially emphasized that all the results and conclusions are based on classical thermodynamics. The power density, defined as the ratio of power output to maximum specific volume in the cycle, is taken as the optimization objective because it considers the effects of engine size as related to investment cost. The results show that an engine design based on maximum power density with constant effectiveness of the hot and cold side heat exchangers or constant inlet temperature ratio of the heat reservoirs will have smaller size but higher efficiency, compression ratio, expansion ratio and maximum temperature than one based on maximum power. From the view points of engine size and thermal efficiency, an engine design based on maximum power density is better than one based on maximum power conditions. However, due to the higher compression ratio and maximum temperature in the cycle, an engine design based on maximum power density conditions requires tougher materials for engine construction than one based on maximum power conditions

  8. High performance monolithic power management system with dynamic maximum power point tracking for microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbay, Celal; Carreon-Bautista, Salvador; Sanchez-Sinencio, Edgar; Han, Arum

    2014-12-02

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) that can directly generate electricity from organic waste or biomass is a promising renewable and clean technology. However, low power and low voltage output of MFCs typically do not allow directly operating most electrical applications, whether it is supplementing electricity to wastewater treatment plants or for powering autonomous wireless sensor networks. Power management systems (PMSs) can overcome this limitation by boosting the MFC output voltage and managing the power for maximum efficiency. We present a monolithic low-power-consuming PMS integrated circuit (IC) chip capable of dynamic maximum power point tracking (MPPT) to maximize the extracted power from MFCs, regardless of the power and voltage fluctuations from MFCs over time. The proposed PMS continuously detects the maximum power point (MPP) of the MFC and matches the load impedance of the PMS for maximum efficiency. The system also operates autonomously by directly drawing power from the MFC itself without any external power. The overall system efficiency, defined as the ratio between input energy from the MFC and output energy stored into the supercapacitor of the PMS, was 30%. As a demonstration, the PMS connected to a 240 mL two-chamber MFC (generating 0.4 V and 512 μW at MPP) successfully powered a wireless temperature sensor that requires a voltage of 2.5 V and consumes power of 85 mW each time it transmit the sensor data, and successfully transmitted a sensor reading every 7.5 min. The PMS also efficiently managed the power output of a lower-power producing MFC, demonstrating that the PMS works efficiently at various MFC power output level.

  9. Power converter with maximum power point tracking MPPT for small wind-electric pumping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, David; Merino, Gabriel; Salazar, Lautaro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We implement a wind electric pumping system of small power. • The power converter allowed to change the operating point of the electro pump. • Two control techniques were implemented in the power converter. • The control V/f variable allowed to increase the power generated by the permanent magnet generator. - Abstract: In this work, an AC–DC–AC direct-drive power converter was implemented for a wind electric pumping system consisting of a permanent magnet generator (PMG) of 1.3 kW and a peripheral single phase pump of 0.74 kW. In addition, the inverter linear V/f control scheme and the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm with variable V/f were developed. MPPT algorithm seeks to extract water in a wide range of power input using the maximum amount of wind power available. Experimental trials at different pump pressures were conducted. With a MPPT tracking system with variable V/f, a power value of 1.3 kW was obtained at a speed of 350 rpm and a maximum operating hydraulic head of 50 m. At lower operating heads pressures (between 10 and 40 m), variable V/f control increases the power generated by the PMG compared to the linear V/f control. This increase ranged between 4% and 23% depending on the operating pressure, with an average of 13%, getting close to the maximum electrical power curve of the PMG. The pump was driven at variable frequency reaching a minimum speed of 0.5 times the rated speed. Efficiency of the power converter ranges between 70% and 95% with a power factor between 0.4 and 0.85, depending on the operating pressure

  10. A reliable, fast and low cost maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enrique, J.M.; Andujar, J.M.; Bohorquez, M.A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, de Sistemas Informaticos y Automatica, Universidad de Huelva (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    This work presents a new maximum power point tracker system for photovoltaic applications. The developed system is an analog version of the ''P and O-oriented'' algorithm. It maintains its main advantages: simplicity, reliability and easy practical implementation, and avoids its main disadvantages: inaccurateness and relatively slow response. Additionally, the developed system can be implemented in a practical way at a low cost, which means an added value. The system also shows an excellent behavior for very fast variables in incident radiation levels. (author)

  11. Circuit Simulation for Solar Power Maximum Power Point Tracking with Different Buck-Boost Converter Topologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Kuen Shiau

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The power converter is one of the essential elements for effective use of renewable power sources. This paper focuses on the development of a circuit simulation model for maximum power point tracking (MPPT evaluation of solar power that involves using different buck-boost power converter topologies; including SEPIC, Zeta, and four-switch type buck-boost DC/DC converters. The circuit simulation model mainly includes three subsystems: a PV model; a buck-boost converter-based MPPT system; and a fuzzy logic MPPT controller. Dynamic analyses of the current-fed buck-boost converter systems are conducted and results are presented in the paper. The maximum power point tracking function is achieved through appropriate control of the power switches of the power converter. A fuzzy logic controller is developed to perform the MPPT function for obtaining maximum power from the PV panel. The MATLAB-based Simulink piecewise linear electric circuit simulation tool is used to verify the complete circuit simulation model.

  12. Geometrical prediction of maximum power point for photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Gaurav; Panchal, Ashish K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Direct MPP finding by parallelogram constructed from geometry of I–V curve of cell. • Exact values of V and P at MPP obtained by Lagrangian interpolation exploration. • Extensive use of Lagrangian interpolation for implementation of proposed method. • Method programming on C platform with minimum computational burden. - Abstract: It is important to drive solar photovoltaic (PV) system to its utmost capacity using maximum power point (MPP) tracking algorithms. This paper presents a direct MPP prediction method for a PV system considering the geometry of the I–V characteristic of a solar cell and a module. In the first step, known as parallelogram exploration (PGE), the MPP is determined from a parallelogram constructed using the open circuit (OC) and the short circuit (SC) points of the I–V characteristic and Lagrangian interpolation. In the second step, accurate values of voltage and power at the MPP, defined as V mp and P mp respectively, are decided by the Lagrangian interpolation formula, known as the Lagrangian interpolation exploration (LIE). Specifically, this method works with a few (V, I) data points instead most of the MPP algorithms work with (P, V) data points. The performance of the method is examined by several PV technologies including silicon, copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS), copper zinc tin sulphide selenide (CZTSSe), organic, dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and organic tandem cells’ data previously reported in literatures. The effectiveness of the method is tested experimentally for a few silicon cells’ I–V characteristics considering variation in the light intensity and the temperature. At last, the method is also employed for a 10 W silicon module tested in the field. To testify the preciseness of the method, an absolute value of the derivative of power (P) with respect to voltage (V) defined as (dP/dV) is evaluated and plotted against V. The method estimates the MPP parameters with high accuracy for any

  13. Fuzzy Controller Design Using FPGA for Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Basil M Hamed; Mohammed S. El-Moghany

    2012-01-01

    The cell has optimum operating point to be able to get maximum power. To obtain Maximum Power from photovoltaic array, photovoltaic power system usually requires Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) controller. This paper provides a small power photovoltaic control system based on fuzzy control with FPGA technology design and implementation for MPPT. The system composed of photovoltaic module, buck converter and the fuzzy logic controller implemented on FPGA for controlling on/off time of MOSF...

  14. A Compound Algorithm for Maximum Power Point Tracking Used in Laser Power Beaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Liu, Qiang; Gao, Shan; Teng, Yun; Cheng, Lin; Yu, Chengtao; Peng, Kai

    2018-03-01

    With the high voltage intelligent substation developing in a pretty high speed, more and more artificial intelligent techniques have been incorporated into the power devices to meet the automation needs. For the sake of the line maintenance staff’s safety, the high voltage isolating switch draws great attention among the most important power devices because of its capability of connecting and disconnecting the high voltage circuit. However, due to the very high level voltage of the high voltage isolating switch’s working environment, the power supply system of the surveillance devices could suffer from great electromagnetic interference. Laser power beaming exhibits its merits in such situation because it can provide steady power from a distance despite the day or the night. Then the energy conversion efficiency arises as a new concern. To make as much use of the laser power as possible, our work mainly focuses on extracting maximum power from the photovoltaic (PV) panel. In this paper, we proposed a neural network based algorithm which relates both the intrinsic and the extrinsic features of the PV panel to the proportion of the voltage at the maximum power point (MPP) to the open circuit voltage of the PV panel. Simulations and experiments were carried out to verify the validness of our algorithm.

  15. Microwatt power consumption maximum power point tracking circuit using an analogue differentiator for piezoelectric energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Z. J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-12-01

    A maximum power point tracking (MPPT) scheme by tracking the open-circuit voltage from a piezoelectric energy harvester using a differentiator is presented in this paper. The MPPT controller is implemented by using a low-power analogue differentiator and comparators without the need of a sensing circuitry and a power hungry controller. This proposed MPPT circuit is used to control a buck converter which serves as a power management module in conjunction with a full-wave bridge diode rectifier. Performance of this MPPT control scheme is verified by using the prototyped circuit to track the maximum power point of a macro-fiber composite (MFC) as the piezoelectric energy harvester. The MFC was bonded on a composite material and the whole specimen was subjected to various strain levels at frequency from 10 to 100 Hz. Experimental results showed that the implemented full analogue MPPT controller has a tracking efficiency between 81% and 98.66% independent of the load, and consumes an average power of 3.187 μW at 3 V during operation.

  16. Design of wind turbine airfoils based on maximum power coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Jiangtao; Chen, Jin; Cheng, Jiangtao

    2010-01-01

    Based on the blade element momentum (BEM) theory, the power coefficient of a wind turbine can be expressed in function of local tip speed ratio and lift-drag ratio. By taking the power coefficient in a predefined range of angle of attack as the final design objective and combining with an airfoil...

  17. Dependence of the maximum power and wind speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentiu Deliu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue paper is to present renewable energy sources insisting mainly on wind energy. This source is analyzed in the context of Romania in particular and the EU in general. A turbine with horizontal axis is usually coupled with vessel power systems. Wind energy knows an increased growth rate. At the end of the paper are presented possible structure of coupled a wind to power systems.

  18. Nonimaging optical designs for maximum-power-density remote irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuermann, D; Gordon, J M; Ries, H

    1998-04-01

    Designs for flexible, high-power-density, remote irradiation systems are presented. Applications include industrial infrared heating such as in semiconductor processing, alternatives to laser light for certain medical procedures, and general remote high-brightness lighting. The high power densities in herent to the small active radiating regions of conventional metal-halide, halogen, xenon, microwave-sulfur, and related lamps can be restored with nonimaging concentrators with little loss of power. These high fluxlevels can then be transported at high transmissivity with light channels such as optical fibers or lightpipes, and reshaped into luminaires that can deliver prescribed angular and spatial flux distributions onto desired targets. Details for nominally two- and three-dimensional systems are developed, along with estimates ofoptical performance.

  19. A Hybrid Maximum Power Point Search Method Using Temperature Measurements in Partial Shading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mroczka Janusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic panels have a non-linear current-voltage characteristics to produce the maximum power at only one point called the maximum power point. In the case of the uniform illumination a single solar panel shows only one maximum power, which is also the global maximum power point. In the case an irregularly illuminated photovoltaic panel many local maxima on the power-voltage curve can be observed and only one of them is the global maximum. The proposed algorithm detects whether a solar panel is in the uniform insolation conditions. Then an appropriate strategy of tracking the maximum power point is taken using a decision algorithm. The proposed method is simulated in the environment created by the authors, which allows to stimulate photovoltaic panels in real conditions of lighting, temperature and shading.

  20. Microprocessor-controlled step-down maximum-power-point tracker for photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazmuder, R. K.; Haidar, S.

    1992-12-01

    An efficient maximum power point tracker (MPPT) has been developed and can be used with a photovoltaic (PV) array and a load which requires lower voltage than the PV array voltage to be operated. The MPPT makes the PV array to operate at maximum power point (MPP) under all insolation and temperature, which ensures the maximum amount of available PV power to be delivered to the load. The performance of the MPPT has been studied under different insolation levels.

  1. Maximum Power Tracking by VSAS approach for Wind Turbine, Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacer Kouider Msirdi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a review of the most efficient algorithms designed to track the maximum power point (MPP for catching the maximum wind power by a variable speed wind turbine (VSWT. We then design a new maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm using the Variable Structure Automatic Systems approach (VSAS. The proposed approachleads efficient algorithms as shown in this paper by the analysis and simulations.

  2. Near-maximum-power-point-operation (nMPPO) design of photovoltaic power generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B.J.; Sun, F.S.; Ho, R.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2006-08-15

    The present study proposes a PV system design, called 'near-maximum power-point-operation' (nMPPO) that can maintain the performance very close to PV system with MPPT (maximum-power-point tracking) but eliminate hardware of the MPPT. The concept of nMPPO is to match the design of battery bank voltage V{sub set} with the MPP (maximum-power point) of the PV module based on an analysis using meteorological data. Three design methods are used in the present study to determine the optimal V{sub set}. The analytical results show that nMPPO is feasible and the optimal V{sub set} falls in the range 13.2-15.0V for MSX60 PV module. The long-term performance simulation shows that the overall nMPPO efficiency {eta}{sub nMPPO} is higher than 94%. Two outdoor field tests were carried out in the present study to verify the design of nMPPO. The test results for a single PV module (60Wp) indicate that the nMPPO efficiency {eta}{sub nMPPO} is mostly higher than 93% at various PV temperature T{sub pv}. Another long-term field test of 1kWp PV array using nMPPO shows that the power generation using nMPPO is almost identical with MPPT at various weather conditions and T{sub pv} variation from 24{sup o}C to 70{sup o}C. (author)

  3. Configuration of LWR fuel enrichment or burnup yielding maximum power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartosek, V.; Zalesky, K.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis is given of the spatial distribution of fuel burnup and enrichment in a light-water lattice of given dimensions with slightly enriched uranium, at which the maximum output is achieved. It is based on the spatial solution of neutron flux using a one-group diffusion model in which linear dependence may be expected of the fission cross section and the material buckling parameter on the fuel burnup and enrichment. Two problem constraints are considered, i.e., the neutron flux value and the specific output value. For the former the optimum core configuration remains qualitatively unchanged for any reflector thickness, for the latter the cases of a reactor with and without reflector must be distinguished. (Z.M.)

  4. Maximum Power Output of Quantum Heat Engine with Energy Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The difference between quantum isoenergetic process and quantum isothermal process comes from the violation of the law of equipartition of energy in the quantum regime. To reveal an important physical meaning of this fact, here we study a special type of quantum heat engine consisting of three processes: isoenergetic, isothermal and adiabatic processes. Therefore, this engine works between the energy and heat baths. Combining two engines of this kind, it is possible to realize the quantum Carnot engine. Furthermore, considering finite velocity of change of the potential shape, here an infinite square well with moving walls, the power output of the engine is discussed. It is found that the efficiency and power output are both closely dependent on the initial and final states of the quantum isothermal process. The performance of the engine cycle is shown to be optimized by control of the occupation probability of the ground state, which is determined by the temperature and the potential width. The relation between the efficiency and power output is also discussed.

  5. Safety-related incidents at the Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, P.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains detailed descriptions of operating incidents and other safety-related matters at the Finnish nuclear power plants regarded as significant by the regulatory authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. In this connection, an account is given of the practical actions caused by the incidents, and their significance to reactor safety is evaluated. The main features of the incidents are also described in the general Quartely Reports, Operation of Finnish Nuclear Power Plants, which are supplemented by this report intended for experts. (author)

  6. Safety-related incidents at the Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, P.

    1986-03-01

    This report contains detailed descriptions of operating incidents and other safety-related matters at the Finnish nuclear power plants regarded as significant by the regulatory authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. In this connection, an account is given of the practical actions caused by the incidents, and their significance to reactor safety is evaluated. The main features of the incidents are also described in the general Quartely Reports, Operation of Finnish Nuclear Power Plants, which are supplemented by this report intended for experts. (author)

  7. Maximum wind power plant generation by reducing the wake effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De-Prada-Gil, Mikel; Alías, César Guillén; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Sumper, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • To analyze the benefit of applying a new control strategy to maximise energy yield. • To operate some wind turbines at non-optimum points for reducing wake effects. • Single, partial and multiple wakes for any wind direction are taken into account. • Thrust coefficient is computed according to Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory. - Abstract: This paper analyses, from a steady state point of view, the potential benefit of a Wind Power Plant (WPP) control strategy whose main objective is to maximise its total energy yield over its lifetime by taking into consideration that the wake effect within the WPP varies depending on the operation of each wind turbine. Unlike the conventional approach in which each wind turbine operation is optimised individually to maximise its own energy capture, the proposed control strategy aims to optimise the whole system by operating some wind turbines at sub-optimum points, so that the wake effect within the WPP is reduced and therefore the total power generation is maximised. The methodology used to assess the performance of both control approaches is presented and applied to two particular study cases. It contains a comprehensive wake model considering single, partial and multiple wake effects among turbines. The study also takes into account the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory to accurately compute both power and thrust coefficient of each wind turbine. The results suggest a good potential of the proposed concept, since an increase in the annual energy captured by the WPP from 1.86% up to 6.24% may be achieved (depending on the wind rose at the WPP location) by operating some specific wind turbines slightly away from their optimum point and reducing thus the wake effect

  8. A novel maximum power point tracking method for PV systems using fuzzy cognitive networks (FCN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlis, A.D. [Electrical Machines Laboratory, Department of Electrical & amp; Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, V. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Kottas, T.L.; Boutalis, Y.S. [Automatic Control Systems Laboratory, Department of Electrical & amp; Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, V. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2007-03-15

    Maximum power point trackers (MPPTs) play an important role in photovoltaic (PV) power systems because they maximize the power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions, and therefore maximize the array efficiency. This paper presents a novel MPPT method based on fuzzy cognitive networks (FCN). The new method gives a good maximum power operation of any PV array under different conditions such as changing insolation and temperature. The numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. (author)

  9. Comprehensive performance analyses and optimization of the irreversible thermodynamic cycle engines (TCE) under maximum power (MP) and maximum power density (MPD) conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonca, Guven; Sahin, Bahri; Ust, Yasin; Parlak, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents comprehensive performance analyses and comparisons for air-standard irreversible thermodynamic cycle engines (TCE) based on the power output, power density, thermal efficiency, maximum dimensionless power output (MP), maximum dimensionless power density (MPD) and maximum thermal efficiency (MEF) criteria. Internal irreversibility of the cycles occurred during the irreversible-adiabatic processes is considered by using isentropic efficiencies of compression and expansion processes. The performances of the cycles are obtained by using engine design parameters such as isentropic temperature ratio of the compression process, pressure ratio, stroke ratio, cut-off ratio, Miller cycle ratio, exhaust temperature ratio, cycle temperature ratio and cycle pressure ratio. The effects of engine design parameters on the maximum and optimal performances are investigated. - Highlights: • Performance analyses are conducted for irreversible thermodynamic cycle engines. • Comprehensive computations are performed. • Maximum and optimum performances of the engines are shown. • The effects of design parameters on performance and power density are examined. • The results obtained may be guidelines to the engine designers

  10. Artificial Neural Network In Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithm Of Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modestas Pikutis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Scientists are looking for ways to improve the efficiency of solar cells all the time. The efficiency of solar cells which are available to the general public is up to 20%. Part of the solar energy is unused and a capacity of solar power plant is significantly reduced – if slow controller or controller which cannot stay at maximum power point of solar modules is used. Various algorithms of maximum power point tracking were created, but mostly algorithms are slow or make mistakes. In the literature more and more oftenartificial neural networks (ANN in maximum power point tracking process are mentioned, in order to improve performance of the controller. Self-learner artificial neural network and IncCond algorithm were used for maximum power point tracking in created solar power plant model. The algorithm for control was created. Solar power plant model is implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment.

  11. Experimental evaluation of wind turbines maximum power point tracking controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camblong, H.; Martinez de Alegria, I.; Rodriguez, M.; Abad, G.

    2006-01-01

    Wind energy technology has experienced important improvements this last decade. The transition from fixed speed to variable speed wind turbines has been a significant element of these improvements. It has allowed adapting the turbine rotational speed to the wind speed variations with the aim of optimizing the aerodynamic efficiency. A classic controller that has slow dynamics relative to the mechanical dynamics of the drive train is implemented in commercial wind turbines. The objective of the work related in this paper has been to evaluate the implementation, on a test bench, of a controller whose dynamics can be adjusted to be faster and to compare in particular its aerodynamic efficiency with the conventional controller. In theory, the higher dynamics of the non-classic controller has to lead to a better efficiency. A 180 kW wind turbine whose simulation model has been validated with field data is emulated on an 18 kW test bench. The emulator has also been validated. Test bench trials are a very useful step between numerical simulation and trials on the real system because they allow analyzing some phenomena that may not appear in simulations without endangering the real system. The trials on the test bench show that the non-conventional controller leads to a higher aerodynamic efficiency and that this is offset by higher mechanical torque and electric power fluctuations. Nevertheless, the amplitudes of these fluctuations are relatively low compared to their rated values

  12. Survey of reportable incidents in nuclear power plants in Germany in the year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In 1992, 223 reportable incidents in German nuclear power plant have been reported. There was no radioactivity release exceeding the maximum permissible limits, and there were no hazardous effects on the population or the environment. There was no incident belonging to category S of the official event scale, requiring urgent notification, while there were two incidents requiring immediate notification. All other incidents reported belonged to category N, the lowest on the scale, requiring normal notification. 216 incidents belonged to category 0 of the INES scale, and 7 to INES category 1 (disturbance). The tabulated survey of the report lists the various events and their position on the INES scale. The reportable events have been analysed thoroughly from various viewpoints, but no systematic pattern of weak points could be detected. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Measurement of the Barkas effect around the stopping-power maximum for light and heavy targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.P.; Knudsen, H.; Mikkelsen, U.; Paludan, K.; Morenzoni, E.

    1997-01-01

    The first direct measurements of antiproton stopping powers around the stopping power maximum are presented. The LEAR antiproton-beam of 5.9 MeV is degraded to 50-700 keV, and the energy-loss is found by measuring the antiproton velocity before and after the target. The antiproton stopping powers of Si and Au are found to be reduced by 30 and 40% near the electronic stopping power maximum as compared to the equivalent proton stopping power. The Barkas effect, that is the stopping power difference between protons and antiprotons, is extracted and compared to theoretical estimates. (orig.)

  14. A maximum power point tracking algorithm for buoy-rope-drum wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. Q.; Zhang, X. C.; Zhou, Y.; Cui, Z. C.; Zhu, L. S.

    2016-08-01

    The maximum power point tracking control is the key link to improve the energy conversion efficiency of wave energy converters (WEC). This paper presents a novel variable step size Perturb and Observe maximum power point tracking algorithm with a power classification standard for control of a buoy-rope-drum WEC. The algorithm and simulation model of the buoy-rope-drum WEC are presented in details, as well as simulation experiment results. The results show that the algorithm tracks the maximum power point of the WEC fast and accurately.

  15. Comparison of fuzzy logic and neural network in maximum power point tracker for PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salah, Chokri; Ouali, Mohamed [Research Unit on Intelligent Control, Optimization, Design and Optimization of Complex Systems (ICOS), Department of Electrical Engineering, National School of Engineers of Sfax, BP. W, 3038, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2011-01-15

    This paper proposes two methods of maximum power point tracking using a fuzzy logic and a neural network controllers for photovoltaic systems. The two maximum power point tracking controllers receive solar radiation and photovoltaic cell temperature as inputs, and estimated the optimum duty cycle corresponding to maximum power as output. The approach is validated on a 100 Wp PVP (two parallels SM50-H panel) connected to a 24 V dc load. The new method gives a good maximum power operation of any photovoltaic array under different conditions such as changing solar radiation and PV cell temperature. From the simulation and experimental results, the fuzzy logic controller can deliver more power than the neural network controller and can give more power than other different methods in literature. (author)

  16. Survey of reportable incidents in nuclear power plants of the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, there were 249 reportable nuclear power plant incidents in Germany (old and new federal Laender). The report comprehensively lists all these incidents. There was no release of radioactivity exceeding the maximum permissible limits, and there were no effects on man or the environment. There were no incidents of reporting category S (Urgent notification), and ten belonging to category E (immediate notification). The six incidents reported in the first half of 1991 from nuclear power plants in the new federal Laender all belonged to category AE 3, which is the lowest. (orig./DG) [de

  17. PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION BASED OF THE MAXIMUM PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER TRACTIOQG UNDER DIFFERENT CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Labbi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic electricity is seen as an important source of renewable energy. The photovoltaic array is an unstable source of power since the peak power point depends on the temperature and the irradiation level. A maximum peak power point tracking is then necessary for maximum efficiency.In this work, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO is proposed for maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic panel, are used to generate the optimal MPP, such that solar panel maximum power is generated under different operating conditions. A photovoltaic system including a solar panel and PSO MPP tracker is modelled and simulated, it has been has been carried out which has shown the effectiveness of PSO to draw much energy and fast response against change in working conditions.

  18. 40 CFR 1054.140 - What is my engine's maximum engine power and displacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... internal diameter of 6.00 cm and a 6.25 cm stroke length, the rounded displacement would be: (1) × (6.00/2... power and displacement? 1054.140 Section 1054.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... engine power and displacement? This section describes how to quantify your engine's maximum engine power...

  19. A maximum power point tracking scheme for a 1kw stand-alone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A maximum power point tracking scheme for a 1kw stand-alone solar energy based power supply. ... Nigerian Journal of Technology ... A method for efficiently maximizing the output power of a solar panel supplying a load or battery bus under ...

  20. Maximum Power Point Tracking Control of Photovoltaic Systems: A Polynomial Fuzzy Model-Based Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakhshan, Mohsen; Vafamand, Navid; Khooban, Mohammad Hassan

    2018-01-01

    This paper introduces a polynomial fuzzy model (PFM)-based maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control approach to increase the performance and efficiency of the solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation. The proposed method relies on a polynomial fuzzy modeling, a polynomial parallel......, a direct maximum power (DMP)-based control structure is considered for MPPT. Using the PFM representation, the DMP-based control structure is formulated in terms of SOS conditions. Unlike the conventional approaches, the proposed approach does not require exploring the maximum power operational point...

  1. Accurate Maximum Power Tracking in Photovoltaic Systems Affected by Partial Shading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Guerriero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A maximum power tracking algorithm exploiting operating point information gained on individual solar panels is presented. The proposed algorithm recognizes the presence of multiple local maxima in the power voltage curve of a shaded solar field and evaluates the coordinated of the absolute maximum. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is evidenced by means of circuit level simulation and experimental results. Experiments evidenced that, in comparison with a standard perturb and observe algorithm, we achieve faster convergence in normal operating conditions (when the solar field is uniformly illuminated and we accurately locate the absolute maximum power point in partial shading conditions, thus avoiding the convergence on local maxima.

  2. Development of intelligent MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control for a grid-connected hybrid power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Chih-Ming; Ou, Ting-Chia; Lu, Kai-Hung

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid power control system is proposed in the paper, consisting of solar power, wind power, and a diesel-engine. To achieve a fast and stable response for the real power control, an intelligent controller was proposed, which consists of the Wilcoxon (radial basis function network) RBFN and the improved (Elman neural network) ENN for (maximum power point tracking) MPPT. The pitch angle control of wind power uses improved ENN controller, and the output is fed to the wind turbine to achieve the MPPT. The solar array is integrated with an RBFN control algorithm to track the maximum power. MATLAB (MATrix LABoratory)/Simulink was used to build the dynamic model and simulate the solar and diesel-wind hybrid power system. - Highlights: ► To achieve a fast and stable response for the real power control. ► The pitch control of wind power uses improved ENN (Elman neural network) controller to achieve the MPPT (maximum power point tracking). ► The RBFN (radial basis function network) can quickly and accurately track the maximum power output for PV (photovoltaic) array. ► MATLAB was used to build the dynamic model and simulate the hybrid power system. ► This method can reach the desired performance even under different load conditions

  3. Measurement of incident sound power using near field acoustic holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Tiana Roig, Elisabet

    2009-01-01

    ; and it has always been regarded as impossible to measure the sound power that is incident on a wall directly. This paper examines a new method of determining this quantity from sound pressure measurements at positions on the wall using ‘statistically optimised near field acoustic holography’ (SONAH...

  4. A MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING SCHEME FOR A 1kW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    knee point of PV system under variable atmospheric conditions have been ..... of the PV generator module increases, and the maximum power output increases as well. ..... Water Pumping System” A Thesis resented to the. Faculty of California ...

  5. Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic System for Traffic Light Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Muhida

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic traffic light system is a significant application of renewable energy source. The development of the system is an alternative effort of local authority to reduce expenditure for paying fees to power supplier which the power comes from conventional energy source. Since photovoltaic (PV modules still have relatively low conversion efficiency, an alternative control of maximum power point tracking (MPPT method is applied to the traffic light system. MPPT is intended to catch up the maximum power at daytime in order to charge the battery at the maximum rate in which the power from the battery is intended to be used at night time or cloudy day. MPPT is actually a DC-DC converter that can step up or down voltage in order to achieve the maximum power using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM control. From experiment, we obtained the voltage of operation using MPPT is at 16.454 V, this value has error of 2.6%, if we compared with maximum power point voltage of PV module that is 16.9 V. Based on this result it can be said that this MPPT control works successfully to deliver the power from PV module to battery maximally.

  6. Maximizing Output Power of a Solar Panel via Combination of Sun Tracking and Maximum Power Point Tracking by Fuzzy Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Taherbaneh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In applications with low-energy conversion efficiency, maximizing the output power improves the efficiency. The maximum output power of a solar panel depends on the environmental conditions and load profile. In this paper, a method based on simultaneous use of two fuzzy controllers is developed in order to maximize the generated output power of a solar panel in a photovoltaic system: fuzzy-based sun tracking and maximum power point tracking. The sun tracking is performed by changing the solar panel orientation in horizontal and vertical directions by two DC motors properly designed. A DC-DC converter is employed to track the solar panel maximum power point. In addition, the proposed system has the capability of the extraction of solar panel I-V curves. Experimental results present that the proposed fuzzy techniques result in increasing of power delivery from the solar panel, causing a reduction in size, weight, and cost of solar panels in photovoltaic systems.

  7. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT Pada Sistem Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Angin Menggunakan Buck-Boost Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Otong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the implementation of the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT technique is developed using buck-boost converter. Perturb and observe (P&O MPPT algorithm is used to searching maximum power from the wind power plant for charging of the battery. The model used in this study is the Variable Speed Wind Turbine (VSWT with a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG. Analysis, design, and modeling of wind energy conversion system has done using MATLAB/simulink. The simulation results show that the proposed MPPT produce a higher output power than the system without MPPT. The average efficiency that can be achieved by the proposed system to transfer the maximum power into battery is 90.56%.

  8. Evaluation of maximum power point tracking in hydrokinetic energy conversion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangir Khan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Maximum power point tracking is a mature control issue for wind, solar and other systems. On the other hand, being a relatively new technology, detailed discussion on power tracking of hydrokinetic energy conversion systems are generally not available. Prior to developing sophisticated control schemes for use in hydrokinetic systems, existing know-how in wind or solar technologies can be explored. In this study, a comparative evaluation of three generic classes of maximum power point scheme is carried out. These schemes are (a tip speed ratio control, (b power signal feedback control, and (c hill climbing search control. In addition, a novel concept for maximum power point tracking: namely, extremum seeking control is introduced. Detailed and validated system models are used in a simulation environment. Potential advantages and drawbacks of each of these schemes are summarised.

  9. Development of an Intelligent Maximum Power Point Tracker Using an Advanced PV System Test Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Amoiridis, Anastasios; Beres, Remus Narcis

    2013-01-01

    The performance of photovoltaic systems is often reduced by the presence of partial shadows. The system efficiency and availability can be improved by a maximum power point tracking algorithm that is able to detect partial shadow conditions and to optimize the power output. This work proposes...... an intelligent maximum power point tracking method that monitors the maximum power point voltage and triggers a current-voltage sweep only when a partial shadow is detected, therefore minimizing power loss due to repeated current-voltage sweeps. The proposed system is validated on an advanced, flexible...... photovoltaic inverter system test platform that is able to reproduce realistic partial shadow conditions, both in simulation and on hardware test system....

  10. A thermoelectric generator using loop heat pipe and design match for maximum-power generation

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2015-09-05

    The present study focuses on the thermoelectric generator (TEG) using loop heat pipe (LHP) and design match for maximum-power generation. The TEG uses loop heat pipe, a passive cooling device, to dissipate heat without consuming power and free of noise. The experiments for a TEG with 4W rated power show that the LHP performs very well with overall thermal resistance 0.35 K W-1, from the cold side of TEG module to the ambient. The LHP is able to dissipate heat up to 110W and is maintenance free. The TEG design match for maximum-power generation, called “near maximum-power point operation (nMPPO)”, is studied to eliminate the MPPT (maximum-power point tracking controller). nMPPO is simply a system design which properly matches the output voltage of TEG with the battery. It is experimentally shown that TEG using design match for maximum-power generation (nMPPO) performs better than TEG with MPPT.

  11. MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC STATION MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Elzein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present an alternative maximum power point tracking, MPPT, algorithm for a photovoltaic module, PVM, to produce the maximum power, Pmax, using the optimal duty ratio, D, for different types of converters and load matching.We present a state-based approach to the design of the maximum power point tracker for a stand-alone photovoltaic power generation system. The system under consideration consists of a solar array with nonlinear time-varying characteristics, a step-up converter with appropriate filter.The proposed algorithm has the advantages of maximizing the efficiency of the power utilization, can be integrated to other MPPT algorithms without affecting the PVM performance, is excellent for Real-Time applications and is a robust analytical method, different from the traditional MPPT algorithms which are more based on trial and error, or comparisons between present and past states. The procedure to calculate the optimal duty ratio for a buck, boost and buck-boost converters, to transfer the maximum power from a PVM to a load, is presented in the paper. Additionally, the existence and uniqueness of optimal internal impedance, to transfer the maximum power from a photovoltaic module using load matching, is proved.

  12. Maximum power point tracking for PV systems under partial shading conditions using current sweeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.M.; Chan, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel approach for tracking the maximum power point of photovoltaic systems. • Able to handle both the uniform insolation and partial shading conditions. • Maximum power point tracking based on current sweeping. - Abstract: Partial shading on photovoltaic (PV) arrays causes multiple peaks on the output power–voltage characteristic curve and local searching technique such as perturb and observe (P&O) method could easily fail in searching for the global maximum. Moreover, existing global searching techniques are still not very satisfactory in terms of speed and implementation complexity. In this paper, a fast global maximum power point (MPPT) tracking method which is using current sweeping for photovoltaic arrays under partial shading conditions is proposed. Unlike conventional approach, the proposed method is current based rather than voltage based. The initial maximum power point will be derived based on a current sweeping test and the maximum power point can be enhanced by a finer local search. The speed of the global search is mainly governed by the apparent time constant of the PV array and the generation of a fast current sweeping test. The fast current sweeping test can easily be realized by a DC/DC boost converter with a very fast current control loop. Experimental results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed global searching scheme

  13. Tip Speed Ratio Based Maximum Power Tracking Control of Variable Speed Wind Turbines; A Comprehensive Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Karabacak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The most primitive control method of wind turbines used to generate electric energy from wind is the fixed speed control method. With this method, it is not possible that turbine input power is transferred to grid at maximum rate. For this reason, Maximum Power Tracking (MPT schemes are proposed. In order to implement MPT, the propeller has to rotate at a different speed for every different wind speed. This situation has led MPT based systems to be called Variable Speed Wind Turbine (VSWT systems. In VSWT systems, turbine input power can be transferred to grid at rates close to maximum power. When MPT based control of VSWT systems is the case, two important processes come into prominence. These are instantaneously determination and tracking of MPT point. In this study, using a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT method based on tip speed ratio, power available in wind is transferred into grid over a back to back converter at maximum rate via a VSWT system with permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG. Besides a physical wind turbine simulator is modelled and simulated. Results show that a time varying MPPT point is tracked with a high performance.

  14. Individual Module Maximum Power Point Tracking for a Thermoelectric Generator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadstrup, Casper; Chen, Min; Schaltz, Erik

    Thermo Electric Generator (TEG) modules are often connected in a series and/or parallel system in order to match the TEG system voltage with the load voltage. However, in order to be able to control the power production of the TEG system a DC/DC converter is inserted between the TEG system...... and the load. The DC/DC converter is under the control of a Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) which insures that the TEG system produces the maximum possible power to the load. However, if the conditions, e.g. temperature, health, etc., of the TEG modules are different each TEG module will not produce its...

  15. A Hybrid Maximum Power Point Tracking Method for Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Rui; Zhou, Wei; Yang, Guangyou; Quan, Shuhai

    2017-05-01

    To make full use of the maximum output power of automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG) based on Bi2Te3 thermoelectric modules (TEMs), taking into account the advantages and disadvantages of existing maximum power point tracking methods, and according to the output characteristics of TEMs, a hybrid maximum power point tracking method combining perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm, quadratic interpolation and constant voltage tracking method was put forward in this paper. Firstly, it searched the maximum power point with P&O algorithms and a quadratic interpolation method, then, it forced the AETEG to work at its maximum power point with constant voltage tracking. A synchronous buck converter and controller were implemented in the electric bus of the AETEG applied in a military sports utility vehicle, and the whole system was modeled and simulated with a MATLAB/Simulink environment. Simulation results demonstrate that the maximum output power of the AETEG based on the proposed hybrid method is increased by about 3.0% and 3.7% compared with that using only the P&O algorithm and the quadratic interpolation method, respectively. The shorter tracking time is only 1.4 s, which is reduced by half compared with that of the P&O algorithm and quadratic interpolation method, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the tracked maximum power is approximately equal to the real value using the proposed hybrid method,and it can preferentially deal with the voltage fluctuation of the AETEG with only P&O algorithm, and resolve the issue that its working point can barely be adjusted only with constant voltage tracking when the operation conditions change.

  16. Thermal neutron measurement using the instrumented test bundle and assessment of maximum linear power in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C. S.; Seo, C. K.; Lee, B. C.; Kim, H. N.; Kang, B. W. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-10-01

    The HANARO fuel, U{sub 3}Si-Al, has been developed by AECL and tested in NRU reactor. Due to the lack of the data performed under the high power, the repetitive conduct of the irradiation test was required under the power greater than 108kW/m, which is the estimated maximum linear power in the design stage. Accordingly, the instrumented test bundle with SPND(Self Powered Neutron Detector) was fabricated and its irradiation test was performed in IR2 of HANARO. The measured thermal neutron flux with SPND is compared with calculation results by HANAFMS(HANARO Fuel Management System). The difference in the measured and calculated thermal flux values are below {+-}11% and the accuracy of the linear power predicted by HANAFMS is consequently accompanied. Therefore, it is believed that the maximum linear power above 120kW/m is achieved during the irradiation test of the test bundle.

  17. Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic System for Traffic Light Application

    OpenAIRE

    Muhida, Riza; Mohamad, Nor Hilmi; Legowo, Ari; Irawan, Rudi; Astuti, Winda

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic traffic light system is a significant application of renewable energy source. The development of the system is an alternative effort of local authority to reduce expenditure for paying fees to power supplier which the power comes from conventional energy source. Since photovoltaic (PV) modules still have relatively low conversion efficiency, an alternative control of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method is applied to the traffic light system. MPPT is intended to catch up th...

  18. Estimation of the Maximum Output Power of Double-Clad Photonic Crystal Fiber Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yue-E; Wang Yong; Qu Xi-Long

    2012-01-01

    Compared with traditional optical fiber lasers, double-clad photonic crystal fiber (PCF) lasers have larger surface-area-to-volume ratios. With an increase of output power, thermal effects may severely restrict output power and deteriorate beam quality of fiber lasers. We utilize the heat-conduction equations to estimate the maximum output power of a double-clad PCF laser under natural-convection, air-cooling, and water-cooling conditions in terms of a certain surface-volume heat ratio of the PCF. The thermal effects hence define an upper power limit of double-clad PCF lasers when scaling output power. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  19. Tracking the global maximum power point of PV arrays under partial shading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennich, Meryem

    This thesis presents the theoretical and simulation studies of the global maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for photovoltaic systems under partial shading. The main goal is to track the maximum power point of the photovoltaic module so that the maximum possible power can be extracted from the photovoltaic panels. When several panels are connected in series with some of them shaded partially either due to clouds or shadows from neighboring buildings, several local maxima appear in the power vs. voltage curve. A power increment based MPPT algorithm is effective in identifying the global maximum from the several local maxima. Several existing MPPT algorithms are explored and the state-of-the-art power increment method is simulated and tested for various partial shading conditions. The current-voltage and power-voltage characteristics of the PV model are studied under different partial shading conditions, along with five different cases demonstrating how the MPPT algorithm performs when shading switches from one state to another. Each case is supplemented with simulation results. The method of tracking the Global MPP is based on controlling the DC-DC converter connected to the output of the PV array. A complete system simulation including the PV array, the direct current to direct current (DC-DC) converter and the MPPT is presented and tested using MATLAB software. The simulation results show that the MPPT algorithm works very well with the buck converter, while the boost converter needs further changes and implementation.

  20. Incidents at nuclear power plants caused by the human factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashin, V. A.

    2012-01-01

    Psychological analysis of the causes of incorrect actions by personnel is discussed as presented in the report “Methodological guidelines for analyzing the causes of incidents in the operation of nuclear power plants.” The types of incorrect actions and classification of the root causes of errors by personnel are analyzed. Recommendations are made for improvements in the psychological analysis of causes of incorrect actions by personnel.

  1. A novel algorithm for single-axis maximum power generation sun trackers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kung-Yen; Chung, Chi-Yao; Huang, Bin-Juine; Kuo, Ting-Jung; Yang, Huang-Wei; Cheng, Hung-Yen; Hsu, Po-Chien; Li, Kang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel algorithm for a single-axis sun tracker is developed to increase the efficiency. • Photovoltaic module is rotated to find the optimal angle for generating the maximum power. • Electric energy increases up to 8.3%, compared with that of the tracker with three fixed angles. • The rotation range is optimized to reduce energy consumption from the rotation operations. - Abstract: The purpose of this study is to develop a novel algorithm for a single-axis maximum power generation sun tracker in order to identify the optimal stopping angle for generating the maximum amount of daily electric energy. First, the photovoltaic modules of the single-axis maximum power generation sun tracker are automatically rotated from 50° east to 50° west. During the rotation, the instantaneous power generated at different angles is recorded and compared, meaning that the optimal angle for generating the maximum power can be determined. Once the rotation (detection) is completed, the photovoltaic modules are then rotated to the resulting angle for generating the maximum power. The photovoltaic module is rotated once per hour in an attempt to detect the maximum irradiation and overcome the impact of environmental effects such as shading from cloud cover, other photovoltaic modules and surrounding buildings. Furthermore, the detection range is halved so as to reduce the energy consumption from the rotation operations and to improve the reliability of the sun tracker. The results indicate that electric energy production is increased by 3.4% in spring and autumn, 5.4% in summer, and 8.3% in winter, compared with that of the same sun tracker with three fixed angles of 50° east in the morning, 0° at noon and 50° west in the afternoon.

  2. Uninterrupted thermoelectric energy harvesting using temperature-sensor-based maximum power point tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae-Do; Lee, Hohyun; Bond, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Feedforward MPPT scheme for uninterrupted TEG energy harvesting is suggested. • Temperature sensors are used to avoid current measurement or source disconnection. • MPP voltage reference is generated based on OCV vs. temperature differential model. • Optimal operating condition is maintained using hysteresis controller. • Any type of power converter can be used in the proposed scheme. - Abstract: In this paper, a thermoelectric generator (TEG) energy harvesting system with a temperature-sensor-based maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method is presented. Conventional MPPT algorithms for photovoltaic cells may not be suitable for thermoelectric power generation because a significant amount of time is required for TEG systems to reach a steady state. Moreover, complexity and additional power consumption in conventional circuits and periodic disconnection of power source are not desirable for low-power energy harvesting applications. The proposed system can track the varying maximum power point (MPP) with a simple and inexpensive temperature-sensor-based circuit without instantaneous power measurement or TEG disconnection. This system uses TEG’s open circuit voltage (OCV) characteristic with respect to temperature gradient to generate a proper reference voltage signal, i.e., half of the TEG’s OCV. The power converter controller maintains the TEG output voltage at the reference level so that the maximum power can be extracted for the given temperature condition. This feedforward MPPT scheme is inherently stable and can be implemented without any complex microcontroller circuit. The proposed system has been validated analytically and experimentally, and shows a maximum power tracking error of 1.15%

  3. Determination Of Maximum Power Of The RSG-Gas At Power Operation Mode Using One Line Cooling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastuti, Endiah Puji; Kuntoro, Iman; Darwis Isnaini, M.

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of minimizing the operation-cost, operation mode using one line cooling system is being evaluated. Maximum reactor power shall be determined to assure that the existing safety criteria are not violated. The analysis was done by means of a core thermal hydraulic code, COOLOD-N. The code solves core thermal hydraulic equation at steady state conditions. By varying the reactor power as the input, thermal hydraulic parameters such as fuel cladding and fuel meat temperatures as well as safety margin against flow instability were calculated. Imposing the safety criteria to the results, maximum permissible power for this operation was obtained as much as 17.1 MW. Nevertheless, for operation the maximum power is limited to 15MW

  4. Comparison of candidate solar array maximum power utilization approaches. [for spacecraft propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costogue, E. N.; Lindena, S.

    1976-01-01

    A study was made of five potential approaches that can be utilized to detect the maximum power point of a solar array while sustaining operations at or near maximum power and without endangering stability or causing array voltage collapse. The approaches studied included: (1) dynamic impedance comparator, (2) reference array measurement, (3) onset of solar array voltage collapse detection, (4) parallel tracker, and (5) direct measurement. The study analyzed the feasibility and adaptability of these approaches to a future solar electric propulsion (SEP) mission, and, specifically, to a comet rendezvous mission. Such missions presented the most challenging requirements to a spacecraft power subsystem in terms of power management over large solar intensity ranges of 1.0 to 3.5 AU. The dynamic impedance approach was found to have the highest figure of merit, and the reference array approach followed closely behind. The results are applicable to terrestrial solar power systems as well as to other than SEP space missions.

  5. Improved Reliability of Single-Phase PV Inverters by Limiting the Maximum Feed-in Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Grid operation experiences have revealed the necessity to limit the maximum feed-in power from PV inverter systems under a high penetration scenario in order to avoid voltage and frequency instability issues. A Constant Power Generation (CPG) control method has been proposed at the inverter level...... devices, allowing a quantitative prediction of the power device lifetime. A study case on a 3 kW single-phase PV inverter has demonstrated the advantages of the CPG control in terms of improved reliability.......Grid operation experiences have revealed the necessity to limit the maximum feed-in power from PV inverter systems under a high penetration scenario in order to avoid voltage and frequency instability issues. A Constant Power Generation (CPG) control method has been proposed at the inverter level....... The CPG control strategy is activated only when the DC input power from PV panels exceeds a specific power limit. It enables to limit the maximum feed-in power to the electric grids and also to improve the utilization of PV inverters. As a further study, this paper investigates the reliability performance...

  6. Three-level grid-connected photovoltaic inverter with maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.M.; Chan, W.L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlight: ► This paper reports a novel 3-level grid connected photovoltaic inverter. ► The inverter features maximum power point tracking and grid current shaping. ► The inverter can be acted as an active filter and a renewable power source. - Abstract: This paper presents a systematic way of designing control scheme for a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) inverter featuring maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and grid current shaping. Unlike conventional design, only four power switches are required to achieve three output levels and it is not necessary to use any phase-locked-loop circuitry. For the proposed scheme, a simple integral controller has been designed for the tracking of the maximum power point of a PV array based on an improved extremum seeking control method. For the grid-connected inverter, a current loop controller and a voltage loop controller have been designed. The current loop controller is designed to shape the inverter output current while the voltage loop controller can maintain the capacitor voltage at a certain level and provide a reference inverter output current for the PV inverter without affecting the maximum power point of the PV array. Experimental results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the tracking and control scheme.

  7. A REVIEW OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF POWER QUALITY MEASUREMENT OF PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS WITH MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Smriti Dwivedi; Prof. Sunil Kumar Bhatt

    2016-01-01

    Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is a technique that charge controllers use for wind turbines and PV solar systems to maximize power output. PV solar systems exist in several different configurations. The most basic version sends power from collector panels directly to the DC-AC inverter and from there directly to the electrical grid. A second version, called a hybrid inverter, might split the power at the inverter, where a percentage of the power goes to the grid and the remainder goes to...

  8. Modified Moment, Maximum Likelihood and Percentile Estimators for the Parameters of the Power Function Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Zaka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the modifications of maximum likelihood, moments and percentile estimators of the two parameter Power function distribution. Sampling behavior of the estimators is indicated by Monte Carlo simulation. For some combinations of parameter values, some of the modified estimators appear better than the traditional maximum likelihood, moments and percentile estimators with respect to bias, mean square error and total deviation.

  9. Novel high efficient speed sensorless controller for maximum power extraction from wind energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel sensorless MPPT technique without drawbacks of other sensor/sensorless methods. • Tracking the actual MPP of WECSs, no tracking the MPP of their wind turbines. • Actually extracting the highest output power from WECSs. • Novel MPPT technique having the MPPT efficiency more than 98.5% for WECSs. • Novel MPPT technique having short convergence time for WECSs. - Abstract: In this study, a novel high accurate sensorless maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method is proposed. The technique tracks the actual maximum power point of a wind energy conversion system (WECS) at which maximum output power is extracted from the system, not the maximum power point of its wind turbine at which maximum mechanical power is obtained from the turbine, so it actually extracts the highest output power from the system. The technique only uses input voltage and current of the converter used in the system, and neither needs any speed sensors (anemometer and tachometer) nor has the drawbacks of other sensor/sensorless based MPPT methods. The technique has been implemented as a MPPT controller by constructing a WECS. Theoretical results, the technique performance, and its advantages are validated by presenting real experimental results. The real static-dynamic response of the MPPT controller is experimentally obtained that verifies the proposed MPPT technique high accurately extracts the highest instant power from wind energy conversion systems with the MPPT efficiency of more than 98.5% and a short convergence time that is only 25 s for the constructed system having a total inertia and friction coefficient of 3.93 kg m 2 and 0.014 N m s, respectively.

  10. Overview of Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques for Photovoltaic Energy Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    A substantial growth of the installed photovoltaic systems capacity has occurred around the world during the last decade, thus enhancing the availability of electric energy in an environmentally friendly way. The maximum power point tracking technique enables maximization of the energy production...... of photovoltaic sources during stochastically varying solar irradiation and ambient temperature conditions. Thus, the overall efficiency of the photovoltaic energy production system is increased. Numerous techniques have been presented during the last decade for implementing the maximum power point tracking...... process in a photovoltaic system. This article provides an overview of the operating principles of these techniques, which are suited for either uniform or non-uniform solar irradiation conditions. The operational characteristics and implementation requirements of these maximum power point tracking...

  11. Maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic solar pump based on ANFIS tuning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shabaan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Solar photovoltaic (PV systems are a clean and naturally replenished energy source. PV panels have a unique point which represents the maximum available power and this point depend on the environmental conditions such as temperature and irradiance. A maximum power point tracking (MPPT is therefore necessary for maximum efficiency. In this paper, a study of MPPT for PV water pumping system based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS is discussed. A comparison between the performance of the system with and without MPPT is carried out under varying irradiation and temperature conditions. ANFIS based controller shows fast response with high efficiency at all irradiance and temperature levels making it a powerful technique for non-linear systems as PV modules. Keywords: MPPT, ANFIS, Boost converter, PMDC pump

  12. Longitudinal and transverse space charge limitations on transport of maximum power beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoe, T.K.; Martin, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    The maximum transportable beam power is a critical issue in selecting the most favorable approach to generating ignition pulses for inertial fusion with high energy accelerators. Maschke and Courant have put forward expressions for the limits on transport power for quadrupole and solenoidal channels. Included in a more general way is the self consistent effect of space charge defocusing on the power limit. The results show that no limits on transmitted power exist in principal. In general, quadrupole transport magnets appear superior to solenoids except for transport of very low energy and highly charged particles. Longitudinal space charge effects are very significant for transport of intense beams

  13. Power electronics and control techniques for maximum energy harvesting in photovoltaic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Femia, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Incentives provided by European governments have resulted in the rapid growth of the photovoltaic (PV) market. Many PV modules are now commercially available, and there are a number of power electronic systems for processing the electrical power produced by PV systems, especially for grid-connected applications. Filling a gap in the literature, Power Electronics and Control Techniques for Maximum Energy Harvesting in Photovoltaic Systems brings together research on control circuits, systems, and techniques dedicated to the maximization of the electrical power produced by a photovoltaic (PV) so

  14. Estimation of Maximum Allowable PV Connection to LV Residential Power Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirok, Erhan; Sera, Dezso; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    Maximum photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacity of low voltage (LV) power networks is mainly restricted by either thermal limits of network components or grid voltage quality resulted from high penetration of distributed PV systems. This maximum hosting capacity may be lower than the available solar...... potential of geographic area due to power network limitations even though all rooftops are fully occupied with PV modules. Therefore, it becomes more of an issue to know what exactly limits higher PV penetration level and which solutions should be engaged efficiently such as over sizing distribution...

  15. New algorithm using only one variable measurement applied to a maximum power point tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, V.; Olias, E.; Lazaro, A.; Barrado, A. [University Carlos III de Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Electronic Technology

    2005-05-01

    A novel algorithm for seeking the maximum power point of a photovoltaic (PV) array for any temperature and solar irradiation level, needing only the PV current value, is proposed. Satisfactory theoretical and experimental results are presented and were obtained when the algorithm was included on a 100 W 24 V PV buck converter prototype, using an inexpensive microcontroller. The load of the system used was a battery and a resistance. The main advantage of this new maximum power point tracking (MPPT), when is compared with others, is that it only uses the measurement of the photovoltaic current, I{sub PV}. (author)

  16. Maximum Power Point Tracking Using Sliding Mode Control for Photovoltaic Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ghazanfari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a robust Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT for PV array has been proposed using sliding mode control by defining a new formulation for sliding surface which is based on increment conductance (INC method. The stability and robustness of the proposed controller are investigated to load variations and environment changes. Three different types of DC-DC converter are used in Maximum Power Point (MPP system and the results obtained are given. The simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method in the presence of load variations and environment changes for different types of DC-DC converter topologies.

  17. Real time estimation of photovoltaic modules characteristics and its application to maximum power point operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrigos, Ausias; Blanes, Jose M.; Carrasco, Jose A. [Area de Tecnologia Electronica, Universidad Miguel Hernandez de Elche, Avda. de la Universidad s/n, 03202 Elche, Alicante (Spain); Ejea, Juan B. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, Universidad de Valencia, Avda. Dr Moliner 50, 46100 Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    In this paper, an approximate curve fitting method for photovoltaic modules is presented. The operation is based on solving a simple solar cell electrical model by a microcontroller in real time. Only four voltage and current coordinates are needed to obtain the solar module parameters and set its operation at maximum power in any conditions of illumination and temperature. Despite its simplicity, this method is suitable for low cost real time applications, as control loop reference generator in photovoltaic maximum power point circuits. The theory that supports the estimator together with simulations and experimental results are presented. (author)

  18. Comparison of Extremum-Seeking Control Techniques for Maximum Power Point Tracking in Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Han Wu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to Japan’s recent nuclear crisis and petroleum price hikes, the search for renewable energy sources has become an issue of immediate concern. A promising candidate attracting much global attention is solar energy, as it is green and also inexhaustible. A maximum power point tracking (MPPT controller is employed in such a way that the output power provided by a photovoltaic (PV system is boosted to its maximum level. However, in the context of abrupt changes in irradiance, conventional MPPT controller approaches suffer from insufficient robustness against ambient variation, inferior transient response and a loss of output power as a consequence of the long duration required of tracking procedures. Accordingly, in this work the maximum power point tracking is carried out successfully using a sliding mode extremum-seeking control (SMESC method, and the tracking performances of three controllers are compared by simulations, that is, an extremum-seeking controller, a sinusoidal extremum-seeking controller and a sliding mode extremum-seeking controller. Being able to track the maximum power point promptly in the case of an abrupt change in irradiance, the SMESC approach is proven by simulations to be superior in terms of system dynamic and steady state responses, and an excellent robustness along with system stability is demonstrated as well.

  19. Two-Stage Chaos Optimization Search Application in Maximum Power Point Tracking of PV Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to deliver the maximum available power to the load under the condition of varying solar irradiation and environment temperature, maximum power point tracking (MPPT technologies have been used widely in PV systems. Among all the MPPT schemes, the chaos method is one of the hot topics in recent years. In this paper, a novel two-stage chaos optimization method is presented which can make search faster and more effective. In the process of proposed chaos search, the improved logistic mapping with the better ergodic is used as the first carrier process. After finding the current optimal solution in a certain guarantee, the power function carrier as the secondary carrier process is used to reduce the search space of optimized variables and eventually find the maximum power point. Comparing with the traditional chaos search method, the proposed method can track the change quickly and accurately and also has better optimization results. The proposed method provides a new efficient way to track the maximum power point of PV array.

  20. Realworld maximum power point tracking simulation of PV system based on Fuzzy Logic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ahmed M.; El-arini, Mahdi M. M.; Ghitas, Ahmed; Fathy, Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    In the recent years, the solar energy becomes one of the most important alternative sources of electric energy, so it is important to improve the efficiency and reliability of the photovoltaic (PV) systems. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) plays an important role in photovoltaic power systems because it maximize the power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions, and therefore maximize their array efficiency. This paper presents a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) using Fuzzy Logic theory for a PV system. The work is focused on the well known Perturb and Observe (P&O) algorithm and is compared to a designed fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The simulation work dealing with MPPT controller; a DC/DC Ćuk converter feeding a load is achieved. The results showed that the proposed Fuzzy Logic MPPT in the PV system is valid.

  1. Realworld maximum power point tracking simulation of PV system based on Fuzzy Logic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Othman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, the solar energy becomes one of the most important alternative sources of electric energy, so it is important to improve the efficiency and reliability of the photovoltaic (PV systems. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT plays an important role in photovoltaic power systems because it maximize the power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions, and therefore maximize their array efficiency. This paper presents a maximum power point tracker (MPPT using Fuzzy Logic theory for a PV system. The work is focused on the well known Perturb and Observe (P&O algorithm and is compared to a designed fuzzy logic controller (FLC. The simulation work dealing with MPPT controller; a DC/DC Ćuk converter feeding a load is achieved. The results showed that the proposed Fuzzy Logic MPPT in the PV system is valid.

  2. Theoretical and experimental investigations of the limits to the maximum output power of laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, H; Crump, P; Pietrzak, A; Wang, X; Erbert, G; Traenkle, G

    2010-01-01

    The factors that limit both the continuous wave (CW) and the pulsed output power of broad-area laser diodes driven at very high currents are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The decrease in the gain due to self-heating under CW operation and spectral holeburning under pulsed operation, as well as heterobarrier carrier leakage and longitudinal spatial holeburning, are the dominant mechanisms limiting the maximum achievable output power.

  3. Maximum attainable power density and wall load in tokamaks underlying reactor relevant constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrass, K.; Buende, R.

    1979-09-01

    The characteristic data of tokamaks optimized with respect to their power density or wall load are determined. Reactor relevant constraints are imposed, such as a fixed plant net power output, a fixed blanket thickness and the dependence of the maximum toroidal field on the geometry and conductor material. The impact of finite burn times is considered. Various scaling laws of the toroidal beta with the aspect ratio are discussed. (orig.) 891 GG/orig. 892 RDG [de

  4. Maximum power point tracking: a cost saving necessity in solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enslin, J H.R. [Stellenbosch Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    1992-12-01

    A well engineered renewable remote energy system, utilizing the principal of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) can improve cost effectiveness, has a higher reliability and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. A high-efficient power electronic converter, for converting the output voltage of a solar panel, or wind generator, to the required DC battery bus voltage has been realized. The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the input source under varying input and output parameters. Maximum power point tracking for relative small systems is achieved by maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor based algorithm. Through practical field measurements it is shown that a minimum input source saving of between 15 and 25% on 3-5 kWh/day systems can easily be achieved. A total cost saving of at least 10-15% on the capital cost of these systems are achievable for relative small rating Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) systems. The advantages at large temperature variations and high power rated systems are much higher. Other advantages include optimal sizing and system monitor and control. (author).

  5. Improvement of maximum power point tracking perturb and observe algorithm for a standalone solar photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, M.M.A.; Awan, F.G.

    2017-01-01

    Extraction of maximum power from PV (Photovoltaic) cell is necessary to make the PV system efficient. Maximum power can be achieved by operating the system at MPP (Maximum Power Point) (taking the operating point of PV panel to MPP) and for this purpose MPPT (Maximum Power Point Trackers) are used. There are many tracking algorithms/methods used by these trackers which includes incremental conductance, constant voltage method, constant current method, short circuit current method, PAO (Perturb and Observe) method, and open circuit voltage method but PAO is the mostly used algorithm because it is simple and easy to implement. PAO algorithm has some drawbacks, one is low tracking speed under rapid changing weather conditions and second is oscillations of PV systems operating point around MPP. Little improvement is achieved in past papers regarding these issues. In this paper, a new method named 'Decrease and Fix' method is successfully introduced as improvement in PAO algorithm to overcome these issues of tracking speed and oscillations. Decrease and fix method is the first successful attempt with PAO algorithm for stability achievement and speeding up of tracking process in photovoltaic system. Complete standalone photovoltaic system's model with improved perturb and observe algorithm is simulated in MATLAB Simulink. (author)

  6. Bilateral differences in peak force, power, and maximum plie depth during multiple grande jetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyon, M.; Harris, J.; Brown, D.D.; Clark, F.

    2013-01-01

    A lateral bias has been previously reported in dance training. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are any bilateral differences in peak forces, power, and maximum knee flexion during a sequence of three grand jetes and how they relate to leg dominance. A randomised observational

  7. Theoretical assessment of the maximum power point tracking efficiency of photovoltaic facilities with different converter topologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enrique, J.M.; Duran, E.; Andujar, J.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, de Sistemas Informaticos y Automatica, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Sidrach-de-Cardona, M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, II, Universidad de Malaga (Spain)

    2007-01-15

    The operating point of a photovoltaic generator that is connected to a load is determined by the intersection point of its characteristic curves. In general, this point is not the same as the generator's maximum power point. This difference means losses in the system performance. DC/DC converters together with maximum power point tracking systems (MPPT) are used to avoid these losses. Different algorithms have been proposed for maximum power point tracking. Nevertheless, the choice of the configuration of the right converter has not been studied so widely, although this choice, as demonstrated in this work, has an important influence in the optimum performance of the photovoltaic system. In this article, we conduct a study of the three basic topologies of DC/DC converters with resistive load connected to photovoltaic modules. This article demonstrates that there is a limitation in the system's performance according to the type of converter used. Two fundamental conclusions are derived from this study: (1) the buck-boost DC/DC converter topology is the only one which allows the follow-up of the PV module maximum power point regardless of temperature, irradiance and connected load and (2) the connection of a buck-boost DC/DC converter in a photovoltaic facility to the panel output could be a good practice to improve performance. (author)

  8. An automotive thermoelectric-photovoltaic hybrid energy system using maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaodong; Chau, K.T.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been active research on exhaust gas waste heat energy recovery for automobiles. Meanwhile, the use of solar energy is also proposed to promote on-board renewable energy and hence to improve their fuel economy. In this paper, a new thermoelectric-photovoltaic (TE-PV) hybrid energy system is proposed and implemented for automobiles. The key is to newly develop the power conditioning circuit using maximum power point tracking so that the output power of the proposed TE-PV hybrid energy system can be maximized. An experimental system is prototyped and tested to verify the validity of the proposed system.

  9. Maximum power point tracker for portable photovoltaic systems with resistive-like load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cesare, G.; Caputo, D.; Nascetti, A. [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Rome La Sapienza via Eudossiana, 18 00184 Rome (Italy)

    2006-08-15

    In this work we report on the design and realization of a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) circuit suitable for low power, portable applications with resistive load. The design rules included cost, size and power efficiency considerations. A novel scheme for the implementation of the control loop of the MPPT circuit is proposed, combining good performance with compact design. The operation and performances were simulated at circuit schematic level with simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis (SPICE). The improved operation of a PV system using our MPPT circuit was demonstrated using a purely resistive load. (author)

  10. Maximum Power Point Tracking in Variable Speed Wind Turbine Based on Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Using Maximum Torque Sliding Mode Control Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Esmaeil Ghaderi; Hossein Tohidi; Behnam Khosrozadeh

    2017-01-01

    The present study was carried out in order to track the maximum power point in a variable speed turbine by minimizing electromechanical torque changes using a sliding mode control strategy.In this strategy,fhst,the rotor speed is set at an optimal point for different wind speeds.As a result of which,the tip speed ratio reaches an optimal point,mechanical power coefficient is maximized,and wind turbine produces its maximum power and mechanical torque.Then,the maximum mechanical torque is tracked using electromechanical torque.In this technique,tracking error integral of maximum mechanical torque,the error,and the derivative of error are used as state variables.During changes in wind speed,sliding mode control is designed to absorb the maximum energy from the wind and minimize the response time of maximum power point tracking (MPPT).In this method,the actual control input signal is formed from a second order integral operation of the original sliding mode control input signal.The result of the second order integral in this model includes control signal integrity,full chattering attenuation,and prevention from large fluctuations in the power generator output.The simulation results,calculated by using MATLAB/m-file software,have shown the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy for wind energy systems based on the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG).

  11. Duty-based control of maximum power point regulation for power converter in solar fan system with battery storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, J.-L.; Hong, P.-J. [National Kaohsiung First Univ. of Science and Technology, Nantze, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Mechanical and Automation Engineering; Chao, K.-L. [National Kaohsiung Univ. of Applied Sciences, Nantze, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Wang, T.-Y. [Chang-Gung Univ., Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Solar energy is a popular renewable energy source for the future because it does not produce any pollution. In addition, it is unlimited and a clean source of energy. This paper discussed a photovoltaic solar fan system that could be used inside the house with the potential of cooling the indoor temperature. The solar cell module is located at the eaves of the house and could block the sunlight directly into the house, and convert solar power into electric power through the battery. The paper described software implementation and hardware circuit design in detail. The paper also illustrated a different algorithm to calculate the maximum power point regulation. The conventional algorithm calculates the solar cell module output power by multiplying the input voltage and input current for the solar cell module directly. By changing the input voltage variable into duty variable, the voltage sensor is not required under the proposed scheme. Only the duty and current variables are needed to calculate the maximum power. The microchip dsPIC microcontroller was used to implement the algorithm. Different DC link levels were verified and implemented for comparison. It was concluded that the characteristics of the solar cell module could be measured automatically, and the maximum power point could be guaranteed by the proposed algorithm. 9 refs., 6 tabs., 14 figs.

  12. Determination of the wind power systems load to achieve operation in the maximum energy area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chioncel, C. P.; Tirian, G. O.; Spunei, E.; Gillich, N.

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyses the operation of the wind turbine, WT, in the maximum power point, MPP, by linking the load of the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator, PMSG, with the wind speed value. The load control methods at wind power systems aiming an optimum performance in terms of energy are based on the fact that the energy captured by the wind turbine significantly depends on the mechanical angular speed of the wind turbine. The presented control method consists in determining the optimal mechanical angular speed, ωOPTIM, using an auxiliary low power wind turbine, WTAUX, operating without load, at maximum angular velocity, ωMAX. The method relies on the fact that the ratio ωOPTIM/ωMAX has a constant value for a given wind turbine and does not depend on the time variation of the wind speed values.

  13. An improved maximum power point tracking method for a photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouoba, David; Fakkar, Abderrahim; El Kouari, Youssef; Dkhichi, Fayrouz; Oukarfi, Benyounes

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an improved auto-scaling variable step-size Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) method for photovoltaic (PV) system was proposed. To achieve simultaneously a fast dynamic response and stable steady-state power, a first improvement was made on the step-size scaling function of the duty cycle that controls the converter. An algorithm was secondly proposed to address wrong decision that may be made at an abrupt change of the irradiation. The proposed auto-scaling variable step-size approach was compared to some various other approaches from the literature such as: classical fixed step-size, variable step-size and a recent auto-scaling variable step-size maximum power point tracking approaches. The simulation results obtained by MATLAB/SIMULINK were given and discussed for validation.

  14. A New MPPT Control for Photovoltaic Panels by Instantaneous Maximum Power Point Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokushima, Daiki; Uchida, Masato; Kanbei, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Hiroki; Naitoh, Haruo

    This paper presents a new maximum power point tracking control for photovoltaic (PV) panels. The control can be categorized into the Perturb and Observe (P & O) method. It utilizes instantaneous voltage ripples at PV panel output terminals caused by the switching of a chopper connected to the panel in order to identify the direction for the maximum power point (MPP). The tracking for the MPP is achieved by a feedback control of the average terminal voltage of the panel. Appropriate use of the instantaneous and the average values of the PV voltage for the separate purposes enables both the quick transient response and the good convergence with almost no ripples simultaneously. The tracking capability is verified experimentally with a 2.8 W PV panel under a controlled experimental setup. A numerical comparison with a conventional P & O confirms that the proposed control extracts much more power from the PV panel.

  15. An Improvement of a Fuzzy Logic-Controlled Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithm for Photovoltic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woonki Na

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm using a fuzzy logic controller (FLC in order to extract potential maximum power from photovoltaic cells. The objectives of the proposed algorithm are to improve the tracking speed, and to simultaneously solve the inherent drawbacks such as slow tracking in the conventional perturb and observe (P and O algorithm. The performances of the conventional P and O algorithm and the proposed algorithm are compared by using MATLAB/Simulink in terms of the tracking speed and steady-state oscillations. Additionally, both algorithms were experimentally validated through a digital signal processor (DSP-based controlled-boost DC-DC converter. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs with a shorter tracking time, smaller output power oscillation, and higher efficiency, compared with the conventional P and O algorithm.

  16. Fuzzy sliding mode control for maximum power point tracking of a photovoltaic pumping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Miqoi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new maximum power point tracking method based on fuzzy sliding mode control is proposed, and employed in a PV water pumping system based on a DC-DC boost converter, to produce maximum power from the solar panel hence more speed in the DC motor and more water quantity. This method combines two different tracking techniques sliding mode control and fuzzy logic; our controller is based on sliding mode control, then to give better stability and enhance the power production a fuzzy logic technique was added. System modeling, sliding method definition and the new control method presentation are represented in this paper. The results of the simulation that are compared to both sliding mode controller and perturbation and observation method demonstrate effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller.

  17. Performance Comparison of Widely-Used Maximum Power Point Tracker Algorithms under Real Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURUSU, A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Maximum power point trackers (MPPTs play an essential role in extracting power from photovoltaic (PV panels as they make the solar panels to operate at the maximum power point (MPP whatever the changes of environmental conditions are. For this reason, they take an important place in the increase of PV system efficiency. MPPTs are driven by MPPT algorithms and a number of MPPT algorithms are proposed in the literature. The comparison of the MPPT algorithms in literature are made by a sun simulator based test system under laboratory conditions for short durations. However, in this study, the performances of four most commonly used MPPT algorithms are compared under real environmental conditions for longer periods. A dual identical experimental setup is designed to make a comparison between two the considered MPPT algorithms as synchronized. As a result of this study, the ranking among these algorithms are presented and the results show that Incremental Conductance (IC algorithm gives the best performance.

  18. Recent Developments in Maximum Power Point Tracking Technologies for Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Onat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In photovoltaic (PV system applications, it is very important to design a system for operating of the solar cells (SCs under best conditions and highest efficiency. Maximum power point (MPP varies depending on the angle of sunlight on the surface of the panel and cell temperature. Hence, the operating point of the load is not always MPP of PV system. Therefore, in order to supply reliable energy to the load, PV systems are designed to include more than the required number of modules. The solution to this problem is that switching power converters are used, that is called maximum power point tracker (MPPT. In this study, the various aspects of these algorithms have been analyzed in detail. Classifications, definitions, and basic equations of the most widely used MPPT technologies are given. Moreover, a comparison was made in the conclusion.

  19. Design of Asymmetrical Relay Resonators for Maximum Efficiency of Wireless Power Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Hee Choi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new design method of asymmetrical relay resonators for maximum wireless power transfer. A new design method for relay resonators is demanded because maximum power transfer efficiency (PTE is not obtained at the resonant frequency of unit resonator. The maximum PTE for relay resonators is obtained at the different resonances of unit resonator. The optimum design of asymmetrical relay is conducted by both the optimum placement and the optimum capacitance of resonators. The optimum placement is found by scanning the positions of the relays and optimum capacitance can be found by using genetic algorithm (GA. The PTEs are enhanced when capacitance is optimally designed by GA according to the position of relays, respectively, and then maximum efficiency is obtained at the optimum placement of relays. The capacitance of the second resonator to nth resonator and the load resistance should be determined for maximum efficiency while the capacitance of the first resonator and the source resistance are obtained for the impedance matching. The simulated and measured results are in good agreement.

  20. Optimal Velocity to Achieve Maximum Power Output – Bench Press for Trained Footballers

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Billich; Jakub Štvrtňa; Karel Jelen

    2015-01-01

    Optimal Velocity to Achieve Maximum Power Output – Bench Press for Trained Footballers In today’s world of strength training there are many myths surrounding effective exercising with the least possible negative effect on one’s health. In this experiment we focus on the finding of a relationship between maximum output, used load and the velocity with which the exercise is performed. The main objective is to find the optimal speed of the exercise motion which would allow us to reach the ma...

  1. Smart Global Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller of Photovoltaic Module Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-Yi Chang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study first explored the effect of shading on the output characteristics of modules in a photovoltaic module array. Next, a modified particle swarm optimization (PSO method was employed to track the maximum power point of the multiple-peak characteristic curve of the array. Through the optimization method, the weighting value and cognition learning factor decreased with an increasing number of iterations, whereas the social learning factor increased, thereby enhancing the tracking capability of a maximum power point tracker. In addition, the weighting value was slightly modified on the basis of the changes in the slope and power of the characteristic curve to increase the tracking speed and stability of the tracker. Finally, a PIC18F8720 microcontroller was coordinated with peripheral hardware circuits to realize the proposed PSO method, which was then adopted to track the maximum power point of the power–voltage (P–V output characteristic curve of the photovoltaic module array under shading. Subsequently, tests were conducted to verify that the modified PSO method exhibited favorable tracking speed and accuracy.

  2. A new maximum power point method based on a sliding mode approach for solar energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhat, Maissa; Barambones, Oscar; Sbita, Lassaad

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Create a simple, easy of implement and accurate V_M_P_P estimator. • Stability analysis of the proposed system based on the Lyapunov’s theory. • A comparative study versus P&O, highlight SMC good performances. • Construct a new PS-SMC algorithm to include the partial shadow case. • Experimental validation of the SMC MPP tracker. - Abstract: This paper presents a photovoltaic (PV) system with a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) facility. The goal of this work is to maximize power extraction from the photovoltaic generator (PVG). This goal is achieved using a sliding mode controller (SMC) that drives a boost converter connected between the PVG and the load. The system is modeled and tested under MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. In simulation, the sliding mode controller offers fast and accurate convergence to the maximum power operating point that outperforms the well-known perturbation and observation method (P&O). The sliding mode controller performance is evaluated during steady-state, against load varying and panel partial shadow (PS) disturbances. To confirm the above conclusion, a practical implementation of the maximum power point tracker based sliding mode controller on a hardware setup is performed on a dSPACE real time digital control platform. The data acquisition and the control system are conducted all around dSPACE 1104 controller board and its RTI environment. The experimental results demonstrate the validity of the proposed control scheme over a stand-alone real photovoltaic system.

  3. An extension theory-based maximum power tracker using a particle swarm optimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Kuei-Hsiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose an adaptive maximum power point tracking (MPPT) approach for PV systems. • Transient and steady state performances in tracking process are improved. • The proposed MPPT can automatically tune tracking step size along a P–V curve. • A PSO algorithm is used to determine the weighting values of extension theory. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to present an adaptive maximum power point tracking (MPPT) approach for photovoltaic (PV) power generation system. Integrating the extension theory as well as the conventional perturb and observe method, an maximum power point (MPP) tracker is made able to automatically tune tracking step size by way of the category recognition along a P–V characteristic curve. Accordingly, the transient and steady state performances in tracking process are improved. Furthermore, an optimization approach is proposed on the basis of a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm for the complexity reduction in the determination of weighting values. At the end of this work, a simulated improvement in the tracking performance is experimentally validated by an MPP tracker with a programmable system-on-chip (PSoC) based controller

  4. Maximum photovoltaic power tracking for the PV array using the fractional-order incremental conductance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chia-Hung; Huang, Cong-Hui; Du, Yi-Chun; Chen, Jian-Liung

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The FOICM can shorten the tracking time less than traditional methods. → The proposed method can work under lower solar radiation including thin and heavy clouds. → The FOICM algorithm can achieve MPPT for radiation and temperature changes. → It is easy to implement in a single-chip microcontroller or embedded system. -- Abstract: This paper proposes maximum photovoltaic power tracking (MPPT) for the photovoltaic (PV) array using the fractional-order incremental conductance method (FOICM). Since the PV array has low conversion efficiency, and the output power of PV array depends on the operation environments, such as various solar radiation, environment temperature, and weather conditions. Maximum charging power can be increased to a battery using a MPPT algorithm. The energy conversion of the absorbed solar light and cell temperature is directly transferred to the semiconductor, but electricity conduction has anomalous diffusion phenomena in inhomogeneous material. FOICM can provide a dynamic mathematical model to describe non-linear characteristics. The fractional-order incremental change as dynamic variable is used to adjust the PV array voltage toward the maximum power point. For a small-scale PV conversion system, the proposed method is validated by simulation with different operation environments. Compared with traditional methods, experimental results demonstrate the short tracking time and the practicality in MPPT of PV array.

  5. Performances improvement of maximum power point tracking perturb and observe method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egiziano, L.; Femia, N.; Granozio, D.; Petrone, G.; Spagnuolo, G. [Salermo Univ., Salermo (Italy); Vitelli, M. [Seconda Univ. di Napoli, Napoli (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Perturb and observe best operation conditions were investigated in order to identify edge efficiency performance capabilities of a maximum power point (MPP) tracking technique for photovoltaic (PV) applications. The strategy was developed to ensure a 3-points behavior across the MPP under a fixed irradiation level with a central point blocked on the MPP and 2 operating points operating at voltage values that guaranteed the same power levels. The system was also devised to quickly detect the MPP movement in the presence of varying atmospheric conditions by increasing the perturbation so that the MPP was guaranteed within a few sampling periods. A perturbation equation was selected where amplitude was represented as a function of the actual power drawn from the PV field together with the adoption of a parabolic interpolation of the sequence of the final 3 acquired voltage power couples corresponding to as many operating points. The technique was developed to ensure that the power difference between 2 consecutive operating points was higher than the power quantization error. Simulations were conducted to demonstrate that the proposed technique arranged operating points symmetrically around the MPP. The average power of the 3-points set was achieved by means of the parabolic prediction. Experiments conducted to validate the simulation showed a reduced power oscillation below the MPP and a real power gain. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Royal Order of 13 May 1980 fixing the maximum amount of liability of the operator for damage caused by a nuclear incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this Order is to raise the maximum liability of the nuclear operator to one milliard Belgium francs per nuclear incident. This measure was taken with a view to keeping the operator's maximum liability at least at a constant value. (NEA) [fr

  7. Dynamic performance of maximum power point tracking circuits using sinusoidal extremum seeking control for photovoltaic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, R.; Artillan, P.; Cabal, C.; Estibals, B.; Alonso, C.

    2011-04-01

    The article studies the dynamic performance of a family of maximum power point tracking circuits used for photovoltaic generation. It revisits the sinusoidal extremum seeking control (ESC) technique which can be considered as a particular subgroup of the Perturb and Observe algorithms. The sinusoidal ESC technique consists of adding a small sinusoidal disturbance to the input and processing the perturbed output to drive the operating point at its maximum. The output processing involves a synchronous multiplication and a filtering stage. The filter instance determines the dynamic performance of the MPPT based on sinusoidal ESC principle. The approach uses the well-known root-locus method to give insight about damping degree and settlement time of maximum-seeking waveforms. This article shows the transient waveforms in three different filter instances to illustrate the approach. Finally, an experimental prototype corroborates the dynamic analysis.

  8. Comparison of P&O and INC Methods in Maximum Power Point Tracker for PV Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hesheng; Cui, Yuanhui; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Zhisen

    2018-03-01

    In the context of renewable energy, the maximum power point tracker (MPPT) is often used to increase the solar power efficiency, taking into account the randomness and volatility of solar energy due to changes in temperature and photovoltaic. In all MPPT techniques, perturb & observe and incremental conductance are widely used in MPPT controllers, because of their simplicity and ease of operation. According to the internal structure of the photovoltaic cell and the output volt-ampere characteristic, this paper established the circuit model and establishes the dynamic simulation model in Matlab/Simulink with the preparation of the s function. The perturb & observe MPPT method and the incremental conductance MPPT method were analyzed and compared by the theoretical analysis and digital simulation. The simulation results have shown that the system with INC MPPT method has better dynamic performance and improves the output power of photovoltaic power generation.

  9. Performance Analysis of a Maximum Power Point Tracking Technique using Silver Mean Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Rani Depuru

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed paper presents a simple and particularly efficacious Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT algorithm based on Silver Mean Method (SMM. This method operates by choosing a search interval from the P-V characteristics of the given solar array and converges to MPP of the Solar Photo-Voltaic (SPV system by shrinking its interval. After achieving the maximum power, the algorithm stops shrinking and maintains constant voltage until the next interval is decided. The tracking capability efficiency and performance analysis of the proposed algorithm are validated by the simulation and experimental results with a 100W solar panel for variable temperature and irradiance conditions. The results obtained confirm that even without any perturbation and observation process, the proposed method still outperforms the traditional perturb and observe (P&O method by demonstrating far better steady state output, more accuracy and higher efficiency.

  10. Efficiency improvement of the maximum power point tracking for PV systems using support vector machine technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kareim, Ameer A; Mansor, Muhamad Bin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to improve efficiency of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for PV systems. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) was proposed to achieve the MPPT controller. The theoretical, the perturbation and observation (P and O), and incremental conductance (IC) algorithms were used to compare with proposed SVM algorithm. MATLAB models for PV module, theoretical, SVM, P and O, and IC algorithms are implemented. The improved MPPT uses the SVM method to predict the optimum voltage of the PV system in order to extract the maximum power point (MPP). The SVM technique used two inputs which are solar radiation and ambient temperature of the modeled PV module. The results show that the proposed SVM technique has less Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and higher efficiency than P and O and IC methods.

  11. Robust Controller to Extract the Maximum Power of a Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OULD CHERCHALI Noureddine

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a technique of intelligent control to track the maximum power point (MPPT of a photovoltaic system . The PV system is non-linear and it is exposed to external perturbations like temperature and solar irradiation. Fuzzy logic control is known for its stability and robustness. FLC is adopted in this work for the improvement and optimization of control performance of a photovoltaic system. Another technique called perturb and observe (P & O is studied and compared with the FLC technique. The PV system is constituted of a photovoltaic panel (PV, a DC-DC converter (Boost and a battery like a load. The simulation results are developed in MATLAB / Simulink software. The results show that the controller based on fuzzy logic is better and faster than the conventional controller perturb and observe (P & O and gives a good maximum power of a photovoltaic generator under different changes of weather conditions.

  12. Identifying critical constraints for the maximum loadability of electric power systems - analysis via interior point method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barboza, Luciano Vitoria [Sul-riograndense Federal Institute for Education, Science and Technology (IFSul), Pelotas, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: luciano@pelotas.ifsul.edu.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents an overview about the maximum load ability problem and aims to study the main factors that limit this load ability. Specifically this study focuses its attention on determining which electric system buses influence directly on the power demand supply. The proposed approach uses the conventional maximum load ability method modelled by an optimization problem. The solution of this model is performed using the Interior Point methodology. As consequence of this solution method, the Lagrange multipliers are used as parameters that identify the probable 'bottlenecks' in the electric power system. The study also shows the relationship between the Lagrange multipliers and the cost function in the Interior Point optimization interpreted like sensitivity parameters. In order to illustrate the proposed methodology, the approach was applied to an IEEE test system and to assess its performance, a real equivalent electric system from the South- Southeast region of Brazil was simulated. (author)

  13. Implementation of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Solar Charge Controller using Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelilah, B.; Mouna, A.; KouiderM’Sirdi, N.; El Hossain, A.

    2018-05-01

    the platform Arduino with a number of sensors standard can be used as components of an electronic system for acquiring measures and controls. This paper presents the design of a low-cost and effective solar charge controller. This system includes several elements such as the solar panel converter DC/DC, battery, circuit MPPT using Microcontroller, sensors, and the MPPT algorithm. The MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracker) algorithm has been implemented using an Arduino Nano with the preferred program. The voltage and current of the Panel are taken where the program implemented will work and using this algorithm that MPP will be reached. This paper provides details on the solar charge control device at the maximum power point. The results include the change of the duty cycle with the change in load and thus mean the variation of the buck converter output voltage and current controlled by the MPPT algorithm.

  14. Maximum power point tracking analysis of a coreless ironless electric generator for renewable energy application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Akhtar; Rahman, Fadhlur; Leong, Yap Wee; Razali Hanipah, Mohd; Azri Hizami, Mohd

    2018-04-01

    The magnetism attraction between permanent magnets and soft ironcore lamination in a conventional electric ironcore generator is often known as cogging. Cogging requires an additional input power to overcome, hence became one of the power loss sources. With the increasing of power output, the cogging is also proportionally increased. This leads to the increasing of the supplied power of the driver motor to overcome the cog. Therefore, this research is embarked to study fundamentally about the possibility of removing ironcore lamination in an electric generator to see its performance characteristic. In the maximum power point tracking test, the fabricated ironless coreless electricity generator was tested by applying the load on the ironless coreless electricity generator optimization to maximize the power generated, voltage and the current produced by the ironless coreless electricity generator when the rotational speed of the rotor increased throughout the test. The rotational torque and power output are measured, and efficiency is then analyzed. Results indicated that the generator produced RMS voltage of 200VAC at rotational speed of 318 RPM. Torque required to rotate the generator was at 10.8Nm. The generator had working efficiency of 77.73% and the power generated was at 280W.

  15. The Possibility of Functioning at Maximum Power for Solar Photovoltaic - Electric Battery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chioncel Cristian Paul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the functioning of a solar photovoltaic module(PVM that debits direct to on electric battery (EB. By a good adaptingof PVM to EB, so that the no load voltage of the two components (PVMand EB are well suited, during a day the energy value can be reachednear to the maximum possible value, when the PVM functions in themaximum power point (MPP. The proposed solution is much moreeconomic than the classical: PVM + DC – DC + EB because the directcurrent - direct current power converter, is not necessary (DC - DC.

  16. Magnification of starting torques of dc motors by maximum power point trackers in photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, J.; Singer, S.

    1989-01-01

    A calculation of the starting torque ratio of permanent magnet, series, and shunt-excited dc motors powered by solar cell arrays is presented for two cases, i.e., with and without a maximum-power-point tracker (MPPT). Defining motor torque magnification by the ratio of the motor torque with an MPPT to the motor torque without an MPPT, a magnification of 3 for the permanent magnet motor and a magnification of 7 for both the series and shunt motors are obtained. The study also shows that all motor types are less sensitive to solar insolation variation in systems including MPPTs as compared to systems without MPPTs.

  17. Thermoelectric automotive waste heat energy recovery using maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Chuang; Chau, K.T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes and implements a thermoelectric waste heat energy recovery system for internal combustion engine automobiles, including gasoline vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. The key is to directly convert the heat energy from automotive waste heat to electrical energy using a thermoelectric generator, which is then regulated by a DC-DC Cuk converter to charge a battery using maximum power point tracking. Hence, the electrical power stored in the battery can be maximized. Both analysis and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system can work well under different working conditions, and is promising for automotive industry.

  18. Efficiency of Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller Based on a Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Al-Gizi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the efficiency of a fuzzy logic control (FLC based maximum power point tracking (MPPT of a photovoltaic (PV system under variable climate conditions and connected load requirements. The PV system including a PV module BP SX150S, buck-boost DC-DC converter, MPPT, and a resistive load is modeled and simulated using Matlab/Simulink package. In order to compare the performance of FLC-based MPPT controller with the conventional perturb and observe (P&O method at different irradiation (G, temperature (T and connected load (RL variations – rising time (tr, recovering time, total average power and MPPT efficiency topics are calculated. The simulation results show that the FLC-based MPPT method can quickly track the maximum power point (MPP of the PV module at the transient state and effectively eliminates the power oscillation around the MPP of the PV module at steady state, hence more average power can be extracted, in comparison with the conventional P&O method.

  19. Maximum power point tracking controller for PV systems using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahgat, A.B.G. [Cairo Univ. (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering; Helwa, N.H.; Ahmad, G.E.; El Shenawy, E.T. [National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt). Solar Energy Dept.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a development and implementation of a PC-based maximum power point tracker (MPPT) for PV system using neural networks (NN). The system consists of a PV module via a MPPT supplying a dc motor that drives an air fan. The control algorithm is developed to use the artificial NN for detecting the optimal operating point under different operating conditions, then the control action gives the driving signals to the MPPT. A PC is used for data acquisition, running the control algorithm, data storage, as well as data display and analysis. The system has been implemented and tested under various operating conditions. The experimental results showed that the PV system with MPPT always tracks the peak power point of the PV module under various operating conditions. The MPPT transmits about 97% of the actual maximum power generated by the PV module. The MPPT not only increases the power from the PV module to the load, but also maintains longer operating periods for the PV system. The air velocity and the air mass flow rate of the mechanical load are increased considerably, due to the increase of the PV system power. It is also found that the increase in the output energy due to using the MPPT is about 45.2% for a clear sunny day. (Author)

  20. Optimized Adaptive Perturb and Observe Maximum Power Point Tracking Control for Photovoltaic Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Piegari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The power extracted from PV arrays is usually maximized using maximum power point tracking algorithms. One of the most widely used techniques is the perturb & observe algorithm, which periodically perturbs the operating point of the PV array, sometime with an adaptive perturbation step, and compares the PV power before and after the perturbation. This paper analyses the most suitable perturbation step to optimize maximum power point tracking performance and suggests a design criterion to select the parameters of the controller. Using this proposed adaptive step, the MPPT perturb & observe algorithm achieves an excellent dynamic response by adapting the perturbation step to the actual operating conditions of the PV array. The proposed algorithm has been validated and tested in a laboratory using a dual input inductor push-pull converter. This particular converter topology is an efficient interface to boost the low voltage of PV arrays and effectively control the power flow when input or output voltages are variable. The experimental results have proved the superiority of the proposed algorithm in comparison of traditional perturb & observe and incremental conductance techniques.

  1. Examination of Maximum Power Point Tracking on the EV for Installing on Windmill

    OpenAIRE

    雪田, 和人; 細江, 忠司; 小田切, 雄也; 後藤, 泰之; 一柳, 勝宏

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes that wind generator system is operated by using wind collection equipment and Maximum Power Point Tracking more and more high-efficient. As an example of the utility, it was proposed that it was used for the regeneration of electric vehicle. The efficiency upgrading of electric vehicle can be expect by introducing in addition, proposing system with the conventional regeneration. The field experiment was carried out in order to measure the effect. Regeneration energy by pro...

  2. The Location-Scale Mixture Exponential Power Distribution: A Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rahnamaei, Z.; Nematollahi, N.; Farnoosh, R.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce an alternative skew-slash distribution by using the scale mixture of the exponential power distribution. We derive the properties of this distribution and estimate its parameter by Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian methods. By a simulation study we compute the mentioned estimators and their mean square errors, and we provide an example on real data to demonstrate the modeling strength of the new distribution.

  3. The Location-Scale Mixture Exponential Power Distribution: A Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Rahnamaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce an alternative skew-slash distribution by using the scale mixture of the exponential power distribution. We derive the properties of this distribution and estimate its parameter by Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian methods. By a simulation study we compute the mentioned estimators and their mean square errors, and we provide an example on real data to demonstrate the modeling strength of the new distribution.

  4. Photovoltaic High-Frequency Pulse Charger for Lead-Acid Battery under Maximum Power Point Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-I. Hsieh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A photovoltaic pulse charger (PV-PC using high-frequency pulse train for charging lead-acid battery (LAB is proposed not only to explore the charging behavior with maximum power point tracking (MPPT but also to delay sulfating crystallization on the electrode pores of the LAB to prolong the battery life, which is achieved due to a brief pulse break between adjacent pulses that refreshes the discharging of LAB. Maximum energy transfer between the PV module and a boost current converter (BCC is modeled to maximize the charging energy for LAB under different solar insolation. A duty control, guided by a power-increment-aided incremental-conductance MPPT (PI-INC MPPT, is implemented to the BCC that operates at maximum power point (MPP against the random insolation. A 250 W PV-PC system for charging a four-in-series LAB (48 Vdc is examined. The charging behavior of the PV-PC system in comparison with that of CC-CV charger is studied. Four scenarios of charging statuses of PV-BC system under different solar insolation changes are investigated and compared with that using INC MPPT.

  5. Maximum power tracking in WECS (Wind energy conversion systems) via numerical and stochastic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnaggar, M.; Abdel Fattah, H.A.; Elshafei, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a complete design of a two-level control system to capture maximum power in wind energy conversion systems. The upper level of the proposed control system adopts a modified line search optimization algorithm to determine a setpoint for the wind turbine speed. The calculated speed setpoint corresponds to the maximum power point at given operating conditions. The speed setpoint is fed to a generalized predictive controller at the lower level of the control system. A different formulation, that treats the aerodynamic torque as a disturbance, is postulated to derive the control law. The objective is to accurately track the setpoint while keeping the control action free from unacceptably fast or frequent variations. Simulation results based on a realistic model of a 1.5 MW wind turbine confirm the superiority of the proposed control scheme to the conventional ones. - Highlights: • The structure of a MPPT (maximum power point tracking) scheme is presented. • The scheme is divided into the optimization algorithm and the tracking controller. • The optimization algorithm is based on an online line search numerical algorithm. • The tracking controller is treating the aerodynamics torque as a loop disturbance. • The control technique is simulated with stochastic wind speed by Simulink and FAST

  6. Simulation model of ANN based maximum power point tracking controller for solar PV system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Anil K.; Singh, Bhupal [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Ajay Kumar Garg Engineering College, Ghaziabad 201009 (India); Kaushika, N.D.; Agarwal, Niti [School of Research and Development, Bharati Vidyapeeth College of Engineering, A-4 Paschim Vihar, New Delhi 110063 (India)

    2011-02-15

    In this paper the simulation model of an artificial neural network (ANN) based maximum power point tracking controller has been developed. The controller consists of an ANN tracker and the optimal control unit. The ANN tracker estimates the voltages and currents corresponding to a maximum power delivered by solar PV (photovoltaic) array for variable cell temperature and solar radiation. The cell temperature is considered as a function of ambient air temperature, wind speed and solar radiation. The tracker is trained employing a set of 124 patterns using the back propagation algorithm. The mean square error of tracker output and target values is set to be of the order of 10{sup -5} and the successful convergent of learning process takes 1281 epochs. The accuracy of the ANN tracker has been validated by employing different test data sets. The control unit uses the estimates of the ANN tracker to adjust the duty cycle of the chopper to optimum value needed for maximum power transfer to the specified load. (author)

  7. Effects of Plyometric and Cluster Resistance Training on Explosive Power and Maximum Strength in Karate Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Aminaei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of plyometric and cluster resistance training on explosive power and maximum strength in karate players. Eighteen women, karate players (age mean ± SD 18.22 ± 3.02 years, mean height 163 ± 0.63cm, and mean body mass 53.25 ± 7.34 kg were selected as volunteer samples. They were divided into two groups with respect to their recorded one repetition maximum squat exercise: [1] plyometric training (PT=9 and [2] Cluster training (CT=9 groups and performed a 9-week resistance training protocol that included three stages; [1] General fitness (2 weeks, [2] Strength (4 weeks and [3] Power (3 weeks. Each group performed strength and power trainings for 7 weeks in stage two and three with owned protocol. The subjects were evaluated three times before stage one and after two and three stages for maximum strength and power. Data was analyzed using two way Repeated Measures (ANOVA at a significance level of (P≤0.05. The statistical analysis showed that training stages on all research variables had a significant impact. The maximum strength of the pre-test, post-test strength and post-test power were in cluster group: 29.05 ± 1.54; 32.89 ± 2.80 and 48.74 ± 4.33w and in plyometric group were 26.98 ± 1.54; 38.48 ± 2.80 and 49.82 ± 4.33w respectively. The explosive power of the pre-test, post-test strength and post-test power in cluster group were 359.32±36.20; 427.91±34.56 and 460.55±36.80w and in plyometric group were 333.90±36.20; 400.33±34.56 and 465.20±36.80w respectively. However, there were not statistically significant differences in research variables between resistance cluster and plyometric training groups after 7 weeks. The results indicated both cluster and plyometric training program seems to improve physical fitness elements at the same levels.

  8. Severity scale for incidents and accidents in French nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.; Guimbail, H.; Debes, M.; Roels, C.

    1988-10-01

    All countries operating nuclear power stations have developed systems for declaring and analyzing incidents occurring when the stations are in service. These systems, are inevitably extensive and complex, as the search for perfection in terms of operating safety leads not only to identification and analysis of incidents which are evidenced by their consequences, but also to identification of all those other incidents which have not had repercussions, but which nevertheless constitute precursor events for more serious situations. For example in France, a system based on safety significance criteria has been in service since the early 1980s, and is applied and operated by EDF and the safety authorities. While experts obtain maximum benefit from this system, public opinion and the relay points constituted by the media are somewhat at a loss, being unable to discriminate in the mass of non-hierarchized information which may come their way, between what is genuinely important and what is less important or even totally unimportant. For this reason, the CSSIN recommended examination of a severity scale, simple to understand and easy to use, which could be employed to classify all incidents and which could become, in due course, as familiar to all of us as the Richter seismic scale is today. We will now examine the composition of this scale, applied on an experimental basis by the Minister for Industry for a period of about one and a half years, as from 20th April 1988

  9. Sliding-Mode Controller for Maximum Power Point Tracking in Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Andrea Ortiz Valencia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The maximum power point tracking (MPPT of photovoltaic systems must be as fast and accurate as possible to increase the power production, which eventually increases the PV system profitability. This paper proposes and mathematically analyses a sliding-mode controller to provide a fast and accurate maximum power point tracking in grid-connected photovoltaic systems using a single control stage. This approach avoids the circular dependency in the design of classical cascade controllers used to optimize the photovoltaic system operation, and at the same time, it reduces the number of controllers and avoids the use of linearized models to provide global stability in all the operation range. Such a compact solution also reduces the system cost and implementation complexity. To ensure the stability of the proposed solution, detailed mathematical analyses are performed to demonstrate the fulfillment of the transversality, reachability and equivalent control conditions. Finally, the performance of the proposed solution is validated using detailed simulations, executed in the power electronics simulator PSIM, accounting for both environmental and load perturbations.

  10. Maximum Power Point Tracking Control of a Thermoelectric Generation System Using the Extremum Seeking Control Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssennoga Twaha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes and implements maximum power Point Tracking (MPPT control on thermoelectric generation system using an extremum seeking control (ESC algorithm. The MPPT is applied to guarantee maximum power extraction from the TEG system. The work has been carried out through modelling of thermoelectric generator/dc-dc converter system using Matlab/Simulink. The effectiveness of ESC technique has been assessed by comparing the results with those of the Perturb and Observe (P&O MPPT method under the same operating conditions. Results indicate that ESC MPPT method extracts more power than the P&O technique, where the output power of ESC technique is higher than that of P&O by 0.47 W or 6.1% at a hot side temperature of 200 °C. It is also noted that the ESC MPPT based model is almost fourfold faster than the P&O method. This is attributed to smaller MPPT circuit of ESC compared to that of P&O, hence we conclude that the ESC MPPT method outperforms the P&O technique.

  11. Solar Panel System for Street Light Using Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiedjaja A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is one form of the renewable energy which is very abundant in regions close to the equator. One application of solar energy is for street light. This research focuses on using the maximum power point tracking technique (MPPT, particularly the perturb and observe (P&O algorithm, to charge battery for street light system. The proposed charger circuit can achieve 20.73% higher power efficiency compared to that of non-MPPT charger. We also develop the LED driver circuit for the system which can achieve power efficiency up to 91.9% at a current of 1.06 A. The proposed street lightning system can be implemented with a relatively low cost for public areas.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Maximum Power Point Tracking Controllers under Partial Shaded Conditions in a Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramaprabha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mismatching effects due to partial shaded conditions are the major drawbacks existing in today’s photovoltaic (PV systems. These mismatch effects are greatly reduced in distributed PV system architecture where each panel is effectively decoupled from its neighboring panel. To obtain the optimal operation of the PV panels, maximum power point tracking (MPPT techniques are used. In partial shaded conditions, detecting the maximum operating point is difficult as the characteristic curves are complex with multiple peaks. In this paper, a neural network control technique is employed for MPPT. Detailed analyses were carried out on MPPT controllers in centralized and distributed architecture under partial shaded environments. The efficiency of the MPPT controllers and the effectiveness of the proposed control technique under partial shaded environments was examined using MATLAB software. The results were validated through experimentation.

  13. A comparative study of the maximum power point tracking methods for PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yali; Li, Ming; Ji, Xu; Luo, Xi; Wang, Meidi; Zhang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An improved maximum power point tracking method for PV system was proposed. • Theoretical derivation procedure of the proposed method was provided. • Simulation models of MPPT trackers were established based on MATLAB/Simulink. • Experiments were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed MPPT method. - Abstract: Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms play an important role in the optimization of the power and efficiency of a photovoltaic (PV) generation system. According to the contradiction of the classical Perturb and Observe (P and Oa) method between the corresponding speed and the tracking accuracy on steady-state, an improved P and O (P and Ob) method has been put forward in this paper by using the Atken interpolation algorithm. To validate the correctness and performance of the proposed method, simulation and experimental study have been implemented. Simulation models of classical P and Oa method and improved P and Ob method have been established by MATLAB/Simulink to analyze each technique under varying solar irradiation and temperature. The experimental results show that the tracking efficiency of P and Ob method is an average of 93% compared to 72% for P and Oa method, this conclusion basically agree with the simulation study. Finally, we proposed the applicable conditions and scope of these MPPT methods in the practical application

  14. RELIABILITY OF THE ONE REPETITION-MAXIMUM POWER CLEAN TEST IN ADOLESCENT ATHLETES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.; McFarland, James E.; Herman, Robert; Naclerio, Fernando; Ratamess, Nicholas A.; Kang, Jie; Myer, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    Although the power clean test is routinely used to assess strength and power performance in adult athletes, the reliability of this measure in younger populations has not been examined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the one repetition maximum (1 RM) power clean in adolescent athletes. Thirty-six male athletes (age 15.9 ± 1.1 yrs, body mass 79.1 ± 20.3 kg, height 175.1 ±7.4 cm) who had more than 1 year of training experience with weightlifting exercises performed a 1 RM power clean on two nonconsecutive days in the afternoon following standardized procedures. All test procedures were supervised by a senior level weightlifting coach and consisted of a systematic progression in test load until the maximum resistance that could be lifted for one repetition using proper exercise technique was determined. Data were analyzed using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC [2,k]), Pearson correlation coefficient (r), repeated measures ANOVA, Bland-Altman plot, and typical error analyses. Analysis of the data revealed that the test measures were highly reliable demonstrating a test-retest ICC of 0.98 (95% CI = 0.96–0.99). Testing also demonstrated a strong relationship between 1 RM measures on trial 1 and trial 2 (r=0.98, pinjuries occurred during the study period and the testing protocol was well-tolerated by all subjects. These findings indicate that 1 RM power clean testing has a high degree of reproducibility in trained male adolescent athletes when standardized testing procedures are followed and qualified instruction is present. PMID:22233786

  15. Maximizing the transferred power to electric arc furnace for having maximum production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, Haidar; Ghanbari, Teymoor; Ghaisari, Jafar

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase production of an EAF (electric arc furnace) by reduction of melting time, one can increase transferred power to the EAF. In other words a certain value of energy can be transferred to the EAF in less time. The transferred power to the EAF reduces when series reactors are utilized in order to have stable arc with desired characteristics. To compensate the reduced transferred power, the secondary voltage of the EAF transformer should be increased by tap changing of the transformer. On the other hand, after any tap changing of the EAF transformer, improved arc stability is degraded. Therefore, the series reactor and EAF transformer tap changing should be simultaneously determined to achieve arc with desired characteristics. In this research, three approaches are proposed to calculate the EAF system parameters, by which the optimal set-points of the different series reactor and EAF transformer taps are determined. The electric characteristics relevant to the EAF for the all transformer and series reactor taps with and without SVC (static VAr compensator) are plotted and based on these graphs the optimal set-points are tabulated. Finally, an economic evaluation is also presented for the methods. - Highlights: • The main goal is to transfer the maximum power to electric arc furnace. • Optimal transformer and series reactor taps are determined. • Arc stability and transferred power to EAF determine the optimal performance. • An economic assessment is done and the number of increased meltings is calculated

  16. Maximum dose angle for oblique incidence on primary beam protective barriers in the design of medical radiation therapy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fondevila, Damian; Arbiser, Silvio; Sansogne, Rosana; Brunetto, Monica; Dosoretz, Bernardo

    2008-01-01

    Primary barrier determinations for the shielding of medical radiation therapy facilities are generally made assuming normal beam incidence on the barrier, since this is geometrically the most unfavorable condition for that shielding barrier whenever the occupation line is allowed to run along the barrier. However, when the occupation line (for example, the wall of an adjacent building) runs perpendicular to the barrier (especially roof barrier), then two opposing factors come in to play: increasing obliquity angle with respect to the barrier increases the attenuation, while the distance to the calculation point decreases, hence, increasing the dose. As a result, there exists an angle (α max ) for which the equivalent dose results in a maximum, constituting the most unfavorable geometric condition for that shielding barrier. Based on the usual NCRP Report No. 151 model, this article presents a simple formula for obtaining α max , which is a function of the thickness of the barrier (t E ) and the equilibrium tenth-value layer (TVL e ) of the shielding material for the nominal energy of the beam. It can be seen that α max increases for increasing TVL e (hence, beam energy) and decreases for increasing t E , with a range of variation that goes from 13 to 40 deg for concrete barriers thicknesses in the range of 50-300 cm and most commercially available teletherapy machines. This parameter has not been calculated in the existing literature for radiotherapy facilities design and has practical applications, as in calculating the required unoccupied roof shielding for the protection of a nearby building located in the plane of the primary beam rotation

  17. Maximum dose angle for oblique incidence on primary beam protective barriers in the design of medical radiation therapy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondevila, Damián; Arbiser, Silvio; Sansogne, Rosana; Brunetto, Mónica; Dosoretz, Bernardo

    2008-05-01

    Primary barrier determinations for the shielding of medical radiation therapy facilities are generally made assuming normal beam incidence on the barrier, since this is geometrically the most unfavorable condition for that shielding barrier whenever the occupation line is allowed to run along the barrier. However, when the occupation line (for example, the wall of an adjacent building) runs perpendicular to the barrier (especially roof barrier), then two opposing factors come in to play: increasing obliquity angle with respect to the barrier increases the attenuation, while the distance to the calculation point decreases, hence, increasing the dose. As a result, there exists an angle (alpha(max)) for which the equivalent dose results in a maximum, constituting the most unfavorable geometric condition for that shielding barrier. Based on the usual NCRP Report No. 151 model, this article presents a simple formula for obtaining alpha(max), which is a function of the thickness of the barrier (t(E)) and the equilibrium tenth-value layer (TVL(e)) of the shielding material for the nominal energy of the beam. It can be seen that alpha(max) increases for increasing TVL(e) (hence, beam energy) and decreases for increasing t(E), with a range of variation that goes from 13 to 40 deg for concrete barriers thicknesses in the range of 50-300 cm and most commercially available teletherapy machines. This parameter has not been calculated in the existing literature for radiotherapy facilities design and has practical applications, as in calculating the required unoccupied roof shielding for the protection of a nearby building located in the plane of the primary beam rotation.

  18. Genetic algorithms optimized fuzzy logic control for the maximum power point tracking in photovoltaic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larbes, C.; Ait Cheikh, S.M.; Obeidi, T.; Zerguerras, A. [Laboratoire des Dispositifs de Communication et de Conversion Photovoltaique, Departement d' Electronique, Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, 10, Avenue Hassen Badi, El Harrach, Alger 16200 (Algeria)

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents an intelligent control method for the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of a photovoltaic system under variable temperature and irradiance conditions. First, for the purpose of comparison and because of its proven and good performances, the perturbation and observation (P and O) technique is briefly introduced. A fuzzy logic controller based MPPT (FLC) is then proposed which has shown better performances compared to the P and O MPPT based approach. The proposed FLC has been also improved using genetic algorithms (GA) for optimisation. Different development stages are presented and the optimized fuzzy logic MPPT controller (OFLC) is then simulated and evaluated, which has shown better performances. (author)

  19. SIMULATION OF NEW SIMPLE FUZZY LOGIC MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKER FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Serhoud

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A new simple fuzzy method used for tracking the maximum power point tracker (MPPT for photovoltaic systems is proposed. The input parameters   and duty cycle D are used to generate the optimal MPPT under different operating conditions, The photovoltaic system simulated and constructed by photovoltaic arrays, a DC/DC boost converter, a fuzzy MPPT control and a resistive load, The Fuzzy control law designed and the results in a simulation platform will be presented and compare to Perturbation and observation (P&O controller.

  20. Maximum power point tracking techniques for wind energy systems using three levels boost converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Cuong Hung; Nollet, Frédéric; Essounbouli, Najib; Hamzaoui, Abdelaziz

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents modeling and simulation of three level Boost DC-DC converter in Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS). Three-level Boost converter has significant advantage compared to conventional Boost. A maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method for a variable speed wind turbine using permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is also presented. Simulation of three-level Boost converter topology with Perturb and Observe algorithm and Fuzzy Logic Control is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Results of this simulation show that the system with MPPT using fuzzy logic controller has better performance to the Perturb and Observe algorithm: fast response under changing conditions and small oscillation.

  1. Ion energy loss at maximum stopping power in a laser-generated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayzac, W.

    2013-01-01

    In the frame of this thesis, a new experimental setup for the measurement of the energy loss of carbon ions at maximum stopping power in a hot laser-generated plasma has been developed and successfully tested. In this parameter range where the projectile velocity is of the same order of magnitude as the thermal velocity of the plasma free electrons, large uncertainties of up to 50% are present in the stopping-power description. To date, no experimental data are available to perform a theory benchmarking. Testing the different stopping theories is yet essential for inertial confinement fusion and in particular for the understanding of the alpha-particle heating of the thermonuclear fuel. Here, for the first time, precise measurements were carried out in a reproducible and entirely characterized beam-plasma configuration. It involved a nearly fully-stripped ion beam probing a homogeneous fully-ionized plasma. This plasma was generated by irradiating a thin carbon foil with two high-energy laser beams and features a maximum electron temperature of 200 eV. The plasma conditions were simulated with a two-dimensional radiative hydrodynamic code, while the ion-beam charge-state distribution was predicted by means of a Monte-Carlo code describing the charge-exchange processes of projectile ions in plasma. To probe at maximum stopping power, high-frequency pulsed ion bunches were decelerated to an energy of 0.5 MeV per nucleon. The ion energy loss was determined by a time-of-flight measurement using a specifically developed chemical-vapor-deposition diamond detector that was screened against any plasma radiation. A first experimental campaign was carried out using this newly developed platform, in which a precision better than 200 keV on the energy loss was reached. This allowed, via the knowledge of the plasma and of the beam parameters, to reliably test several stopping theories, either based on perturbation theory or on a nonlinear T-Matrix formalism. A preliminary

  2. A Novel Maximum Power Point Tracking Control for Permanent Magnet Direct Drive Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel optimal current given (OCG maximum power point tracking (MPPT control strategy based on the theory of power feedback and hill climb searching (HCS for a permanent magnet direct drive wind energy conversion system (WECS. The presented strategy not only has the advantages of not needing the wind speed and wind turbine characteristics of the traditional HCS method, but it also improves the stability and accuracy of MPPT by estimating the exact loss torque. The OCG MPPT control strategy is first carried out by simulation, then an experimental platform based on the dSPACE1103 controller is built and a 5.5 kW permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG is tested. Furthermore, the proposed method is compared experimentally with the traditional optimum tip speed ratio (TSR MPPT control. The experiments verify the effectiveness of the proposed OCG MPPT strategy and demonstrate its better performance than the traditional TSR MPPT control.

  3. Discrete Model Predictive Control-Based Maximum Power Point Tracking for PV Systems: Overview and Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lashab, Abderezak; Sera, Dezso; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to provide an overview and evaluation of discrete model predictive controlbased maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for PV systems. A large number of MPC based MPPT methods have been recently introduced in the literature with very promising performance, however......, an in-depth investigation and comparison of these methods have not been carried out yet. Therefore, this paper has set out to provide an in-depth analysis and evaluation of MPC based MPPT methods applied to various common power converter topologies. The performance of MPC based MPPT is directly linked...... with the converter topology, and it is also affected by the accurate determination of the converter parameters, sensitivity to converter parameter variations is also investigated. The static and dynamic performance of the trackers are assessed according to the EN 50530 standard, using detailed simulation models...

  4. Maximum power point tracking algorithm based on sliding mode and fuzzy logic for photovoltaic sources under variable environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atik, L.; Petit, P.; Sawicki, J. P.; Ternifi, Z. T.; Bachir, G.; Della, M.; Aillerie, M.

    2017-02-01

    Solar panels have a nonlinear voltage-current characteristic, with a distinct maximum power point (MPP), which depends on the environmental factors, such as temperature and irradiation. In order to continuously harvest maximum power from the solar panels, they have to operate at their MPP despite the inevitable changes in the environment. Various methods for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) were developed and finally implemented in solar power electronic controllers to increase the efficiency in the electricity production originate from renewables. In this paper we compare using Matlab tools Simulink, two different MPP tracking methods, which are, fuzzy logic control (FL) and sliding mode control (SMC), considering their efficiency in solar energy production.

  5. Application of a DC–DC boost converter with maximum power point tracking for low power thermoelectric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamur, Hayati; Ahiska, Rasit

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Charges with direct and MPPT conditions have been compared. • Perturb and observation method has been practically tested on a new TEG. • Matched load condition has been experimentally investigated. • To increase the efficiency of a TEG, the charge with MPPT should be used. • The charge with MPPT provides twice-fold increase in efficiency. - Abstract: Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) directly generate electrical power from the geothermal/waste heat as well as contribute to efficient usage of the energy. TEGs cannot be operated at full capacity without additional electronic equipments, since the internal resistances of TEGs are not equal to the device resistances connected across TEGs. For this reason, in this paper, the application of a DC–DC boost converter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) based on microcontroller embedded in perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm has been proposed to obtain maximum power from a newly designed portable TEG (pTEG) in a real TEG system. The matched condition load for the pTEG has been experimentally investigated. Firstly, the pTEG has been directly charged to the battery pack, secondly it has been charged through the improved convertor with MPPT. In the first one, the pTEG operated with less efficiency than half of its full capacity, whereas, in the second, the pTEG operated efficiency near its full capacity

  6. Improving maximum power point tracking of partially shaded photovoltaic system by using IPSO-BELBIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Garhy, M. Abd Al-Alim; Mubarak, R.I.; El-Bably, M.

    2017-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays in remote applications are often related to the rapid changes in the partial shading pattern. Rapid changes of the partial shading pattern make the tracking of maximum power point (MPP) of the global peak through the local ones too difficult. An essential need to make a fast and efficient algorithm to detect the peaks values which always vary as the sun irradiance changes. This paper presents two algorithms based on the improved particle swarm optimization technique one of them with PID controller (IPSO-PID), and the other one with Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controller (IPSO-BELBIC). These techniques improve the maximum power point (MPP) tracking capabilities for photovoltaic (PV) system under partial shading circumstances. The main aim of these improved algorithms is to accelerate the velocity of IPSO to reach to (MPP) and increase its efficiency. These algorithms also improve the tracking time under complex irradiance conditions. Based on these conditions, the tracking time of these presented techniques improves to 2 msec, with an efficiency of 100%.

  7. Adaptive double-integral-sliding-mode-maximum-power-point tracker for a photovoltaic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidyadhar Subudhi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed an adaptive double-integral-sliding-mode-controller-maximum-power-point tracker (DISMC-MPPT for maximum-power-point (MPP tracking of a photovoltaic (PV system. The objective of this study is to design a DISMC-MPPT with a new adaptive double-integral-sliding surface in order that MPP tracking is achieved with reduced chattering and steady-state error in the output voltage or current. The proposed adaptive DISMC-MPPT possesses a very simple and efficient PWM-based control structure that keeps switching frequency constant. The controller is designed considering the reaching and stability conditions to provide robustness and stability. The performance of the proposed adaptive DISMC-MPPT is verified through both MATLAB/Simulink simulation and experiment using a 0.2 kW prototype PV system. From the obtained results, it is found out that this DISMC-MPPT is found to be more efficient compared with that of Tan's and Jiao's DISMC-MPPTs.

  8. Improving maximum power point tracking of partially shaded photovoltaic system by using IPSO-BELBIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alim El-Garhy, M. Abd; Mubarak, R. I.; El-Bably, M.

    2017-08-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays in remote applications are often related to the rapid changes in the partial shading pattern. Rapid changes of the partial shading pattern make the tracking of maximum power point (MPP) of the global peak through the local ones too difficult. An essential need to make a fast and efficient algorithm to detect the peaks values which always vary as the sun irradiance changes. This paper presents two algorithms based on the improved particle swarm optimization technique one of them with PID controller (IPSO-PID), and the other one with Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controller (IPSO-BELBIC). These techniques improve the maximum power point (MPP) tracking capabilities for photovoltaic (PV) system under partial shading circumstances. The main aim of these improved algorithms is to accelerate the velocity of IPSO to reach to (MPP) and increase its efficiency. These algorithms also improve the tracking time under complex irradiance conditions. Based on these conditions, the tracking time of these presented techniques improves to 2 msec, with an efficiency of 100%.

  9. Optimized Large-scale CMB Likelihood and Quadratic Maximum Likelihood Power Spectrum Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerløw, E.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Eriksen, H. K.; Górski, K. M.; Gruppuso, A.; Jewell, J. B.; Plaszczynski, S.; Wehus, I. K.

    2015-11-01

    We revisit the problem of exact cosmic microwave background (CMB) likelihood and power spectrum estimation with the goal of minimizing computational costs through linear compression. This idea was originally proposed for CMB purposes by Tegmark et al., and here we develop it into a fully functioning computational framework for large-scale polarization analysis, adopting WMAP as a working example. We compare five different linear bases (pixel space, harmonic space, noise covariance eigenvectors, signal-to-noise covariance eigenvectors, and signal-plus-noise covariance eigenvectors) in terms of compression efficiency, and find that the computationally most efficient basis is the signal-to-noise eigenvector basis, which is closely related to the Karhunen-Loeve and Principal Component transforms, in agreement with previous suggestions. For this basis, the information in 6836 unmasked WMAP sky map pixels can be compressed into a smaller set of 3102 modes, with a maximum error increase of any single multipole of 3.8% at ℓ ≤ 32 and a maximum shift in the mean values of a joint distribution of an amplitude-tilt model of 0.006σ. This compression reduces the computational cost of a single likelihood evaluation by a factor of 5, from 38 to 7.5 CPU seconds, and it also results in a more robust likelihood by implicitly regularizing nearly degenerate modes. Finally, we use the same compression framework to formulate a numerically stable and computationally efficient variation of the Quadratic Maximum Likelihood implementation, which requires less than 3 GB of memory and 2 CPU minutes per iteration for ℓ ≤ 32, rendering low-ℓ QML CMB power spectrum analysis fully tractable on a standard laptop.

  10. Intelligent Maximum Power Point Tracking Using Fuzzy Logic for Solar Photovoltaic Systems Under Non-Uniform Irradiation Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    P. Selvam; S. Senthil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) has played a vital role to enhance the efficiency of solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation under varying atmospheric temperature and solar irradiation. However, it is hard to track the maximum power point using conventional linear controllers due to the natural inheritance of nonlinear I-V and P-V characteristics of solar PV systems. Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is suitable for nonlinear system control applications and eliminating oscillations, circuit c...

  11. A Maximum Power Point Tracking Control Method of a Photovoltaic Power Generator with Consideration of Dynamic Characteristics of Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Yoshida, Toshiya; Ohniwa, Katsumi

    This paper discusses a new control strategy for photovoltaic power generation systems with consideration of dynamic characteristics of the photovoltaic cells. The controller estimates internal currents of an equivalent circuit for the cells. This estimated, or the virtual current and the actual voltage of the cells are fed to a conventional Maximum-Power-Point-Tracking (MPPT) controller. Consequently, this MPPT controller still tracks the optimum point even though it is so designed that the seeking speed of the operating point is extremely high. This system may suit for applications, which are installed in rapidly changeable insolation and temperature-conditions e.g. automobiles, trains, and airplanes. The proposed method is verified by experiment with a combination of this estimating function and the modified Boehringer's MPPT algorithm.

  12. Particle-filtering-based estimation of maximum available power state in Lithium-Ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgos-Mellado, Claudio; Orchard, Marcos E.; Kazerani, Mehrdad; Cárdenas, Roberto; Sáez, Doris

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Approach to estimate the state of maximum power available in Lithium-Ion battery. • Optimisation problem is formulated on the basis of a non-linear dynamic model. • Solutions of the optimisation problem are functions of state of charge estimates. • State of charge estimates computed using particle filter algorithms. - Abstract: Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS) are important for applications related to both microgrids and electric vehicles. If BESS are used as the main energy source, then it is required to include adequate procedures for the estimation of critical variables such as the State of Charge (SoC) and the State of Health (SoH) in the design of Battery Management Systems (BMS). Furthermore, in applications where batteries are exposed to high charge and discharge rates it is also desirable to estimate the State of Maximum Power Available (SoMPA). In this regard, this paper presents a novel approach to the estimation of SoMPA in Lithium-Ion batteries. This method formulates an optimisation problem for the battery power based on a non-linear dynamic model, where the resulting solutions are functions of the SoC. In the battery model, the polarisation resistance is modelled using fuzzy rules that are function of both SoC and the discharge (charge) current. Particle filtering algorithms are used as an online estimation technique, mainly because these algorithms allow approximating the probability density functions of the SoC and SoMPA even in the case of non-Gaussian sources of uncertainty. The proposed method for SoMPA estimation is validated using the experimental data obtained from an experimental setup designed for charging and discharging the Lithium-Ion batteries.

  13. Relations between the efficiency, power and dissipation for linear irreversible heat engine at maximum trade-off figure of merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyyappan, I.; Ponmurugan, M.

    2018-03-01

    A trade of figure of merit (\\dotΩ ) criterion accounts the best compromise between the useful input energy and the lost input energy of the heat devices. When the heat engine is working at maximum \\dotΩ criterion its efficiency increases significantly from the efficiency at maximum power. We derive the general relations between the power, efficiency at maximum \\dotΩ criterion and minimum dissipation for the linear irreversible heat engine. The efficiency at maximum \\dotΩ criterion has the lower bound \

  14. Continuity and boundary conditions in thermodynamics: From Carnot's efficiency to efficiencies at maximum power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouerdane, H.; Apertet, Y.; Goupil, C.; Lecoeur, Ph.

    2015-07-01

    Classical equilibrium thermodynamics is a theory of principles, which was built from empirical knowledge and debates on the nature and the use of heat as a means to produce motive power. By the beginning of the 20th century, the principles of thermodynamics were summarized into the so-called four laws, which were, as it turns out, definitive negative answers to the doomed quests for perpetual motion machines. As a matter of fact, one result of Sadi Carnot's work was precisely that the heat-to-work conversion process is fundamentally limited; as such, it is considered as a first version of the second law of thermodynamics. Although it was derived from Carnot's unrealistic model, the upper bound on the thermodynamic conversion efficiency, known as the Carnot efficiency, became a paradigm as the next target after the failure of the perpetual motion ideal. In the 1950's, Jacques Yvon published a conference paper containing the necessary ingredients for a new class of models, and even a formula, not so different from that of Carnot's efficiency, which later would become the new efficiency reference. Yvon's first analysis of a model of engine producing power, connected to heat source and sink through heat exchangers, went fairly unnoticed for twenty years, until Frank Curzon and Boye Ahlborn published their pedagogical paper about the effect of finite heat transfer on output power limitation and their derivation of the efficiency at maximum power, now mostly known as the Curzon-Ahlborn (CA) efficiency. The notion of finite rate explicitly introduced time in thermodynamics, and its significance cannot be overlooked as shown by the wealth of works devoted to what is now known as finite-time thermodynamics since the end of the 1970's. The favorable comparison of the CA efficiency to actual values led many to consider it as a universal upper bound for real heat engines, but things are not so straightforward that a simple formula may account for a variety of situations. The

  15. Polar coordinated fuzzy controller based real-time maximum-power point control of photovoltaic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syafaruddin; Hiyama, Takashi [Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering of Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Karatepe, Engin [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering of Ege University, 35100 Bornova-Izmir (Turkey)

    2009-12-15

    It is crucial to improve the photovoltaic (PV) system efficiency and to develop the reliability of PV generation control systems. There are two ways to increase the efficiency of PV power generation system. The first is to develop materials offering high conversion efficiency at low cost. The second is to operate PV systems optimally. However, the PV system can be optimally operated only at a specific output voltage and its output power fluctuates under intermittent weather conditions. Moreover, it is very difficult to test the performance of a maximum-power point tracking (MPPT) controller under the same weather condition during the development process and also the field testing is costly and time consuming. This paper presents a novel real-time simulation technique of PV generation system by using dSPACE real-time interface system. The proposed system includes Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and fuzzy logic controller scheme using polar information. This type of fuzzy logic rules is implemented for the first time to operate the PV module at optimum operating point. ANN is utilized to determine the optimum operating voltage for monocrystalline silicon, thin-film cadmium telluride and triple junction amorphous silicon solar cells. The verification of availability and stability of the proposed system through the real-time simulator shows that the proposed system can respond accurately for different scenarios and different solar cell technologies. (author)

  16. Efficient Photovoltaic System Maximum Power Point Tracking Using a New Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Seyedmahmoudian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Partial shading is an unavoidable condition which significantly reduces the efficiency and stability of a photovoltaic (PV system. When partial shading occurs the system has multiple-peak output power characteristics. In order to track the global maximum power point (GMPP within an appropriate period a reliable technique is required. Conventional techniques such as hill climbing and perturbation and observation (P&O are inadequate in tracking the GMPP subject to this condition resulting in a dramatic reduction in the efficiency of the PV system. Recent artificial intelligence methods have been proposed, however they have a higher computational cost, slower processing time and increased oscillations which results in further instability at the output of the PV system. This paper proposes a fast and efficient technique based on Radial Movement Optimization (RMO for detecting the GMPP under partial shading conditions. The paper begins with a brief description of the behavior of PV systems under partial shading conditions followed by the introduction of the new RMO-based technique for GMPP tracking. Finally, results are presented to demonstration the performance of the proposed technique under different partial shading conditions. The results are compared with those of the PSO method, one of the most widely used methods in the literature. Four factors, namely convergence speed, efficiency (power loss reduction, stability (oscillation reduction and computational cost, are considered in the comparison with the PSO technique.

  17. Photovoltaic System Modeling with Fuzzy Logic Based Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mahamudul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a novel modeling technique of PV module with a fuzzy logic based MPPT algorithm and boost converter in Simulink environment. The prime contributions of this work are simplification of PV modeling technique and implementation of fuzzy based MPPT system to track maximum power efficiently. The main highlighted points of this paper are to demonstrate the precise control of the duty cycle with respect to various atmospheric conditions, illustration of PV characteristic curves, and operation analysis of the converter. The proposed system has been applied for three different PV modules SOLKAR 36 W, BP MSX 60 W, and KC85T 87 W. Finally the resultant data has been compared with the theoretical prediction and company specified value to ensure the validity of the system.

  18. Determination of maximum power transfer conditions of bimorph piezoelectric energy harvesters

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al

    2012-07-23

    In this paper, a method to find the maximum power transfer conditions in bimorph piezoelectric-based harvesters is proposed. Explicitly, we derive a closed form expression that relates the load resistance to the mechanical parameters describing the bimorph based on the electromechanical, single degree of freedom, analogy. Further, by taking into account the intrinsic capacitance of the piezoelectric harvester, a more descriptive expression of the resonant frequency in piezoelectric bimorphs was derived. In interest of impartiality, we apply the proposed philosophy on previously published experimental results and compare it with other reported hypotheses. It was found that the proposed method was able to predict the actual optimum load resistance more accurately than other methods reported in the literature. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  19. Different types of maximum power point tracking techniques for renewable energy systems: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Junaid; Shukla, Praveen; Mustafa, Rashid; Chatterji, S.; Mathew, Lini

    2016-03-01

    Global demand for electricity is increasing while production of energy from fossil fuels is declining and therefore the obvious choice of the clean energy source that is abundant and could provide security for development future is energy from the sun. In this paper, the characteristic of the supply voltage of the photovoltaic generator is nonlinear and exhibits multiple peaks, including many local peaks and a global peak in non-uniform irradiance. To keep global peak, MPPT is the important component of photovoltaic systems. Although many review articles discussed conventional techniques such as P & O, incremental conductance, the correlation ripple control and very few attempts have been made with intelligent MPPT techniques. This document also discusses different algorithms based on fuzzy logic, Ant Colony Optimization, Genetic Algorithm, artificial neural networks, Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Firefly, Extremum seeking control method and hybrid methods applied to the monitoring of maximum value of power at point in systems of photovoltaic under changing conditions of irradiance.

  20. Maximum Power Point Tracking menggunakan Buck Converter dengan Algoritma P & O untuk Turbin Angin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Tridianto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Energi terbarukan adalah salah satu energi alternatif sebagai pengganti bahan bakar untuk pembangkit listrik. Dari berbagai energi terbarukan,yang ada energi angin adalah yang paling mudah dicari. Indonesia merupakan negara kepulauan dengan ratusan pantai dan dengan kecepatan angin yang besar dan berfluktuasi 3-5 m / s. Dan solusi dari masalah angin yang berfluktuasi ini adalah dengan menggunakan kontrol MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking dengan lm2596 dc-dc buck converter. Ketika daya yang dihasilkan kurang dari yang diharapkan, maka kontrol MPPT akan menurunkan tegangan untuk mendapatkan daya maksimum. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan lm2596 buck dc-dc converter menggunakan kontrol MPPT dengan tujuan mendapatkan daya maksimum pada kondisi kecepatan angin yang bervariasi, dan jenis MPPT yang digunakan adalah Perturb and Observation (P & O. Untuk membaca daya yang dihasilkan menggunakan Voltage dan Current sensor. Hasil tes menunjukkan bahwa, dengan penambahan kontrol MPPT dapat meningkatkan output daya dari generator sebesar 23%-49%.

  1. Improved incremental conductance method for maximum power point tracking using cuk converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saad Saoud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Algerian government relies on a strategy focused on the development of inexhaustible resources such as solar and uses to diversify energy sources and prepare the Algeria of tomorrow: about 40% of the production of electricity for domestic consumption will be from renewable sources by 2030, Therefore it is necessary to concentrate our forces in order to reduce the application costs and to increment their performances, Their performance is evaluated and compared through theoretical analysis and digital simulation. This paper presents simulation of improved incremental conductance method for maximum power point tracking (MPPT using DC-DC cuk converter. This improved algorithm is used to track MPPs because it performs precise control under rapidly changing Atmospheric conditions, Matlab/ Simulink were employed for simulation studies.

  2. Overview of Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques for Photovoltaic Energy Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    production of PV sources, despite the stochastically varying solar irradiation and ambient temperature conditions. Thereby, the overall efficiency of the PV energy production system is increased. Numerous techniques have been presented during the last decades for implementing the MPPT process in a PV system......A substantial growth of the installed photovoltaic (PV) systems capacity has occurred around the world during the last decade, thus enhancing the availability of electric energy in an environmentally friendly way. The maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique enables to maximize the energy....... This chapter provides an overview of the operating principles of these techniques, which are suited for either uniform or nonuniform solar irradiation conditions. The operational characteristics and implementation requirements of these MPPT methods are also analyzed in order to demonstrate their performance...

  3. Maximum power point tracking-based control algorithm for PMSG wind generation system without mechanical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Chih-Ming; Chen, Chiung-Hsing; Tu, Chia-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This paper presents MPPT based control for optimal wind energy capture using RBFN. ► MPSO is adopted to adjust the learning rates to improve the learning capability. ► This technique can maintain the system stability and reach the desired performance. ► The EMF in the rotating reference frame is utilized in order to estimate speed. - Abstract: This paper presents maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT) based control algorithms for optimal wind energy capture using radial basis function network (RBFN) and a proposed torque observer MPPT algorithm. The design of a high-performance on-line training RBFN using back-propagation learning algorithm with modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO) regulating controller for the sensorless control of a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). The MPSO is adopted in this study to adapt the learning rates in the back-propagation process of the RBFN to improve the learning capability. The PMSG is controlled by the loss-minimization control with MPPT below the base speed, which corresponds to low and high wind speed, and the maximum energy can be captured from the wind. Then the observed disturbance torque is feed-forward to increase the robustness of the PMSG system

  4. Maximum power gains of radio-frequency-driven two-energy-component tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.

    1974-11-01

    Two-energy-component fusion reactors in which the suprathermal component (D) is produced by harmonic cyclotron ''runaway'' of resonant ions are considered. In one ideal case, the fast hydromagnetic wave at ω = 2ω/sub cD/ produces an energy distribution f(W) approximately constant (up to W/sub max/) that includes all deuterons, which then thermalize and react with the cold tritons. In another ideal case, f(W) approximately constant is maintained by the fast wave at ω = ω/sub cD/. If one neglects (1) direct rf input to the bulk-plasma electrons and tritons, and (2) the fact that many deuterons are not resonantly accelerated, then the maximum ideal power gain is about 0.85 Q/sub m/ in the first case and 1.05 Q/sub m/ in the second case, where Q/sub m/ is the maximum fusion gain in the beam-injection scheme (e.g., Q/sub m/ = 1.9 at T/sub e/ = 10 keV). Because of nonideal effects, the cyclotron runaway phenomenon may find its most practical use in the heating of 50:50 D--T plasmas to ignition. (auth)

  5. Neural Modeling of Fuzzy Controllers for Maximum Power Point Tracking in Photovoltaic Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Guede, Jose Manuel; Ramos-Hernanz, Josean; Altın, Necmi; Ozdemir, Saban; Kurt, Erol; Azkune, Gorka

    2018-06-01

    One field in which electronic materials have an important role is energy generation, especially within the scope of photovoltaic energy. This paper deals with one of the most relevant enabling technologies within that scope, i.e, the algorithms for maximum power point tracking implemented in the direct current to direct current converters and its modeling through artificial neural networks (ANNs). More specifically, as a proof of concept, we have addressed the problem of modeling a fuzzy logic controller that has shown its performance in previous works, and more specifically the dimensionless duty cycle signal that controls a quadratic boost converter. We achieved a very accurate model since the obtained medium squared error is 3.47 × 10-6, the maximum error is 16.32 × 10-3 and the regression coefficient R is 0.99992, all for the test dataset. This neural implementation has obvious advantages such as a higher fault tolerance and a simpler implementation, dispensing with all the complex elements needed to run a fuzzy controller (fuzzifier, defuzzifier, inference engine and knowledge base) because, ultimately, ANNs are sums and products.

  6. Dynamic Performance of Maximum Power Point Trackers in TEG Systems Under Rapidly Changing Temperature Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, E. A.; Sera, D.; Mathe, L.; Schaltz, E.; Rosendahl, L.

    2016-03-01

    Characterization of thermoelectric generators (TEG) is widely discussed and equipment has been built that can perform such analysis. One method is often used to perform such characterization: constant temperature with variable thermal power input. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods for TEG systems are mostly tested under steady-state conditions for different constant input temperatures. However, for most TEG applications, the input temperature gradient changes, exposing the MPPT to variable tracking conditions. An example is the exhaust pipe on hybrid vehicles, for which, because of the intermittent operation of the internal combustion engine, the TEG and its MPPT controller are exposed to a cyclic temperature profile. Furthermore, there are no guidelines on how fast the MPPT must be under such dynamic conditions. In the work discussed in this paper, temperature gradients for TEG integrated in several applications were evaluated; the results showed temperature variation up to 5°C/s for TEG systems. Electrical characterization of a calcium-manganese oxide TEG was performed at steady-state for different input temperatures and a maximum temperature of 401°C. By using electrical data from characterization of the oxide module, a solar array simulator was emulated to perform as a TEG. A trapezoidal temperature profile with different gradients was used on the TEG simulator to evaluate the dynamic MPPT efficiency. It is known that the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm may have difficulty accurately tracking under rapidly changing conditions. To solve this problem, a compromise must be found between the magnitude of the increment and the sampling frequency of the control algorithm. The standard P&O performance was evaluated experimentally by using different temperature gradients for different MPPT sampling frequencies, and efficiency values are provided for all cases. The results showed that a tracking speed of 2.5 Hz can be successfully implemented on a TEG

  7. Effects of partial shading conditions on maximum power points and mismatch losses in silicon-based photovoltaic power generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, A.

    2013-11-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) power generators can be used for converting the energy of solar radiation directly into electrical energy without any moving parts. The operation of the generators is highly affected by operating conditions, most importantly irradiances and temperatures of PV cells. PV power generators are prone to electrical losses if the operating conditions are non-uniform such as in a case where part of the modules of a generator are shaded while the rest are receiving the global solar radiation. These conditions are called partial shading conditions and they have been recognized as a major cause of energy losses in PV power generators. In this thesis, the operation of silicon-based PV power generators under partial shading conditions is studied using Matlab Simulink simulation model. The operation of the model has been verified by measurements of electrical characteristics of a PV module under several different operating conditions and also under partial shading conditions. A systematic approach to study the effects of partial shading conditions has been developed and used. In addition to the systematic approach, a vast amount of data measured from the Tampere University of Technology (TUT) Solar Photovoltaic Power Station Research Plant are analyzed and used as input for the simulation model to study operation of PV power generators under actual operating conditions. Partial shading conditions have severe effects on the electrical characteristics of PV power generators and can cause multiple maximum power points (MPPs) to the power-voltage curve of the generators. In most cases, partial shading conditions lead to the occurrence of multiple MPPs, but also only one MPP can be present despite of partial shading. Reasons for this phenomenon are presented and analyzed in this thesis. Because of multiple MPPs, a considerable amount of available electrical energy may be lost when the generator is operating at a local MPP with low power instead of the global MPP. In

  8. A Low-Cost Maximum Power Point Tracking System Based on Neural Network Inverse Model Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Robles Algarín

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design, modeling, and implementation of a neural network inverse model controller for tracking the maximum power point of a photovoltaic (PV module. A nonlinear autoregressive network with exogenous inputs (NARX was implemented in a serial-parallel architecture. The PV module mathematical modeling was developed, a buck converter was designed to operate in the continuous conduction mode with a switching frequency of 20 KHz, and the dynamic neural controller was designed using the Neural Network Toolbox from Matlab/Simulink (MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA, and it was implemented on an open-hardware Arduino Mega board. To obtain the reference signals for the NARX and determine the 65 W PV module behavior, a system made of a 0.8 W PV cell, a temperature sensor, a voltage sensor and a static neural network, was used. To evaluate performance a comparison with the P&O traditional algorithm was done in terms of response time and oscillations around the operating point. Simulation results demonstrated the superiority of neural controller over the P&O. Implementation results showed that approximately the same power is obtained with both controllers, but the P&O controller presents oscillations between 7 W and 10 W, in contrast to the inverse controller, which had oscillations between 1 W and 2 W.

  9. Artificial Neural Network Maximum Power Point Tracker for Solar Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theodore Amissah OCRAN; CAO Junyi; CAO Binggang; SUN Xinghua

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes an artificial neural network maximum power point tracker (MPPT) for solar electric vehicles. The MPPT is based on a highly efficient boost converter with insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) power switch. The reference voltage for MPPT is obtained by artificial neural network (ANN) with gradient descent momentum algorithm. The tracking algorithm changes the duty-cycle of the converter so that the PV-module voltage equals the voltage corresponding to the MPPT at any given insolation, temperature, and load conditions. For fast response, the system is implemented using digital signal processor (DSP). The overall system stability is improved by including a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, which is also used to match the reference and battery voltage levels. The controller, based on the information supplied by the ANN, generates the boost converter duty-cycle. The energy obtained is used to charge the lithium ion battery stack for the solar vehicle. The experimental and simulation results show that the proposed scheme is highly efficient.

  10. A New Study of Maximum Power Point Tracker Techniques and Comparison for PV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Atallah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The maximum power point tracker techniques vary in many aspects as simplicity, digital or analogical implementation, sensor required, convergence speed, range of effectiveness, implementation hardware,popularity, cost and in other aspects. This paper presents in details comparative study between two most popular  algorithm  technique  which  is  incremental  conductance  algorithm  and  perturb  and  observe algorithm.  Two  different  converters  buck  and  cuk  converter  use  for  comparative  in  this  study. Few comparisons such as efficiency, voltage, current and power output for each different combination have been recorded. Multi changes in irradiance, temperature by keeping voltage and current as main sensed parameter been done in the simulation. Matlab simulink tools have been used for performance evaluation on energy point. Simulation will consider different solar irradiance and temperature variations.

  11. Comparative Study of Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques for Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lessa Tofoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The generation of electricity from photovoltaic (PV arrays has been increasingly considered as a prominent alternative to fossil fuels. However, the conversion efficiency is typically low and the initial cost is still appreciable. A required feature of a PV system is the ability to track the maximum power point (MPP of the PV array. Besides, MPP tracking (MPPT is desirable in both grid-connected and stand-alone photovoltaic systems because the solar irradiance and temperature change throughout the day, as well as along seasons and geographical conditions, also leading to the modification of the I×V (current versus voltage and P×V (power versus voltage curves of the PV module. MPPT is also justified by the relatively high cost of the energy generated by PV systems if compared with other sources. Since there are various MPPT approaches available in the literature, this work presents a comparative study among four popular techniques, which are the fixed duty cycle method, constant voltage (CV, perturb and observe (P&O, and incremental conductance (IC. It considers different operational climatic conditions (i.e., irradiance and temperature, since the MPP is nonlinear with the environment status. PSIM software is used to validate the assumptions, while relevant results are discussed in detail.

  12. Deconvolving the wedge: maximum-likelihood power spectra via spherical-wave visibility modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Mertens, F. G.; Koopmans, L. V. E.

    2018-03-01

    Direct detection of the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) via the red-shifted 21-cm line will have unprecedented implications on the study of structure formation in the infant Universe. To fulfil this promise, current and future 21-cm experiments need to detect this weak EoR signal in the presence of foregrounds that are several orders of magnitude larger. This requires extreme noise control and improved wide-field high dynamic-range imaging techniques. We propose a new imaging method based on a maximum likelihood framework which solves for the interferometric equation directly on the sphere, or equivalently in the uvw-domain. The method uses the one-to-one relation between spherical waves and spherical harmonics (SpH). It consistently handles signals from the entire sky, and does not require a w-term correction. The SpH coefficients represent the sky-brightness distribution and the visibilities in the uvw-domain, and provide a direct estimate of the spatial power spectrum. Using these spectrally smooth SpH coefficients, bright foregrounds can be removed from the signal, including their side-lobe noise, which is one of the limiting factors in high dynamics-range wide-field imaging. Chromatic effects causing the so-called `wedge' are effectively eliminated (i.e. deconvolved) in the cylindrical (k⊥, k∥) power spectrum, compared to a power spectrum computed directly from the images of the foreground visibilities where the wedge is clearly present. We illustrate our method using simulated Low-Frequency Array observations, finding an excellent reconstruction of the input EoR signal with minimal bias.

  13. Performance Comparison between ĆUK and SEPIC Converters for Maximum Power Point Tracking Using Incremental Conductance Technique in Solar Power Applications

    OpenAIRE

    James Dunia; Bakari M. M. Mwinyiwiwa

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) energy is one of the most important energy resources since it is clean, pollution free, and endless. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is used in photovoltaic (PV) systems to maximize the photovoltaic output power, irrespective the variations of temperature and radiation conditions. This paper presents a comparison between Ćuk and SEPIC converter in maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of photovoltaic (PV) system. In the paper, advantages and disadvantages of both converter...

  14. A New Technique for Tracking the Global Maximum Power Point of PV Arrays Operating Under Partial-Shading Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    The power-voltage characteristic of photovoltaic (PV) arrays operating under partial-shading conditions exhibits multiple local maximum power points (MPPs). In this paper, a new method to track the global MPP is presented, which is based on controlling a dc/dc converter connected at the PV array...

  15. Intelligent Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller for Energy Enhancement in Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subiyanto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV system is one of the promising renewable energy technologies. Although the energy conversion efficiency of the system is still low, but it has the advantage that the operating cost is free, very low maintenance and pollution-free. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT is a significant part of PV systems. This paper presents a novel intelligent MPPT controller for PV systems. For the MPPT algorithm, an optimized fuzzy logic controller (FLC using the Hopfield neural network is proposed. It utilizes an automatically tuned FLC membership function instead of the trial-and-error approach. The MPPT algorithm is implemented in a new variant of coupled inductor soft switching boost converter with high voltage gain to increase the converter output from the PV panel. The applied switching technique, which includes passive and active regenerative snubber circuits, reduces the insulated gate bipolar transistor switching losses. The proposed MPPT algorithm is implemented using the dSPACE DS1104 platform software on a DS1104 board controller. The prototype MPPT controller is tested using an agilent solar array simulator together with a 3 kW real PV panel. Experimental test results show that the proposed boost converter produces higher output voltages and gives better efficiency (90% than the conventional boost converter with an RCD snubber, which gives 81% efficiency. The prototype MPPT controller is also found to be capable of tracking power from the 3 kW PV array about 2.4 times more than that without using the MPPT controller.

  16. Magnification of starting torques of dc motors by maximum power point trackers in photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Singer, S.

    1989-01-01

    Direct current (dc) motors are used in terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) systems such as in water-pumping systems for irrigation and water supply. Direct current motors may also be used for space applications. Simple and low weight systems including dc motors may be of special interest in space where the motors are directly coupled to the solar cell array (with no storage). The system will operate only during times when sufficient insolation is available. An important performance characteristic of electric motors is the starting to rated torque ratio. Different types of dc motors have different starting torque ratios. These ratios are dictated by the size of solar cell array, and the developed motor torque may not be sufficient to overcome the load starting torque. By including a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) in the PV system, the starting to rated torque ratio will increase, the amount of which depends on the motor type. The starting torque ratio is calculated for the permanent magnet, series and shunt excited dc motors when powered by solar cell arrays for two cases: with and without MPPT's. Defining a motor torque magnification by the ratio of the motor torque with an MPPT to the motor torque without an MPPT, a magnification of 3 was obtained for the permanent magnet motor and a magnification of 7 for both the series and shunt motors. The effect of the variation of solar insolation on the motor starting torque was covered. All motor types are less sensitive to insolation variation in systems including MPPT's as compared to systems with MPPT's. The analysis of this paper will assist the PV system designed to determine whether or not to include an MPPT in the system for a specific motor type.

  17. Rancang Bangun Maximum Power Point Tracking pada Panel Photovoltaic Berbasis Logika Fuzzy di Buoy Weather Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Prima Juliansyah Putra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu aplikasi yang sering digunakan dalam bidang energi terbarukan adalah panel photovoltaic. Panel ini memiliki prinsip kerja berdasarkan efek photovoltaic dimana lempengan logam akan menghasilkan energi listrik apabila diberi intensitas cahaya. Untuk menghasilkan daya keluaran panel yang maksimal, maka diperlukan suatu algoritma yang biasa disebut Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT.MPPT yang diterapkan pada sistem photovoltaic berfungsi untuk mengatur nilai tegangan keluaran panel sehingga titik ker-janya beroperasi pada kondisi maksimal. Algoritma MPPT pada panel ini telah dilakukan dengan menggunakan logika fuzzy melalui mikrokontroler Arduino Uno sebagai pem-bangkit sinyal Pulse Width Modulation (PWM yang akan dikirimkan menuju DC-DC Buck Boost Converter. Keluaran dari buck boost converterakan dihubungkan secara langsung dengan buoy weather station untuk menyuplai energi listrik tiap komponen yang berada di dalamnya. Untuk menguji performansi dari algoritma MPPT yang telah dirancang, maka sistem akan diuji menggunakan variasi beban antara metode direct-coupled dengan MPPT menggunakan logika fuzzy. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa MPPT dengan logika fuzzy dapat menghasilkan daya maksimum daripada direct-coupled. Pada sistem panel photovoltaic ini memiliki range efisiensi 33.07589 % hingga 74.25743 %. Daya mak-simal dapat dicapai oleh sistem untuk tiap variasi beban dan efisiensi maksimal dapat dicapai pada beban 20 Ohm dari hasil pengujian sistem MPPT.

  18. Thermodynamics, maximum power, and the dynamics of preferential river flow structures at the continental scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kleidon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The organization of drainage basins shows some reproducible phenomena, as exemplified by self-similar fractal river network structures and typical scaling laws, and these have been related to energetic optimization principles, such as minimization of stream power, minimum energy expenditure or maximum "access". Here we describe the organization and dynamics of drainage systems using thermodynamics, focusing on the generation, dissipation and transfer of free energy associated with river flow and sediment transport. We argue that the organization of drainage basins reflects the fundamental tendency of natural systems to deplete driving gradients as fast as possible through the maximization of free energy generation, thereby accelerating the dynamics of the system. This effectively results in the maximization of sediment export to deplete topographic gradients as fast as possible and potentially involves large-scale feedbacks to continental uplift. We illustrate this thermodynamic description with a set of three highly simplified models related to water and sediment flow and describe the mechanisms and feedbacks involved in the evolution and dynamics of the associated structures. We close by discussing how this thermodynamic perspective is consistent with previous approaches and the implications that such a thermodynamic description has for the understanding and prediction of sub-grid scale organization of drainage systems and preferential flow structures in general.

  19. A novel minimum cost maximum power algorithm for future smart home energy management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Singaravelan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With the latest development of smart grid technology, the energy management system can be efficiently implemented at consumer premises. In this paper, an energy management system with wireless communication and smart meter are designed for scheduling the electric home appliances efficiently with an aim of reducing the cost and peak demand. For an efficient scheduling scheme, the appliances are classified into two types: uninterruptible and interruptible appliances. The problem formulation was constructed based on the practical constraints that make the proposed algorithm cope up with the real-time situation. The formulated problem was identified as Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP problem, so this problem was solved by a step-wise approach. This paper proposes a novel Minimum Cost Maximum Power (MCMP algorithm to solve the formulated problem. The proposed algorithm was simulated with input data available in the existing method. For validating the proposed MCMP algorithm, results were compared with the existing method. The compared results prove that the proposed algorithm efficiently reduces the consumer electricity consumption cost and peak demand to optimum level with 100% task completion without sacrificing the consumer comfort.

  20. A novel minimum cost maximum power algorithm for future smart home energy management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaravelan, A; Kowsalya, M

    2017-11-01

    With the latest development of smart grid technology, the energy management system can be efficiently implemented at consumer premises. In this paper, an energy management system with wireless communication and smart meter are designed for scheduling the electric home appliances efficiently with an aim of reducing the cost and peak demand. For an efficient scheduling scheme, the appliances are classified into two types: uninterruptible and interruptible appliances. The problem formulation was constructed based on the practical constraints that make the proposed algorithm cope up with the real-time situation. The formulated problem was identified as Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problem, so this problem was solved by a step-wise approach. This paper proposes a novel Minimum Cost Maximum Power (MCMP) algorithm to solve the formulated problem. The proposed algorithm was simulated with input data available in the existing method. For validating the proposed MCMP algorithm, results were compared with the existing method. The compared results prove that the proposed algorithm efficiently reduces the consumer electricity consumption cost and peak demand to optimum level with 100% task completion without sacrificing the consumer comfort.

  1. Variable Parameter Nonlinear Control for Maximum Power Point Tracking Considering Mitigation of Drive-train Load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zaiyu; Chen; Minghui; Yin; Lianjun; Zhou; Yaping; Xia; Jiankun; Liu; Yun; Zou

    2017-01-01

    Since mechanical loads exert a significant influence on the life span of wind turbines, the reduction of transient load on drive-train shaft has received more attention when implementing a maximum power point tracking(MPPT) controller.Moreover, a trade-off between the efficiency of wind energy extraction and the load level of drive-train shaft becomes a key issue. However, for the existing control strategies based on nonlinear model of wind turbines, the MPPT efficiencies are improved at the cost of the intensive fluctuation of generator torque and significant increase of transient load on drive train shaft. Hence, in this paper, a nonlinear controller with variable parameter is proposed for improving MPPT efficiency and mitigating transient load on drive-train simultaneously. Then,simulations on FAST(Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence) code and experiments on the wind turbine simulator(WTS) based test bench are presented to verify the efficiency improvement of the proposed control strategy with less cost of drive-train load.

  2. Variable Parameter Nonlinear Control for Maximum Power Point Tracking Considering Mitigation of Drive-train Load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zaiyu Chen; Minghui Yin; Lianjun Zhou; Yaping Xia; Jiankun Liu; Yun Zou

    2017-01-01

    Since mechanical loads exert a significant influence on the life span of wind turbines,the reduction of transient load on drive-train shaft has received more attention when implementing a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller.Moreover,a trade-off between the efficiency of wind energy extraction and the load level of drive-train shaft becomes a key issue.However,for the existing control strategies based on nonlinear model of wind turbines,the MPPT efficiencies are improved at the cost of the intensive fluctuation of generator torque and significant increase of transient load on drive train shaft.Hence,in this paper,a nonlinear controller with variable parameter is proposed for improving MPPT efficiency and mitigating transient load on drive-train simultaneously.Then,simulations on FAST (Fatigue,Aerodynamics,Structures,and Turbulence) code and experiments on the wind turbine simulator (WTS) based test bench are presented to verify the efficiency improvement of the proposed control strategy with less cost of drive-train load.

  3. A Maximum Power Transfer Tracking Method for WPT Systems with Coupling Coefficient Identification Considering Two-Value Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Dai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Maximum power transfer tracking (MPTT is meant to track the maximum power point during the system operation of wireless power transfer (WPT systems. Traditionally, MPTT is achieved by impedance matching at the secondary side when the load resistance is varied. However, due to a loosely coupling characteristic, the variation of coupling coefficient will certainly affect the performance of impedance matching, therefore MPTT will fail accordingly. This paper presents an identification method of coupling coefficient for MPTT in WPT systems. Especially, the two-value issue during the identification is considered. The identification approach is easy to implement because it does not require additional circuit. Furthermore, MPTT is easy to realize because only two easily measured DC parameters are needed. The detailed identification procedure corresponding to the two-value issue and the maximum power transfer tracking process are presented, and both the simulation analysis and experimental results verified the identification method and MPTT.

  4. Evaluation of a photovoltaic energy mechatronics system with a built-in quadratic maximum power point tracking algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, R.M.; Ko, S.H.; Lin, I.H. [Department of Systems and Naval Mechatronics Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Pai, F.S. [Department of Electronic Engineering, National University of Tainan (China); Chang, C.C. [Department of Environment and Energy, National University of Tainan (China)

    2009-12-15

    The historically high cost of crude oil price is stimulating research into solar (green) energy as an alternative energy source. In general, applications with large solar energy output require a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm to optimize the power generated by the photovoltaic effect. This work aims to provide a stand-alone solution for solar energy applications by integrating a DC/DC buck converter to a newly developed quadratic MPPT algorithm along with its appropriate software and hardware. The quadratic MPPT method utilizes three previously used duty cycles with their corresponding power outputs. It approaches the maximum value by using a second order polynomial formula, which converges faster than the existing MPPT algorithm. The hardware implementation takes advantage of the real-time controller system from National Instruments, USA. Experimental results have shown that the proposed solar mechatronics system can correctly and effectively track the maximum power point without any difficulties. (author)

  5. Optimal Velocity to Achieve Maximum Power Output – Bench Press for Trained Footballers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Billich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimal Velocity to Achieve Maximum Power Output – Bench Press for Trained Footballers In today’s world of strength training there are many myths surrounding effective exercising with the least possible negative effect on one’s health. In this experiment we focus on the finding of a relationship between maximum output, used load and the velocity with which the exercise is performed. The main objective is to find the optimal speed of the exercise motion which would allow us to reach the maximum mechanic muscle output during a bench press exercise. This information could be beneficial to sporting coaches and recreational sportsmen alike in helping them improve the effectiveness of fast strength training. Fifteen football players of the FK Třinec football club participated in the experiment. The measurements were made with the use of 3D cinematic and dynamic analysis, both experimental methods. The research subjects participated in a strength test, in which the mechanic muscle output of 0, 10, 30, 50, 70, 90% and one repetition maximum (1RM was measured. The acquired result values and other required data were modified using Qualisys Track Manager and Visual 3D software (C-motion, Rockville, MD, USA. During the bench press exercise the maximum mechanic muscle output of the set of research subjects was reached at 75% of maximum exercise motion velocity. Optimální rychlost pohybu pro dosažení maxima výstupního výkonu – bench press u trénovaných fotbalistů Dnešní svět silového tréninku přináší řadu mýtů o tom, jak cvičit efektivně a zároveň s co nejmenším negativním vlivem na zdraví člověka. V tomto experimentu se zabýváme nalezením vztahu mezi maximálním výkonem, použitou zátěží a rychlostí. Hlavním úkolem je nalezení optimální rychlosti pohybu pro dosažení maximálního mechanického svalového výkonu při cvičení bench press, což pomůže nejenom trenérům, ale i rekreačním sportovc

  6. A New Fuzzy-Based Maximum Power Point Tracker for a Solar Panel Based on Datasheet Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kargarnejad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracking maximum power point of a solar panel is of interest in most of photovoltaic applications. Solar panel modeling is also very interesting exclusively based on manufacturers data. Knowing that the manufacturers generally give the electrical specifications of their products at one operating condition, there are so many cases in which the specifications in other conditions are of interest. In this research, a comprehensive one-diode model for a solar panel with maximum obtainable accuracy is fully developed only based on datasheet values. The model parameters dependencies on environmental conditions are taken into consideration as much as possible. Comparison between real data and simulations results shows that the proposed model has maximum obtainable accuracy. Then a new fuzzy-based controller to track the maximum power point of the solar panel is also proposed which has better response from speed, accuracy and stability point of view respect to the previous common developed one.

  7. Analog Fixed Maximum Power Point Control for a PWM Step-downConverter for Water Pumping Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltran, H.; Perez, E.; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a Fixed Maximum Power Point analog control used in a step-down Pulse Width Modulated power converter. The DC/DC converter drives a DC motor used in small water pumping installations, without any electric storage device. The power supply is provided by PV panels working around....... The proposed Optimal Power Point fix voltage control system is analyzed in comparison to other complex controls....... their maximum power point, with a fixed operating voltage value. The control circuit implementation is not only simple and cheap, but also robust and reliable. System protections and adjustments are also proposed. Simulations and hardware are reported in the paper for a 150W water pumping application system...

  8. Design and implementation of a microcontroller-based maximum power point tracking fuzzy solar-charge controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qazalbash, A.A.; Iqbal, T.; Shafiq, M.Z. [National Univ. of Sciences and Technology, Rawalpindi (Pakistan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) solar arrays are particularly useful for electrical power generation in remote, off-grid areas in developing countries. However, PV arrays offer a small power to area ratio, resulting in the need for more PV arrays which increases the cost of the system. In order to improve the profitability of PV arrays, the power extraction from available PV array systems must be maximized. This paper presented an analysis, modeling and implementation of an efficient solar charge controller. It was shown that the maximum power of a photovoltaic system depends largely on temperature and insolation. A perturb and observe algorithm was used for maximum power point tracking (MPPT). MPPT maximizes the efficiency of a solar PV system. A solar charge controller determines the optimal values of output current and voltage of converters to maximize power output for battery charging. In order to improve performance and implement the perturb and observe algorithm, the authors designed a fuzzy rule-based system in which a solar charge controller worked with a PWM controlled DC-DC converter for battery charging. The system was implemented on a low-cost PIC microcontroller. Results were better than conventional techniques in power efficiency. Swift maximum power point tracking was obtained. 13 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  9. The Betz-Joukowsky limit for the maximum power coefficient of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; van Kuik, G.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The article addresses to a history of an important scientific result in wind energy. The maximum efficiency of an ideal wind turbine rotor is well known as the ‘Betz limit’, named after the German scientist that formulated this maximum in 1920. Also Lanchester, a British scientist, is associated...

  10. Threshold and maximum power evolution of stimulated Brillouin scattering and Rayleigh backscattering in a single mode fiber segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Lara, R; Alvarez-Chavez, J A; Mendez-Martinez, F; De la Cruz-May, L; Perez-Sanchez, G G

    2015-01-01

    The behavior of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and Rayleigh backscattering phenomena, which limit the forward transmission power in modern, ultra-long haul optical communication systems such as dense wavelength division multiplexing systems is analyzed via simulation and experimental investigation of threshold and maximum power. Evolution of SBS, Rayleigh scattering and forward powers are experimentally investigated with a 25 km segment of single mode fiber. Also, a simple algorithm to predict the generation of SBS is proposed where two criteria of power thresholds was used for comparison with experimental data. (paper)

  11. Evaluation of a proper controller performance for maximum-power point tracking of a stand-alone PV system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafeh, A.E.-S.A.; Fahmy, F.H. [Electronics Research Institute, Cairo (Egypt); El-Zahab, E.M.A. [Cairo University, Giza (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering

    2003-02-01

    In this paper the implementation of a suggested stand-alone PV system, for maximum-power point tracking (MPPT), is carried out. Also, this paper presents a comparative study, through experimental work, between the conventional PI controller and the fuzzy logic controller (FLC) under different atmospheric conditions. The implemented system with both the PI controller and the FLC gives a good maximum-power operation of the PV array, but the tracking capability for different optimum operating points is better and faster for the case of using the FLC compared to the case of using the PI controller. (author)

  12. Sizing and control of trailing edge flaps on a smart rotor for maximum power generation in low fatigue wind regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Jeroen; Bernhammer, Lars O.; Navalkar, Sachin T.

    2016-01-01

    to fatigue damage have been identified. In these regions, the turbine energy output can be increased by deflecting the trailing edge (TE) flap in order to track the maximum power coefficient as a function of local, instantaneous speed ratios. For this purpose, the TE flap configuration for maximum power...... generation has been using blade element momentum theory. As a first step, the operation in non-uniform wind field conditions was analysed. Firstly, the deterministic fluctuation in local tip speed ratio due to wind shear was evaluated. The second effect is associated with time delays in adapting the rotor...

  13. Cancer incidence in the environment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2008-01-01

    An epidemiological study of cancer in children in the environment of nuclear power plants has been written on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU) and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The study is a case controlled study based on the German Register of Cancer in Children. The most important outcome of the study is the finding that a connection can be observed in Germany between the proximity to a nuclear power plant of the place of living and the risk of a child to develop cancer in the 5 th year of life. The magnitude of this risk was calculated to be approximately 0.2%, i.e., out of a total of 13,373 cases of cancer, 29 would be attributable to living within the 5 km zone around a nuclear power plant. This finding demands an explanation. The study proper cannot serve as a material witness because it had not been designed to establish cause and effect relations between the risk and potential origins. The expert consultants frankly state that current knowledge about radiation biology and epidemiology in principle does not allow the ionizing radiation emitted by German nuclear power plants in normal operation to be interpreted as the cause. Whether confounders, selection or chance play a role in the observed and documented finding cannot be explained for good by the study. However, although representing an honorable acquittal, the study produces a different effect in the public mind. What is remembered is the link between nuclear power plants and cancer in children. (orig.)

  14. Implementation of a new maximum power point tracking control strategy for small wind energy conversion systems without mechanical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daili, Yacine; Gaubert, Jean-Paul; Rahmani, Lazhar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new maximum power point tracking algorithm for small wind turbines is proposed. • This algorithm resolves the problems of the classical perturb and observe method. • The proposed method has been tested under several wind speed profiles. • The validity of the new algorithm has been confirmed by the experimental results. - Abstract: This paper proposes a modified perturbation and observation maximum power point tracking algorithm for small wind energy conversion systems to overcome the problems of the conventional perturbation and observation technique, namely rapidity/efficiency trade-off and the divergence from peak power under a fast variation of the wind speed. Two modes of operation are used by this algorithm, the normal perturbation and observation mode and the predictive mode. The normal perturbation and observation mode with small step-size is switched under a slow wind speed variation to track the true maximum power point with fewer fluctuations in steady state. When a rapid change of wind speed is detected, the algorithm tracks the new maximum power point in two phases: in the first stage, the algorithm switches to the predictive mode in which the step-size is auto-adjusted according to the distance between the operating point and the estimated optimum point to move the operating point near to the maximum power point rapidly, and then the normal perturbation and observation mode is used to track the true peak power in the second stage. The dc-link voltage variation is used to detect rapid wind changes. The proposed algorithm does not require either knowledge of system parameters or of mechanical sensors. The experimental results confirm that the proposed algorithm has a better performance in terms of dynamic response and efficiency compared with the conventional perturbation and observation algorithm

  15. A Study of a Two Stage Maximum Power Point Tracking Control of a Photovoltaic System under Partially Shaded Insolation Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kenji; Takano, Ichiro; Sawada, Yoshio

    A photovoltaic array shows relatively low output power density, and has a greatly drooping Current-Voltage (I-V) characteristic. Therefore, Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control is used to maximize the output power of the array. Many papers have been reported in relation to MPPT. However, the Current-Power (I-P) curve sometimes shows multi-local maximum points mode under non-uniform insolation conditions. The operating point of the PV system tends to converge to a local maximum output point which is not the real maximal output point on the I-P curve. Some papers have been also reported, trying to avoid this difficulty. However most of those control systems become rather complicated. Then, the two stage MPPT control method is proposed in this paper to realize a relatively simple control system which can track the real maximum power point even under non-uniform insolation conditions. The feasibility of this control concept is confirmed for steady insolation as well as for rapidly changing insolation by simulation study using software PSIM and LabVIEW. In addition, simulated experiment confirms fundament al operation of the two stage MPPT control.

  16. A study of a two stage maximum power point tracking control of a photovoltaic system under partially shaded insolation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Kenji; Takano, Ichiro; Sawada, Yoshio [Kogakuin University, Tokyo 163-8677 (Japan)

    2006-11-23

    A photovoltaic (PV) array shows relatively low output power density, and has a greatly drooping current-voltage (I-V) characteristic. Therefore, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control is used to maximize the output power of the PV array. Many papers have been reported in relation to MPPT. However, the current-power (I-P) curve sometimes shows multi-local maximum point mode under non-uniform insolation conditions. The operating point of the PV system tends to converge to a local maximum output point which is not the real maximal output point on the I-P curve. Some papers have been also reported, trying to avoid this difficulty. However, most of those control systems become rather complicated. Then, the two stage MPPT control method is proposed in this paper to realize a relatively simple control system which can track the real maximum power point even under non-uniform insolation conditions. The feasibility of this control concept is confirmed for steady insolation as well as for rapidly changing insolation by simulation study using software PSIM and LabVIEW. (author)

  17. Countermovement depth - a variable which clarifies the relationship between the maximum power output and height of a vertical jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Jan; Michalski, Radosław; Buśko, Krzysztof; Mazur-Różycka, Joanna; Staniak, Zbigniew

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the determinants of peak power achieved during vertical jumps in order to clarify relationship between the height of jump and the ability to exert maximum power. One hundred young (16.8±1.8 years) sportsmen participated in the study (body height 1.861 ± 0.109 m, body weight 80.3 ± 9.2 kg). Each participant performed three jump tests: countermovement jump (CMJ), akimbo countermovement jump (ACMJ), and spike jump (SPJ). A force plate was used to measure ground reaction force and to determine peak power output. The following explanatory variables were included in the model: jump height, body mass, and the lowering of the centre of mass before launch (countermovement depth). A model was created using multiple regression analysis and allometric scaling. The model was used to calculate the expected power value for each participant, which correlated strongly with real values. The value of the coefficient of determination R2 equalled 0.89, 0.90 and 0.98, respectively, for the CMJ, ACMJ, and SPJ jumps. The countermovement depth proved to be a variable strongly affecting the maximum power of jump. If the countermovement depth remains constant, the relative peak power is a simple function of jump height. The results suggest that the jump height of an individual is an exact indicator of their ability to produce maximum power. The presented model has a potential to be utilized under field condition for estimating the maximum power output of vertical jumps.

  18. Dual-Axis Solar Tracking System for Maximum Power Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    ABSTRACT: The power developed in a solar energy system depends fundamentally upon the ... for power generation. ... determined because they are functions of the solar angles that ..... able to withstand the weight and the blowing wind.

  19. Power spectrum of the geomagnetic field by the maximum entropy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantor, I.J.; Trivedi, N.B.

    1980-01-01

    Monthly mean values of Vassouras (state of Rio de Janeiro) geomagnetic field are analyzed us the maximum entropy method. The method is described and compared with other methods of spectral analysis, and its advantages and disadvantages are presented. (Author) [pt

  20. Analysis of human factors in incidents reported by Swiss nuclear power plants to the inspectorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alder, H.P.; Hausmann, W.

    1997-01-01

    197 reported incidents in Swiss Nuclear Power Plants were analyzed by a team of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK) using the OECD/NEA Incident Reporting System. The following conclusions could be drawn from this exercise. While the observed cause reported by the plant was ''technical failure'' in about 90% of the incidents, the HSK-Team identified for more than 60% of the incidents ''human factors'' as the root cause. When analyzing this root cause further it was shown that only a smaller contribution came from the side of the operators and the more important shares were caused by plant maintenance, vendors/constructors and plant management with procedural and organizational deficiencies. These findings demonstrate that root cause analysis of incidents by the IRS-Code is a most useful tool to analyze incidents and to find weak points in plant performance. (author). 5 tabs

  1. BER and optimal power allocation for amplify-and-forward relaying using pilot-aided maximum likelihood estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Kezhi

    2014-10-01

    Bit error rate (BER) and outage probability for amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying systems with two different channel estimation methods, disintegrated channel estimation and cascaded channel estimation, using pilot-aided maximum likelihood method in slowly fading Rayleigh channels are derived. Based on the BERs, the optimal values of pilot power under the total transmitting power constraints at the source and the optimal values of pilot power under the total transmitting power constraints at the relay are obtained, separately. Moreover, the optimal power allocation between the pilot power at the source, the pilot power at the relay, the data power at the source and the data power at the relay are obtained when their total transmitting power is fixed. Numerical results show that the derived BER expressions match with the simulation results. They also show that the proposed systems with optimal power allocation outperform the conventional systems without power allocation under the same other conditions. In some cases, the gain could be as large as several dB\\'s in effective signal-to-noise ratio.

  2. BER and optimal power allocation for amplify-and-forward relaying using pilot-aided maximum likelihood estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Kezhi; Chen, Yunfei; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Xu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Bit error rate (BER) and outage probability for amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying systems with two different channel estimation methods, disintegrated channel estimation and cascaded channel estimation, using pilot-aided maximum likelihood method in slowly fading Rayleigh channels are derived. Based on the BERs, the optimal values of pilot power under the total transmitting power constraints at the source and the optimal values of pilot power under the total transmitting power constraints at the relay are obtained, separately. Moreover, the optimal power allocation between the pilot power at the source, the pilot power at the relay, the data power at the source and the data power at the relay are obtained when their total transmitting power is fixed. Numerical results show that the derived BER expressions match with the simulation results. They also show that the proposed systems with optimal power allocation outperform the conventional systems without power allocation under the same other conditions. In some cases, the gain could be as large as several dB's in effective signal-to-noise ratio.

  3. Universal Expression of Efficiency at Maximum Power: A Quantum-Mechanical Brayton Engine Working with a Single Particle Confined in a Power-Law Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhuo-Lin; Li Wei-Sheng; Lai Yi-Ming; He Ji-Zhou; Wang Jian-Hui

    2015-01-01

    We propose a quantum-mechanical Brayton engine model that works between two superposed states, employing a single particle confined in an arbitrary power-law trap as the working substance. Applying the superposition principle, we obtain the explicit expressions of the power and efficiency, and find that the efficiency at maximum power is bounded from above by the function: η_+ = θ/(θ + 1), with θ being a potential-dependent exponent. (paper)

  4. How diffusivity, thermocline and incident light intensity modulate the dynamics of deep chlorophyll maximum in Tyrrhenian Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Valenti

    Full Text Available During the last few years theoretical works have shed new light and proposed new hypotheses on the mechanisms which regulate the spatio-temporal behaviour of phytoplankton communities in marine pelagic ecosystems. Despite this, relevant physical and biological issues, such as effects of the time-dependent mixing in the upper layer, competition between groups, and dynamics of non-stationary deep chlorophyll maxima, are still open questions. In this work, we analyze the spatio-temporal behaviour of five phytoplankton populations in a real marine ecosystem by using a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion-taxis model. The study is performed, taking into account the seasonal variations of environmental variables, such as light intensity, thickness of upper mixed layer and profiles of vertical turbulent diffusivity, obtained starting from experimental findings. Theoretical distributions of phytoplankton cell concentration was converted in chlorophyll concentration, and compared with the experimental profiles measured in a site of the Tyrrhenian Sea at four different times (seasons of the year, during four different oceanographic cruises. As a result we find a good agreement between theoretical and experimental distributions of chlorophyll concentration. In particular, theoretical results reveal that the seasonal changes of environmental variables play a key role in the phytoplankton distribution and determine the properties of the deep chlorophyll maximum. This study could be extended to other marine ecosystems to predict future changes in the phytoplankton biomass due to global warming, in view of devising strategies to prevent the decline of the primary production and the consequent decrease of fish species.

  5. The Effects of a Maximal Power Training Cycle on the Strength, Maximum Power, Vertical Jump Height and Acceleration of High-Level 400-Meter Hurdlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Tejero-González, Carlos Mª; del Campo-Vecino, Juan; Alonso-Curiel, Dionisio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a power training cycle on maximum strength, maximum power, vertical jump height and acceleration in seven high-level 400-meter hurdlers subjected to a specific training program twice a week for 10 weeks. Each training session consisted of five sets of eight jump-squats with the load at which each athlete produced his maximum power. The repetition maximum in the half squat position (RM), maximum power in the jump-squat (W), a squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CSJ), and a 30-meter sprint from a standing position were measured before and after the training program using an accelerometer, an infra-red platform and photo-cells. The results indicated the following statistically significant improvements: a 7.9% increase in RM (Z=−2.03, p=0.021, δc=0.39), a 2.3% improvement in SJ (Z=−1.69, p=0.045, δc=0.29), a 1.43% decrease in the 30-meter sprint (Z=−1.70, p=0.044, δc=0.12), and, where maximum power was produced, a change in the RM percentage from 56 to 62% (Z=−1.75, p=0.039, δc=0.54). As such, it can be concluded that strength training with a maximum power load is an effective means of increasing strength and acceleration in high-level hurdlers. PMID:23717361

  6. Cancer incidence in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Taiwan: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiow-Ing; Yaung, Chih-Liang; Lee, Long-Teng; Chiou, Shang-Jyh

    2016-01-01

    Numerous antinuclear demonstrations reveal that the public is anxious about the potential health effects caused by nuclear power plants. The purpose of this study is to address the question "Is there a higher cancer incidence rate in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Taiwan?" The Taiwan Cancer Registry database from 1979 to 2003 was used to compare the standardized incidence rate of the top four cancers with strong evidence for radiation risks between the "plant-vicinity" with those "non-plant-vicinity" groups. All cancer sites, five-leading cancers in Taiwan, and gender-specific cancers were also studied. We also adopted different observation time to compare the incidence rate of cancers between two groups to explore the impact of the observation period. The incidences of leukemia, thyroid, lung, and breast cancer were not significantly different between two groups, but cervix uteri cancer showed higher incidence rates in the plant-vicinity group. The incidence of cervical cancer was not consistently associated with the duration of plant operation, according to a multiyear period comparison. Although there was higher incidence in cervix cancer in the plant-vicinity group, our findings did not provide the crucial evidence that nuclear power plants were the causal factor for some cancers with strong evidence for radiation risks.

  7. A mathematical model of the maximum power density attainable in an alkaline hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Michael C.; White, Ralph E.

    1991-01-01

    A mathematical model of a hydrogen/oxygen alkaline fuel cell is presented that can be used to predict the polarization behavior under various power loads. The major limitations to achieving high power densities are indicated and methods to increase the maximum attainable power density are suggested. The alkaline fuel cell model describes the phenomena occurring in the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of the anode, separator, and cathode regions based on porous electrode theory applied to three phases. Fundamental equations of chemical engineering that describe conservation of mass and charge, species transport, and kinetic phenomena are used to develop the model by treating all phases as a homogeneous continuum.

  8. Wideband metamaterial array with polarization-independent and wide incident angle for harvesting ambient electromagnetic energy and wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hui-Teng; Yang, Xue-Xia; Song, Xing-Tang; Guo, Zhen-Yue; Yu, Fan

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we introduced the design, demonstration, and discussion of a wideband metamaterial array with polarization-independent and wide-angle for harvesting ambient electromagnetic (EM) energy and wireless power transfer. The array consists of unit cells with one square ring and four metal bars. In comparison to the published metamaterial arrays for harvesting EM energy or wireless transfer, this design had the wide operation bandwidth with the HPBW (Half Power Band Width) of 110% (6.2 GHz-21.4 GHz), which overcomes the narrow-band operation induced by the resonance characteristic of the metamaterial. On the normal incidence, the simulated maximum harvesting efficiency was 96% and the HPBW was 110% for the random polarization wave. As the incident angle increases to 45°, the maximum efficiency remained higher than 88% and the HPBW remained higher than 83% for the random polarization wave. Furthermore, the experimental verification of the designed metamaterial array was conducted, and the measured results were in reasonable agreement with the simulated ones.

  9. Intelligent approach to maximum power point tracking control strategy for variable-speed wind turbine generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Whei-Min; Hong, Chih-Ming [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424 (China)

    2010-06-15

    To achieve maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for wind power generation systems, the rotational speed of wind turbines should be adjusted in real time according to wind speed. In this paper, a Wilcoxon radial basis function network (WRBFN) with hill-climb searching (HCS) MPPT strategy is proposed for a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) with a variable-speed wind turbine. A high-performance online training WRBFN using a back-propagation learning algorithm with modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO) regulating controller is designed for a PMSG. The MPSO is adopted in this study to adapt to the learning rates in the back-propagation process of the WRBFN to improve the learning capability. The MPPT strategy locates the system operation points along the maximum power curves based on the dc-link voltage of the inverter, thus avoiding the generator speed detection. (author)

  10. Simulations of the energy loss of ions at the stopping-power maximum in a laser-induced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayzac, W.; Malka, G.; Frank, A.; Bagnoud, V.; Blažević, A.; Schlegel, T.; Ortner, A.; Bedacht, S.; Deppert, O.; Knetsch, A.; Schaumann, G.; Wagner, F.; Basko, M.M.; Gericke, D.O.; Hallo, L.; Pépitone, K.; Kraus, D.; Schumacher, D.; Tauschwitz, An.; Vorberger, J.

    2016-01-01

    Simulations have been performed to study the energy loss of carbon ions in a hot, laser-generated plasma in the velocity region of the stopping-power maximum. In this parameter range, discrepancies of up to 30% exist between the various stopping theories and hardly any experimental data are available. The considered plasma, created by irradiating a thin carbon foil with two high-energy laser beams, is fully-ionized with a temperature of nearly 200 eV. To study the interaction at the maximum stopping power, Monte-Carlo calculations of the ion charge state in the plasma are carried out at a projectile energy of 0.5 MeV per nucleon. The predictions of various stopping-power theories are compared and experimental campaigns are planned for a first-time theory benchmarking in this low-velocity range. (paper)

  11. Childhood leukaemia incidence below the age of 5 years near French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurier, D; Hemon, D; Clavel, J

    2008-01-01

    A recent study indicated an excess risk of leukaemia among children under the age of 5 years living in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Germany. We present results relating to the incidence of childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in France for the same age range. These results do not indicate an excess risk of leukaemia in young children living near French nuclear power plants. (note)

  12. The Fukushima Nuclear Power Station incident and marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Yenchiang; Zhao Yue

    2012-01-01

    Based on the facts relating to the radioactive wastewater discharged by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Station in Japan, this paper intends to explore the international legal obligations for Japan from three perspectives, namely, the immediate notification, the prevention of transboundary harm and the prevention of dumping. Furthermore, this article defines and compares two types of international legal liabilities, the traditional state responsibility and the responsibility for transboundary harm. Through comparison, the international legal liability of Japan is discussed. After detailed analysis, the conclusion is that Japan should be responsible for the obligation of immediate notification and since Japan unilaterally discharge the wastes without prior specific permits of other contracting countries, it should also be responsible for the violation of prevention of dumping. Since so far, no material injury has emerged and there would appear to be no culpability as regards the prevention of transboundary harm. Finally, this paper stresses the necessity to develop a worldwide agreement concerning the liability for transboundary harm and to establish an institutional framework for the enforcement of a state’s obligations, and also the great significance of international cooperation between nations and organisations in relation to marine environmental protection.

  13. Maximum generation power evaluation of variable frequency offshore wind farms when connected to a single power converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Sumper, Andreas [Centre d' Innovacio Tecnologica en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya UPC, Av. Diagonal, 647, Pl. 2, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); IREC Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, Barcelona (Spain); Junyent-Ferre, Adria; Galceran-Arellano, Samuel [Centre d' Innovacio Tecnologica en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya UPC, Av. Diagonal, 647, Pl. 2, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The paper deals with the evaluation of power generated by variable and constant frequency offshore wind farms connected to a single large power converter. A methodology to analyze different wind speed scenarios and system electrical frequencies is presented and applied to a case study, where it is shown that the variable frequency wind farm concept (VF) with a single power converter obtains 92% of the total available power, obtained with individual power converters in each wind turbine (PC). The PC scheme needs multiple power converters implying drawbacks in terms of cost, maintenance and reliability. The VF scheme is also compared to a constant frequency scheme CF, and it is shown that a significant power increase of more than 20% can be obtained with VF. The case study considers a wind farm composed of four wind turbines based on synchronous generators. (author)

  14. Highly efficient maximum power point tracking using DC-DC coupled inductor single-ended primary inductance converter for photovoltaic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quamruzzaman, M.; Mohammad, Nur; Matin, M. A.; Alam, M. R.

    2016-10-01

    Solar photovoltaics (PVs) have nonlinear voltage-current characteristics, with a distinct maximum power point (MPP) depending on factors such as solar irradiance and operating temperature. To extract maximum power from the PV array at any environmental condition, DC-DC converters are usually used as MPP trackers. This paper presents the performance analysis of a coupled inductor single-ended primary inductance converter for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in a PV system. A detailed model of the system has been designed and developed in MATLAB/Simulink. The performance evaluation has been conducted on the basis of stability, current ripple reduction and efficiency at different operating conditions. Simulation results show considerable ripple reduction in the input and output currents of the converter. Both the MPPT and converter efficiencies are significantly improved. The obtained simulation results validate the effectiveness and suitability of the converter model in MPPT and show reasonable agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  15. Maximum a posteriori covariance estimation using a power inverse wishart prior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Feodor; Sporring, Jon

    2012-01-01

    The estimation of the covariance matrix is an initial step in many multivariate statistical methods such as principal components analysis and factor analysis, but in many practical applications the dimensionality of the sample space is large compared to the number of samples, and the usual maximum...

  16. Pilot power optimization for AF relaying using maximum likelihood channel estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Kezhi

    2014-09-01

    Bit error rates (BERs) for amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying systems with two different pilot-symbol-aided channel estimation methods, disintegrated channel estimation (DCE) and cascaded channel estimation (CCE), are derived in Rayleigh fading channels. Based on these BERs, the pilot powers at the source and at the relay are optimized when their total transmitting powers are fixed. Numerical results show that the optimized system has a better performance than other conventional nonoptimized allocation systems. They also show that the optimal pilot power in variable gain is nearly the same as that in fixed gain for similar system settings. andcopy; 2014 IEEE.

  17. A Single Phase Doubly Grounded Semi-Z-Source Inverter for Photovoltaic (PV Systems with Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofael Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a single phase doubly grounded semi-Z-source inverter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT is proposed for photovoltaic (PV systems. This proposed system utilizes a single-ended primary inductor (SEPIC converter as DC-DC converter to implement the MPPT algorithm for tracking the maximum power from a PV array and a single phase semi-Z-source inverter for integrating the PV with AC power utilities. The MPPT controller utilizes a fast-converging algorithm to track the maximum power point (MPP and the semi-Z-source inverter utilizes a nonlinear SPWM to produce sinusoidal voltage at the output. The proposed system is able to track the MPP of PV arrays and produce an AC voltage at its output by utilizing only three switches. Experimental results show that the fast-converging MPPT algorithm has fast tracking response with appreciable MPP efficiency. In addition, the inverter shows the minimization of common mode leakage current with its ground sharing feature and reduction of the THD as well as DC current components at the output during DC-AC conversion.

  18. Maximum Power Point Tracking for Cascaded PV-Converter Modules Using Two-Stage Particle Swarm Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Mingxuan; Duan, Qichang; Zhang, Li; Chen, Hao; Hu, Bei; Duan, Pan

    2017-08-24

    The paper presents a novel two-stage particle swarm optimization (PSO) for the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control of a PV system consisting of cascaded PV-converter modules, under partial shading conditions (PSCs). In this scheme, the grouping method of the shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA) is incorporated with the basic PSO algorithm, ensuring fast and accurate searching of the global extremum. An adaptive speed factor is also introduced to improve its convergence speed. A PWM algorithm enabling permuted switching of the PV sources is applied. The method enables this PV system to achieve the maximum power generation for any number of PV and converter modules. Simulation studies of the proposed MPPT scheme are performed on a system having two chained PV buck-converter modules and a dc-ac H-bridge connected at its terminals for supplying an AC load. The results show that this type of PV system allows each module to achieve the maximum power generation according its illumination level without affecting the others, and the proposed new control method gives significantly higher power output compared with the conventional P&O and PSO methods.

  19. Water-Related Power Plant Curtailments: An Overview of Incidents and Contributing Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCall, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Water temperatures and water availability can affect the reliable operations of power plants in the United States. Data on water-related impacts on the energy sector are not consolidated and are reported by multiple agencies. This study provides an overview of historical incidents where water resources have affected power plant operations, discusses the various data sources providing information, and creates a publicly available and open access database that contains consolidated information about water-related power plant curtailment and shut-down incidents. Power plants can be affected by water resources if incoming water temperatures are too high, water discharge temperatures are too high, or if there is not enough water available to operate. Changes in climate have the potential to exacerbate uncertainty over water resource availability and temperature. Power plant impacts from water resources include curtailment of generation, plant shut-downs, and requests for regulatory variances. In addition, many power plants have developed adaptation approaches to reducing the potential risks of water-related issues by investing in new technologies or developing and implementing plans to undertake during droughts or heatwaves. This study identifies 42 incidents of water-related power plant issues from 2000-2015, drawing from a variety of different datasets. These incidents occur throughout the U.S., and affect coal and nuclear plants that use once-through, recirculating, and pond cooling systems. In addition, water temperature violations reported to the Environmental Protection Agency are also considered, with 35 temperature violations noted from 2012-2015. In addition to providing some background information on incidents, this effort has also created an open access database on the Open Energy Information platform that contains information about water-related power plant issues that can be updated by users.

  20. Maximum likelihood unit rooting test in the presence GARCH: A new test with increased power

    OpenAIRE

    Cook , Steve

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The literature on testing the unit root hypothesis in the presence of GARCH errors is extended. A new test based upon the combination of local-to-unity detrending and joint maximum likelihood estimation of the autoregressive parameter and GARCH process is presented. The finite sample distribution of the test is derived under alternative decisions regarding the deterministic terms employed. Using Monte Carlo simulation, the newly proposed ML t-test is shown to exhibit incre...

  1. On application of a new hybrid maximum power point tracking (MPPT) based photovoltaic system to the closed plant factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Joe-Air; Su, Yu-Li; Shieh, Jyh-Cherng; Kuo, Kun-Chang; Lin, Tzu-Shiang; Lin, Ta-Te; Fang, Wei; Chou, Jui-Jen; Wang, Jen-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid MPPT method was developed and utilized in a PV system of closed plant factory. • The tracking of the maximum power output of PV system can be achieved in real time. • Hybrid MPPT method not only decreases energy loss but increases power utilization. • The feasibility of applying PV system to the closed plant factory has been examined. • The PV system significantly reduced CO 2 emissions and curtailed the fossil fuels. - Abstract: Photovoltaic (PV) generation systems have been shown to have a promising role for use in high electric-load buildings, such as the closed plant factory which is dependent upon artificial lighting. The power generated by the PV systems can be either directly supplied to the buildings or fed back into the electrical grid to reduce the high economic costs and environmental impact associated with the traditional energy sources such as nuclear power and fossil fuels. However, PV systems usually suffer from low energy-conversion efficiency, and it is therefore necessary to improve their performance by tackling the energy loss issues. The maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control technique is essential to the PV-assisted generation systems in order to achieve the maximum power output in real time. In this study, we integrate the previously proposed direct-prediction MPP method with a perturbation and observation (P and O) method to develop a new hybrid MPPT method. The proposed MPPT method is further utilized in the PV inverters in a PV system installed on the roof of a closed plant factory at National Taiwan University. The tested PV system is constructed as a two-stage grid-connected photovoltaic power conditioning (PVPC) system with a boost-buck full bridge design configuration. A control scheme based on the hybrid MPPT method is also developed and implemented in the PV inverters of the PVPC system to achieve tracking of the maximum power output of the PV system in real time. Based on experimental results

  2. Study on actions for social acceptance of a nuclear power plant incident/accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotani, Fumio; Tsukada, Tetsuya; Hiramoto, Mitsuru; Nishimura, Naoyuki

    1998-01-01

    When an incident/accident has occurred, dealing technically with it in an appropriate way is essential for social acceptance. One of the most important actions that are expected from the plant representative is to provide, without delay, each of the concerned authorities and organizations with full information concerning the incident/accident, while necessary technical measures are being implemented. While the importance of socially dealing with the incident/accident is widely recognized, up to now there have been no attempts to study previous incidents/accidents cases from the social sciences viewpoint. Therefore, in the present study is a case study of the incident/accident that occurred in 1991 at the No.2 Unit of the Mihama Nuclear Plant of Kansai Power Co., Ltd.. The data used in the present study is based on intensive interview of the staff involved in this incident/accident. The purpose of the study was to shed light on the conditions necessary for maintaining and improving the skill of the plant representative when dealing with social response in case of an incident/accident. The results of the present study has led to a fuller recognition of the importance of the following factors: On the personal level: 1) recognition of personal accountability, 2) complete disclosure of information concerning the incident/accident. On the organizational level: 1) acceptance of different approaches and viewpoints, 2) promoting risk-taking behavior, 3) top management's vision and commitment to providing a social response. (author)

  3. Timing A Pulsed Thin Film Pyroelectric Generator For Maximum Power Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.N.; Hanrahan, B.M.; Neville, C.J.; Jankowski, N.R

    2016-01-01

    Pyroelectric thermal-to-electric energy conversion is accomplished by a cyclic process of thermally-inducing polarization changes in the material under an applied electric field. The pyroelectric MEMS device investigated consisted of a thin film PZT capacitor with platinum bottom and iridium oxide top electrodes. Electric fields between 1-20 kV/cm with a 30% duty cycle and frequencies from 0.1 - 100 Hz were tested with a modulated continuous wave IR laser with a duty cycle of 20% creating temperature swings from 0.15 - 26 °C on the pyroelectric receiver. The net output power of the device was highly sensitive to the phase delay between the laser power and the applied electric field. A thermal model was developed to predict and explain the power loss associated with finite charge and discharge times. Excellent agreement was achieved between the theoretical model and the experiment results for the measured power density versus phase delay. Limitations on the charging and discharging rates result in reduced power and lower efficiency due to a reduced net work per cycle. (paper)

  4. Neural Network Based Maximum Power Point Tracking Control with Quadratic Boost Converter for PMSG—Wind Energy Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramji Tiwari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an artificial neural network (ANN based maximum power point tracking (MPPT control strategy for wind energy conversion system (WECS implemented with a DC/DC converter. The proposed topology utilizes a radial basis function network (RBFN based neural network control strategy to extract the maximum available power from the wind velocity. The results are compared with a classical Perturb and Observe (P&O method and Back propagation network (BPN method. In order to achieve a high voltage rating, the system is implemented with a quadratic boost converter and the performance of the converter is validated with a boost and single ended primary inductance converter (SEPIC. The performance of the MPPT technique along with a DC/DC converter is demonstrated using MATLAB/Simulink.

  5. L1 Adaptive Speed Control of a Small Wind Energy Conversion System for Maximum Power Point Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an L1 adaptive controller for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of a small variable speed Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS). The proposed controller generates the optimal torque command for the vector controlled generator side converter (GSC) based on the wi......) is used to carry out case studies using Matlab/Simulink. The case study results show that the designed L1 adaptive controller has good tracking performance even with unmodeled dynamics and in the presence of parameter uncertainties and unknown disturbances.......This paper presents the design of an L1 adaptive controller for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of a small variable speed Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS). The proposed controller generates the optimal torque command for the vector controlled generator side converter (GSC) based on the wind...

  6. Optimization of a Turboprop UAV for Maximum Loiter and Specific Power Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinc, Ali

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a genuine code was developed for optimization of selected parameters of a turboprop engine for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) by employing elitist genetic algorithm. First, preliminary sizing of a UAV and its turboprop engine was done, by the code in a given mission profile. Secondly, single and multi-objective optimization were done for selected engine parameters to maximize loiter duration of UAV or specific power of engine or both. In single objective optimization, as first case, UAV loiter time was improved with an increase of 17.5% from baseline in given boundaries or constraints of compressor pressure ratio and burner exit temperature. In second case, specific power was enhanced by 12.3% from baseline. In multi-objective optimization case, where previous two objectives are considered together, loiter time and specific power were increased by 14.2% and 9.7% from baseline respectively, for the same constraints.

  7. Novel high accurate sensorless dual-axis solar tracking system controlled by maximum power point tracking unit of photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel high accurate sensorless dual-axis solar tracker. • It has the advantages of both sensor based and sensorless solar trackers. • It does not have the disadvantages of sensor based and sensorless solar trackers. • Tracking error of only 0.11° that is less than the tracking errors of others. • An increase of 28.8–43.6% depending on the seasons in the energy efficiency. - Abstract: In this study, a novel high accurate sensorless dual-axis solar tracker controlled by the maximum power point tracking unit available in almost all photovoltaic systems is proposed. The maximum power point tracking controller continuously calculates the maximum output power of the photovoltaic module/panel/array, and uses the altitude and azimuth angles deviations to track the sun direction where the greatest value of the maximum output power is extracted. Unlike all other sensorless solar trackers, the proposed solar tracking system is a closed loop system which means it uses the actual direction of the sun at any time to track the sun direction, and this is the contribution of this work. The proposed solar tracker has the advantages of both sensor based and sensorless dual-axis solar trackers, but it does not have their disadvantages. Other sensorless solar trackers all are open loop, i.e., they use offline estimated data about the sun path in the sky obtained from solar map equations, so low exactness, cloudy sky, and requiring new data for new location are their problems. A photovoltaic system has been built, and it is experimentally verified that the proposed solar tracking system tracks the sun direction with the tracking error of 0.11° which is less than the tracking errors of other both sensor based and sensorless solar trackers. An increase of 28.8–43.6% depending on the seasons in the energy efficiency is the main advantage of utilizing the proposed solar tracking system.

  8. The maximum power condition of the brayton cycle with heat exchange processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Pyung Suk; Cha, Jin Girl; Ro, Sung Tack

    1985-01-01

    The ideal brayton cycle has been analyzed with the heat exchange processes between the working fluid and the heat source and the sink while their heat capacity rates are constant. The power of the cycle can be expressed in terms of a temperature of the cycle and the heat capacity rate of the working fluid. There exists an optimum power condition where the heat capacity rate of the working fluid has a value between those of the heat source and the heat sink, and the cycle efficiency is determined by the inlet temperatures of the heat source and the sink. (Author)

  9. Multicore PSO Operation for Maximum Power Point Tracking of a Distributed Photovoltaic System under Partially Shading Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Min Chao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the partial shading problem of a PV module using the one-diode model and simulating the characteristics exhibiting multiple-peak power output condition that is similar to a PV array. A modified particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm based on the suggested search-agent deployment, retracking condition, and multicore operation is proposed in order to continuously locate the global maximum power point for the PV system. Partial shading simulation results for up to 16 modules in series/parallel formats are presented. A distributed PV system consisting of up to 8 a-silicon thin film PV panels and also having a dedicated DC/DC buck converter on each of the modules is tested. The converter reaches its steady state voltage output in 10 ms. However for MPPT operation, voltage, and current measurement interval is set to 20 ms to avoid unnecessary noise from the entire electric circuit. Based on the simulation and experiment results, each core of the proposed PSO operation should control no more than 4 PV modules in order to have the maximum tracking accuracy and minimum overall tracking time. Tracking for the global maximum power point of a distributed PV system under various partial shading conditions can be done within 1.3 seconds.

  10. A Simple Checking Algorithm with Perturb and Observe Maximum Power Point Tracking for Partially Shaded Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozana Alik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple checking algorithm for maximum power point tracking (MPPT technique for Photovoltaic (PV system using Perturb and Observe (P&O algorithm. The main benefit of this checking algorithm is the simplicity and efficiency of the system whose duty cycle produced by the MPPT is smoother and changes faster according to maximum power point (MPP. This checking algorithm can determine the maximum power first before the P&O algorithm takes place to identify the voltage at MPP (VMPP, which is needed to calculate the duty cycle for the boost converter. To test the effectiveness of the algorithm, a simulation model of PV system has been carried out using MATLAB/Simulink under different level of irradiation; or in other words partially shaded condition of PV array. The results from the system using the proposed approach prove to have faster response and low ripple. Besides, the results are close to the desired outputs and exhibit an approximately 98.25% of the system efficiency. On the other hand, the system with conventional P&O MPPT seems to be unstable and has higher percentage of error. In summary, the proposed method is useful under varying level of irradiation with higher efficiency of the system.

  11. Augmented Nonlinear Controller for Maximum Power-Point Tracking with Artificial Neural Network in Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliang Ma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV systems have non-linear characteristics that generate maximum power at one particular operating point. Environmental factors such as irradiance and temperature variations greatly affect the maximum power point (MPP. Diverse offline and online techniques have been introduced for tracking the MPP. Here, to track the MPP, an augmented-state feedback linearized (AFL non-linear controller combined with an artificial neural network (ANN is proposed. This approach linearizes the non-linear characteristics in PV systems and DC/DC converters, for tracking and optimizing the PV system operation. It also reduces the dependency of the designed controller on linearized models, to provide global stability. A complete model of the PV system is simulated. The existing maximum power-point tracking (MPPT and DC/DC boost-converter controller techniques are compared with the proposed ANN method. Two case studies, which simulate realistic circumstances, are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method. The AFL with ANN controller can provide good dynamic operation, faster convergence speed, and fewer operating-point oscillations around the MPP. It also tracks the global maxima under different conditions, especially irradiance-mutating situations, more effectively than the conventional methods. Detailed mathematical models and a control approach for a three-phase grid-connected intelligent hybrid system are proposed using MATLAB/Simulink.

  12. Utilizing Maximum Power Point Trackers in Parallel to Maximize the Power Output of a Solar (Photovoltaic) Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    completing the academic workload at NPS. Taking care of two toddlers all day, every day, is not an easy task. You make xxviii it seem effortless and...for the development of numerous thin-cell applications that meet the military’s requirements for ruggedness and power output. For example, the...2012, September 5). PV microinverters and power optimizers set for significant growth [PV Magazine Online]. Available: http://www.pv- magazine.com

  13. A thermoelectric generator using loop heat pipe and design match for maximum-power generation

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine; Hsu, Po-Chien; Tsai, Rung-Je; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    of noise. The experiments for a TEG with 4W rated power show that the LHP performs very well with overall thermal resistance 0.35 K W-1, from the cold side of TEG module to the ambient. The LHP is able to dissipate heat up to 110W and is maintenance free

  14. A Direct Maximum Power Point Tracking Method for Single-Phase Grid Connected PV Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EL Aamri, Faicel; Maker, Hattab; Sera, Dezso

    2018-01-01

    in dynamic conditions, especially in low irradiance when the measurement of signals becomes more sensitive to noise. The proposed MPPT is designed for single-phase single-stage grid-connected PV inverters, and is based on estimating the instantaneous PV power and voltage ripples, using second...

  15. A Method of Maximum Power Control in Single-phase Utility Interactive Photovoltaic Generation System by using PWM Current Source Inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neba, Yasuhiko

    This paper deals with a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control of the photovoltaic generation with the single-phase utility interactive inverter. The photovoltaic arrays are connected by employing the PWM current source inverter to the utility. The use of the pulsating dc current and voltage allows the maximum power point to be searched. The inverter can regulate the array voltage and keep the arrays to the maximum power. This paper gives the control method and the experimental results.

  16. Experimental Determination of Operating and Maximum Power Transfer Efficiencies at Resonant Frequency in a Wireless Power Transfer System using PP Network Topology with Top Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Hema; Pillai, K. P. P.; Bindu, G. R.

    2017-08-01

    A two-port network model for a wireless power transfer system taking into account the distributed capacitances using PP network topology with top coupling is developed in this work. The operating and maximum power transfer efficiencies are determined analytically in terms of S-parameters. The system performance predicted by the model is verified with an experiment consisting of a high power home light load of 230 V, 100 W and is tested for two forced resonant frequencies namely, 600 kHz and 1.2 MHz. The experimental results are in close agreement with the proposed model.

  17. Quantum Coherent Three-Terminal Thermoelectrics: Maximum Efficiency at Given Power Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Whitney

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work considers the nonlinear scattering theory for three-terminal thermoelectric devices used for power generation or refrigeration. Such systems are quantum phase-coherent versions of a thermocouple, and the theory applies to systems in which interactions can be treated at a mean-field level. It considers an arbitrary three-terminal system in any external magnetic field, including systems with broken time-reversal symmetry, such as chiral thermoelectrics, as well as systems in which the magnetic field plays no role. It is shown that the upper bound on efficiency at given power output is of quantum origin and is stricter than Carnot’s bound. The bound is exactly the same as previously found for two-terminal devices and can be achieved by three-terminal systems with or without broken time-reversal symmetry, i.e., chiral and non-chiral thermoelectrics.

  18. Maximum Efficiency of Thermoelectric Heat Conversion in High-Temperature Power Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Khvesyuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern trends in development of aircraft engineering go with development of vehicles of the fifth generation. The features of aircrafts of the fifth generation are motivation to use new high-performance systems of onboard power supply. The operating temperature of the outer walls of engines is of 800–1000 K. This corresponds to radiation heat flux of 10 kW/m2 . The thermal energy including radiation of the engine wall may potentially be converted into electricity. The main objective of this paper is to analyze if it is possible to use a high efficiency thermoelectric conversion of heat into electricity. The paper considers issues such as working processes, choice of materials, and optimization of thermoelectric conversion. It presents the analysis results of operating conditions of thermoelectric generator (TEG used in advanced hightemperature power devices. A high-temperature heat source is a favorable factor for the thermoelectric conversion of heat. It is shown that for existing thermoelectric materials a theoretical conversion efficiency can reach the level of 15–20% at temperatures up to 1500 K and available values of Ioffe parameter being ZT = 2–3 (Z is figure of merit, T is temperature. To ensure temperature regime and high efficiency thermoelectric conversion simultaneously it is necessary to have a certain match between TEG power, temperature of hot and cold surfaces, and heat transfer coefficient of the cooling system. The paper discusses a concept of radiation absorber on the TEG hot surface. The analysis has demonstrated a number of potentialities for highly efficient conversion through using the TEG in high-temperature power devices. This work has been implemented under support of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation; project No. 1145 (the programme “Organization of Research Engineering Activities”.

  19. Modeling time to recovery and initiating event frequency for loss of off-site power incidents at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iman, R.L.; Hora, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    Industry data representing the time to recovery of loss of off-site power at nuclear power plants for 63 incidents caused by plant-centered losses, grid losses, or severe weather losses are fit with exponential, lognormal, gamma and Weibull probability models. A Bayesian analysis is used to compare the adequacy of each of these models and to provide uncertainty bounds on each of the fitted models. A composite model that combines the probability models fitted to each of the three sources of data is presented as a method for predicting the time to recovery of loss of off-site power. The composite model is very general and can be made site specific by making adjustments on the models used, such as might occur due to the type of switchyard configuration or type of grid, and by adjusting the weights on the individual models, such as might occur with weather conditions existing at a particular plant. Adjustments in the composite model are shown for different models used for switchyard configuration and for different weights due to weather. Bayesian approaches are also presented for modeling the frequency of initiating events leading to loss of off-site power. One Bayesian model assumes that all plants share a common incidence rate for loss of off-site power, while the other Bayesian approach models the incidence rate for each plant relative to the incidence rates of all other plants. Combining the Bayesian models for the frequency of the initiating events with the composite Bayesian model for recovery provides the necessary vehicle for a complete model that incorporates uncertainty into a probabilistic risk assessment

  20. Relation between Peak Power Output in Sprint Cycling and Maximum Voluntary Isometric Torque Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, Mehdi; Goodall, Stuart; Barratt, Paul; Rowley, Nicola; Leeder, Jonathan; Howatson, Glyn

    2017-08-01

    From a cycling paradigm, little has been done to understand the relationships between maximal isometric strength of different single joint lower body muscle groups and their relation with, and ability to predict PPO and how they compare to an isometric cycling specific task. The aim of this study was to establish relationships between maximal voluntary torque production from isometric single-joint and cycling specific tasks and assess their ability to predict PPO. Twenty male trained cyclists participated in this study. Peak torque was measured by performing maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) of knee extensors, knee flexors, dorsi flexors and hip extensors whilst instrumented cranks measured isometric peak torque from MVC when participants were in their cycling specific position (ISOCYC). A stepwise regression showed that peak torque of the knee extensors was the only significant predictor of PPO when using SJD and accounted for 47% of the variance. However, when compared to ISOCYC, the only significant predictor of PPO was ISOCYC, which accounted for 77% of the variance. This suggests that peak torque of the knee extensors was the best single-joint predictor of PPO in sprint cycling. Furthermore, a stronger prediction can be made from a task specific isometric task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Best voltage bias-flipping strategy towards maximum piezoelectric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Junrui; Chung, Henry Shu-Hung

    2013-01-01

    In piezoelectric energy harvesting (PEH) systems, energy extracted from piezoelectric structure can be increased by making piezoelectric voltage in phase with vibration velocity and raising the voltage amplitude. Such voltage manipulations can be realized by synchronously flipping the piezoelectric voltage with respect to a bias dc source at every displacement extremum. Given that net harvested energy is obtained by deducting dissipated energy from total extracted energy, a sophisticated voltage bias-flipping scheme, which can maximize extracted energy at low dissipative cost, is required towards harvested energy optimization. This paper extends the state of the art by proposing the best bias-flip strategy, which is delivered on conceptual synchronized multiple bias-flip (SMBF) interface circuits. The proposed strategy coordinates both requirements on larger voltage change in synchronized instant for more extracted energy and smaller voltage change in each bias-flip action for less dissipated energy. It not only leads to further enhancement of harvesting capability beyond existing solutions, but also provides an unprecedented physical insight on maximum achievable harvesting capability of PEH interface circuit

  2. Synchronous Buck Converter with Perturb and Observe Maximum Power Point Tracking Implemented on a Low-Cost Arduino-microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Talib Hashim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Maximum power point tracking (MPPT is used in photovoltaic (PV systems to enhance efficiency and maximize the output power of PV module, regardless the variation of temperature, irradiation, and the electrical characteristics of the load. A new MPPT system has been presented in this research, consisting of a synchronous DC-DC step-down Buck converter controlled by an Arduino microcontroller based unit. The MPPT process with Perturb and Observe method is performed with a DC-DC converter circuit to overcome the problem of voltage mismatch between the PV modules and the loads. The proposing system has high efficiency, lower cost and can be easily modified to handle more energy sources. The test results indicate that the use of the proposed MPPT control with the designed synchronous Buck converter increases the PV output power; hence increases the overall solar system efficiency. The synchronous Buck converter test results used in this design showed high converter efficiency up to 95% of the power produced from the solar module, leading to reduce power loss caused by the power transfer process from PV module to the loads.

  3. Effects of a power and photon energy of incident light on near-field etching properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsui, T.; Saito, H.; Nishioka, K.; Leuschel, B.; Soppera, O.; Nobusada, K.

    2017-12-01

    We developed a near-field etching technique for realizing an ultra-flat surfaces of various materials and structures. To elucidate the near-field etching properties, we have investigated the effects of power and the photon energy of the incident light. First, we established theoretically that an optical near-field with photon energy lower than the absorption edge of the molecules can induce molecular vibrations. We used nanodiamonds to study the power dependence of the near-field etching properties. From the topological changes of the nanodiamonds, we confirmed the linear-dependence of the etching volume with the incident power. Furthermore, we studied the photon energy dependence using TiO2 nanostriped structures, which revealed that a lower photon energy results in a lower etching rate.

  4. Power system generation expansion planning using the maximum principle and analytical production cost model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.Y.; Park, Y.M.

    1991-01-01

    Historically, the electric utility demand in most countries has increased rapidly, with a doubling of approximately 10 years in the case of developing countries. In order to meet this growth in demand, the planners of expansion policies were concerned with obtaining expansion pans which dictate what new generation facilities to add and when to add them. This paper reports that, however, the practical planning problem is extremely difficult and complex, and required many hours of the planner's time even though the alternatives examined were extremely limited. In this connection, increased motivation for more sophisticated techniques of valuating utility expansion policies has been developed during the past decade. Among them, the long-range generation expansion planning is to select the most economical and reliable generation expansion plans in order to meet future power demand over a long period of time subject to a multitude of technical, economical, and social constraints

  5. Scalable pumping approach for extracting the maximum TEM(00) solar laser power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dawei; Almeida, Joana; Vistas, Cláudia R

    2014-10-20

    A scalable TEM(00) solar laser pumping approach is composed of four pairs of first-stage Fresnel lens-folding mirror collectors, four fused-silica secondary concentrators with light guides of rectangular cross-section for radiation homogenization, four hollow two-dimensional compound parabolic concentrators for further concentration of uniform radiations from the light guides to a 3 mm diameter, 76 mm length Nd:YAG rod within four V-shaped pumping cavities. An asymmetric resonator ensures an efficient large-mode matching between pump light and oscillating laser light. Laser power of 59.1 W TEM(00) is calculated by ZEMAX and LASCAD numerical analysis, revealing 20 times improvement in brightness figure of merit.

  6. Spherical gradient-index lenses as perfect imaging and maximum power transfer devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J M

    2000-08-01

    Gradient-index lenses can be viewed from the perspectives of both imaging and nonimaging optics, that is, in terms of both image fidelity and achievable flux concentration. The simple class of gradient-index lenses with spherical symmetry, often referred to as modified Luneburg lenses, is revisited. An alternative derivation for established solutions is offered; the method of Fermat's strings and the principle of skewness conservation are invoked. Then these nominally perfect imaging devices are examined from the additional vantage point of power transfer, and the degree to which they realize the thermodynamic limit to flux concentration is determined. Finally, the spherical gradient-index lens of the fish eye is considered as a modified Luneburg lens optimized subject to material constraints.

  7. Maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic applications by using two-level DC/DC boost converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moamaei, Parvin

    Recently, photovoltaic (PV) generation is becoming increasingly popular in industrial applications. As a renewable and alternative source of energy they feature superior characteristics such as being clean and silent along with less maintenance problems compared to other sources of the energy. In PV generation, employing a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) method is essential to obtain the maximum available solar energy. Among several proposed MPPT techniques, the Perturbation and Observation (P&O;) and Model Predictive Control (MPC) methods are adopted in this work. The components of the MPPT control system which are P&O; and MPC algorithms, PV module and high gain DC-DC boost converter are simulated in MATLAB Simulink. They are evaluated theoretically under rapidly and slowly changing of solar irradiation and temperature and their performance is shown by the simulation results, finally a comprehensive comparison is presented.

  8. Global Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT of a Photovoltaic Module Array Constructed through Improved Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuei-Hsiang Chao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposes a maximum power point tracking (MPPT method in which improved teaching-learning-based optimization (I-TLBO is applied to perform global MPPT of photovoltaic (PV module arrays under dissimilar shading situations to ensure the maximum power output of the module arrays. The proposed I-TLBO enables the automatic adjustment of teaching factors according to the self-learning ability of students. Incorporating smart-tracking and self-study strategies can effectively improve the tracking response speed and steady-state tracking performance. To evaluate the feasibility of the proposed I-TLBO, a HIP-2717 PV module array from Sanyo Electric was employed to compose various arrays with different serial and parallel configurations. The arrays were operated under different shading conditions to test the MPPT with double, triple, or quadruple peaks of power-voltage characteristic curves. Boost converters were employed with TMS320F2808 digital signal processors to test the proposed MPPT method. Empirical results confirm that the proposed method exhibits more favorable dynamic and static-state response tracking performance compared with that of conventional TLBO.

  9. Maximum power output and load matching of a phosphoric acid fuel cell-thermoelectric generator hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohang; Wang, Yuan; Cai, Ling; Zhou, Yinghui

    2015-10-01

    Based on the current models of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) and thermoelectric generators (TGs), a new hybrid system is proposed, in which the effects of multi-irreversibilities resulting from the activation, concentration, and ohmic overpotentials in the PAFC, Joule heat and heat leak in the TG, finite-rate heat transfer between the TG and the heat reservoirs, and heat leak from the PAFC to the environment are taken into account. Expressions for the power output and efficiency of the PAFC, TG, and hybrid system are analytically derived and directly used to discuss the performance characteristics of the hybrid system. The optimal relationship between the electric currents in the PAFC and TG is obtained. The maximum power output is numerically calculated. It is found that the maximum power output density of the hybrid system will increase about 150 Wm-2, compared with that of a single PAFC. The problem how to optimally match the load resistances of two subsystems is discussed. Some significant results for practical hybrid systems are obtained.

  10. Extended Kalman Filtering to estimate temperature and irradiation for maximum power point tracking of a photovoltaic module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Docimo, D.J.; Ghanaatpishe, M.; Mamun, A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops an algorithm for estimating photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and effective irradiation level. The power output of a PV system depends directly on both of these states. Estimating the temperature and irradiation allows for improved state-based control methods while eliminating the need of additional sensors. Thermal models and irradiation estimators have been developed in the literature, but none incorporate feedback for estimation. This paper outlines an Extended Kalman Filter for temperature and irradiation estimation. These estimates are, in turn, used within a novel state-based controller that tracks the maximum power point of the PV system. Simulation results indicate this state-based controller provides up to an 8.5% increase in energy produced per day as compared to an impedance matching controller. A sensitivity analysis is provided to examine the impact state estimate errors have on the ability to find the optimal operating point of the PV system. - Highlights: • Developed a temperature and irradiation estimator for photovoltaic systems. • Designed an Extended Kalman Filter to handle model and measurement uncertainty. • Developed a state-based controller for maximum power point tracking (MPPT). • Validated combined estimator/controller algorithm for different weather conditions. • Algorithm increases energy captured up to 8.5% over traditional MPPT algorithms.

  11. Dual-Axis Solar Tracking System for Maximum Power Production in PV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhd.Ikram Mohd. Rashid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The power developed in a solar energy system depends fundamentally upon the amount of sunlight captured by the photovoltaic modules/arrays. This paper describes a simple electro-mechanical dual axis solar tracking system designed and developed in a study. The control of the two axes was achieved by the pulses generated from the data acquisition (DAQ card fed into four relays. This approach was so chosen to effectively avoid the error that usually arises in sensor-based methods. The programming of the mathematical models of the solar elevation and azimuth angles was done using Borland C++ Builder. The performance and accuracy of the developed system was evaluated with a PV panel at latitude 3.53o N and longitude 103.5o W in Malaysia. The results obtained reflect the effectiveness of the developed tracking system in terms of the energy yield when compared with that generated from a fixed panel. Overall, 20%, 23% and 21% additional energy were produced for the months of March, April and May respectively using the tracker developed in this study.

  12. A state-of-the-art compact SiC photovoltaic inverter with maximum power point tracking function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Yuji; Oku, Takeo; Yasuda, Masashi; Ushijima, Kazufumi; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Murozono, Mikio

    2018-01-01

    We have developed a 150-W SiC-based photovoltaic (PV)-inverter with the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) function. The newly developed inverter achieved a state-of-the-art combination of the weight (0.79 kg) and the volume (790 mm3) as a 150-250 W class PV-inverter. As compared to the original version that we have previously reported, the weight and volume were decreased by 37% and 38%, respectively. This compactness originated from the optimized circuit structure and the increased density of a wiring circuit. Conversion efficiencies of the MPPT charge controller and the direct current (DC)-alternating current (AC) converter reached 96.4% and 87.6%, respectively. These efficiency values are comparable to those for the original version. We have developed a PV power generation system consisting of this inverter, a spherical Si solar cell module, and a 15-V Li-ion laminated battery. The total weight of the system was below 6 kg. The developed system exhibited stable output power characteristics, even when the weather conditions were fluctuated. These compactness, high efficiencies, and excellent stability clearly indicated the feasibility of SiC power devices even for sub-kW class PV power generation systems.

  13. Sliding Mode Extremum Seeking Control Scheme Based on PSO for Maximum Power Point Tracking in Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Her-Terng Yau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An extremum seeking control (ESC scheme is proposed for maximum power point tracking (MPPT in photovoltaic power generation systems. The robustness of the proposed scheme toward irradiance changes is enhanced by implementing the ESC scheme using a sliding mode control (SMC law. In the proposed approach, the chattering phenomenon caused by high frequency switching is suppressed by means of a sliding layer concept. Moreover, in implementing the proposed controller, the optimal value of the gain constant is determined using a particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. The experimental and simulation results show that the proposed PSO-based sliding mode ESC (SMESC control scheme yields a better transient response, steady-state stability, and robustness than traditional MPPT schemes based on gradient detection methods.

  14. Robust maximum power point tracker using sliding mode controller for the three-phase grid-connected photovoltaic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Il-Song [LG Chem. Ltd./Research park, Mobile Energy R and D, 104-1 Moonji-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-380 (Korea)

    2007-03-15

    A robust maximum power point tracker (MPPT) using sliding mode controller for the three-phase grid-connected photovoltaic system has been proposed in this paper. Contrary to the previous controller, the proposed system consists of MPPT controller and current controller for tight regulation of the current. The proposed MPPT controller generates current reference directly from the solar array power information and the current controller uses the integral sliding mode for the tight control of current. The proposed system can prevent the current overshoot and provide optimal design for the system components. The structure of the proposed system is simple, and it shows robust tracking property against modeling uncertainties and parameter variations. Mathematical modeling is developed and the experimental results verify the validity of the proposed controller. (author)

  15. Neural-net based calculation of voltage dips at maximum angular swing in direct transient stability analysis [of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djukanovic, M [Inst. ' Nikola Tesla' , Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Sobajic, D J; Pao, Yohhan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Computer Engineering and Science AI WARE inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1992-10-01

    In heavily stressed power systems, post-fault transient voltage dips can lead to undesired tripping of industrial drives and large induction motors. The lowest transient voltage dips occur when fault clearing times are less than critical ones. In this paper, we propose a new iterative analytical methodology to obtain more accurate estimates of voltage dips at maximum angular swing in direct transient stability analysis. We also propose and demonstrate the possibility of storing the results of these computations in the associative memory (AM) system, which exhibits remarkable generalization capabilities. Feature-based models stored in the AM can be utilized for fast and accurate prediction of the location, duration and the amount of the worst voltage dips, thereby avoiding the need and cost for lengthy time-domain simulations. Numerical results obtained using the example of the New England power system are presented to illustrate our approach. (Author)

  16. Determination of maximum water temperature within the spent fuel pool of Angra Nuclear Power Plant - Unit 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, F.L., E-mail: fernanda.werner@poli.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Alves, A.S.M., E-mail: asergi@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Termonuclear (Eletronuclear), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frutuoso e Melo, P.F., E-mail: frutuoso@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model for the determination of the maximum water temperature within the spent fuel pool of Angra Nuclear Power Plant – Unit 3 was developed. The model was obtained from the boundary layer analysis and the application of Navier-Stokes equation to a vertical flat plate immersed in a water flow under free convection regime. Both types of pressure loss coefficients through the flow channel were considers in the modeling, the form coefficient for fuel assemblies (FAs) and the loss due to rod friction. The resulting equations enabled the determination of a mixed water temperature below the storage racks (High Density Storage Racks) as well as the estimation of a temperature gradient through the racks. The model was applied to the authorized operation of the plant (power operation, plant outage and upset condition) and faulted conditions (loss of coolant accidents and external events). The results obtained are in agreement with Brazilian and international standards. (author)

  17. Determination of maximum water temperature within the spent fuel pool of Angra Nuclear Power Plant - Unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, F.L.; Frutuoso e Melo, P.F.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model for the determination of the maximum water temperature within the spent fuel pool of Angra Nuclear Power Plant – Unit 3 was developed. The model was obtained from the boundary layer analysis and the application of Navier-Stokes equation to a vertical flat plate immersed in a water flow under free convection regime. Both types of pressure loss coefficients through the flow channel were considers in the modeling, the form coefficient for fuel assemblies (FAs) and the loss due to rod friction. The resulting equations enabled the determination of a mixed water temperature below the storage racks (High Density Storage Racks) as well as the estimation of a temperature gradient through the racks. The model was applied to the authorized operation of the plant (power operation, plant outage and upset condition) and faulted conditions (loss of coolant accidents and external events). The results obtained are in agreement with Brazilian and international standards. (author)

  18. A Flexible Maximum Power Point Tracking Control Strategy Considering Both Conversion Efficiency and Power Fluctuation for Large-inertia Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmin Meng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In wind turbine control, maximum power point tracking (MPPT control is the main control mode for partial-load regimes. Efficiency potentiation of energy conversion and power smoothing are both two important control objectives in partial-load regime. However, on the one hand, low power fluctuation signifies inefficiency of energy conversion. On the other hand, enhancing efficiency may increase output power fluctuation as well. Thus the two objectives are contradictory and difficult to balance. This paper proposes a flexible MPPT control framework to improve the performance of both conversion efficiency and power smoothing, by adaptively compensating the torque reference value. The compensation was determined by a proposed model predictive control (MPC method with dynamic weights in the cost function, which improved control performance. The computational burden of the MPC solver was reduced by transforming the cost function representation. Theoretical analysis proved the good stability and robustness. Simulation results showed that the proposed method not only kept efficiency at a high level, but also reduced power fluctuations as much as possible. Therefore, the proposed method could improve wind farm profits and power grid reliability.

  19. Random Forest-Based Approach for Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic Systems Operating under Actual Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Shareef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithms have been developed in recent years to maximize the produced PV energy. These algorithms are not sufficiently robust because of fast-changing environmental conditions, efficiency, accuracy at steady-state value, and dynamics of the tracking algorithm. Thus, this paper proposes a new random forest (RF model to improve MPPT performance. The RF model has the ability to capture the nonlinear association of patterns between predictors, such as irradiance and temperature, to determine accurate maximum power point. A RF-based tracker is designed for 25 SolarTIFSTF-120P6 PV modules, with the capacity of 3 kW peak using two high-speed sensors. For this purpose, a complete PV system is modeled using 300,000 data samples and simulated using the MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The proposed RF-based MPPT is then tested under actual environmental conditions for 24 days to validate the accuracy and dynamic response. The response of the RF-based MPPT model is also compared with that of the artificial neural network and adaptive neurofuzzy inference system algorithms for further validation. The results show that the proposed MPPT technique gives significant improvement compared with that of other techniques. In addition, the RF model passes the Bland–Altman test, with more than 95 percent acceptability.

  20. Identification of PV solar cells and modules parameters using the genetic algorithms: Application to maximum power extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagrouba, M.; Sellami, A.; Bouaicha, M. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, des Semi-conducteurs et des Nanostructures, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, Tunis, B.P. 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Ksouri, M. [Unite de Recherche RME-Groupe AIA, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees et de Technologie (Tunisia)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, we propose to perform a numerical technique based on genetic algorithms (GAs) to identify the electrical parameters (I{sub s}, I{sub ph}, R{sub s}, R{sub sh}, and n) of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and modules. These parameters were used to determine the corresponding maximum power point (MPP) from the illuminated current-voltage (I-V) characteristic. The one diode type approach is used to model the AM1.5 I-V characteristic of the solar cell. To extract electrical parameters, the approach is formulated as a non convex optimization problem. The GAs approach was used as a numerical technique in order to overcome problems involved in the local minima in the case of non convex optimization criteria. Compared to other methods, we find that the GAs is a very efficient technique to estimate the electrical parameters of PV solar cells and modules. Indeed, the race of the algorithm stopped after five generations in the case of PV solar cells and seven generations in the case of PV modules. The identified parameters are then used to extract the maximum power working points for both cell and module. (author)

  1. Random Forest-Based Approach for Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic Systems Operating under Actual Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shareef, Hussain; Mutlag, Ammar Hussein; Mohamed, Azah

    2017-01-01

    Many maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms have been developed in recent years to maximize the produced PV energy. These algorithms are not sufficiently robust because of fast-changing environmental conditions, efficiency, accuracy at steady-state value, and dynamics of the tracking algorithm. Thus, this paper proposes a new random forest (RF) model to improve MPPT performance. The RF model has the ability to capture the nonlinear association of patterns between predictors, such as irradiance and temperature, to determine accurate maximum power point. A RF-based tracker is designed for 25 SolarTIFSTF-120P6 PV modules, with the capacity of 3 kW peak using two high-speed sensors. For this purpose, a complete PV system is modeled using 300,000 data samples and simulated using the MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The proposed RF-based MPPT is then tested under actual environmental conditions for 24 days to validate the accuracy and dynamic response. The response of the RF-based MPPT model is also compared with that of the artificial neural network and adaptive neurofuzzy inference system algorithms for further validation. The results show that the proposed MPPT technique gives significant improvement compared with that of other techniques. In addition, the RF model passes the Bland-Altman test, with more than 95 percent acceptability.

  2. Trend evaluation of incident and failure data from japanese nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, S.; Hada, M.; Mikami, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Major incident and failure at nuclear power plants in Japan have to be reported to the regulatory agency i.e. Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). Nuclear Power Safety Information Research Center (NUSIRC) has established a system for the collection, classification and analysis of this report under the contract to MITI. In this paper, the authors give several results of trend analyses of the incidents related to electric and instrumentation and control (I and C) systems reported, especially, the trend of the contribution of troubles in I and C system to the operation states, analysis of dominant contributors to the failure of I and C systems. Also, the relations of failure frequency of these systems with the plant age and effect of periodic inspections of it are discussed in some detail

  3. Nuclear power plant operating experiences from the IAEA / Nea incident reporting system 2002-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Incident Reporting System (IRS) is an essential element of the international operating experience feedback system for nuclear power plants. The IRS is jointly operated and managed by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), a semi-autonomous body within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a specialized agency within the United Nations System. (author)

  4. Theoretical assessment of the maximum obtainable power in wireless power transfer constrained by human body exposure limits in a typical room scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xi Lin; De Santis, Valerio; Umenei, Aghuinyue Esai

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the maximum received power obtainable through wireless power transfer (WPT) by a small receiver (Rx) coil from a relatively large transmitter (Tx) coil is numerically estimated in the frequency range from 100 kHz to 10 MHz based on human body exposure limits. Analytical calculations were first conducted to determine the worst-case coupling between a homogeneous cylindrical phantom with a radius of 0.65 m and a Tx coil positioned 0.1 m away with the radius ranging from 0.25 to 2.5 m. Subsequently, three high-resolution anatomical models were employed to compute the peak induced field intensities with respect to various Tx coil locations and dimensions. Based on the computational results, scaling factors which correlate the cylindrical phantom and anatomical model results were derived. Next, the optimal operating frequency, at which the highest transmitter source power can be utilized without exceeding the exposure limits, is found to be around 2 MHz. Finally, a formulation is proposed to estimate the maximum obtainable power of WPT in a typical room scenario while adhering to the human body exposure compliance mandates. (paper)

  5. Theoretical assessment of the maximum obtainable power in wireless power transfer constrained by human body exposure limits in a typical room scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi Lin; De Santis, Valerio; Umenei, Aghuinyue Esai

    2014-07-07

    In this study, the maximum received power obtainable through wireless power transfer (WPT) by a small receiver (Rx) coil from a relatively large transmitter (Tx) coil is numerically estimated in the frequency range from 100 kHz to 10 MHz based on human body exposure limits. Analytical calculations were first conducted to determine the worst-case coupling between a homogeneous cylindrical phantom with a radius of 0.65 m and a Tx coil positioned 0.1 m away with the radius ranging from 0.25 to 2.5 m. Subsequently, three high-resolution anatomical models were employed to compute the peak induced field intensities with respect to various Tx coil locations and dimensions. Based on the computational results, scaling factors which correlate the cylindrical phantom and anatomical model results were derived. Next, the optimal operating frequency, at which the highest transmitter source power can be utilized without exceeding the exposure limits, is found to be around 2 MHz. Finally, a formulation is proposed to estimate the maximum obtainable power of WPT in a typical room scenario while adhering to the human body exposure compliance mandates.

  6. Cancer incidence in northern Sweden before and after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Tondel, Martin; Walinder, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Sweden received about 5 % of the total release of (137)Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. The distribution of the fallout mainly affected northern Sweden, where some parts of the population could have received an estimated annual effective dose of 1-2 mSv per year. It is disputed whether an increased incidence of cancer can be detected in epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident outside the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In the present paper, a possible exposure-response pattern between deposition of (137)Cs and cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was investigated in the nine northernmost counties of Sweden (2.2 million inhabitants in 1986). The activity of (137)Cs from the fallout maps at 1986 was used as a proxy for the received dose of ionizing radiation. Diagnoses of cancer (ICD-7 code 140-209) from 1980 to 2009 were received from the Swedish Cancer Registry (273,222 cases). Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios, stratified by gender, were calculated with Poisson regression in two closed cohorts of the population in the nine counties 1980 and 1986, respectively. The follow-up periods were 1980-1985 and 1986-2009, respectively. The average surface-weighted deposition of (137)Cs at three geographical levels; county (n = 9), municipality (n = 95) and parish level (n = 612) was applied for the two cohorts to study the pre- and the post-Chernobyl periods separately. To analyze time trends, the age-standardized total cancer incidence was calculated for the general Swedish population and the population in the nine counties. Joinpoint regression was used to compare the average annual percent change in the general population and the study population within each gender. No obvious exposure-response pattern was seen in the age-adjusted total cancer incidence rate ratios. A spurious association between fallout and cancer incidence was present, where areas with the

  7. Cancer incidence in northern Sweden before and after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Tondel, Martin; Walinder, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sweden received about 5 % of the total release of "1"3"7Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. The distribution of the fallout mainly affected northern Sweden, where some parts of the population could have received an estimated annual effective dose of 1-2 mSv per year. It is disputed whether an increased incidence of cancer can be detected in epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident outside the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In the present paper, a possible exposure-response pattern between deposition of "1"3"7Cs and cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was investigated in the nine northernmost counties of Sweden (2.2 million inhabitants in 1986). The activity of "1"3"7Cs from the fallout maps at 1986 was used as a proxy for the received dose of ionizing radiation. Diagnoses of cancer (ICD-7 code 140-209) from 1980 to 2009 were received from the Swedish Cancer Registry (273,222 cases). Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios, stratified by gender, were calculated with Poisson regression in two closed cohorts of the population in the nine counties 1980 and 1986, respectively. The follow-up periods were 1980-1985 and 1986-2009, respectively. The average surface-weighted deposition of "1"3"7Cs at three geographical levels; county (n = 9), municipality (n = 95) and parish level (n = 612) was applied for the two cohorts to study the pre- and the post-Chernobyl periods separately. To analyze time trends, the age-standardized total cancer incidence was calculated for the general Swedish population and the population in the nine counties. Joinpoint regression was used to compare the average annual percent change in the general population and the study population within each gender. No obvious exposure-response pattern was seen in the age-adjusted total cancer incidence rate ratios. A spurious association between fallout and cancer incidence was present, where areas with the lowest

  8. Cancer incidence in northern Sweden before and after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Tondel, Martin; Walinder, Robert [Uppsala University, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-08-15

    Sweden received about 5 % of the total release of {sup 137}Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. The distribution of the fallout mainly affected northern Sweden, where some parts of the population could have received an estimated annual effective dose of 1-2 mSv per year. It is disputed whether an increased incidence of cancer can be detected in epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident outside the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In the present paper, a possible exposure-response pattern between deposition of {sup 137}Cs and cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was investigated in the nine northernmost counties of Sweden (2.2 million inhabitants in 1986). The activity of {sup 137}Cs from the fallout maps at 1986 was used as a proxy for the received dose of ionizing radiation. Diagnoses of cancer (ICD-7 code 140-209) from 1980 to 2009 were received from the Swedish Cancer Registry (273,222 cases). Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios, stratified by gender, were calculated with Poisson regression in two closed cohorts of the population in the nine counties 1980 and 1986, respectively. The follow-up periods were 1980-1985 and 1986-2009, respectively. The average surface-weighted deposition of {sup 137}Cs at three geographical levels; county (n = 9), municipality (n = 95) and parish level (n = 612) was applied for the two cohorts to study the pre- and the post-Chernobyl periods separately. To analyze time trends, the age-standardized total cancer incidence was calculated for the general Swedish population and the population in the nine counties. Joinpoint regression was used to compare the average annual percent change in the general population and the study population within each gender. No obvious exposure-response pattern was seen in the age-adjusted total cancer incidence rate ratios. A spurious association between fallout and cancer incidence was present, where areas with

  9. Performance analysis of the lineal model for estimating the maximum power of a HCPV module in different climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Eduardo F.; Almonacid, Florencia; Sarmah, Nabin; Mallick, Tapas; Sanchez, Iñigo; Cuadra, Juan M.; Soria-Moya, Alberto; Pérez-Higueras, Pedro

    2014-09-01

    A model based on easily obtained atmospheric parameters and on a simple lineal mathematical expression has been developed at the Centre of Advanced Studies in Energy and Environment in southern Spain. The model predicts the maximum power of a HCPV module as a function of direct normal irradiance, air temperature and air mass. Presently, the proposed model has only been validated in southern Spain and its performance in locations with different atmospheric conditions still remains unknown. In order to address this issue, several HCPV modules have been measured in two different locations with different climate conditions than the south of Spain: the Environment and Sustainability Institute in southern UK and the National Renewable Energy Center in northern Spain. Results show that the model has an adequate match between actual and estimated data with a RMSE lower than 3.9% at locations with different climate conditions.

  10. Exploiting maximum energy from variable speed wind power generation systems by using an adaptive Takagi-Sugeno-Kang fuzzy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galdi, V.; Piccolo, A.; Siano, P.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, incentives and financing options for developing renewable energy facilities and the new development in variable speed wind technology make wind energy a competitive source if compared with conventional generation ones. In order to improve the effectiveness of variable speed wind systems, adaptive control systems able to cope with time variances of the system under control are necessary. On these basis, a data driven designing methodology for TSK fuzzy models design is presented in this paper. The methodology, on the basis of given input-output numerical data, generates the 'best' TSK fuzzy model able to estimate with high accuracy the maximum extractable power from a variable speed wind turbine. The design methodology is based on fuzzy clustering methods for partitioning the input-output space combined with genetic algorithms (GA), and recursive least-squares (LS) optimization methods for model parameter adaptation

  11. LACTATE AND VENTILATORY THRESHOLDS REFLECT THE TRAINING STATUS OF PROFESSIONAL SOCCER PLAYERS WHERE MAXIMUM AEROBIC POWER IS UNCHANGED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Clark

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate maximum aerobic power (VO2 max and anaerobic threshold (AT as determinants of training status among professional soccer players. Twelve professional 1st team British male soccer players (age: 26.2 ± 3.3 years, height: 1.77 ± 0.05 m, body mass: 79.3 ± 9.4 kg agreed to participate in the study and provided informed consent. All subjects completed a combined test of anaerobic threshold (AT and maximum aerobic power on two occasions: Test 1 following 5 weeks of low level activity at the end of the off-season and Test 2 immediately following conclusion of the competitive season. AT was assessed as both lactate threshold (LT and ventilatory threshold (VT. There was no change in VO2 max between Test 1 and Test 2 (63.3 ± 5.8 ml·kg-1·min-1 vs. 62.1 ± 4.9 ml·kg-1·min-1 respectively, however, the duration of exercise tolerance (ET at VO2 max was significantly extended from Test 1 to Test 2 (204 ± 54 vs. 228 ± 68 s respectively (P<0.01. LT oxygen consumption was significantly improved in Test 2 versus Test 1 (P<0.01 VT was also improved (P<0.05. There was no significant difference in VO2 (ml·kg-1·min-1 corresponding to LT and VT. The results of this study show that VO2 max is a less sensitive indicator to changes in training status in professional soccer players than either LT or VT.

  12. Study of a thermoelectric system equipped with a maximum power point tracker for stand-alone electric generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favarel, C.; Champier, D.; Bédécarrats, J. P.; Kousksou, T.; Strub, F.

    2012-06-01

    According to the International Energy Agency, 1.4 billion people are without electricity in the poorest countries and 2.5 billion people rely on biomass to meet their energy needs for cooking in developing countries. The use of cooking stoves equipped with small thermoelectric generator to provide electricity for basic needs (LED, cell phone and radio charging device) is probably a solution for houses far from the power grid. The cost of connecting every house with a landline is a lot higher than dropping thermoelectric generator in each house. Thermoelectric generators have very low efficiency but for isolated houses, they might become really competitive. Our laboratory works in collaboration with plane`te-bois (a non governmental organization) which has developed energy-efficient multifunction (cooking and hot water) stoves based on traditional stoves designs. A prototype of a thermoelectric generator (Bismuth Telluride) has been designed to convert a small part of the energy heating the sanitary water into electricity. This generator can produce up to 10 watts on an adapted load. Storing this energy in a battery is necessary as the cooking stove only works a few hours each day. As the working point of the stove varies a lot during the use it is also necessary to regulate the electrical power. An electric DC DC converter has been developed with a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) in order to have a good efficiency of the electronic part of the thermoelectric generator. The theoretical efficiency of the MMPT converter is discussed. First results obtained with a hot gas generator simulating the exhaust of the combustion chamber of a cooking stove are presented in the paper.

  13. Forklift safety a practical guide to preventing powered industrial truck incidents and injuries

    CERN Document Server

    Swartz, George

    1999-01-01

    Written for the more than 1.5 million powered industrial truck operators and supervisors in general industry, as well as those in the construction and marine industries, this Second Edition provides an updated guide to training operators in safety and complying with OSHA's 1999 forklift standard. This edition of Forklift Safety includes a new chapter devoted to the new OSHA 1910.178 standard and new information regarding dock safety, narrow aisle trucks, off-dock incidents, tip-over safety, pallet safety, and carbon monoxide.

  14. Mirror and grating surface figure requirements for grazing incidence synchrotron radiation beamlines: Power loading effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulbert, S.L.; Sharma, S.

    1987-01-01

    At present, grazing incidence mirrors are used almost exclusively as the first optical element in VUV and soft x-ray synchrotron radiation beamlines. The performance of these mirrors is determined by thermal and mechanical stress-induced figure errors as well as by figure errors remaining from the grinding and polishing process. With the advent of VUV and soft x-ray undulators and wigglers has come a new set of thermal stress problems related to both the magnitude and the spatial distribution of power from these devices. In many cases the power load on the entrance slits and gratings in these beamlines is no longer negligible. The dependence of thermally-induced front-end mirror figure errors on various storage ring and insertion device parameters (especially those at the National Synchrotron Light Source) and the effects of these figure errors on two classes of soft x-ray beamlines are presented.

  15. Criteria for classification and reporting of fire incidences in nuclear power plants of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, R.K.

    1998-01-01

    Is is important that all fires in and around fire effective neighbourhood of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) should be promptly reported (Reportable fires) and investigated. However, the depth of investigation and the range of authorities to whom the individual fire incidence need to be reported depends upon the severity of fire. In case of conventional non-chemical industries, the severity of fire depends mainly on the extent of loss caused by fire on property and the burn injury to persons. In case of NPP, two additional losses viz, release of radioactivity to working/public environment and the risk to safety related systems of NPP due to fire assume greater importance. This paper describes the criteria used in NPPs of India for classification of reportable fire incidences into four categories, viz. Insignificant, small, medium and large fires. It also gives the level of investigation depending upon the severity of fire. The fire classification scheme is explained in this paper with the help of worked out examples and two incidences of fire in Indian NPPs. (author)

  16. Development of a fire incident database for the United States nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilks, G.

    1998-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Industry in the United States has identified a need to develop and maintain a comprehensive fire events database to support anticipated performance-based or risk-based fire protection programs and regulations. These new programs will require accurate information on the frequency, severity and consequences of fire events. Previous attempts to collect fire incident data had been made over the years for other purposes, but it was recognized that the detail and form of the data collected would be insufficient to support the new initiatives. Weaknesses in the earlier efforts included the inability in some cases to obtain fire incidents reports, inconsistent of incomplete information reported, and the inability to easily retrieve, sort, analyze and trend the data. The critical elements identified for the new data collection efforts included a standardized fire incident report from to assure consistent and accurate information, some mechanism to assure that all fire events are reported, and the ability to easily access the data for trending and analysis. In addition, the database would need to be unbiased and viewed as such by outside agencies. A new database is currently being developed that should meet all of these identified need. (author)

  17. Simulation and analysis of an isolated full-bridge DC/DC boost converter operating with a modified perturb and observe maximum power point tracking algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calebe A. Matias

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to simulate and analyze an isolated full-bridge DC/DC boost converter, for photovoltaic panels, running a modified perturb and observe maximum power point tracking method. The zero voltage switching technique was used in order to minimize the losses of the converter for a wide range of solar operation. The efficiency of the power transfer is higher than 90% for large solar operating points. The panel enhancement due to the maximum power point tracking algorithm is 5.06%.

  18. Design and simulation of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) system on solar module system using constant voltage (CV) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatara, Sevty Satria; Iskandar, Reza Fauzi; Kirom, M. Ramdlan

    2016-02-01

    Solar energy is one of renewable energy resource where needs a photovoltaic module to convert it into electrical energy. One of the problems on solar energy conversion is the process of battery charging. To improve efficiency of energy conversion, PV system needs another control method on battery charging called maximum power point tracking (MPPT). This paper report the study on charging optimation using constant voltage (CV) method. This method has a function of determining output voltage of the PV system on maximal condition, so PV system will always produce a maximal energy. A model represented a PV system with and without MPPT was developed using Simulink. PV system simulation showed a different outcome energy when different solar radiation and numbers of solar module were applied in the model. On the simulation of solar radiation 1000 W/m2, PV system with MPPT produces 252.66 Watt energy and PV system without MPPT produces 252.66 Watt energy. The larger the solar radiation, the greater the energy of PV modules was produced.

  19. A proposed adaptive step size perturbation and observation maximum power point tracking algorithm based on photovoltaic system modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu

    Solar energy becomes one of the major alternative renewable energy options for its huge abundance and accessibility. Due to the intermittent nature, the high demand of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) techniques exists when a Photovoltaic (PV) system is used to extract energy from the sunlight. This thesis proposed an advanced Perturbation and Observation (P&O) algorithm aiming for relatively practical circumstances. Firstly, a practical PV system model is studied with determining the series and shunt resistances which are neglected in some research. Moreover, in this proposed algorithm, the duty ratio of a boost DC-DC converter is the object of the perturbation deploying input impedance conversion to achieve working voltage adjustment. Based on the control strategy, the adaptive duty ratio step size P&O algorithm is proposed with major modifications made for sharp insolation change as well as low insolation scenarios. Matlab/Simulink simulation for PV model, boost converter control strategy and various MPPT process is conducted step by step. The proposed adaptive P&O algorithm is validated by the simulation results and detail analysis of sharp insolation changes, low insolation condition and continuous insolation variation.

  20. Impact of the TEPCO incident on the public's attitude to nuclear power generation. Periodic survey No.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, Atsuko

    2003-01-01

    The impact of the TEPCO incident, was examined, using the data collected by public opinion polls on power generation, which have been conducted persistently since 1993. The survey revealed that there were no negative changes in the public's attitude overall (including their concerns about nuclear power accidents, their sense of danger of such accidents, the image of organizations involved in nuclear power generation, their confidence in such organizations, and their opinion on the use of nuclear power generation), and that the TEPCO incident had no impact on the public's attitude to nuclear power generation. In contrast with the JCO accident, which did affect the public's attitude to nuclear power generation, the TEPCO incident left a strong impression on few people, and public awareness was limited. Such low public awareness is deemed to relate to its lack of impact on the public's attitude to nuclear power generation. In the case of the JCO accident, even individuals who had limited exposure to the mass media were highly of it, whereas in the case of the TEPCO incident, individuals who were relatively unexposed to the mass media were substantially less aware of the incident than their more mass-media-exposed counterparts. This is deemed to have been due to the difference in mass media reports. A comparison of newspaper articles covering the TEPCO and the JCO accident substantiated the quantitative difference in mass media reports: articles on the former numbered less than half of the latter. Correlation analysis with respect to the awareness of the TEPCO incident was conducted, in order to identify the impact of the incident on individuals with a high level of awareness. Such individuals were highly confident that safe operation is being regarded as the top-priority objective by staff at the nuclear power plants, indicating that their confidence was not undermined by the TEPCO incident. However, there was a high level of distrust, that the truth about safety is

  1. A Novel Technique for Maximum Power Point Tracking of a Photovoltaic Based on Sensing of Array Current Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zoghby, Helmy M.; Bendary, Ahmed F.

    2016-10-01

    Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is now widely used method in increasing the photovoltaic (PV) efficiency. The conventional MPPT methods have many problems concerning the accuracy, flexibility and efficiency. The MPP depends on the PV temperature and solar irradiation that randomly varied. In this paper an artificial intelligence based controller is presented through implementing of an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) to obtain maximum power from PV. The ANFIS inputs are the temperature and cell current, and the output is optimal voltage at maximum power. During operation the trained ANFIS senses the PV current using suitable sensor and also senses the temperature to determine the optimal operating voltage that corresponds to the current at MPP. This voltage is used to control the boost converter duty cycle. The MATLAB simulation results shows the effectiveness of the ANFIS with sensing the PV current in obtaining the MPPT from the PV.

  2. Evaluation of incident analysis practices in the Finnish nuclear power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettunen, J.; Laakso, K

    1999-12-01

    This report provides an analysis and evaluation of incident analysis methods and practices applied by the Finnish regulator Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) and the two Finnish nuclear power plant operators Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) and Fortum Power and Heat Oy (Fortum). The study was conducted in 1998-99. The research material was based on tape-recorded interviews as well as internal directions and event investigation reports provided by the three participating organisations. A framework for analysis and evaluation was developed as part of the study on the basis of referenced root cause analysis and operating experience review methods, selected (foreign) inspection reports, scientific papers and research literature. Well-known inspection methods and principles, such as ASSET and MTO/HPES, provided important guidance to this work. This study shows that although all the evaluated organisations had rather comprehensive incident analysis arrangements, more focus and priorisation is needed. Deficiencies were identified mostly in the areas of recording, assessment and classification of new events and observations, use of existing operating experience data, utilisation of information technology based tools, and allocation of work and resources. In general the direct causes of identified events can be detected and removed, but more emphasis should be given to the prevention of recurrence. This requires a more efficient feedback loop that can be created and maintained by focusing on the root causes of significant events, tasks and activities in which the originating errors occurred, and weaknesses of defensive barriers, and by implementing periodic operational experience reviews. A strategy document for the operating experience feedback process, and firm procedures for the initial assessment of new events and the carrying out of data analyses would help. (orig.)

  3. Nuclear power plant operating experiences from the IAEA/NEA Incident Reporting System 1999-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Incident reporting has become an increasingly important aspect of the operation and regulation of all public health and safety-related industries. Diverse industries such as aeronautics, chemicals, pharmaceuticals and explosives all depend on operating experience feedback to provide lessons learned about safety. The Incident Reporting System (IRS) is an essential element of the system for feeding back international operating experience for nuclear power plants. IRS reports contain information on events of Safety significance with important lessons learned. These experiences assist in reducing or eliminating recurrence of events at other plants. The IRS is jointly operated and managed by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), a semi-autonomous body within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). It is important that sufficient national resources be allocated to enable timely and high quality reporting of events important to safety, and to share these events in the IRS database. The first report, which covered the period July 1996 - June 1999, was widely acclaimed and encouraged both agencies to prepare this second report in order to highlight important lessons learned from around 300 events reported to the IRS for the period July 1999 - December 2002. Several areas were selected in this report to show the range of important topics available in the IRS. These include different types of failure in a variety of plant systems, as well as human performance considerations. This report is primarily aimed at senior officials in industry and government who have decision-making roles in the nuclear power industry

  4. Analysis of human factor aspects in connection with available incident reports obligatorily reported by German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilpert, B.; Freitag, M.; Miller, R.

    1993-01-01

    Goal of the present study is the analysis of human factor aspects in connection with available incident reports obligatorily reported by German nuclear power plants. Based on psychological theories and empirical studies this study develops a classification scheme which permits the identification of foci of erroneous human actions. This classification scheme is applied to a selection of human factor relevant incidents by calculating frequencies of the occurrence of human error categories. The results allow insights into human factor related problem areas. (orig.) [de

  5. Dryout delay in loss-of-coolant incidents in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belda, W.

    1975-01-01

    The maximum credible accident (MCA) as a result of a fault in the system is assumed to be the rupture of a pipe in the primary circuit. During the outflow process following the rupture - called blowdown - it is possible that the internals of a reactor pressure vessel are exposed to extreme mechanical and thermal stresses. The fuel rods in the core, the Zircaloy cladding tubes of which can be heated up by lack of coolant to inadmissibly high temperatures, are particularly at risk. In case of the cladding tubes being damaged, radioactive substances are released. If they escape from the outer containment, this would lead to pressures on the immediate and more distant vicinity of the nuclear pover plant. In order to eliminate the factors of uncertainty when calculating the overall blowdown process in advance, it is necessary to have a relationship valid for the instationary circumstances to work out the burnout delay which is of decisive importance for the post-incident cooling phase of the reactor. The aim of this investigation, therefore, is to develop, with the aid of a suitable model, a method of calculating the burnout delay. (orig./TK) [de

  6. Muscle power output properties using the stretch-shortening cycle of the upper limb and their relationships with a one-repetition maximum bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaguchi, Kazuyoshi; Demura, Shinichi

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the output properties of muscle power by the dominant upper limb using SSC, and the relationships between the power output by SSC and a one-repetition maximum bench press (1 RM BP) used as a strength indicator of the upper body. Sixteen male athletes (21.4+/-0.9 yr) participated in this study. They pulled a load of 40% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) at a stretch by elbow flexion of the dominant upper limb in the following three preliminary conditions: static relaxed muscle state (SR condition), isometric muscle contraction state (ISO condition), and using SSC (SSC condition). The velocity with a wire load via a pulley during elbow flexion was measured accurately using a power instrument with a rotary encoder, and the muscle power curve was drawn from the product of the velocity and load. Significant differences were found among all evaluation parameters of muscle power exerted from the above three conditions and the parameters regarding early power output during concentric contraction were larger in the SSC condition than the SR and ISO conditions. The parameters on initial muscle contraction velocity when only using SSC significantly correlated with 1 RM BP (r=0.60-0.62). The use of SSC before powerful elbow flexion may contribute largely to early explosive power output during concentric contraction. Bench press capacity relates to a development of the above early power output when using SSC.

  7. The incident guidelines for nuclear power stations of the FRG - an example illustrating the degradation of safety standards for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The 'Guidelines for the Assessment of the Design of Nuclear Power Plants Against Incidents', i.e. the Federal German Incident Guidelines, have been the subject of an official hearing of experts before the Committee of Internal Affairs of the German Bundestag on February 22, 1984. The report in hand presents the official invitation to the meeting, the list of questions posed, written statements given by critics, and an appendix with the full text of the Incident Guidelines, as of August 12, 1983. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Maximum Power Point tracking algorithm based on I-V characteristic of PV array under uniform and non-uniform conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchaki, Alireza; Iman-Eini, H.; Asaei, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm based on characteristic equation of solar cells to determine the Maximum Power Point (MPP) of PV modules under partially shaded conditions (PSC). To achieve this goal, an analytic condition is introduced to determine uniform or non-uniform atmospheric condition...

  9. Requirements for the retrofitting an extension of the maximum voltage power grid from the point of view of environmental protection and cultivated landscape work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The project on the requirements for the retrofitting an extension of the maximum voltage power grid from the point of view of environmental protection and cultivated landscape work includes contributions on the following topics: the development of the European transmission grid, the grid extension law, restrictions for the power grid and their infrastructure, requirements for the regulations concerning the realization of the transnational grid extension, inclusion of the public - public acceptance - communication, requirements concerning the environmental compensation law, overhead line - underground cable - health hazards, ecological effects of overhead lines and underground cables, infrastructural projects, power supply in the future, structural relief by photovoltaics.

  10. AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECT OF PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE ELECTRIC PROPERTIES ON MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRAJECTORY WITH THE AIM OF ITS ALIGNMENT WITH ELECTROLYZER U-I CHARACTERISTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlo Firak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to combine a photovoltaic module and an electrolyzer to produce hydrogen from water, an intermediate DC/DC converter can be used to adapt output power features of the module to input power features of the electrolyzer. This can also be done without using electronics, which results in saving as much as 700 USD/kW, as previous investigation has shown. A more sophisticated investigation should be carried out with the aim of improving high system efficiency, resulting in matching the photovoltaic module maximum power point trajectory (the maximum power point path in the U-I plane as a result of solar irradiance change to the operating characteristic of the electrolyzer. This paper presents an analysis of the influences of photovoltaic module electric properties, such as series and parallel resistance and non-ideality factor, on the maximum power point trajectory at different levels of solar irradiance. The possibility of various inclinations (right - vertical - left in relation to an arbitrary chosen operating characteristic of the electrolyzer is also demonstrated. Simulated results are obtained by using Matlab/Simulink simulations of the well known one-diode model. Simulations have been confirmed with experiments on a real photovoltaic module where solar irradiance, solar cell temperature, electric current, and voltage in the circuit with variable ohmic resistance have been measured.

  11. Verification of maximum radial power peaking factor due to insertion of FPM-LEU target in the core of RSG-GAS reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setyawan, Daddy, E-mail: d.setyawan@bapeten.go.id [Center for Assessment of Regulatory System and Technology for Nuclear Installations and Materials, Indonesian Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN), Jl. Gajah Mada No. 8 Jakarta 10120 (Indonesia); Rohman, Budi [Licensing Directorate for Nuclear Installations and Materials, Indonesian Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN), Jl. Gajah Mada No. 8 Jakarta 10120 (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30

    Verification of Maximum Radial Power Peaking Factor due to insertion of FPM-LEU target in the core of RSG-GAS Reactor. Radial Power Peaking Factor in RSG-GAS Reactor is a very important parameter for the safety of RSG-GAS reactor during operation. Data of radial power peaking factor due to the insertion of Fission Product Molybdenum with Low Enriched Uranium (FPM-LEU) was reported by PRSG to BAPETEN through the Safety Analysis Report RSG-GAS for FPM-LEU target irradiation. In order to support the evaluation of the Safety Analysis Report incorporated in the submission, the assessment unit of BAPETEN is carrying out independent assessment in order to verify safety related parameters in the SAR including neutronic aspect. The work includes verification to the maximum radial power peaking factor change due to the insertion of FPM-LEU target in RSG-GAS Reactor by computational method using MCNP5and ORIGEN2. From the results of calculations, the new maximum value of the radial power peaking factor due to the insertion of FPM-LEU target is 1.27. The results of calculations in this study showed a smaller value than 1.4 the limit allowed in the SAR.

  12. Maximum Power Point Tracking Control of Hydrokinetic Turbine and Low-speed High-Thrust Permanent Magnet Generator Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    MPPT control method is similar to hill-climbing used as MPPT control in photovoltaic ...climbing method used as MPPT control in photovoltaic systems. In addition, the proposed MPPT control strategy is generic to all the hydrokinetic...convert AC power from the generator into DC power and a boost converter is used to implement energy flow control . On the load side, an electronic

  13. Measurement of the sound power incident on the walls of a reverberation room with near field acoustic holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Tiana Roig, Elisabet

    2010-01-01

    area; and it has always been regarded as impossible to measure the sound power that is incident on a wall directly. This paper examines a new method of determining this quantity from sound pressure measurements at positions on the wall using 'statistically optimised near field acoustic holography...

  14. Determining optimal torsional ultrasound power for cataract surgery with automatic longitudinal pulses at maximum vacuum ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquillo, Cecinio C; Zaugg, Brian; Stagg, Brian; Kirk, Kevin R; Gupta, Isha; Barlow, William R; Pettey, Jeff H; Olson, Randall J

    2014-12-01

    To determine the optimal longitudinal power settings for Infiniti OZil Intelligent Phaco (IP) at varying torsional amplitude settings; and to test the hypothesis that increasing longitudinal power is more important at lower torsional amplitudes to achieve efficient phacoemulsification. Laboratory investigation. setting: John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah. procedure: Individual porcine nuclei were fixed in formalin, then cut into 2.0 mm cubes. Lens cube phacoemulsification was done using OZil IP at 60%, 80%, and 100% torsional amplitude with 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 50%, 75%, or 100% longitudinal power. All experiments were done using a 20 gauge 0.9 mm bent reverse bevel phaco tip at constant vacuum (550 mm Hg), aspiration rate (40 mL/min), and bottle height (50 cm). main outcome measure: Complete lens particle phacoemulsification (efficiency). Linear regression analysis showed a significant increase in efficiency with increasing longitudinal power at 60% torsional amplitude (R(2) = 0.7269, P = .01) and 80% torsional amplitude (R(2) = 0.6995, P = .02) but not at 100% amplitude (R(2) = 0.3053, P = .2). Baseline comparison of 60% or 80% vs 100% torsional amplitude without longitudinal power showed increased efficiency at 100% (P = .0004). Increasing longitudinal power to 20% abolished the efficiency difference between 80% vs 100% amplitudes. In contrast, 75% longitudinal power abolished the efficiency difference between 60% vs 100% torsional amplitudes. Results suggest that longitudinal power becomes more critical at increasing phacoemulsification efficiencies at torsional amplitudes less than 100%. Increasing longitudinal power does not further increase efficiency at maximal torsional amplitudes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Particle swarm optimization based solar PV array reconfiguration of the maximum power extraction under partial shading conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babu, Thanikanti Sudhakar; Ram, J. Prasanth; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2018-01-01

    For large photovoltaic power generation plants, number of panels are interconnected in series and parallel to form a photovoltaic (PV) array. In this configuration, partial shade will result in decrease in power output and introduce multiple peaks in the P–V curve. As a consequence, the modules...... in the array will deliver different row currents. Therefore, to maximize the power extraction from PV array, the panels need to be reconfigured for row current difference minimization. Row current minimization via Su Do Ku game theory do physical relocation of panels may cause laborious work and lengthy...

  16. The Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Controller-Based Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithm and the Quadratic Boost Converter for Pv System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altin, Necmi

    2018-05-01

    An interval type-2 fuzzy logic controller-based maximum power point tracking algorithm and direct current-direct current (DC-DC) converter topology are proposed for photovoltaic (PV) systems. The proposed maximum power point tracking algorithm is designed based on an interval type-2 fuzzy logic controller that has an ability to handle uncertainties. The change in PV power and the change in PV voltage are determined as inputs of the proposed controller, while the change in duty cycle is determined as the output of the controller. Seven interval type-2 fuzzy sets are determined and used as membership functions for input and output variables. The quadratic boost converter provides high voltage step-up ability without any reduction in performance and stability of the system. The performance of the proposed system is validated through MATLAB/Simulink simulations. It is seen that the proposed system provides high maximum power point tracking speed and accuracy even for fast changing atmospheric conditions and high voltage step-up requirements.

  17. Analysis and research on Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic Array with Fuzzy Logic Control and Three-point Weight Comparison Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN; Kuang-Jang; LIN; Chii-Ruey

    2010-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Array has a best optimal operating point where the array operating can obtain the maximum power.However, the optimal operating point can be compromised by the strength of solar radiation,angle,and by the change of environment and load.Due to the constant changes in these conditions,it has become very difficult to locate the optimal operating point by following a mathematical model.Therefore,this study will focus mostly on the application of Fuzzy Logic Control theory and Three-point Weight Comparison Method in effort to locate the optimal operating point of solar panel and achieve maximum efficiency in power generation. The Three-point Weight Comparison Method is the comparison between the characteristic curves of the voltage of photovoltaic array and output power;it is a rather simple way to track the maximum power.The Fuzzy Logic Control,on the other hand,can be used to solve problems that cannot be effectively dealt with by calculation rules,such as concepts,contemplation, deductive reasoning,and identification.Therefore,this paper uses these two kinds of methods to make simulation successively. The simulation results show that,the Three-point Comparison Method is more effective under the environment with more frequent change of solar radiation;however,the Fuzzy Logic Control has better tacking efficiency under the environment with violent change of solar radiation.

  18. Electric drive for portable power tools with maximum power supply form the 230 Volt mains; Antriebskonzept fuer Elektrowerkzeuge und den Bezug maximaler Leistung aus dem einphasigen 230-Volt-Netz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, J. [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). Elektrotechnisches Inst.

    2007-07-01

    A new electric drive for hand-held tools and other portable power tools is described in this article. The novel drive concept is designed for the advantageous connection to common 230 V sockets. Based on its special power supply unit and a high drive efficiency a maximum power output about 2700 W can be achieved in continuous operation. Motor speed and gear ratio are adjustable. The drive concept is already used successfully in serial production of core drill machines. (orig.)

  19. The Swr 1000: a nuclear power plant concept with boiling water reactor for maximum safety and economy of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brettschuh, W.

    2001-01-01

    The SWR 1000 is a design concept for a light water reactor nuclear power plant that meets all requirements regarding plant safety, economic efficiency and environ-mental friendliness. As a result of the plant's safety concept, the occurrence of core damage can, for all practical intents and purposes, be ruled out. If a core melt accident should nevertheless occur, the molten core can be retained inside the RPV, thus ensuring that all consequences of such an accident remain restricted to the plant itself. The power generating costs of the SWR 1000 are lower than with those of coal-fired and combined-cycle power plants. Power generation using nuclear energy does not release carbon dioxide to the environment, thus meeting the need for sustainable protection of our global climate. (author)

  20. Advanced steam power plant concepts with optimized life-cycle costs: A new approach for maximum customer benefit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiter, C.

    1998-07-01

    The use of coal power generation applications is currently enjoying a renaissance. New highly efficient and cost-effective plant concepts together with environmental protection technologies are the main factors in this development. In addition, coal is available on the world market at attractive prices and in many places it is more readily available than gas. At the economical leading edge, standard power plant concepts have been developed to meet the requirements of emerging power markets. These concepts incorporate the high technological state-of-the-art and are designed to achieve lowest life-cycle costs. Low capital cost, fuel costs and operating costs in combination with shortest lead times are the main assets that make these plants attractive especially for IPPs and Developers. Other aspects of these comprehensive concepts include turnkey construction and the willingness to participate in BOO/BOT projects. One of the various examples of such a concept, the 2 x 610-MW Paiton Private Power Project Phase II in Indonesia, is described in this paper. At the technological leading edge, Siemens has always made a major contribution and was pacemaker for new developments in steam power plant technology. Modern coal-fired steam power plants use computer-optimized process and plant design as well as advanced materials, and achieve efficiencies exceeding 45%. One excellent example of this high technology is the world's largest lignite-fired steam power plant Schwarze Pumpe in Germany, which is equipped with two 800 MW Siemens steam turbine generators with supercritical steam parameters. The world's largest 50-Hz single-shaft turbine generator with supercritical steam parameters rated at 1025 MW for the Niederaussem lignite-fired steam power plant in Germany is a further example of the sophisticated Siemens steam turbine technology and sets a new benchmark in this field.

  1. IAEA expert review mission completes assessment of fuel cleaning incident at Paks Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The IAEA today completed its expert review mission to investigate the 10 April fuel cleaning incident at the Paks nuclear power plant in Hungary. The mission was requested by the Hungarian Government to provide an independent assessment of the causes and actions taken by the plant and Hungarian authorities. The team was composed of nuclear and radiation experts from the IAEA, Austria, Canada, Finland, Slovakia, the United Kingdom and the United States. In a press conference, team leader Miroslav Lipar highlighted the team's findings in five areas: On management, the team concluded that the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority and Paks are committed to improving the safety of the plant. They noted that as a result of steam generator decontamination in previous years, deposits became attached to the fuel assemblies. A decision was made to clean the fuel and contract an outside company to develop and operate a fuel cleaning process. The team found that the design and operation of the fuel cleaning tank and system was not accomplished in the manner prescribed by the IAEA Safety Standards. Neither the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority nor Paks used conservative decision-making in their safety assessments for this unproven fuel cleaning system. The team determined that there was an over-reliance on the contractor that had been selected for the design, management and operation of the fuel cleaning system. Time pressure related to a prescribed fuel outage schedule, combined with confidence generated by previous successful fuel cleaning operations, contributed to a weak assessment of a new design and operation, which involved fuel directly removed from the reactor following a planned shutdown. On regulatory oversight, the IAEA team concluded that the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority underestimated the safety significance of the proposed designs for the fuel cleaning system, which resulted in a less than rigorous review and assessment than should have been necessary

  2. Maximum power extraction under different vector-control schemes and grid-synchronization strategy of a wind-driven Brushless Doubly-Fed Reluctance Generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Mohamed G; Allam, S M; Rashad, Essam M

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes an advanced strategy to synchronize the wind-driven Brushless Doubly-Fed Reluctance Generator (BDFRG) to the grid-side terminals. The proposed strategy depends mainly upon determining the electrical angle of the grid voltage, θ v and using the same transformation matrix of both the power winding and grid sides to ensure that the generated power-winding voltage has the same phase-sequence of the grid-side voltage. On the other hand, the paper proposes a vector-control (power-winding flux orientation) technique for maximum wind-power extraction under two schemes summarized as; unity power-factor operation and minimum converter-current. Moreover, a soft-starting method is suggested to avoid the employed converter over-current. The first control scheme is achieved by adjusting the command power-winding reactive power at zero for a unity power-factor operation. However, the second scheme depends on setting the command d-axis control-winding current at zero to maximize the ratio of the generator electromagnetic-torque per the converter current. This enables the system to get a certain command torque under minimum converter current. A sample of the obtained simulation and experimental results is presented to check the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Second-order Sliding Mode Control of DFIG Based Variable Speed Wind Turbine for Maximum Power Point Tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangjie Liu; Chengcheng Wang; Yaozhen Han

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a super-twisting second order sliding mode control scheme to maximize the wind energy capture of a doubly fed induction generator based variable speed wind turbine (VSWT) system, and minimize the reactive power simultaneously. Two second order sliding mode controllers are designed to achieve the control objectives, reduce mechanical stress and improve control accuracy. By regulating the generator rotor voltage, one controller makes the wind turbine rotor speed track the optimal speed, which can maximize power generation. The other maintains the rotor current at rated value to minimize the reactive power. A quadratic form Lyapunov function is adopted to determine the range of controller parameters and guarantee the finite time stability. Simulation results on a 1.5 MW doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based variable speed wind turbine demonstrate the validity of the proposed control strategy.

  4. Identification of the curve of maximum power of photovoltaic modules using simulation software; Identificacao da curva de maxima potencia de modulos FV utilizando softwares de simulacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Andre Pimentel; Ramalho, Geraldo Luis Bezerra; Dias, Samuel Vieira [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Ceara (CEFETCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)], emails: apmoreira@cefetce.br, gramalho@cefetce.br, samueldias@cefetce.br; Carvalho, Paulo Cesar Marques de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (PPGEE/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica], e-mail: carvalho@dee.ufc.br; Borges Neto, Manuel Rangel [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Petrolina (CEFETPet), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)], email: rangel@cefetpet.br

    2008-07-01

    This article is presented the study and compared the behaviour of real and simulated a photovoltaic system, through the design and simulation software, Electronic Workbench (MultiSIM 9), AIM-Spice and identifying the point of maximum power (MPP), with the help of modeling software from Matlab. The results of the simulated model were very close to data collected from a real.photovoltaic system. (author)

  5. Sizing and Control of Trailing Edge Flaps on a Smart Rotor for Maximum Power Generation in Low Fatigue Wind Regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Jeroen; Berghammer, Lars O.; Navalkar, Sachin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an extension of the spectrum of applicability of rotors with active aerody-namic devices is presented. Besides the classical purpose of load alleviation, a secondary objective is established: power capture optimization. As a _rst step, wind speed regions that contribute little to fa...

  6. Maximum Wind Power Tracking of Doubly Fed Wind Turbine System Based on Adaptive Gain Second-Order Sliding Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongchang Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an adaptive gain second-order sliding mode control strategy to track optimal electromagnetic torque and regulate reactive power of doubly fed wind turbine system. Firstly, wind turbine aerodynamic characteristics and doubly fed induction generator (DFIG modeling are presented. Then, electromagnetic torque error and reactive power error are chosen as sliding variables, and fixed gain super-twisting sliding mode control scheme is designed. Considering that uncertainty upper bound is unknown and is hard to be estimated in actual doubly fed wind turbine system, a gain scheduled law is proposed to compel control parameters variation according to uncertainty upper bound real-time. Adaptive gain second-order sliding mode rotor voltage control method is constructed in detail and finite time stability of doubly fed wind turbine control system is strictly proved. The superiority and robustness of the proposed control scheme are finally evaluated on a 1.5 MW DFIG wind turbine system.

  7. Maximum Acceleration Recording Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Coarsely digitized maximum levels recorded in blown fuses. Circuit feeds power to accelerometer and makes nonvolatile record of maximum level to which output of accelerometer rises during measurement interval. In comparison with inertia-type single-preset-trip-point mechanical maximum-acceleration-recording devices, circuit weighs less, occupies less space, and records accelerations within narrower bands of uncertainty. In comparison with prior electronic data-acquisition systems designed for same purpose, circuit simpler, less bulky, consumes less power, costs and analysis of data recorded in magnetic or electronic memory devices. Circuit used, for example, to record accelerations to which commodities subjected during transportation on trucks.

  8. A SAS/AF application to administrate and query a file of incidents occurring in foreign nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbec, V.

    1994-07-01

    The Research and Development Division of Electricite de France has a file of incidents occurring in foreign pressurized water nuclear power stations. These incidents have an impact either on safety or reliability. The file is stored on an IBM 3090. For each incident, a docket is assigned, containing the identity of the nuclear plant and information in the form of code or text on the incident. An application has been built with the SAS System under IBM (MVS) in order to: - allow the input of new nuclear plant identities, monthly operating coefficients and new incidents; - subset data from each SAS data set, according to selection criteria (country, manufacturers, period, materials, etc...) in the form of coded fields and characters strings; -calculate simple statistical analyses on subset data (histograms of break duration, distribution of operating coefficients, cross-tabulation tables of sets and materials which bring about the incident) with a restitution on screen and/or printer; - edit an annual booklet containing general results of functioning of plants. After validation, data retrieved from the database are used in probabilistic safety analysis of nuclear power plants and materials designing studies (comparison with French materials, identification of factors having an impact on performance). The application is an interactive menu-driven tool and contains data entry screens (for new data or selection criteria). These screens have been built with SAS/AF software and Screen Control Language. Data selection and processing have been developed with Base SAS and SAS/GRAPH software. (author). 1 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Maximum Power Point Tracking for Brushless DC Motor-Driven Photovoltaic Pumping Systems Using a Hybrid ANFIS-FLOWER Pollination Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Priyadarshi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper, a hybrid Artificial Neural Network (ANN-Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC tuned Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA as a Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT is employed to amend root mean square error (RMSE of photovoltaic (PV modeling. Moreover, Gaussian membership functions have been considered for fuzzy controller design. This paper interprets the Luo converter occupied brushless DC motor (BLDC-directed PV water pump application. Experimental responses certify the effectiveness of the suggested motor-pump system supporting diverse operating states. The Luo converter, a newly developed DC-DC converter, has high power density, better voltage gain transfer and superior output waveform and can track optimal power from PV modules. For BLDC speed control there is no extra circuitry, and phase current sensors are enforced for this scheme. The most recent attempt using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS-FPA-operated BLDC directed PV pump with advanced Luo converter, has not been formerly conferred.

  10. Maximum Exergetic Efficiency Operation of a Solar Powered H2O-LiBr Absorption Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Stanciu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A solar driven cooling system consisting of a single effect H2O-LiBr absorbtion cooling module (ACS, a parabolic trough collector (PTC, and a storage tank (ST module is analyzed during one full day operation. The pressurized water is used to transfer heat from PTC to ST and to feed the ACS desorber. The system is constrained to operate at the maximum ACS exergetic efficiency, under a time dependent cooling load computed on 15 July for a one storey house located near Bucharest, Romania. To set up the solar assembly, two commercial PTCs were selected, namely PT1-IST and PTC 1800 Solitem, and a single unit ST was initially considered. The mathematical model, relying on the energy balance equations, was coded under Engineering Equation Solver (EES environment. The solar data were obtained from the Meteonorm database. The numerical simulations proved that the system cannot cover the imposed cooling load all day long, due to the large variation of water temperature inside the ST. By splitting the ST into two units, the results revealed that the PT1-IST collector only drives the ACS between 9 am and 4:30 pm, while the PTC 1800 one covers the entire cooling period (9 am–6 pm for optimum ST capacities of 90 kg/90 kg and 90 kg/140 kg, respectively.

  11. Main pumps lost incident in the nuclear power plant Atucha I. Modelling with RELAP5/MOD3.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, M.A.; Rosso, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    Time evolution of natural circulation in the nuclear power plant Atucha I (CNA-I), in a main pumps lost incident because of the lost of external power feed, is analyzed. It leads to a strong stop transient, without an important blow down, from a forced nominal flow to a natural circulation one. The results are obtained from RELAP5/MOD3.2 code's modeling. The study is based on the refrigeration conditions analysis, during the first minutes of the reactor out of service. Previously to the transient, work had been done to obtain the plant steady state, with design parameters in operation conditions at 100 % of power. The object is that the actual plant state would be represented. In this way, each plant part (steam generators, reactor, pressurizer, pumps) had been modeled in separated form with the appropriate boundary conditions, to be used in the whole circuit simulation. The developed model, had been validated making use of the comparison between the values obtained to the principal thermodynamic parameters with the plant recorded values, in the same incident. The results are satisfactory in a way. On the other hand, it has suggested some modeling changes. The RELAP5/MOD3.2 capability to model the thermodynamic phenomena in a PHWR plant has been verified when, according to the mentioned incident, the flow pass from a nominal forced flow, to one which is governed by natural circulation, still with the CNA-I untypical design conditions. (author) [es

  12. Design of a Front– End Amplifier for the Maximum Power Delivery and Required Noise by HBMO with Support Vector Microstrip Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Guneş

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Honey Bee Mating Optimization (HBMO is a recent swarm-based optimization algorithm to solve highly nonlinear problems, whose based approach combines the powers of simulated annealing, genetic algorithms, and an effective local search heuristic to search for the best possible solution to the problem under investigation within a reasonable computing time. In this work, the HBMO- based design is carried out for a front-end amplifier subject to be a subunit of a radar system in conjunction with a cost effective 3-D SONNET-based Support Vector Regression Machine (SVRM microstrip model. All the matching microstrip widths, lengths are obtained on a chosen substrate to satisfy the maximum power delivery and the required noise over the required bandwidth of a selected transistor. The proposed HBMO- based design is applied to the design of a typical ultra-wide-band low noise amplifier with NE3512S02 on a substrate of Rogers 4350 for the maximum output power and the noise figure F(f=1dB within the 5-12 GHz using the T- type of microstrip matching circuits. Furthermore, the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed HBMO based design are manifested by comparing it with the Genetic Algorithm (GA, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and the simple HBMO based designs.

  13. The flooding incident at the Aagesta pressurized heavy water nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgren, C.

    1996-03-01

    This work is an independent investigation of the consequences of the flooding incident at the Aagesta HPWR, Stockholm in May 1969. The basis for the report is an incident in which, due to short circuits in the wiring because of flooding water, the ECCS is momentarily subjected to a pressure much higher than designed for. The hypothetical scenario analyzed here is the case in which the ECCS breaks due to the high pressure. As a consequence of the break, the pressure and the water level in the reactor vessel decrease. The report is divided into three parts; First the Aagesta HPWR is described as well as the chronology of the incident, an analysis of the effects of a hypothetical break in the ECCS is then developed. The second part is a scoping analysis of the incident, modeling the pressure decrease and mass flow rate out of the break. The heat-up of the core, and the core degradation was modeled as well. The third part is formed by a RELAP5/MOD3.1 modeling of the Aagesta HPWR. 18 refs

  14. Wheelchair incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen AW van; Roszek B; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Kallewaard M; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2002-01-01

    This RIVM study was performed to gain insight into wheelchair-related incidents with powered and manual wheelchairs reported to the USA FDA, the British MDA and the Dutch Center for Quality and Usability Research of Technical Aids (KBOH). The data in the databases do not indicate that incidents with

  15. Sensationalization of reports of the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant incident. A search for top stories in Japanese newspapers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Tatsuo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify whether reports of nuclear accidents, particularly the damage done by the 2007 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake to the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant in Niigata, Japan, tend to be exaggerated by national media. News related to the Kashiwazaki incident was compared with that for nine other high-profile accidents in Japan, including the 1999 JCO critical accident and the 2005 JR-West Fukuchiyama Line derailment. Articles were extracted from four national newspapers in Japan, focusing on the 30 issues immediately following each accident. The numbers of articles and top stories related to the relevant accidents appearing on the front pages of the newspapers were counted. Based on these numbers, the Kashiwazaki incident was reported at a level similar to the JCO accident and Fukuchiyama line derailment in some newspapers, although these two accidents were more serious than the Kashiwazaki incident. This suggests that at least some newspapers in Japan sensationalized reports of the Kashiwazaki incident. (author)

  16. Improving efficiency of two-type maximum power point tracking methods of tip-speed ratio and optimum torque in wind turbine system using a quantum neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganjefar, Soheil; Ghassemi, Ali Akbar; Ahmadi, Mohamad Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a quantum neural network (QNN) is used as controller in the adaptive control structures to improve efficiency of the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods in the wind turbine system. For this purpose, direct and indirect adaptive control structures equipped with QNN are used in tip-speed ratio (TSR) and optimum torque (OT) MPPT methods. The proposed control schemes are evaluated through a battery-charging windmill system equipped with PMSG (permanent magnet synchronous generator) at a random wind speed to demonstrate transcendence of their effectiveness as compared to PID controller and conventional neural network controller (CNNC). - Highlights: • Using a new control method to harvest the maximum power from wind energy system. • Using an adaptive control scheme based on quantum neural network (QNN). • Improving of MPPT-TSR method by direct adaptive control scheme based on QNN. • Improving of MPPT-OT method by indirect adaptive control scheme based on QNN. • Using a windmill system based on PMSG to evaluate proposed control schemes

  17. Fault diagnosis technology of nuclear power plant based on weighted degree of grey incidence of optimized entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Yan; Li Zhenjie; Ren Xin; Wang Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are very complex grey system, in which faults and signs have not certain corresponding connection, so it's hard to diagnose the faults. A model based on weighted degree of grey incidence of optimized entropy was proposed according to the problem. To validate the system, some simulation experiments about the typical faults of condenser of NPPs were conducted. The results show that the system's conclusion is right, and the system's velocity is fast which can satisfy diagnosis in real time, and with the distinctive features such as good stability, high resolution rate and so on. (authors)

  18. Outline of incidents and failures of Japanese nuclear power plants during April 1995 and March 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The number of incidents and failures reported to MITI by electric utility companies, as stipulated in the ''Electric Utility Industry Law'' and the ''Law for Regulation of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material, and Reactor'', amounted to 14 cases in FY 1995. The number of reports per unit was 0.3, showing the same values with last year. The above 14 cases consists of 9 cases of manual shutdown and 1 case of automatic shutdown during operation (including test and adjustment operation), and 4 cases were found during reactor shutdown. Figs, 1 tab

  19. Application of electro geometric model for analysis of overhead power lines and substation in lightning incidence, v. 16(62)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a resume of the master thesis made within my master studies at the Department for transmission and distribution systems at FEIT-Skopje. New methodology is presented for estimation of the rates of lightning strikes on power lines and substations with Monte Carlo simulation. Modeling is based on well known electro geometric model which states that protection zones of lightning protection devices are dependant with amplitude of the lighting current. Therefore, for a known configuration it is possible with application of simple numerical methods to evaluate efficiency of the protection devices. Data gained from the simulations can be used to design such devices, to correct existing lightning protection systems or to make analysis for improving reliability of power system elements in lightning incidence. (Author)

  20. Application of electro geometric model for analysis of overhead power lines and substation in lightning incidence, v. 16(63)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a resume of the master thesis made within my master studies at the Department for transmission and distribution systems at FEIT-Skopje. New methodology is presented for estimation of the rates of lightning strikes on power lines and substations with Monte Carlo simulation. Modeling is based on well known electro geometric model which states that protection zones of lightning protection devices are dependant with amplitude of the lighting current. Therefore, for a known configuration it is possible with application of simple numerical methods to evaluate efficiency of the protection devices. Data gained from the simulations can be used to design such devices, to correct existing lightning protection systems or to make analysis for improving reliability of power system elements in lightning incidence. (Author

  1. IAEA/NEA incident reporting system (IRS). Reporting guidelines. Feedback from safety related operating experience for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Incident Reporting System (IRS) is an international system jointly operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD/NEA). The fundamental objective of the IRS is to contribute to improving the safety of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) which are operated worldwide. This objective can be achieved by providing timely and detailed information on both technical and human factors related to events of safety significance which occur at these plants. The purpose of these guidelines, which supersede the previous IAEA Safety Series No. 93 (Part II) and the NEA IRS guidelines, is to describe the system and to give users the necessary background and guidance to enable them to produce IRS reports meeting a high standard of quality while retaining the high efficiency of the system expected by all Member States operating nuclear power plants. These guidelines have been jointly developed and approved by the NEA/IAEA

  2. Synchronized Pulsed dc - dc Converter as Maximum Power Position Tracker with Wide Load and Insolation Variation for Stand Alone PV System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardik, P. Desai; Ranjan Maheshwari

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the interest focused on employing parallel connected dc-dc converter with high tracking effectiveness under wide variation in environmental conditions (Insolation) and wide load variation. dc-dc converter is an essential part of the stand alone PV system. Paper also presents an approach on how duty cycle for maximum power position (MPP) is adjusted by taking care of varying load conditions and without iterative steps. Synchronized PWM pulses are employed for the converter. High tracking efficiency is achieved with continuous input and inductor current. In this approach, the converter can he utilized in buck as well in boost mode. The PV system simulation was verified and experimental results were in agreement to the presented scheme. (authors)

  3. Use of plant specific PSA to evaluate incidents at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    One of the possible applications of the plant specific probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is its use in the analysis of operational events at the plant. The methodological development in that area was initiated recently in the framework of the IAEA's Incident Reporting System where determination of the safety significance of the event is essential for optimizing feedback of operating experience. This report provides details of the methodology and procedures to be used in event analysis. The report also contains three case studies which have been performed and summarizes lessons learned from those case studies. The results (event probabilities) obtained using plant specific PSA and the results of the analysis of the same events in the framework of the Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) programmes (generic models) were compared and commented on. 6 refs, figs and tabs

  4. Computational analysis of the maximum power point for GaAs sub-cells in InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction space solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappelletti, M A; Cédola, A P; Peltzer y Blancá, E L

    2014-01-01

    The radiation resistance in InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells is limited by that of the middle GaAs sub-cell. In this work, the electrical performance degradation of different GaAs sub-cells under 1 MeV electron irradiation at fluences below 4 × 10 15 cm −2 has been analyzed by means of a computer simulation. The numerical simulations have been carried out using the one-dimensional device modeling program PC1D. The effects of the base and emitter carrier concentrations of the p- and n-type GaAs structures on the maximum power point have been researched using a radiative recombination lifetime, a damage constant for the minority carrier lifetime and carrier removal rate models. An analytical model has been proposed, which is useful to either determine the maximum exposure time or select the appropriate device in order to ensure that the electrical parameters of different GaAs sub-cells will have a satisfactory response to radiation since they will be kept above 80% with respect to the non-irradiated values. (paper)

  5. Source term estimation during incident response to severe nuclear power plant accidents. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna, T J; Giitter, J

    1987-07-01

    The various methods of estimating radionuclide release to the environment (source terms) as a result of an accident at a nuclear power reactor are discussed. The major factors affecting potential radionuclide releases off site (source terms) as a result of nuclear power plant accidents are described. The quantification of these factors based on plant instrumentation also is discussed. A range of accident conditions from those within the design basis to the most severe accidents possible are included in the text. A method of gross estimation of accident source terms and their consequences off site is presented. The goal is to present a method of source term estimation that reflects the current understanding of source term behavior and that can be used during an event. (author)

  6. Source term estimation during incident response to severe nuclear power plant accidents. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, T.J.; Giitter, J.

    1987-01-01

    The various methods of estimating radionuclide release to the environment (source terms) as a result of an accident at a nuclear power reactor are discussed. The major factors affecting potential radionuclide releases off site (source terms) as a result of nuclear power plant accidents are described. The quantification of these factors based on plant instrumentation also is discussed. A range of accident conditions from those within the design basis to the most severe accidents possible are included in the text. A method of gross estimation of accident source terms and their consequences off site is presented. The goal is to present a method of source term estimation that reflects the current understanding of source term behavior and that can be used during an event. (author)

  7. Source term estimation during incident response to severe nuclear power plant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, T.J.; Glitter, J.G.

    1988-10-01

    This document presents a method of source term estimation that reflects the current understanding of source term behavior and that can be used during an event. The various methods of estimating radionuclide release to the environment (source terms) as a result of an accident at a nuclear power reactor are discussed. The major factors affecting potential radionuclide releases off site (source terms) as a result of nuclear power plant accidents are described. The quantification of these factors based on plant instrumentation also is discussed. A range of accident conditions from those within the design basis to the most severe accidents possible are included in the text. A method of gross estimation of accident source terms and their consequences off site is presented. 39 refs., 48 figs., 19 tabs

  8. A maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic system using a PIC microcontroller; Controlador de potencia maxima para sistemas fotovoltaicos (SFVs) utilizando un microcontrolador PIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman, Eusebio; Mendoza, Victor X; Carrillo, Jose J . A; Galarza, Cristian [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    A maximum power point tracker MPPT for photovoltaic systems is presented. The equipment can output up to 600 W and its control signals are generated by a PIC microcontroller. The principle of control is based on current and voltage sampling at the output terminals of the photovoltaic generator. From power comparison of two consecutive samples, it is possible to know how far from the optimal point the system is working. Output voltage control is used to force the system to work within the optimal area of operation. The microcontroller program sequence, the DC/DC converter structure and the most relevant results are shown. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de un controlador de potencia maxima para su aplicacion en sistemas fotovoltaicos (SFVs). El diseno alcanza una potencia de 600 W y sus senales de control son generadas con un controlador PIC. El principio de control se basa en el muestreo de la corriente y la tension en las terminadas del generador fotovoltaico GFV. De dos muestreos consecutivos, y por comparacion de las potencias, se determina que tan alejado del punto optimo opera el sistema. La operacion del sistema dentro de la zona de funcionamiento optimo se asegura mediante un control por tension. Se muestra la secuencia de programacion del microcontrolador, la estructura del convertidor CD/CD empleado y algunos resultados relevantes.

  9. Survey of incidents in West German nuclear power plants in the last quarter of the year 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    There were 79 incidents reported. Six incidents belong to reporting category E (immediate notification), the remaining 73 incidents belong to reporting category N (normal notification). The survey covers all incidents reported to GRS until the 15th of February 1989 and also includes incidents that happened before the last quarter of 1988 but were recorded later. There was no release of radioactivity involved in the incidents, and there are no effects on man or the environment reported. (orig./HP) [de

  10. New treatment of low probability events with particular application to nuclear power plant incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Critchley, O.H.

    1986-01-01

    The 'New Treatment' attempts to resolve the 'Zero-Infinity Dilemmas' posed by the threat of low probability events (LPE) philosophical approach which rejects mathematical idealism in favour of the engineering pragmatism that is characteristic of the scientific method. The LPE is seen as a rare singularity in the stream of 'Event-noise' of mundane, untoward incidents that afflict industrial systems. Engineering inspection which has evolved as a regulatory mechanism can be effective in reducing this 'noise' and the competent inspector is able to recognise the 'loss of resistance to failure' which so often comes before an LPE. Despite that an intractable residual risk remains, but this can be made societally tolerable if there is a justifiable conviction that safety is defended by trustworthy engineering. In an age marked by an increasing complexity and sophistication in its science and technology, the engineer is emerging as the proper central decision maker in such matters standing, athwart pure administration and theory on the one hand and expertise and practice on the other. Moreover, evidence that his intellect may be peculiarly adapted for such a role is coming from recent findings in neuropsychology. The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate is cited as an exemplar of the engineering inspection needed to apprehend those human fallibilities in design and application to which most catastrophic failures of technology are due. However, such regulatory systems and the assessment functions associated with them lack accountability and, as an interpretation of Goedel's theorem suggests, cannot assess their own efficiency. Independent, disinterested appraisal assisted by Signal Detection Theory is offered as a remedy.

  11. Analysis of the cognitive strategies used by nuclear power plant operators during micro incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Paulo Victor R. de; Santos, Isaac L. dos; Mol, Antonio Carlos de A.; Grecco, Claudio H.; Oliveira, Mauro Vitor de; Augusto, Silas Cordeiro; Carvalho, Eduardo F. de

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the analysis and modeling of the nuclear power operators' actual work in the control room and simulator training. The modeling of the operators work deals with the use of operational procedures, the constant changes in the focus of attention and the dynamics of the conflicting activities. The paper explores the relationships between the courses of action of the different operators and the constraints imposed by their working environment. It shows that the safety implications of the control room operators' cognitive and cultural issues go far beyond the formal organizational constructs usually implied. Our findings indicate that the competence required for the operators are concerned with developing the possibility of constructing situation awareness, managing conflicts, gaps and time problems created by ongoing task procedures, and dealing with distractions, developing skills for collaborative work. (author)

  12. A Hybrid Maximum Power Point Tracking Approach for Photovoltaic Systems under Partial Shading Conditions Using a Modified Genetic Algorithm and the Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Pei Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a modified maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm for photovoltaic systems under rapidly changing partial shading conditions (PSCs. The proposed algorithm integrates a genetic algorithm (GA and the firefly algorithm (FA and further improves its calculation process via a differential evolution (DE algorithm. The conventional GA is not advisable for MPPT because of its complicated calculations and low accuracy under PSCs. In this study, we simplified the GA calculations with the integration of the DE mutation process and FA attractive process. Results from both the simulation and evaluation verify that the proposed algorithm provides rapid response time and high accuracy due to the simplified processing. For instance, evaluation results demonstrate that when compared to the conventional GA, the execution time and tracking accuracy of the proposed algorithm can be, respectively, improved around 69.4% and 4.16%. In addition, in comparison to FA, the tracking speed and tracking accuracy of the proposed algorithm can be improved around 42.9% and 1.85%, respectively. Consequently, the major improvement of the proposed method when evaluated against the conventional GA and FA is tracking speed. Moreover, this research provides a framework to integrate multiple nature-inspired algorithms for MPPT. Furthermore, the proposed method is adaptable to different types of solar panels and different system formats with specifically designed equations, the advantages of which are rapid tracking speed with high accuracy under PSCs.

  13. A Multi-Point Method Considering the Maximum Power Point Tracking Dynamic Process for Aerodynamic Optimization of Variable-Speed Wind Turbine Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the dynamic process of maximum power point tracking (MPPT caused by turbulence and large rotor inertia, variable-speed wind turbines (VSWTs cannot maintain the optimal tip speed ratio (TSR from cut-in wind speed up to the rated speed. Therefore, in order to increase the total captured wind energy, the existing aerodynamic design for VSWT blades, which only focuses on performance improvement at a single TSR, needs to be improved to a multi-point design. In this paper, based on a closed-loop system of VSWTs, including turbulent wind, rotor, drive train and MPPT controller, the distribution of operational TSR and its description based on inflow wind energy are investigated. Moreover, a multi-point method considering the MPPT dynamic process for the aerodynamic optimization of VSWT blades is proposed. In the proposed method, the distribution of operational TSR is obtained through a dynamic simulation of the closed-loop system under a specific turbulent wind, and accordingly the multiple design TSRs and the corresponding weighting coefficients in the objective function are determined. Finally, using the blade of a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL 1.5 MW wind turbine as the baseline, the proposed method is compared with the conventional single-point optimization method using the commercial software Bladed. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Effect of Box-Cox transformation on power of Haseman-Elston and maximum-likelihood variance components tests to detect quantitative trait Loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzel, C J; Shete, S; Beasley, T M; Fernandez, J R; Allison, D B; Amos, C I

    2003-01-01

    Non-normality of the phenotypic distribution can affect power to detect quantitative trait loci in sib pair studies. Previously, we observed that Winsorizing the sib pair phenotypes increased the power of quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection for both Haseman-Elston (HE) least-squares tests [Hum Hered 2002;53:59-67] and maximum likelihood-based variance components (MLVC) analysis [Behav Genet (in press)]. Winsorizing the phenotypes led to a slight increase in type 1 error in H-E tests and a slight decrease in type I error for MLVC analysis. Herein, we considered transforming the sib pair phenotypes using the Box-Cox family of transformations. Data were simulated for normal and non-normal (skewed and kurtic) distributions. Phenotypic values were replaced by Box-Cox transformed values. Twenty thousand replications were performed for three H-E tests of linkage and the likelihood ratio test (LRT), the Wald test and other robust versions based on the MLVC method. We calculated the relative nominal inflation rate as the ratio of observed empirical type 1 error divided by the set alpha level (5, 1 and 0.1% alpha levels). MLVC tests applied to non-normal data had inflated type I errors (rate ratio greater than 1.0), which were controlled best by Box-Cox transformation and to a lesser degree by Winsorizing. For example, for non-transformed, skewed phenotypes (derived from a chi2 distribution with 2 degrees of freedom), the rates of empirical type 1 error with respect to set alpha level=0.01 were 0.80, 4.35 and 7.33 for the original H-E test, LRT and Wald test, respectively. For the same alpha level=0.01, these rates were 1.12, 3.095 and 4.088 after Winsorizing and 0.723, 1.195 and 1.905 after Box-Cox transformation. Winsorizing reduced inflated error rates for the leptokurtic distribution (derived from a Laplace distribution with mean 0 and variance 8). Further, power (adjusted for empirical type 1 error) at the 0.01 alpha level ranged from 4.7 to 17.3% across all tests

  15. Detailed semantic analyses of human error incidents occurring at domestic nuclear power plants to fiscal year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuge, Tadashi; Hirotsu, Yuko; Takano, Kenichi; Ebisu, Mitsuhiro; Tsumura, Joji

    2003-01-01

    Analysing and evaluating observed cases of human error incidents with the emphasis on human factors and behavior involved was essential for preventing recurrence of those. CRIEPI has been conducting detailed and structures analyses of all incidents reported during last 35 year based on J-HPES, from the beginning of the first Tokai nuclear power operation till fiscal year of 2000, in which total 212 human error cases are identified. Results obtained by the analyses have been stored into the J-HPES data-base. This summarized the semantic analyses on all case-studies stored in the above data-base to grasp the practical and concrete contents and trend of more frequently observed human errors (as are called trigger actions here), causal factors and preventive measures. These semantic analyses have been executed by classifying all those items into some categories that could be considered as having almost the same meaning using the KJ method. Followings are obtained typical results by above analyses: (1) Trigger action-Those could be classified into categories of operation or categories of maintenance. Operational timing errors' and 'operational quantitative errors' were major actions in trigger actions of operation, those occupied about 20% among all actions. At trigger actions of maintenance, 'maintenance quantitative error' were major actions, those occupied quarter among all actions; (2) Causal factor- 'Human internal status' were major factors, as in concrete factors, those occupied 'improper persistence' and 'lack of knowledge'; (3) Preventive measure-Most frequent measures got were job management changes in procedural software improvements, which was from 70% to 80%. As for preventive measures of operation, software improvements have been implemented on 'organization and work practices' and 'individual consciousness'. Concerning preventive measures of maintenance, improvements have been implemented on 'organization and work practices'. (author)

  16. Analytical and Experimental Investigation on A Dynamic Thermo-Sensitive Electrical Parameter with Maximum dIC/dt during Turn-off for High Power Trench Gate/Field-Stop IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuxiang; Luo, Haoze; Li, Wuhua

    2017-01-01

    collector current during turn-off process is developed in terms of the behavior characteristics of the inside storage carriers. Then, the inherent linear relationship between the maximum collector current falling rate dI{C}/dt and junction temperature T {j} is demonstrated and investigated. Fortunately......, benefitting from the presence of the intrinsic parasitic inductance L{rm eE} between the Kelvin and power emitters of IGBT modules, the maximum dI{C}/dt can be easily measured to validate the theoretical analysis. Consequently, the maximum dI{C}/dt during turn-off process is a promising DTSEP for IGBT module...

  17. Requirements for the retrofitting an extension of the maximum voltage power grid from the point of view of environmental protection and cultivated landscape work; Anforderungen an den Um- und Ausbau des Hoechstspannungsstromnetzes. Aus der Sicht von Naturschutz und Kulturlandschaftspflege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    The project on the requirements for the retrofitting an extension of the maximum voltage power grid from the point of view of environmental protection and cultivated landscape work includes contributions on the following topics: the development of the European transmission grid, the grid extension law, restrictions for the power grid and their infrastructure, requirements for the regulations concerning the realization of the transnational grid extension, inclusion of the public - public acceptance - communication, requirements concerning the environmental compensation law, overhead line - underground cable - health hazards, ecological effects of overhead lines and underground cables, infrastructural projects, power supply in the future, structural relief by photovoltaics.

  18. Modeling and Maximum Power Point Tracking Control of Wind Generating Units Equipped with Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators in Presence of Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bonfiglio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the modeling of wind turbines equipped with direct drive permanent magnet synchronous generators for fundamental frequency power system simulations. Specifically, a procedure accounting for the system active power losses to initialize the simulation starting from the load flow results is proposed. Moreover, some analytical assessments are detailed on typical control schemes for fully rated wind turbine generators, thereby highlighting how active power losses play a fundamental role in the effectiveness of the wind generator control algorithm. Finally, the paper proposes analytical criteria to design the structure and the parameters of the regulators of the wind generator control scheme. Simulations performed with Digsilent Power Factory validated the proposed procedure, highlighting the impact of active power losses on the characterization of the initial steady state and that the simplifying assumptions done in order to synthesize the controllers are consistent with the complete modeling performed by the aforementioned power system simulator.

  19. Prescriptive amplification recommendations for hearing losses with a conductive component and their impact on the required maximum power output: an update with accompanying clinical explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Earl E

    2013-06-01

    Hearing aid prescriptive recommendations for hearing losses having a conductive component have received less clinical and research interest than for losses of a sensorineural nature; as a result, much variation remains among current prescriptive methods in their recommendations for conductive and mixed hearing losses (Johnson and Dillon, 2011). The primary intent of this brief clinical note is to demonstrate differences between two algebraically equivalent expressions of hearing loss, which have been approaches used historically to generate a prescription for hearing losses with a conductive component. When air and bone conduction thresholds are entered into hearing aid prescriptions designed for nonlinear hearing aids, it was hypothesized that that two expressions would not yield equivalent amounts of prescribed insertion gain and output. These differences are examined for their impact on the maximum power output (MPO) requirements of the hearing aid. Subsequently, the MPO capabilities of two common behind-the-ear (BTE) receiver placement alternatives, receiver-in-aid (RIA) and receiver-in-canal (RIC), are examined. The two expressions of hearing losses examined were the 25% ABG + AC approach and the 75% ABG + BC approach, where ABG refers to air-bone gap, AC refers to air-conduction threshold, and BC refers to bone-conduction threshold. Example hearing loss cases with a conductive component are sampled for calculations. The MPO capabilities of the BTE receiver placements in commercially-available products were obtained from hearing aids on the U.S. federal purchasing contract. Prescribed gain and the required MPO differs markedly between the two approaches. The 75% ABG + BC approach prescribes a compression ratio that is reflective of the amount of sensorineural hearing loss. Not all hearing aids will have the MPO capabilities to support the output requirements for fitting hearing losses with a large conductive component particularly when combined with

  20. Medical treatment of radiation damages and medical emergency planning in case of nuclear power plant incidents and accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlenschlaeger, L.

    1981-03-01

    Medical measures in case of radiation damages are discussed on the basis of five potential categories of radiation incidents and accidents, respectively, viz. contaminations, incorporations, external local and general radiation over-exposures, contaminated wounds, and combinations of radiation damages and conventional injuries. Considerations are made for diagnostic and therapeutic initial measures especially in case of minor and moderate radiation accidents. The medical emergency planning is reviewed by means of definations used in the practical handling of incidents or accidents. The parameters are: extent of the incident or accident, number of persons involved, severity of radiation damage. Based on guiding symptoms the criteria for the classification into minor, moderate or severe radiation accidents are discussed. Reference is made to the Medical Radiation Protection Centers existing in the Federal Republic of Germany and the possibility of getting advices in case of radiation incidents and accidents. (orig.) [de

  1. Power struggles for control of the University and its financing seen rising from the students of Quito’s Royal College and Seminary Maximum of Saint Louis at 1725

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano GIL BLANCO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we establish the origin, the economy, the confrontations and the corruption in the Quito’s Royal Maximum College and Seminary of Saint Luis. We are going to do this through the study of an incident in 1725 between different ecclesiastical and civil authorities for the control of the seminary and its finances. It is only a part of the confrontation between creoles and «peninsulares» by the control of the porters and of the important incomes that provided Real Estate to finance.

  2. Test to prove the resistance to incidents of components of electric and control systems in the safety containment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The marginal program for proving the suitability of safety-relevant components of electric and control systems in the safety containment during a loss-of-coolant incident is described. Variant test conditions are established in the component-specific test program. Special attention has been paid to the representation of the course of pressure and temperature for the performance test of the valve room of the Nuclear Power Plant Philippsburg 2. (DG) [de

  3. Recommendation of maximum allowable noise levels for offshore wind power systems; Empfehlung von Laermschutzwerten bei der Errichtung von Offshore-Windenergieanlagen (OWEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Stefanie [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Rosslau (Germany). Fachgebiet II 2.3

    2011-05-15

    When offshore wind farms are constructed, every single pile is hammered into the sediment by a hydraulic hammer. Noise levels at Horns Reef wind farm were in the range of 235 dB. The noise may cause damage to the auditory system of marine mammals. The Federal Environmental Office therefore recommends the definition of maximum permissible noise levels. Further, care should be taken that no marine mammals are found in the immediate vicinity of the construction site. (AKB)

  4. Optimal placement of horizontal - and vertical - axis wind turbines in a wind farm for maximum power generation using a genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaomin; Agarwal, Ramesh [Department of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we consider the Wind Farm layout optimization problem using a genetic algorithm. Both the Horizontal –Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) and Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT) are considered. The goal of the optimization problem is to optimally position the turbines within the wind farm such that the wake effects are minimized and the power production is maximized. The reasonably accurate modeling of the turbine wake is critical in determination of the optimal layout of the turbines and the power generated. For HAWT, two wake models are considered; both are found to give similar answers. For VAWT, a very simple wake model is employed.

  5. Development of an electronic converter with maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic systems applied to rural electrification; Desenvolvimento de conversor eletronico para maxima transferencia de potencia em sistemas fotovoltaicos aplicados a eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado Neto, Lauro de Vilhena Brandao [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Minas Gerais (PUC-Minas), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Cabral, Claudia Valeria Tavora; Oliveira Filho, Delly [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil); Diniz, Antonia Sonia Alves Cardoso [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Cortizo, Porfirio Cabaleiro [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The maximization of the efficiency in the electric energy conversion is essential to the developing of technical and economic viability of photovoltaic solar energy systems. This paper presents the development of an electronic converter with maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic systems applied to rural electrification. The standalone photovoltaic system used is similar to the systems installed by Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais - CEMIG in the schools of isolated communities, inside the Solar Light Program. Initially were developed test procedures of the equipment used in the system like photovoltaic generators, electronic ballasts, inverters, charge controllers and batteries, covering minimum performance requirements and in compliance with national and international standards, as possible, due to the instrumentation availability. A data acquisition system was assembled to monitoring the photovoltaic system. A simulation of the system was implemented and the aims were to optimize the project and carry out a comparative study with the monitoring results. The converter with maximum power point tracking consists of a direct current converter in the buck configuration and the control algorithm was implemented in a micro controller, being the first results presented here. After finished the prototype, it will be incorporated in the photovoltaic system and will be accomplished a study of the technical and economic viability. The first results of the tests, of the monitoring and of the converter with maximum power point tracking are helping the sustainability of the systems installed by CEMIG, funding the government initiatives in the quality control of equipment and promoting the development of national technology. (author)

  6. Cancer incidence in adults living in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in France, based on data from the French Network of Cancer Registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbiolles, Alice; Roudier, Candice; Goria, Sarah; Stempfelet, Morgane; Kairo, Cécile; Quintin, Cécile; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Monnereau, Alain; Vacquier, Blandine

    2018-03-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) release toxic emissions into the environment that may affect neighboring populations. This ecologic study was designed to investigate the possibility of an excess incidence of cancer in the vicinity of French NPPs by examining the incidence by municipality of 12 types of cancer in the population aged 15 years and older during the 1995-2011 period. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from towns of residence to the NPP. Using regression models, we assessed the risk of cancer in a 20-km zone around NPPs and observed an excess incidence of bladder cancer (Relative Risk (RR), 95% Credibility Interval (95% CI)) in men and women (RR men  = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.17 and RR women  = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.39). Women living within the 20-km proximity areas had a significantly reduced risk of thyroid cancer (RR women  = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.96). No excess risk of hematologic malignancies in either sex was seen. The higher than expected incidence of bladder cancer may be due to an excess incidence localized around the Flamanville NPP and the nearby La Hague nuclear waste treatment center, which is a source of chemical contaminants, many (including arsenic) of them known risk factors for bladder cancer. Differences in medical practices could explain the reduced risk of thyroid cancer. In this first study of adults living near NPPs in France, cancer incidence is significantly higher than in the references populations for one of the cancer types studied: bladder cancer. © 2017 UICC.

  7. Approximate maximum parsimony and ancestral maximum likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Noga; Chor, Benny; Pardi, Fabio; Rapoport, Anat

    2010-01-01

    We explore the maximum parsimony (MP) and ancestral maximum likelihood (AML) criteria in phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Both problems are NP-hard, so we seek approximate solutions. We formulate the two problems as Steiner tree problems under appropriate distances. The gist of our approach is the succinct characterization of Steiner trees for a small number of leaves for the two distances. This enables the use of known Steiner tree approximation algorithms. The approach leads to a 16/9 approximation ratio for AML and asymptotically to a 1.55 approximation ratio for MP.

  8. Computer simulation of nuclear pollutant diffusion from Shimane nuclear power plants and development of an evacuation strategy in the event of a nuclear incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakura, Haruna; Kurimasa, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    Beginning from Tohoku (northeastern) Earthquake on March 11, an accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant resulted in a substantial release of radioactivity to the environment. The accident forced a large number of residents to evacuate from surrounding areas. Moreover, the nuclear incident was life-threatening for the elderly and for people with serious illnesses who were confined in hospital or nursing homes. Strikingly, the causes of death were not directly attributed to radiation exposure but to problems encountered during evacuation. Using nuclear diffusion data from the Fukushima incident, we simulated nuclear pollutant dispersion using computer software A2C in an area of Tottori and Shimane Prefectures surrounding the Shimane Nuclear Power Plant. We generated a model for the spread of nuclear pollutants around the Emergency Planning Zone, id est (i.e.) EPZ. From these findings, we proposed evacuation strategies for residents near the power plant to ensure a safe and reliable escape from nuclear pollutants. Our recommendations include: immediate evacuation from PAZ area (within 5 km), securing indoor shelter in the area of the UPZ (from 5 km to 30 km) and preparations to evacuate further outwards from the nuclear plant site, daytime evacuation within a 30 km area after considering wind direction and velocity, and preparation of a planned evacuation strategy that identifies secure facilities for weaker people in the event of a disaster. (author)

  9. Maximum permissible dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This chapter presents a historic overview of the establishment of radiation guidelines by various national and international agencies. The use of maximum permissible dose and maximum permissible body burden limits to derive working standards is discussed

  10. Detailed semantic analyses of human error incidents occurring at nuclear power plant in USA (interim report). Characteristics of human error incidents occurring in the period from 1992 to 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirotsu, Yuko; Tsuge, Tadashi; Sano, Toshiaki; Takano, Kenichi; Gouda, Hidenori

    2001-01-01

    CRIEPI has been conducting detailed analyses of all human error incidents at domestic nuclear power plants (NPPs) collected from Japanese Licensee Event Reports (LERs) using J-HPES (Japanese version of HPES) as an analysis method. Results obtained by the analyses have been stored in J-HPES database. Since 1999, human error incidents have been selected from U.S. LERs, and they are analyzed using J-HPES. In this report, the results, which classified error action, cause, and preventive measure, are summarized for U.S. human error cases occurring in the period from 1992 to 1996. It was suggested as a result of classification that the categories of error action were almost the same as those of Japanese human error cases. Therefore, problems in the process of error action and checkpoints for preventing errors will be extracted by analyzing both U.S. and domestic human error cases. It was also suggested that the interrelations between error actions, causes, and organizational factors could be identified. While taking these suggestions into consideration, we will continue to analyze U.S. human error cases. (author)

  11. Notifiable events in systems for fission of nuclear fuels - nuclear power plants and research reactors with maximum output exceeding 50 kW of thermal normal rating - in the Federal Republic of Germany. Quarterly report, 2nd quarter of 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    There were 32 notifiable events in nuclear power plants in Germany in the second quarter of 1996. The report lists and characterises all the 32 events notified in the reporting period. The events did not involve any radioactivity release exceeding the maximum permissible limits during this period, so that there were no radiation hazards to the population or the environment. One event was classified at level 1 of the INES event scale (Anomaly). Research reactor operators in Germany reported 5 notifiable events in the reporting period. The report lists and characterises these events. These events did not involve any radioactivity release exceeding the maximum permissible limits during this period, so that there were no radiation hazards to the population or the environment. All events notified were classified into the lowest categories of safety significance of the official event scales (N, or below scale). (orig./DG) [de

  12. 基于LabVIEW的风力机最大功率点跟踪仿真研究%Simulation Research on Maximum Power Point Tracking of Wind Turbine Based on LabVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 苏禹; 张恩; 林显富

    2017-01-01

    基于风力机的发电效率因环境风速变化而改变,本文选用LabVIEW为仿真平台建立风力机最大功率点的追踪系统.首先根据风力机的风能捕获输出功率公式,在LabVIEW平台上搭建了风力机系统模块、风力机控制模块、风轮转速调节模块、风速变化判断模块等.为了弥补传统扰动法存在的追踪精度等问题,利用变步长的扰动观测法对输出功率进行最大功率点追踪,使风力机的输出功率保持在最大输出功率.实验结果表明该系统在不同的仿真风速环境下,能有效的追踪风力机最大输出功率点.%Based on the wind turbine power efficiency changes due to wind speed of environment,the wind turbine maximum power point tracking system is established in this paper using LabVIEW as simulation platform.Firstly,according to the wind energy capture and output power formula,the wind turbine system module,the wind turbine control module,the wind turbine speed regulation module,the wind speed change judgment module are designed on the LabVIEW platform.In order to remedy tracking accuracy of the traditional perturbation method,the perturbation observation method with variable step size is adopted for maintaining at the maximum output power of the wind turbine.The experimental results show that the system can track the maximum output power of the wind turbine effectively at different simulated speed.

  13. Pressure ulcer incidence and progression in critically ill subjects: influence of low air loss mattress versus a powered air pressure redistribution mattress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Joyce; Berke, Christine; Urzendowski, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare facility-acquired pressure ulcer incidence and progression of pressure ulcers present on admission in critically ill patients, using 2 different support surfaces. We completed a comparison cohort study in a surgical intensive care unit (ICU). The study setting was a 12-bed cardiovascular ICU in a university-based hospital in the Midwestern United States. The sample comprised 52 critically ill patients; 31 were placed on low air loss weight-based pressure redistribution-microclimate management system beds and 21 were placed on integrated powered air pressure redistribution beds. Prior to the start of the study, 5 low airloss beds were placed in open rooms in the cardiovascular surgical ICU. Inclusion criteria were anticipated ICU stay of 3 days, and patients did not receive a speciality bed for pulmonary or wound issues. Initial assessment of the patients included risk assessment and prior events that would increase risk for pressure ulcer development such as extended time in operating room, along with skin assessment for existing pressure ulcers. Subjects in both groups had ongoing skin assessment every 3 to 4 days and a subjective evaluation of heel elevation and turning or repositioning by the researcher. Data were collected until the subjects were dismissed from the ICU. Patients admitted to the unit were assigned to open rooms following the usual protocols. The mean length of stay was 7.0 days, with an 8.1-day length of stay for subjects on "low air loss with microclimate management" beds (LAL-MCM) and 6.6 days on the integrated power pressure air redistribution (IP-AR) beds (P = NS). The incidence of pressure ulcers on the buttocks, sacrum, or coccyx was 0% (0/31) on the low air loss bed and 18% (4/21) on the IP-AR bed (P = .046). Five subjects had 6 pressure ulcers on admission. Two pressure ulcers on 2 patients worsened on the integrated power air redistribution beds, which required specialty bed rental

  14. Efficiency potentials of heat pumps with combined heat and power. For maximum reduction of CO2 emissions and for electricity generation from fossil fuels with CO2 reduction in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rognon, F.

    2005-06-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at how the efficiency potential of heat pumps together with combined heat and power systems can help provide a maximum reduction of CO 2 emissions and provide electricity generation from fossil fuel in Switzerland together with reductions in CO 2 emissions. In Switzerland, approximately 80% of the low-temperature heat required for space-heating and for the heating-up of hot water is produced by burning combustibles. Around a million gas and oil boilers were in use in Switzerland in 2000, and these accounted for approximately half the country's 41.1 million tonnes of CO 2 emissions. The authors state that there is a more efficient solution with lower CO 2 emissions: the heat pump. With the enormous potential of our environment it would be possible to replace half the total number of boilers in use today with heat pumps. This would be equivalent to 90 PJ p.a. of useful heat, or 500,000 systems. The power source for heat pumps should come from the substitution of electric heating systems (electric resistor-based systems) and from the replacement of boilers. This should be done by using combined heat and power systems with full heat utilisation. This means, according to the authors, that the entire required power source can be provided without the need to construct new electricity production plants. The paper examines and discusses the theoretical, technical, market and realisable potentials

  15. Aerodynamic Effects of High Turbulence Intensity on a Variable-Speed Power-Turbine Blade With Large Incidence and Reynolds Number Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of high inlet turbulence intensity on the aerodynamic performance of a variable speed power turbine blade are examined over large incidence and Reynolds number ranges. These results are compared to previous measurements made in a low turbulence environment. Both high and low turbulence studies were conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility. The purpose of the low inlet turbulence study was to examine the transitional flow effects that are anticipated at cruise Reynolds numbers. The current study extends this to LPT-relevant turbulence levels while perhaps sacrificing transitional flow effects. Assessing the effects of turbulence at these large incidence and Reynolds number variations complements the existing database. Downstream total pressure and exit angle data were acquired for 10 incidence angles ranging from +15.8deg to -51.0deg. For each incidence angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with the exit Reynolds number ranging from 2.12×10(exp 5) to 2.12×10(exp 6) and at a design exit Mach number of 0.72. In order to achieve the lowest Reynolds number, the exit Mach number was reduced to 0.35 due to facility constraints. The inlet turbulence intensity, Tu, was measured using a single-wire hotwire located 0.415 axial-chord upstream of the blade row. The inlet turbulence levels ranged from 8 to 15 percent for the current study. Tu measurements were also made farther upstream so that turbulence decay rates could be calculated as needed for computational inlet boundary conditions. Downstream flow field measurements were obtained using a pneumatic five-hole pitch/yaw probe located in a survey plane 7 percent axial chord aft of the blade trailing edge and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressures were acquired for each flow condition as well. The blade loading data show that the suction surface separation that was evident at many of the low Tu conditions has been eliminated. At

  16. Detailed semantic analyses of human error incidents occurring at nuclear power plants. Extraction of periodical transition of error occurrence patterns by applying multivariate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirotsu, Yuko; Suzuki, Kunihiko; Takano, Kenichi; Kojima, Mitsuhiro

    2000-01-01

    It is essential for preventing the recurrence of human error incidents to analyze and evaluate them with the emphasis on human factor. Detailed and structured analyses of all incidents at domestic nuclear power plants (NPPs) reported during last 31 years have been conducted based on J-HPES, in which total 193 human error cases are identified. Results obtained by the analyses have been stored into the J-HPES database. In the previous study, by applying multivariate analysis to above case studies, it was suggested that there were several occurrence patterns identified of how errors occur at NPPs. It was also clarified that the causes related to each human error are different depending on age of their occurrence. This paper described the obtained results in respects of periodical transition of human error occurrence patterns. By applying multivariate analysis to the above data, it was suggested there were two types of error occurrence patterns as to each human error type. First type is common occurrence patterns, not depending on the age, and second type is the one influenced by periodical characteristics. (author)

  17. The role of multiple regression and exploratory data analysis in the development of leukemia incidence risk models for comparison of radionuclide air stack emissions from nuclear and coal power industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prybutok, V.R.

    1995-01-01

    Risk associated with power generation must be identified to make intelligent choices between alternate power technologies. Radionuclide air stack emissions for a single coal plant and a single nuclear plant are used to compute the single plant leukemia incidence risk and total industry leukemia incidence risk. Leukemia incidence is the response variable as a function of radionuclide bone dose for the six proposed dose response curves considered. During normal operation a coal plant has higher radionuclide emissions than a nuclear plant and the coal industry has a higher leukaemia incidence risk than the nuclear industry, unless a nuclear accident occurs. Variation of nuclear accident size allows quantification of the impact of accidents on the total industry leukemia incidence risk comparison. The leukemia incidence risk is quantified as the number of accidents of a given size for the nuclear industry leukemia incidence risk to equal the coal industry leukemia incidence risk. The general linear model is used to develop equations that relate the accident frequency required for equal industry risks to the magnitude of the nuclear emission. Exploratory data analysis revealed that the relationship between the natural log of accident number versus the natural log of accident size is linear. (Author)

  18. Maximum Quantum Entropy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Jae-Hoon; Han, Myung Joon

    2018-01-01

    Maximum entropy method for analytic continuation is extended by introducing quantum relative entropy. This new method is formulated in terms of matrix-valued functions and therefore invariant under arbitrary unitary transformation of input matrix. As a result, the continuation of off-diagonal elements becomes straightforward. Without introducing any further ambiguity, the Bayesian probabilistic interpretation is maintained just as in the conventional maximum entropy method. The applications o...

  19. Cyber security in nuclear industry – Analytic study from the terror incident in nuclear power plants (NPPs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyo Sung; Woo, Tae Ho

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The cyber terrorism in NPPs of South Korea shows the study motivations. • Analyses of the cyber terrorism in NPPs are investigated. • Designed solutions for the cyber terrorism in NPPs are discussed. • South Korean case is considered as the cyber terrorism in NPPs. - Abstract: The cyber terrorism for nuclear power plants (NPPs) is investigated for the analytic study following the South Korean case on December 2014. There are several possible cyber terror attacks in which the twelve cases are studied for the nuclear terror cases including the computer hacking and data stealing. The defense-in-depth concept is compared for cyber terrorism, which was imported from the physical terror analysis. The conventional three conditions of the physical protection system (PPS) are modified as prevention, detection, and response. The six cases are introduced for the solutions of the facility against the possible cyber terrorism in NPPs. The computer hacking methods and related solutions are analyzed for the applications in the nuclear industry. The nuclear security in the NPPs could be an extremely serious condition and the remedies are very important in the safe plant operations. In addition, the quantitative modeling study is performed.

  20. Aerodynamic Effects of Turbulence Intensity on a Variable-Speed Power-Turbine Blade with Large Incidence and Reynolds Number Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegel, Ashlie Brynn; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of inlet turbulence intensity on the aerodynamic performance of a variable speed power turbine blade are examined over large incidence and Reynolds number ranges. Both high and low turbulence studies were conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility. The purpose of the low inlet turbulence study was to examine the transitional flow effects that are anticipated at cruise Reynolds numbers. The high turbulence study extends this to LPT-relevant turbulence levels while perhaps sacrificing transitional flow effects. Downstream total pressure and exit angle data were acquired for ten incidence angles ranging from +15.8 to 51.0. For each incidence angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with the exit Reynolds number ranging from 2.12105 to 2.12106 and at a design exit Mach number of 0.72. In order to achieve the lowest Reynolds number, the exit Mach number was reduced to 0.35 due to facility constraints. The inlet turbulence intensity, Tu, was measured using a single-wire hotwire located 0.415 axial-chord upstream of the blade row. The inlet turbulence levels ranged from 0.25 - 0.4 for the low Tu tests and 8- 15 for the high Tu study. Tu measurements were also made farther upstream so that turbulence decay rates could be calculated as needed for computational inlet boundary conditions. Downstream flow field measurements were obtained using a pneumatic five-hole pitchyaw probe located in a survey plane 7 axial chord aft of the blade trailing edge and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressures were acquired for each flow condition as well. The blade loading data show that the suction surface separation that was evident at many of the low Tu conditions has been eliminated. At the extreme positive and negative incidence angles, the data show substantial differences in the exit flow field. These differences are attributable to both the higher inlet Tu directly and to the thinner inlet endwall

  1. Evaluation of the maximum energy achieved through generation of hydro and wind power in the Northeast subsystem; Avaliacao da maxima energia assegurada atraves de geracao hidro-eolica no subsistema do Nordeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Pedro T.; Teixeira, Marcos A.; Kissel, Johannes [Gesellschaft Fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In the current context to encourage sustainable development, wind energy plays an important role in the spread of renewable energy sources. In this paper, the possibilities and difficulties of wind power integration in large-scale are evaluated, specifically in the northeastern region of Brazil. From the seasonal complementarity with the water source, scenarios are set out where the maximum participation of only these two sources in the energy supply of the region is sought. Aiming to evaluate the possibilities of a completely sustainable regional energy supply, the northeast subsystem is isolated, excluding, in principle, imports and exports. Therefore, the energy storage capacity of reservoirs in the region is used as a key factor, combined with the seasonal availability of data sources and the annual energy consumption of the region. (author)

  2. The role of the LLNL Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability in a FRMAC response to a nuclear power plant incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskett, R.L.; Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S.; Foster, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) can provide several emergency response resources in response to a nuclear power plant (NPP) accident if requested by a state or local agency. The primary FRERP technical resources come from the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). Most of the FRMAC assets are located at the DOE Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) at Nellis Air Force Base, Las Vegas, Nevada. In addition, the primary atmospheric dispersion modeling and dose assessment asset, the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) is located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. In the early stages of a response, ARAC relies on its automatic worldwide meteorological data acquisition via the Air Force Global Weather Center (AFGWC). The regional airport data are supplemented with data from on-site towers and sodars and the National Oceanographic ampersand Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) field-deployable real-time rawinsonde system. ARAC is prepared with three-dimensional regional-scale diagnostic dispersion model to simulate the complex mixed fission product release from a reactor accident. The program has been operational for 18 years and is presently developing its third generation system. The current modernization includes faster central computers, a new site workstation system. The current modernization includes faster central computers, a new site workstation system, improvements in its diagnostic dispersion models, addition of a new hybrid-particle source term, and implementation of a mesoscale prognostic model. AS these new capabilities evolve, they will be integrated into the FRMAC's field-deployable assets

  3. On Maximum Entropy and Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gresele

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Maximum entropy is a powerful concept that entails a sharp separation between relevant and irrelevant variables. It is typically invoked in inference, once an assumption is made on what the relevant variables are, in order to estimate a model from data, that affords predictions on all other (dependent variables. Conversely, maximum entropy can be invoked to retrieve the relevant variables (sufficient statistics directly from the data, once a model is identified by Bayesian model selection. We explore this approach in the case of spin models with interactions of arbitrary order, and we discuss how relevant interactions can be inferred. In this perspective, the dimensionality of the inference problem is not set by the number of parameters in the model, but by the frequency distribution of the data. We illustrate the method showing its ability to recover the correct model in a few prototype cases and discuss its application on a real dataset.

  4. On a research of the jet stream power generation. Part 2. Maximum height of a flying kite; Jet kiryu hatsuden no kenkyu. 2. Tako no totatsu kodo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyashita, J. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology

    1998-04-05

    Tethering cable was investigated as a part of a research of jet stream power generation using balloon and kite. Recently, there appeared new materials with light and high strength properties, such as carbon and polyamide resin. When these are used as tethering cables, flying ability of tethered bodies is remarkably improved. Tethered balloon at the altitude of 6500 feet and large-scale kite at the altitude of 5000 m are proposed for the idea of jet stream power generation. A computer program was developed for determining the flying ability of a kite, to calculate it. Similarity rule was also determined by the dimensional analysis. For a kite with a tethering cable having uniform diameter and specific gravity, the similarity can be obtained when two kinds of similarity rules are satisfied. One is (length of tethering cable/width of kite wing)times(dynamic pressure of air/tensile strength of cable){sup 1/2}=(constant). Another is (length of tethering cable)times(density of cable/tensile strength of cable)=(constant). Since the maximum height is in proportion to (strength/specific gravity) of the cable, it increases drastically using high performance materials. It is affected by the aerodynamic performance of the kite and the safety factor of strength of the cable. 4 refs., 45 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Maximum likely scale estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...

  6. Robust Maximum Association Estimators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Alfons (Andreas); C. Croux (Christophe); P. Filzmoser (Peter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe maximum association between two multivariate variables X and Y is defined as the maximal value that a bivariate association measure between one-dimensional projections αX and αY can attain. Taking the Pearson correlation as projection index results in the first canonical correlation

  7. Nonsymmetric entropy and maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengshi

    2009-01-01

    Under the frame of a statistical model, the concept of nonsymmetric entropy which generalizes the concepts of Boltzmann's entropy and Shannon's entropy, is defined. Maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle is proved. Some important distribution laws such as power law, can be derived from this principle naturally. Especially, nonsymmetric entropy is more convenient than other entropy such as Tsallis's entropy in deriving power laws.

  8. In situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy/synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction-A powerful new technique for the characterization of electrochemical surfaces and interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Marco, Roland [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Applied Chemistry, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)]. E-mail: r.demarco@exchange.curtin.edu.au; Jiang, Z.-T. [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Applied Chemistry, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Martizano, Jay [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Applied Chemistry, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Lowe, Alex [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Applied Chemistry, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Pejcic, Bobby [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Applied Chemistry, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Riessen, Arie van [Materials Research Group, Department of Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2006-08-15

    A marriage of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and in situ synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (SR-GIXRD) has provided a powerful new technique for the elucidation of the mechanistic chemistry of electrochemical systems. In this study, EIS/SR-GIXRD has been used to investigate the influence of metal ion buffer calibration ligands, along with natural organic ligands in seawater, on the behaviour of the iron chalcogenide glass ion-selective electrode (ISE). The SR-GIXRD data demonstrated that citrate - a previously reported poor iron calibration ligand for the analysis of seawater - induced an instantaneous and total dissolution of crystalline GeSe and Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} in the modified surface layer (MSL) of the ISE, while natural organic ligands in seawater and a mixture of ligands in a mimetic seawater ligand system protected the MSL's crystalline inclusions of GeSe and Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} from oxidative attack. Expectedly, the EIS data showed that citrate induced a loss in the medium frequency time constant for the MSL of the ISE, while seawater's natural organic ligands and the mimetic ligand system preserved the medium frequency EIS response characteristics of the ISE's MSL. The new EIS/SR-GIXRD technique has provided insights into the suitability of iron calibration ligands for the analysis of iron in seawater.

  9. Maximum entropy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponman, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    For some years now two different expressions have been in use for maximum entropy image restoration and there has been some controversy over which one is appropriate for a given problem. Here two further entropies are presented and it is argued that there is no single correct algorithm. The properties of the four different methods are compared using simple 1D simulations with a view to showing how they can be used together to gain as much information as possible about the original object. (orig.)

  10. Particle Swarm Optimization Based of the Maximum Photovoltaic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Photovoltaic electricity is seen as an important source of renewable energy. The photovoltaic array is an unstable source of power since the peak power point depends on the temperature and the irradiation level. A maximum peak power point tracking is then necessary for maximum efficiency. In this work, a Particle Swarm ...

  11. Optimum design of exploding pusher target to produce maximum neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Y.; Miyanaga, N.; Kato, Y.; Nakatsuka, M.; Nishiguchi, A.; Yabe, T.; Yamanaka, C.

    1985-03-01

    Exploding pusher target experiments have been conducted with the 1.052-μm GEKKO MII two-beam glass laser system to design an optimum target, which couples to the incident laser light most effectively to produce the maximum neutrons. Since hot electrons preheat the shell entirely in spite of strongly nonuniform irradiation, a simple model can design the optimum target, of which the shell/fuel interface is accelerated to 0.5 to 0.7 times the initial radius within a laser pulse. A 2-dimensional computer simulation supports this target design. The scaling of the neutron yield N with the laser power P is N ∝ P 2.4±0.4 . (author)

  12. The last glacial maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P.U.; Dyke, A.S.; Shakun, J.D.; Carlson, A.E.; Clark, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; McCabe, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level ???14.5 ka.

  13. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  14. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Topsøe

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over

  15. Probable maximum flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L.

    1991-11-01

    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility

  16. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. We review the need for such methods in data analysis and show, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. We conclude with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  17. Solar maximum observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    The successful retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite by Shuttle astronauts in April 1984 permitted continuance of solar flare observations that began in 1980. The SMM carries a soft X ray polychromator, gamma ray, UV and hard X ray imaging spectrometers, a coronagraph/polarimeter and particle counters. The data gathered thus far indicated that electrical potentials of 25 MeV develop in flares within 2 sec of onset. X ray data show that flares are composed of compressed magnetic loops that have come too close together. Other data have been taken on mass ejection, impacts of electron beams and conduction fronts with the chromosphere and changes in the solar radiant flux due to sunspots. 13 references

  18. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. The author reviews the need for such methods in data analysis and shows, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. He concludes with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  19. Functional Maximum Autocorrelation Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2005-01-01

    MAF outperforms the functional PCA in concentrating the interesting' spectra/shape variation in one end of the eigenvalue spectrum and allows for easier interpretation of effects. Conclusions. Functional MAF analysis is a useful methods for extracting low dimensional models of temporally or spatially......Purpose. We aim at data where samples of an underlying function are observed in a spatial or temporal layout. Examples of underlying functions are reflectance spectra and biological shapes. We apply functional models based on smoothing splines and generalize the functional PCA in......\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{ramsay97} to functional maximum autocorrelation factors (MAF)\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{switzer85,larsen2001d}. We apply the method to biological shapes as well as reflectance spectra. {\\$\\backslash\\$bf Methods}. MAF seeks linear combination of the original variables that maximize autocorrelation between...

  20. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yunji; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  1. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2015-02-12

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  2. Achieving maximum baryon densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1984-01-01

    In continuing work on nuclear stopping power in the energy range E/sub lab/ approx. 10 GeV/nucleon, calculations were made of the energy and baryon densities that could be achieved in uranium-uranium collisions. Results are shown. The energy density reached could exceed 2 GeV/fm 3 and baryon densities could reach as high as ten times normal nuclear densities

  3. Remarks on the maximum luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Ikeda, Taishi; Moore, Christopher J.; Yoo, Chul-Moon

    2018-04-01

    The quest for fundamental limitations on physical processes is old and venerable. Here, we investigate the maximum possible power, or luminosity, that any event can produce. We show, via full nonlinear simulations of Einstein's equations, that there exist initial conditions which give rise to arbitrarily large luminosities. However, the requirement that there is no past horizon in the spacetime seems to limit the luminosity to below the Planck value, LP=c5/G . Numerical relativity simulations of critical collapse yield the largest luminosities observed to date, ≈ 0.2 LP . We also present an analytic solution to the Einstein equations which seems to give an unboundedly large luminosity; this will guide future numerical efforts to investigate super-Planckian luminosities.

  4. Communication report regarding the incident on the residual heat removal system at the nuclear power plant of Civaux May 12, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadeyron, Philippe

    1999-01-01

    The RRA (Residual Heat Removal System) of unit I had a leak of 280 m 3 while the reactor was shutdown for a period of 5 days, for normal start up tests. The leak was caused by a crack in a weld on a pipe of 25 cm in diameter. The liquid was completely contained within the Reactor Building containment; absolutely nothing leaked outside of the Reactor Building. This incident was classified level 2 on the INES scale. The Communication Immediately following the Incident showed that the efforts towards transparency were rewarding. A few months after the incident, hindsight helps, we can say that the media management of the RRA incident on, May 12th was in the image of its technical management, that is to say well mastered, and outside of the incident itself close to perfect. Obviously, the work we did during crisis exercises reaped its rewards. What is missing to advance to the next level? Maybe a bit of psychology, to attempt to surmise what a leak of radioactive water could represent in the public's eyes as well as the Media's who ignore the 'safety culture' (back-up trains etc.) and who still have fresh in their memories the Chernobyl accident. The vital Experience Feedback we collected and that of the Nuclear Industry since it exists incident after incident, even if immeasurable progress has been made (Civaux is a good example) our technical culture remains a hinderence towards a good estimation of the emotional level that such an incident can cause. Otherwise said, we still have progress to make on measuring the impact of an incident, not on the technical consequences nor the seriousness, but on the psychological impact it may have on the public. Beyond the crisis, this incident also showed how essential it is to dare talking about incidents and Safety Culture before intervening. The intimate enemy of Nuclear Energy is above all the relative ignorance in which the population finds itself. We still have work to do

  5. Maximum entropy tokamak configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minardi, E.

    1989-01-01

    The new entropy concept for the collective magnetic equilibria is applied to the description of the states of a tokamak subject to ohmic and auxiliary heating. The condition for the existence of steady state plasma states with vanishing entropy production implies, on one hand, the resilience of specific current density profiles and, on the other, severe restrictions on the scaling of the confinement time with power and current. These restrictions are consistent with Goldston scaling and with the existence of a heat pinch. (author)

  6. Solar maximum mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.

    1981-01-01

    By understanding the sun, astrophysicists hope to expand this knowledge to understanding other stars. To study the sun, NASA launched a satellite on February 14, 1980. The project is named the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). The satellite conducted detailed observations of the sun in collaboration with other satellites and ground-based optical and radio observations until its failure 10 months into the mission. The main objective of the SMM was to investigate one aspect of solar activity: solar flares. A brief description of the flare mechanism is given. The SMM satellite was valuable in providing information on where and how a solar flare occurs. A sequence of photographs of a solar flare taken from SMM satellite shows how a solar flare develops in a particular layer of the solar atmosphere. Two flares especially suitable for detailed observations by a joint effort occurred on April 30 and May 21 of 1980. These flares and observations of the flares are discussed. Also discussed are significant discoveries made by individual experiments

  7. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    and creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable....... It is thus a central point that power is not necessarily something that breaks down and represses. On the contrary, an explicit focus on the dynamics of power in relation to creativity can be productive for the organisation. Our main focus is to elaborate the implications of this for practice and theory...

  8. Incidents analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.

    1996-01-01

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs

  9. Incidents analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, P

    1997-12-31

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs.

  10. Lightning study - climate change and the impact on the incidence of lightning adaptation needs in the power supply; Lynstudien - Klimaendringenes betydning for forekomsten av lyn tilpassingsbehov i kraftforsyningen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midtboe, Knut Helge; Haugen, Jan Erik; Koeltzow, Morten Andreas Oedegaard

    2011-04-15

    Requirements. Network owners are required by the Energy Act to keep your system in proper working condition. The purpose with emergency response efforts in the power supply is to prevent and handle incidents regard to technical failure, natural damage and deliberate vandalism. This will contribute to good supply. Regulations for standby power supply (Emergency Regulations) gives each company a duty to identify risk and vulnerability at the extraordinary events related to technical failure, natural damage and deliberate vandalism. Furthermore, analysis also embrace the various emergency regulations require to be implemented. This means that each company should assess their risk and vulnerability against all natural phenomena, including lightning. This applies not only to current climate, but also on the basis of what needs to be estimated as the foreseeable risk of the plant technical service life. Furthermore, the Regulations an obligation to identify the need for emergency repairs to deal with the outcome as a result of extraordinary events and analyze whether this repair response is robust enough to meet regulatory requirements. Major challenges As you will see from the report's conclusions, shows Met.no's analysis a probable increase in lightning frequency of 25% until the year 2050 for the country as a whole. Until the year 2100 one can expect a further increase of lightning frequency in line with the increase in temperature and precipitation. Lightning is a major cause of failure in power supply. In particular, transformers high-voltage distribution networks with overhead lines where there is continuous conductors, are exposed to this. When a transformer is subjected to lightning surges this result in estimates of isolation followed by a short circuit or breakdown in transformer. This can quickly lead to disruption of shorter or longer duration of electricity supply to customers. Such interruptions are undesirable not only from customers perspective

  11. An investigation of the maximum penetration level of a photovoltaic (PV) system into a traditional distribution grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalise, Santosh

    Although solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have remained the fastest growing renewable power generating technology, variability as well as uncertainty in the output of PV plants is a significant issue. This rapid increase in PV grid-connected generation presents not only progress in clean energy but also challenges in integration with traditional electric power grids which were designed for transmission and distribution of power from central stations. Unlike conventional electric generators, PV panels do not have rotating parts and thus have no inertia. This potentially causes a problem when the solar irradiance incident upon a PV plant changes suddenly, for example, when scattered clouds pass quickly overhead. The output power of the PV plant may fluctuate nearly as rapidly as the incident irradiance. These rapid power output fluctuations may then cause voltage fluctuations, frequency fluctuations, and power quality issues. These power quality issues are more severe with increasing PV plant power output. This limits the maximum power output allowed from interconnected PV plants. Voltage regulation of a distribution system, a focus of this research, is a prime limiting factor in PV penetration levels. The IEEE 13-node test feeder, modeled and tested in the MATLAB/Simulink environment, was used as an example distribution feeder to analyze the maximum acceptable penetration of a PV plant. The effect of the PV plant's location was investigated, along with the addition of a VAR compensating device (a D-STATCOM in this case). The results were used to develop simple guidelines for determining an initial estimate of the maximum PV penetration level on a distribution feeder. For example, when no compensating devices are added to the system, a higher level of PV penetration is generally achieved by installing the PV plant close to the substation. The opposite is true when a VAR compensator is installed with the PV plant. In these cases, PV penetration levels over 50% may be

  12. Precursor incident program at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourest, B.; Maliverney, B.; Rozenholc, M.; Piovesan, C.

    1998-01-01

    The precursor program was started by EDF in 1994, after an investigation of the US NRC's Accident Sequence Precursor Program. Since then, reported operational events identified as Safety Outstanding Events have been analyzed whenever possible using probabilistic methods based on PSAs. Analysis provides an estimate of the remaining protection against core damage at the time the incident occurred. Measuring the incidents' severity enables to detect incidents important regarding safety. Moreover, the most efficient feedback actions can be derived from the main accident sequences identified through the analysis. Therefore, incident probabilistic analysis provides a way to assess priorities in terms of treatment and resource allocation, and so, to implement countermeasures preventing further occurrence and development of the most significant incidents. As some incidents cannot be analyzed using this method, probabilistic analysis can only be one among the methods used to assess the nuclear power plants' safety level. Nevertheless, it provides an interesting complement to classical methods of deterministic studies. (author)

  13. Maximum Parsimony on Phylogenetic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic networks are generalizations of phylogenetic trees, that are used to model evolutionary events in various contexts. Several different methods and criteria have been introduced for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Maximum Parsimony is a character-based approach that infers a phylogenetic tree by minimizing the total number of evolutionary steps required to explain a given set of data assigned on the leaves. Exact solutions for optimizing parsimony scores on phylogenetic trees have been introduced in the past. Results In this paper, we define the parsimony score on networks as the sum of the substitution costs along all the edges of the network; and show that certain well-known algorithms that calculate the optimum parsimony score on trees, such as Sankoff and Fitch algorithms extend naturally for networks, barring conflicting assignments at the reticulate vertices. We provide heuristics for finding the optimum parsimony scores on networks. Our algorithms can be applied for any cost matrix that may contain unequal substitution costs of transforming between different characters along different edges of the network. We analyzed this for experimental data on 10 leaves or fewer with at most 2 reticulations and found that for almost all networks, the bounds returned by the heuristics matched with the exhaustively determined optimum parsimony scores. Conclusion The parsimony score we define here does not directly reflect the cost of the best tree in the network that displays the evolution of the character. However, when searching for the most parsimonious network that describes a collection of characters, it becomes necessary to add additional cost considerations to prefer simpler structures, such as trees over networks. The parsimony score on a network that we describe here takes into account the substitution costs along the additional edges incident on each reticulate vertex, in addition to the substitution costs along the other edges which are

  14. Credal Networks under Maximum Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasiewicz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We apply the principle of maximum entropy to select a unique joint probability distribution from the set of all joint probability distributions specified by a credal network. In detail, we start by showing that the unique joint distribution of a Bayesian tree coincides with the maximum entropy model of its conditional distributions. This result, however, does not hold anymore for general Bayesian networks. We thus present a new kind of maximum entropy models, which are computed sequentially. ...

  15. Pareto versus lognormal: a maximum entropy test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

    2011-08-01

    It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

  16. Incidence and impact of axial malformations in larval bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) developing in sites polluted by a coal-burning power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, W.A.; Congdon, J.; Ray, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    Amphibian malformations have recently received much attention from the scientific community, but few studies have provided evidence linking environmental pollution to larval amphibian malformations in the field. The authors document an increased incidence of axial malformations in bullfrog larvae (Rana catesbeiana) inhabiting two sites contaminated with coal combustion wastes. In the polluted sites, 18 and 37% of larvae exhibited lateral curvatures of the spine, whereas zero and 4% of larvae from two reference sites had similar malformations. Larvae from the most heavily polluted site had significantly higher tissue concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements, including As, Cd, Se, Cu, Cr, and V, compared with conspecifics from the reference sites. In addition, malformed larvae from the cost contaminated site had decreased swimming speeds compared with those of normal larvae from the same site. The authors hypothesize that the complex mixture of contaminants produced by coal combustion is responsible for the high incidence of malformations and associated effects on swimming performance

  17. Analysis of minor incidents in the operation of nuclear power plants: a case study on the use of procedures in organizations dealing with hazardous technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Paulo Victor Rodrigues de; Vidal, Mario Cesar Rodriguea; Carvalho, Eduardo Ferro de

    2005-01-01

    Organizations that work with hazardous materials, such as nuclear power plants, offshore installations, and chemical and petrochemical plants, have risk management systems involving accident control and mitigation to ensure the safety of their facilities. These systems are based on physical devices, such as protective barriers, equipment and systems aimed at preventing the occurrence and propagation of accidents, and on human aspects such as regulations and procedures. This paper analyzes the use of a variety of procedures by nuclear power plant control room operators. The methodology consisted of analyzing the work of control room operators during the normal operations, shutdown, and startup of a nuclear power plant, and in full scale simulator training. This survey revealed that routine noncompliance to procedures was considered normal according to the operating rationale, which is based on technical, organizational and cultural factors. These findings indicate that the competencies nuclear power plant operators must possess far exceed proper technical training and the ability to follow written instructions. (author)

  18. Functional analysis of controbloc incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouffon, A.; Jorel, M.

    1992-11-01

    The subject of the present paper is the survey jointly carried out in 1989 by the IPSN Safety Analysis Department and the Firm BERTIN and Co. on significant incidents related to the Controbloc system equipping the EDF 1300 MWe PWR power plants in France. This survey consisted in a general review of Controbloc operating problems, together with analysis of the safety consequences of the incidents discussed. The survey enabled improvements to be recommended in this respect and provided a basis for safety analysis

  19. Modelling maximum likelihood estimation of availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, R.A.; Tietjen, G.L.; Rock, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    Suppose the performance of a nuclear powered electrical generating power plant is continuously monitored to record the sequence of failure and repairs during sustained operation. The purpose of this study is to assess one method of estimating the performance of the power plant when the measure of performance is availability. That is, we determine the probability that the plant is operational at time t. To study the availability of a power plant, we first assume statistical models for the variables, X and Y, which denote the time-to-failure and the time-to-repair variables, respectively. Once those statistical models are specified, the availability, A(t), can be expressed as a function of some or all of their parameters. Usually those parameters are unknown in practice and so A(t) is unknown. This paper discusses the maximum likelihood estimator of A(t) when the time-to-failure model for X is an exponential density with parameter, lambda, and the time-to-repair model for Y is an exponential density with parameter, theta. Under the assumption of exponential models for X and Y, it follows that the instantaneous availability at time t is A(t)=lambda/(lambda+theta)+theta/(lambda+theta)exp[-[(1/lambda)+(1/theta)]t] with t>0. Also, the steady-state availability is A(infinity)=lambda/(lambda+theta). We use the observations from n failure-repair cycles of the power plant, say X 1 , X 2 , ..., Xsub(n), Y 1 , Y 2 , ..., Ysub(n) to present the maximum likelihood estimators of A(t) and A(infinity). The exact sampling distributions for those estimators and some statistical properties are discussed before a simulation model is used to determine 95% simulation intervals for A(t). The methodology is applied to two examples which approximate the operating history of two nuclear power plants. (author)

  20. Program for analysis and evaluation of operational data in nuclear power plants - statistical of operational incident of 1984 to 1985 from Angra-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, H.V.; Ambros, P.C.; Araujo, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    The reports of CNEN in the years of 1984 - 1985 regarding reactor accidents. These reports are divided into five classes: reactor shutdown, operator of the core emergency cooling system, power plant operating at limit conditions, radioactivity contamination and super exposition is presented. (A.C.A.S.)

  1. Maximum penetration level of distributed generation without violating voltage limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morren, J.; Haan, de S.W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Connection of Distributed Generation (DG) units to a distribution network will result in a local voltage increase. As there will be a maximum on the allowable voltage increase, this will limit the maximum allowable penetration level of DG. By reactive power compensation (by the DG unit itself) a

  2. Integrated module inverter using a zeta DC-DC converter with feedforward MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) control; Inversor modulo integrado utilizando um conversor CC-CC zeta com controle MPPT feedforward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Henrique Fioravanti Miguel

    2009-08-15

    This work presents the study and development of a processing power system that could be used in the connection of renewable energy sources to commercial power grid. The system consists of a ZETA converter associated with a bridge inverter operating at low frequency. The Zeta converter, operating in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM), plays the main role in this arrangement, producing a rectified sinusoidal current waveform synchronized with the electric grid. The function of the full-bridge inverter, connected in cascade with the Zeta converter, is to reverse every 180 deg the current generated by the Zeta converter. Initially it presents the analysis of the Zeta converter operating in DCM, as well as a design criterion. Following by the control strategy and the experimental results for the proposed system are presented and discussed. (author)

  3. Study on laser welding of austenitic stainless steel by varying incident angle of pulsed laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nikhil; Mukherjee, Manidipto; Bandyopadhyay, Asish

    2017-09-01

    In the present work, AISI 304 stainless steel sheets are laser welded in butt joint configuration using a robotic control 600 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser system. The objective of the work is of twofold. Firstly, the study aims to find out the effect of incident angle on the weld pool geometry, microstructure and tensile property of the welded joints. Secondly, a set of experiments are conducted, according to response surface design, to investigate the effects of process parameters, namely, incident angle of laser beam, laser power and welding speed, on ultimate tensile strength by developing a second order polynomial equation. Study with three different incident angle of laser beam 89.7 deg, 85.5 deg and 83 deg has been presented in this work. It is observed that the weld pool geometry has been significantly altered with the deviation in incident angle. The weld pool shape at the top surface has been altered from semispherical or nearly spherical shape to tear drop shape with decrease in incident angle. Simultaneously, planer, fine columnar dendritic and coarse columnar dendritic structures have been observed at 89.7 deg, 85.5 deg and 83 deg incident angle respectively. Weld metals with 85.5 deg incident angle has higher fraction of carbide and δ-ferrite precipitation in the austenitic matrix compared to other weld conditions. Hence, weld metal of 85.5 deg incident angle achieved higher micro-hardness of ∼280 HV and tensile strength of 579.26 MPa followed by 89.7 deg and 83 deg incident angle welds. Furthermore, the predicted maximum value of ultimate tensile strength of 580.50 MPa has been achieved for 85.95 deg incident angle using the developed equation where other two optimum parameter settings have been obtained as laser power of 455.52 W and welding speed of 4.95 mm/s. This observation has been satisfactorily validated by three confirmatory tests.

  4. STAND-ALONE WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM WITH MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER CONTROL SISTEMA AISLADO DE CONVERSIÓN EÓLICA CON CONTROL DE MÁXIMA TRANSFERENCIA DE POTENCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel López

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A controlled wind generation system for a stand alone application is presented in this paper. A cascaded step-up/step-down power electronic converters topology is proposed to control the wind power system in the whole wind speed range. For the low wind speed range, the control strategy is aimed to follow the wind turbine’s maximal power coefficient by adjusting the generator’s rotational speed. For high wind speeds, the system power regulation is also made by controlling the generator speed. This control is made by the DC/DC power electronic converter, which modifies its input voltage, changing the machine voltage and consequently varying the generator’s rotor speed. The proposed system is validated by computer simulation. The proposed control system shows a good performance for its application in autonomous wind energy systems.Un sistema de generación eólica para una aplicación aislada es presentado en este artículo. Una topología de convertidores electrónicos de potencia elevador y reductor conectados en cascada es propuesta para controlar la producción eólica en todo el rango de velocidades del viento. Para el rango de vientos suaves, la estrategia de control permite seguir el máximo coeficiente de potencia de turbina eólica mediante el ajuste de la velocidad de rotación del generador. En el rango de vientos fuertes, la regulación de la potencia del sistema se hace igualmente por control de la velocidad de giro del generador. La acción de control es realizada mediante el convertidor DC/DC de potencia el cual modifica su tensión de entrada, cambiando así la tensión en los terminales de la máquina y por consecuencia variando la velocidad de rotación del generador. El sistema propuesto es validado mediante simulación por computador. Los resultados muestran que el sistema de control propuesto actúa de buena manera para su aplicación en sistemas autónomos de generación eólica.

  5. Prediction of SO{sub 2} pollution incidents near a power station using partially linear models and an historical matrix of predictor-response vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prada-Sanchez, J.M.; Febrero-Bande, M.; Gonzalez-Manteiga, W. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Dept. de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Costos-Yanez, T. [Universidad de Vigo, Dept. de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Orense (Spain); Bermudez-Cela, J.L.; Lucas-Dominguez, T. [Laboratorio, Central Termica de As Pontes, La Coruna (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Atmospheric SO{sub 2} concentrations at sampling stations near the fossil fuel fired power station at As Pontes (La Coruna, Spain) were predicted using a model for the corresponding time series consisting of a self-explicative term and a linear combination of exogenous variables. In a supplementary simulation study, models of this kind behaved better than the corresponding pure self-explicative or pure linear regression models. (Author)

  6. Prediction of SO2 pollution incidents near a power station using partially linear models and an historical matrix of predictor-response vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prada-Sanchez, J.M.; Febrero-Bande, M.; Gonzalez-Manteiga, W.; Costos-Yanez, T.; Bermudez-Cela, J.L.; Lucas-Dominguez, T.

    2000-01-01

    Atmospheric SO 2 concentrations at sampling stations near the fossil fuel fired power station at As Pontes (La Coruna, Spain) were predicted using a model for the corresponding time series consisting of a self-explicative term and a linear combination of exogenous variables. In a supplementary simulation study, models of this kind behaved better than the corresponding pure self-explicative or pure linear regression models. (Author)

  7. Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yuan Tseng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.

  8. Maximum Temperature Detection System for Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankiewicz, Maciej; Kos, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    The paper describes structure and measurement results of the system detecting present maximum temperature on the surface of an integrated circuit. The system consists of the set of proportional to absolute temperature sensors, temperature processing path and a digital part designed in VHDL. Analogue parts of the circuit where designed with full-custom technique. The system is a part of temperature-controlled oscillator circuit - a power management system based on dynamic frequency scaling method. The oscillator cooperates with microprocessor dedicated for thermal experiments. The whole system is implemented in UMC CMOS 0.18 μm (1.8 V) technology.

  9. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    60, No. 3. — journal of. March 2003 physics pp. 415–422. Maximum stellar iron core mass. F W GIACOBBE. Chicago Research Center/American Air Liquide ... iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large .... thermal equilibrium velocities will tend to be non-relativistic.

  10. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs

  11. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore

  12. A portable storage maximum thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayart, Gerard.

    1976-01-01

    A clinical thermometer storing the voltage corresponding to the maximum temperature in an analog memory is described. End of the measurement is shown by a lamp switch out. The measurement time is shortened by means of a low thermal inertia platinum probe. This portable thermometer is fitted with cell test and calibration system [fr

  13. Neutron spectra unfolding with maximum entropy and maximum likelihood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shikoh; Tsunoda, Toshiharu

    1989-01-01

    A new unfolding theory has been established on the basis of the maximum entropy principle and the maximum likelihood method. This theory correctly embodies the Poisson statistics of neutron detection, and always brings a positive solution over the whole energy range. Moreover, the theory unifies both problems of overdetermined and of underdetermined. For the latter, the ambiguity in assigning a prior probability, i.e. the initial guess in the Bayesian sense, has become extinct by virtue of the principle. An approximate expression of the covariance matrix for the resultant spectra is also presented. An efficient algorithm to solve the nonlinear system, which appears in the present study, has been established. Results of computer simulation showed the effectiveness of the present theory. (author)

  14. Incident simulation at the power plant simulator - on the interpretation of operator actions and their cognitive causes as basis for ergonomic recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.

    1985-01-01

    We first carried out a pilot investigation, the aims of which were twofold, the development of suitable methods and the provision of evidence that these methods bring us nearer to the aims of the plan as a whole; the deduction of initial ideas for ergonomic improvements, since this BMFT program is application-oriented and is not a basic program. To the best of our knowledge, our investigation is the only one in which experienced nuclear power plant operators (operations staff) were observed during their handling of an unknown failure situation on a full simulator. During this investigation, the currently most promising methods for the analysis of strategies for the organization and solution of problems were applied, which comprise the interaction (particularly verbal) between the operators of a team with simultaneous video recording. (orig./GL) [de

  15. Fission products in National Atmospheric Deposition Program—Wet deposition samples prior to and following the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant incident, March 8?April 5, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Debey, Timothy M.; Nilles, Mark A.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.; Gay, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes I-131, Cs-134, or Cs-137, products of uranium fission, were measured at approximately 20 percent of 167 sampled National Atmospheric Deposition Program monitoring sites in North America (primarily in the contiguous United States and Alaska) after the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant incident on March 12, 2011. Samples from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program were analyzed for the period of March 8-April 5, 2011. Calculated 1- or 2-week radionuclide deposition fluxes at 35 sites from Alaska to Vermont ranged from 0.47 to 5,100 Becquerels per square meter during the sampling period of March 15-April 5, 2011. No fission-product isotopes were measured in National Atmospheric Deposition Program samples obtained during March 8-15, 2011, prior to the arrival of contaminated air in North America.

  16. Maximum Power Point Tracking Compound Control Strategy of MW Level Wind Turbines%MW级风电机组最大功率追踪复合控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童亦斌; 刘展; 刘远远

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic valid wind speed of aerodynamic characteristic wind wheel was evaluated based on BP neural network. According to the evaluated valid wind speed dynamically and combined direct wind speed control with indirectly wind control, a new complex control method was proposed. With this complex control method, dynamic characteristics of MPPT under indirect wind speed control can be obviously improved when wind speed evaluation is estimated with error. Besides, it can also follow the fluctuations of wind to increase the efficiency of wind power.%针对目前普遍应用的间接转速控制技术由于风轮转动惯量大而导致动态跟踪特性较差的问题,提出直接风速控制与间接风速控制相结合,改善最大功率追踪响应性能的新型复合控制策略.针对风速测量不准确,采用BP神经网络构建了有效风速估计模型.仿真实验证明,基于有效风速估计与真实风速的一致性,即使估计存在误差,采用复合控制策略也可以提升风能利用系数,提高发电量1% ~2%.

  17. Maximum Water Hammer Sensitivity Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jalil Emadi; Abbas Solemani

    2011-01-01

    Pressure waves and Water Hammer occur in a pumping system when valves are closed or opened suddenly or in the case of sudden failure of pumps. Determination of maximum water hammer is considered one of the most important technical and economical items of which engineers and designers of pumping stations and conveyance pipelines should take care. Hammer Software is a recent application used to simulate water hammer. The present study focuses on determining significance of ...

  18. Maximum Gene-Support Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Shan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomes and genes diversify during evolution; however, it is unclear to what extent genes still retain the relationship among species. Model species for molecular phylogenetic studies include yeasts and viruses whose genomes were sequenced as well as plants that have the fossil-supported true phylogenetic trees available. In this study, we generated single gene trees of seven yeast species as well as single gene trees of nine baculovirus species using all the orthologous genes among the species compared. Homologous genes among seven known plants were used for validation of the finding. Four algorithms—maximum parsimony (MP, minimum evolution (ME, maximum likelihood (ML, and neighbor-joining (NJ—were used. Trees were reconstructed before and after weighting the DNA and protein sequence lengths among genes. Rarely a gene can always generate the “true tree” by all the four algorithms. However, the most frequent gene tree, termed “maximum gene-support tree” (MGS tree, or WMGS tree for the weighted one, in yeasts, baculoviruses, or plants was consistently found to be the “true tree” among the species. The results provide insights into the overall degree of divergence of orthologous genes of the genomes analyzed and suggest the following: 1 The true tree relationship among the species studied is still maintained by the largest group of orthologous genes; 2 There are usually more orthologous genes with higher similarities between genetically closer species than between genetically more distant ones; and 3 The maximum gene-support tree reflects the phylogenetic relationship among species in comparison.

  19. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  20. Generic maximum likely scale selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    in this work is on applying this selection principle under a Brownian image model. This image model provides a simple scale invariant prior for natural images and we provide illustrative examples of the behavior of our scale estimation on such images. In these illustrative examples, estimation is based......The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...

  1. The Three-Mile Island incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, L.M.

    1979-10-01

    A description is given of the engineering design principles of the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) of the Three Mile Island-2 power plant. The successive stages of the incident are recounted, with diagrammatic illustrations, and graphs showing the reactor coolant system parameters at various times after the incident. The consequential events and core damage are discussed. (U.K.)

  2. Extreme Maximum Land Surface Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1992-09-01

    There are numerous reports in the literature of observations of land surface temperatures. Some of these, almost all made in situ, reveal maximum values in the 50°-70°C range, with a few, made in desert regions, near 80°C. Consideration of a simplified form of the surface energy balance equation, utilizing likely upper values of absorbed shortwave flux (1000 W m2) and screen air temperature (55°C), that surface temperatures in the vicinity of 90°-100°C may occur for dry, darkish soils of low thermal conductivity (0.1-0.2 W m1 K1). Numerical simulations confirm this and suggest that temperature gradients in the first few centimeters of soil may reach 0.5°-1°C mm1 under these extreme conditions. The study bears upon the intrinsic interest of identifying extreme maximum temperatures and yields interesting information regarding the comfort zone of animals (including man).

  3. Dinosaur Metabolism and the Allometry of Maximum Growth Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Myhrvold, Nathan P.

    2016-01-01

    The allometry of maximum somatic growth rate has been used in prior studies to classify the metabolic state of both extant vertebrates and dinosaurs. The most recent such studies are reviewed, and their data is reanalyzed. The results of allometric regressions on growth rate are shown to depend on the choice of independent variable; the typical choice used in prior studies introduces a geometric shear transformation that exaggerates the statistical power of the regressions. The maximum growth...

  4. System for memorizing maximum values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1992-08-01

    The invention discloses a system capable of memorizing maximum sensed values. The system includes conditioning circuitry which receives the analog output signal from a sensor transducer. The conditioning circuitry rectifies and filters the analog signal and provides an input signal to a digital driver, which may be either linear or logarithmic. The driver converts the analog signal to discrete digital values, which in turn triggers an output signal on one of a plurality of driver output lines n. The particular output lines selected is dependent on the converted digital value. A microfuse memory device connects across the driver output lines, with n segments. Each segment is associated with one driver output line, and includes a microfuse that is blown when a signal appears on the associated driver output line.

  5. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  6. Scintillation counter, maximum gamma aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumim, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  7. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Shiguang; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  8. Model-based maximum power point tracking for wind generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Julián Saavedra-Montes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta una estrategia de seguimiento del punto de máxima potencia, basada en modelo para generadores eólicos. La estrategia utiliza el concepto del resistor libre de pérdidas y un modelo del generador, el cual representa la impedancia de carga requerida para producir la máxima potencia posible en la velocidad del rotor del generador. Los resultados de la estrategia son validados a través de simulación y una emulación de un sistema con múltiples aerogeneradores. Con la estrategia propuesta es posible extraer la máxima potencia de cada generador y, por lo tanto, la máxima potencia del sistema de generación.

  9. Adaptive Control of Wind Turbines for Maximum Power Point Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei

    2018-01-01

    induction generator (SCIG) is used to illustrate the generator control system for a variable‐speed WECS. The chapter also presents case studies have been carried out to verify the developed adaptive controller for WECSs. WECSs are non‐linear systems with parameter uncertainties and which are subject...... to disturbances, in the form of non‐linear and unmodeled aerodynamics....

  10. Maximum-power-point tracking control of solar heating system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine; Ton, Wei-Zhe; Wu, Chen-Chun; Ko, Hua-Wei; Chang, Hsien-Shun; Yen, Rue-Her; Wang, Jiunn-Cherng

    2012-01-01

    was used to determine the instantaneous tracking target Q max(t). The system transfer-function model of solar heating system was also derived experimentally using a step response test and used in the design of tracking feedback control system. The PI

  11. Maximum entropy and Bayesian methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.R.; Erickson, G.J.; Neudorfer, P.O.

    1992-01-01

    Bayesian probability theory and Maximum Entropy methods are at the core of a new view of scientific inference. These 'new' ideas, along with the revolution in computational methods afforded by modern computers allow astronomers, electrical engineers, image processors of any type, NMR chemists and physicists, and anyone at all who has to deal with incomplete and noisy data, to take advantage of methods that, in the past, have been applied only in some areas of theoretical physics. The title workshops have been the focus of a group of researchers from many different fields, and this diversity is evident in this book. There are tutorial and theoretical papers, and applications in a very wide variety of fields. Almost any instance of dealing with incomplete and noisy data can be usefully treated by these methods, and many areas of theoretical research are being enhanced by the thoughtful application of Bayes' theorem. Contributions contained in this volume present a state-of-the-art overview that will be influential and useful for many years to come

  12. Maximum entropy principal for transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilich, F.; Da Silva, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  13. Nuclear power plants in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennings, U.; Stuermer, W.

    1993-01-01

    Under the influence of the polarization between belief in progress, on the one hand, and the moral rigorism of our society, on the other hand, the risks of modern large technical systems have helped the highest level of technical safety to be attained in Germany. It has been reached especially by opting for maximum quality, maximum utility and reliability, complete documentation, continuous in-service checks during operation and, last but not least, by including man and human fallibility. Our concern should be that this strategy pursued in the Western industrialized countries becomes the rule, at least in its main characteristics, also in the Eastern countries. The hazards associated with reactors in Eastern countries affect us all, and it is especially the safety of those reactors which is causing concern. The experience accumulated with the 417 nuclear power plants now in operation, especially the incidents and accidents, shows that hazard potential management is admissible only with a highly developed safety strategy. (orig.) [de

  14. Incident Information Management Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Pejovic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Flaws of\tcurrent incident information management at CMS and CERN\tare discussed. A new data\tmodel for future incident database is\tproposed and briefly described. Recently developed draft version of GIS-­‐based tool for incident tracking is presented.

  15. Maximum super angle optimization method for array antenna pattern synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Ji; Roederer, A. G

    1991-01-01

    Different optimization criteria related to antenna pattern synthesis are discussed. Based on the maximum criteria and vector space representation, a simple and efficient optimization method is presented for array and array fed reflector power pattern synthesis. A sector pattern synthesized by a 2...

  16. Transversals and independence in linear hypergraphs with maximum degree two

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Michael A.; Yeo, Anders

    2017-01-01

    , k-uniform hypergraphs with maximum degree 2. It is known [European J. Combin. 36 (2014), 231–236] that if H ∈ Hk, then (k + 1)τ (H) 6 ≤ n + m, and there are only two hypergraphs that achieve equality in the bound. In this paper, we prove a much more powerful result, and establish tight upper bounds...

  17. Last Glacial Maximum Salinity Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, K.; Spivack, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that salinity can be reconstructed from sediment porewater. The goal of our study is to reconstruct high precision salinity during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Salinity is usually determined at high precision via conductivity, which requires a larger volume of water than can be extracted from a sediment core, or via chloride titration, which yields lower than ideal precision. It has been demonstrated for water column samples that high precision density measurements can be used to determine salinity at the precision of a conductivity measurement using the equation of state of seawater. However, water column seawater has a relatively constant composition, in contrast to porewater, where variations from standard seawater composition occur. These deviations, which affect the equation of state, must be corrected for through precise measurements of each ion's concentration and knowledge of apparent partial molar density in seawater. We have developed a density-based method for determining porewater salinity that requires only 5 mL of sample, achieving density precisions of 10-6 g/mL. We have applied this method to porewater samples extracted from long cores collected along a N-S transect across the western North Atlantic (R/V Knorr cruise KN223). Density was determined to a precision of 2.3x10-6 g/mL, which translates to salinity uncertainty of 0.002 gms/kg if the effect of differences in composition is well constrained. Concentrations of anions (Cl-, and SO4-2) and cations (Na+, Mg+, Ca+2, and K+) were measured. To correct salinities at the precision required to unravel LGM Meridional Overturning Circulation, our ion precisions must be better than 0.1% for SO4-/Cl- and Mg+/Na+, and 0.4% for Ca+/Na+, and K+/Na+. Alkalinity, pH and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon of the porewater were determined to precisions better than 4% when ratioed to Cl-, and used to calculate HCO3-, and CO3-2. Apparent partial molar densities in seawater were

  18. Probabilistic maximum-value wind prediction for offshore environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staid, Andrea; Pinson, Pierre; Guikema, Seth D.

    2015-01-01

    statistical models to predict the full distribution of the maximum-value wind speeds in a 3 h interval. We take a detailed look at the performance of linear models, generalized additive models and multivariate adaptive regression splines models using meteorological covariates such as gust speed, wind speed......, convective available potential energy, Charnock, mean sea-level pressure and temperature, as given by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts forecasts. The models are trained to predict the mean value of maximum wind speed, and the residuals from training the models are used to develop...... the full probabilistic distribution of maximum wind speed. Knowledge of the maximum wind speed for an offshore location within a given period can inform decision-making regarding turbine operations, planned maintenance operations and power grid scheduling in order to improve safety and reliability...

  19. Maximum likelihood estimation of finite mixture model for economic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoong, Seuk-Yen; Ismail, Mohd Tahir

    2014-06-01

    Finite mixture model is a mixture model with finite-dimension. This models are provides a natural representation of heterogeneity in a finite number of latent classes. In addition, finite mixture models also known as latent class models or unsupervised learning models. Recently, maximum likelihood estimation fitted finite mixture models has greatly drawn statistician's attention. The main reason is because maximum likelihood estimation is a powerful statistical method which provides consistent findings as the sample sizes increases to infinity. Thus, the application of maximum likelihood estimation is used to fit finite mixture model in the present paper in order to explore the relationship between nonlinear economic data. In this paper, a two-component normal mixture model is fitted by maximum likelihood estimation in order to investigate the relationship among stock market price and rubber price for sampled countries. Results described that there is a negative effect among rubber price and stock market price for Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines and Indonesia.

  20. High average power 1314 nm Nd:YLF laser, passively Q-switched with V:YAG

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, RC

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A 1314 nm Nd:YLF laser was designed and operated both CW and passively Q-switched. Maximum CW output of 10.4 W resulted from 45.2 Wof incident pump power. Passive Q-switching was obtained by inserting a V:YAG saturable absorber in the cavity...

  1. Maximum-likelihood methods for array processing based on time-frequency distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimin; Mu, Weifeng; Amin, Moeness G.

    1999-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel time-frequency maximum likelihood (t-f ML) method for direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation for non- stationary signals, and compares this method with conventional maximum likelihood DOA estimation techniques. Time-frequency distributions localize the signal power in the time-frequency domain, and as such enhance the effective SNR, leading to improved DOA estimation. The localization of signals with different t-f signatures permits the division of the time-frequency domain into smaller regions, each contains fewer signals than those incident on the array. The reduction of the number of signals within different time-frequency regions not only reduces the required number of sensors, but also decreases the computational load in multi- dimensional optimizations. Compared to the recently proposed time- frequency MUSIC (t-f MUSIC), the proposed t-f ML method can be applied in coherent environments, without the need to perform any type of preprocessing that is subject to both array geometry and array aperture.

  2. Optimizing the wireless power transfer over MIMO Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmann, Karsten; Weber, Tobias

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the optimization of the power transfer over wireless channels having multiple-inputs and multiple-outputs (MIMO) is studied. Therefore, the transmitter, the receiver and the MIMO channel are modeled as multiports. The power transfer efficiency is described by a Rayleigh quotient, which is a function of the channel's scattering parameters and the incident waves from both transmitter and receiver side. This way, the power transfer efficiency can be maximized analytically by solving a generalized eigenvalue problem, which is deduced from the Rayleigh quotient. As a result, the maximum power transfer efficiency achievable over a given MIMO channel is obtained. This maximum can be used as a performance bound in order to benchmark wireless power transfer systems. Furthermore, the optimal operating point which achieves this maximum will be obtained. The optimal operating point will be described by the complex amplitudes of the optimal incident and reflected waves of the MIMO channel. This supports the design of the optimal transmitter and receiver multiports. The proposed method applies for arbitrary MIMO channels, taking transmitter-side and/or receiver-side cross-couplings in both near- and farfield scenarios into consideration. Special cases are briefly discussed in this paper in order to illustrate the method.

  3. Optimizing the wireless power transfer over MIMO Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Wiedmann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the optimization of the power transfer over wireless channels having multiple-inputs and multiple-outputs (MIMO is studied. Therefore, the transmitter, the receiver and the MIMO channel are modeled as multiports. The power transfer efficiency is described by a Rayleigh quotient, which is a function of the channel's scattering parameters and the incident waves from both transmitter and receiver side. This way, the power transfer efficiency can be maximized analytically by solving a generalized eigenvalue problem, which is deduced from the Rayleigh quotient. As a result, the maximum power transfer efficiency achievable over a given MIMO channel is obtained. This maximum can be used as a performance bound in order to benchmark wireless power transfer systems. Furthermore, the optimal operating point which achieves this maximum will be obtained. The optimal operating point will be described by the complex amplitudes of the optimal incident and reflected waves of the MIMO channel. This supports the design of the optimal transmitter and receiver multiports. The proposed method applies for arbitrary MIMO channels, taking transmitter-side and/or receiver-side cross-couplings in both near- and farfield scenarios into consideration. Special cases are briefly discussed in this paper in order to illustrate the method.

  4. Risk analysis update of the LHC cryogenic system following the 19th September 2008 incident

    CERN Document Server

    Chorowski, M; Modlinski, Z; Polinski, J; Tavian, L; Wach, J

    2011-01-01

    On 19th September 2008, during powering tests of the main dipole circuit of the Large Hadron Collider, an electrical fault occurred producing an electrical arc and resulting in mechanical and electrical damage, release of helium from the magnet cold mass to the insulation vacuum enclosure and consequently to the tunnel, via the spring-loaded relief discs on the vacuum enclosure. The pressurization of the vacuum space exceeded significantly the allowed design value. Mathematical modeling based on a thermodynamic approach has enabled the revision of the helium discharge system protecting the vacuum enclosure against the over-pressurization in case of a redefined maximum credible incident (MCI) occurrence.

  5. Two-dimensional maximum entropy image restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brolley, J.E.; Lazarus, R.B.; Suydam, B.R.; Trussell, H.J.

    1977-07-01

    An optical check problem was constructed to test P LOG P maximum entropy restoration of an extremely distorted image. Useful recovery of the original image was obtained. Comparison with maximum a posteriori restoration is made. 7 figures

  6. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, Arthur.

    1980-01-01

    This chapter of the final report of the Royal Commission on Electric Power Planning in Ontario updates its interim report on nuclear power in Ontario (1978) in the light of the Three Mile Island accident and presents the commission's general conclusions and recommendations relating to nuclear power. The risks of nuclear power, reactor safety with special reference to Three Mile Island and incidents at the Bruce generating station, the environmental effects of uranium mining and milling, waste management, nuclear power economics, uranium supplies, socio-political issues, and the regulation of nuclear power are discussed. Specific recommendations are made concerning the organization and public control of Ontario Hydro, but the commission concluded that nuclear power is acceptable in Ontario as long as satisfactory progress is made in the disposal of uranium mill tailings and spent fuel wastes. (LL)

  7. Improving Agent Based Modeling of Critical Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Till

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Agent Based Modeling (ABM is a powerful method that has been used to simulate potential critical incidents in the infrastructure and built environments. This paper will discuss the modeling of some critical incidents currently simulated using ABM and how they may be expanded and improved by using better physiological modeling, psychological modeling, modeling the actions of interveners, introducing Geographic Information Systems (GIS and open source models.

  8. Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生

    2003-01-01

    Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.

  9. The Tricastin incident; L'incident du Tricastin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H.

    2008-07-01

    The author comments the incident which occurred on the Tricastin site in July 2008: the release of 30 cubic meters of a uranium-containing solution. First, he recalls the international nuclear event scale, outlines that the Tricastin is not a nuclear power plant, that uranium is more a chemical toxic product than a radiological toxic product. After having briefly recalled some dose threshold values, he discusses the presence of uranium in the environment, and states that the event is actually a non-event which has been in fact magnified by the media

  10. Backward and forward electron emission induced by helium projectiles incident on thin carbon foils: Influence of charge changing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauly, N. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Metrologie Nucleaire (CP 165/84), 50 av. FD Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: nipauly@ulb.ac.be; Dubus, A. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Metrologie Nucleaire (CP 165/84), 50 av. FD Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Roesler, M. [Karl-Pokern-Str. 12, D-12587 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    The backward and forward electron emission yields {gamma} {sub B} and {gamma} {sub F} have been calculated by Monte Carlo simulations for helium (He{sup ++}, He{sup +} or He{sup 0}) ions incident on thin amorphous carbon foils with energies around the electronic stopping power maximum (0.2-2 MeV). Besides the direct excitation of target electrons by the incident projectile, we have taken into account the different charge changing processes (He{sup ++} {r_reversible} He{sup +} {r_reversible} He{sup 0}) undergone by the helium ion in the target. We discuss in particular the connection between the electron emission yield {gamma} and the electronic stopping power (dE/dx){sub e}. We compare our results with previously published experimental results.

  11. Cancer incidence among waiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To study cancer risk patterns among waiters in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 16,134 male and 81,838 female waiters from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. During the follow-up period from 1961 to 2005, we found that 19,388 incident cancer cases were...... diagnosed. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was defined as the observed number of cancer cases divided by the expected number, based on national age, time period and gender-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers in waiters, in the five countries combined...... INCIDENCE IN SOME CANCER SITES CAN LIKELY BE EXPLAINED BY HIGHER ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION, THE PREVALENCE OF SMOKING AND OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO TOBACCO SMOKE HOPEFULLY, THE INCIDENCE OF CANCER AMONG WAITERS WILL DECREASE IN THE FUTURE, DUE TO THE BANNING OF TOBACCO SMOKING IN RESTAURANTS AND BARS IN THE NORDIC...

  12. Radiological incidents in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobzova, L.; Novotny, J.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries a reporting system of radiological incidents to national regulatory body exists and providers of radiotherapy treatment are obliged to report all major and/or in some countries all incidents occurring in institution. State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) is providing a systematic guidance for radiotherapy departments from 1997 by requiring inclusion of radiation safety problems into Quality assurance manual, which is the basic document for obtaining a license of SONS for handling with sources of ionizing radiation. For that purpose SONS also issued the recommendation 'Introduction of QA system for important sources in radiotherapy-radiological incidents' in which the radiological incidents are defined and the basic guidance for their classification (category A, B, C, D), investigation and reporting are given. At regular periods the SONS in co-operation with radiotherapy centers is making a survey of all radiological incidents occurring in institutions and it is presenting obtained information in synoptic communication (2003 Motolske dny, 2005 Novy Jicin). This presentation is another summary report of radiological incidents that occurred in our radiotherapy institutions during last 3 years. Emphasis is given not only to survey and statistics, but also to analysis of reasons of the radiological incidents and to their detection and prevention. Analyses of incidents in radiotherapy have led to a much broader understanding of incident causation. Information about the error should be shared as early as possible during or after investigation by all radiotherapy centers. Learning from incidents, errors and near misses should be a part of improvement of the QA system in institutions. Generally, it is recommended that all radiotherapy facilities should participate in the reporting, analyzing and learning system to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge throughout the whole country to prevent errors in radiotherapy.(authors)

  13. Nucleation of diindenoperylene and pentacene at thermal and hyperthermal incident kinetic energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kish, Edward R.; Desai, Tushar V.; Greer, Douglas R.; Engstrom, James R., E-mail: jre7@cornell.edu [School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Woll, Arthur R. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    The authors have examined the nucleation of diindenoperylene (DIP) on SiO{sub 2} employing primarily atomic force microscopy and focusing on the effect of incident kinetic energy employing both thermal and supersonic sources. For all incident kinetic energies examined (E{sub i} = 0.09–11.3 eV), the nucleation of DIP is homogeneous and the dependence of the maximum island density on the growth rate is described by a power law. A critical nucleus of approximately two molecules is implicated by our data. A re-examination of the nucleation of pentacene on SiO{sub 2} gives the same major result that the maximum island density is determined by the growth rate, and it is independent of the incident kinetic energy. These observations are readily understood by factoring in the size of the critical nucleus in each case, and the island density, which indicates that diffusive transport of molecules to the growing islands dominate the dynamics of growth in the submonolayer regime.

  14. A maximum likelihood framework for protein design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Hervé

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of protein design is to predict amino-acid sequences compatible with a given target structure. Traditionally envisioned as a purely thermodynamic question, this problem can also be understood in a wider context, where additional constraints are captured by learning the sequence patterns displayed by natural proteins of known conformation. In this latter perspective, however, we still need a theoretical formalization of the question, leading to general and efficient learning methods, and allowing for the selection of fast and accurate objective functions quantifying sequence/structure compatibility. Results We propose a formulation of the protein design problem in terms of model-based statistical inference. Our framework uses the maximum likelihood principle to optimize the unknown parameters of a statistical potential, which we call an inverse potential to contrast with classical potentials used for structure prediction. We propose an implementation based on Markov chain Monte Carlo, in which the likelihood is maximized by gradient descent and is numerically estimated by thermodynamic integration. The fit of the models is evaluated by cross-validation. We apply this to a simple pairwise contact potential, supplemented with a solvent-accessibility term, and show that the resulting models have a better predictive power than currently available pairwise potentials. Furthermore, the model comparison method presented here allows one to measure the relative contribution of each component of the potential, and to choose the optimal number of accessibility classes, which turns out to be much higher than classically considered. Conclusion Altogether, this reformulation makes it possible to test a wide diversity of models, using different forms of potentials, or accounting for other factors than just the constraint of thermodynamic stability. Ultimately, such model-based statistical analyses may help to understand the forces

  15. MAXIMUM POWEWR POINT TRACKING SYSTEM FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC STATION: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Elzein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a growing attention towards the use of renewable energy sources. Among them solar energy is one of the most promising green energy resources due to its environment sustainability and inexhaustibility. However photovoltaic systems (PhV suffer from big cost of equipment and low efficiency. Moreover, the solar cell V-I characteristic is nonlinear and varies with irradiation and temperature. In general, there is a unique point of PhV operation, called the Maximum Power Point (MPP, in which the PV system operates with maximum efficiency and produces its maximum output power. The location of the MPP is not known in advance, but can be located, either through calculation models or by search algorithms. Therefore MPPT techniques are important to maintain the PV array’s high efficiency. Many different techniques for MPPT are discussed. This review paper hopefully will serve as a convenient tool for future work in PhV power conversion.

  16. Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2009-01-01

    boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...

  17. Modelling maximum canopy conductance and transpiration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is much current interest in predicting the maximum amount of water that can be transpired by Eucalyptus trees. It is possible that industrial waste water may be applied as irrigation water to eucalypts and it is important to predict the maximum transpiration rates of these plantations in an attempt to dispose of this ...

  18. Radiation effects in silicon and gallium arsenide solar cells using isotropic and normally incident radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    Several types of silicon and gallium arsenide solar cells were irradiated with protons with energies between 50 keV and 10 MeV at both normal and isotropic incidence. Damage coefficients for maximum power relative to 10 MeV were derived for these cells for both cases of omni-directional and normal incidence. The damage coefficients for the silicon cells were found to be somewhat lower than those quoted in the Solar Cell Radiation Handbook. These values were used to compute omni-directional damage coefficients suitable for solar cells protected by coverglasses of practical thickness, which in turn were used to compute solar cell degradation in two proton-dominated orbits. In spite of the difference in the low energy proton damage coefficients, the difference between the handbook prediction and the prediction using the newly derived values was negligible. Damage coefficients for GaAs solar cells for short circuit current, open circuit voltage, and maximum power were also computed relative to 10 MeV protons. They were used to predict cell degradation in the same two orbits and in a 5600 nmi orbit. Results show the performance of the GaAs solar cells in these orbits to be superior to that of the Si cells.

  19. 76 FR 17022 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; High Incidence Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... Special Conditions No. 25-423-SC] Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; High Incidence... for transport category airplanes associated with the use of high incidence protection. The applicable... with an executive cabin interior. The maximum takeoff weight will be 99,600 pounds, with a maximum...

  20. Police Incident Blotter (Archive)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...