Sample records for maximum ice thickness

  1. Autonomous Sea-Ice Thickness Survey (United States)


    the conductivity of an infinitely thick slab of sea ice. Ice thickness, Hice, is then obtained by subtracting the height of the ...Thickness Survey of Sea Ice Runway” ERDC/CRREL SR-16-4 ii Abstract We conducted an autonomous survey of sea -ice thickness using the Polar rover Yeti...efficiency relative to manual surveys routinely con- ducted to assess the safety of roads and runways constructed on the sea ice. Yeti executed the

  2. Arctic Sea Ice Freeboard and Thickness (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides measurements of sea ice freeboard and sea ice thickness for the Arctic region. The data were derived from measurements made by from the Ice,...

  3. Greenland Radar Ice Sheet Thickness Measurements (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two 150-MHz coherent radar depth sounders were developed and flown over the Greenland ice sheet to obtain ice thickness measurements in support of PARCA...

  4. Russian River Ice Thickness and Duration (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of river ice thickness measurements, and beginning and ending dates for river freeze-up events from fifty stations in northern Russia. The...

  5. Thick or Thin Ice Shell on Europa? (United States)


    Scientists are all but certain that Europa has an ocean underneath its icy surface, but they do not know how thick this ice might be. This artist concept illustrates two possible cut-away views through Europa's ice shell. In both, heat escapes, possibly volcanically, from Europa's rocky mantle and is carried upward by buoyant oceanic currents. If the heat from below is intense and the ice shell is thin enough (left), the ice shell can directly melt, causing what are called 'chaos' on Europa, regions of what appear to be broken, rotated and tilted ice blocks. On the other hand, if the ice shell is sufficiently thick (right), the less intense interior heat will be transferred to the warmer ice at the bottom of the shell, and additional heat is generated by tidal squeezing of the warmer ice. This warmer ice will slowly rise, flowing as glaciers do on Earth, and the slow but steady motion may also disrupt the extremely cold, brittle ice at the surface. Europa is no larger than Earth's moon, and its internal heating stems from its eccentric orbit about Jupiter, seen in the distance. As tides raised by Jupiter in Europa's ocean rise and fall, they may cause cracking, additional heating and even venting of water vapor into the airless sky above Europa's icy surface. (Artwork by Michael Carroll.)

  6. Distributed ice thickness and glacier volume in southern South America (United States)

    Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Davies, Bethan J.; James, William H. M.; Quincey, Duncan J.; Glasser, Neil F.


    South American glaciers, including those in Patagonia, presently contribute the largest amount of meltwater to sea level rise per unit glacier area in the world. Yet understanding of the mechanisms behind the associated glacier mass balance changes remains unquantified partly because models are hindered by a lack of knowledge of subglacial topography. This study applied a perfect-plasticity model along glacier centre-lines to derive a first-order estimate of ice thickness and then interpolated these thickness estimates across glacier areas. This produced the first complete coverage of distributed ice thickness, bed topography and volume for 617 glaciers between 41°S and 55°S and in 24 major glacier regions. Maximum modelled ice thicknesses reach 1631 m ± 179 m in the South Patagonian Icefield (SPI), 1315 m ± 145 m in the North Patagonian Icefield (NPI) and 936 m ± 103 m in Cordillera Darwin. The total modelled volume of ice is 1234.6 km3 ± 246.8 km3 for the NPI, 4326.6 km3 ± 865.2 km3 for the SPI and 151.9 km3 ± 30.38 km3 for Cordillera Darwin. The total volume was modelled to be 5955 km3 ± 1191 km3, which equates to 5458.3 Gt ± 1091.6 Gt ice and to 15.08 mm ± 3.01 mm sea level equivalent (SLE). However, a total area of 655 km2 contains ice below sea level and there are 282 individual overdeepenings with a mean depth of 38 m and a total volume if filled with water to the brim of 102 km3. Adjusting the potential SLE for the ice volume below sea level and for the maximum potential storage of meltwater in these overdeepenings produces a maximum potential sea level rise (SLR) of 14.71 mm ± 2.94 mm. We provide a calculation of the present ice volume per major river catchment and we discuss likely changes to southern South America glaciers in the future. The ice thickness and subglacial topography modelled by this study will facilitate future studies of ice dynamics and glacier isostatic adjustment, and will be important for projecting water resources and

  7. How accurate are estimates of glacier ice thickness? Results from ITMIX, the Ice Thickness Models Intercomparison eXperiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farinotti, Daniel; Brinkerhoff, Douglas J.; Clarke, Garry K. C.


    Knowledge of the ice thickness distribution of glaciers and ice caps is an important prerequisite for many glaciological and hydrological investigations. A wealth of approaches has recently been presented for inferring ice thickness from characteristics of the surface. With the Ice Thickness Models...

  8. Modeling the Thickness of Perennial Ice Covers on Stratified Lakes of the Taylor Valley, Antarctica (United States)

    Obryk, M. K.; Doran, P. T.; Hicks, J. A.; McKay, C. P.; Priscu, J. C.


    A one-dimensional ice cover model was developed to predict and constrain drivers of long term ice thickness trends in chemically stratified lakes of Taylor Valley, Antarctica. The model is driven by surface radiative heat fluxes and heat fluxes from the underlying water column. The model successfully reproduced 16 years (between 1996 and 2012) of ice thickness changes for west lobe of Lake Bonney (average ice thickness = 3.53 m; RMSE = 0.09 m, n = 118) and Lake Fryxell (average ice thickness = 4.22 m; RMSE = 0.21 m, n = 128). Long-term ice thickness trends require coupling with the thermal structure of the water column. The heat stored within the temperature maximum of lakes exceeding a liquid water column depth of 20 m can either impede or facilitate ice thickness change depending on the predominant climatic trend (temperature cooling or warming). As such, shallow (< 20 m deep water columns) perennially ice-covered lakes without deep temperature maxima are more sensitive indicators of climate change. The long-term ice thickness trends are a result of surface energy flux and heat flux from the deep temperature maximum in the water column, the latter of which results from absorbed solar radiation.

  9. GPR capabilities for ice thickness sampling of low salinity ice and for detecting oil in ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalumiere, Louis [Sensors by Design Ltd. (Canada)


    This report discusses the performance and capabilities test of two airborne ground-penetrating radar (GPR) systems of the Bedford Institute of Oceanography (BIO), Noggin 1000 and Noggin 500, for monitoring low salinity snow and ice properties which was used to measure the thickness of brackish ice on Lake Melville in Labrador and on a tidal river in Prince Edward Island. The work of other researchers is documented and the measurement techniques proposed are compared to the actual GPR approach. Different plots of GPR data taken over snow and freshwater ice and over ice with changing salinity are discussed. An interpretation of brackish ice GPR plots done by the Noggin 1000 and Noggin 500 systems is given based on resolution criterion. Additionally, the capability of the BIO helicopter-borne GPR to detect oil-in-ice has been also investigated, and an opinion on the likelihood of the success of GPR as an oil-in-ice detector is given.

  10. Smoluchowski coagulation models of sea ice thickness distribution dynamics (United States)

    Godlovitch, D.; Illner, R.; Monahan, A.


    Sea ice thickness distributions display a ubiquitous exponential decrease with thickness. This tail characterizes the range of ice thickness produced by mechanical redistribution of ice through the process of ridging, rafting, and shearing. We investigate how well the thickness distribution can be simulated by representing mechanical redistribution as a generalized stacking process. Such processes are naturally described by a well-studied class of models known as Smoluchowski Coagulation Models (SCMs), which describe the dynamics of a population of fixed-mass "particles" which combine in pairs to form a "particle" with the combined mass of the constituent pair at a rate which depends on the mass of the interacting particles. Like observed sea ice thickness distributions, the mass distribution of the populations generated by SCMs has an exponential or quasi-exponential form. We use SCMs to model sea ice, identifying mass-increasing particle combinations with thickness-increasing ice redistribution processes. Our model couples an SCM component with a thermodynamic component and generates qualitatively accurate thickness distributions with a variety of rate kernels. Our results suggest that the exponential tail of the sea ice thickness distribution arises from the nature of the ridging process, rather than specific physical properties of sea ice or the spatial arrangement of floes, and that the relative strengths of the dynamic and thermodynamic processes are key in accurately simulating the rate at which the sea ice thickness tail drops off with thickness.

  11. Open-Source Python Modules to Estimate Level Ice Thickness from Ice Charts (United States)

    Geiger, C. A.; Deliberty, T. L.; Bernstein, E. R.; Helfrich, S.


    A collaborative research effort between the University of Delaware (UD) and National Ice Center (NIC) addresses the task of providing open-source translations of sea ice stage-of-development into level ice thickness estimates on a 4km grid for the Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS). The characteristics for stage-of-development are quantified from remote sensing imagery with estimates of level ice thickness categories originating from World Meteorological Organization (WMO) egg coded ice charts codified since the 1970s. Conversions utilize Python scripting modules which transform electronic ice charts with WMO egg code characteristics into five level ice thickness categories, in centimeters, (0-10, 10-30, 30-70, 70-120, >120cm) and five ice types (open water, first year pack ice, fast ice, multiyear ice, and glacial ice with a reserve slot for deformed ice fractions). Both level ice thickness categories and ice concentration fractions are reported with uncertainties propagated based on WMO ice stage ranges which serve as proxy estimates for standard deviation. These products are in preparation for use by NCEP, CMC, and NAVO by 2014 based on their modeling requirements for daily products in near-real time. In addition to development, continuing research tests the value of these estimated products against in situ observations to improve both value and uncertainty estimates.

  12. IceBridge Radar L3 Tomographic Ice Thickness V001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Level-3 tomographic ice thickness measurements derived from data captured by the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) Multichannel...

  13. Ice thickness measurements and volume estimates for glaciers in Norway (United States)

    Andreassen, Liss M.; Huss, Matthias; Melvold, Kjetil; Elvehøy, Hallgeir; Winsvold, Solveig H.


    Whereas glacier areas in many mountain regions around the world now are well surveyed using optical satellite sensors and available in digital inventories, measurements of ice thickness are sparse in comparison and a global dataset does not exist. Since the 1980s ice thickness measurements have been carried out by ground penetrating radar on many glaciers in Norway, often as part of contract work for hydropower companies with the aim to calculate hydrological divides of ice caps. Measurements have been conducted on numerous glaciers, covering the largest ice caps as well as a few smaller mountain glaciers. However, so far no ice volume estimate for Norway has been derived from these measurements. Here, we give an overview of ice thickness measurements in Norway, and use a distributed model to interpolate and extrapolate the data to provide an ice volume estimate of all glaciers in Norway. We also compare the results to various volume-area/thickness-scaling approaches using values from the literature as well as scaling constants we obtained from ice thickness measurements in Norway. Glacier outlines from a Landsat-derived inventory from 1999-2006 together with a national digital elevation model were used as input data for the ice volume calculations. The inventory covers all glaciers in mainland Norway and consists of 2534 glaciers (3143 glacier units) covering an area of 2692 km2 ± 81 km2. To calculate the ice thickness distribution of glaciers in Norway we used a distributed model which estimates surface mass balance distribution, calculates the volumetric balance flux and converts it into thickness using the flow law for ice. We calibrated this model with ice thickness data for Norway, mainly by adjusting the mass balance gradient. Model results generally agree well with the measured values, however, larger deviations were found for some glaciers. The total ice volume of Norway was estimated to be 275 km3 ± 30 km3. From the ice thickness data set we selected

  14. Landfast ice thickness in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago from observations and models (United States)

    Howell, Stephen E. L.; Laliberté, Frédéric; Kwok, Ron; Derksen, Chris; King, Joshua


    Observed and modelled landfast ice thickness variability and trends spanning more than 5 decades within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) are summarized. The observed sites (Cambridge Bay, Resolute, Eureka and Alert) represent some of the Arctic's longest records of landfast ice thickness. Observed end-of-winter (maximum) trends of landfast ice thickness (1957-2014) were statistically significant at Cambridge Bay (-4.31 ± 1.4 cm decade-1), Eureka (-4.65 ± 1.7 cm decade-1) and Alert (-4.44 ± 1.6 cm -1) but not at Resolute. Over the 50+-year record, the ice thinned by ˜ 0.24-0.26 m at Cambridge Bay, Eureka and Alert with essentially negligible change at Resolute. Although statistically significant warming in spring and fall was present at all sites, only low correlations between temperature and maximum ice thickness were present; snow depth was found to be more strongly associated with the negative ice thickness trends. Comparison with multi-model simulations from Coupled Model Intercomparison project phase 5 (CMIP5), Ocean Reanalysis Intercomparison (ORA-IP) and Pan-Arctic Ice-Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System (PIOMAS) show that although a subset of current generation models have a "reasonable" climatological representation of landfast ice thickness and distribution within the CAA, trends are unrealistic and far exceed observations by up to 2 orders of magnitude. ORA-IP models were found to have positive correlations between temperature and ice thickness over the CAA, a feature that is inconsistent with both observations and coupled models from CMIP5.

  15. Retrieval of ice thickness from polarimetric SAR data (United States)

    Kwok, R.; Yueh, S. H.; Nghiem, S. V.; Huynh, D. D.


    We describe a potential procedure for retrieving ice thickness from multi-frequency polarimetric SAR data for thin ice. This procedure includes first masking out the thicker ice types with a simple classifier and then deriving the thickness of the remaining pixels using a model-inversion technique. The technique used to derive ice thickness from polarimetric observations is provided by a numerical estimator or neural network. A three-layer perceptron implemented with the backpropagation algorithm is used in this investigation with several improved aspects for a faster convergence rate and a better accuracy of the neural network. These improvements include weight initialization, normalization of the output range, the selection of offset constant, and a heuristic learning algorithm. The performance of the neural network is demonstrated by using training data generated by a theoretical scattering model for sea ice matched to the database of interest. The training data are comprised of the polarimetric backscattering coefficients of thin ice and the corresponding input ice parameters to the scattering model. The retrieved ice thickness from the theoretical backscattering coefficients is compare with the input ice thickness to the scattering model to illustrate the accuracy of the inversion method. Results indicate that the network convergence rate and accuracy are higher when multi-frequency training sets are presented. In addition, the dominant backscattering coefficients in retrieving ice thickness are found by comparing the behavior of the network trained backscattering data at various incidence angels. After the neural network is trained with the theoretical backscattering data at various incidence anges, the interconnection weights between nodes are saved and applied to the experimental data to be investigated. In this paper, we illustrate the effectiveness of this technique using polarimetric SAR data collected by the JPL DC-8 radar over a sea ice scene.

  16. GLERL Great Lakes Ice Thickness Data Base, 1966-1979 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the winters of 1965/66 through 1976/77, NOAA/Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) collected weekly ice thickness and stratigraphy data at up...

  17. Greenland 5 km DEM, Ice Thickness, and Bedrock Elevation Grids (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Digital Elevation Model (DEM), ice thickness grid, and bedrock elevation grid of Greenland acquired as part of the PARCA program are available in ASCII text format...

  18. Thermodynamic and dynamic ice thickness contributions in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago in NEMO-LIM2 numerical simulations (United States)

    Hu, Xianmin; Sun, Jingfan; Chan, Ting On; Myers, Paul G.


    Sea ice thickness evolution within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) is of great interest to science, as well as local communities and their economy. In this study, based on the NEMO numerical framework including the LIM2 sea ice module, simulations at both 1/4 and 1/12° horizontal resolution were conducted from 2002 to 2016. The model captures well the general spatial distribution of ice thickness in the CAA region, with very thick sea ice (˜ 4 m and thicker) in the northern CAA, thick sea ice (2.5 to 3 m) in the west-central Parry Channel and M'Clintock Channel, and thin ( Program data at first-year landfast ice sites except at the northern sites with high concentration of old ice. At 1/4 to 1/12° scale, model resolution does not play a significant role in the sea ice simulation except to improve local dynamics because of better coastline representation. Sea ice growth is decomposed into thermodynamic and dynamic (including all non-thermodynamic processes in the model) contributions to study the ice thickness evolution. Relatively smaller thermodynamic contribution to ice growth between December and the following April is found in the thick and very thick ice regions, with larger contributions in the thin ice-covered region. No significant trend in winter maximum ice volume is found in the northern CAA and Baffin Bay while a decline (r2 ≈ 0.6, p < 0.01) is simulated in Parry Channel region. The two main contributors (thermodynamic growth and lateral transport) have high interannual variabilities which largely balance each other, so that maximum ice volume can vary interannually by ±12 % in the northern CAA, ±15 % in Parry Channel, and ±9 % in Baffin Bay. Further quantitative evaluation is required.

  19. Minimum and Maximum Potential Contributions to Future Sea Level Rise from Polar Ice Sheets (United States)

    Deconto, R. M.; Pollard, D.


    New climate and ice-sheet modeling, calibrated to past changes in sea-level, is painting a stark picture of the future fate of the great polar ice sheets if greenhouse gas emissions continue unabated. This is especially true for Antarctica, where a substantial fraction of the ice sheet rests on bedrock more than 500-meters below sea level. Here, we explore the sensitivity of the polar ice sheets to a warming atmosphere and ocean under a range of future greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. The ice sheet-climate-ocean model used here considers time-evolving changes in surface mass balance and sub-ice oceanic melting, ice deformation, grounding line retreat on reverse-sloped bedrock (Marine Ice Sheet Instability), and newly added processes including hydrofracturing of ice shelves in response to surface meltwater and rain, and structural collapse of thick, marine-terminating ice margins with tall ice-cliff faces (Marine Ice Cliff Instability). The simulations improve on previous work by using 1) improved atmospheric forcing from a Regional Climate Model and 2) a much wider range of model physical parameters within the bounds of modern observations of ice dynamical processes (particularly calving rates) and paleo constraints on past ice-sheet response to warming. Approaches to more precisely define the climatic thresholds capable of triggering rapid and potentially irreversible ice-sheet retreat are also discussed, as is the potential for aggressive mitigation strategies like those discussed at the 2015 Paris Climate Conference (COP21) to substantially reduce the risk of extreme sea-level rise. These results, including physics that consider both ice deformation (creep) and calving (mechanical failure of marine terminating ice) expand on previously estimated limits of maximum rates of future sea level rise based solely on kinematic constraints of glacier flow. At the high end, the new results show the potential for more than 2m of global mean sea level rise by 2100

  20. Influence of ice thickness and surface properties on light transmission through Arctic sea ice. (United States)

    Katlein, Christian; Arndt, Stefanie; Nicolaus, Marcel; Perovich, Donald K; Jakuba, Michael V; Suman, Stefano; Elliott, Stephen; Whitcomb, Louis L; McFarland, Christopher J; Gerdes, Rüdiger; Boetius, Antje; German, Christopher R


    The observed changes in physical properties of sea ice such as decreased thickness and increased melt pond cover severely impact the energy budget of Arctic sea ice. Increased light transmission leads to increased deposition of solar energy in the upper ocean and thus plays a crucial role for amount and timing of sea-ice-melt and under-ice primary production. Recent developments in underwater technology provide new opportunities to study light transmission below the largely inaccessible underside of sea ice. We measured spectral under-ice radiance and irradiance using the new Nereid Under-Ice (NUI) underwater robotic vehicle, during a cruise of the R/V Polarstern to 83°N 6°W in the Arctic Ocean in July 2014. NUI is a next generation hybrid remotely operated vehicle (H-ROV) designed for both remotely piloted and autonomous surveys underneath land-fast and moving sea ice. Here we present results from one of the first comprehensive scientific dives of NUI employing its interdisciplinary sensor suite. We combine under-ice optical measurements with three dimensional under-ice topography (multibeam sonar) and aerial images of the surface conditions. We investigate the influence of spatially varying ice-thickness and surface properties on the spatial variability of light transmittance during summer. Our results show that surface properties such as melt ponds dominate the spatial distribution of the under-ice light field on small scales (sea ice-thickness is the most important predictor for light transmission on larger scales. In addition, we propose the use of an algorithm to obtain histograms of light transmission from distributions of sea ice thickness and surface albedo.

  1. A community-based geological reconstruction of Antarctic Ice Sheet deglaciation since the Last Glacial Maximum (United States)

    Bentley, Michael J.; Ó Cofaigh, Colm; Anderson, John B.; Conway, Howard; Davies, Bethan; Graham, Alastair G. C.; Hillenbrand, Claus-Dieter; Hodgson, Dominic A.; Jamieson, Stewart S. R.; Larter, Robert D.; Mackintosh, Andrew; Smith, James A.; Verleyen, Elie; Ackert, Robert P.; Bart, Philip J.; Berg, Sonja; Brunstein, Daniel; Canals, Miquel; Colhoun, Eric A.; Crosta, Xavier; Dickens, William A.; Domack, Eugene; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Dunbar, Robert; Ehrmann, Werner; Evans, Jeffrey; Favier, Vincent; Fink, David; Fogwill, Christopher J.; Glasser, Neil F.; Gohl, Karsten; Golledge, Nicholas R.; Goodwin, Ian; Gore, Damian B.; Greenwood, Sarah L.; Hall, Brenda L.; Hall, Kevin; Hedding, David W.; Hein, Andrew S.; Hocking, Emma P.; Jakobsson, Martin; Johnson, Joanne S.; Jomelli, Vincent; Jones, R. Selwyn; Klages, Johann P.; Kristoffersen, Yngve; Kuhn, Gerhard; Leventer, Amy; Licht, Kathy; Lilly, Katherine; Lindow, Julia; Livingstone, Stephen J.; Massé, Guillaume; McGlone, Matt S.; McKay, Robert M.; Melles, Martin; Miura, Hideki; Mulvaney, Robert; Nel, Werner; Nitsche, Frank O.; O'Brien, Philip E.; Post, Alexandra L.; Roberts, Stephen J.; Saunders, Krystyna M.; Selkirk, Patricia M.; Simms, Alexander R.; Spiegel, Cornelia; Stolldorf, Travis D.; Sugden, David E.; van der Putten, Nathalie; van Ommen, Tas; Verfaillie, Deborah; Vyverman, Wim; Wagner, Bernd; White, Duanne A.; Witus, Alexandra E.; Zwartz, Dan


    A robust understanding of Antarctic Ice Sheet deglacial history since the Last Glacial Maximum is important in order to constrain ice sheet and glacial-isostatic adjustment models, and to explore the forcing mechanisms responsible for ice sheet retreat. Such understanding can be derived from a broad range of geological and glaciological datasets and recent decades have seen an upsurge in such data gathering around the continent and Sub-Antarctic islands. Here, we report a new synthesis of those datasets, based on an accompanying series of reviews of the geological data, organised by sector. We present a series of timeslice maps for 20 ka, 15 ka, 10 ka and 5 ka, including grounding line position and ice sheet thickness changes, along with a clear assessment of levels of confidence. The reconstruction shows that the Antarctic Ice sheet did not everywhere reach the continental shelf edge at its maximum, that initial retreat was asynchronous, and that the spatial pattern of deglaciation was highly variable, particularly on the inner shelf. The deglacial reconstruction is consistent with a moderate overall excess ice volume and with a relatively small Antarctic contribution to meltwater pulse 1a. We discuss key areas of uncertainty both around the continent and by time interval, and we highlight potential priorities for future work. The synthesis is intended to be a resource for the modelling and glacial geological community.

  2. The NRL 2011 Airborne Sea-Ice Thickness Campaign (United States)

    Brozena, J. M.; Gardner, J. M.; Liang, R.; Ball, D.; Richter-Menge, J.


    In March of 2011, the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) performed a study focused on the estimation of sea-ice thickness from airborne radar, laser and photogrammetric sensors. The study was funded by ONR to take advantage of the Navy's ICEX2011 ice-camp /submarine exercise, and to serve as a lead-in year for NRL's five year basic research program on the measurement and modeling of sea-ice scheduled to take place from 2012-2017. Researchers from the Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) and NRL worked with the Navy Arctic Submarine Lab (ASL) to emplace a 9 km-long ground-truth line near the ice-camp (see Richter-Menge et al., this session) along which ice and snow thickness were directly measured. Additionally, US Navy submarines collected ice draft measurements under the groundtruth line. Repeat passes directly over the ground-truth line were flown and a grid surrounding the line was also flown to collect altimeter, LiDAR and Photogrammetry data. Five CRYOSAT-2 satellite tracks were underflown, as well, coincident with satellite passage. Estimates of sea ice thickness are calculated assuming local hydrostatic balance, and require the densities of water, ice and snow, snow depth, and freeboard (defined as the elevation of sea ice, plus accumulated snow, above local sea level). Snow thickness is estimated from the difference between LiDAR and radar altimeter profiles, the latter of which is assumed to penetrate any snow cover. The concepts we used to estimate ice thickness are similar to those employed in NASA ICEBRIDGE sea-ice thickness estimation. Airborne sensors used for our experiment were a Reigl Q-560 scanning topographic LiDAR, a pulse-limited (2 nS), 10 GHz radar altimeter and an Applanix DSS-439 digital photogrammetric camera (for lead identification). Flights were conducted on a Twin Otter aircraft from Pt. Barrow, AK, and averaged ~ 5 hours in duration. It is challenging to directly compare results from the swath LiDAR with the

  3. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 23 Appendix V - Forecast Sea Ice Thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.


    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  4. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 22 Appendix U - Historical Sea Ice Thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.


    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  5. Evaluation of the limit ice thickness for the hull of various Finnish-Swedish ice class vessels navigating in the Russian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pentti Kujala


    Full Text Available Selection of suitable ice class for ships operation is an important but not simple task. The increased exploitation of the Polar waters, both seasonal periods and geographical areas, as well as the introduction of new international design standards such as Polar Code, reduces the relevancy of using existing experience as basis for the selection, and new methods and knowledge have to be developed. This paper will analyse what can be the limiting ice thickness for ships navigating in the Russian Arctic and designed according to the Finnish-Swedish ice class rules. The permanent deformations of ice-strengthened shell structures for various ice classes is determined using MT Uikku as the typical size of a vessel navigating in ice. The ice load in various conditions is determined using the ARCDEV data from the winter 1998 as the basic database. By comparing the measured load in various ice conditions with the serviceability limit state of the structures, the limiting ice thickness for various ice classes is determined. The database for maximum loads includes 3-weeks ice load measurements during April 1998 on the Kara Sea mainly by icebreaker assistance. Gumbel 1 distribution is fitted on the measured 20 min maximum values and the data is divided into various classes using ship speed, ice thickness and ice concentration as the main parameters. Results encouragingly show that present designs are safer than assumed in the Polar Code suggesting that assisted operation in Arctic conditions is feasible in rougher conditions than indicated in the Polar Code. Keywords: Loads, Serviceability, Limit ice thickness, Polar code

  6. Ice shelf thickness change from 2010 to 2017 (United States)

    Hogg, A.; Shepherd, A.; Gilbert, L.; Muir, A. S.


    Floating ice shelves fringe 74 % of Antarctica's coastline, providing a direct link between the ice sheet and the surrounding oceans. Over the last 25 years, ice shelves have retreated, thinned, and collapsed catastrophically. While change in the mass of floating ice shelves has only a modest steric impact on the rate of sea-level rise, their loss can affect the mass balance of the grounded ice-sheet by influencing the rate of ice flow inland, due to the buttressing effect. Here we use CryoSat-2 altimetry data to map the detailed pattern of ice shelf thickness change in Antarctica. We exploit the dense spatial sampling and repeat coverage provided by the CryoSat-2 synthetic aperture radar interferometric mode (SARIn) to investigate data acquired between 2010 to the present day. We find that ice shelf thinning rates can exhibit large fluctuations over short time periods, and that the improved spatial resolution of CryoSat-2 enables us to resolve the spatial pattern of thinning with ever greater detail in Antarctica. In the Amundsen Sea, ice shelves at the terminus of the Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers have thinned at rates in excess of 5 meters per year for more than two decades. We observe the highest rates of basal melting near to the ice sheet grounding line, reinforcing the importance of high resolution datasets. On the Antarctic Peninsula, in contrast to the 3.8 m per decade of thinning observed since 1992, we measure an increase in the surface elevation of the Larsen-C Ice-Shelf during the CryoSat-2 period.

  7. Sea-Ice Thickness Monitoring from Sensor Equipped Inuit Sleds (United States)

    Rodwell, Shane; Jones, Bryn; Wilkinson, Jeremy


    A novel instrumentation package capable of measuring sea-ice thickness autonomously has been designed for long-term deployment upon the dog drawn sleds of the indigenous peoples of the Arctic. The device features a range of sensors that have been integrated with an electromagnetic induction device. These include a global positioning system, temperature sensor, tilt meter and accelerometer. Taken together, this system is able to provide accurate (+/-5cm) measurements of ice thickness with spatio-temporal resolution ranging from 1m to 5m every second. Autonomous data transmission capability is provided via GSM, inspired by the fact that many of the coastal communities in Greenland possess modern cell-phone infrastructure, enabling an inexpensive means of data-retrieval. Such data is essential in quantifying the sea-ice mass balance; given that existing satellite based systems are unable to measure ice-thickness directly. Field-campaign results from a prototype device, deployed in the North West of Greenland during three consecutive seasons, have demonstrated successful proof-of-concept when compared to data provided by ice mass balance (IMB) stations provided at fixed positions along the route of the sled. This project highlights not only the use of novel polar technology, but how opportunistic deployment using an existing roving platform (Inuit sledges) can provide economical, yet highly valuable, data for instrumentation development.

  8. Ice Thickness, Melting Rates and Styles of Activity in Ice-Volcano Interaction (United States)

    Gudmundsson, M. T.


    In most cases when eruptions occur within glaciers they lead to rapid ice melting, jokulhlaups and/or lahars. Many parameters influence the style of activity and its impact on the environment. These include ice thickness (size of glacier), bedrock geometry, magma flow rate and magma composition. The eruptions that have been observed can roughly be divided into: (1) eruptions under several hundred meters thick ice on a relatively flat bedrock, (2) eruptions on flat or sloping bed through relatively thin ice, and (3) volcanism where effects are limitied to confinement of lava flows or melting of ice by pyroclastic flows or surges. This last category (ice-contact volcanism) need not cause much ice melting. Many of the deposits formed by Pleistocene volcanism in Iceland, British Columbia and Antarctica belong to the first category. An important difference between this type of activity and submarine activity (where pressure is hydrostatic) is that pressure at vents may in many cases be much lower than glaciostatic due to partial support of ice cover over vents by the surrounding glacier. Reduced pressure favours explosive activity. Thus the effusive/explosive transition may occur several hundred metres underneath the ice surface. Explosive fragmentation of magma leads to much higher rates of heat transfer than does effusive eruption of pillow lavas, and hence much higher melting rates. This effect of reduced pressure at vents will be less pronounced in a large ice sheet than in a smaller glacier or ice cap, since the hydraulic gradient that drives water away from an eruption site will be lower in the large glacier. This may have implications for form and type of eruption deposits and their relationship with ice thickness and glacier size.

  9. On the estimation of ice thickness from scattering observations (United States)

    Williams, T. D.; Squire, V. A.


    This paper is inspired by the proposition that it may be possible to extract descriptive physical parameters - in particular the ice thickness, of a sea-ice field from ocean wave information. The motivation is that mathematical theory describing wave propagation in such media has reached a point where the inherent heterogeneity, expressed as pressure ridge keels and sails, leads, thickness variations and changes of material property and draught, can be fully assimilated exactly or through approximations whose limitations are understood. On the basis that leads have the major wave scattering effect for most sea-ice [Williams, T.D., Squire, V.A., 2004. Oblique scattering of plane flexural-gravity waves by heterogeneities in sea ice. Proc. R. Soc. Lon. Ser.-A 460 (2052), 3469-3497], a model two dimensional sea-ice sheet composed of a large number of such features, randomly dispersed, is constructed. The wide spacing approximation is used to predict how wave trains of different period will be affected, after first establishing that this produces results that are very close to the exact solution. Like Kohout and Meylan [Kohout, A.L., Meylan, M.H., 2008. An elastic plate model for wave attenuation and ice floe breaking in the marginal ice zone. J. Geophys. Res. 113, C09016, doi:10.1029/2007JC004434], we find that on average the magnitude of a wave transmitted by a field of leads decays exponentially with the number of leads. Then, by fitting a curve based on this assumption to the data, the thickness of the ice sheet is obtained. The attenuation coefficient can always be calculated numerically by ensemble averaging but in some cases more rapidly computed approximations work extremely well. Moreover, it is found that the underlying thickness can be determined to good accuracy by the method as long as Archimedean draught is correctly provided for, suggesting that waves can indeed be effective as a remote sensing agent to measure ice thickness in areas where pressure ridges

  10. Ice thickness profile surveying with ground penetrating radar at Artesonraju Glacier, Peru (United States)

    Chisolm, Rachel; Rabatel, Antoine; McKinney, Daene; Condom, Thomas; Cochacin, Alejo; Davila Roller, Luzmilla


    survey was also undertaken to determine the radar velocity in the ice at Artesonraju Glacier. GPR measurements of Artesonraju Glacier show the ice thickness ranging from 20 meters at the terminus and gradually increasing to about 160 meters at the deepest part in the tongue of the glacier. After this point the bed slope begins to increase and the ice thickness decreases in the direction of the accumulation zone. A negative bed slope from the glacier terminus to the middle of the glacier tongue indicates that the conditions are favorable for the growth of a glacial lake with a potential maximum depth of about 60-80 m.

  11. The relation between sea ice thickness and freeboard in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Alexandrov


    Full Text Available Retrieval of Arctic sea ice thickness from CryoSat-2 radar altimeter freeboard data requires observational data to verify the relation between these two variables. In this study in-situ ice and snow data from 689 observation sites, obtained during the Sever expeditions in the 1980s, have been used to establish an empirical relation between thickness and freeboard of FY ice in late winter. Estimates of mean and variability of snow depth, snow density and ice density were produced on the basis of many field observations. These estimates have been used in the hydrostatic equilibrium equation to retrieve ice thickness as a function of ice freeboard, snow depth and snow/ice density. The accuracy of the ice thickness retrieval has been calculated from the estimated variability in ice and snow parameters and error of ice freeboard measurements. It is found that uncertainties of ice density and freeboard are the major sources of error in ice thickness calculation. For FY ice, retrieval of ≈ 1.0 m (2.0 m thickness has an uncertainty of 46% (37%, and for MY ice, retrieval of 2.4 m (3.0 m thickness has an uncertainty of 20% (18%, assuming that the freeboard error is ± 0.03 m for both ice types. For MY ice the main uncertainty is ice density error, since the freeboard error is relatively smaller than that for FY ice. If the freeboard error can be reduced to 0.01 m by averaging measurements from CryoSat-2, the error in thickness retrieval is reduced to about 32% for a 1.0 m thick FY floe and to about 18% for a 2.4 m thick MY floe. The remaining error is dominated by uncertainty in ice density. Provision of improved ice density data is therefore important for accurate retrieval of ice thickness from CryoSat-2 data.

  12. Modeling the evolution of the Laurentide Ice Sheet from MIS 3 to the Last Glacial Maximum: an approach using sea level modeling and ice flow dynamics (United States)

    Weisenberg, J.; Pico, T.; Birch, L.; Mitrovica, J. X.


    The history of the Laurentide Ice Sheet since the Last Glacial Maximum ( 26 ka; LGM) is constrained by geological evidence of ice margin retreat in addition to relative sea-level (RSL) records in both the near and far field. Nonetheless, few observations exist constraining the ice sheet's extent across the glacial build-up phase preceding the LGM. Recent work correcting RSL records along the U.S. mid-Atlantic dated to mid-MIS 3 (50-35 ka) for glacial-isostatic adjustment (GIA) infer that the Laurentide Ice Sheet grew by more than three-fold in the 15 ky leading into the LGM. Here we test the plausibility of a late and extremely rapid glaciation by driving a high-resolution ice sheet model, based on a nonlinear diffusion equation for the ice thickness. We initialize this model at 44 ka with the mid-MIS 3 ice sheet configuration proposed by Pico et al. (2017), GIA-corrected basal topography, and mass balance representative of mid-MIS 3 conditions. These simulations predict rapid growth of the eastern Laurentide Ice Sheet, with rates consistent with achieving LGM ice volumes within 15 ky. We use these simulations to refine the initial ice configuration and present an improved and higher resolution model for North American ice cover during mid-MIS 3. In addition we show that assumptions of ice loads during the glacial phase, and the associated reconstructions of GIA-corrected basal topography, produce a bias that can underpredict ice growth rates in the late stages of the glaciation, which has important consequences for our understanding of the speed limit for ice growth on glacial timescales.

  13. Ice thickness estimations based on multi-temporal glacier inventories - potential and challenges (United States)

    Helfricht, Kay; Huss, Matthias; Otto, Jan-Christoph


    The ongoing glacier retreat exposes a large number of surface depressions in the former glacier bed that can be filled with water or act as sediment traps. This has already been observed at various sites in Austria and in other mountain areas worldwide. The formation of glacial lakes can constitute an important environmental and socio-economic impact on high mountain systems including water resource management, sediment delivery, natural hazards, energy production and tourism. In general, information on ice thickness distribution is the basis for simulating future glacier change. We used the approach proposed by Huss and Farinotti (2012) to model the ice thickness distribution and potential locations of subglacial depressions. The study is part of the FUTURELAKE project that seeks to model the formation of new glacier lakes and their possible future evolution in the Austria Alps. The required data on glacier extent, surface elevation and slope were taken from the Austrian Glacier Inventories GI1 from 1969, GI2 from 1998 and GI3 from2006 (Fischer et al., 2015). The different glacier outlines and surface elevations from the inventories enable us to evaluate (i) the robustness of the modelled bedrock depressions with respect to different glacier settings, (ii) the power of the model to simulate recently formed glacial lakes, (iii) the similarities in calculated ice thickness distributions across the inventories and (iv) the feasibility of simulating observed changes in ice thickness and glacier volume. In general, the modelled localization of large potential depressions was relatively stable using the observed glacier settings. A number of examples show that recently formed glacial lakes could be detected by the model based on previous glacier extents. The locations of maximum ice depths within different elevation zones appeared to be sensitive to changes in glacier width. However, observed ice thickness changes and, thus, volume changes between the inventories could

  14. Sea-ice thickness from field measurements in the northwestern Barents Sea (United States)

    King, Jennifer; Spreen, Gunnar; Gerland, Sebastian; Haas, Christian; Hendricks, Stefan; Kaleschke, Lars; Wang, Caixin


    The Barents Sea is one of the fastest changing regions of the Arctic, and has experienced the strongest decline in winter-time sea-ice area in the Arctic, at -23±4% decade-1. Sea-ice thickness in the Barents Sea is not well studied. We present two previously unpublished helicopter-borne electromagnetic (HEM) ice thickness measurements from the northwestern Barents Sea acquired in March 2003 and 2014. The HEM data are compared to ice thickness calculated from ice draft measured by ULS deployed between 1994 and 1996. These data show that ice thickness varies greatly from year to year; influenced by the thermodynamic and dynamic processes that govern local formation vs long-range advection. In a year with a large inflow of sea-ice from the Arctic Basin, the Barents Sea ice cover is dominated by thick multiyear ice; as was the case in 2003 and 1995. In a year with an ice cover that was mainly grown in situ, the ice will be thin and mechanically unstable; as was the case in 2014. The HEM data allow us to explore the spatial and temporal variability in ice thickness. In 2003 the dominant ice class was more than 2 years old; and modal sea-ice thickness varied regionally from 0.6 to 1.4 m, with the thinner ice being either first-year ice, or multiyear ice which had come into contact with warm Atlantic water. In 2014 the ice cover was predominantly locally grown ice less than 1 month old (regional modes of 0.5-0.8 m). These two situations represent two extremes of a range of possible ice thickness distributions that can present very different conditions for shipping traffic; or have a different impact on heat transport from ocean to atmosphere.

  15. Retrieval of sea ice thickness during Arctic summer using melt pond color (United States)

    Istomina, L.; Nicolaus, M.; Heygster, G.


    The thickness of sea ice is an important climatic variable. Together with the ice concentration, it defines the total sea ice volume, is linked within the climatic feedback mechanisms and affects the Arctic energy balance greatly. During Arctic summer, the sea ice cover changes rapidly, which includes the presence of melt ponds, as well as reduction of ice albedo and ice thickness. Currently available remote sensing retrievals of sea ice thickness utilize data from altimeter, microwave, thermal infrared sensors and their combinations. All of these methods are compromised in summer in the presence of melt. This only leaves in situ and airborne sea ice thickness data available in summer. At the same time, data of greater coverage is needed for assimilation in global circulation models and correct estimation of ice mass balance.This study presents a new approach to estimate sea ice thickness in summer in the presence of melt ponds. Analysis of field data obtained during the RV "Polarstern" cruise ARK27/3 (August - October 2012) has shown a clear connection of ice thickness under melt ponds to their measured spectral albedo and to melt pond color in the hue-saturation-luminance color space from field photographs. An empirical function is derived from the HSL values and applied to aerial imagery obtained during various airborne campaigns. Comparison to in situ ice thickness shows a good correspondence to the ice thickness value retrieved in the melt ponds. A similar retrieval is developed for satellite spectral bands using the connection of the measured pond spectral albedo to the ice thickness within the melt ponds. Correction of the retrieved ice thickness in ponds to derive total thickness of sea ice is discussed. Case studies and application to very high resolution optical data are presented, as well as a concept to transfer the method to satellite data of lower spatial resolution where melt ponds become subpixel features.

  16. Radar attenuation in Europa's ice shell: Obstacles and opportunities for constraining the shell thickness and its thermal structure (United States)

    Kalousová, Klára; Schroeder, Dustin M.; Soderlund, Krista M.


    Young surface and possible recent endogenic activity make Europa one of the most exciting solar system bodies and a primary target for spacecraft exploration. Future Europa missions are expected to carry ice-penetrating radar instruments designed to investigate its subsurface thermophysical structure. Several authors have addressed the radar sounders' performance at icy moons, often ignoring the complex structure of a realistic ice shell. Here we explore the variation in two-way radar attenuation for a variety of potential thermal structures of Europa's shell (determined by reference viscosity, activation energy, tidal heating, surface temperature, and shell thickness) as well as for low and high loss temperature-dependent attenuation model. We found that (i) for all investigated ice shell thicknesses (5-30 km), the radar sounder will penetrate between 15% and 100% of the total thickness, (ii) the maximum penetration depth varies laterally, with deepest penetration possible through cold downwellings, (iii) direct ocean detection might be possible for shells of up to 15 km thick if the signal travels through cold downwelling ice or the shell is conductive, (iv) even if the ice/ocean interface is not directly detected, penetration through most of the shell could constrain the deep shell structure through returns from deep non-ocean interfaces or the loss of signal itself, and (v) for all plausible ice shells, the two-way attenuation to the eutectic point is ≲30 dB which shows a robust potential for longitudinal investigation of the ice shell's shallow thermophysical structure.

  17. Unified Sea Ice Thickness Climate Data Record Collection Spanning 1947-2012 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Unified Sea Ice Thickness Climate Data Record is the result of a concerted effort to collect as many observations as possible of Arctic sea-ice draft, freeboard,...

  18. Determination of a Critical Sea Ice Thickness Threshold for the Central Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Ford, V.; Frauenfeld, O. W.; Nowotarski, C. J.


    While sea ice extent is readily measurable from satellite observations and can be used to assess the overall survivability of the Arctic sea ice pack, determining the spatial variability of sea ice thickness remains a challenge. Turbulent and conductive heat fluxes are extremely sensitive to ice thickness but are dominated by the sensible heat flux, with energy exchange expected to increase with thinner ice cover. Fluxes over open water are strongest and have the greatest influence on the atmosphere, while fluxes over thick sea ice are minimal as heat conduction from the ocean through thick ice cannot reach the atmosphere. We know that turbulent energy fluxes are strongest over open ocean, but is there a "critical thickness of ice" where fluxes are considered non-negligible? Through polar-optimized Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations, this study assesses how the wintertime Arctic surface boundary layer, via sensible heat flux exchange and surface air temperature, responds to sea ice thinning. The region immediately north of Franz Josef Land is characterized by a thickness gradient where sea ice transitions from the thickest multi-year ice to the very thin marginal ice seas. This provides an ideal location to simulate how the diminishing Arctic sea ice interacts with a warming atmosphere. Scenarios include both fixed sea surface temperature domains for idealized thickness variability, and fixed ice fields to detect changes in the ocean-ice-atmosphere energy exchange. Results indicate that a critical thickness threshold exists below 1 meter. The threshold is between 0.4-1 meters thinner than the critical thickness for melt season survival - the difference between first year and multi-year ice. Turbulent heat fluxes and surface air temperature increase as sea ice thickness transitions from perennial ice to seasonal ice. While models predict a sea ice free Arctic at the end of the warm season in future decades, sea ice will continue to transform

  19. On the Arctic Ocean ice thickness response to changes in the external forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stranne, Christian; Bjoerk, Goeran [University of Gothenburg, Department of Earth Sciences, Box 460, Goeteborg (Sweden)


    Submarine and satellite observations show that the Arctic Ocean ice cover has undergone a large thickness reduction and a decrease in the areal extent during the last decades. Here the response of the Arctic Ocean ice cover to changes in the poleward atmospheric energy transport, F{sub wall}, is investigated using coupled atmosphere-ice-ocean column models. Two models with highly different complexity are used in order to illustrate the importance of different internal processes and the results highlight the dramatic effects of the negative ice thickness - ice volume export feedback and the positive surface albedo feedback. The steady state ice thickness as a function of F{sub wall} is determined for various model setups and defines what we call ice thickness response curves. When a variable surface albedo and snow precipitation is included, a complex response curve appears with two distinct regimes: a perennial ice cover regime with a fairly linear response and a less responsive seasonal ice cover regime. The two regimes are separated by a steep transition associated with surface albedo feedback. The associated hysteresis is however small, indicating that the Arctic climate system does not have an irreversible tipping point behaviour related to the surface albedo feedback. The results are discussed in the context of the recent reduction of the Arctic sea ice cover. A new mechanism related to regional and temporal variations of the ice divergence within the Arctic Ocean is presented as an explanation for the observed regional variation of the ice thickness reduction. Our results further suggest that the recent reduction in areal ice extent and loss of multiyear ice is related to the albedo dependent transition between seasonal and perennial ice i.e. large areas of the Arctic Ocean that has previously been dominated by multiyear ice might have been pushed below a critical mean ice thickness, corresponding to the above mentioned transition, and into a state dominated

  20. Linking Regional Winter Sea Ice Thickness and Surface Roughness to Spring Melt Pond Fraction on Landfast Arctic Sea Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha Nasonova


    Full Text Available The Arctic sea ice cover has decreased strongly in extent, thickness, volume and age in recent decades. The melt season presents a significant challenge for sea ice forecasting due to uncertainty associated with the role of surface melt ponds in ice decay at regional scales. This study quantifies the relationships of spring melt pond fraction (fp with both winter sea ice roughness and thickness, for landfast first-year sea ice (FYI and multiyear sea ice (MYI. In 2015, airborne measurements of winter sea ice thickness and roughness, as well as high-resolution optical data of melt pond covered sea ice, were collected along two ~5.2 km long profiles over FYI- and MYI-dominated regions in the Canadian Arctic. Statistics of winter sea ice thickness and roughness were compared to spring fp using three data aggregation approaches, termed object and hybrid-object (based on image segments, and regularly spaced grid-cells. The hybrid-based aggregation approach showed strongest associations because it considers the morphology of the ice as well as footprints of the sensors used to measure winter sea ice thickness and roughness. Using the hybrid-based data aggregation approach it was found that winter sea ice thickness and roughness are related to spring fp. A stronger negative correlation was observed between FYI thickness and fp (Spearman rs = −0.85 compared to FYI roughness and fp (rs = −0.52. The association between MYI thickness and fp was also negative (rs = −0.56, whereas there was no association between MYI roughness and fp. 47% of spring fp variation for FYI and MYI can be explained by mean thickness. Thin sea ice is characterized by low surface roughness allowing for widespread ponding in the spring (high fp whereas thick sea ice has undergone dynamic thickening and roughening with topographic features constraining melt water into deeper channels (low fp. This work provides an important contribution towards the parameterizations of fp in

  1. Measurement of sea ice thickness using electromagnetic sounding; Denji tansaho wo mochiita kaihyoatsu no keisoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawauchi, K; Suzuki, I; Goto, N [Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan); Hoshiyama, K


    Thickness of sea ice is measured by an electromagnetic method making use of the peculiarities of sea ice. Sea ice floats on the seawater (saline water), and the result is two horizontal layers greatly different from each other in conductivity, with seawater being highly conductive and ice being non-conductive. A study is conducted on Lake Kumatori, a saline lake in Abashiri City, in which effort a board of naturally frozen sea ice and a board of sea ice allowed to form on the sea surface at a spot from which ice has been removed are examined. A portable electromagnetic probe EM38 of GEONICS Company is employed to perform measurement in a horizontal dipole mode. To determine the relationship between the obtained conductivity measurements and sea ice thickness, holes are bored in the sea ice boards for the measurement of their thickness for the formulation of an experimental regression equation. Measurements along the traverse line 1 and traverse line 3 are converted into sea ice thickness by use of the experimental regression equation, and the result is that ice thickness is the greatest near the quay growing thinner away from the shore. The study shows that sea ice thickness may be measured accurately by electromagnetic probing. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Sea-ice thickness from airborne laser altimetry over the Arctic Ocean north of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidegaard, Sine Munk; Forsberg, René


    We present a new method to measure ice thickness of polar sea-ice freeboard heights, using airborne laser altimetry combined with a precise geoid model, giving estimates of thickness of ice through isostatic equilibrium assumptions. In the paper we analyze a number of flights from the Polar Sea off...... Northern Greenland, and estimate accuracies of the estimated freeboard values to be at a 13 cm level, corresponding to about 1 m in absolute thickness....

  3. Radar attenuation in Europa's ice shell: obstacles and opportunities for constraining shell thickness and thermal structure (United States)

    Kalousova, Klara; Schroeder, Dustin M.; Soderlund, Krista M.; Sotin, Christophe


    With its strikingly young surface and possibly recent endogenic activity, Europa is one of the most exciting bodies within our Solar System and a primary target for spacecraft exploration. Future missions to Europa are expected to carry ice penetrating radar instruments which are powerful tools to investigate the subsurface thermophysical structure of its ice shell.Several authors have addressed the 'penetration depth' of radar sounders at icy moons, however, the concept and calculation of a single value penetration depth is a potentially misleading simplification since it ignores the thermal and attenuation structure complexity of a realistic ice shell. Here we move beyond the concept of a single penetration depth by exploring the variation in two-way radar attenuation for a variety of potential thermal structures of Europa's ice shell as well as for a low loss and high loss temperature-dependent attenuation model. The possibility to detect brines is also investigated.Our results indicate that: (i) for all ice shell thicknesses investigated (5-30 km), a nominal satellite-borne radar sounder will penetrate between 15% and 100% of the total thickness, (ii) the maximum penetration depth strongly varies laterally with the deepest penetration possible through the cold downwellings, (iii) the direct detection of the ice/ocean interface might be possible for shells of up to 15 km if the radar signal travels through the cold downwelling, (iv) even if the ice/ocean interface is not detected, the penetration through most of the shell could constrain the deep shell structure through the loss of signal, and (v) for all plausible ice shells the two-way attenuation to the eutectic point is ≤30 dB which shows a robust potential for longitudinal investigation of the ice shell's shallow structure.Part of this work has been performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. K.K. acknowledges support by the Grant Agency of the

  4. High interannual variability of sea ice thickness in the Arctic region. (United States)

    Laxon, Seymour; Peacock, Neil; Smith, Doug


    Possible future changes in Arctic sea ice cover and thickness, and consequent changes in the ice-albedo feedback, represent one of the largest uncertainties in the prediction of future temperature rise. Knowledge of the natural variability of sea ice thickness is therefore critical for its representation in global climate models. Numerical simulations suggest that Arctic ice thickness varies primarily on decadal timescales owing to changes in wind and ocean stresses on the ice, but observations have been unable to provide a synoptic view of sea ice thickness, which is required to validate the model results. Here we use an eight-year time-series of Arctic ice thickness, derived from satellite altimeter measurements of ice freeboard, to determine the mean thickness field and its variability from 65 degrees N to 81.5 degrees N. Our data reveal a high-frequency interannual variability in mean Arctic ice thickness that is dominated by changes in the amount of summer melt, rather than by changes in circulation. Our results suggest that a continued increase in melt season length would lead to further thinning of Arctic sea ice.

  5. Wave scattering by an axisymmetric ice floe of varying thickness (United States)

    Bennetts, Luke G.; Biggs, Nicholas R. T.; Porter, David


    The problem of water wave scattering by a circular ice floe, floating in fluid of finite depth, is formulated and solved numerically. Unlike previous investigations of such situations, here we allow the thickness of the floe (and the fluid depth) to vary axisymmetrically and also incorporate a realistic non-zero draught. A numerical approximation to the solution of this problem is obtained to an arbitrary degree of accuracy by combining a Rayleigh-Ritz approximation of the vertical motion with an appropriate variational principle. This numerical solution procedure builds upon the work of Bennets et al. (2007, J. Fluid Mech., 579, 413-443). As part of the numerical formulation, we utilize a Fourier cosine expansion of the azimuthal motion, resulting in a system of ordinary differential equations to solve in the radial coordinate for each azimuthal mode. The displayed results concentrate on the response of the floe rather than the scattered wave field and show that the effects of introducing the new features of varying floe thickness and a realistic draught are significant.

  6. ICESat Observations of Seasonal and Interannual Variations of Sea-Ice Freeboard and Estimated Thickness in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica (2003-2009) (United States)

    Yi, Donghui; Robbins, John W.


    Sea-ice freeboard heights for 17 ICESat campaign periods from 2003 to 2009 are derived from ICESat data. Freeboard is combined with snow depth from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) data and nominal densities of snow, water and sea ice, to estimate sea-ice thickness. Sea-ice freeboard and thickness distributions show clear seasonal variations that reflect the yearly cycle of growth and decay of the Weddell Sea (Antarctica) pack ice. During October-November, sea ice grows to its seasonal maximum both in area and thickness; the mean freeboards are 0.33-0.41 m and the mean thicknesses are 2.10-2.59 m. During February-March, thinner sea ice melts away and the sea-ice pack is mainly distributed in the west Weddell Sea; the mean freeboards are 0.35-0.46 m and the mean thicknesses are 1.48-1.94 m. During May-June, the mean freeboards and thicknesses are 0.26-0.29 m and 1.32-1.37 m, respectively. The 6 year trends in sea-ice extent and volume are (0.023+/-0.051) x 10(exp 6)sq km/a (0.45%/a) and (0.007+/-1.0.092) x 10(exp 3)cu km/a (0.08%/a); however, the large standard deviations indicate that these positive trends are not statistically significant.

  7. Antarctic ice sheet thickness estimation based on P-receiver function and waveform inversion (United States)

    Yan, P.; Li, F.; LI, Z.; Li, J.; Yang, Y.; Hao, W.


    Antarctic ice sheet thickness is key parameter and boundary condition for ice sheet model construction, which has great significance for glacial isostatic adjustment, ice sheet mass balance and global change study. Ice thickness acquired utilizing seismological receiver function method can complement and verify with results obtained by radar echo sounding method. In this paper, P-receiver functions(PRFs) are extracted for stations deployed on Antarctic ice sheet, then Vp/Vs ratio and ice thickness are obtained using H-Kappa stacking. Comparisons are made between Bedmap2 dataset and the ice thickness from PRFs, most of the absolute value of the differences are less than 200 meters, only a few reach 600 meters. Taking into account of the intensity of Bedmap2 dataset survey lines and the uncertainty of radio echo sounding, as well as the inherit complexity of the internal ice structure beneath some stations, the ice thickness obtained from receiver function method is reliable. However limitation exists when using H-Kappa stacking method for stations where sediment squeezed between the ice and the bed rock layer. For better verifying the PRF result, a global optimizing method-Neighbourhood algotithm(NA) and spline interpolation are used to modeling PRFs assuming an isotropic layered ice sheet with depth varied densities and velocities beneath the stations. Then the velocity structure and ice sheet thickness are obtained through nonlinear searching by optimally fitting the real and the theoretical PRFs. The obtained ice sheet thickness beneath the stations agree well with the former H-Kappa method, but further detailed study are needed to constrain the inner ice velocity structure.

  8. Sea-ice Thickness and Draft Statistics from Submarine ULS, Moored ULS, and a Coupled Model (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of estimates of mean values of sea-ice thickness and sea-ice draft in meters computed from three different input data sets: sea ice draft from...

  9. The response of the southern Greenland ice sheet to the Holocene thermal maximum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nicolaj Krog; Kjaer, Kurt H.; Lecavalier, Benoit


    contribution of 0.16 m sea-level equivalent from the entire Greenland ice sheet, with a centennial ice loss rate of as much as 100 Gt/yr for several millennia during the Holocene thermal maximum. Our results provide an estimate of the long-term rates of volume loss that can be expected in the future...

  10. High-resolution ice thickness and bed topography of a land-terminating section of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindbäck, K.; Pettersson, R.; Doyle, S. H.


    We present ice thickness and bed topography maps with high spatial resolution (250 to 500 m) of a and-terminating section of the Greenland Ice Sheet derived from combined ground-based and airborne radar surveys. The data have a total area of ~12000 km2 and cover the whole ablation area of the out...

  11. Modeling and analysis of Off-beam lidar returns from thick clouds, snow, and sea ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnai, T.; Cahalan, R. F.


    A group of recently developed lidar (laser ranging and detection) systems can detect signals returning from several wide field-of-views, allowing them to observe the way laser pulses spread in thick media. The new capability enabled accurate measurements of cloud geometrical thickness and promises improved measurements of internal cloud structure as well as snow and sea ice thickness. This paper presents a brief overview of radiation transport simulation techniques and data analysis methods that were developed for multi-view lidar applications and for and considering multiple scattering effects in single-view lidar data. In discussing methods for simulating the three-dimensional spread of lidar pulses, we present initial results from Phase 3 of the Intercomparison of 3-D Radiation Codes (I3RC) project. The results reveal some differences in the capabilities of participating models, while good agreement among several models provides consensus results suitable for testing future models. Detailed numerical results are available at the I3RC web site at http://i3rc.gsfc.nasa. gov. In considering data analysis methods, we focus on the Thickness from Off-beam Returns (THOR) lidar. THOR proved successful in measuring the geometrical thickness of optically thick clouds; here we focus on its potential for retrieving the vertical profile of scattering coefficient in clouds and for measuring snow thickness. Initial observations suggest considerable promise but also reveal some limitations, for example that the maximum retrievable snow thickness drops from about 0.5 m in pristine areas to about 0.15 m in polluted regions. (authors)

  12. A glimpse beneath Antarctic sea ice: observation of platelet-layer thickness and ice-volume fraction with multifrequency EM (United States)

    Hoppmann, Mario; Hunkeler, Priska A.; Hendricks, Stefan; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Gerdes, Rüdiger


    In Antarctica, ice crystals (platelets) form and grow in supercooled waters below ice shelves. These platelets rise, accumulate beneath nearby sea ice, and subsequently form a several meter thick, porous sub-ice platelet layer. This special ice type is a unique habitat, influences sea-ice mass and energy balance, and its volume can be interpreted as an indicator of the health of an ice shelf. Although progress has been made in determining and understanding its spatio-temporal variability based on point measurements, an investigation of this phenomenon on a larger scale remains a challenge due to logistical constraints and a lack of suitable methodology. In the present study, we applied a lateral constrained Marquardt-Levenberg inversion to a unique multi-frequency electromagnetic (EM) induction sounding dataset obtained on the ice-shelf influenced fast-ice regime of Atka Bay, eastern Weddell Sea. We adapted the inversion algorithm to incorporate a sensor specific signal bias, and confirmed the reliability of the algorithm by performing a sensitivity study using synthetic data. We inverted the field data for sea-ice and platelet-layer thickness and electrical conductivity, and calculated ice-volume fractions within the platelet layer using Archie's Law. The thickness results agreed well with drillhole validation datasets within the uncertainty range, and the ice-volume fraction yielded results comparable to other studies. Both parameters together enable an estimation of the total ice volume within the platelet layer, which was found to be comparable to the volume of landfast sea ice in this region, and corresponded to more than a quarter of the annual basal melt volume of the nearby Ekström Ice Shelf. Our findings show that multi-frequency EM induction sounding is a suitable approach to efficiently map sea-ice and platelet-layer properties, with important implications for research into ocean/ice-shelf/sea-ice interactions. However, a successful application of this

  13. Impact of prescribed Arctic sea ice thickness in simulations of the present and future climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krinner, Gerhard [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam (Germany); INSU-CNRS and UJF Grenoble, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement (LGGE), 54 rue Moliere, BP 96, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Rinke, Annette; Dethloff, Klaus [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam (Germany); Gorodetskaya, Irina V. [INSU-CNRS and UJF Grenoble, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement (LGGE), 54 rue Moliere, BP 96, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)


    This paper describes atmospheric general circulation model climate change experiments in which the Arctic sea-ice thickness is either fixed to 3 m or somewhat more realistically parameterized in order to take into account essentially the spatial variability of Arctic sea-ice thickness, which is, to a first approximation, a function of ice type (perennial or seasonal). It is shown that, both at present and at the end of the twenty-first century (under the SRES-A1B greenhouse gas scenario), the impact of a variable sea-ice thickness compared to a uniform value is essentially limited to the cold seasons and the lower troposphere. However, because first-year ice is scarce in the Central Arctic today, but not under SRES-A1B conditions at the end of the twenty-first century, and because the impact of a sea-ice thickness reduction can be masked by changes of the open water fraction, the spatial and temporal patterns of the effect of sea-ice thinning on the atmosphere differ between the two periods considered. As a consequence, not only the climate simulated at a given period, but also the simulated Arctic climate change over the twenty-first century is affected by the way sea-ice thickness is prescribed. (orig.)

  14. Thin Sea Ice, Thick Snow, and Widespread Negative Freeboard Observed During N-ICE2015 North of Svalbard (United States)

    Rösel, Anja; Itkin, Polona; King, Jennifer; Divine, Dmitry; Wang, Caixin; Granskog, Mats A.; Krumpen, Thomas; Gerland, Sebastian


    In recent years, sea-ice conditions in the Arctic Ocean changed substantially toward a younger and thinner sea-ice cover. To capture the scope of these changes and identify the differences between individual regions, in situ observations from expeditions are a valuable data source. We present a continuous time series of in situ measurements from the N-ICE2015 expedition from January to June 2015 in the Arctic Basin north of Svalbard, comprising snow buoy and ice mass balance buoy data and local and regional data gained from electromagnetic induction (EM) surveys and snow probe measurements from four distinct drifts. The observed mean snow depth of 0.53 m for April to early June is 73% above the average value of 0.30 m from historical and recent observations in this region, covering the years 1955-2017. The modal total ice and snow thicknesses, of 1.6 and 1.7 m measured with ground-based EM and airborne EM measurements in April, May, and June 2015, respectively, lie below the values ranging from 1.8 to 2.7 m, reported in historical observations from the same region and time of year. The thick snow cover slows thermodynamic growth of the underlying sea ice. In combination with a thin sea-ice cover this leads to an imbalance between snow and ice thickness, which causes widespread negative freeboard with subsequent flooding and a potential for snow-ice formation. With certainty, 29% of randomly located drill holes on level ice had negative freeboard.

  15. Ice Roughness and Thickness Evolution on a Swept NACA 0012 Airfoil (United States)

    McClain, Stephen T.; Vargas, Mario; Tsao, Jen-Ching


    Several recent studies have been performed in the Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at NASA Glenn Research Center focusing on the evolution, spatial variations, and proper scaling of ice roughness on airfoils without sweep exposed to icing conditions employed in classical roughness studies. For this study, experiments were performed in the IRT to investigate the ice roughness and thickness evolution on a 91.44-cm (36-in.) chord NACA 0012 airfoil, swept at 30-deg with 0deg angle of attack, and exposed to both Appendix C and Appendix O (SLD) icing conditions. The ice accretion event times used in the study were less than the time required to form substantially three-dimensional structures, such as scallops, on the airfoil surface. Following each ice accretion event, the iced airfoils were scanned using a ROMER Absolute Arm laser-scanning system. The resulting point clouds were then analyzed using the self-organizing map approach of McClain and Kreeger to determine the spatial roughness variations along the surfaces of the iced airfoils. The resulting measurements demonstrate linearly increasing roughness and thickness parameters with ice accretion time. Further, when compared to dimensionless or scaled results from unswept airfoil investigations, the results of this investigation indicate that the mechanisms for early stage roughness and thickness formation on swept wings are similar to those for unswept wings.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Matsumoto


    Full Text Available Observation of sea ice thickness is one of key issues to understand regional effect of global warming. One of approaches to monitor sea ice in large area is microwave remote sensing data analysis. However, ground truth must be necessary to discuss the effectivity of this kind of approach. The conventional method to acquire ground truth of ice thickness is drilling ice layer and directly measuring the thickness by a ruler. However, this method is destructive, time-consuming and limited spatial resolution. Although there are several methods to acquire ice thickness in non-destructive way, ground penetrating radar (GPR can be effective solution because it can discriminate snow-ice and ice-sea water interface. In this paper, we carried out GPR measurement in Lake Saroma for relatively large area (200 m by 300 m, approximately aiming to obtain grand truth for remote sensing data. GPR survey was conducted at 5 locations in the area. The direct measurement was also conducted simultaneously in order to calibrate GPR data for thickness estimation and to validate the result. Although GPR Bscan image obtained from 600MHz contains the reflection which may come from a structure under snow, the origin of the reflection is not obvious. Therefore, further analysis and interpretation of the GPR image, such as numerical simulation, additional signal processing and use of 200 MHz antenna, are required to move on thickness estimation.

  17. Sea Ice Thickness Measurement by Ground Penetrating Radar for Ground Truth of Microwave Remote Sensing Data (United States)

    Matsumoto, M.; Yoshimura, M.; Naoki, K.; Cho, K.; Wakabayashi, H.


    Observation of sea ice thickness is one of key issues to understand regional effect of global warming. One of approaches to monitor sea ice in large area is microwave remote sensing data analysis. However, ground truth must be necessary to discuss the effectivity of this kind of approach. The conventional method to acquire ground truth of ice thickness is drilling ice layer and directly measuring the thickness by a ruler. However, this method is destructive, time-consuming and limited spatial resolution. Although there are several methods to acquire ice thickness in non-destructive way, ground penetrating radar (GPR) can be effective solution because it can discriminate snow-ice and ice-sea water interface. In this paper, we carried out GPR measurement in Lake Saroma for relatively large area (200 m by 300 m, approximately) aiming to obtain grand truth for remote sensing data. GPR survey was conducted at 5 locations in the area. The direct measurement was also conducted simultaneously in order to calibrate GPR data for thickness estimation and to validate the result. Although GPR Bscan image obtained from 600MHz contains the reflection which may come from a structure under snow, the origin of the reflection is not obvious. Therefore, further analysis and interpretation of the GPR image, such as numerical simulation, additional signal processing and use of 200 MHz antenna, are required to move on thickness estimation.

  18. Integration of airborne altimetry and in situ radar measurements to estimate marine ice thickness beneath the Larsen C ice shelf, Antarctic Peninsula (United States)

    McGrath, D.; Steffen, K.; Rodriguez Lagos, J.


    Observed atmospheric and oceanic warming is driving significant retreat and / or collapse of ice shelves along the Antarctic Peninsula totaling over 25,000 km2 in the past five decades. Basal melting of meteoric ice can occur near the grounding line of deep glacier inflows if the ocean water is above the pressure melting point. Buoyant meltwater will develop thermohaline circulation, rising beneath the ice shelf, where it may become supercooled and subsequently refreeze in ice draft minima. Marine ice, due to its warm and thus relatively viscous nature, is hypothesized to suture parallel flow bands, increasing ice shelf stability by arresting fracture propagation and controlling iceberg calving dimensions. Thus efforts to model ice shelf stability require accurate estimates of marine ice location and thickness. Ice thickness of a floating ice shelf can be determined in two manners: (1) from measurements of ice elevation above sea level and the calculation of ice thickness from assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium, and (2) from radar echo measurements of the ice-water interface. Marine ice can confound the latter because its high dielectric constant and strong absorptive properties attenuate the radar energy, often preventing a return signal from the bottom of the ice shelf. These two methods are complementary for determining the marine ice component though because positive anomalies in (1) relative to (2) suggest regions of marine ice accretion. Nearly 350 km of ice penetrating radar (25 MHz) surveys were collected on the Larsen C ice shelf, in conjunction with kinematic GPS measurements and collocated with surface elevation data from the NASA Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) as part of the ICE Bridge mission in 2009. Basal ice topography and total ice thickness is accurately mapped along the survey lines and compared with calculated ice thickness from both the kinematic GPS and ATM elevation data. Positive anomalies are discussed in light of visible imagery and

  19. Sea ice thickness measurements collected during the LOMROG 2007 and 2009 expeditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René; Hanson, Susanne

    and 2009 we have collected a unique data set of late summer sea ice thickness, freeboard height and snow depth from the high Arctic Ocean during the time of the annual minimum sea ice extent. The data were collected by on-the-ground drilling and EM measurements. Here we give a brief overview of the data......According to scientific measurements, the Arctic sea ice extent has declined dramatically over the past thirty years, with the most extreme decline seen in the summer melt season. Other observations indicate that the sea ice has become thinner and perennial ice less widely distributed...... collection, as well as the results including the freeboard-to-sea-ice thickness conversion factor, which is used when interpreting freeboard heights measured by remote sensing....

  20. SMOS brightness data indicate ice thickness hence bedrock topography in east antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup


    In order to evaluate a potential calibration target for spaceborne L-band radiometer systems, a 350 × 350 km area near the Concordia station on the East Antarctica plateau was mapped by an airborne L-band radiometer. Unexpectedly, the area showed significant brightness temperature spatial...... variations, well correlated with bedrock topography, hence ice thickness. Using SMOS data over a poorly known part of Antarctica, ice thickness in this area has been assessed, and an existing bedrock map has been improved....

  1. Semi-automated Digital Imaging and Processing System for Measuring Lake Ice Thickness (United States)

    Singh, Preetpal

    Canada is home to thousands of freshwater lakes and rivers. Apart from being sources of infinite natural beauty, rivers and lakes are an important source of water, food and transportation. The northern hemisphere of Canada experiences extreme cold temperatures in the winter resulting in a freeze up of regional lakes and rivers. Frozen lakes and rivers tend to offer unique opportunities in terms of wildlife harvesting and winter transportation. Ice roads built on frozen rivers and lakes are vital supply lines for industrial operations in the remote north. Monitoring the ice freeze-up and break-up dates annually can help predict regional climatic changes. Lake ice impacts a variety of physical, ecological and economic processes. The construction and maintenance of a winter road can cost millions of dollars annually. A good understanding of ice mechanics is required to build and deem an ice road safe. A crucial factor in calculating load bearing capacity of ice sheets is the thickness of ice. Construction costs are mainly attributed to producing and maintaining a specific thickness and density of ice that can support different loads. Climate change is leading to warmer temperatures causing the ice to thin faster. At a certain point, a winter road may not be thick enough to support travel and transportation. There is considerable interest in monitoring winter road conditions given the high construction and maintenance costs involved. Remote sensing technologies such as Synthetic Aperture Radar have been successfully utilized to study the extent of ice covers and record freeze-up and break-up dates of ice on lakes and rivers across the north. Ice road builders often used Ultrasound equipment to measure ice thickness. However, an automated monitoring system, based on machine vision and image processing technology, which can measure ice thickness on lakes has not been thought of. Machine vision and image processing techniques have successfully been used in manufacturing

  2. Slip resistance of winter footwear on snow and ice measured using maximum achievable incline. (United States)

    Hsu, Jennifer; Shaw, Robert; Novak, Alison; Li, Yue; Ormerod, Marcus; Newton, Rita; Dutta, Tilak; Fernie, Geoff


    Protective footwear is necessary for preventing injurious slips and falls in winter conditions. Valid methods for assessing footwear slip resistance on winter surfaces are needed in order to evaluate footwear and outsole designs. The purpose of this study was to utilise a method of testing winter footwear that was ecologically valid in terms of involving actual human testers walking on realistic winter surfaces to produce objective measures of slip resistance. During the experiment, eight participants tested six styles of footwear on wet ice, on dry ice, and on dry ice after walking over soft snow. Slip resistance was measured by determining the maximum incline angles participants were able to walk up and down in each footwear-surface combination. The results indicated that testing on a variety of surfaces is necessary for establishing winter footwear performance and that standard mechanical bench tests for footwear slip resistance do not adequately reflect actual performance. Practitioner Summary: Existing standardised methods for measuring footwear slip resistance lack validation on winter surfaces. By determining the maximum inclines participants could walk up and down slopes of wet ice, dry ice, and ice with snow, in a range of footwear, an ecologically valid test for measuring winter footwear performance was established.

  3. Comparison of sea-ice freeboard and thickness distributions from aircraft data and cryosat-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    accurate range measurements. During the CryoSat Validation Experiment (CryoVEx) 2011 in the Lincoln Sea, Cryosat-2 underpasses were accomplished with two aircraft, which carried an airborne laser-scanner, a radar altimeter and an electromagnetic induction device for direct sea-ice thickness retrieval. Both...... aircraft flew in close formation at the same time of a CryoSat-2 overpass. This is a study about the comparison of the sea-ice freeboard and thickness distribution of airborne validation and CryoSat-2 measurements within the multi-year sea-ice region of the Lincoln Sea in spring, with respect...

  4. Physical Limits on Hmax, the Maximum Height of Glaciers and Ice Sheets (United States)

    Lipovsky, B. P.


    The longest glaciers and ice sheets on Earth never achieve a topographic relief, or height, greater than about Hmax = 4 km. What laws govern this apparent maximum height to which a glacier or ice sheet may rise? Two types of answer appear possible: one relating to geological process and the other to ice dynamics. In the first type of answer, one might suppose that if Earth had 100 km tall mountains then there would be many 20 km tall glaciers. The counterpoint to this argument is that recent evidence suggests that glaciers themselves limit the maximum height of mountain ranges. We turn, then, to ice dynamical explanations for Hmax. The classical ice dynamical theory of Nye (1951), however, does not predict any break in scaling to give rise to a maximum height, Hmax. I present a simple model for the height of glaciers and ice sheets. The expression is derived from a simplified representation of a thermomechanically coupled ice sheet that experiences a basal shear stress governed by Coulomb friction (i.e., a stress proportional to the overburden pressure minus the water pressure). I compare this model to satellite-derived digital elevation map measurements of glacier surface height profiles for the 200,000 glaciers in the Randolph Glacier Inventory (Pfeffer et al., 2014) as well as flowlines from the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. The simplified model provides a surprisingly good fit to these global observations. Small glaciers less than 1 km in length are characterized by having negligible influence of basal melt water, cold ( -15C) beds, and high surface slopes ( 30 deg). Glaciers longer than a critical distance 30km are characterized by having an ice-bed interface that is weakened by the presence of meltwater and is therefore not capable of supporting steep surface slopes. The simplified model makes predictions of ice volume change as a function of surface temperature, accumulation rate, and geothermal heat flux. For this reason, it provides insights into

  5. Effect of Ice-Shell Thickness Variations on the Tidal Deformation of Enceladus (United States)

    Choblet, G.; Cadek, O.; Behounkova, M.; Tobie, G.; Kozubek, T.


    Recent analysis of Enceladus's gravity and topography has suggested that the thickness of the ice shell significantly varies laterally - from 30-40 km in the south polar region to 60 km elsewhere. These variations may influence the activity of the geysers and increase the tidal heat production in regions where the ice shell is thinned. Using a model including a regional or global subsurface ocean and Maxwell viscoelasticity, we investigate the impact of these variations on the tidal deformation of the moon and its heat production. For that purpose, we use different numerical approaches - finite elements, local application of 1d spectral method, and a generalized spectral method. Results obtained with these three approaches for various models of ice-shell thickness variations are presented and compared. Implications of a reduced ice shell thickness for the south polar terrain activity are discussed.

  6. Mass loss from the southern half of the Greenland Ice Sheet since the Little Ice Age Maximum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup; Kjær, Kurt H.; Bjørk, Anders Anker

    Northern hemisphere temperatures reached their Holocene minimum and most glaciers reached their maximum during The Little Ice Age (LIA), but the timing of specific cold intervals is site-specific. In southern Greenland, we have compiled data from organic matter incorporated in LIA sediments, used...... retreat. Our results show that the advance of glaciers during the LIA occurs early after the Medieval Warm Period terminating soon after 1200 AD and culminates c. 1500-1600 AD. Historical maps also show that many glaciers on the western coast occupy a still-stand near the LIA maximum until 1900 AD before...

  7. Characteristics and processing of seismic data collected on thick, floating ice: Results from the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica (United States)

    Beaudoin, Bruce C.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Stern, Tim A.


    Coincident reflection and refraction data, collected in the austral summer of 1988/89 by Stanford University and the Geophysical Division of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Zealand, imaged the crust beneath the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. The Ross Ice Shelf is a unique acquisition environment for seismic reflection profiling because of its thick, floating ice cover. The ice shelf velocity structure is multilayered with a high velocity‐gradient firn layer constituting the upper 50 to 100 m. This near surface firn layer influences the data character by amplifying and frequency modulating the incoming wavefield. In addition, the ice‐water column introduces pervasive, high energy seafloor, intra‐ice, and intra‐water multiples that have moveout velocities similar to the expected subseafloor primary velocities. Successful removal of these high energy multiples relies on predictive deconvolution, inverse velocity stack filtering, and frequency filtering. Removal of the multiples reveals a faulted, sedimentary wedge which is truncated at or near the seafloor. Beneath this wedge the reflection character is diffractive to a two‐way traveltime of ∼7.2 s. At this time, a prominent reflection is evident on the southeast end of the reflection profile. This reflection is interpreted as Moho indicating that the crust is ∼21-km thick beneath the profile. These results provide seismic evidence that the extensional features observed in the Ross Sea region of the Ross Embayment extend beneath the Ross Ice Shelf.

  8. Ice thickness, volume and subglacial topography of Urumqi Glacier ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    4 m. 3 in 1981, 2001 and 2006, respectively. It has decreased by 21.2% during the past 25 years, which is .... all cases, a velocity of 169 m µs ... of ice volume calculation using this method is quite ..... industry, and agriculture in Xinjiang Uygur.

  9. Geothermal Heating, Convective Flow and Ice Thickness on Mars (United States)

    Rosenberg, N. D.; Travis, B. J.; Cuzzi, J.


    Our 3D calculations suggest that hydrothermal circulation may occur in the martian regolith and may significantly thin the surface ice layer on Mars at some locations due to the upwelling of warm convecting fluids driven solely by background geothermal heating. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Two new ways of mapping sea ice thickness using ocean waves (United States)

    Wadhams, P.


    TWO NEW METHODS OF MAPPING SEA ICE THICKNESS USING OCEAN WAVES. P. Wadhams (1,2), Martin Doble (1,2) and F. Parmiggiani (3) (1) Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0WA, UK. (2) Laboratoire d’Océanographie de Villefranche, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 06234 Villefranche-sur-Mer, France (2) ISAC-CNR, Bologna, Italy Two new methods of mapping ice thickness have been recently developed and tested, both making use of the dispersion relation of ocean waves in ice of radically different types. In frazil-pancake ice, a young ice type in which cakes less than 5 m across float in a suspension of individual ice crystals, the propagation of waves has been successfully modelled by treating the ice layer as a highly viscous fluid. The model predicts a shortening of wavelengths within the ice. Two-dimensional Fourier analysis of successive SAR subscenes to track the directional spectrum of a wave field as it enters an ice edge shows that waves do indeed shorten within the ice, and the change has been successfully used to predict the thickness of the frazil-pancake layer. Concurrent shipborne sampling in the Antarctic has shown that the method is accurate, and we now propose its use throughout the important frazil-pancake regimes in the world ocean (Antarctic circumpolar ice edge zone, Greenland Sea, Bering Sea and others). A radically different type of dispersion occurs when ocean waves enter the continuous icefields of the central Arctic, when they couple with the elastic ice cover to propagate as a flexural-gravity wave. A two-axis tiltmeter array has been used to measure the resulting change in the dispersion relation for long ocean swell (15-30 s) originating from storms in the Greenland Sea. The dispersion relation is slightly different from swell in the open ocean, so if two such arrays are placed a substantial distance (100s of km) apart and used to observe the changing wave period of arrivals from a given

  11. Role of Measurement of the Maximum Intimal-Medial Thickness in the Brain Health Examination Program


    上山, 憲司; 中川原, 譲二; 武田, 利兵衛; 中村, 博彦


    The maximum intimal-medial thickness (Max-IMT) of the carotid artery wall (Max-IMT) was measured by ultrasonography in 1,932 people checked in the brain health examination program in our hospital. We studied relationship Max-IMT and age, systolic blood pressure, presence of asymptomatic cerebral infarction. Five hundreds seventy-two people (29.9%) had atherosclerotic thickness of Max-IMT that was more than 1.1 mm. Normal Max-IMT that less than 1.0 mm was observed in 1,360 people (70.1%). More...

  12. Validation of Airborne FMCW Radar Measurements of Snow Thickness Over Sea Ice in Antarctica (United States)

    Galin, Natalia; Worby, Anthony; Markus, Thorsten; Leuschen, Carl; Gogineni, Prasad


    Antarctic sea ice and its snow cover are integral components of the global climate system, yet many aspects of their vertical dimensions are poorly understood, making their representation in global climate models poor. Remote sensing is the key to monitoring the dynamic nature of sea ice and its snow cover. Reliable and accurate snow thickness data are currently a highly sought after data product. Remotely sensed snow thickness measurements can provide an indication of precipitation levels, predicted to increase with effects of climate change in the polar regions. Airborne techniques provide a means for regional-scale estimation of snow depth and distribution. Accurate regional-scale snow thickness data will also facilitate an increase in the accuracy of sea ice thickness retrieval from satellite altimeter freeboard estimates. The airborne data sets are easier to validate with in situ measurements and are better suited to validating satellite algorithms when compared with in situ techniques. This is primarily due to two factors: better chance of getting coincident in situ and airborne data sets and the tractability of comparison between an in situ data set and the airborne data set averaged over the footprint of the antennas. A 28-GHz frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar loaned by the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets to the Australian Antarctic Division is used to measure snow thickness over sea ice in East Antarctica. Provided with the radar design parameters, the expected performance parameters of the radar are summarized. The necessary conditions for unambiguous identification of the airsnow and snowice layers for the radar are presented. Roughnesses of the snow and ice surfaces are found to be dominant determinants in the effectiveness of layer identification for this radar. Finally, this paper presents the first in situ validated snow thickness estimates over sea ice in Antarctica derived from an FMCW radar on a helicopterborne platform.

  13. Inferring Ice Thickness from a Glacier Dynamics Model and Multiple Surface Datasets. (United States)

    Guan, Y.; Haran, M.; Pollard, D.


    The future behavior of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) may have a major impact on future climate. For instance, ice sheet melt may contribute significantly to global sea level rise. Understanding the current state of WAIS is therefore of great interest. WAIS is drained by fast-flowing glaciers which are major contributors to ice loss. Hence, understanding the stability and dynamics of glaciers is critical for predicting the future of the ice sheet. Glacier dynamics are driven by the interplay between the topography, temperature and basal conditions beneath the ice. A glacier dynamics model describes the interactions between these processes. We develop a hierarchical Bayesian model that integrates multiple ice sheet surface data sets with a glacier dynamics model. Our approach allows us to (1) infer important parameters describing the glacier dynamics, (2) learn about ice sheet thickness, and (3) account for errors in the observations and the model. Because we have relatively dense and accurate ice thickness data from the Thwaites Glacier in West Antarctica, we use these data to validate the proposed approach. The long-term goal of this work is to have a general model that may be used to study multiple glaciers in the Antarctic.

  14. Arctic Sea Ice: Using Airborne Topographic Mapper Measurements (ATM) to Determine Sea Ice Thickness (United States)


    Track Distance (Km) E le v a ti o n ( m ) ATM Elevation Profile Elevation 18 Figure 13: Geoid shape of earth’s equipotential surface , which is...inferred for the region between successive leads. Therefore, flying over a lead in the ice is very important for determining the exact sea surface elevation...inferred for the region between successive leads. Therefore, flying over a lead in the ice is very important for determining the exact sea surface

  15. Estimation of Antarctic Land-Fast Sea Ice Algal Biomass and Snow Thickness From Under-Ice Radiance Spectra in Two Contrasting Areas (United States)

    Wongpan, P.; Meiners, K. M.; Langhorne, P. J.; Heil, P.; Smith, I. J.; Leonard, G. H.; Massom, R. A.; Clementson, L. A.; Haskell, T. G.


    Fast ice is an important component of Antarctic coastal marine ecosystems, providing a prolific habitat for ice algal communities. This work examines the relationships between normalized difference indices (NDI) calculated from under-ice radiance measurements and sea ice algal biomass and snow thickness for Antarctic fast ice. While this technique has been calibrated to assess biomass in Arctic fast ice and pack ice, as well as Antarctic pack ice, relationships are currently lacking for Antarctic fast ice characterized by bottom ice algae communities with high algal biomass. We analyze measurements along transects at two contrasting Antarctic fast ice sites in terms of platelet ice presence: near and distant from an ice shelf, i.e., in McMurdo Sound and off Davis Station, respectively. Snow and ice thickness, and ice salinity and temperature measurements support our paired in situ optical and biological measurements. Analyses show that NDI wavelength pairs near the first chlorophyll a (chl a) absorption peak (≈440 nm) explain up to 70% of the total variability in algal biomass. Eighty-eight percent of snow thickness variability is explained using an NDI with a wavelength pair of 648 and 567 nm. Accounting for pigment packaging effects by including the ratio of chl a-specific absorption coefficients improved the NDI-based algal biomass estimation only slightly. Our new observation-based algorithms can be used to estimate Antarctic fast ice algal biomass and snow thickness noninvasively, for example, by using moored sensors (time series) or mapping their spatial distributions using underwater vehicles.

  16. Large-scale glacitectonic deformation in response to active ice sheet retreat across Dogger Bank (southern central North Sea) during the Last Glacial Maximum (United States)

    Phillips, Emrys; Cotterill, Carol; Johnson, Kirstin; Crombie, Kirstin; James, Leo; Carr, Simon; Ruiter, Astrid


    High resolution seismic data from the Dogger Bank in the central southern North Sea has revealed that the Dogger Bank Formation records a complex history of sedimentation and penecontemporaneous, large-scale, ice-marginal to proglacial glacitectonic deformation. These processes led to the development of a large thrust-block moraine complex which is buried beneath a thin sequence of Holocene sediments. This buried glacitectonic landsystem comprises a series of elongate, arcuate moraine ridges (200 m up to > 15 km across; over 40-50 km long) separated by low-lying ice marginal to proglacial sedimentary basins and/or meltwater channels, preserving the shape of the margin of this former ice sheet. The moraines are composed of highly deformed (folded and thrust) Dogger Bank Formation with the lower boundary of the deformed sequence (up to 40-50 m thick) being marked by a laterally extensive décollement. The ice-distal parts of the thrust moraine complex are interpreted as a "forward" propagating imbricate thrust stack developed in response to S/SE-directed ice-push. The more complex folding and thrusting within the more ice-proximal parts of the thrust-block moraines record the accretion of thrust slices of highly deformed sediment as the ice repeatedly reoccupied this ice marginal position. Consequently, the internal structure of the Dogger Bank thrust-moraine complexes can be directly related to ice sheet dynamics, recording the former positions of a highly dynamic, oscillating Weichselian ice sheet margin as it retreated northwards at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum.

  17. Bedmap2: improved ice bed, surface and thickness datasets for Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fretwell, P.; Pritchard, H. D.; Vaughan, D


    the original Bedmap compilation (Bedmap1) in 2001. In particular, the Bedmap2 ice thickness grid is made from 25 million measurements, over two orders of magnitude more than were used in Bedmap1. In most parts of Antarctica the subglacial landscape is visible in much greater detail than was previously...

  18. In situ ice and structure thickness monitoring using integrated and flexible ultrasonic transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Q; Wu, K-T; Kobayashi, M; Jen, C-K; Mrad, N


    Two types of ultrasonic sensors are presented for in situ capability development of ice detection and structure thickness measurement. These piezoelectric film based sensors have been fabricated by a sol–gel spray technique for aircraft environments and for temperatures ranging from −80 to 100 °C. In one sensor type, piezoelectric films of thickness greater than 40 µm are deposited directly onto the interior of a 1.3 mm thick aluminum (Al) alloy control surface (stabilizer) of an aircraft wing structure as integrated ultrasonic transducers (UTs). In the other sensor type, piezoelectric films are coated onto a 50 µm thick polyimide membrane as flexible UTs. These were subsequently glued onto similar locations at the same control surfaces. In situ monitoring of stabilizer outer skin thickness was performed. Ice build-up ranging from a fraction of 1 mm to less than 1.5 mm was also detected on a 3 mm thick Al plate. Measurements using these ultrasonic sensors agreed well with those obtained by a micrometer. Tradeoffs of these two approaches are presented

  19. A glimpse beneath Antarctic sea ice: observation of platelet-layer thickness and ice-volume fraction with multi-frequency EM (United States)

    Hendricks, S.; Hoppmann, M.; Hunkeler, P. A.; Kalscheuer, T.; Gerdes, R.


    In Antarctica, ice crystals (platelets) form and grow in supercooled waters below ice shelves. These platelets rise and accumulate beneath nearby sea ice to form a several meter thick sub-ice platelet layer. This special ice type is a unique habitat, influences sea-ice mass and energy balance, and its volume can be interpreted as an indicator for ice - ocean interactions. Although progress has been made in determining and understanding its spatio-temporal variability based on point measurements, an investigation of this phenomenon on a larger scale remains a challenge due to logistical constraints and a lack of suitable methodology. In the present study, we applied a lateral constrained Marquardt-Levenberg inversion to a unique multi-frequency electromagnetic (EM) induction sounding dataset obtained on the ice-shelf influenced fast-ice regime of Atka Bay, eastern Weddell Sea. We adapted the inversion algorithm to incorporate a sensor specific signal bias, and confirmed the reliability of the algorithm by performing a sensitivity study using synthetic data. We inverted the field data for sea-ice and sub-ice platelet-layer thickness and electrical conductivity, and calculated ice-volume fractions from platelet-layer conductivities using Archie's Law. The thickness results agreed well with drill-hole validation datasets within the uncertainty range, and the ice-volume fraction also yielded plausible results. Our findings imply that multi-frequency EM induction sounding is a suitable approach to efficiently map sea-ice and platelet-layer properties. However, we emphasize that the successful application of this technique requires a break with traditional EM sensor calibration strategies due to the need of absolute calibration with respect to a physical forward model.

  20. Plume Activity and Tidal Deformation on Enceladus Influenced by Faults and Variable Ice Shell Thickness. (United States)

    Běhounková, Marie; Souček, Ondřej; Hron, Jaroslav; Čadek, Ondřej


    We investigated the effect of variations in ice shell thickness and of the tiger stripe fractures crossing Enceladus' south polar terrain on the moon's tidal deformation by performing finite element calculations in three-dimensional geometry. The combination of thinning in the polar region and the presence of faults has a synergistic effect that leads to an increase of both the displacement and stress in the south polar terrain by an order of magnitude compared to that of the traditional model with a uniform shell thickness and without faults. Assuming a simplified conductive heat transfer and neglecting the heat sources below the ice shell, we computed the global heat budget of the ice shell. For the inelastic properties of the shell described by a Maxwell viscoelastic model, we show that unrealistically low average viscosity of the order of 10 13 Pa s is necessary for preserving the volume of the ocean, suggesting the important role of the heat sources in the deep interior. Similarly, low viscosity is required to predict the observed delay of the plume activity, which hints at other delaying mechanisms than just the viscoelasticity of the ice shell. The presence of faults results in large spatial and temporal heterogeneity of geysering activity compared to the traditional models without faults. Our model contributes to understanding the physical mechanisms that control the fault activity, and it provides potentially useful information for future missions that will sample the plume for evidence of life. Key Words: Enceladus-Tidal deformation-Faults-Variable ice shell thickness-Tidal heating-Plume activity and timing. Astrobiology 17, 941-954.

  1. Plume Activity and Tidal Deformation on Enceladus Influenced by Faults and Variable Ice Shell Thickness (United States)

    Běhounková, Marie; Souček, Ondřej; Hron, Jaroslav; Čadek, Ondřej


    We investigated the effect of variations in ice shell thickness and of the tiger stripe fractures crossing Enceladus' south polar terrain on the moon's tidal deformation by performing finite element calculations in three-dimensional geometry. The combination of thinning in the polar region and the presence of faults has a synergistic effect that leads to an increase of both the displacement and stress in the south polar terrain by an order of magnitude compared to that of the traditional model with a uniform shell thickness and without faults. Assuming a simplified conductive heat transfer and neglecting the heat sources below the ice shell, we computed the global heat budget of the ice shell. For the inelastic properties of the shell described by a Maxwell viscoelastic model, we show that unrealistically low average viscosity of the order of 10^{13} Pa s is necessary for preserving the volume of the ocean, suggesting the important role of the heat sources in the deep interior. Similarly, low viscosity is required to predict the observed delay of the plume activity, which hints at other delaying mechanisms than just the viscoelasticity of the ice shell. The presence of faults results in large spatial and temporal heterogeneity of geysering activity compared to the traditional models without faults. Our model contributes to understanding the physical mechanisms that control the fault activity, and it provides potentially useful information for future missions that will sample the plume for evidence of life.

  2. Ice-Rich Yedoma Permafrost: A Synthesis of Circum-Arctic Distribution and Thickness (United States)

    Strauss, J.; Fedorov, A. N.; Fortier, D.; Froese, D. G.; Fuchs, M.; Grosse, G.; Günther, F.; Harden, J. W.; Hugelius, G.; Kanevskiy, M. Z.; Kholodov, A. L.; Kunitsky, V.; Laboor, S.; Lapointe Elmrabti, L.; Rivkina, E.; Robinson, J. E.; Schirrmeister, L.; Shmelev, D.; Shur, Y.; Spektor, V.; Ulrich, M.; Veremeeva, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Zimov, S. A.


    Vast portions of Arctic and sub-Arctic Siberia, Alaska and the Yukon Territory are covered by ice-rich silts that are penetrated by large ice wedges, resulting from syngenetic sedimentation and freezing. Accompanied by wedge-ice growth, the sedimentation process was driven by cold continental climatic and environmental conditions in unglaciated regions during the late Pleistocene, inducing the accumulation of the unique Yedoma permafrost deposits up to 50 meter thick. Because of fast incorporation of organic material into permafrost during formation, Yedoma deposits include low-decomposed organic matter. Moreover, ice-rich permafrost deposits like Yedoma are especially prone to degradation triggered by climate changes or human activity. When Yedoma deposits degrade, large amounts of sequestered organic carbon as well as other nutrients are released and become part of active biogeochemical cycling. This could be of global significance for the climate warming, as increased permafrost thaw is likely to cause a positive feedback loop. Therefore, a detailed assessment of the Yedoma deposit volume is of importance to estimate its potential future climate response. Moreover, as a step beyond the objectives of this synthesis study, our coverage (see figure for the Yedoma domain) and thickness estimation will provide critical data to refine the Yedoma permafrost organic carbon inventory, which is assumed to have freeze-locked between 83±12 and 129±30 gigatonnes (Gt) of organic carbon. Hence, we here synthesize data on the circum-Arctic and sub-Arctic distribution and thickness of Yedoma permafrost (see figure for the Yedoma domain) in the framework of an Action Group funded by the International Permafrost Association (IPA). The quantification of the Yedoma coverage is conducted by the digitization of geomorphological and Quaternary geological maps. Further data on Yedoma thickness is contributed from boreholes and exposures reported in the scientific literature.

  3. Firn thickness variations across the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream margins indicating nonlinear densification rates (United States)

    Riverman, K. L.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Alley, R. B.; Peters, L. E.; Christianson, K. A.; Muto, A.


    Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS) is the largest ice stream in Greenland, draining approximately 8.4% of the ice sheet's area. The flow pattern and stability mechanism of this ice stream are unique to others in Greenland and Antarctica, and merit further study to ascertain the sensitivity of this ice stream to future climate change. Geophysical methods are valuable tools for this application, but their results are sensitive to the structure of the firn and any spatial variations in firn properties across a given study region. Here we present firn data from a 40-km-long seismic profile across the upper reaches of NEGIS, collected in the summer of 2012 as part of an integrated ground-based geophysical survey. We find considerable variations in firn thickness that are coincident with the ice stream shear margins, where a thinner firn layer is present within the margins, and a thicker, more uniform firn layer is present elsewhere in our study region. Higher accumulation rates in the marginal surface troughs due to drift-snow trapping can account for some of this increased densification; however, our seismic results also highlight enhanced anisotropy within the firn and upper ice column that is confined to narrow bands within the shear margins. We thus interpret these large firn thickness variations and abrupt changes in anisotropy as indicators of firn densification dependent on the effective stress state as well as the overburden pressure, suggesting that the strain rate increases nonlinearly with stress across the shear margins. A GPS strain grid maintained for three weeks across both margins observed strong side shearing, with rapid stretching and then compression along particle paths, indicating large deviatoric stresses in the margins. This work demonstrates the importance of developing a high-resolution firn densification model when conducting geophysical field work in regions possessing a complex ice flow history; it also motivates the need for a more

  4. About uncertainties in sea ice thickness retrieval from satellite radar altimetry: results from the ESA-CCI Sea Ice ECV Project Round Robin Exercise (United States)

    Kern, S.; Khvorostovsky, K.; Skourup, H.; Rinne, E.; Parsakhoo, Z. S.; Djepa, V.; Wadhams, P.; Sandven, S.


    One goal of the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative sea ice Essential Climate Variable project is to provide a quality controlled 20 year long data set of Arctic Ocean winter-time sea ice thickness distribution. An important step to achieve this goal is to assess the accuracy of sea ice thickness retrieval based on satellite radar altimetry. For this purpose a data base is created comprising sea ice freeboard derived from satellite radar altimetry between 1993 and 2012 and collocated observations of snow and sea ice freeboard from Operation Ice Bridge (OIB) and CryoSat Validation Experiment (CryoVEx) air-borne campaigns, of sea ice draft from moored and submarine Upward Looking Sonar (ULS), and of snow depth from OIB campaigns, Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer aboard EOS (AMSR-E) and the Warren Climatology (Warren et al., 1999). An inter-comparison of the snow depth data sets stresses the limited usefulness of Warren climatology snow depth for freeboard-to-thickness conversion under current Arctic Ocean conditions reported in other studies. This is confirmed by a comparison of snow freeboard measured during OIB and CryoVEx and snow freeboard computed from radar altimetry. For first-year ice the agreement between OIB and AMSR-E snow depth within 0.02 m suggests AMSR-E snow depth as an appropriate alternative. Different freeboard-to-thickness and freeboard-to-draft conversion approaches are realized. The mean observed ULS sea ice draft agrees with the mean sea ice draft computed from radar altimetry within the uncertainty bounds of the data sets involved. However, none of the realized approaches is able to reproduce the seasonal cycle in sea ice draft observed by moored ULS satisfactorily. A sensitivity analysis of the freeboard-to-thickness conversion suggests: in order to obtain sea ice thickness as accurate as 0.5 m from radar altimetry, besides a freeboard estimate with centimetre accuracy, an ice-type dependent sea ice density is as mandatory

  5. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Ice Thickness and Age Environmental Data Records (EDRs) from NDE (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of Ice Thickness and Age from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)...

  6. Preconditioning of Antarctic maximum sea-ice extent by upper-ocean stratification on a seasonal timescale


    Su, Zhan


    This study uses an observationally constrained and dynamically consistent ocean and sea ice state estimate. The author presents a remarkable agreement between the location of the edge of Antarctic maximum sea ice extent, reached in September, and the narrow transition band for the upper ocean (0–100 m depths) stratification, as early as April to June. To the south of this edge, the upper ocean has high stratification, which forbids convective fluxes to cross through; consequently, the ocean h...

  7. Acquisition of Ice Thickness and Ice Surface Characteristics in the Seasonal Ice Zone by CULPIS-X during the US Coast Guard’s Arctic Domain Awareness Program (United States)


    OBJECTIVES • What is the volume of sea ice in the Beaufort Sea Seasonal Ice Zone (SIZ) and how does this evolve during summer as the ice edge...retreats? Recent observations suggest that the remaining ice in the Beaufort Sea is younger and thinner in recent years in part because even the oldest...surrounding ice . Recent analyses have indicated that ponds on thinner ice are often darker, accelerating the ice - albedo feedback over thin ice in summer

  8. The Antarctica component of postglacial rebound model ICE-6G_C (VM5a) based on GPS positioning, exposure age dating of ice thicknesses, and relative sea level histories (United States)

    Argus, Donald F.; Peltier, W. R.; Drummond, R.; Moore, Angelyn W.


    A new model of the deglaciation history of Antarctica over the past 25 kyr has been developed, which we refer to herein as ICE-6G_C (VM5a). This revision of its predecessor ICE-5G (VM2) has been constrained to fit all available geological and geodetic observations, consisting of: (1) the present day uplift rates at 42 sites estimated from GPS measurements, (2) ice thickness change at 62 locations estimated from exposure-age dating, (3) Holocene relative sea level histories from 12 locations estimated on the basis of radiocarbon dating and (4) age of the onset of marine sedimentation at nine locations along the Antarctic shelf also estimated on the basis of 14C dating. Our new model fits the totality of these data well. An additional nine GPS-determined site velocities are also estimated for locations known to be influenced by modern ice loss from the Pine Island Bay and Northern Antarctic Peninsula regions. At the 42 locations not influenced by modern ice loss, the quality of the fit of postglacial rebound model ICE-6G_C (VM5A) is characterized by a weighted root mean square residual of 0.9 mm yr-1. The Southern Antarctic Peninsula is inferred to be rising at 2 mm yr-1, requiring there to be less Holocene ice loss there than in the prior model ICE-5G (VM2). The East Antarctica coast is rising at approximately 1 mm yr-1, requiring ice loss from this region to have been small since Last Glacial Maximum. The Ellsworth Mountains, at the base of the Antarctic Peninsula, are inferred to be rising at 5-8 mm yr-1, indicating large ice loss from this area during deglaciation that is poorly sampled by geological data. Horizontal deformation of the Antarctic Plate is minor with two exceptions. First, O'Higgins, at the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, is moving southeast at a significant 2 mm yr-1 relative to the Antarctic Plate. Secondly, the margins of the Ronne and Ross Ice Shelves are moving horizontally away from the shelf centres at an approximate rate of 0.8 mm yr-1, in

  9. Evaluation of the limit ice thickness for the hull of various Finnish-Swedish ice class vessels navigating in the Russian Arctic


    Pentti Kujala; Mihkel Kõrgesaar; Jorma Kämäräinen


    Selection of suitable ice class for ships operation is an important but not simple task. The increased exploitation of the Polar waters, both seasonal periods and geographical areas, as well as the introduction of new international design standards such as Polar Code, reduces the relevancy of using existing experience as basis for the selection, and new methods and knowledge have to be developed. This paper will analyse what can be the limiting ice thickness for ships navigating in the Russia...

  10. Radio Echo Sounding (RES investigations at Talos Dome (East Antarctica: bedrock topography and ice thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Tabacco


    Full Text Available Radio echo sounding measurements were collected during two Antarctic expeditions to determine the ice thickness and the sub-glacial morphology of Talos Dome in the region around 72°48'S; 159°06'E (about 6400 km2 on the edge of the East Antarctic plateau adjacent to Victoria Land in the western Ross Sea sector. The increasing interest in this region is due to the fact that in this area the ice accumulation is higher than in other sites in East Antarctica. Because of this, Talos Dome could be a new site for a project of a deep ice core drilling to obtain information on climate changes near the coast of Antarctica. In this frame, the knowledge of the bedrock topography is of great importance to choose the best location for the drilling site. In this paper, airborne radio echo sounding results from two Antarctic expeditions (1997 and 1999 are presented. Bedrock topography in bi- and three-dimensions for the Talos Dome region are discussed.

  11. Mean common or mean maximum carotid intima-media thickness as primary outcome in lipid-modifying intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogan, Soner; Kastelein, Johannes Jacob Pieter; Grobbee, Diederick Egbertus; Bots, Michiel Leonardus


    Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measurements are used as a disease outcome in randomized controlled trials that assess the effects of lipid-modifying treatment. It is unclear whether common CIMT or mean maximum CIMT should be used as the primary outcome. We directly compared both measurements

  12. Changes in ice cover thickness and lake level of Lake Hoare, Antarctica - Implications for local climatic change (United States)

    Wharton, Robert A., Jr.; Mckay, Christopher P.; Clow, Gary D.; Andersen, Dale T.; Simmons, George M., Jr.; Love, F. G.


    Results are reported from 10 years of ice-thickness measurements at perennially ice-covered Lake Hoare in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. The ice cover of this lake had been thinning steadily at a rate exceeding 20 cm/yr during the last decade but seems to have recently stabilized at a thickness of 3.3 m. Data concerning lake level and degree-days above freezing are presented to show the relationship between peak summer temperatures and the volume of glacier-derived meltwater entering Lake Hoare each summer. From these latter data it is inferred that peak summer temperatures have been above 0 C for a progressively longer period of time each year since 1972. Possible explanations for the thinning of the lake ice are considered. The thickness of the ice cover is determined by the balance between freezing during the winter and ablation that occurs all year but maximizes in summer. It is suggested that the term most likely responsible for the change in the ice cover thickness at Lake Hoare is the extent of summer melting, consistent with the rising lake levels.

  13. Maximum Evaporation Rates of Water Droplets Approaching Obstacles in the Atmosphere Under Icing Conditions (United States)

    Lowell, H. H.


    When a closed body or a duct envelope moves through the atmosphere, air pressure and temperature rises occur ahead of the body or, under ram conditions, within the duct. If cloud water droplets are encountered, droplet evaporation will result because of the air-temperature rise and the relative velocity between the droplet and stagnating air. It is shown that the solution of the steady-state psychrometric equation provides evaporation rates which are the maximum possible when droplets are entrained in air moving along stagnation lines under such conditions. Calculations are made for a wide variety of water droplet diameters, ambient conditions, and flight Mach numbers. Droplet diameter, body size, and Mach number effects are found to predominate, whereas wide variation in ambient conditions are of relatively small significance in the determination of evaporation rates. The results are essentially exact for the case of movement of droplets having diameters smaller than about 30 microns along relatively long ducts (length at least several feet) or toward large obstacles (wings), since disequilibrium effects are then of little significance. Mass losses in the case of movement within ducts will often be significant fractions (one-fifth to one-half) of original droplet masses, while very small droplets within ducts will often disappear even though the entraining air is not fully stagnated. Wing-approach evaporation losses will usually be of the order of several percent of original droplet masses. Two numerical examples are given of the determination of local evaporation rates and total mass losses in cases involving cloud droplets approaching circular cylinders along stagnation lines. The cylinders chosen were of 3.95-inch (10.0+ cm) diameter and 39.5-inch 100+ cm) diameter. The smaller is representative of icing-rate measurement cylinders, while with the larger will be associated an air-flow field similar to that ahead of an airfoil having a leading-edge radius

  14. The Greenland ice sheet - a model for its culmination and decay during and after the last glacial maximum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby; Hansen, Louise


    there was little change at all. The driving factor during this step was calving caused by rising sea level. This lasted until c. 10 ka, but may have been consumated before the Younger Dryas. The second step began with a glacier-readvance between 10 and 9.5 ka, and after this the fjord glaciers began to retreat....... Maximum Holocene uplift was attained in areas of the 10 ka ice margin, indicating that the uplift is essentially a response to the melting and unloading of ice that began at this time. In suppport of this, recent results in West, North and East Greenland indicate that the...

  15. Arctic Sea Ice Thickness Estimation from CryoSat-2 Satellite Data Using Machine Learning-Based Lead Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanggyun Lee


    Full Text Available Satellite altimeters have been used to monitor Arctic sea ice thickness since the early 2000s. In order to estimate sea ice thickness from satellite altimeter data, leads (i.e., cracks between ice floes should first be identified for the calculation of sea ice freeboard. In this study, we proposed novel approaches for lead detection using two machine learning algorithms: decision trees and random forest. CryoSat-2 satellite data collected in March and April of 2011–2014 over the Arctic region were used to extract waveform parameters that show the characteristics of leads, ice floes and ocean, including stack standard deviation, stack skewness, stack kurtosis, pulse peakiness and backscatter sigma-0. The parameters were used to identify leads in the machine learning models. Results show that the proposed approaches, with overall accuracy >90%, produced much better performance than existing lead detection methods based on simple thresholding approaches. Sea ice thickness estimated based on the machine learning-detected leads was compared to the averaged Airborne Electromagnetic (AEM-bird data collected over two days during the CryoSat Validation experiment (CryoVex field campaign in April 2011. This comparison showed that the proposed machine learning methods had better performance (up to r = 0.83 and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE = 0.29 m compared to thickness estimation based on existing lead detection methods (RMSE = 0.86–0.93 m. Sea ice thickness based on the machine learning approaches showed a consistent decline from 2011–2013 and rebounded in 2014.

  16. The impact of the snow cover on sea-ice thickness products retrieved by Ku-band radar altimeters (United States)

    Ricker, R.; Hendricks, S.; Helm, V.; Perovich, D. K.


    Snow on sea ice is a relevant polar climate parameter related to ocean-atmospheric interactions and surface albedo. It also remains an important factor for sea-ice thickness products retrieved from Ku-band satellite radar altimeters like Envisat or CryoSat-2, which is currently on its mission and the subject of many recent studies. Such satellites sense the height of the sea-ice surface above the sea level, which is called sea-ice freeboard. By assuming hydrostatic equilibrium and that the main scattering horizon is given by the snow-ice interface, the freeboard can be transformed into sea-ice thickness. Therefore, information about the snow load on hemispherical scale is crucial. Due to the lack of sufficient satellite products, only climatological values are used in current studies. Since such values do not represent the high variability of snow distribution in the Arctic, they can be a substantial contributor to the total sea-ice thickness uncertainty budget. Secondly, recent studies suggest that the snow layer cannot be considered as homogenous, but possibly rather featuring a complex stratigraphy due to wind compaction and/or ice lenses. Therefore, the Ku-band radar signal can be scattered at internal layers, causing a shift of the main scattering horizon towards the snow surface. This alters the freeboard and thickness retrieval as the assumption that the main scattering horizon is given by the snow-ice interface is no longer valid and introduces a bias. Here, we present estimates for the impact of snow depth uncertainties and snow properties on CryoSat-2 sea-ice thickness retrievals. We therefore compare CryoSat-2 freeboard measurements with field data from ice mass-balance buoys and aircraft campaigns from the CryoSat Validation Experiment. This unique validation dataset includes airborne laser scanner and radar altimeter measurements in spring coincident to CryoSat-2 overflights, and allows us to evaluate how the main scattering horizon is altered by the

  17. Antarctic ice sheet thickness estimation using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio method with single-station seismic ambient noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yan


    Full Text Available We report on a successful application of the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (H / V method, generally used to investigate the subsurface velocity structures of the shallow crust, to estimate the Antarctic ice sheet thickness for the first time. Using three-component, five-day long, seismic ambient noise records gathered from more than 60 temporary seismic stations located on the Antarctic ice sheet, the ice thickness measured at each station has comparable accuracy to the Bedmap2 database. Preliminary analysis revealed that 60 out of 65 seismic stations on the ice sheet obtained clear peak frequencies (f0 related to the ice sheet thickness in the H / V spectrum. Thus, assuming that the isotropic ice layer lies atop a high velocity half-space bedrock, the ice sheet thickness can be calculated by a simple approximation formula. About half of the calculated ice sheet thicknesses were consistent with the Bedmap2 ice thickness values. To further improve the reliability of ice thickness measurements, two-type models were built to fit the observed H / V spectrum through non-linear inversion. The two-type models represent the isotropic structures of single- and two-layer ice sheets, and the latter depicts the non-uniform, layered characteristics of the ice sheet widely distributed in Antarctica. The inversion results suggest that the ice thicknesses derived from the two-layer ice models were in good concurrence with the Bedmap2 ice thickness database, and that ice thickness differences between the two were within 300 m at almost all stations. Our results support previous finding that the Antarctic ice sheet is stratified. Extensive data processing indicates that the time length of seismic ambient noise records can be shortened to two hours for reliable ice sheet thickness estimation using the H / V method. This study extends the application fields of the H / V method and provides an effective and independent way to measure


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Price


    Full Text Available This investigation employs the use of ICESat to derive freeboard measurements in McMurdo Sound in the western Ross Sea, Antarctica, for the time period 2003-2009. Methods closely follow those previously presented in the literature but are complemented by a good understanding of general sea ice characteristics in the study region from extensive temporal ground investigations but with limited spatial coverage. The aim of remote sensing applications in this area is to expand the good knowledge of sea ice characteristics within these limited areas to the wider McMurdo Sound and western Ross Sea region. The seven year Austral Spring (September, October, and November investigation is presented for sea ice freeboard alone. An interannual comparison of mean freeboard indicates an increase in multiyear sea ice freeboard from 1.08 m in 2003 to 1.15 m in 2009 with positive and negative variation in between. No significant trend was detected for first year sea ice freeboard. Further, an Envisat imagery investigation complements the freeboard assessment. The multiyear sea ice was observed to increase by 254 % of its original 2003 area, as firstyear sea ice persisted through the 2004 melt season into 2005. This maximum coverage then gradually diminished by 2009 to 20 % above the original 2003 value. The mid study period increase is likely attributed to the passage of iceberg B-15A minimising oceanic pressures and preventing sea ice breakout in the region.

  19. Sea level and global ice volumes from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene. (United States)

    Lambeck, Kurt; Rouby, Hélène; Purcell, Anthony; Sun, Yiying; Sambridge, Malcolm


    The major cause of sea-level change during ice ages is the exchange of water between ice and ocean and the planet's dynamic response to the changing surface load. Inversion of ∼1,000 observations for the past 35,000 y from localities far from former ice margins has provided new constraints on the fluctuation of ice volume in this interval. Key results are: (i) a rapid final fall in global sea level of ∼40 m in sea level, the main phase of deglaciation occurred from ∼16.5 ka BP to ∼8.2 ka BP at an average rate of rise of 12 m⋅ka(-1) punctuated by periods of greater, particularly at 14.5-14.0 ka BP at ≥40 mm⋅y(-1) (MWP-1A), and lesser, from 12.5 to 11.5 ka BP (Younger Dryas), rates; (iv) no evidence for a global MWP-1B event at ∼11.3 ka BP; and (v) a progressive decrease in the rate of rise from 8.2 ka to ∼2.5 ka BP, after which ocean volumes remained nearly constant until the renewed sea-level rise at 100-150 y ago, with no evidence of oscillations exceeding ∼15-20 cm in time intervals ≥200 y from 6 to 0.15 ka BP.

  20. MIZMAS: Modeling the Evolution of Ice Thickness and Floe Size Distributions in the Marginal Ice Zone of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas (United States)


    ITD theory of Thorndike et al. (1975) in order to explicitly simulate the evolution of FSD and ITD jointly. The FSD theory includes a FSD function al., 2015). 4 RESULTS Modeling: A FSD theory is developed and coupled to the ITD theory of Thorndike et al. (1975) in order to... Thorndike , A.S., D.A. Rothrock, G.A. Maykut, and R. Colony (1975), The thickness distribution of sea ice. J. Geophys. Res., 80, 4501–4513. Zhang

  1. Exploring the utility of quantitative network design in evaluating Arctic sea ice thickness sampling strategies


    Kaminski, T.; Kauker, F.; Eicken, H.; Karcher, M.


    We present a quantitative network design (QND) study of the Arctic sea ice-ocean system using a software tool that can evaluate hypothetical observational networks in a variational data assimilation system. For a demonstration, we evaluate two idealised flight transects derived from NASA's Operation IceBridge airborne ice surveys in terms of their potential to improve ten-day to five-month sea-ice forecasts. As target regions for the forecasts we select the Chukchi Sea, a...

  2. Ultra-Wideband Radiometry Remote Sensing of Polar Ice Sheet Temperature Profile, Sea Ice and Terrestrial Snow Thickness: Forward Modeling and Data Analysis (United States)

    Tsang, L.; Tan, S.; Sanamzadeh, M.; Johnson, J. T.; Jezek, K. C.; Durand, M. T.


    The recent development of an ultra-wideband software defined radiometer (UWBRAD) operating over the unprotected spectrum of 0.5 2.0 GHz using radio-frequency interference suppression techniques offers new methodologies for remote sensing of the polar ice sheets, sea ice, and terrestrial snow. The instrument was initially designed for remote sensing of the intragalcial temperature profile of the ice sheet, where a frequency dependent penetration depth yields a frequency dependent brightness temperature (Tb) spectrum that can be linked back to the temperature profile of the ice sheet. The instrument was tested during a short flight over Northwest Greenland in September, 2016. Measurements were successfully made over the different snow facies characteristic of Greenland including the ablation, wet snow and percolation facies, and ended just west of Camp Century during the approach to the dry snow zone. Wide-band emission spectra collected during the flight have been processed and analyzed. Results show that the spectra are highly sensitive to the facies type with scattering from ice lenses being the dominant reason for low Tbs in the percolation zone. Inversion of Tb to physical temperature at depth was conducted on the measurements near Camp Century, achieving a -1.7K ten-meter error compared to borehole measurements. However, there is a relatively large uncertainty in the lower part possibly due to the large scattering near the surface. Wideband radiometry may also be applicable to sea ice and terrestrial snow thickness retrieval. Modeling studies suggest that the UWBRAD spectra reduce ambiguities inherent in other sea ice thickness retrievals by utilizing coherent wave interferences that appear in the Tb spectrum. When applied to a lossless medium such as terrestrial snow, this coherent oscillation turns out to be the single key signature that can be used to link back to snow thickness. In this paper, we report our forward modeling findings in support of instrument

  3. Maximum material thickness for extreme ultra-violet and X-ray backlighter probing of dense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Tallents, G.J.


    Extreme ultra-violet (EUV) lasers, X-ray lasers and other backlighter sources can be used to probe high-energy density materials if their brightness can overcome self-emission from the material. We investigate the maximum plasma thickness of aluminum, silicon and iron that can be probed with EUV or X-ray photons of energy 89-1243 eV before self-emission from the plasma overwhelms the backlighter output. For a uniform plasma, backlighter transmission decreases exponentially with increasing thickness of the material following Beer's law at a rate dependent on the plasma opacity. We evaluate the plasma opacity with the Los Alamos TOPS opacity data. The self-emission is assumed to be either that of a black body to arise from a plasma in LTE or to only consist of free-free and free-bound emission. It is shown that at higher plasma temperature (≥40 eV), EUV radiation (e.g. photon energy=89 eV) can probe a greater thickness of plasma than X-ray radiation (e.g. photon energy=1243 eV)

  4. Ice Shell Thickness and Endogenic Processes on Europa from Mapping and Topographic Analyses of Pits, Uplifts and Small Chaos Features (Invited) (United States)

    Singer, K. N.; McKinnon, W. B.; Schenk, P.


    Constraining the thickness of the ice shell on Europa and the geological processes occurring in it are keys to understanding this icy world and its potential habitability. We focus on circular-to-subcircular features generally agreed to have been created by endogenic processes in Europa's ice shell or ocean: pits, uplifts, and subcircular chaos. Pits and uplifts are defined by their negative or positive topographic expression, respectively. Pits and uplifts generally retain pre-existing surface structures such as ridges, while chaos specifically refers to areas where the surface is broken up, in some cases to the point of destroying all original surface topography. We have mapped all features plausibly created by upwellings or other endogenic processes in the size range of 1 to 50 km in diameter, and incorporated previously unavailable topographic data as an aid to mapping and characterization of features. Topography was derived from albedo-controlled photoclinometry and crosschecked with stereo data where possible. Mapping was carried out over the medium-resolution Galileo regional maps (RegMaps) covering approximately 9% of Europa's surface, as well as over available high-resolution regions. While limited in extent, the latter are extremely valuable for detecting smaller features and for overall geomorphological analysis. Results of this new mapping show decreasing numbers of small features, and a peak in the size distribution for all features at approximately 5-6 km in diameter. No pits smaller than 3.3 km in diameter were found in high resolution imagery. Topography was used to find the depths and heights of pits and uplifts in the mapped regions. A general trend of increasing pit depth with increasing pit size was found, a correlation more easily understood in the context of a diapiric hypothesis for feature formation (as opposed to purely non-diapiric, melt-through models). Based on isostasy, maximum pit depths of ~0.3-to-0.48 km imply a minimum shell

  5. Estimating the top altitude of optically thick ice clouds from thermal infrared satellite observations using CALIPSO data (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Yost, Chris R.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Chen, Yan


    The difference between cloud-top altitude Z top and infrared effective radiating height Z eff for optically thick ice clouds is examined using April 2007 data taken by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) and the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). For even days, the difference ΔZ between CALIPSO Z top and MODIS Z eff is 1.58 +/- 1.26 km. The linear fit between Z top and Z eff , applied to odd-day data, yields a difference of 0.03 +/- 1.21 km and can be used to estimate Z top from any infrared-based Z eff for thick ice clouds. Random errors appear to be due primarily to variations in cloud ice-water content (IWC). Radiative transfer calculations show that ΔZ corresponds to an optical depth of ~1, which based on observed ice-particle sizes yields an average cloud-top IWC of ~0.015 gm-3, a value consistent with in situ measurements. The analysis indicates potential for deriving cloud-top IWC using dual-satellite data.

  6. An Ultra-Wideband, Microwave Radar for Measuring Snow Thickness on Sea Ice and Mapping Near-Surface Internal Layers in Polar Firn (United States)

    Panzer, Ben; Gomez-Garcia, Daniel; Leuschen, Carl; Paden, John; Rodriguez-Morales, Fernando; Patel, Azsa; Markus, Thorsten; Holt, Benjamin; Gogineni, Prasad


    Sea ice is generally covered with snow, which can vary in thickness from a few centimeters to >1 m. Snow cover acts as a thermal insulator modulating the heat exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere, and it impacts sea-ice growth rates and overall thickness, a key indicator of climate change in polar regions. Snow depth is required to estimate sea-ice thickness using freeboard measurements made with satellite altimeters. The snow cover also acts as a mechanical load that depresses ice freeboard (snow and ice above sea level). Freeboard depression can result in flooding of the snow/ice interface and the formation of a thick slush layer, particularly in the Antarctic sea-ice cover. The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) has developed an ultra-wideband, microwave radar capable of operation on long-endurance aircraft to characterize the thickness of snow over sea ice. The low-power, 100mW signal is swept from 2 to 8GHz allowing the air/snow and snow/ ice interfaces to be mapped with 5 c range resolution in snow; this is an improvement over the original system that worked from 2 to 6.5 GHz. From 2009 to 2012, CReSIS successfully operated the radar on the NASA P-3B and DC-8 aircraft to collect data on snow-covered sea ice in the Arctic and Antarctic for NASA Operation IceBridge. The radar was found capable of snow depth retrievals ranging from 10cm to >1 m. We also demonstrated that this radar can be used to map near-surface internal layers in polar firn with fine range resolution. Here we describe the instrument design, characteristics and performance of the radar.

  7. Fluctuations of the Vestfonna ice margin at Brageneset, Nordaustlandet, Svalbard, after the last glacial maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donner, J.J.


    Full Text Available Four radiocarbon datings of shells of Mya truncata and Saxicava arctica from the till of the end-moraine of the advance of Vestfonna against Brageneset, Nordaustlandet, between AD 1861 and 1899, gave ages between 8300 BP and 8700 BP. These are from the time when the ice margin had retreated from Brageneset after the last glaciation. An additional age of 7900 BP obtained for Astarteelliptica, also from the end-moraine, shows that the shells in the till represent a mixed death assemblage, as also shown by the composition of the molluscan fauna in general. By comparing the altitudes of the two pumice levels with their altitudes in other areas of Svalbard a curve for the relative uplift of Brageneset could be constructed. According to this curve the highest point of Brageneset at 46.5 m emerged at about 9200 BP, which gives a minimum age for the general deglaciation, an age in agreement with dates obtained from other parts of Nordaustlandet.

  8. Constraining the thickness of polar ice deposits on Mercury using the Mercury Laser Altimeter and small craters in permanently shadowed regions (United States)

    Deutsch, Ariel N.; Head, James W.; Chabot, Nancy L.; Neumann, Gregory A.


    Radar-bright deposits at the poles of Mercury are located in permanently shadowed regions, which provide thermally stable environments for hosting and retaining water ice on the surface or in the near subsurface for geologic timescales. While the areal distribution of these radar-bright deposits is well characterized, their thickness, and thus their total mass and volume, remain poorly constrained. Here we derive thickness estimates for selected water-ice deposits using small, simple craters visible within the permanently shadowed, radar-bright deposits. We examine two endmember scenarios: in Case I, these craters predate the emplacement of the ice, and in Case II, these craters postdate the emplacement of the ice. In Case I, we find the difference between estimated depths of the original unfilled craters and the measured depths of the craters to find the estimated infill of material. The average estimated infilled material for 9 craters assumed to be overlain with water ice is ∼ 41-14+30 m, where 1-σ standard error of the mean is reported as uncertainty. Reported uncertainties are for statistical errors only. Additional systematic uncertainty may stem from georeferencing the images and topographic datasets, from the radial accuracy of the altimeter measurements, or from assumptions in our models including (1) ice is flat in the bowl-shaped crater and (2) there is negligible ice at the crater rims. In Case II, we derive crater excavation depths to investigate the thickness of the ice layer that may have been penetrated by the impact. While the absence of excavated regolith associated with the small craters observed suggests that impacts generally do not penetrate through the ice deposit, the spatial resolution and complex illumination geometry of images may limit the observations. Therefore, it is not possible to conclude whether the small craters in this study penetrate through the ice deposit, and thus Case II does not provide a constraint on the ice thickness

  9. Estimating the ice thickness of mountain glaciers with an inverse approach using surface topography and mass-balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Laurent; Picasso, Marco; Farinotti, Daniel; Bauder, Andreas; Funk, Martin; Blatter, Heinz


    We present a numerical method to estimate the ice thickness distribution within a two-dimensional, non-sliding mountain glacier, given a transient surface geometry and a mass-balance distribution, which are relatively easy to obtain for a large number of glaciers. The inverse approach is based on the shallow ice approximation (SIA) of ice flow and requires neither filtering of the surface topography with a lower slope limit nor approximation of constant basal shear stress. We first address this problem for a steady-state surface geometry. Next, we use an apparent surface mass-balance description that makes the transient evolution quasi-stationary. Then, we employ a more elaborated fixed-point method in which the bedrock solution is iteratively obtained by adding the difference between the computed and known surface geometries at the end of the considered time interval. In a sensitivity study, we show that the procedure is much more susceptible to small perturbations in surface geometry than mass-balance. Finally, we present preliminary results for bed elevations in three space dimensions. (paper)

  10. Simultaneous retrieval of sea ice thickness and snow depth using concurrent active altimetry and passive L-band remote sensing data (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Xu, S.; Liu, J.


    The retrieval of sea ice thickness mainly relies on satellite altimetry, and the freeboard measurements are converted to sea ice thickness (hi) under certain assumptions over snow loading. The uncertain in snow depth (hs) is a major source of uncertainty in the retrieved sea ice thickness and total volume for both radar and laser altimetry. In this study, novel algorithms for the simultaneous retrieval of hi and hs are proposed for the data synergy of L-band (1.4 GHz) passive remote sensing and both types of active altimetry: (1) L-band (1.4GHz) brightness temperature (TB) from Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite and sea ice freeboard (FBice) from radar altimetry, (2) L-band TB data and snow freeboard (FBsnow) from laser altimetry. Two physical models serve as the forward models for the retrieval: L-band radiation model, and the hydrostatic equilibrium model. Verification with SMOS and Operational IceBridge (OIB) data is carried out, showing overall good retrieval accuracy for both sea ice parameters. Specifically, we show that the covariability between hs and FBsnow is crucial for the synergy between TB and FBsnow. Comparison with existing algorithms shows lower uncertainty in both sea ice parameters, and that the uncertainty in the retrieved sea ice thickness as caused by that of snow depth is spatially uncorrelated, with the potential reduction of the volume uncertainty through spatial sampling. The proposed algorithms can be applied to the retrieval of sea ice parameters at basin-scale, using concurrent active and passive remote sensing data based on satellites.

  11. On the retrieval of sea ice thickness and snow depth using concurrent laser altimetry and L-band remote sensing data (United States)

    Zhou, Lu; Xu, Shiming; Liu, Jiping; Wang, Bin


    The accurate knowledge of sea ice parameters, including sea ice thickness and snow depth over the sea ice cover, is key to both climate studies and data assimilation in operational forecasts. Large-scale active and passive remote sensing is the basis for the estimation of these parameters. In traditional altimetry or the retrieval of snow depth with passive microwave remote sensing, although the sea ice thickness and the snow depth are closely related, the retrieval of one parameter is usually carried out under assumptions over the other. For example, climatological snow depth data or as derived from reanalyses contain large or unconstrained uncertainty, which result in large uncertainty in the derived sea ice thickness and volume. In this study, we explore the potential of combined retrieval of both sea ice thickness and snow depth using the concurrent active altimetry and passive microwave remote sensing of the sea ice cover. Specifically, laser altimetry and L-band passive remote sensing data are combined using two forward models: the L-band radiation model and the isostatic relationship based on buoyancy model. Since the laser altimetry usually features much higher spatial resolution than L-band data from the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite, there is potentially covariability between the observed snow freeboard by altimetry and the retrieval target of snow depth on the spatial scale of altimetry samples. Statistically significant correlation is discovered based on high-resolution observations from Operation IceBridge (OIB), and with a nonlinear fitting the covariability is incorporated in the retrieval algorithm. By using fitting parameters derived from large-scale surveys, the retrievability is greatly improved compared with the retrieval that assumes flat snow cover (i.e., no covariability). Verifications with OIB data show good match between the observed and the retrieved parameters, including both sea ice thickness and snow depth. With

  12. Correlation between blister skin thickness, the maximum in the damage-energy distribution, and projected ranges of He+ ions in metals: V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminsky, M.; Das, S.K.; Fenske, G.


    In these experiments a systematic study of the correlation of the skin thickness measured directly by scanning electron microscopy with both the calculated projected-range values and the maximum in the damage-energy distribution has been conducted for a broad helium-ion energy range (100 keV-1000 keV in polycrystalline vanadium. (Auth.)

  13. A Neural Network Approach to Infer Optical Depth of Thick Ice Clouds at Night (United States)

    Minnis, P.; Hong, G.; Sun-Mack, S.; Chen, Yan; Smith, W. L., Jr.


    One of the roadblocks to continuously monitoring cloud properties is the tendency of clouds to become optically black at cloud optical depths (COD) of 6 or less. This constraint dramatically reduces the quantitative information content at night. A recent study found that because of their diffuse nature, ice clouds remain optically gray, to some extent, up to COD of 100 at certain wavelengths. Taking advantage of this weak dependency and the availability of COD retrievals from CloudSat, an artificial neural network algorithm was developed to estimate COD values up to 70 from common satellite imager infrared channels. The method was trained using matched 2007 CloudSat and Aqua MODIS data and is tested using similar data from 2008. The results show a significant improvement over the use of default values at night with high correlation. This paper summarizes the results and suggests paths for future improvement.

  14. Comparison of Freeboard Retrieval and Ice Thickness Calculation From ALS, ASIRAS, and CryoSat-2 in the Norwegian Arctic to Field Measurements Made During the N-ICE2015 Expedition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Jennifer; Skourup, Henriette; Hvidegaard, Sine M.


    We present freeboard measurements from airborne laser scanner (ALS), the Airborne Synthetic Aperture and Interferometric Radar Altimeter System (ASIRAS), and CryoSat‐2 SIRAL radar altimeter; ice thickness measurements from both helicopter‐borne and ground‐based electromagnetic‐sounding; and point...... measurements of ice properties. This case study was carried out in April 2015 during the N‐ICE2015 expedition in the area of the Arctic Ocean north of Svalbard. The region is represented by deep snow up to 1.12 m and a widespread presence of negative freeboards. The main scattering surfaces from both CryoSat‐2...... freeboard on a regional scale of tens of kilometers. We derived a modal sea‐ice thickness for the study region from CryoSat‐2 of 3.9 m compared to measured total thickness 1.7 m, resulting in an overestimation of sea‐ice thickness on the order of a factor 2. Our results also highlight the importance of year...

  15. Geodetic measurements reveal similarities between post–Last Glacial Maximum and present-day mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Sasgen, Ingo; Bevis, Michael


    and ocean load changes occurring since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ~21 thousand years ago) and may be used to constrain the GrIS deglaciation history. We use data from the Greenland Global Positioning System network to directly measure GIA and estimate basinwide mass changes since the LGM. Unpredicted......Accurate quantification of the millennial-scale mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to global sea-level rise remain challenging because of sparse in situ observations in key regions. Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is the ongoing response of the solid Earth to ice...

  16. Current glaciation of the Chikhachev ridge (South-Eastern Altai and its dynamics after maximum of the Little Ice Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Ganyushkin


    Full Text Available Glaciation of the Chikhachev ridge (South-Eastern Altai remains poorly known: field observations were not performed since the mid-twentieth century, available schemes and estimates of the glaciation and its scale made on the basis of remote sensing cover only a part of the glaciers, reconstructions of the Little Ice Age (LIA glaciations are absent. This research was based on interpretation of the satellite images: Landsat-4 (1989, Landsat-7 (2001, and Spot-5 (2011, as well as with the use of data of the field season of 2015. Characteristics of glaciations of the Chikhachev ridge as the whole and of its individual centers (Talduair massif, Mongun-Taiga-Minor massif, and southern part of the Chikhachev ridge were determined for the first time. Recent glaciation is represented by 7 glaciers with their total area of 1.12 km2 in the Talduair massif, by 5 glaciers with total area of 0.75 km2 in the Mongun-Taiga-Minor massif, and by 85 glaciers with total area of 29 km2 in the southern part of the Chikhachev ridge. Since the LIA maximum, areas of glaciers decreased by 61% in the Talduair massif, by 74% in the Mongun-Taiga-Minor massif, by 56% in the southern part of the Chikhachev ridge with simultaneous lifting of the firn line by 50 m, 65 m, and 70 m, respectively.The largest rates of the glacier contractions were determined for the period 1989–2011. Different mechanisms of the glacier retreats were shown by the example of the glacier complexes Burgastyn-Gol (one-sided retreat and disintegration and the Grigorjev glacier (gradual retreat of the tongue. Retreat of the Grigorjev glacier has been reconstructed for the period from the LIA maximum until 2015. Average rate of the retreat increased from 1,6 m/year in 1957–1989 up to 11,3 m/year in 2011–2015. The present-day scales of the glaciers and rates of their retreating do not significantly differ from estimations made by other researchers for the nearest centers of glaciation of the

  17. Simulating ice thickness and velocity evolution of Upernavik Isstrøm 1849-2012 by forcing prescribed terminus positions in ISSM (United States)

    Haubner, Konstanze; Box, Jason E.; Schlegel, Nicole J.; Larour, Eric Y.; Morlighem, Mathieu; Solgaard, Anne M.; Kjeldsen, Kristian K.; Larsen, Signe H.; Rignot, Eric; Dupont, Todd K.; Kjær, Kurt H.


    Tidewater glacier velocity and mass balance are known to be highly responsive to terminus position change. Yet it remains challenging for ice flow models to reproduce observed ice margin changes. Here, using the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM; Larour et al. 2012), we simulate the ice velocity and thickness changes of Upernavik Isstrøm (north-western Greenland) by prescribing a collection of 27 observed terminus positions spanning 164 years (1849-2012). The simulation shows increased ice velocity during the 1930s, the late 1970s and between 1995 and 2012 when terminus retreat was observed along with negative surface mass balance anomalies. Three distinct mass balance states are evident in the reconstruction: (1849-1932) with near zero mass balance, (1932-1992) with ice mass loss dominated by ice dynamical flow, and (1998-2012), when increased retreat and negative surface mass balance anomalies led to mass loss that was twice that of any earlier period. Over the multi-decadal simulation, mass loss was dominated by thinning and acceleration responsible for 70 % of the total mass loss induced by prescribed change in terminus position. The remaining 30 % of the total ice mass loss resulted directly from prescribed terminus retreat and decreasing surface mass balance. Although the method can not explain the cause of glacier retreat, it enables the reconstruction of ice flow and geometry during 1849-2012. Given annual or seasonal observed terminus front positions, this method could be a useful tool for evaluating simulations investigating the effect of calving laws.

  18. Nitric acid particles in cold thick ice clouds observed at global scale: Link with lightning, temperature, and upper tropospheric water vapor


    Chepfer , H.; Minnis , P.; Dubuisson , P.; Chiriaco , Marjolaine; Sun-Mack , S.; Rivière , E.D.


    International audience; Signatures of nitric acid particles (NAP) in cold thick ice clouds have been derived from satellite observations. Most NAP are detected in the tropics (9 to 20% of clouds with T < 202.5 K). Higher occurrences were found in the rare midlatitudes very cold clouds. NAP occurrence increases as cloud temperature decreases, and NAP are more numerous in January than July. Comparisons of NAP and lightning distributions show that lightning seems to be the main source of the NOx...

  19. Sensitivity of CryoSat-2 Arctic sea-ice freeboard and thickness on radar-waveform interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricker, R.; Hendricks, S.; Helm, V.


    In the context of quantifying Arctic ice-volume decrease at global scale, the CryoSat-2 satellite was launched in 2010 and is equipped with the K-u band synthetic aperture radar altimeter SIRAL (Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Radar Altimeter), which we use to derive sea-ice freeboard defined...... knowledge of ice and snow properties, the composition of radar backscatter and therefore the interpretation of radar echoes is crucial. This has consequences in the selection of retracker algorithms which are used to track the main scattering horizon and assign a range estimate to each CryoSat-2 measurement...... of sea-ice freeboard and higher-level products that arise from the choice of the retracker threshold only, independent of the uncertainties related to snow and ice properties. Our study shows that the choice of retracker thresholds does have a significant impact on magnitudes of estimates of sea...

  20. Propagation of Uncertainties in Sea Ice Thickness Calculations From Basin-Scale Operational Observations: A Report Prepared for the International Ice Charting Working Group and the National/Naval Ice Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geiger, Cathleen A


    Sea ice serves as a natural flux monitor of the global heat balance. This capability is attributed to the unique location of sea ice at the interface of the world's two largest circulation systems the air and ocean...

  1. The MIS 3 maximum of the Torres del Paine and Última Esperanza ice lobes in Patagonia and the pacing of southern mountain glaciation (United States)

    García, Juan-Luis; Hein, Andrew S.; Binnie, Steven A.; Gómez, Gabriel A.; González, Mauricio A.; Dunai, Tibor J.


    The timing, structure and termination of the last southern mountain glaciation and its forcing remains unclear. Most studies have focused on the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 26.5-19 ka) time period, which is just part of the extensive time-frame within the last glacial period, including Marine Isotope Stages 3 and 4. Understanding the glacial fluctuations throughout the glacial period is a prerequisite for uncovering the cause and climate mechanism driving southern glaciation and the interhemispheric linkages of climate change. Here, we present an extensive (n = 65) cosmogenic 10Be glacier chronology derived from moraine belts marking the pre-global LGM extent of the former Patagonian Ice Sheet in southernmost South America. Our results show the mountain ice sheet reached its maximum extent at 48.0 ± 1.8 ka during the local LGM, but attained just half this extent at 21.5 ± 1.8 ka during the global LGM. This finding, supported by nearby glacier chronologies, indicates that at orbital time scales, the southern mid-latitude glaciers fluctuated out-of-phase with northern hemisphere ice sheets. At millennial time-scales, our data suggest that Patagonian and New Zealand glaciers advanced in unison with cold Antarctic stadials and reductions in Southern Ocean sea surface temperatures. This implies a southern middle latitudes-wide millennial rhythm of climate change throughout the last glacial period linked to the north Atlantic by the bipolar seesaw. We suggest that winter insolation, acting alongside other drivers such as the strength and/or position of the southern westerlies, controlled the extents of major southern mountain glaciers such as those in southernmost South America.

  2. Arctic sea-ice ridges—Safe heavens for sea-ice fauna during periods of extreme ice melt? (United States)

    Gradinger, Rolf; Bluhm, Bodil; Iken, Katrin


    The abundances and distribution of metazoan within-ice meiofauna (13 stations) and under-ice fauna (12 stations) were investigated in level sea ice and sea-ice ridges in the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas and Canada Basin in June/July 2005 using a combination of ice coring and SCUBA diving. Ice meiofauna abundance was estimated based on live counts in the bottom 30 cm of level sea ice based on triplicate ice core sampling at each location, and in individual ice chunks from ridges at four locations. Under-ice amphipods were counted in situ in replicate ( N=24-65 per station) 0.25 m 2 quadrats using SCUBA to a maximum water depth of 12 m. In level sea ice, the most abundant ice meiofauna groups were Turbellaria (46%), Nematoda (35%), and Harpacticoida (19%), with overall low abundances per station that ranged from 0.0 to 10.9 ind l -1 (median 0.8 ind l -1). In level ice, low ice algal pigment concentrations (Turbellaria, Nematoda and Harpacticoida also were observed in pressure ridges (0-200 ind l -1, median 40 ind l -1), although values were highly variable and only medians of Turbellaria were significantly higher in ridge ice than in level ice. Median abundances of under-ice amphipods at all ice types (level ice, various ice ridge structures) ranged from 8 to 114 ind m -2 per station and mainly consisted of Apherusa glacialis (87%), Onisimus spp. (7%) and Gammarus wilkitzkii (6%). Highest amphipod abundances were observed in pressure ridges at depths >3 m where abundances were up to 42-fold higher compared with level ice. We propose that the summer ice melt impacted meiofauna and under-ice amphipod abundance and distribution through (a) flushing, and (b) enhanced salinity stress at thinner level sea ice (less than 3 m thickness). We further suggest that pressure ridges, which extend into deeper, high-salinity water, become accumulation regions for ice meiofauna and under-ice amphipods in summer. Pressure ridges thus might be crucial for faunal survival during periods of

  3. Analysis of Sea Ice Cover Sensitivity in Global Climate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Parhomenko


    Full Text Available The paper presents joint calculations using a 3D atmospheric general circulation model, an ocean model, and a sea ice evolution model. The purpose of the work is to analyze a seasonal and annual evolution of sea ice, long-term variability of a model ice cover, and its sensitivity to some parameters of model as well to define atmosphere-ice-ocean interaction.Results of 100 years simulations of Arctic basin sea ice evolution are analyzed. There are significant (about 0.5 m inter-annual fluctuations of an ice cover.The ice - atmosphere sensible heat flux reduced by 10% leads to the growth of average sea ice thickness within the limits of 0.05 m – 0.1 m. However in separate spatial points the thickness decreases up to 0.5 m. An analysis of the seasonably changing average ice thickness with decreasing, as compared to the basic variant by 0.05 of clear sea ice albedo and that of snow shows the ice thickness reduction in a range from 0.2 m up to 0.6 m, and the change maximum falls for the summer season of intensive melting. The spatial distribution of ice thickness changes shows, that on the large part of the Arctic Ocean there was a reduction of ice thickness down to 1 m. However, there is also an area of some increase of the ice layer basically in a range up to 0.2 m (Beaufort Sea. The 0.05 decrease of sea ice snow albedo leads to reduction of average ice thickness approximately by 0.2 m, and this value slightly depends on a season. In the following experiment the ocean – ice thermal interaction influence on the ice cover is estimated. It is carried out by increase of a heat flux from ocean to the bottom surface of sea ice by 2 W/sq. m in comparison with base variant. The analysis demonstrates, that the average ice thickness reduces in a range from 0.2 m to 0.35 m. There are small seasonal changes of this value.The numerical experiments results have shown, that an ice cover and its seasonal evolution rather strongly depend on varied parameters

  4. Seasonal variation of ice melting on varying layers of debris of Lirung Glacier, Langtang Valley, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Chand


    Full Text Available Glaciers in the Himalayan region are often covered by extensive debris cover in ablation areas, hence it is essential to assess the effect of debris on glacier ice melt. Seasonal melting of ice beneath different thicknesses of debris on Lirung Glacier in Langtang Valley, Nepal, was studied during three seasons of 2013–14. The melting rates of ice under 5 cm debris thickness are 3.52, 0.09, and 0.85 cm d−1 during the monsoon, winter and pre-monsoon season, respectively. Maximum melting is observed in dirty ice (0.3 cm debris thickness and the rate decreases with the increase of debris thickness. The energy balance calculations on dirty ice and at 40 cm debris thickness show that the main energy source of ablation is net radiation. The major finding from this study is that the maximum melting occurs during the monsoon season than rest of the seasons.

  5. Treatment results of Stage I and II oral tongue cancer with interstitial brachytherapy: maximum tumor thickness is prognostic of nodal metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Kanji; Hirokawa, Yutaka; Fujita, Minoru; Akagi, Yukio; Ito, Katsuhide


    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic importance of T classification and maximum tumor thickness (MTT) on the treatment results of Stage I and II oral tongue cancer treated with interstitial brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between January 1981 and December 1993, 173 cases were eligible for this retrospective analysis. Of 173 patients, 75 were classified as Stage I and 98 as Stage II: maximum tumor length ranged from 6 to 40 mm. MTT, which ranged from 2 to 38 mm, was measured with ultrasonography and/or palpation. Brachytherapy was performed with iridium hairpins or radium needles following external irradiation in 66 patients, or exclusively in 107 patients. Results: The 5-year local recurrence rates were Stage I, 7%; Stage II, 22%; MTT < 8 mm, 8%; and MTT ≥ 8 mm, 28%. The 5-year regional recurrence rates were Stage I, 15%; Stage II, 29%; MTT < 8 mm, 18%; and MTT ≥ 8 mm, 31%, respectively. The 5-year local recurrence rates of the patients with Stage I and MTT < 8 mm of the brachytherapy only group were significantly better than those of Stage II and MTT ≥ 8 mm (5% and 6% vs. 16% and 24%). The 5-year regional recurrence rates of the patients with Stage I and MTT < 8 mm of the brachytherapy-only group were significantly better than those of Stage II and MTT ≥ 8 mm (14% and 16% vs. 34% and 46%). There was no significant difference in the 5-year regional recurrence rates between the two groups of Stage I and Stage II, MTT < 8 mm. However, there was a significant difference in the 5-year regional recurrence rates between the two groups of MTT ≥ 8 mm (p < 0.005). Conclusions: For patients with Stage I and II oral tongue cancer, tumor thickness as well as T classification were prognostic for nodal metastasis and prognosis. Patients with MTT ≥ 8 mm are more likely to fail in the neck region. These findings suggest that MTT should be considered along with T stage in determining strategies for Stage I and II oral tongue cancer

  6. Coupled ice sheet - climate simulations of the last glacial inception and last glacial maximum with a model of intermediate complexity that includes a dynamical downscaling of heat and moisture (United States)

    Quiquet, Aurélien; Roche, Didier M.


    Comprehensive fully coupled ice sheet - climate models allowing for multi-millenia transient simulations are becoming available. They represent powerful tools to investigate ice sheet - climate interactions during the repeated retreats and advances of continental ice sheets of the Pleistocene. However, in such models, most of the time, the spatial resolution of the ice sheet model is one order of magnitude lower than the one of the atmospheric model. As such, orography-induced precipitation is only poorly represented. In this work, we briefly present the most recent improvements of the ice sheet - climate coupling within the model of intermediate complexity iLOVECLIM. On the one hand, from the native atmospheric resolution (T21), we have included a dynamical downscaling of heat and moisture at the ice sheet model resolution (40 km x 40 km). This downscaling accounts for feedbacks of sub-grid precipitation on large scale energy and water budgets. From the sub-grid atmospheric variables, we compute an ice sheet surface mass balance required by the ice sheet model. On the other hand, we also explicitly use oceanic temperatures to compute sub-shelf melting at a given depth. Based on palaeo evidences for rate of change of eustatic sea level, we discuss the capability of our new model to correctly simulate the last glacial inception ( 116 kaBP) and the ice volume of the last glacial maximum ( 21 kaBP). We show that the model performs well in certain areas (e.g. Canadian archipelago) but some model biases are consistent over time periods (e.g. Kara-Barents sector). We explore various model sensitivities (e.g. initial state, vegetation, albedo) and we discuss the importance of the downscaling of precipitation for ice nucleation over elevated area and for the surface mass balance of larger ice sheets.

  7. Relating C-band Microwave and Optical Satellite Observations as A Function of Snow Thickness on First-Year Sea Ice during the Winter to Summer Transition (United States)

    Zheng, J.; Yackel, J.


    The Arctic sea ice and its snow cover have a direct impact on both the Arctic and global climate system through their ability to moderate heat exchange across the ocean-sea ice-atmosphere (OSA) interface. Snow cover plays a key role in the OSA interface radiation and energy exchange, as it controls the growth and decay of first-year sea ice (FYI). However, meteoric accumulation and redistribution of snow on FYI is highly stochastic over space and time, which makes it poorly understood. Previous studies have estimated local-scale snow thickness distributions using in-situ technique and modelling but it is spatially limited and challenging due to logistic difficulties. Moreover, snow albedo is also critical for determining the surface energy balance of the OSA during the critical summer ablation season. Even then, due to persistent and widespread cloud cover in the Arctic at various spatio-temporal scales, it is difficult and unreliable to remotely measure albedo of snow cover on FYI in the optical spectrum. Previous studies demonstrate that only large-scale sea ice albedo was successfully estimated using optical-satellite sensors. However, space-borne microwave sensors, with their capability of all-weather and 24-hour imaging, can provide enhanced information about snow cover on FYI. Daily spaceborne C-band scatterometer data (ASCAT) and MODIS data are used to investigate the the seasonal co-evolution of the microwave backscatter coefficient and optical albedo as a function of snow thickness on smooth FYI. The research focuses on snow-covered FYI near Cambridge Bay, Nunavut (Fig.1) during the winter to advanced-melt period (April-June, 2014). The ACSAT time series (Fig.2) show distinct increase in scattering at melt onset indicating the first occurrence of melt water in the snow cover. The corresponding albedo exhibits no decrease at this stage. We show how the standard deviation of ASCAT backscatter on FYI during winter can be used as a proxy for surface roughness

  8. A model study of the effect of climate and sea-level change on the evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet from the Last Glacial Maximum to 2100

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maris, M. N. A.; Van Wessem, J. M.; Van De Berg, W. J.; De Boer, B.; Oerlemans, J.


    Due to a scarcity of observations and its long memory of uncertain past climate, the Antarctic Ice Sheet remains a largely unknown factor in the prediction of global sea level change. As the history of the ice sheet plays a key role in its future evolution, in this study we model the Antarctic Ice

  9. Sea ice - Multiyear cycles and white ice (United States)

    Ledley, T. S.


    The multiyear thickness cycles represent one of the interesting features of the sea ice studies performed by Semtner (1976) and Washington et al. (1976) with simple thermodynamic models of sea ice. In the present article, a description is given of results which show that the insulating effect of snow on the surface of the sea ice is important in producing these multiyear cycles given the physics included in the model. However, when the formation of white ice is included, the cycles almost disappear. White ice is the ice which forms at the snow-ice interface when the snow layer becomes thick enough to depress the ice below the water level. Water infiltrates the snow by coming through the ice at leads and generally freezes there, forming white ice.

  10. Sea Ice (United States)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.


    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  11. Nitric acid particles in cold thick ice clouds observed at global scale: Link with lightning, temperature, and upper tropospheric water vapor (United States)

    Chepfer, H.; Minnis, P.; Dubuisson, P.; Chiriaco, M.; Sun-Mack, S.; RivièRe, E. D.


    Signatures of nitric acid particles (NAP) in cold thick ice clouds have been derived from satellite observations. Most NAP are detected in the tropics (9 to 20% of clouds with T < 202.5 K). Higher occurrences were found in the rare midlatitudes very cold clouds. NAP occurrence increases as cloud temperature decreases, and NAP are more numerous in January than July. Comparisons of NAP and lightning distributions show that lightning seems to be the main source of the NOx, which forms NAP in cold clouds over continents. Qualitative comparisons of NAP with upper tropospheric humidity distributions suggest that NAP may play a role in the dehydration of the upper troposphere when the tropopause is colder than 195 K.

  12. The deglaciation of Iztaccíhuatl volcano (Mexico) from the Little Ice Age maximum to the present, determined by photogrametry and lichenometry (United States)

    Palacios, D.; García-Sancho, L.; Zamorano, J. J.; Andrés, N.; Pintado, A.


    Iztaccíhualt Volcano (19°10'20''N, 98°38'30''W, 5230 m asl) preserves an important moraine complex from the Little Ice Age (LIA), which stretches to 4300 m asl. These moraines are different from former ones because they are not covered by ash fall from the last plinian explosive phases of the nearby Popocatépetl volcano. In fact, the last emission of those pyroclasts took place during the XI century (Vázquez-Selem, 2000). The summit area of the Iztaccíhualt volcano still has glaciers whose terminus are located around 5000 m asl. From the end of the LIA until present the glacier terminus have ascended 700 m. To study the deglaciation process in Iztaccíhualt volcano from the LIA maximum to present, the Ayoloco valley was selected as it is the most important valley of the western slope of the volcano. Taking this valley as a reference, we determined the limits of glaciers in different dates by georeferencing the aerial and panoramic photographs (from 1897 to 2000) and analysing the 1958 field cartography of the glacial limits (Lorenzo, 1964). On the one hand, we carried out a statistical analysis of the size of the Rhizocarpon geographicum thallus and, on the other hand, we undertook a statistical study of the biodiversity of the lichen species through a number of cross-sections from the lowest LIA moraines to the current glacier snouts. This methodology allowed dating the exact moment in which the glacier retreated over certain points of the analysed cross-sections and determining the ecesis and the growth curve of the Rhizocarpon geographicum specie. In the Ayoloco valley the average growth rate is of 0.23 mm per year. From this information, we could deduce the evolution of the glacier from the LIA maximum to present. The results indicate that two main advances took place during the XVII and the XIX centuries. At the beginning of the XX century the glacier terminus were very close to the moraines of the maximum advance. An intense glacial retreat took place

  13. Hydrogeomorphic processes of thermokarst lakes with grounded-ice and floating-ice regimes on the Arctic coastal plain, Alaska (United States)

    Arp, C.D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Urban, F.E.; Grosse, G.


    Thermokarst lakes cover > 20% of the landscape throughout much of the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) with shallow lakes freezing solid (grounded ice) and deeper lakes maintaining perennial liquid water (floating ice). Thus, lake depth relative to maximum ice thickness (1·5–2·0 m) represents an important threshold that impacts permafrost, aquatic habitat, and potentially geomorphic and hydrologic behaviour. We studied coupled hydrogeomorphic processes of 13 lakes representing a depth gradient across this threshold of maximum ice thickness by analysing remotely sensed, water quality, and climatic data over a 35-year period. Shoreline erosion rates due to permafrost degradation ranged from L) with periods of full and nearly dry basins. Shorter-term (2004–2008) specific conductance data indicated a drying pattern across lakes of all depths consistent with the long-term record for only shallow lakes. Our analysis suggests that grounded-ice lakes are ice-free on average 37 days longer than floating-ice lakes resulting in a longer period of evaporative loss and more frequent negative P − EL. These results suggest divergent hydrogeomorphic responses to a changing Arctic climate depending on the threshold created by water depth relative to maximum ice thickness in ACP lakes.

  14. Ice volume distribution and implications on runoff projections in a glacierized catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gabbi


    Full Text Available A dense network of helicopter-based ground-penetrating radar (GPR measurements was used to determine the ice-thickness distribution in the Mauvoisin region. The comprehensive set of ice-thickness measurements was combined with an ice-thickness estimation approach for an accurate determination of the bedrock. A total ice volume of 3.69 ± 0.31 km3 and a maximum ice thickness of 290 m were found. The ice-thickness values were then employed as input for a combined glacio-hydrological model forced by most recent regional climate scenarios. This model provided glacier evolution and runoff projections for the period 2010–2100. Runoff projections of the measured initial ice volume distribution show an increase in annual runoff of 4% in the next two decades, followed by a persistent runoff decrease until 2100. Finally, we checked the influence of the ice-thickness distribution on runoff projections. Our analyses revealed that reliable estimates of the ice volume are essential for modelling future glacier and runoff evolution. Wrong estimations of the total ice volume might even lead to deviations of the predicted general runoff trend.

  15. Geodetic measurements reveal similarities between post–Last Glacial Maximum and present-day mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat A.; Sasgen, Ingo; Bevis, Michael


    Accurate quantification of the millennial-scale mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to global sea-level rise remain challenging because of sparse in situ observations in key regions. Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is the ongoing response of the solid Earth to ice...

  16. Lizards on ice: evidence for multiple refugia in Liolaemus pictus (Liolaemidae during the last glacial maximum in the Southern Andean beech forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Vera-Escalona

    Full Text Available Historical climate changes and orogenesis are two important factors that have shaped intraspecific biodiversity patterns worldwide. Although southern South America has experienced such complex events, there is a paucity of studies examining the effects on intraspecific diversification in this part of the world. Liolaemus pictus is the southernmost distributed lizard in the Chilean temperate forest, whose genetic structure has likely been influenced by Pleistocene glaciations. We conducted a phylogeographic study of L. pictus in Chile and Argentina based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes recovering two strongly divergent groups, Northern and Southern clades. The first group is distributed from the northernmost limit of the species to the Araucanía region while the second group is distributed throughout the Andes and the Chiloé archipelago in Southern Chile. Our results suggest that L. pictus originated 751 Kya, with divergence between the two clades occurring in the late Pleistocene. Demographic reconstructions for the Northern and Southern clades indicate a decrease in effective population sizes likely associated with Pleistocene glaciations. Surprisingly, patterns of genetic variation, clades age and historical gene flow in populations distributed within the limits of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM are not explained by recent colonization. We propose an "intra-Andean multiple refuge" hypothesis, along with the classical refuge hypothesis previously proposed for the biota of the Chilean Coastal range and Eastern Andean Cordillera. Our hypothesis is supported by niche modelling analysis suggesting the persistence of fragments of suitable habitat for the species within the limits of the LGM ice shield. This type of refuge hypothesis is proposed for the first time for an ectothermic species.

  17. Correlation between blister skin thickness, the maximum in the damage-energy distribution, and projected ranges of He+ ions in metals: Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminsky, M.; Das, S.K.; Fenske, G.


    The skin thicknesses of blisters formed on niobium by helium-ion irradiation at room temperature for energies from 100 to 1500 keV have been measured. The projected ranges of helium ions in Nb for this energy range were calculated using either Brice's formalism or the one given by Schiott. For the damage-energy distribution Brice's formalism was used. The measured skin-thickness values corrleate more closely with the maxima in the projected-range probability distributions than with the maxima in the damage-energy distributions. The results are consistent with our model for blister formation and rupture proposed earlier

  18. Correlation between blister skin thickness, the maximum in the damage-energy distribution, and the projected ranges of He+ ions in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Kaminsky, M.; Fenske, G.


    The skin thickness of blisters formed on aluminium by helium-ion irradiation at room temperature for energies from 100 to 1000 keV have been measured. The projected ranges of helium ions in Al for this energy range were calculated using either Brice's formalism (Brice, D.K., 1972, Phys. Rev., vol. A6, 1791) or the one given by Schioett (Schioett, H.E., 1966, K. Danske Vidensk.Selsk., Mat.-Fys. Meddr., vol.35, No.9). For the damage-energy distribution Brice's formalism was used. The measured skin thickness values are smaller than the calculated values of the maxima in the projected range distributions over the entire energy range studied. These results on the ductile metal aluminium are contrasted with the results on relatively brittle refractory metals V and Nb where the measured skin thickness values correlate more closely with the maxima in the projected range probability distributions than with the maxima in the damage-energy distributions. Processes affecting the blister skin fracture and the skin thickness are discussed. (author)

  19. Icing conditions over Northern Eurasia in changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulygina, Olga N; Arzhanova, Natalia M; Groisman, Pavel Ya


    Icing conditions, particularly in combination with wind, affect greatly the operation of overhead communication and transmission lines causing serious failures, which result in tremendous economic damage. Icing formation is dangerous to agriculture, forestry, high seas fishery, for land and off coast man-made infrastructure. Quantitative icing characteristics such as weight, thickness, and duration are very important for the economy and human wellbeing when their maximum values exceed certain thresholds. Russian meteorological stations perform both visual and instrumental monitoring of icing deposits. Visual monitoring is ocular estimation of the type and intensity of icing and the date of ice appearance and disappearance. Instrumental monitoring is performed by ice accretion indicator that in addition to the type, intensity and duration of ice deposits reports also their weight and size. We used observations at 958 Russian stations for the period 1977–2013 to analyze changes in the ice formation frequency at individual meteorological stations and on the territory of quasi-homogeneous climatic regions in Russia. It was found that hoar frosts are observed in most parts of Russia, but icing only occurs in European Russia and the Far East. On the Arctic coast of Russia, this phenomenon can even be observed in summer months. Statistically significant decreasing trends in occurrence of icing and hoar frost events are found over most of Russia. An increasing trend in icing weights (IWs) was found in the Atlantic Arctic region in autumn. Statistically significant large negative trends in IWs were found in the Pacific Arctic in winter and spring. (letter)

  20. ERS-1 SAR monitoring of ice growth on shallow lakes to determine water depth and availability in north west Alaska (United States)

    Jeffries, Martin; Morris, Kim; Liston, Glen


    Images taken by the ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) were used to identify and to differentiate between the lakes that freeze completely to the bottom and those that do not, on the North Slope, in northwestern Alaska. The ice thickness at the time each lake froze completely is determined with numerical ice growth model that gives a maximum simulated thickness of 2.2 m. A method combining the ERS-1 SAR images and numerical ice growth model was used to determine the ice growth and the water availability in these regions.

  1. Bibliography of Ice Properties and Forecasting Related to Transportation in Ice-Covered Waters. (United States)


    N. and Tabata , T., Ice study in the Gulf of Peschanskii, I.S., Ice science and ice technology, Bothnia, III: observations on large grains of and by Sterrett, K.F., The arctic environment and the hitting ice floes. Results of these measurements have arctic surface effect vehicle, growth, temperature 26-3673 effects, ice cover thickness. 28-557 Determining contact stresses when a ship’s stem hits the ice, Kheisin, D.E

  2. A modified discrete element model for sea ice dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Baohui; LI Hai; LIU Yu; WANG Anliang; JI Shunying


    Considering the discontinuous characteristics of sea ice on various scales, a modified discrete element mod-el (DEM) for sea ice dynamics is developed based on the granular material rheology. In this modified DEM, a soft sea ice particle element is introduced as a self-adjustive particle size function. Each ice particle can be treated as an assembly of ice floes, with its concentration and thickness changing to variable sizes un-der the conservation of mass. In this model, the contact forces among ice particles are calculated using a viscous-elastic-plastic model, while the maximum shear forces are described with the Mohr-Coulomb fric-tion law. With this modified DEM, the ice flow dynamics is simulated under the drags of wind and current in a channel of various widths. The thicknesses, concentrations and velocities of ice particles are obtained, and then reasonable dynamic process is analyzed. The sea ice dynamic process is also simulated in a vortex wind field. Taking the influence of thermodynamics into account, this modified DEM will be improved in the future work.

  3. Sea-ice evaluation of NEMO-Nordic 1.0: a NEMO-LIM3.6-based ocean-sea-ice model setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea (United States)

    Pemberton, Per; Löptien, Ulrike; Hordoir, Robinson; Höglund, Anders; Schimanke, Semjon; Axell, Lars; Haapala, Jari


    The Baltic Sea is a seasonally ice-covered marginal sea in northern Europe with intense wintertime ship traffic and a sensitive ecosystem. Understanding and modeling the evolution of the sea-ice pack is important for climate effect studies and forecasting purposes. Here we present and evaluate the sea-ice component of a new NEMO-LIM3.6-based ocean-sea-ice setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea region (NEMO-Nordic). The setup includes a new depth-based fast-ice parametrization for the Baltic Sea. The evaluation focuses on long-term statistics, from a 45-year long hindcast, although short-term daily performance is also briefly evaluated. We show that NEMO-Nordic is well suited for simulating the mean sea-ice extent, concentration, and thickness as compared to the best available observational data set. The variability of the annual maximum Baltic Sea ice extent is well in line with the observations, but the 1961-2006 trend is underestimated. Capturing the correct ice thickness distribution is more challenging. Based on the simulated ice thickness distribution we estimate the undeformed and deformed ice thickness and concentration in the Baltic Sea, which compares reasonably well with observations.

  4. The last glacial maximum (United States)

    Clark, P.U.; Dyke, A.S.; Shakun, J.D.; Carlson, A.E.; Clark, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; McCabe, A.M.


    We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level ???14.5 ka.

  5. Ice and ocean velocity in the Arctic marginal ice zone: Ice roughness and momentum transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia T. Cole


    Full Text Available The interplay between sea ice concentration, sea ice roughness, ocean stratification, and momentum transfer to the ice and ocean is subject to seasonal and decadal variations that are crucial to understanding the present and future air-ice-ocean system in the Arctic. In this study, continuous observations in the Canada Basin from March through December 2014 were used to investigate spatial differences and temporal changes in under-ice roughness and momentum transfer as the ice cover evolved seasonally. Observations of wind, ice, and ocean properties from four clusters of drifting instrument systems were complemented by direct drill-hole measurements and instrumented overhead flights by NASA operation IceBridge in March, as well as satellite remote sensing imagery about the instrument clusters. Spatially, directly estimated ice-ocean drag coefficients varied by a factor of three with rougher ice associated with smaller multi-year ice floe sizes embedded within the first-year-ice/multi-year-ice conglomerate. Temporal differences in the ice-ocean drag coefficient of 20–30% were observed prior to the mixed layer shoaling in summer and were associated with ice concentrations falling below 100%. The ice-ocean drag coefficient parameterization was found to be invalid in September with low ice concentrations and small ice floe sizes. Maximum momentum transfer to the ice occurred for moderate ice concentrations, and transfer to the ocean for the lowest ice concentrations and shallowest stratification. Wind work and ocean work on the ice were the dominant terms in the kinetic energy budget of the ice throughout the melt season, consistent with free drift conditions. Overall, ice topography, ice concentration, and the shallow summer mixed layer all influenced mixed layer currents and the transfer of momentum within the air-ice-ocean system. The observed changes in momentum transfer show that care must be taken to determine appropriate parameterizations

  6. Rate of ice accumulation during ice storms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feknous, N. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Chouinard, L. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Sabourin, G. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)


    The rate of glaze ice accumulation is the result of a complex process dependent on numerous meteorological and physical factors. The aim of this paper was to estimate the distribution rate of glaze ice accumulation on conductors in southern Quebec for use in the design of mechanical and electrical de-icing devices. The analysis was based on direct observations of ice accumulation collected on passive ice meters. The historical database of Hydro-Quebec, which contains observations at over 140 stations over period of 25 years, was used to compute accumulation rates. Data was processed so that each glaze ice event was numbered in a chronological sequence. Each event consisted of the time series of ice accumulations on each of the 8 cylinders of the ice meters, as well as on 5 of its surfaces. Observed rates were converted to represent the average ice on a 30 mm diameter conductor at 30 m above ground with a span of 300 m. Observations were corrected to account for the water content of the glaze ice as evidenced by the presence of icicles. Results indicated that despite significant spatial variations in the expected severity of ice storms as a function of location, the distribution function for rates of accumulation were fairly similar and could be assumed to be independent of location. It was concluded that the observations from several sites could be combined in order to obtain better estimates of the distribution of hourly rates of ice accumulation. However, the rates were highly variable. For de-icing strategies, it was suggested that average accumulation rates over 12 hour periods were preferable, and that analyses should be performed for other time intervals to account for the variability in ice accumulation rates over time. In addition, accumulation rates did not appear to be highly correlated with average wind speed for maximum hourly accumulation rates. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  7. An integrated approach to the remote sensing of floating ice (United States)

    Campbell, W. J.; Ramseier, R. O.; Weeks, W. F.; Gloersen, P.


    Review article on remote sensing applications to glaciology. Ice parameters sensed include: ice cover vs open water, ice thickness, distribution and morphology of ice formations, vertical resolution of ice thickness, ice salinity (percolation and drainage of brine; flushing of ice body with fresh water), first-year ice and multiyear ice, ice growth rate and surface heat flux, divergence of ice packs, snow cover masking ice, behavior of ice shelves, icebergs, lake ice and river ice; time changes. Sensing techniques discussed include: satellite photographic surveys, thermal IR, passive and active microwave studies, microwave radiometry, microwave scatterometry, side-looking radar, and synthetic aperture radar. Remote sensing of large aquatic mammals and operational ice forecasting are also discussed.

  8. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 4 Appendix C - Historical Maximum Near-Surface Air Temperature.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.


    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  9. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 18 Appendix Q - Historical Maximum Near-Surface Wind Speed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.


    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconom ic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  10. Measurement and Analysis of Extreme Wave and Ice Actions in the Great Lakes for Offshore Wind Platform Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, Tony [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; van Nieuwstadt, Lin [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; De Roo, Roger [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; Karr, Dale [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; Lozenge, David [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; Meadows, Guy [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering


    This project, funded by the Department of Energy as DE-EE0005376, successfully measured wind-driven lake ice forces on an offshore structure in Lake Superior through one of the coldest winters in recent history. While offshore regions of the Great Lakes offer promising opportunities for harvesting wind energy, these massive bodies of freshwater also offer extreme and unique challenges. Among these challenges is the need to anticipate forces exerted on offshore structures by lake ice. The parameters of interest include the frequency, extent, and movement of lake ice, parameters that are routinely monitored via satellite, and ice thickness, a parameter that has been monitored at discrete locations over many years and is routinely modeled. Essential relationships for these data to be of use in the design of offshore structures and the primary objective of this project are measurements of maximum forces that lake ice of known thicknesses might exert on an offshore structure.

  11. Climatic implications of glacial evolution in the Tröllaskagi peninsula (northern Iceland) since the Little Ice Age maximum. The cases of the Gljúfurárjökull and Tungnahryggsjökull glaciers (United States)

    Fernández-Fernández, José M.; Andrés, Nuria; Brynjólfsson, Skafti; Sæmundsson, Þorsteinn; Palacios, David


    The Tröllaskagi peninsula is located in northern Iceland, between meridians 19°30'W and 18°10'W, jutting out into the North Atlantic to latitude 66°12'N and joining the central highlands to the south. About 150 glaciers located on the Tröllaskagi peninsula reached their Holocene maximum extent during the Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum at the end of the 19th century. The sudden warming at the turn of the 20th century triggered a continuous retreat from the LIA maximum positions, interrupted by a reversal trend during the mid-seventies and eighties in response to a brief period of climate cooling. The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationships between glacial and climatic evolution since the LIA maximum. For this reason, we selected three small debris-free glaciers: Gljúfurárjökull, and western and eastern Tungnahryggsjökull, at the headwalls of Skíðadalur and Kolbeinsdalur, as their absence of debris cover makes them sensitive to climatic fluctuations. To achieve this purpose, we used ArcGIS to map the glacier extent during the LIA maximum and several dates over four georeferenced aerial photos (1946, 1985, 1994 and 2000), as well as a 2005 SPOT satellite image. Then, the Equilibrium-Line Altitude (ELA) was calculated by applying the Accumulation Area Ratio (AAR) and Area Altitude Balance Ratio (AABR) approaches. Climatological data series from the nearby weather stations were used in order to analyze climate development and to estimate precipitation at the ELA with different numerical models. Our results show considerable changes of the three debris-free glaciers and demonstrates their sensitivity to climatic fluctuations. As a result of the abrupt climatic transition of the 20th century, the following warm 25-year period and the warming started in the late eighties, the three glaciers retreated by ca. 990-1330 m from the LIA maximum to 2005, supported by a 40-metre ELA rise and a reduction of their area and volume of 25% and 33% on average

  12. Sea ice-albedo climate feedback mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, J.L.; Curry, J.A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Ebert, E.E. [Bureau of Meterology Research Center, Melbourne (Australia)


    The sea ice-albedo feedback mechanism over the Arctic Ocean multiyear sea ice is investigated by conducting a series of experiments using several one-dimensional models of the coupled sea ice-atmosphere system. In its simplest form, ice-albedo feedback is thought to be associated with a decrease in the areal cover of snow and ice and a corresponding increase in the surface temperature, further decreasing the area cover of snow and ice. It is shown that the sea ice-albedo feedback can operate even in multiyear pack ice, without the disappearance of this ice, associated with internal processes occurring within the multiyear ice pack (e.g., duration of the snow cover, ice thickness, ice distribution, lead fraction, and melt pond characteristics). The strength of the ice-albedo feedback mechanism is compared for several different thermodynamic sea ice models: a new model that includes ice thickness distribution., the Ebert and Curry model, the Mayjut and Untersteiner model, and the Semtner level-3 and level-0 models. The climate forcing is chosen to be a perturbation of the surface heat flux, and cloud and water vapor feedbacks are inoperative so that the effects of the sea ice-albedo feedback mechanism can be isolated. The inclusion of melt ponds significantly strengthens the ice-albedo feedback, while the ice thickness distribution decreases the strength of the modeled sea ice-albedo feedback. It is emphasized that accurately modeling present-day sea ice thickness is not adequate for a sea ice parameterization; the correct physical processes must be included so that the sea ice parameterization yields correct sensitivities to external forcing. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Remote sensing of sea ice: advances during the DAMOCLES project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Heygster


    ASCAT (62.5 km grid spacing, with visible AVHRR observations (20 km, with the synthetic aperture radar sensor ASAR (10 km, and a multi-sensor product (62.5 km with improved angular resolution (Continuous Maximum Cross Correlation, CMCC method is presented. CMCC is also used to derive the sea ice deformation, important for formation of sea ice leads (diverging deformation and pressure ridges (converging. The indirect determination of sea ice thickness from altimeter freeboard data requires knowledge of the ice density and snow load on sea ice. The relation between freeboard and ice thickness is investigated based on the airborne Sever expeditions conducted between 1928 and 1993.

  14. Ice Sheets & Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Troels Bøgeholm

    Since the discovery of the Ice Ages it has been evident that Earth’s climate is liable to undergo dramatic changes. The previous climatic period known as the Last Glacial saw large oscillations in the extent of ice sheets covering the Northern hemisphere. Understanding these oscillations known....... The first part concerns time series analysis of ice core data obtained from the Greenland Ice Sheet. We analyze parts of the time series where DO-events occur using the so-called transfer operator and compare the results with time series from a simple model capable of switching by either undergoing...

  15. The late Cainozoic East Antarctic ice sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colhoun, E.A.


    A review, mainly of East Antarctic late Cainozoic (post 40 Ma) geological and geomorphological evidence, supports the hypothesis of the continuous presence of an ice sheet, of about the present size, since the late Miocene. Evidence is presented and the view advanced that, during the late Wisconsin maximum of isotope stage 2, ice was not nearly as thick or extensive over the continental shelf as required by the model of 'maximum' Antarctic glaciation. Some of the factors influencing the contribution of Antarctica to post-glacial sea-level rise are discussed. It is considered that Antarctica's contribution was probably considerably less than previously estimated. The dating of marine and freshwater sequences in the Vestfold and Bunger Hills is consistent with deglaciation around the Pleistocene Holocene boundary, after the Late Wisconsin maximum. A date of ∼25 ka BP from permafrost in the Larsemann Hills means that either the Larsemann Hills were not glaciated during the Late Wisconsin or the ice failed to erode much of the permafrost surface. The degree of weathering of rock and glacial drifts in the Vestfold, Larsemann and Bunger Hills suggests a long time for formation, perhaps considerably longer than indicated by the dated marine and freshwater sediment sequences. Cosmogenic isotope dating in the Vestfold Hills has provided equivocal ages for deglaciation. While the results could indicate deglaciation before 80 ka BP, they do not confirm such early deglaciation. If the ice cover was thin and failed to remove the previous rock exposure profile, then the assays could predate the last ice advance. Weathered iron crust fragments in the till suggest little erosion. The raised beaches of the oases are Holocene. Assuming they have been produced by post Late Wisconsin isostatic uplift and by the Holocene transgression, calculations show that the Antarctic continental ice sheet could not have been more than ∼500 m thicker in the inner shelf-coastal zone. The

  16. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 25 Appendix X - Forecast Sea Ice Age.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lowry, Thomas Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Shannon M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Barry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  17. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 24 Appendix W - Historical Sea Ice Age.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lowry, Thomas Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Shannon M [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Barry L [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  18. Ice formation and growth shape bacterial community structure in Baltic Sea drift ice. (United States)

    Eronen-Rasimus, Eeva; Lyra, Christina; Rintala, Janne-Markus; Jürgens, Klaus; Ikonen, Vilma; Kaartokallio, Hermanni


    Drift ice, open water and under-ice water bacterial communities covering several developmental stages from open water to thick ice were studied in the northern Baltic Sea. The bacterial communities were assessed with 16S rRNA gene terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism and cloning, together with bacterial abundance and production measurements. In the early stages, open water and pancake ice were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria, which are common bacterial groups in Baltic Sea wintertime surface waters. The pancake ice bacterial communities were similar to the open-water communities, suggesting that the parent water determines the sea-ice bacterial community in the early stages of sea-ice formation. In consolidated young and thick ice, the bacterial communities were significantly different from water bacterial communities as well as from each other, indicating community development in Baltic Sea drift ice along with ice-type changes. The thick ice was dominated by typical sea-ice genera from classes Flavobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, similar to those in polar sea-ice bacterial communities. Since the thick ice bacterial community was remarkably different from that of the parent seawater, results indicate that thick ice bacterial communities were recruited from the rarer members of the seawater bacterial community. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  19. Microfabric and Structures in Glacial Ice (United States)

    Monz, M.; Hudleston, P. J.


    Similar to rocks in active orogens, glacial ice develops both structures and fabrics that reflect deformation. Crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO), associated with mechanical anisotropy, develops as ice deforms, and as in rock, directly reflects the conditions and mechanisms of deformation and influences the overall strength. This project aims to better constrain the rheologic properties of natural ice through microstructural analysis and to establish the relationship of microfabric to macroscale structures. The focus is on enigmatic fabric patterns found in coarse grained, "warm" (T > -10oC) ice deep in ice sheets and in valley glaciers. Deformation mechanisms that produce such patterns are poorly understood. Detailed mapping of surface structures, including bedding, foliation, and blue bands (bubble-free veins of ice), was done in the ablation zone of Storglaciären, a polythermal valley glacier in northern Sweden. Microstructural studies on samples from a transect across the ablation zone were carried out in a cold room. Crystal size was too large for use of electron backscattered diffraction to determine CPO, therefore a Rigsby universal stage, designed specifically for ice, was used. In thick and thin sections, recrystallized grains are locally variable in both size (1mm-7cm in one thin section) and shape and clearly reflect recrystallization involving highly mobile grain boundaries. Larger crystals are often branching, and appear multiple times throughout one thin section. There is a clear shape preferred orientation that is generally parallel with foliation defined by bubble alignment and concentration. Locally, there appears to be an inverse correlation between bubble concentration and smoothness of grain boundaries. Fabric in samples that have undergone prolonged shear display roughly symmetrical multimaxima patterns centered around the pole to foliation. The angular distances between maxima suggest a possible twin relationship that may have

  20. Ice, Ice, Baby! (United States)

    Hamilton, C.


    The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) has developed an outreach program based on hands-on activities called "Ice, Ice, Baby". These lessons are designed to teach the science principles of displacement, forces of motion, density, and states of matter. These properties are easily taught through the interesting topics of glaciers, icebergs, and sea level rise in K-8 classrooms. The activities are fun, engaging, and simple enough to be used at science fairs and family science nights. Students who have participated in "Ice, Ice, Baby" have successfully taught these to adults and students at informal events. The lessons are based on education standards which are available on our website This presentation will provide information on the activities, survey results from teachers who have used the material, and other suggested material that can be used before and after the activities.

  1. Influence of winter sea-ice motion on summer ice cover in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Kimura


    Full Text Available Summer sea-ice cover in the Arctic varies largely from year to year owing to several factors. This study examines one such factor, the relationship between interannual difference in winter ice motion and ice area in the following summer. A daily-ice velocity product on a 37.5-km resolution grid is prepared using the satellite passive microwave sensor Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer—Earth Observing System data for the nine years of 2003–2011. Derived daily-ice motion reveals the dynamic modification of the winter ice cover. The winter ice divergence/convergence is strongly related to the summer ice cover in some regions; the correlation coefficient between the winter ice convergence and summer ice area ranges between 0.5 and 0.9 in areas with high interannual variability. This relation implies that the winter ice redistribution controls the spring ice thickness and the summer ice cover.

  2. Some New Lidar Equations for Laser Pulses Scattered Back from Optically Thick Media Such as Clouds, Dense Aerosol Plumes, Sea Ice, Snow, and Turbid Coastal Waters (United States)

    Davis, Anthony B.


    I survey the theoretical foundations of the slowly-but-surely emerging field of multiple scattering lidar, which has already found applications in atmospheric and cryospheric optics that I also discuss. In multiple scattering lidar, returned pulses are stretched far beyond recognition, and there is no longer a one-to-one connection between range and return-trip timing. Moreover, one can exploit the radial profile of the diffuse radiance field excited by the laser source that, by its very nature, is highly concentrated in space and collimated in direction. One needs, however, a new class of lidar equations to explore this new phenomenology. A very useful set is derived from radiative diffusion theory, which is found at the opposite asymptotic limit of radiative transfer theory than the conventional (single-scattering) limit used to derive the standard lidar equation. In particular, one can use it to show that, even if the simple time-of-flight-to-range connection is irretrievably lost, multiply-scattered lidar light can be used to restore a unique profiling capability with coarser resolution but much deeper penetration into a wide variety of optical thick media in nature. Several new applications are proposed, including a laser bathymetry technique that should work for highly turbid coastal waters.

  3. Ground ice conditions in Salluit, Northern Quebec (United States)

    Allard, M.; Fortier, R.; Calmels, F.; Gagnon, O.; L'Hérault, E.


    Salluit in Northern Québec (ca. 1300 inhabitants) faces difficult ground ice conditions for its development. The village is located in a U-shaped valley, along a fjord that was deglaciated around 8000 cal BP. The post-glacial marine limit is at the current elevation of 150 m ASL. Among the mapped surficial geology units, three contain particularly ice-rich permafrost: marine clays, till and silty colluviums. A diamond drill was used to extract 10 permafrost cores down to 23 m deep. In addition, 18 shallow cores (to 5 m deep) were extracted with a portable drill. All the frozen cores were shipped to Québec city where ground ice contents were measured and cryostructures were imaged by CT-Scanning. Water contents, grain-size and pore water salinity were measured. Refraction seismic profiles were run to measure the depth to bedrock. GPR and electrical resistivity surveys helped to map ice-rich areas. Three cone penetration tests (CPT) were run in the frozen clays to depths ranging from 8 to 21 m. Maximum clay thickness is ca. 50 m deep near the shoreline. The cone penetration tests and all the cores in clays revealed large amounts of both segregated and aggradational ice (volumetric contents up to 93% over thicknesses of one meter) to depths varying between 2.5 and 4 m, below which the ice content decreases and the salinity increases (values measured up to 42 gr/L between 4.5 and 6 m deep). Chunks of organic matter buried below the actual active layer base indicate past cryoturbations under a somewhat warmer climate, most probably associated with intense frost boil action, as widely observed today. The stony till has developed large quantities of segregation ice which can be seen in larger concentrations and as thicker lenses under boulders and in matrix rich (≥ 50% sand and silt) parts of the glacial sediment. As digging for a sewage pond was undertaken in winter 2008 by blasting, the clast-influenced cryostructure of the till could be observed in cuts and in

  4. Autonomous Ice Mass Balance Buoys for Seasonal Sea Ice (United States)

    Whitlock, J. D.; Planck, C.; Perovich, D. K.; Parno, J. T.; Elder, B. C.; Richter-Menge, J.; Polashenski, C. M.


    The ice mass-balance represents the integration of all surface and ocean heat fluxes and attributing the impact of these forcing fluxes on the ice cover can be accomplished by increasing temporal and spatial measurements. Mass balance information can be used to understand the ongoing changes in the Arctic sea ice cover and to improve predictions of future ice conditions. Thinner seasonal ice in the Arctic necessitates the deployment of Autonomous Ice Mass Balance buoys (IMB's) capable of long-term, in situ data collection in both ice and open ocean. Seasonal IMB's (SIMB's) are free floating IMB's that allow data collection in thick ice, thin ice, during times of transition, and even open water. The newest generation of SIMB aims to increase the number of reliable IMB's in the Arctic by leveraging inexpensive commercial-grade instrumentation when combined with specially developed monitoring hardware. Monitoring tasks are handled by a custom, expandable data logger that provides low-cost flexibility for integrating a large range of instrumentation. The SIMB features ultrasonic sensors for direct measurement of both snow depth and ice thickness and a digital temperature chain (DTC) for temperature measurements every 2cm through both snow and ice. Air temperature and pressure, along with GPS data complete the Arctic picture. Additionally, the new SIMB is more compact to maximize deployment opportunities from multiple types of platforms.

  5. Proceedings of the 19. IAHR international symposium on ice : using new technology to understand water-ice interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasek, M.; Andrishak, R.; Siddiqui, A.


    This conference provided a venue for scientists, engineers and researchers an opportunity to expand their knowledge of water-ice interactions with reference to water resources, river and coastal hydraulics, risk analysis, energy and the environment. The the theme of new technology falls into 3 basic groups, notably measurement and instrumentation; remote sensing; and numerical simulation. The thermal regime of rivers was discussed along with ice mechanics, ice hydraulics, ice structures and modelling ice phenomena. The titles of the sessions were: river ice, glaciers and climate change; freeze-up processes on rivers and oceans; river ice-structure interactions; numerical simulations in ice engineering; river-ice break-up and ice jam formation; ice measurement; Grasse River ice evaluation; evaluation of structural ice control alternatives; remote sensing; hydropower and dam decommissioning; mechanical behaviour of river ice, ice covered flow and thermal modelling; mathematical and computer model formulations for ice friction and sea ice; ice bergs and ice navigation; ice crushing processes; sea ice and shore/structure interactions; ice properties, testing and physical modelling; ice actions on compliant structures; oil spills in ice; desalination, ice thickness and climate change; and, sea ice ridges. The conference featured 123 presentations, of which 20 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  6. Microfabricated Ice-Detection Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeAnna, Russell


    .... The sensor is capable of distinguishing between an ice covered and a clean surface. It employs a bulk micromachined wafer with a 7 micrometers thick, boron doped, silicon diaphragm which serves as one plate of a parallel plate capacitor...

  7. Coupled Northern Hemisphere permafrost–ice-sheet evolution over the last glacial cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Willeit


    Full Text Available Permafrost influences a number of processes which are relevant for local and global climate. For example, it is well known that permafrost plays an important role in global carbon and methane cycles. Less is known about the interaction between permafrost and ice sheets. In this study a permafrost module is included in the Earth system model CLIMBER-2, and the coupled Northern Hemisphere (NH permafrost–ice-sheet evolution over the last glacial cycle is explored. The model performs generally well at reproducing present-day permafrost extent and thickness. Modeled permafrost thickness is sensitive to the values of ground porosity, thermal conductivity and geothermal heat flux. Permafrost extent at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM agrees well with reconstructions and previous modeling estimates. Present-day permafrost thickness is far from equilibrium over deep permafrost regions. Over central Siberia and the Arctic Archipelago permafrost is presently up to 200–500 m thicker than it would be at equilibrium. In these areas, present-day permafrost depth strongly depends on the past climate history and simulations indicate that deep permafrost has a memory of surface temperature variations going back to at least 800 ka. Over the last glacial cycle permafrost has a relatively modest impact on simulated NH ice sheet volume except at LGM, when including permafrost increases ice volume by about 15 m sea level equivalent in our model. This is explained by a delayed melting of the ice base from below by the geothermal heat flux when the ice sheet sits on a porous sediment layer and permafrost has to be melted first. Permafrost affects ice sheet dynamics only when ice extends over areas covered by thick sediments, which is the case at LGM.

  8. Coupled Northern Hemisphere permafrost-ice-sheet evolution over the last glacial cycle (United States)

    Willeit, M.; Ganopolski, A.


    Permafrost influences a number of processes which are relevant for local and global climate. For example, it is well known that permafrost plays an important role in global carbon and methane cycles. Less is known about the interaction between permafrost and ice sheets. In this study a permafrost module is included in the Earth system model CLIMBER-2, and the coupled Northern Hemisphere (NH) permafrost-ice-sheet evolution over the last glacial cycle is explored. The model performs generally well at reproducing present-day permafrost extent and thickness. Modeled permafrost thickness is sensitive to the values of ground porosity, thermal conductivity and geothermal heat flux. Permafrost extent at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) agrees well with reconstructions and previous modeling estimates. Present-day permafrost thickness is far from equilibrium over deep permafrost regions. Over central Siberia and the Arctic Archipelago permafrost is presently up to 200-500 m thicker than it would be at equilibrium. In these areas, present-day permafrost depth strongly depends on the past climate history and simulations indicate that deep permafrost has a memory of surface temperature variations going back to at least 800 ka. Over the last glacial cycle permafrost has a relatively modest impact on simulated NH ice sheet volume except at LGM, when including permafrost increases ice volume by about 15 m sea level equivalent in our model. This is explained by a delayed melting of the ice base from below by the geothermal heat flux when the ice sheet sits on a porous sediment layer and permafrost has to be melted first. Permafrost affects ice sheet dynamics only when ice extends over areas covered by thick sediments, which is the case at LGM.

  9. Winter sea ice export from the Laptev Sea preconditions the local summer sea ice cover and fast ice decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Itkin


    Full Text Available Ice retreat in the eastern Eurasian Arctic is a consequence of atmospheric and oceanic processes and regional feedback mechanisms acting on the ice cover, both in winter and summer. A correct representation of these processes in numerical models is important, since it will improve predictions of sea ice anomalies along the Northeast Passage and beyond. In this study, we highlight the importance of winter ice dynamics for local summer sea ice anomalies in thickness, volume and extent. By means of airborne sea ice thickness surveys made over pack ice areas in the south-eastern Laptev Sea, we show that years of offshore-directed sea ice transport have a thinning effect on the late-winter sea ice cover. To confirm the preconditioning effect of enhanced offshore advection in late winter on the summer sea ice cover, we perform a sensitivity study using a numerical model. Results verify that the preconditioning effect plays a bigger role for the regional ice extent. Furthermore, they indicate an increase in volume export from the Laptev Sea as a consequence of enhanced offshore advection, which has far-reaching consequences for the entire Arctic sea ice mass balance. Moreover we show that ice dynamics in winter not only preconditions local summer ice extent, but also accelerate fast-ice decay.

  10. A database of worldwide glacier thickness observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärtner-Roer, I.; Naegeli, K.; Huss, M.


    One of the grand challenges in glacier research is to assess the total ice volume and its global distribution. Over the past few decades the compilation of a world glacier inventory has been well-advanced both in institutional set-up and in spatial coverage. The inventory is restricted to glacier...... the different estimation approaches. This initial database of glacier and ice caps thickness will hopefully be further enlarged and intensively used for a better understanding of the global glacier ice volume and its distribution....... surface observations. However, although thickness has been observed on many glaciers and ice caps around the globe, it has not yet been published in the shape of a readily available database. Here, we present a standardized database of glacier thickness observations compiled by an extensive literature...... review and from airborne data extracted from NASA's Operation IceBridge. This database contains ice thickness observations from roughly 1100 glaciers and ice caps including 550 glacier-wide estimates and 750,000 point observations. A comparison of these observational ice thicknesses with results from...

  11. Coordinated Mapping of Sea Ice Deformation Features with Autonomous Vehicles (United States)

    Maksym, T.; Williams, G. D.; Singh, H.; Weissling, B.; Anderson, J.; Maki, T.; Ackley, S. F.


    Decreases in summer sea ice extent in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas has lead to a transition from a largely perennial ice cover, to a seasonal ice cover. This drives shifts in sea ice production, dynamics, ice types, and thickness distribution. To examine how the processes driving ice advance might also impact the morphology of the ice cover, a coordinated ice mapping effort was undertaken during a field campaign in the Beaufort Sea in October, 2015. Here, we present observations of sea ice draft topography from six missions of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle run under different ice types and deformation features observed during autumn freeze-up. Ice surface features were also mapped during coordinated drone photogrammetric missions over each site. We present preliminary results of a comparison between sea ice surface topography and ice underside morphology for a range of sample ice types, including hummocked multiyear ice, rubble fields, young ice ridges and rafts, and consolidated pancake ice. These data are compared to prior observations of ice morphological features from deformed Antarctic sea ice. Such data will be useful for improving parameterizations of sea ice redistribution during deformation, and for better constraining estimates of airborne or satellite sea ice thickness.

  12. Correlation between blister skin thickness, the maximum in the damage-energy distribution, and projected ranges of helium ions in Nb for the energy range 10 to 1500 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St-Jacques, R.G.; Martel, J.G.; Terreault, B.; Veilleux, G.; Das, S.K.; Kaminsky, M.; Fenske, G.


    The skin thickness of blisters formed on polycrystalline niobium by 4 He + irradiation at room temperature for energies from 15 to 80 keV have been measured. Similar measurements were conducted for 10 keV 4 He + irradiation at 500 0 C to increase blister exfoliation, and thereby allow examination of a larger number of blister skins. For energies smaller than 100 keV the skin thicknesses are compared with the projected range and the damage-energy distributions constructed from moments interpolated from Winterbon's tabulated values. For energies of 10 and 15 keV the projected ranges and damage-energy distributions have also been computed with a Monte Carlo program. For energies larger than 100 keV the projected ranges of 4 He + in Nb were calculated using either Brice's formalism or the one given by Schiott. The thicknesses for 60 and 80 keV, and those reported earlier for 100 to 1500 keV correlate well with calculated projected ranges. For energies lower than 60 keV the measured thicknesses are larger than the calculated ranges

  13. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 21 Appendix T - Forecast Sea Ice Area Fraction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.


    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  14. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 20 Appendix S - Historical Sea Ice Area Fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.


    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  15. Integrating terrestrial and marine records of the LGM in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica: implications for grounded ice expansion, ice flow, and deglaciation of the Ross Sea Embayment (United States)

    Christ, A. J.; Marchant, D. R.


    During the LGM, grounded glacier ice filled the Ross Embayment and deposited glacial drift on volcanic islands and peninsulas in McMurdo Sound, as well as along coastal regions of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM), including the McMurdo Dry Valleys and Royal Society Range. The flow geometry and retreat history of this ice remains debated, with contrasting views yielding divergent implications for both the fundamental cause of Antarctic ice expansion as well as the interaction and behavior of ice derived from East and West Antarctica during late Quaternary time. We present terrestrial geomorphologic evidence that enables the reconstruction of former ice elevations, ice-flow paths, and ice-marginal environments in McMurdo Sound. Radiocarbon dates of fossil algae interbedded with ice-marginal sediments provide a coherent timeline for local ice retreat. These data are integrated with marine-sediment records and multi-beam data to reconstruct late glacial dynamics of grounded ice in McMurdo Sound and the western Ross Sea. The combined dataset suggest a dominance of ice flow toward the TAM in McMurdo Sound during all phases of glaciation, with thick, grounded ice at or near its maximum extent between 19.6 and 12.3 calibrated thousands of years before present (cal. ka). Our data show no significant advance of locally derived ice from the TAM into McMurdo Sound, consistent with the assertion that Late Pleistocene expansion of grounded ice in McMurdo Sound, and throughout the wider Ross Embayment, occurs in response to lower eustatic sea level and the resulting advance of marine-based outlet glaciers and ice streams (and perhaps also reduced oceanic heat flux), rather than local increases in precipitation and ice accumulation. Finally, when combined with allied data across the wider Ross Embayment, which show that widespread deglaciation outside McMurdo Sound did not commence until 13.1 ka, the implication is that retreat of grounded glacier ice in the Ross Embayment did

  16. Loss of sea ice in the Arctic. (United States)

    Perovich, Donald K; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline A


    The Arctic sea ice cover is in decline. The areal extent of the ice cover has been decreasing for the past few decades at an accelerating rate. Evidence also points to a decrease in sea ice thickness and a reduction in the amount of thicker perennial sea ice. A general global warming trend has made the ice cover more vulnerable to natural fluctuations in atmospheric and oceanic forcing. The observed reduction in Arctic sea ice is a consequence of both thermodynamic and dynamic processes, including such factors as preconditioning of the ice cover, overall warming trends, changes in cloud coverage, shifts in atmospheric circulation patterns, increased export of older ice out of the Arctic, advection of ocean heat from the Pacific and North Atlantic, enhanced solar heating of the ocean, and the ice-albedo feedback. The diminishing Arctic sea ice is creating social, political, economic, and ecological challenges.

  17. Ice shelf fracture parameterization in an ice sheet model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sun


    Full Text Available Floating ice shelves exert a stabilizing force onto the inland ice sheet. However, this buttressing effect is diminished by the fracture process, which on large scales effectively softens the ice, accelerating its flow, increasing calving, and potentially leading to ice shelf breakup. We add a continuum damage model (CDM to the BISICLES ice sheet model, which is intended to model the localized opening of crevasses under stress, the transport of those crevasses through the ice sheet, and the coupling between crevasse depth and the ice flow field and to carry out idealized numerical experiments examining the broad impact on large-scale ice sheet and shelf dynamics. In each case we see a complex pattern of damage evolve over time, with an eventual loss of buttressing approximately equivalent to halving the thickness of the ice shelf. We find that it is possible to achieve a similar ice flow pattern using a simple rule of thumb: introducing an enhancement factor ∼ 10 everywhere in the model domain. However, spatially varying damage (or equivalently, enhancement factor fields set at the start of prognostic calculations to match velocity observations, as is widely done in ice sheet simulations, ought to evolve in time, or grounding line retreat can be slowed by an order of magnitude.

  18. Ice shelf fracture parameterization in an ice sheet model (United States)

    Sun, Sainan; Cornford, Stephen L.; Moore, John C.; Gladstone, Rupert; Zhao, Liyun


    Floating ice shelves exert a stabilizing force onto the inland ice sheet. However, this buttressing effect is diminished by the fracture process, which on large scales effectively softens the ice, accelerating its flow, increasing calving, and potentially leading to ice shelf breakup. We add a continuum damage model (CDM) to the BISICLES ice sheet model, which is intended to model the localized opening of crevasses under stress, the transport of those crevasses through the ice sheet, and the coupling between crevasse depth and the ice flow field and to carry out idealized numerical experiments examining the broad impact on large-scale ice sheet and shelf dynamics. In each case we see a complex pattern of damage evolve over time, with an eventual loss of buttressing approximately equivalent to halving the thickness of the ice shelf. We find that it is possible to achieve a similar ice flow pattern using a simple rule of thumb: introducing an enhancement factor ˜ 10 everywhere in the model domain. However, spatially varying damage (or equivalently, enhancement factor) fields set at the start of prognostic calculations to match velocity observations, as is widely done in ice sheet simulations, ought to evolve in time, or grounding line retreat can be slowed by an order of magnitude.

  19. Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu


    boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...

  20. Dating of 30m ice cores drilled by Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition and environmental change study (United States)

    Motoyama, H.; Suzuki, T.; Fukui, K.; Ohno, H.; Hoshina, Y.; Hirabayashi, M.; Fujita, S.


    1. Introduction It is possible to reveal the past climate and environmental change from the ice core drilled in polar ice sheet and glaciers. The 54th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition conducted several shallow core drillings up to 30 m depth in the inland and coastal areas of the East Antarctic ice sheet. Ice core sample was cut out at a thickness of about 5 cm in the cold room of the National Institute of Polar Research, and analyzed ion, water isotope, dust and so one. We also conducted dielectric profile measurement (DEP measurement). The age as a key layer of large-scale volcanic explosion was based on Sigl et al. (Nature Climate Change, 2014). 2. Inland ice core Ice cores were collected at the NDF site (77°47'14"S, 39°03'34"E, 3754 m.a.s.l.) and S80 site (80°00'00"S, 40°30'04"E, 3622 m.a.s.l.). Dating of ice core was done as follows. Calculate water equivalent from core density. Accumulate water equivalent from the surface. Approximate the relation of depth - cumulative water equivalent by a quartic equation. We determined the key layer with nssSO42 - peak corresponding to several large volcanic explosions. The accumulation rate was kept constant between the key layers. As a result, NDF was estimated to be around 1360 AD and S80 was estimated to be around 1400 AD in the deepest ice core. 3. Coastal ice core An ice core was collected at coastal H15 sites (69°04'10"S, 40°44'51"E, 1030 m.a.s.l.). Dating of ice core was done as follows. Calculate water equivalent from ice core density. Accumulate water equivalent from the surface. Approximate the relation of depth - cumulative water equivalent by a quartic equation. Basically we decided to summer (December) and winter (June) due to the seasonal change of the water isotope (δD or δ18O). In addition to the seasonal change of isotope, confirm the following. Maximum of SO42- / Na +, which is earlier in time than the maximum of water isotope. Maximum of MSA at about the same time as the maximum of the

  1. Observations of Recent Arctic Sea Ice Volume Loss and Its Impact on Ocean-Atmosphere Energy Exchange and Ice Production (United States)

    Kurtz, N. T.; Markus, T.; Farrell, S. L.; Worthen, D. L.; Boisvert, L. N.


    Using recently developed techniques we estimate snow and sea ice thickness distributions for the Arctic basin through the combination of freeboard data from the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) and a snow depth model. These data are used with meteorological data and a thermodynamic sea ice model to calculate ocean-atmosphere heat exchange and ice volume production during the 2003-2008 fall and winter seasons. The calculated heat fluxes and ice growth rates are in agreement with previous observations over multiyear ice. In this study, we calculate heat fluxes and ice growth rates for the full distribution of ice thicknesses covering the Arctic basin and determine the impact of ice thickness change on the calculated values. Thinning of the sea ice is observed which greatly increases the 2005-2007 fall period ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes compared to those observed in 2003. Although there was also a decline in sea ice thickness for the winter periods, the winter time heat flux was found to be less impacted by the observed changes in ice thickness. A large increase in the net Arctic ocean-atmosphere heat output is also observed in the fall periods due to changes in the areal coverage of sea ice. The anomalously low sea ice coverage in 2007 led to a net ocean-atmosphere heat output approximately 3 times greater than was observed in previous years and suggests that sea ice losses are now playing a role in increasing surface air temperatures in the Arctic.

  2. An ice crystal model for jupiter's moon Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; schmidt, Karen Guldbae


    A simple model for crystal growth in the ice shell of Europa has been made in order to estimate the size of ice crystals at Europa's surface. If mass is lost from the surface of Europa due to sputtering processes, and the ice thickness is constant in time, ice crystals will be transported upwards...

  3. Wave inhibition by sea ice enables trans-Atlantic ice rafting of debris during Heinrich Events (United States)

    Wagner, T. J. W.; Dell, R.; Eisenman, I.; Keeling, R. F.; Padman, L.; Severinghaus, J. P.


    The thickness of the ice-rafted debris (IRD) layers that signal Heinrich Events declines far more gradually with distance from the iceberg sources than would be expected based on present-day iceberg trajectories. Here we model icebergs as passive Lagrangian tracers driven by ocean currents, winds, and sea surface temperatures. The icebergs are released in a comprehensive climate model simulation of the last glacial maximum (LGM), as well as a simulation of the modern climate. The two simulated climates result in qualitatively similar distributions of iceberg meltwater and hence debris, with the colder temperatures of the LGM having only a relatively small effect on meltwater spread. In both scenarios, meltwater flux falls off rapidly with zonal distance from the source, in contrast with the more uniform spread of IRD in sediment cores. In order to address this discrepancy, we propose a physical mechanism that could have prolonged the lifetime of icebergs during Heinrich events. The mechanism involves a surface layer of cold and fresh meltwater formed from, and retained around, densely packed armadas of icebergs. This leads to wintertime sea ice formation even in relatively low latitudes. The sea ice in turn shields the icebergs from wave erosion, which is the main source of iceberg ablation. We find that allowing sea ice to form around all icebergs during four months each winter causes the model to approximately agree with the distribution of IRD in sediment cores.

  4. Ross Sea Polynyas: Response of Ice Concentration Retrievals to Large Areas of Thin Ice (United States)

    Kwok, R.; Comiso, J. C.; Martin, S.; Drucker, R.


    For a 3-month period between May and July of 2005, we examine the response of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) Enhanced NASA Team 2 (NT2) and AMSR-E Bootstrap (ABA) ice concentration algorithms to large areas of thin ice of the Ross Sea polynyas. Coincident Envisat Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) coverage of the region during this period offers a detailed look at the development of the polynyas within several hundred kilometers of the ice front. The high-resolution imagery and derived ice motion fields show bands of polynya ice, covering up to approximately 105 km(sup 2) of the Ross Sea, that are associated with wind-forced advection. In this study, ice thickness from AMSR-E 36 GHz polarization information serves as the basis for examination of the response. The quality of the thickness of newly formed sea ice (<10 cm) from AMSR-E is first assessed with thickness estimates derived from ice surface temperatures from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument. The effect of large areas of thin ice in lowering the ice concentration estimates from both NT2/ABA approaches is clearly demonstrated. Results show relatively robust relationships between retrieved ice concentrations and thin ice thickness estimates that differ between the two algorithms. These relationships define the approximate spatial coincidence of ice concentration and thickness isopleths. Using the 83% (ABA) and 91% (NT2) isopleths as polynya boundaries, we show that the computed coverage compares well with that using the estimated 10-cm thickness contour. The thin ice response characterized here suggests that in regions with polynyas, the retrieval results could be used to provide useful geophysical information, namely thickness and coverage.

  5. Estimation of basal shear stresses from now ice-free LIA glacier forefields in the Swiss Alps (United States)

    Fischer, Mauro; Haeberli, Wilfried; Huss, Matthias; Paul, Frank; Linsbauer, Andreas; Hoelzle, Martin


    In most cases, assessing the impacts of climatic changes on glaciers requires knowledge about the ice thickness distribution. Miscellaneous methodological approaches with different degrees of sophistication have been applied to model glacier thickness so far. However, all of them include significant uncertainty. By applying a parameterization scheme for ice thickness determination relying on assumptions about basal shear stress by Haeberli and Hoelzle (1995) to now ice-free glacier forefields in the Swiss Alps, basal shear stress values can be calculated based on a fast and robust experimental approach. In a GIS, the combination of recent (1973) and Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum (around 1850) glacier outlines, central flowlines, a recent Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and a DEM of glacier surface topography for the LIA maximum allows extracting local ice thickness over the forefield of individual glaciers. Subsequently, basal shear stress is calculated via the rheological assumption of perfect-plasticity relating ice thickness and surface slope to shear stress. The need of only very few input data commonly stored in glacier inventories permits an application to a large number of glaciers. Basal shear stresses are first calculated for subsamples of glaciers belonging to two test sites where the LIA maximum glacier surface is modeled with DEMs derived from accurate topographic maps for the mid 19th century. Neglecting outliers, the average resulting mean basal shear stress is around 80 kPa for the Bernina region (range 25-100 kPa) and 120 kPa (range 50-150 kPa) for the Aletsch region. For the entire Swiss Alps it is 100 kPa (range 40-175 kPa). Because complete LIA glacier surface elevation information is lacking there, a DEM is first created from reconstructed height of LIA lateral moraines and trimlines by using a simple GIS-based tool. A sensitivity analysis of the input parameters reveals that the performance of the developed approach primarily depends on the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gajiyev


    Full Text Available Abstract. The necessity of the use of technology and analytically summarizes the methods of desalination of seawater and brackish waters. Tasked to investigate the processes occurring in the desalination plant with the continuous process of freezing of ice on heat transfer surface with a film mode of fluid motion.To solve this problem the article deals with mathematical cal model of ice formation on heat transfer surfaces and thermo-electric distiller. The model allows us to estimate the rise time and the thickness of the ice under specified conditions of temperature and flow of water. It is shown that the use of thermoelectric converters allows the flexibility to adjust the mode of ice formation. Solved the problem of determining the maximum thickness of the ice at which freezing is possible film of water flowing through it at a predetermined temperature of the cooling plate and the cooling capacity of the thermoelectric battery.It is established that the performance of thermoelectric opreznitive of the system increases due to the increase in the number of cooled surfaces, and the use of the heat from the hot junction of the converters for melting of ice increases the energy efficiency of the system as a whole. 

  7. Heterogeneous ice nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdan, A. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics


    The classical theory of heterogenous ice nucleation is reviewed in detail. The modelling of ice nucleation in the adsorbed water films on natural particles by analogous ice nucleation in adsorbed water films on the walls of porous media is discussed. Ice nucleation in adsorbed films of purewater and the HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}0 binary system on the surface of porous aerosol (SiO{sub 2}) was investigated using the method of NMR spectroscopy. The median freezing temperature and freezing temperature region were shown to be highly sensitive both to the average thickness of the adsorbed films and to the amount of adsorbed nitric acid. The character of the ice phase formation tends to approach that of bulk liquid with increasing adsorbed film thickness. Under the given conditions the thickness of the adsorbed films decreases with an increasing amount of adsorbed nitric acid molecules The molar concentration of nitric acid in the adsorbed films is very small (of the order of 10{sup -}3 10{sup -}2 (M/l)). Nitric acid molecules tend to adsorb on the surface of aerosol to a greater extent than in subsequent layers. The concentration is greatest in layers situated close to the surface and sharply decreases with the distance from the surface. The difference between the median freezing temperatures for adsorbed pure water and for the binary system was found to be about 9 K for films of equal thickness. This is about 150 times greater than the difference between the median freezing temperatures of bulk pure water and a solution with the same concentration of nitric acid. (orig.)

  8. Ice Cores (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, atmospheric trace gases, and other aspects of climate and environment derived from ice cores drilled on glaciers and ice...

  9. Ocean Profile Measurements During the Seasonal Ice Zone Reconnaissance Surveys (United States)


    ice cover in 2014. The consequent reduced melting early in the summer delays the onset of sea - ice - albedo feed back in accelerating melt throughout the...Chukchi sea seasonal sea ice zone (SIZ) utilizing US Coast Guard Arctic Domain Awareness (ADA) flights of opportunity. This report covers our grant...region between maximum winter sea ice extent and minimum summer sea ice extent. As such, it contains the full range of positions of the marginal ice

  10. A sea ice model for the marginal ice zone with an application to the Greenland Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Leif Toudal; Coon, Max D.


    A model is presented that describes the formation, transport, and desalinization of frazil and pancake ice as it is formed in marginal seas. This model uses as input the total ice concentration evaluated from Special Sensor Microwave Imager and wind speed and direction. The model calculates...... the areal concentration, thickness, volume concentration, and salinity of frazil ice as well as the areal concentration, thickness, and salinity of pancakes. A simple parameterization for the Odden region of the Greenland Sea is presented. The model is run for the winter of 1996-1997. There are direct...... observations of the thickness and salinity of pancakes and the volume concentration of frazil ice to compare with the model. The model results compare very well with the measured data. This new ice model can be tuned to work in marginal seas elsewhere to calculate ice thickness, motion, and brine rejection...

  11. Level-Ice Melt Ponds in the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model, CICE (United States)


    terms obtained using the Bitz and Lips- comb (1999) thermodynamic model. The thickness distribution ( Thorndike et al., 1975) employs 5 ice thickness...D.L., 2004. A model of melt pond evolution on sea ice. J. Geophys. Res. 109, C12007. Thorndike , A.S., Rothrock

  12. Ice Cream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.


    Ice cream is a popular dessert, which owes its sensorial properties (mouth feel) to its complex microstructure. The microstructure is a result of the combination of the ingredients and the production process. Ice cream is produced by simultaneous freezing and shearing of the ice cream mix, which

  13. Ice targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, C.; Stark, C.; Tanaka, N.; Hodgkins, D.; Barnhart, J.; Kosty, J.


    This report presents a description of ice targets that were constructed for research work at the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) and at the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer (EPICS). Reasons for using these ice targets and the instructions for their construction are given. Results of research using ice targets will be published at a later date

  14. A network model for electrical transport in sea ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J.; Golden, K.M.; Gully, A.; Sampson, C.


    Monitoring the thickness of sea ice is an important tool in assessing the impact of global warming on Earth's polar regions, and most methods of measuring ice thickness depend on detailed knowledge of its electrical properties. We develop a network model for the electrical conductivity of sea ice, which incorporates statistical measurements of the brine microstructure. The numerical simulations are in close agreement with direct measurements we made in Antarctica on the vertical conductivity of first year sea ice.

  15. Thick Toenails (United States)

    ... in individuals with nail fungus (onychomycosis), psoriasis and hypothyroidism. Those who have problems with the thickness of their toenails should consult a foot and ankle surgeon for proper diagnosis and treatment. Find an ACFAS Physician Search Search Tools Find ...

  16. Arctic sea ice melt pond fractal dimension - explained (United States)

    Popovic, Predrag

    As Arctic sea ice starts to melt in the summer, pools of melt water quickly form on its surface, significantly changing its albedo, and impacting its subsequent evolution. These melt ponds often form complex geometric shapes. One characteristic of their shape, the fractal dimension of the pond boundaries, D, when plotted as a function of pond size, has been shown to transition between the two fundamental limits of D = 1 and D = 2 at some critical pond size. Here, we provide an explanation for this behavior. First, using aerial photographs, we show how this fractal transition curve changes with time, and show that there is a qualitative difference in the pond shape as ice transitions from impermeable to permeable. Namely, while ice is impermeable, maximum fractal dimension is less than 2, whereas after it becomes permeable, maximum fractal dimension becomes very close to 2. We then show how the fractal dimension of a collection of overlapping circles placed randomly on a plane also transitions from D = 1 to D = 2 at a size equal to the average size of a single circle. We, therefore, conclude that this transition is a simple geometric consequence of regular shapes connecting. The one physical parameter that can be extracted from the fractal transition curve is the length scale at which transition occurs. We provide a possible explanation for this length scale by noting that the flexural wavelength of the ice poses a fundamental limit on the size of melt ponds on permeable ice. If this is true, melt ponds could be used as a proxy for ice thickness.

  17. On the Predictability of Sea Ice (United States)

    Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, Edward

    We investigate the persistence and predictability of sea ice in numerical models and observations. We first use the 3rd generation Community Climate System Model (CCSM3) General Circulation Model (GCM) to investigate the inherent persistence of sea-ice area and thickness. We find that sea-ice area anomalies have a seasonal decay timescale, exhibiting an initial decorrelation similar to a first order auto-regressive (AR1, or red noise) process. Beyond this initial loss of memory, there is a re-emergence of memory at certain times of the year. There are two distinct modes of re-emergence in the model, one driven by the seasonal coupling of area and thickness anomalies in the summer, the other by the persistence of upper ocean temperature anomalies that originate from ice anomalies in the melt season and then influence ice anomalies in the growth season. Comparison with satellite observations where available indicate these processes appear in nature. We then use the 4th generation CCSM (CCSM4) to investigate the partition of Arctic sea-ice predictability into its initial-value and boundary forced components under present day forcing conditions. We find that initial-value predictability lasts for 1-2 years for sea-ice area, and 3-4 years for sea-ice volume. Forced predictability arises after just 4-5 years for both area and volume. Initial-value predictability of sea-ice area during the summer hinges on the coupling between thickness and area anomalies during that season. We find that the loss of initial-value predictability with time is not uniform --- there is a rapid loss of predictability of sea-ice volume during the late spring early summer associated with snow melt and albedo feedbacks. At the same time, loss of predictability is not uniform across different regions. Given the usefulness of ice thickness as a predictor of summer sea-ice area, we obtain a hindcast of September sea-ice area initializing the GCM on May 1with an estimate of observed sea-ice thickness

  18. Airborne observations and simulations of three-dimensional radiative interactions between Arctic boundary layer clouds and ice floes (United States)

    Schäfer, M.; Bierwirth, E.; Ehrlich, A.; Jäkel, E.; Wendisch, M.


    Based on airborne spectral imaging observations, three-dimensional (3-D) radiative effects between Arctic boundary layer clouds and highly variable Arctic surfaces were identified and quantified. A method is presented to discriminate between sea ice and open water under cloudy conditions based on airborne nadir reflectivity γλ measurements in the visible spectral range. In cloudy cases the transition of γλ from open water to sea ice is not instantaneous but horizontally smoothed. In general, clouds reduce γλ above bright surfaces in the vicinity of open water, while γλ above open sea is enhanced. With the help of observations and 3-D radiative transfer simulations, this effect was quantified to range between 0 and 2200 m distance to the sea ice edge (for a dark-ocean albedo of αwater = 0.042 and a sea-ice albedo of αice = 0.91 at 645 nm wavelength). The affected distance Δ L was found to depend on both cloud and sea ice properties. For a low-level cloud at 0-200 m altitude, as observed during the Arctic field campaign VERtical Distribution of Ice in Arctic clouds (VERDI) in 2012, an increase in the cloud optical thickness τ from 1 to 10 leads to a decrease in Δ L from 600 to 250 m. An increase in the cloud base altitude or cloud geometrical thickness results in an increase in Δ L; for τ = 1/10 Δ L = 2200 m/1250 m in case of a cloud at 500-1000 m altitude. To quantify the effect for different shapes and sizes of ice floes, radiative transfer simulations were performed with various albedo fields (infinitely long straight ice edge, circular ice floes, squares, realistic ice floe field). The simulations show that Δ L increases with increasing radius of the ice floe and reaches maximum values for ice floes with radii larger than 6 km (500-1000 m cloud altitude), which matches the results found for an infinitely long, straight ice edge. Furthermore, the influence of these 3-D radiative effects on the retrieved cloud optical properties was investigated

  19. Airborne observations and simulations of three-dimensional radiative interactions between Arctic boundary layer clouds and ice floes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schäfer


    Full Text Available Based on airborne spectral imaging observations, three-dimensional (3-D radiative effects between Arctic boundary layer clouds and highly variable Arctic surfaces were identified and quantified. A method is presented to discriminate between sea ice and open water under cloudy conditions based on airborne nadir reflectivity γλ measurements in the visible spectral range. In cloudy cases the transition of γλ from open water to sea ice is not instantaneous but horizontally smoothed. In general, clouds reduce γλ above bright surfaces in the vicinity of open water, while γλ above open sea is enhanced. With the help of observations and 3-D radiative transfer simulations, this effect was quantified to range between 0 and 2200 m distance to the sea ice edge (for a dark-ocean albedo of αwater = 0.042 and a sea-ice albedo of αice = 0.91 at 645 nm wavelength. The affected distance Δ L was found to depend on both cloud and sea ice properties. For a low-level cloud at 0–200 m altitude, as observed during the Arctic field campaign VERtical Distribution of Ice in Arctic clouds (VERDI in 2012, an increase in the cloud optical thickness τ from 1 to 10 leads to a decrease in Δ L from 600 to 250 m. An increase in the cloud base altitude or cloud geometrical thickness results in an increase in Δ L; for τ = 1/10 Δ L = 2200 m/1250 m in case of a cloud at 500–1000 m altitude. To quantify the effect for different shapes and sizes of ice floes, radiative transfer simulations were performed with various albedo fields (infinitely long straight ice edge, circular ice floes, squares, realistic ice floe field. The simulations show that Δ L increases with increasing radius of the ice floe and reaches maximum values for ice floes with radii larger than 6 km (500–1000 m cloud altitude, which matches the results found for an infinitely long, straight ice edge. Furthermore, the influence of these 3-D radiative effects on the retrieved cloud optical

  20. Investigating Arctic Sea Ice Survivability in the Beaufort Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Tooth


    Full Text Available Arctic sea ice extent has continued to decline in recent years, and the fractional coverage of multi-year sea ice has decreased significantly during this period. The Beaufort Sea region has been the site of much of the loss of multi-year sea ice, and it continues to play a large role in the extinction of ice during the melt season. We present an analysis of the influence of satellite-derived ice surface temperature, ice thickness, albedo, and downwelling longwave/shortwave radiation as well as latitude and airborne snow depth estimates on the change in sea ice concentration in the Beaufort Sea from 2009 to 2016 using a Lagrangian tracking database. Results from this analysis indicate that parcels that melt during summer in the Beaufort Sea reside at lower latitudes and have lower ice thickness at the beginning of the melt season in most cases. The influence of sea ice thickness and snow depth observed by IceBridge offers less conclusive results, with some years exhibiting higher thicknesses/depths for melted parcels. Parcels that melted along IceBridge tracks do exhibit lower latitudes and ice thicknesses, however, which indicates that earlier melt and breakup of ice may contribute to a greater likelihood of extinction of parcels in the summer.

  1. Ice accreditation vs wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, G. [Hydro-Quebec, PQ (Canada). TransEnergie Div.; Chouinard, L. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Feknous, N. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada)


    Wind and ice data from Hydro Quebec and Environment Canada indicates that winds during ice storms are in the general direction of the St. Lawrence River. This observation is important for upgrading existing power transmission lines from the Manicouagan and Churchill generation system because they are parallel to the St. Lawrence and they were designed with lower criteria than is currently accepted. ASCE 74 suggests an accumulation ratio based on thickness of 0.70 for winds parallel to the line. The Goodwin model was used to calculate this ratio. The presentation includes illustrations showing the accumulation ratio for a north wind, as well as the accumulation ratios and wind roses at Quebec. A table showing a comparison of ratios from passive ice meters shows that results are similar to mean values from the theoretical model.

  2. Electromagnetism based atmospheric ice sensing technique - A conceptual review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Mughal


    Full Text Available Electromagnetic and vibrational properties of ice can be used to measure certain parameters such as ice thickness, type and icing rate. In this paper we present a review of the dielectric based measurement techniques for matter and the dielectric/spectroscopic properties of ice. Atmospheric Ice is a complex material with a variable dielectric constant, but precise calculation of this constant may form the basis for measurement of its other properties such as thickness and strength using some electromagnetic methods. Using time domain or frequency domain spectroscopic techniques, by measuring both the reflection and transmission characteristics of atmospheric ice in a particular frequency range, the desired parameters can be determined.

  3. Mixed ice accretion on aircraft wings (United States)

    Janjua, Zaid A.; Turnbull, Barbara; Hibberd, Stephen; Choi, Kwing-So


    Ice accretion is a problematic natural phenomenon that affects a wide range of engineering applications including power cables, radio masts, and wind turbines. Accretion on aircraft wings occurs when supercooled water droplets freeze instantaneously on impact to form rime ice or runback as water along the wing to form glaze ice. Most models to date have ignored the accretion of mixed ice, which is a combination of rime and glaze. A parameter we term the "freezing fraction" is defined as the fraction of a supercooled droplet that freezes on impact with the top surface of the accretion ice to explore the concept of mixed ice accretion. Additionally we consider different "packing densities" of rime ice, mimicking the different bulk rime densities observed in nature. Ice accretion is considered in four stages: rime, primary mixed, secondary mixed, and glaze ice. Predictions match with existing models and experimental data in the limiting rime and glaze cases. The mixed ice formulation however provides additional insight into the composition of the overall ice structure, which ultimately influences adhesion and ice thickness, and shows that for similar atmospheric parameter ranges, this simple mixed ice description leads to very different accretion rates. A simple one-dimensional energy balance was solved to show how this freezing fraction parameter increases with decrease in atmospheric temperature, with lower freezing fraction promoting glaze ice accretion.

  4. Icing modelling in NSMB with chimera overset grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, D. [Ècole Polytechnique de Montréal (Canada); ICUBE, Strasbourg University (France); Deloze, T.; Laurendeau, E. [Ècole Polytechnique de Montréal (Canada); Hoarau, Y. [ICUBE, Strasbourg University (France)


    In aerospace Engineering, the accurate simulation of ice accretion is a key element to increase flight safety and avoid accidents related to icing effects. The icing code developed in the NSMB solver is based on an Eulerian formulation for droplets tracking, an iterative Messinger model using a modified water runback scheme for ice thickness calculation and mesh deformation to track the ice/air interface through time. The whole process is parallelized with MPI and applied with chimera grids.

  5. Observation of ice sheet formation on methane and ethane gas hydrates using a scanning confocal microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, J.; Shimomura, N.; Ebinuma, T.; Narita, H. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Toyohira, Sapporo (Japan). Methane Hydrate Research Lab.


    Interest in gas hydrates has increased in recent years due to the discovery of large deposits under the ocean floor and in permafrost regions. Natural gas hydrates, including methane, is expected to become a new energy source and a medium for energy storage and transportation. Gas hydrates consist of an open network of water molecules that are hydrogen-bonded in a similar manner to ice. Gas molecules are interstitially engaged under high pressures and low temperatures. Although the dissociation temperature of methane hydrate under atmospheric pressure is about 193 K, studies have shown that methane hydrate can be stored at atmospheric pressure and 267 K for 2 years. Because of this phenomenon, known as self-preservation, transportation and storage of methane hydrate can occur at temperature conditions milder than those for liquefied methane gas at atmospheric pressure. This study examined the surface changes of methane and ethane hydrates during dissociation using an optical microscope and confocal scanning microscope (CSM). This paper reported on the results when the atmospheric gas pressure was decreased. Ice sheets formed on the surfaces of methane and ethane gas hydrates due to depressurizing dissociation of methane and ethane hydrates when the methane and ethane gas pressures were decreased at designated temperatures. The dissociation of methane gas hydrate below below 237 K resulted in the generation of small ice particles on the hydrate surface. A transparent ice sheet formed on the hydrate surface above 242 K. The thickness of the ice sheet on the methane hydrate surface showed the maximum of ca. 30 {mu}m at 253 K. In the case of ethane hydrates, ice particles and ice sheets formed below 262 and 267 respectively. Since the ice particles and ice sheets were formed by water molecules generated during the gas hydrate dissociation, the mechanism of ice sheet formation depends on the dissociation rate of hydrate, ice particle sintering rate, and water molecule

  6. Effects of Thermobaricity on Coupled Ice-Mixed Layer Thermodynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roth, Mathias


    .... This density structure often leads to entrainment and affects both the mixed layer depth and the ice thickness, Thermobaricity, the combined dependence of seawater thermal expansion on temperature...

  7. State of Arctic Sea Ice North of Svalbard during N-ICE2015 (United States)

    Rösel, Anja; King, Jennifer; Gerland, Sebastian


    The N-ICE2015 cruise, led by the Norwegian Polar Institute, was a drift experiment with the research vessel R/V Lance from January to June 2015, where the ship started the drift North of Svalbard at 83°14.45' N, 21°31.41' E. The drift was repeated as soon as the vessel drifted free. Altogether, 4 ice stations where installed and the complex ocean-sea ice-atmosphere system was studied with an interdisciplinary Approach. During the N-ICE2015 cruise, extensive ice thickness and snow depth measurements were performed during both, winter and summer conditions. Total ice and snow thickness was measured with ground-based and airborne electromagnetic instruments; snow depth was measured with a GPS snow depth probe. Additionally, ice mass balance and snow buoys were deployed. Snow and ice thickness measurements were performed on repeated transects to quantify the ice growth or loss as well as the snow accumulation and melt rate. Additionally, we collected independent values on surveys to determine the general ice thickness distribution. Average snow depths of 32 cm on first year ice, and 52 cm on multi-year ice were measured in January, the mean snow depth on all ice types even increased until end of March to 49 cm. The average total ice and snow thickness in winter conditions was 1.92 m. During winter we found a small growth rate on multi-year ice of about 15 cm in 2 months, due to above-average snow depths and some extraordinary storm events that came along with mild temperatures. In contrast thereto, we also were able to study new ice formation and thin ice on newly formed leads. In summer conditions an enormous melt rate, mainly driven by a warm Atlantic water inflow in the marginal ice zone, was observed during two ice stations with melt rates of up to 20 cm per 24 hours. To reinforce the local measurements around the ship and to confirm their significance on a larger scale, we compare them to airborne thickness measurements and classified SAR-satellite scenes. The

  8. The impact of atmospheric mineral aerosol deposition on the albedo of snow & sea ice: are snow and sea ice optical properties more important than mineral aerosol optical properties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Lamare


    Full Text Available Knowledge of the albedo of polar regions is crucial for understanding a range of climatic processes that have an impact on a global scale. Light-absorbing impurities in atmospheric aerosols deposited on snow and sea ice by aeolian transport absorb solar radiation, reducing albedo. Here, the effects of five mineral aerosol deposits reducing the albedo of polar snow and sea ice are considered. Calculations employing a coupled atmospheric and snow/sea ice radiative-transfer model (TUV-snow show that the effects of mineral aerosol deposits are strongly dependent on the snow or sea ice type rather than the differences between the aerosol optical characteristics. The change in albedo between five different mineral aerosol deposits with refractive indices varying by a factor of 2 reaches a maximum of 0.0788, whereas the difference between cold polar snow and melting sea ice is 0.8893 for the same mineral loading. Surprisingly, the thickness of a surface layer of snow or sea ice loaded with the same mass ratio of mineral dust has little effect on albedo. On the contrary, the surface albedo of two snowpacks of equal depth, containing the same mineral aerosol mass ratio, is similar, whether the loading is uniformly distributed or concentrated in multiple layers, regardless of their position or spacing. The impact of mineral aerosol deposits is much larger on melting sea ice than on other types of snow and sea ice. Therefore, the higher input of shortwave radiation during the summer melt cycle associated with melting sea ice accelerates the melt process.

  9. King George Island ice cap geometry updated with airborne GPR measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rückamp


    Full Text Available Ice geometry is a mandatory requirement for numerical modelling purposes. In this paper we present a consistent data set for the ice thickness, the bedrock topography and the ice surface topography of the King George Island ice cap (Arctowski icefield and the adjacent central part. The new data set is composed of ground based and airborne ground penetrating radar (GPR and differential GPS (DGPS measurements, obtained during several field campaigns. Blindow et al. (2010 already provided a comprehensive overview of the ground based measurements carried out in the safely accessible area of the ice cap. The updated data set incorporates airborne measurements in the heavily crevassed coastal areas. Therefore, in this paper special attention is paid to the airborne measurements by addressing the instrument used, survey procedure, and data processing in more detail. In particular, the inclusion of airborne GPR measurements with the 30 MHz BGR-P30-System developed at the Institute of Geophysics (University of Münster completes the picture of the ice geometry substantially. The compiled digital elevation model of the bedrock shows a rough, highly variable topography with pronounced valleys, ridges, and troughs. Mean ice thickness is 240 ± 6 m, with a maximum value of 422 ± 10 m in the surveyed area. Noticeable are bounded areas in the bedrock topography below sea level where marine based ice exists. The provided data set is required as a basis for future monitoring attempts or as input for numerical modelling experiments. The data set is available from the PANGAEA database at

  10. Observations and simulations of three-dimensional radiative interactions between Arctic boundary layer clouds and ice floes (United States)

    Schäfer, M.; Bierwirth, E.; Ehrlich, A.; Jäkel, E.; Wendisch, M.


    Based on airborne spectral imaging observations three-dimensional (3-D) radiative effects between Arctic boundary layer clouds and ice floes have been identified and quantified. A method is presented to discriminate sea ice and open water in case of clouds from imaging radiance measurements. This separation simultaneously reveals that in case of clouds the transition of radiance between open water and sea ice is not instantaneously but horizontally smoothed. In general, clouds reduce the nadir radiance above bright surfaces in the vicinity of sea ice - open water boundaries, while the nadir radiance above dark surfaces is enhanced compared to situations with clouds located above horizontal homogeneous surfaces. With help of the observations and 3-D radiative transfer simulations, this effect was quantified to range between 0 and 2200 m distance to the sea ice edge. This affected distance Δ L was found to depend on both, cloud and sea ice properties. For a ground overlaying cloud in 0-200 m altitude, increasing the cloud optical thickness from τ = 1 to τ = 10 decreases Δ L from 600 to 250 m, while increasing cloud base altitude or cloud geometrical thickness can increase Δ L; Δ L(τ = 1/10) = 2200 m/1250 m for 500-1000 m cloud altitude. To quantify the effect for different shapes and sizes of the ice floes, various albedo fields (infinite straight ice edge, circles, squares, realistic ice floe field) were modelled. Simulations show that Δ L increases by the radius of the ice floe and for sizes larger than 6 km (500-1000 m cloud altitude) asymptotically reaches maximum values, which corresponds to an infinite straight ice edge. Furthermore, the impact of these 3-D-radiative effects on retrieval of cloud optical properties was investigated. The enhanced brightness of a dark pixel next to an ice edge results in uncertainties of up to 90 and 30% in retrievals of cloud optical thickness and effective radius reff, respectively. With help of Δ L quantified here, an

  11. Arctic sea ice concentration observed with SMOS during summer (United States)

    Gabarro, Carolina; Martinez, Justino; Turiel, Antonio


    The Arctic Ocean is under profound transformation. Observations and model predictions show dramatic decline in sea ice extent and volume [1]. A retreating Arctic ice cover has a marked impact on regional and global climate, and vice versa, through a large number of feedback mechanisms and interactions with the climate system [2]. The launch of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, in 2009, marked the dawn of a new type of space-based microwave observations. Although the mission was originally conceived for hydrological and oceanographic studies [3,4], SMOS is also making inroads in the cryospheric sciences by measuring the thin ice thickness [5,6]. SMOS carries an L-band (1.4 GHz), passive interferometric radiometer (the so-called MIRAS) that measures the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the Earth's surface, at about 50 km spatial resolution, continuous multi-angle viewing, large wide swath (1200-km), and with a 3-day revisit time at the equator, but more frequently at the poles. A novel radiometric method to determine sea ice concentration (SIC) from SMOS is presented. The method uses the Bayesian-based Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) approach to retrieve SIC. The advantage of this approach with respect to the classical linear inversion is that the former takes into account the uncertainty of the tie-point measured data in addition to the mean value, while the latter only uses a mean value of the tie-point data. When thin ice is present, the SMOS algorithm underestimates the SIC due to the low opacity of the ice at this frequency. However, using a synergistic approach with data from other satellite sensors, it is possible to obtain accurate thin ice thickness estimations with the Bayesian-based method. Despite its lower spatial resolution relative to SSMI or AMSR-E, SMOS-derived SIC products are little affected by the atmosphere and the snow (almost transparent at L-band). Moreover L-band measurements are more robust in front of the

  12. Seeking an optimal algorithm for a new satellite-based Sea Ice Drift Climate Data Record : Motivations, plans and initial results from the ESA CCI Sea Ice project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavergne, T.; Dybkjær, Gorm; Girard-Ardhuin, Fanny

    The Sea Ice Essential Climate Variable (ECV) as defined by GCOS pertains of both sea ice concentration, thickness, and drift. Now in its second phase, the ESA CCI Sea Ice project is conducting the necessary research efforts to address sea ice drift.Accurate estimates of sea ice drift direction an...... in the final product. This contribution reviews the motivation for the work, the plans for sea ice drift algorithms intercomparison and selection, and early results from our activity....

  13. Glacial isostatic stress shadowing by the Antarctic ice sheet (United States)

    Ivins, E. R.; James, T. S.; Klemann, V.


    Numerous examples of fault slip that offset late Quaternary glacial deposits and bedrock polish support the idea that the glacial loading cycle causes earthquakes in the upper crust. A semianalytical scheme is presented for quantifying glacial and postglacial lithospheric fault reactivation using contemporary rock fracture prediction methods. It extends previous studies by considering differential Mogi-von Mises stresses, in addition to those resulting from a Coulomb analysis. The approach utilizes gravitational viscoelastodynamic theory and explores the relationships between ice mass history and regional seismicity and faulting in a segment of East Antarctica containing the great Antarctic Plate (Balleny Island) earthquake of 25 March 1998 (Mw 8.1). Predictions of the failure stress fields within the seismogenic crust are generated for differing assumptions about background stress orientation, mantle viscosity, lithospheric thickness, and possible late Holocene deglaciation for the D91 Antarctic ice sheet history. Similar stress fracture fields are predicted by Mogi-von Mises and Coulomb theory, thus validating previous rebound Coulomb analysis. A thick lithosphere, of the order of 150-240 km, augments stress shadowing by a late melting (middle-late Holocene) coastal East Antarctic ice complex and could cause present-day earthquakes many hundreds of kilometers seaward of the former Last Glacial Maximum grounding line.

  14. Sensitivity of open-water ice growth and ice concentration evolution in a coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice model (United States)

    Shi, Xiaoxu; Lohmann, Gerrit


    A coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice model is applied to investigate to what degree the area-thickness distribution of new ice formed in open water affects the ice and ocean properties. Two sensitivity experiments are performed which modify the horizontal-to-vertical aspect ratio of open-water ice growth. The resulting changes in the Arctic sea-ice concentration strongly affect the surface albedo, the ocean heat release to the atmosphere, and the sea-ice production. The changes are further amplified through a positive feedback mechanism among the Arctic sea ice, the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), and the surface air temperature in the Arctic, as the Fram Strait sea ice import influences the freshwater budget in the North Atlantic Ocean. Anomalies in sea-ice transport lead to changes in sea surface properties of the North Atlantic and the strength of AMOC. For the Southern Ocean, the most pronounced change is a warming along the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), owing to the interhemispheric bipolar seasaw linked to AMOC weakening. Another insight of this study lies on the improvement of our climate model. The ocean component FESOM is a newly developed ocean-sea ice model with an unstructured mesh and multi-resolution. We find that the subpolar sea-ice boundary in the Northern Hemisphere can be improved by tuning the process of open-water ice growth, which strongly influences the sea ice concentration in the marginal ice zone, the North Atlantic circulation, salinity and Arctic sea ice volume. Since the distribution of new ice on open water relies on many uncertain parameters and the knowledge of the detailed processes is currently too crude, it is a challenge to implement the processes realistically into models. Based on our sensitivity experiments, we conclude a pronounced uncertainty related to open-water sea ice growth which could significantly affect the climate system sensitivity.

  15. Glacier ice mass fluctuations and fault instability in tectonically active Southern Alaska (United States)

    Sauber, Jeanne M.; Molnia, Bruce F.


    Across the plate boundary zone in south central Alaska, tectonic strain rates are high in a region that includes large glaciers undergoing wastage (glacier retreat and thinning) and surges. For the coastal region between the Bering and Malaspina Glaciers, the average ice mass thickness changes between 1995 and 2000 range from 1 to 5 m/year. These ice changes caused solid Earth displacements in our study region with predicted values of -10 to 50 mm in the vertical and predicted horizontal displacements of 0-10 mm at variable orientations. Relative to stable North America, observed horizontal rates of tectonic deformation range from 10 to 40 mm/year to the north-northwest and the predicted tectonic uplift rates range from approximately 0 mm/year near the Gulf of Alaska coast to 12 mm/year further inland. The ice mass changes between 1995 and 2000 resulted in discernible changes in the Global Positioning System (GPS) measured station positions of one site (ISLE) located adjacent to the Bagley Ice Valley and at one site, DON, located south of the Bering Glacier terminus. In addition to modifying the surface displacements rates, we evaluated the influence ice changes during the Bering glacier surge cycle had on the background seismic rate. We found an increase in the number of earthquakes ( ML≥2.5) and seismic rate associated with ice thinning and a decrease in the number of earthquakes and seismic rate associated with ice thickening. These results support the hypothesis that ice mass changes can modulate the background seismic rate. During the last century, wastage of the coastal glaciers in the Icy Bay and Malaspina region indicates thinning of hundreds of meters and in areas of major retreat, maximum losses of ice thickness approaching 1 km. Between the 1899 Yakataga and Yakutat earthquakes ( Mw=8.1, 8.1) and prior to the 1979 St. Elias earthquake ( Ms=7.2), the plate interface below Icy Bay was locked and tectonic strain accumulated. We used estimated ice mass

  16. Sea-ice monitoring by ship-based visual observation during JARE ―Simplification of observation method based on the ASPeCt protocol―


    Kay I. Ohshima; Shuki Ushio; Akihisa S. Otsuki


    A protocol for ship-based visual observation of sea ice is proposed for the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE). The protocol is a simplified version of the ASPeCt protocol, used for extracting quantitative information on sea ice. The ship-based visual observations started from JARE-46. In the pack ice region, ice thickness, ratio of deformed ice, and total ice volume increased toward the coast. Continuous monitoring of sea ice, particularly its thickness, by ship-based observation ...

  17. Past and present stability of the Weddell Sea sector of the Antarctic Ice Sheet (United States)

    Whitehouse, P. L.; Vieli, A.; Jamieson, S.; Bentley, M.; Hein, A.; Sugden, D.


    The contribution of the Weddell Sea sector of the Antarctic Ice Sheet to sea-level rise since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), along with the processes controlling the past and ongoing dynamics of this sector, are poorly known. Of particular concern is the fact that significant portions of the present-day grounding line are unstably located on bathymetry that deepens towards the interior of the continent. We present new modelling results, constrained by field evidence relating to past ice extent and thickness along the Foundation Ice Stream and Thiel Trough, which suggest that the post-LGM sea-level contribution from this sector was modest, and that the grounding line is unlikely to have been located at the continental shelf break for a prolonged period during the last glacial cycle. Poorly-constrained ice shelf and ocean processes are found to play a crucial role in controlling the past configuration and stability of this sector of the ice sheet. In particular, we find that we cannot rule out a scenario in which the grounding line of the Foundation Ice Stream retreated behind present during deglaciation, and has since re-advanced. This work complements a number of recent studies, based on independent data sets, that explore the possibility that grounding line re-advance occurred within the Weddell Sea sector during the mid-to-late Holocene. If this hypothesis is correct, then current glacial isostatic adjustment models, and hence contemporary estimates of ice mass balance derived from GRACE data, will be significantly biased. Piecing together, and understanding, the reason for recent changes in ice dynamics is crucial for determining the contemporary stability of the Weddell Sea sector of the Antarctic Ice Sheet.

  18. The future of ice sheets and sea ice: between reversible retreat and unstoppable loss. (United States)

    Notz, Dirk


    We discuss the existence of cryospheric "tipping points" in the Earth's climate system. Such critical thresholds have been suggested to exist for the disappearance of Arctic sea ice and the retreat of ice sheets: Once these ice masses have shrunk below an anticipated critical extent, the ice-albedo feedback might lead to the irreversible and unstoppable loss of the remaining ice. We here give an overview of our current understanding of such threshold behavior. By using conceptual arguments, we review the recent findings that such a tipping point probably does not exist for the loss of Arctic summer sea ice. Hence, in a cooler climate, sea ice could recover rapidly from the loss it has experienced in recent years. In addition, we discuss why this recent rapid retreat of Arctic summer sea ice might largely be a consequence of a slow shift in ice-thickness distribution, which will lead to strongly increased year-to-year variability of the Arctic summer sea-ice extent. This variability will render seasonal forecasts of the Arctic summer sea-ice extent increasingly difficult. We also discuss why, in contrast to Arctic summer sea ice, a tipping point is more likely to exist for the loss of the Greenland ice sheet and the West Antarctic ice sheet.

  19. High-sensitivity Raman spectrometer to study pristine and irradiated interstellar ice analogs. (United States)

    Bennett, Chris J; Brotton, Stephen J; Jones, Brant M; Misra, Anupam K; Sharma, Shiv K; Kaiser, Ralf I


    We discuss the novel design of a sensitive, normal-Raman spectrometer interfaced to an ultra-high vacuum chamber (5 × 10(-11) Torr) utilized to investigate the interaction of ionizing radiation with low temperature ices relevant to the solar system and interstellar medium. The design is based on a pulsed Nd:YAG laser which takes advantage of gating techniques to isolate the scattered Raman signal from the competing fluorescence signal. The setup incorporates innovations to achieve maximum sensitivity without detectable heating of the sample. Thin films of carbon dioxide (CO2) ices of 10 to 396 nm thickness were prepared and characterized using both Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and HeNe interference techniques. The ν+ and ν- Fermi resonance bands of CO2 ices were observed by Raman spectroscopy at 1385 and 1278 cm(-1), respectively, and the band areas showed a linear dependence on ice thickness. Preliminary irradiation experiments are conducted on a 450 nm thick sample of CO2 ice using energetic electrons. Both carbon monoxide (CO) and the infrared inactive molecular oxygen (O2) products are readily detected from their characteristic Raman bands at 2145 and 1545 cm(-1), respectively. Detection limits of 4 ± 3 and 6 ± 4 monolayers of CO and O2 were derived, demonstrating the unique power to detect newly formed molecules in irradiated ices in situ. The setup is universally applicable to the detection of low-abundance species, since no Raman signal enhancement is required, demonstrating Raman spectroscopy as a reliable alternative, or complement, to FT-IR spectroscopy in space science applications.

  20. Balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (United States)


    For several decades, measurements of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet showed it to be retreating rapidly. But new data derived from satellite-borne radar sensors show the ice sheet to be growing. Changing Antarctic ice sheets remains an area of high scientific interest, particularly in light of recent global warming concerns. These new findings are significant because scientists estimate that sea level would rise 5-6 meters (16-20 feet) if the ice sheet collapsed into the sea. Do these new measurements signal the end of the ice sheet's 10,000-year retreat? Or, are these new satellite data simply much more accurate than the sparse ice core and surface measurements that produced the previous estimates? Another possibility is that the ice accumulation may simply indicate that the ice sheet naturally expands and retreats in regular cycles. Cryologists will grapple with these questions, and many others, as they examine the new data. The image above depicts the region of West Antarctica where scientists measured ice speed. The fast-moving central ice streams are shown in red. Slower tributaries feeding the ice streams are shown in blue. Green areas depict slow-moving, stable areas. Thick black lines depict the areas that collect snowfall to feed their respective ice streams. Reference: Ian Joughin and Slawek Tulaczyk Science Jan 18 2002: 476-480. Image courtesy RADARSAT Antarctic Mapping Project

  1. CICE, The Los Alamos Sea Ice Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE) is the result of an effort to develop a computationally efficient sea ice component for a fully coupled atmosphere–land–ocean–ice global climate model. It was originally designed to be compatible with the Parallel Ocean Program (POP), an ocean circulation model developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for use on massively parallel computers. CICE has several interacting components: a vertical thermodynamic model that computes local growth rates of snow and ice due to vertical conductive, radiative and turbulent fluxes, along with snowfall; an elastic-viscous-plastic model of ice dynamics, which predicts the velocity field of the ice pack based on a model of the material strength of the ice; an incremental remapping transport model that describes horizontal advection of the areal concentration, ice and snow volume and other state variables; and a ridging parameterization that transfers ice among thickness categories based on energetic balances and rates of strain. It also includes a biogeochemical model that describes evolution of the ice ecosystem. The CICE sea ice model is used for climate research as one component of complex global earth system models that include atmosphere, land, ocean and biogeochemistry components. It is also used for operational sea ice forecasting in the polar regions and in numerical weather prediction models.

  2. P-band radar ice sounding in Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Kusk, Anders; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup


    In February 2011, the Polarimetric Airborne Radar Ice Sounder (POLARIS) was flown in Antarctica in order to assess the feasibility of a potential space-based radar ice sounding mission. The campaign has demonstrated that the basal return is detectable in areas with up to 3 km thick cold ice, in a...

  3. Arctic Sea Ice Trafficability - New Strategies for a Changing Icescape (United States)

    Dammann, Dyre Oliver

    Sea ice is an important part of the Arctic social-environmental system, in part because it provides a platform for human transportation and for marine flora and fauna that use the ice as a habitat. Sea ice loss projected for coming decades is expected to change ice conditions throughout the Arctic, but little is known about the nature and extent of anticipated changes and in particular potential implications for over-ice travel and ice use as a platform. This question has been addressed here through an extensive effort to link sea ice use and key geophysical properties of sea ice, drawing upon extensive field surveys around on-ice operations and local and Indigenous knowledge for the widely different ice uses and ice regimes of Utqiagvik, Kotzebue, and Nome, Alaska.. A set of nine parameters that constrain landfast sea ice use has been derived, including spatial extent, stability, and timing and persistence of landfast ice. This work lays the foundation for a framework to assess and monitor key ice-parameters relevant in the context of ice-use feasibility, safety, and efficiency, drawing on different remote-sensing techniques. The framework outlines the steps necessary to further evaluate relevant parameters in the context of user objectives and key stakeholder needs for a given ice regime and ice use scenario. I have utilized this framework in case studies for three different ice regimes, where I find uses to be constrained by ice thickness, roughness, and fracture potential and develop assessment strategies with accuracy at the relevant spatial scales. In response to the widely reported importance of high-confidence ice thickness measurements, I have developed a new strategy to estimate appropriate thickness compensation factors. Compensation factors have the potential to reduce risk of misrepresenting areas of thin ice when using point-based in-situ assessment methods along a particular route. This approach was tested on an ice road near Kotzebue, Alaska, where

  4. Influence of Arctic Sea Ice Extent on Polar Cloud Fraction and Vertical Structure and Implications for Regional Climate (United States)

    Palm, Stephen P.; Strey, Sara T.; Spinhirne, James; Markus, Thorsten


    Recent satellite lidar measurements of cloud properties spanning a period of 5 years are used to examine a possible connection between Arctic sea ice amount and polar cloud fraction and vertical distribution. We find an anticorrelation between sea ice extent and cloud fraction with maximum cloudiness occurring over areas with little or no sea ice. We also find that over ice!free regions, there is greater low cloud frequency and average optical depth. Most of the optical depth increase is due to the presence of geometrically thicker clouds over water. In addition, our analysis indicates that over the last 5 years, October and March average polar cloud fraction has increased by about 7% and 10%, respectively, as year average sea ice extent has decreased by 5% 7%. The observed cloud changes are likely due to a number of effects including, but not limited to, the observed decrease in sea ice extent and thickness. Increasing cloud amount and changes in vertical distribution and optical properties have the potential to affect the radiative balance of the Arctic region by decreasing both the upwelling terrestrial longwave radiation and the downward shortwave solar radiation. Because longwave radiation dominates in the long polar winter, the overall effect of increasing low cloud cover is likely a warming of the Arctic and thus a positive climate feedback, possibly accelerating the melting of Arctic sea ice.

  5. The Influence of Arctic Sea Ice Extent on Polar Cloud Fraction and Vertical Structure and Implications for Regional Climate (United States)

    Palm, Stephen P.; Strey, Sara T.; Spinhirne, James; Markus, Thorsten


    Recent satellite lidar measurements of cloud properties spanning a period of five years are used to examine a possible connection between Arctic sea ice amount and polar cloud fraction and vertical distribution. We find an anti-correlation between sea ice extent and cloud fraction with maximum cloudiness occurring over areas with little or no sea ice. We also find that over ice free regions, there is greater low cloud frequency and average optical depth. Most of the optical depth increase is due to the presence of geometrically thicker clouds over water. In addition, our analysis indicates that over the last 5 years, October and March average polar cloud fraction has increased by about 7 and 10 percent, respectively, as year average sea ice extent has decreased by 5 to 7 percent. The observed cloud changes are likely due to a number of effects including, but not limited to, the observed decrease in sea ice extent and thickness. Increasing cloud amount and changes in vertical distribution and optical properties have the potential to affect the radiative balance of the Arctic region by decreasing both the upwelling terrestrial longwave radiation and the downward shortwave solar radiation. Since longwave radiation dominates in the long polar winter, the overall effect of increasing low cloud cover is likely a warming of the Arctic and thus a positive climate feedback, possibly accelerating the melting of Arctic sea ice.

  6. Ice sheet hydrology from observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter [Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ-, Stockholm (Sweden)


    The hydrological systems of ice sheets are complex. Our view of the system is split, largely due to the complexity of observing the systems. Our basic knowledge of processes have been obtained from smaller glaciers and although applicable in general to the larger scales of the ice sheets, ice sheets contain features not observable on smaller glaciers due to their size. The generation of water on the ice sheet surface is well understood and can be satisfactorily modeled. The routing of water from the surface down through the ice is not complicated in terms of procat has been problematic is the way in which the couplings between surface and bed has been accomplished through a kilometer of cold ice, but with the studies on crack propagation and lake drainage on Greenland we are beginning to understand also this process and we know water can be routed through thick cold ice. Water generation at the bed is also well understood but the main problem preventing realistic estimates of water generation is lack of detailed information about geothermal heat fluxes and their geographical distribution beneath the ice. Although some average value for geothermal heat flux may suffice, for many purposes it is important that such values are not applied to sub-regions of significantly higher fluxes. Water generated by geothermal heat constitutes a constant supply and will likely maintain a steady system beneath the ice sheet. Such a system may include subglacial lakes as steady features and reconfiguration of the system is tied to time scales on which the ice sheet geometry changes so as to change pressure gradients in the basal system itself. Large scale re-organization of subglacial drainage systems have been observed beneath ice streams. The stability of an entirely subglacially fed drainage system may hence be perturbed by rapid ice flow. In the case of Antarctic ice streams where such behavior has been observed, the ice streams are underlain by deformable sediments. It is

  7. Ice sheet hydrology from observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Peter


    The hydrological systems of ice sheets are complex. Our view of the system is split, largely due to the complexity of observing the systems. Our basic knowledge of processes have been obtained from smaller glaciers and although applicable in general to the larger scales of the ice sheets, ice sheets contain features not observable on smaller glaciers due to their size. The generation of water on the ice sheet surface is well understood and can be satisfactorily modeled. The routing of water from the surface down through the ice is not complicated in terms of procat has been problematic is the way in which the couplings between surface and bed has been accomplished through a kilometer of cold ice, but with the studies on crack propagation and lake drainage on Greenland we are beginning to understand also this process and we know water can be routed through thick cold ice. Water generation at the bed is also well understood but the main problem preventing realistic estimates of water generation is lack of detailed information about geothermal heat fluxes and their geographical distribution beneath the ice. Although some average value for geothermal heat flux may suffice, for many purposes it is important that such values are not applied to sub-regions of significantly higher fluxes. Water generated by geothermal heat constitutes a constant supply and will likely maintain a steady system beneath the ice sheet. Such a system may include subglacial lakes as steady features and reconfiguration of the system is tied to time scales on which the ice sheet geometry changes so as to change pressure gradients in the basal system itself. Large scale re-organization of subglacial drainage systems have been observed beneath ice streams. The stability of an entirely subglacially fed drainage system may hence be perturbed by rapid ice flow. In the case of Antarctic ice streams where such behavior has been observed, the ice streams are underlain by deformable sediments. It is

  8. Turbulent heat transfer as a control of platelet ice growth in supercooled under-ice ocean boundary layers (United States)

    McPhee, Miles G.; Stevens, Craig L.; Smith, Inga J.; Robinson, Natalie J.


    Late winter measurements of turbulent quantities in tidally modulated flow under land-fast sea ice near the Erebus Glacier Tongue, McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, identified processes that influence growth at the interface of an ice surface in contact with supercooled seawater. The data show that turbulent heat exchange at the ocean-ice boundary is characterized by the product of friction velocity and (negative) water temperature departure from freezing, analogous to similar results for moderate melting rates in seawater above freezing. Platelet ice growth appears to increase the hydraulic roughness (drag) of fast ice compared with undeformed fast ice without platelets. Platelet growth in supercooled water under thick ice appears to be rate-limited by turbulent heat transfer and that this is a significant factor to be considered in mass transfer at the underside of ice shelves and sea ice in the vicinity of ice shelves.

  9. Sampling supraglacial debris thickness using terrestrial photogrammetry (United States)

    Nicholson, Lindsey; Mertes, Jordan


    The melt rate of debris-covered ice differs to that of clean ice primarily as a function of debris thickness. The spatial distribution of supraglacial debris thickness must therefore be known in order to understand how it is likely to impact glacier behaviour, and meltwater contribution to local hydrological resources and global sea level rise. However, practical means of determining debris cover thickness remain elusive. In this study we explore the utility of terrestrial photogrammetry to produce high resolution, scaled and texturized digital terrain models of debris cover exposures above ice cliffs as a means of quantifying and characterizing debris thickness. Two Nikon D5000 DSLRs with Tamron 100mm lenses were used to photograph a sample area of the Ngozumpa glacier in the Khumbu Himal of Nepal in April 2016. A Structure from Motion workflow using Agisoft Photoscan software was used to generate a surface models with <10cm resolution. A Trimble Geo7X differential GPS with Zephyr antenna, along with a local base station, was used to precisely measure marked ground control points to scale the photogrammetric surface model. Measurements of debris thickness along the exposed cliffline were made from this scaled model, assuming that the ice surface at the debris-ice boundary is horizontal, and these data are compared to 50 manual point measurements along the same clifftops. We conclude that sufficiently high resolution photogrammetry, with precise scaling information, provides a useful means to determine debris thickness at clifftop exposures. The resolution of the possible measurements depends on image resolution, the accuracy of the ground control points and the computational capacity to generate centimetre scale surface models. Application of such techniques to sufficiently high resolution imagery from UAV-borne cameras may offer a powerful means of determining debris thickness distribution patterns over debris covered glacier termini.

  10. Under Sea Ice phytoplankton bloom detection and contamination in Antarctica (United States)

    Zeng, C.; Zeng, T.; Xu, H.


    Previous researches reported compelling sea ice phytoplankton bloom in Arctic, while seldom reports studied about Antarctic. Here, lab experiment showed sea ice increased the visible light albedo of the water leaving radiance. Even a new formed sea ice of 10cm thickness increased water leaving radiance up to 4 times of its original bare water. Given that phytoplankton preferred growing and accumulating under the sea ice with thickness of 10cm-1m, our results showed that the changing rate of OC4 estimated [Chl-a] varied from 0.01-0.5mg/m3 to 0.2-0.3mg/m3, if the water covered by 10cm sea ice. Going further, varying thickness of sea ice modulated the changing rate of estimating [Chl-a] non-linearly, thus current routine OC4 model cannot estimate under sea ice [Chl-a] appropriately. Besides, marginal sea ice zone has a large amount of mixture regions containing sea ice, water and snow, where is favorable for phytoplankton. We applied 6S model to estimate the sea ice/snow contamination on sub-pixel water leaving radiance of 4.25km spatial resolution ocean color products. Results showed that sea ice/snow scale effectiveness overestimated [Chl-a] concentration based on routine band ratio OC4 model, which contamination increased with the rising fraction of sea ice/snow within one pixel. Finally, we analyzed the under sea ice bloom in Antarctica based on the [Chl-a] concentration trends during 21 days after sea ice retreating. Regardless of those overestimation caused by sea ice/snow sub scale contamination, we still did not see significant under sea ice blooms in Antarctica in 2012-2017 compared with Arctic. This research found that Southern Ocean is not favorable for under sea ice blooms and the phytoplankton bloom preferred to occur in at least 3 weeks after sea ice retreating.

  11. Understanding the Importance of Oceanic Forcing on Sea Ice Variability (United States)


    problem, which includes ice thickness. Thorndike et al. (1975) recognized that many of the physical properties of sea ice depend upon its thickness...IMB2005B are presented below. In agreement with previous studies (e.g., Thorndike and Colony 1982), they show that during the winter months (December...During the Past 100 Years, 33, 2, 143– 154. 148 Thorndike , A.S., and R. Colony, 1982: Sea ice motion in response to geostrophic winds. Journal of

  12. Elevator deflections on the icing process (United States)

    Britton, Randall K.


    The effect of elevator deflection of the horizontal stabilizer for certain icing parameters is investigated. Elevator deflection can severely change the lower and upper leading-edge impingement limits, and ice can accrete on the elevator itself. Also, elevator deflection had practically no effect on the maximum local collection efficiency. It is shown that for severe icing conditions (large water droplets), elevator deflections that increase the projected height of the airfoil can significantly increase the total collection efficiency of the airfoil.

  13. An Explanation for the Arctic Sea Ice Melt Pond Fractal Transition (United States)

    Popovic, P.; Abbot, D. S.


    As Arctic sea ice melts during the summer, pools of melt water form on its surface. This decreases the ice's albedo, which signifcantly impacts its subsequent evolution. Understanding this process is essential for buiding accurate sea ice models in GCMs and using them to forecast future changes in sea ice. A feature of melt ponds that helps determine their impact on ice albedo is that they often form complex geometric shapes. One characteristic of their shape, the fractal dimension of the pond boundaries, D, has been shown to transition between the two fundamental limits of D = 1 and D = 2 at some critical pond size. Here, we provide an explanation for this behavior. First, using aerial photographs taken during the SHEBA mission, we show how this fractal transition curve changes with time, and show that there is a qualitative difference in the pond shape as ice transitions from impermeable to permeable. While ice is impermeable, the maximum fractal dimension is less than 2, whereas after it becomes permeable, the maximum fractal dimension becomes very close to 2. We then show how the fractal dimension of the boundary of a collection of overlapping circles placed randomly on a plane also transitions from D = 1 to D = 2 at a size equal to the average size of a single circle. We, therefore, conclude that this transition is a simple geometric consequence of regular shapes connecting. The one physical parameter that can be extracted from the fractal transition curve is the length scale at which transition occurs. Previously, this length scale has been associated with the typical size of snow dunes created on the ice surface during winter. We provide an alternative explanation by noting that the flexural wavelength of the ice poses a fundamental limit on the size of melt ponds on permeable ice. If this is true, melt ponds could be used as a proxy for ice thickness. Finally, we provide some remarks on how to observationally distinguish between the two ideas for what

  14. Multi-decadal Arctic sea ice roughness. (United States)

    Tsamados, M.; Stroeve, J.; Kharbouche, S.; Muller, J. P., , Prof; Nolin, A. W.; Petty, A.; Haas, C.; Girard-Ardhuin, F.; Landy, J.


    The transformation of Arctic sea ice from mainly perennial, multi-year ice to a seasonal, first-year ice is believed to have been accompanied by a reduction of the roughness of the ice cover surface. This smoothening effect has been shown to (i) modify the momentum and heat transfer between the atmosphere and ocean, (ii) to alter the ice thickness distribution which in turn controls the snow and melt pond repartition over the ice cover, and (iii) to bias airborne and satellite remote sensing measurements that depend on the scattering and reflective characteristics over the sea ice surface topography. We will review existing and novel remote sensing methodologies proposed to estimate sea ice roughness, ranging from airborne LIDAR measurement (ie Operation IceBridge), to backscatter coefficients from scatterometers (ASCAT, QUICKSCAT), to multi angle maging spectroradiometer (MISR), and to laser (Icesat) and radar altimeters (Envisat, Cryosat, Altika, Sentinel-3). We will show that by comparing and cross-calibrating these different products we can offer a consistent multi-mission, multi-decadal view of the declining sea ice roughness. Implications for sea ice physics, climate and remote sensing will also be discussed.

  15. Wave-induced stress and breaking of sea ice in a coupled hydrodynamic discrete-element wave-ice model (United States)

    Herman, Agnieszka


    In this paper, a coupled sea ice-wave model is developed and used to analyze wave-induced stress and breaking in sea ice for a range of wave and ice conditions. The sea ice module is a discrete-element bonded-particle model, in which ice is represented as cuboid grains floating on the water surface that can be connected to their neighbors by elastic joints. The joints may break if instantaneous stresses acting on them exceed their strength. The wave module is based on an open-source version of the Non-Hydrostatic WAVE model (NHWAVE). The two modules are coupled with proper boundary conditions for pressure and velocity, exchanged at every wave model time step. In the present version, the model operates in two dimensions (one vertical and one horizontal) and is suitable for simulating compact ice in which heave and pitch motion dominates over surge. In a series of simulations with varying sea ice properties and incoming wavelength it is shown that wave-induced stress reaches maximum values at a certain distance from the ice edge. The value of maximum stress depends on both ice properties and characteristics of incoming waves, but, crucially for ice breaking, the location at which the maximum occurs does not change with the incoming wavelength. Consequently, both regular and random (Jonswap spectrum) waves break the ice into floes with almost identical sizes. The width of the zone of broken ice depends on ice strength and wave attenuation rates in the ice.

  16. UV effects on bottom ice algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, K.; Buckley, B.


    Antarctic sea ice can be surprisingly transparent to UV radiation, particularly during spring when ozone depletion reaches a maximum. A 5% reduction in photosynthetic production was observed in laboratory experiments for UVB levels expected under the ice at this time. In situ studies modifying the UVB radiation falling onto algae were inconclusive. (author). 5 refs

  17. Optical properties of melting first-year Arctic sea ice (United States)

    Light, Bonnie; Perovich, Donald K.; Webster, Melinda A.; Polashenski, Christopher; Dadic, Ruzica


    The albedo and transmittance of melting, first-year Arctic sea ice were measured during two cruises of the Impacts of Climate on the Eco-Systems and Chemistry of the Arctic Pacific Environment (ICESCAPE) project during the summers of 2010 and 2011. Spectral measurements were made for both bare and ponded ice types at a total of 19 ice stations in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. These data, along with irradiance profiles taken within boreholes, laboratory measurements of the optical properties of core samples, ice physical property observations, and radiative transfer model simulations are employed to describe representative optical properties for melting first-year Arctic sea ice. Ponded ice was found to transmit roughly 4.4 times more total energy into the ocean, relative to nearby bare ice. The ubiquitous surface-scattering layer and drained layer present on bare, melting sea ice are responsible for its relatively high albedo and relatively low transmittance. Light transmittance through ponded ice depends on the physical thickness of the ice and the magnitude of the scattering coefficient in the ice interior. Bare ice reflects nearly three-quarters of the incident sunlight, enhancing its resiliency to absorption by solar insolation. In contrast, ponded ice absorbs or transmits to the ocean more than three-quarters of the incident sunlight. Characterization of the heat balance of a summertime ice cover is largely dictated by its pond coverage, and light transmittance through ponded ice shows strong contrast between first-year and multiyear Arctic ice covers.

  18. Response timescales for martian ice masses and implications for ice flow on Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutnik, Michelle Rebecca; Waddington, E.D.; Winebrener, D.P.


    a predictable shape, which is a function of ice temperature, ice rheology, and surface mass-exchange rate. In addition, the time for surface-shape adjustment is shorter than the characteristic time for significant deformation or displacement of internal layers within a flowing ice mass; as a result, surface......On Earth and on Mars, ice masses experience changes in precipitation, temperature, and radiation. In a new climate state, flowing ice masses will adjust in length and in thickness, and this response toward a new steady state has a characteristic timescale. However, a flowing ice mass has...... topography is more diagnostic of flow than are internal-layer shapes. Because the shape of Gemina Lingula, North Polar Layered Deposits indicates that it flowed at some time in the past, we use its current topography to infer characteristics of those past ice conditions, or past climate conditions, in which...

  19. Approximate maximum parsimony and ancestral maximum likelihood. (United States)

    Alon, Noga; Chor, Benny; Pardi, Fabio; Rapoport, Anat


    We explore the maximum parsimony (MP) and ancestral maximum likelihood (AML) criteria in phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Both problems are NP-hard, so we seek approximate solutions. We formulate the two problems as Steiner tree problems under appropriate distances. The gist of our approach is the succinct characterization of Steiner trees for a small number of leaves for the two distances. This enables the use of known Steiner tree approximation algorithms. The approach leads to a 16/9 approximation ratio for AML and asymptotically to a 1.55 approximation ratio for MP.

  20. Maximum permissible dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This chapter presents a historic overview of the establishment of radiation guidelines by various national and international agencies. The use of maximum permissible dose and maximum permissible body burden limits to derive working standards is discussed

  1. Contrasts in Sea Ice Formation and Production in the Arctic Seasonal and Perennial Ice Zones (United States)

    Kwok, R.


    Four years (1997-2000) of RADARSAT Geophysical Processor System (RGPS) data are used to contrast the sea ice deformation and production regionally, and in the seasonal (SIZ) and perennial (PIZ) ice zones. Ice production is of seasonal ice in openings during the winter. 3-day estimates of these quantities are provided within Lagrangian elements initially 10 km on a side. A distinct seasonal cycle is seen in both zones with these estimates highest in the late fall and with seasonal minimums in the mid-winter. Regional divergence over the winter could be up to 30%. Spatially, the highest deformation is in the SIZ north of coastal Alaska. Both ice deformation and production are higher in the SIZ: deformation-related ice production in the SIZ (approx.0.5 m) is 1.5-2.3 times that of the PIZ (approx.0.3 m) - this is connected to ice strength and thickness. Atmospheric forcing and boundary layer structure contribute to only the seasonal and interannual variability. Seasonal ice growth in ice fractures accounts for approx.25-40% of the total ice production of the Arctic Ocean. By itself, this deformation-ice production relationship could be considered a negative feedback when thickness is perturbed. However, the overall effect on ice production in the face of increasing seasonal and thinner/weaker ice coverage could be modified by: local destabilization of the water column promoting overturning of warmer water due to increased brine rejection; and, the upwelling of the pynocline associated with increased occurrence of large shear motion in sea ice.

  2. Ice-Cliff Failure via Retrogressive Slumping (United States)

    Parizek, B. R.; Christianson, K.; Alley, R. B.; Voytenko, D.; Vankova, I.; Dixon, T. H.; Holland, D.


    The magnitude and rate of future sea-level rise from warming-induced ice-sheet shrinkage remain notably uncertain. Removal of most of an ice sheet by surface melting alone requires centuries to millennia. Oceanic warming may accelerate loss by removing buttressing ice shelves and thereby speeding flow of non-floating ice into the ocean, but, until recently, modeled timescales for major dynamic ice-sheet shrinkage were centuries or longer. Beyond certain thresholds, however, observations show that warming removes floating ice shelves, leaving grounded ice cliffs from which icebergs break off directly. Cliffs higher than some limit experience rapid structural failure. Recent parameterization of this process in a comprehensive ice-flow model produced much faster sea-level rise from future rapid warming than in previous modeling studies, through formation and retreat of tall ice cliffs. Fully physical representations of this process are not yet available, however. Here, we use modeling guided by terrestrial radar data from Helheim Glacier, Greenland to show that cliffs will fail by slumping and trigger rapid retreat at a threshold height that, in crevassed ice with surface melting, may be only slightly above the 100-m maximum observed today, but may be roughly twice that (180-275 m) in mechanically-competent ice under well-drained or low-melt conditions.

  3. PIXE analysis as a tool for dating of ice cores from the Greenland ice sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, H.C.; Swietlicki, E.; Larsson, N.P.O.; Johnsen, S.J.


    Sections from the 2037 m long Dye 3 ice core drilled in 1979-1981 in the ice sheet of Southern Greenland were analysed with PIXE. The seven selected sections were from depths between 1778 and 1813 m, which corresponds to a time interval between about 8 500 and 10 000 years B.C. at the end of the last Ice Age. During this time period, fast climatic changes of several degrees centrigrade per century are known to have taken place. The exact time scales of these changes need yet to be verified by renewed measurements using nonconventional stratigraphic dating techniques such as PIXE. The problem is highly relevant for the prediction of climatic changes in our present age. A new sample preparation technique was developed which enables the determination of annual thicknesses of the parts of the ice core representing 10 000-40 000 years before present, where the thickness of the annual ice layers are believed to be less than 2.5 cm. More commonly used techniques of dating, such as measurements of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes δ 18 O and δD, nitrate, acidity or conductivity all have difficulties in resolving annual cycles in thicknesses of less than about 2 cm. The new technique involves sublimation of 18 cm long ice sections, after which the material contained in the ice is deposited on the thin backing. In this way, the material to be analysed is preconcentrated through the removal of the H 2 O, while still retaining the spatial distribution pattern of the various water soluble and insoluble components along the ice core. The resulting spatial resolution of the sublimation technique is estimated to be ±1 mm. A PIXE analysis was performed in contiguous millimeter steps across the sublimated ice sections. Estimations of annual ice layer thicknesses were based on the patterns of seasonal variation along the ice sections for several major and minor elements quantified with PIXE. (orig./TW)

  4. Observed ices in the Solar System (United States)

    Clark, Roger N.; Grundy, Will; Carlson, Robert R.; Noll, Keith; Gudipati, Murthy; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.


    Ices have been detected and mapped on the Earth and all planets and/or their satellites further from the sun. Water ice is the most common frozen volatile observed and is also unambiguously detected or inferred in every planet and/or their moon(s) except Venus. Carbon dioxide is also extensively found in all systems beyond the Earth except Pluto although it sometimes appears to be trapped rather than as an ice on some objects. The largest deposits of carbon dioxide ice is on Mars. Sulfur dioxide ice is found in the Jupiter system. Nitrogen and methane ices are common beyond the Uranian system. Saturn’s moon Titan probably has the most complex active chemistry involving ices, with benzene (C6H6) and many tentative or inferred compounds including ices of Cyanoacetylene (HC3N), Toluene (C7H8), Cyanogen (C2N2), Acetonitrile (CH3CN), H2O, CO2, and NH3. Confirming compounds on Titan is hampered by its thick smoggy atmosphere. Ammonia was predicted on many icy moons but is notably absent among the definitively detected ices with the possible exception of Enceladus. Comets, storehouses of many compounds that could exist as ices in their nuclei, have only had small amounts of water ice definitively detected on their surfaces. Only one asteroid has had a direct detection of surface water ice, although its presence can be inferred in others. This chapter reviews some of the properties of ices that lead to their detection, and surveys the ices that have been observed on solid surfaces throughout the Solar System.

  5. Spatial generalized linear mixed models of electric power outages due to hurricanes and ice storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haibin; Davidson, Rachel A.; Apanasovich, Tatiyana V.


    This paper presents new statistical models that predict the number of hurricane- and ice storm-related electric power outages likely to occur in each 3 kmx3 km grid cell in a region. The models are based on a large database of recent outages experienced by three major East Coast power companies in six hurricanes and eight ice storms. A spatial generalized linear mixed modeling (GLMM) approach was used in which spatial correlation is incorporated through random effects. Models were fitted using a composite likelihood approach and the covariance matrix was estimated empirically. A simulation study was conducted to test the model estimation procedure, and model training, validation, and testing were done to select the best models and assess their predictive power. The final hurricane model includes number of protective devices, maximum gust wind speed, hurricane indicator, and company indicator covariates. The final ice storm model includes number of protective devices, ice thickness, and ice storm indicator covariates. The models should be useful for power companies as they plan for future storms. The statistical modeling approach offers a new way to assess the reliability of electric power and other infrastructure systems in extreme events

  6. An experimental study of icing control using DBD plasma actuator (United States)

    Cai, Jinsheng; Tian, Yongqiang; Meng, Xuanshi; Han, Xuzhao; Zhang, Duo; Hu, Haiyang


    Ice accretion on aircraft or wind turbine has been widely recognized as a big safety threat in the past decades. This study aims to develop a new approach for icing control using an AC-DBD plasma actuator. The experiments of icing control (i.e., anti-/de-icing) on a cylinder model were conducted in an icing wind tunnel with controlled wind speed (i.e., 15 m/s) and temperature (i.e., -10°C). A digital camera was used to record the dynamic processes of plasma anti-icing and de-icing whilst an infrared imaging system was utilized to map the surface temperature variations during the anti-/de-icing processes. It was found that the AC-DBD plasma actuator is very effective in both anti-icing and de-icing operations. While no ice formation was observed when the plasma actuator served as an anti-icing device, a complete removal of the ice layer with a thickness of 5 mm was achieved by activating the plasma actuator for ˜150 s. Such information demonstrated the feasibility of plasma anti-/de-icing, which could potentially provide more effective and safer icing mitigation strategies.

  7. The greenhouse effect and the Arctic ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern


    The impact on the Arctic ice of global warming is important for many people and for the environment. Less ice means changed conditions for the Inuits, hard times for the polar bears and changed conditions for the fishing sector. There is at present some uncertainty about the thickness of the ice and what might be the cause of its oscillation. It was reported a few years ago that the thickness of the ice had almost been reduced by 50 per cent since the 1950s and some researchers suggested that within a few decades the ice would disappear during the summer. These measurements have turned out not to be representative for the whole Arctic region, and it now appears that a great deal of the measured thickness variation can be attributed to changes in the atmospheric circulation. The article discusses the Arctic Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation in relation to the ice thickness, and climate models. Feedback mechanisms such as reduced albedo may have a big impact in the Arctic in a global greenhouse warming. Model simulations are at variance, and the scenarios for the future are uncertain

  8. The sea ice in Young Sound: Implications for carbon cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Ronnie Nøhr; Rysgaard, Søren; Kühl, Michael


    on the available nutrients. The sea-ice algal community adapts effi ciently to the local light environment, and in areas with natural (or man-made) holes and cracks sea-ice algae bloom. However, despite ample nutrients, the overall phototrophic biomass in Young Sound remains very low, with maximum values of c. 15......–30 μg Chl a l-1 sea ice at the underside of the ice and with maximum area integrated values of c. 3 mg Chl a m-2. We speculate that the extreme dynamics in sea-ice appearance, structure and brine percolation, which is driven primarily by large but variable freshwater inputs during snow melt...... the sea-ice matrix were extremely dynamic and strongly regulated by physical processes related to freezing and thawing of sea water rather than biological activity. Enclosure experiments on sea-ice samples performed in June 2002 revealed a high heterotrophic potential causing the sea-ice environment...

  9. Buried and Massive Ground Ice on the West Coast of Baidaratskaya Bay in the Kara Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Belova


    Full Text Available Using data on the structure, conditions of occurrence (bedding, and the isotope composition of massive ice beds on the West coast of Baydaratskaya Bay it was established that the massive ice beds even occurring in the same outcrop may be related to different genetic types. There are two groups of the massive ice: 1 the «upper» thick (> 3 m massive ice beds composed by buried basal glacier ice; and 2 the «lower» small ice beds (< 3 m, formed both intrasedimentally and as a result of burial of initially surface ice bodies. Sand thickness which included both groups of the massive ice started its formation before the glacial ice burial. As a result of advancing and later degradation of the glacier, probably moving from the Pay-Khoy ridge or from the Polar Ural, its lower (basal parts were preserved within the permafrost thickness

  10. Three Years of High Resolution Year-Round Monitoring of Ice-Wedge Thermal Contraction Cracking in Svalbard (United States)

    Christiansen, H. H.


    Most likely ice-wedges are the most widespread periglacial landform in lowlands with continuous permafrost. With a changing climate it is important to understand better the geomorphological processes controlling ice- wedge growth and decay, as they might cause large changes to the surface of the landscape, particularly if the active layer thickness increases causing melting of the most ice-rich permafrost top layer. As most settlements on permafrost are located in lowland areas, ice-wedge formation can also influence the infrastructure. Understanding the processes of ice-wedge growth and their thaw transformation into ice-wedge casts are essential when using contemporary ice wedges as analogues of Pleistocene thermal contraction cracking in palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. As ice-wedges are largely controlled by winter conditions, improved understanding of the factors controlling their growth will enable better palaeoclimatic reconstructions both directly from ice-wedges, but also from ice-wedge casts, than just mean winter temperatures. Detailed studies of ice-wedge dynamics, including quantification of movement, have only been done in very few places in the Arctic. In high arctic Svalbard at 78°N climate at sea level locates these islands close to the southern limit of the continuous permafrost zone, with MAAT of as much as -4 to -6°C. However, thermal contraction cracking is demonstrated to be widespread in the Adventdalen study area in Svalbard. The year-round field access from the University Centre in Svalbard, UNIS, has enabled the collection of different continuous or high frequency ice-wedge process monitoring data since 2002 to improve the understanding of the geomorphological activity of this landform. In all the winters the air temperature was below -30°C for shorter or longer periods. During all the winters, the temperature in the top permafrost was below -15°C both in the ice-wedge top for shorter or longer periods. The snow cover was

  11. Ice volume changes (1936–1990–2007 and ground-penetrating radar studies of Ariebreen, Hornsund, Spitsbergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Lapazaran


    Full Text Available Ariebreen is a small (0.37 km2-valley glacier located in southern Spitsbergen. Our ground-penetrating radar surveys of the glacier show that it is less than 30 m thick on average, with a maximum thickness of 82 m, and it appears to be entirely cold. By analysing digital terrain models of the ice surface from different dates, we determine the area and volume changes during two periods, 1936–1990 and 1990–2007. The total ice volume of the glacier has decreased by 73% during the entire period 1936–2007, which is equivalent to a mean mass balance rate of −0.61±0.17 m y−1 w.eq. The glacier thinning rate has increased markedly between the first and second periods, from −0.50±0.22 to −0.95±0.17 m y−1 w.eq.

  12. How much can Greenland melt? An upper bound on mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet through surface melting (United States)

    Liu, X.; Bassis, J. N.


    With observations showing accelerated mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet due to surface melt, the Greenland Ice Sheet is becoming one of the most significant contributors to sea level rise. The contribution of the Greenland Ice Sheet o sea level rise is likely to accelerate in the coming decade and centuries as atmospheric temperatures continue to rise, potentially triggering ever larger surface melt rates. However, at present considerable uncertainty remains in projecting the contribution to sea level of the Greenland Ice Sheet both due to uncertainty in atmospheric forcing and the ice sheet response to climate forcing. Here we seek an upper bound on the contribution of surface melt from the Greenland to sea level rise in the coming century using a surface energy balance model coupled to an englacial model. We use IPCC Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP8.5, RCP6, RCP4.5, RCP2.6) climate scenarios from an ensemble of global climate models in our simulations to project the maximum rate of ice volume loss and related sea-level rise associated with surface melting. To estimate the upper bound, we assume the Greenland Ice Sheet is perpetually covered in thick clouds, which maximize longwave radiation to the ice sheet. We further assume that deposition of black carbon darkens the ice substantially turning it nearly black, substantially reducing its albedo. Although assuming that all melt water not stored in the snow/firn is instantaneously transported off the ice sheet increases mass loss in the short term, refreezing of retained water warms the ice and may lead to more melt in the long term. Hence we examine both assumptions and use the scenario that leads to the most surface melt by 2100. Preliminary models results suggest that under the most aggressive climate forcing, surface melt from the Greenland Ice Sheet contributes ~1 m to sea level by the year 2100. This is a significant contribution and ignores dynamic effects. We also examined a lower bound

  13. Severnaya Zemlya, arctic Russia: a nucleation area for Kara Sea ice sheets during the Middle to Late Quaternary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Per; Lubinski, David J.; Ingólfsson, Ólafur


    Quaternary glacial stratigraphy and relative sea-level changes reveal at least four expansions of the Kara Sea ice sheet over the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago at 79°N in the Russian Arctic, as indicated from tills interbedded with marine sediments, exposed in stratigraphic superposition, and from...... of a large Kara Sea ice sheet, with exception of the Last Glacial Maximum (MIS 2), when Kara Sea ice did not impact Severnaya Zemlya and barely graced northernmost Taymyr Peninsula.......Quaternary glacial stratigraphy and relative sea-level changes reveal at least four expansions of the Kara Sea ice sheet over the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago at 79°N in the Russian Arctic, as indicated from tills interbedded with marine sediments, exposed in stratigraphic superposition, and from......-5e and MIS 5d-3. The MIS 6-5e event, associated with the high marine limit, implies ice-sheet thickness of >2000 m only 200 km from the deep Arctic Ocean, consistent with published evidence of ice grounding at ~1000 m water depth in the central Arctic Ocean. Till fabrics and glacial tectonics record...

  14. Ice Ages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that the precession of the earth's orbit caused ice ages. The precession of the earth's orbit leads to changes in the time of the year at which ... than in the southern hemisphere. ..... small increase in ocean temperature implies a large increase in.

  15. Multiphase Reactive Transport and Platelet Ice Accretion in the Sea Ice of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica (United States)

    Buffo, J. J.; Schmidt, B. E.; Huber, C.


    Sea ice seasonally to interannually forms a thermal, chemical, and physical boundary between the atmosphere and hydrosphere over tens of millions of square kilometers of ocean. Its presence affects both local and global climate and ocean dynamics, ice shelf processes, and biological communities. Accurate incorporation of sea ice growth and decay, and its associated thermal and physiochemical processes, is underrepresented in large-scale models due to the complex physics that dictate oceanic ice formation and evolution. Two phenomena complicate sea ice simulation, particularly in the Antarctic: the multiphase physics of reactive transport brought about by the inhomogeneous solidification of seawater, and the buoyancy driven accretion of platelet ice formed by supercooled ice shelf water onto the basal surface of the overlying ice. Here a one-dimensional finite difference model capable of simulating both processes is developed and tested against ice core data. Temperature, salinity, liquid fraction, fluid velocity, total salt content, and ice structure are computed during model runs. The model results agree well with empirical observations and simulations highlight the effect platelet ice accretion has on overall ice thickness and characteristics. Results from sensitivity studies emphasize the need to further constrain sea ice microstructure and the associated physics, particularly permeability-porosity relationships, if a complete model of sea ice evolution is to be obtained. Additionally, implications for terrestrial ice shelves and icy moons in the solar system are discussed.

  16. Ice load reducer for dams : laboratory tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupien, R.; Cote, A.; Robert, A. [Institut de Recherche d' Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, PQ (Canada)


    Many studies have focused on measuring static ice loads on various hydraulic structures in Canada. This paper discussed a Hydro-Quebec research project whose main purpose was to harmonize the ice thrust value in load combinations for use in general hydraulic works or for specific cases. The objectives of the project were to obtain a better understanding of existing data and to characterize sites and their influence on ice thrust; study the structural mechanisms involved in the generation of ice thrust, their consequences on the structural behaviour of ice and the natural mitigating circumstances that may be offered by ice properties or site operating procedures; and examine the relevance of developing an ice load reducer for works that might not fit the harmonized design value. The paper presented the main research goals and ice load reducer goals, with particular focus on the four pipe samples that were planned, built and tested. The experimental program involved checking the pipe shape behaviour in terms of flexibility-stiffness; maximum deformations; maximum load reduction; permanent deformations; and, ability to shape recovering. The testing also involved examining the strength versus strain rate; creep versus strain rate; and creep capacity under biaxial state of tension and compression. It was concluded that the two phenomena involved in generation of ice thrust, notably thermal expansion and water level changes, had very low strain rates. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 16 figs.

  17. An Evaluation of Sea Ice Deformation and Its Spatial Characteristics from the Regional Arctic System Model (United States)


    Ice Thickness and Age It has long been recognized that many physical properties of sea ice depend upon the thickness ( Thorndike et al. 1975). Three...within the ice (Kovacs 1996). Thorndike et al. (1975) showed that the approximation, used in many ice models even today, for the compressive the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 1297–1300. Thorndike , A.S., D.A. Rothrock, G.A. Maykut, and

  18. Assimilation of ice and water observations from SAR imagery to improve estimates of sea ice concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Andrea Scott


    Full Text Available In this paper, the assimilation of binary observations calculated from synthetic aperture radar (SAR images of sea ice is investigated. Ice and water observations are obtained from a set of SAR images by thresholding ice and water probabilities calculated using a supervised maximum likelihood estimator (MLE. These ice and water observations are then assimilated in combination with ice concentration from passive microwave imagery for the purpose of estimating sea ice concentration. Due to the fact that the observations are binary, consisting of zeros and ones, while the state vector is a continuous variable (ice concentration, the forward model used to map the state vector to the observation space requires special consideration. Both linear and non-linear forward models were investigated. In both cases, the assimilation of SAR data was able to produce ice concentration analyses in closer agreement with image analysis charts than when assimilating passive microwave data only. When both passive microwave and SAR data are assimilated, the bias between the ice concentration analyses and the ice concentration from ice charts is 19.78%, as compared to 26.72% when only passive microwave data are assimilated. The method presented here for the assimilation of SAR data could be applied to other binary observations, such as ice/water information from visual/infrared sensors.

  19. Inhibition of ice crystal growth in ice cream mix by gelatin hydrolysate. (United States)

    Damodaran, Srinivasan


    The inhibition of ice crystal growth in ice cream mix by gelatin hydrolysate produced by papain action was studied. The ice crystal growth was monitored by thermal cycling between -14 and -12 degrees C at a rate of one cycle per 3 min. It is shown that the hydrolysate fraction containing peptides in the molecular weight range of about 2000-5000 Da exhibited the highest inhibitory activity on ice crystal growth in ice cream mix, whereas fractions containing peptides greater than 7000 Da did not inhibit ice crystal growth. The size distribution of gelatin peptides formed in the hydrolysate was influenced by the pH of hydrolysis. The optimum hydrolysis conditions for producing peptides with maximum ice crystal growth inhibitory activity was pH 7 at 37 degrees C for 10 min at a papain to gelatin ratio of 1:100. However, this may depend on the type and source of gelatin. The possible mechanism of ice crystal growth inhibition by peptides from gelatin is discussed. Molecular modeling of model gelatin peptides revealed that they form an oxygen triad plane at the C-terminus with oxygen-oxygen distances similar to those found in ice nuclei. Binding of this oxygen triad plane to the prism face of ice nuclei via hydrogen bonding appears to be the mechanism by which gelatin hydrolysate might be inhibiting ice crystal growth in ice cream mix.

  20. Tracing Atlantic Water Signature in the Arctic Sea Ice Cover East of Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Ivanov


    Full Text Available We focus on the Arctic Ocean between Svalbard and Franz Joseph Land in order to elucidate the possible role of Atlantic water (AW inflow in shaping ice conditions. Ice conditions substantially affect the temperature regime of the Spitsbergen archipelago, particularly in winter. We test the hypothesis that intensive vertical mixing at the upper AW boundary releases substantial heat upwards that eventually reaches the under-ice water layer, thinning the ice cover. We examine spatial and temporal variation of ice concentration against time series of wind, air temperature, and AW temperature. Analysis of 1979–2011 ice properties revealed a general tendency of decreasing ice concentration that commenced after the mid-1990s. AW temperature time series in Fram Strait feature a monotonic increase after the mid-1990s, consistent with shrinking ice cover. Ice thins due to increased sensible heat flux from AW; ice erosion from below allows wind and local currents to more effectively break ice. The winter spatial pattern of sea ice concentration is collocated with patterns of surface heat flux anomalies. Winter minimum sea ice thickness occurs in the ice pack interior above the AW path, clearly indicating AW influence on ice thickness. Our study indicates that in the AW inflow region heat flux from the ocean reduces the ice thickness.

  1. Life in Ice: Implications to Astrobiology (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.


    During the 2008 Tawani International Expedition Schirmacher Oasis/Lake Untersee Antarctica Expedition, living and instantly motile bacteria were found in freshly thawed meltwater from ice of the Schirmacher Oasis Lakes, the Anuchin Glacier ice and samples of the that perennial ice sheet above Lake Untersee. This phenomenon of living bacteria encased in ice had previously been observed in the 32,000 year old ice of the Fox Tunnel. The bacteria found in this ice included the strain FTR1T which was isolated and published as valid new species (Carnobacterium pleistocenium) the first validly published living Pleistocene organism still alive today. Living bacteria were also extracted from ancient ice cores from Vostok, Antarctica. The discovery that many strains of bacteria are able to survive and remain alive while frozen in ice sheets for long periods of time may have direct relevance to Astrobiology. The abundance of viable bacteria in the ice sheets of Antarctica suggests that the presence of live bacteria in ice is common, rather than an isolated phenomenon. This paper will discuss the results of recent studies at NSSTC of bacteria cryopreserved in ice. This paper advances the hypothesis that cryopreserved cells, and perhaps even viable bacterial cells, may exist today--frozen in the water-ice of lunar craters, the Polar Caps or craters of Mars; or in the permafrost of Mars; ice and rocks of comets or water bearing asteroids; or in the frozen crusts of the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The existence of bacterial life in ice suggests that it may not be necessary to drill through a thick ice crust to reach liquid water seas deep beneath the icy crusts of Europa, Ganymede and Enceladus. The presence of viable bacteria in the ice of the Earth s Polar Caps suggests that the possibility that cryo-panspermia (i.e., the trans-planetary transfer of microbial life by impact ejection/spallation of bacteria-rich polar ice masses) deserves serious consideration and study as a

  2. Understanding Ice Shelf Basal Melting Using Convergent ICEPOD Data Sets: ROSETTA-Ice Study of Ross Ice Shelf (United States)

    Bell, R. E.; Frearson, N.; Tinto, K. J.; Das, I.; Fricker, H. A.; Siddoway, C. S.; Padman, L.


    The future stability of the ice shelves surrounding Antarctica will be susceptible to increases in both surface and basal melt as the atmosphere and ocean warm. The ROSETTA-Ice program is targeted at using the ICEPOD airborne technology to produce new constraints on Ross Ice Shelf, the underlying ocean, bathymetry, and geologic setting, using radar sounding, gravimetry and laser altimetry. This convergent approach to studying the ice-shelf and basal processes enables us to develop an understanding of the fundamental controls on ice-shelf evolution. This work leverages the stratigraphy of the ice shelf, which is detected as individual reflectors by the shallow-ice radar and is often associated with surface scour, form close to the grounding line or pinning points on the ice shelf. Surface accumulation on the ice shelf buries these reflectors as the ice flows towards the calving front. This distinctive stratigraphy can be traced across the ice shelf for the major East Antarctic outlet glaciers and West Antarctic ice streams. Changes in the ice thickness below these reflectors are a result of strain and basal melting and freezing. Correcting the estimated thickness changes for strain using RIGGS strain measurements, we can develop decadal-resolution flowline distributions of basal melt. Close to East Antarctica elevated melt-rates (>1 m/yr) are found 60-100 km from the calving front. On the West Antarctic side high melt rates primarily develop within 10 km of the calving front. The East Antarctic side of Ross Ice Shelf is dominated by melt driven by saline water masses that develop in Ross Sea polynyas, while the melting on the West Antarctic side next to Hayes Bank is associated with modified Continental Deep Water transported along the continental shelf. The two sides of Ross Ice Shelf experience differing basal melt in part due to the duality in the underlying geologic structure: the East Antarctic side consists of relatively dense crust, with low amplitude

  3. Rapid Access Ice Drill: A New Tool for Exploration of the Deep Antarctic Ice Sheets and Subglacial Geology (United States)

    Goodge, J. W.; Severinghaus, J. P.


    The Rapid Access Ice Drill (RAID) will penetrate the Antarctic ice sheets in order to core through deep ice, the glacial bed, and into bedrock below. This new technology will provide a critical first look at the interface between major ice caps and their subglacial geology. Currently in construction, RAID is a mobile drilling system capable of making several long boreholes in a single field season in Antarctica. RAID is interdisciplinary and will allow access to polar paleoclimate records in ice >1 Ma, direct observation at the base of the ice sheets, and recovery of rock cores from the ice-covered East Antarctic craton. RAID uses a diamond rock-coring system as in mineral exploration. Threaded drill-pipe with hardened metal bits will cut through ice using reverse circulation of Estisol for pressure-compensation, maintenance of temperature, and removal of ice cuttings. Near the bottom of the ice sheet, a wireline bottom-hole assembly will enable diamond coring of ice, the glacial bed, and bedrock below. Once complete, boreholes will be kept open with fluid, capped, and made available for future down-hole measurement of thermal gradient, heat flow, ice chronology, and ice deformation. RAID will also sample for extremophile microorganisms. RAID is designed to penetrate up to 3,300 meters of ice and take sample cores in less than 200 hours. This rapid performance will allow completion of a borehole in about 10 days before moving to the next drilling site. RAID is unique because it can provide fast borehole access through thick ice; take short ice cores for paleoclimate study; sample the glacial bed to determine ice-flow conditions; take cores of subglacial bedrock for age dating and crustal history; and create boreholes for use as an observatory in the ice sheets. Together, the rapid drilling capability and mobility of the drilling system, along with ice-penetrating imaging methods, will provide a unique 3D picture of the interior Antarctic ice sheets.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Babonis


    Full Text Available During the past few decades the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have lost ice at accelerating rates, caused by increasing surface temperature. The melting of the two big ice sheets has a big impact on global sea level rise. If the ice sheets would melt down entirely, the sea level would rise more than 60 m. Even a much smaller rise would cause dramatic damage along coastal regions. In this paper we report about a major upgrade of surface elevation changes derived from laser altimetry data, acquired by NASA’s Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite mission (ICESat and airborne laser campaigns, such as Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM and Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS. For detecting changes in ice sheet elevations we have developed the Surface Elevation Reconstruction And Change detection (SERAC method. It computes elevation changes of small surface patches by keeping the surface shape constant and considering the absolute values as surface elevations. We report about important upgrades of earlier results, for example the inclusion of local ice caps and the temporal extension from 1993 to 2014 for the Greenland Ice Sheet and for a comprehensive reconstruction of ice thickness and mass changes for the Antarctic Ice Sheets.

  5. Variability and Trends in Sea Ice Extent and Ice Production in the Ross Sea (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino; Kwok, Ronald; Martin, Seelye; Gordon, Arnold L.


    Salt release during sea ice formation in the Ross Sea coastal regions is regarded as a primary forcing for the regional generation of Antarctic Bottom Water. Passive microwave data from November 1978 through 2008 are used to examine the detailed seasonal and interannual characteristics of the sea ice cover of the Ross Sea and the adjacent Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas. For this period the sea ice extent in the Ross Sea shows the greatest increase of all the Antarctic seas. Variability in the ice cover in these regions is linked to changes in the Southern Annular Mode and secondarily to the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave. Over the Ross Sea shelf, analysis of sea ice drift data from 1992 to 2008 yields a positive rate of increase in the net ice export of about 30,000 sq km/yr. For a characteristic ice thickness of 0.6 m, this yields a volume transport of about 20 cu km/yr, which is almost identical, within error bars, to our estimate of the trend in ice production. The increase in brine rejection in the Ross Shelf Polynya associated with the estimated increase with the ice production, however, is not consistent with the reported Ross Sea salinity decrease. The locally generated sea ice enhancement of Ross Sea salinity may be offset by an increase of relatively low salinity of the water advected into the region from the Amundsen Sea, a consequence of increased precipitation and regional glacial ice melt.

  6. Eulerian Method for Ice Crystal Icing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norde, Ellen; van der Weide, Edwin Theodorus Antonius; Hoeijmakers, Hendrik Willem Marie

    In this study, an ice accretion method aimed at ice crystal icing in turbofan engines is developed and demonstrated for glaciated as well as mixed-phase icing conditions. The particle trajectories are computed by an Eulerian trajectory method. The effects of heat transfer and phase change on the

  7. On the nature of the sea ice albedo feedback in simple models


    Moon, Woosok; Wettlaufer, John S.


    We examine the nature of the ice-albedo feedback in a long standing approach used in the dynamic-thermodynamic modeling of sea ice. The central issue examined is how the evolution of the ice area is treated when modeling a partial ice cover using a two-category-thickness scheme; thin sea ice and open water in one category and "thick" sea ice in the second. The problem with the scheme is that the area-evolution is handled in a manner that violates the basic rules of calculus, which leads to a ...

  8. A simple holistic hypothesis for the self-destruction of ice sheets (United States)

    Hughes, T.


    Ice sheets are the only components of Earth's climate system that can self-destruct. This paper presents the quantitative force balance for bottom-up modeling of ice sheets, as first presented qualitatively in this journal as a way to quantify ice-bed uncoupling leading to self-destruction of ice sheets ( Hughes, 2009a). Rapid changes in sea level and climate can result if a large ice-sheet self-destructs quickly, as did the former Laurentide Ice Sheet of North America between 8100 and 7900 BP, thereby terminating the last cycle of Quaternary glaciation. Ice streams discharge up to 90 percent of ice from past and present ice sheets. A hypothesis is presented in which self-destruction of an ice sheet begins when ubiquitous ice-bed decoupling, quantified as a floating fraction of ice, proceeds along ice streams. This causes ice streams to surge and reduce thickness by some 90 percent, and height above sea level by up to 99 percent for floating ice, so the ice sheet undergoes gravitational collapse. Ice collapsing over marine embayments becomes floating ice shelves that may then disintegrate rapidly. This floods the world ocean with icebergs that reduce the ocean-to-atmosphere heat exchange, thereby triggering climate change. Calving bays migrate up low stagnating ice streams and carve out the accumulation zone of the collapsed ice sheet, which prevents its recovery, decreases Earth's albedo, and terminates the glaciation cycle. This sequence of events may coincide with a proposed life cycle of ice streams that drain the ice sheet. A first-order treatment of these life cycles is presented that depends on the longitudinal force balance along the flowbands of ice streams and gives a first approximation to ice-bed uncoupling at snapshots during gravitational collapse into ice shelves that disintegrate, thereby removing the ice sheet. The stability of the Antarctic Ice Sheet is assessed using this bottom-up approach.

  9. Observational Evidence of a Hemispheric-wide Ice-ocean Albedo Feedback Effect on Antarctic Sea-ice Decay (United States)

    Nihashi, Sohey; Cavalieri, Donald J.


    The effect of ice-ocean albedo feedback (a kind of ice-albedo feedback) on sea-ice decay is demonstrated over the Antarctic sea-ice zone from an analysis of satellite-derived hemispheric sea ice concentration and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ERA-40) atmospheric data for the period 1979-2001. Sea ice concentration in December (time of most active melt) correlates better with the meridional component of the wind-forced ice drift (MID) in November (beginning of the melt season) than the MID in December. This 1 month lagged correlation is observed in most of the Antarctic sea-ice covered ocean. Daily time series of ice , concentration show that the ice concentration anomaly increases toward the time of maximum sea-ice melt. These findings can be explained by the following positive feedback effect: once ice concentration decreases (increases) at the beginning of the melt season, solar heating of the upper ocean through the increased (decreased) open water fraction is enhanced (reduced), leading to (suppressing) a further decrease in ice concentration by the oceanic heat. Results obtained fi-om a simple ice-ocean coupled model also support our interpretation of the observational results. This positive feedback mechanism explains in part the large interannual variability of the sea-ice cover in summer.

  10. Less ice on the Baltic reduces the extent of hypoxic bottom waters and sedimentary phosphorus release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaat, J.E.; Bouwer, L.M.


    A significant relation was established between the maximum extent of sea ice covering the Baltic Sea and the hypoxic area in the deeper parts of the Baltic Proper, with a lag of 2 years: for the period 1970-2000, less ice was correlated with a smaller anoxic area. At the same time, maximum ice

  11. Quantitative analysis of ice films by near-infrared spectroscopy (United States)

    Keiser, Joseph T.


    One of the outstanding problems in the Space Transportation System is the possibility of the ice buildup on the external fuel tank surface while it is mounted on the launch pad. During the T-2 hours (and holding) period, the frost/ice thickness on the external tank is monitored/measured. However, after the resumption of the countdown time, the tank surface can only be monitored remotely. Currently, remote sensing is done with a TV camera coupled to a thermal imaging device. This device is capable of identifying the presence of ice, especially if it is covered with a layer of frost. However, it has difficulty identifying transparent ice, and, it is not capable of determining the thickness of ice in any case. Thus, there is a need for developing a technique for measuring the thickness of frost/ice on the tank surface during this two hour period before launch. The external tank surface is flooded with sunlight (natural or simulated) before launch. It may be possible, therefore, to analyze the diffuse reflection of sunlight from the external tank to determine the presence and thickness of ice. The purpose was to investigate the feasibility of this approach. A near-infrared spectrophotometer was used to record spectra of ice. It was determined that the optimum frequencies for monitoring the ice films were 1.03 and 1.255 microns.

  12. Forecasting Turbine Icing Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Clausen, Niels-Erik


    In this study, we present a method for forecasting icing events. The method is validated at two European wind farms in with known icing events. The icing model used was developed using current ice accretion methods, and newly developed ablation algorithms. The model is driven by inputs from the WRF...... mesoscale model, allowing for both climatological estimates of icing and short term icing forecasts. The current model was able to detect periods of icing reasonably well at the warmer site. However at the cold climate site, the model was not able to remove ice quickly enough leading to large ice...

  13. Theory of ice-skating (United States)

    Le Berre, Martine; Pomeau, Yves


    Almost frictionless skating on ice relies on a thin layer of melted water insulating mechanically the blade of the skate from ice. Using the basic equations of fluid mechanics and Stefan law, we derive a set of two coupled equations for the thickness of the film and the length of contact, a length scale which cannot be taken as its value at rest. The analytical study of these equations allows to define a small a-dimensional parameter depending on the longitudinal coordinate which can be neglected everywhere except close to the contact points at the front and the end of the blade, where a boundary layer solution is given. This solution provides without any calculation the order of magnitude of the film thickness, and its dependence with respect to external parameters like the velocity and mass of the skater and the radius of profile and bite angle of the blade, in good agreement with the numerical study. Moreover this solution also shows that a lubricating water layer of macroscopic thickness always exists for standard values of ice skating data, contrary to what happens in the case of cavitation of droplets due to thermal heating (Leidenfrost effect).

  14. Contribution to the study of slab thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraitis, G.A.; Rorris, G.P.


    A method is proposed for calculating the time-independent values of the equivalent slab thickness of the ionosphere, defined as the ratio of the total electron content to the corresponding maximum electron density of the F region. Periodic variations of slab thickness are studied and are correlated to relative changes in exospheric temperature, deduced from the OGO-6 model

  15. Maximum Acceleration Recording Circuit (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.


    Coarsely digitized maximum levels recorded in blown fuses. Circuit feeds power to accelerometer and makes nonvolatile record of maximum level to which output of accelerometer rises during measurement interval. In comparison with inertia-type single-preset-trip-point mechanical maximum-acceleration-recording devices, circuit weighs less, occupies less space, and records accelerations within narrower bands of uncertainty. In comparison with prior electronic data-acquisition systems designed for same purpose, circuit simpler, less bulky, consumes less power, costs and analysis of data recorded in magnetic or electronic memory devices. Circuit used, for example, to record accelerations to which commodities subjected during transportation on trucks.

  16. Snowball Earth: Skating on Thin Ice? (United States)

    Roberson, A. L.; Stout, A. M.; Pollard, D.; Kasting, J. F.


    There is evidence of at least two intervals of widespread glaciation during the late Neoproterozoic (600-800 Myr ago), which are commonly referred to as "Snowball Earth" episodes. The global nature of these events is indicated by the fact that glacial deposits are found at low paleolatitudes during this time. Models of a global glacial event have produced a variety of solutions at low latitudes: thick ice, thin ice, slushball, and open ocean . The latter two models are similar, except that the slushball model has its ice-line at higher latitudes. To be viable, a model has to be able to account for the survival of life through the glaciations and also explain the existence of cap carbonates and other glacial debris deposited at low latitudes. The "thick-ice" model is not viable because kilometers of ice prevent the penetration of light necessary for the photosynthetic biota below. The "slushball" model is also not viable as it does not allow the formation of cap carbonates. The "thin-ice" model has been discussed previously and can account for continuation of photosynthetic life and glacial deposits at low paleolatitudes. The recently proposed "open-ocean" or "Jormungand" model also satisfies these requirements. What is it, though, that causes some models to produce thin ice near the equator and others to have open water there? We examine this question using a zonally symmetric energy balance climate model (EBM) with flowing sea glaciers to determine what parameter ranges produce each type of solution.

  17. Ice nucleation activity of polysaccharides (United States)

    Bichler, Magdalena; Felgitsch, Laura; Haeusler, Thomas; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Grothe, Hinrich


    Heterogeneous ice nucleation is an important process in the atmosphere. It shows direct impact on our climate by triggering ice cloud formation and therefore it has much influence on the radiation balance of our planet (Lohmann et al. 2002; Mishchenko et al. 1996). The process itself is not completely understood so far and many questions remain open. Different substances have been found to exhibit ice nucleation activity (INA). Due to their vast differences in chemistry and morphology it is difficult to predict what substance will make good ice nuclei and which will not. Hence simple model substances must be found and be tested regarding INA. Our work aims at gaining to a deeper understanding of heterogeneous ice nucleation. We intend to find some reference standards with defined chemistry, which may explain the mechanisms of heterogeneous ice nucleation. A particular focus lies on biological carbohydrates in regards to their INA. Biological carbohydrates are widely distributed in all kingdoms of life. Mostly they are specific for certain organisms and have well defined purposes, e.g. structural polysaccharides like chitin (in fungi and insects) and pectin (in plants), which has also water-binding properties. Since they are widely distributed throughout our biosphere and mostly safe to use for nutrition purposes, they are well studied and easily accessible, rendering them ideal candidates as proxies. In our experiments we examined various carbohydrates, like the already mentioned chitin and pectin, as well as their chemical modifications. Lohmann U.; A Glaciation Indirect Aerosol Effect Caused by Soot Aerosols; J. Geoph. Res.; Vol. 24 No.4; pp 11-1 - 11-4; 2002 Mishchenko M.I., Rossow W.B., Macke A., Lacis A. A.; Sensitivity of Cirrus Cloud Albedo, Bidirectional Reflectance and Optical Thickness Retrieval Accuracy to Ice Particle Shape, J. Geoph. Res.; Vol. 101, No D12; pp. 16,973 - 16,985; 1996

  18. Polynyas in a dynamic-thermodynamic sea-ice model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ö. Ólason


    Full Text Available The representation of polynyas in viscous-plastic dynamic-thermodynamic sea-ice models is studied in a simplified test domain, in order to give recommendations about parametrisation choices. Bjornsson et al. (2001 validated their dynamic-thermodynamic model against a polynya flux model in a similar setup and we expand on that work here, testing more sea-ice rheologies and new-ice thickness formulations. The two additional rheologies tested give nearly identical results whereas the two new-ice thickness parametrisations tested give widely different results. Based on our results we argue for using the new-ice thickness parametrisation of Hibler (1979. We also implement a new parametrisation for the parameter h0 from Hibler's scheme, based on ideas from a collection depth parametrisation for flux polynya models.

  19. Maximum Quantum Entropy Method


    Sim, Jae-Hoon; Han, Myung Joon


    Maximum entropy method for analytic continuation is extended by introducing quantum relative entropy. This new method is formulated in terms of matrix-valued functions and therefore invariant under arbitrary unitary transformation of input matrix. As a result, the continuation of off-diagonal elements becomes straightforward. Without introducing any further ambiguity, the Bayesian probabilistic interpretation is maintained just as in the conventional maximum entropy method. The applications o...

  20. Maximum power demand cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.


    The charging for a service is a supplier's remuneration for the expenses incurred in providing it. There are currently two charges for electricity: consumption and maximum demand. While no problem arises about the former, the issue is more complicated for the latter and the analysis in this article tends to show that the annual charge for maximum demand arbitrarily discriminates among consumer groups, to the disadvantage of some [it

  1. Reconciling records of ice streaming and ice margin retreat to produce a palaeogeographic reconstruction of the deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (United States)

    Margold, Martin; Stokes, Chris R.; Clark, Chris D.


    This paper reconstructs the deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS; including the Innuitian Ice Sheet) from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), with a particular focus on the spatial and temporal variations in ice streaming and the associated changes in flow patterns and ice divides. We build on a recent inventory of Laurentide ice streams and use an existing ice margin chronology to produce the first detailed transient reconstruction of the ice stream drainage network in the LIS, which we depict in a series of palaeogeographic maps. Results show that the drainage network at the LGM was similar to modern-day Antarctica. The majority of the ice streams were marine terminating and topographically-controlled and many of these continued to function late into the deglaciation, until the ice sheet lost its marine margin. Ice streams with a terrestrial ice margin in the west and south were more transient and ice flow directions changed with the build-up, peak-phase and collapse of the Cordilleran-Laurentide ice saddle. The south-eastern marine margin in Atlantic Canada started to retreat relatively early and some of the ice streams in this region switched off at or shortly after the LGM. In contrast, the ice streams draining towards the north-western and north-eastern marine margins in the Beaufort Sea and in Baffin Bay appear to have remained stable throughout most of the Late Glacial, and some of them continued to function until after the Younger Dryas (YD). The YD influenced the dynamics of the deglaciation, but there remains uncertainty about the response of the ice sheet in several sectors. We tentatively ascribe the switching-on of some major ice streams during this period (e.g. M'Clintock Channel Ice Stream at the north-west margin), but for other large ice streams whose timing partially overlaps with the YD, the drivers are less clear and ice-dynamical processes, rather than effects of climate and surface mass balance are viewed as more likely drivers. Retreat

  2. Improving Arctic Sea Ice Observations and Data Access to Support Advances in Sea Ice Forecasting (United States)

    Farrell, S. L.


    The economic and strategic importance of the Arctic region is becoming apparent. One of the most striking and widely publicized changes underway is the declining sea ice cover. Since sea ice is a key component of the climate system, its ongoing loss has serious, and wide-ranging, socio-economic implications. Increasing year-to-year variability in the geographic location, concentration, and thickness of the Arctic ice cover will pose both challenges and opportunities. The sea ice research community must be engaged in sustained Arctic Observing Network (AON) initiatives so as to deliver fit-for-purpose remote sensing data products to a variety of stakeholders including Arctic communities, the weather forecasting and climate modeling communities, industry, local, regional and national governments, and policy makers. An example of engagement is the work currently underway to improve research collaborations between scientists engaged in obtaining and assessing sea ice observational data and those conducting numerical modeling studies and forecasting ice conditions. As part of the US AON, in collaboration with the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC), we are developing a strategic framework within which observers and modelers can work towards the common goal of improved sea ice forecasting. Here, we focus on sea ice thickness, a key varaible of the Arctic ice cover. We describe multi-sensor, and blended, sea ice thickness data products under development that can be leveraged to improve model initialization and validation, as well as support data assimilation exercises. We will also present the new PolarWatch initiative ( and discuss efforts to advance access to remote sensing satellite observations and improve communication with Arctic stakeholders, so as to deliver data products that best address societal needs.

  3. Late Quaternary Variability of Arctic Sea Ice: Insights From Biomarker Proxy Records and Model Simulations (United States)

    Stein, R. H.; Fahl, K.; Gierz, P.; Niessen, F.; Lohmann, G.


    Over the last about four decades, coinciding with global warming and atmospheric CO2increase, the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice has decreased dramatically, a decrease much more rapid than predicted by climate models. The driving forces of this change are still not fully understood. In this context, detailed paleoclimatic records going back beyond the timescale of direct observations, i.e., high-resolution Holocene records but also records representing more distant warm periods, may help to to distinguish and quantify more precisely the natural and anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing of global climate change and related sea ice decrease. Here, we concentrate on sea ice biomarker records representing the penultimate glacial/last interglacial (MIS 6/MIS 5e) and the Holocene time intervals. Our proxy records are compared with climate model simulations using a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM). Based on our data, polynya-type sea ice conditions probably occurred off the major ice sheets along the northern Barents and East Siberian continental margins during late MIS 6. Furthermore, we demonstrate that even during MIS 5e, i.e., a time interval when the high latitudes have been significantly warmer than today, sea ice existed in the central Arctic Ocean during summer, whereas sea ice was significantly reduced along the Barents Sea continental margin influenced by Atlantic Water inflow. Assuming a closed Bering Strait (no Pacific Water inflow) during early MIS 5, model simulations point to a significantly reduced sea ice cover in the central Arctic Ocean, a scenario that is however not supported by the proxy record and thus seems to be less realistic. Our Holocene biomarker proxy records from the Chukchi Sea indicate that main factors controlling the millennial Holocene variability in sea ice are probably changes in surface water and heat flow from the Pacific into the Arctic Ocean as well as the long-term decrease in summer insolation

  4. Winter snow conditions on Arctic sea ice north of Svalbard during the Norwegian young sea ICE (N-ICE2015) expedition (United States)

    Merkouriadi, Ioanna; Gallet, Jean-Charles; Graham, Robert M.; Liston, Glen E.; Polashenski, Chris; Rösel, Anja; Gerland, Sebastian


    Snow is a crucial component of the Arctic sea ice system. Its thickness and thermal properties control heat conduction and radiative fluxes across the ocean, ice, and atmosphere interfaces. Hence, observations of the evolution of snow depth, density, thermal conductivity, and stratigraphy are crucial for the development of detailed snow numerical models predicting energy transfer through the snow pack. Snow depth is also a major uncertainty in predicting ice thickness using remote sensing algorithms. Here we examine the winter spatial and temporal evolution of snow physical properties on first-year (FYI) and second-year ice (SYI) in the Atlantic sector of the Arctic Ocean, during the Norwegian young sea ICE (N-ICE2015) expedition (January to March 2015). During N-ICE2015, the snow pack consisted of faceted grains (47%), depth hoar (28%), and wind slab (13%), indicating very different snow stratigraphy compared to what was observed in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean during the SHEBA campaign (1997-1998). Average snow bulk density was 345 kg m-3 and it varied with ice type. Snow depth was 41 ± 19 cm in January and 56 ± 17 cm in February, which is significantly greater than earlier suggestions for this region. The snow water equivalent was 14.5 ± 5.3 cm over first-year ice and 19 ± 5.4 cm over second-year ice.

  5. [Reflectance of sea ice in Liaodong Bay]. (United States)

    Xu, Zhan-tang; Yang, Yue-zhong; Wang, Gui-fen; Cao, Wen-xi; Kong, Xiang-peng


    In the present study, the relationships between sea ice albedo and the bidirectional reflectance distribution in Liaodong Bay were investigated. The results indicate that: (1) sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is closely related to the components of sea ice, the higher the particulate concentration in sea ice surface is, the lower the sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is. On the contrary, the higher the bubble concentration in sea ice is, the higher sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is. (2) Sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is similar to the bidirectional reflectance factor R(f) when the probe locates at nadir. The R(f) would increase with the increase in detector zenith theta, and the correlation between R(f) and the detector azimuth would gradually increase. When the theta is located at solar zenith 63 degrees, the R(f) would reach the maximum, and the strongest correlation is also shown between the R(f) and the detector azimuth. (3) Different types of sea ice would have the different anisotropic reflectance factors.

  6. Turbulent heat exchange between water and ice at an evolving ice-water interface (United States)

    Ramudu, Eshwan; Hirsh, Benjamin Henry; Olson, Peter; Gnanadesikan, Anand


    We conduct laboratory experiments on the time evolution of an ice layer cooled from below and subjected to a turbulent shear flow of warm water from above. Our study is motivated by observations of warm water intrusion into the ocean cavity under Antarctic ice shelves, accelerating the melting of their basal surfaces. The strength of the applied turbulent shear flow in our experiments is represented in terms of its Reynolds number $\\textit{Re}$, which is varied over the range $2.0\\times10^3 \\le \\textit{Re} \\le 1.0\\times10^4$. Depending on the water temperature, partial transient melting of the ice occurs at the lower end of this range of $\\textit{Re}$ and complete transient melting of the ice occurs at the higher end. Following these episodes of transient melting, the ice reforms at a rate that is independent of $\\textit{Re}$. We fit our experimental measurements of ice thickness and temperature to a one-dimensional model for the evolution of the ice thickness in which the turbulent heat transfer is parameterized in terms of the friction velocity of the shear flow. The melting mechanism we investigate in our experiments can easily account for the basal melting rate of Pine Island Glacier ice shelf inferred from observations.

  7. Great Lakes Ice Charts (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Charts show ice extent and concentration three times weekly during the ice season, for all lakes except Ontario, from the 1973/74 ice season through the 2001/2002...

  8. Ice-skating injuries. (United States)

    Williamson, D M; Lowdon, I M


    The range of injuries sustained at an ice-rink and presented to an Accident Service department is described. A total of 203 patients with 222 injuries presented themselves during a 2-month period. There were 103 noteworthy injuries, including 61 fractures, 2 dislocations and 2 severed tendons, but the commonest injuries were wounds, sprains and bruises. Beginners appear to be more prone to injury than experienced skaters. In addition to using well-fitting skate-boots to protect the ankle, some injuries could be avoided by wearing elbow and knee pads, and a thick pair of gloves. The number of injuries compared with the total number of skaters was small but produced a noteworthy increase in the workload of the Accident Service.

  9. Constraining models of postglacial rebound using space geodesy: a detailed assessment of model ICE-5G (VM2) and its relatives (United States)

    Argus, Donald F.; Peltier, W. Richard


    Using global positioning system, very long baseline interferometry, satellite laser ranging and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite observations, including the Canadian Base Network and Fennoscandian BIFROST array, we constrain, in models of postglacial rebound, the thickness of the ice sheets as a function of position and time and the viscosity of the mantle as a function of depth. We test model ICE-5G VM2 T90 Rot, which well fits many hundred Holocene relative sea level histories in North America, Europe and worldwide. ICE-5G is the deglaciation history having more ice in western Canada than ICE-4G; VM2 is the mantle viscosity profile having a mean upper mantle viscosity of 0.5 × 1021Pas and a mean uppermost-lower mantle viscosity of 1.6 × 1021Pas T90 is an elastic lithosphere thickness of 90 km; and Rot designates that the model includes (rotational feedback) Earth's response to the wander of the North Pole of Earth's spin axis towards Canada at a speed of ~1° Myr-1. The vertical observations in North America show that, relative to ICE-5G, the Laurentide ice sheet at last glacial maximum (LGM) at ~26 ka was (1) much thinner in southern Manitoba, (2) thinner near Yellowknife (Northwest Territories), (3) thicker in eastern and southern Quebec and (4) thicker along the northern British Columbia-Alberta border, or that ice was unloaded from these areas later (thicker) or earlier (thinner) than in ICE-5G. The data indicate that the western Laurentide ice sheet was intermediate in mass between ICE-5G and ICE-4G. The vertical observations and GRACE gravity data together suggest that the western Laurentide ice sheet was nearly as massive as that in ICE-5G but distributed more broadly across northwestern Canada. VM2 poorly fits the horizontal observations in North America, predicting places along the margins of the Laurentide ice sheet to be moving laterally away from the ice centre at 2 mm yr-1 in ICE-4G and 3 mm yr-1 in ICE-5G, in

  10. Quaternary Sea-ice history in the Arctic Ocean based on a new Ostracode sea-ice proxy (United States)

    Cronin, T. M.; Gemery, L.; Briggs, W.M.; Jakobsson, M.; Polyak, L.; Brouwers, E.M.


    Paleo-sea-ice history in the Arctic Ocean was reconstructed using the sea-ice dwelling ostracode Acetabulastoma arcticum from late Quaternary sediments from the Mendeleyev, Lomonosov, and Gakkel Ridges, the Morris Jesup Rise and the Yermak Plateau. Results suggest intermittently high levels of perennial sea ice in the central Arctic Ocean during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 (25-45 ka), minimal sea ice during the last deglacial (16-11 ka) and early Holocene thermal maximum (11-5 ka) and increasing sea ice during the mid-to-late Holocene (5-0 ka). Sediment core records from the Iceland and Rockall Plateaus show that perennial sea ice existed in these regions only during glacial intervals MIS 2, 4, and 6. These results show that sea ice exhibits complex temporal and spatial variability during different climatic regimes and that the development of modern perennial sea ice may be a relatively recent phenomenon. ?? 2010.

  11. The Gregoriev Ice Cap length changes derived by 2-D ice flow line model for harmonic climate histories


    Konovalov, Y. V.; Nagornov, O. V.


    Different ice thickness distributions along the flow line and the flow line length changes of the Gregoriev Ice Cap, Terskey Ala-Tau, Central Asia, were obtained for some surface mass balance histories which can be considered as possible surface mass balances in the future. The ice cap modeling was performed by solving of steady state hydrodynamic equations in the case of low Reynolds number in the form of the mechanical equilibrium equation in terms of stress deviator components coupled with...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Agafonova


    Full Text Available Changes in rivers ice regime features and the climatic resources of the winter period were examined for the territory of Russia northward from 60° N. Datasets from 220 gauging stations for the period from 1960 to 2014 have been used in the study both with the results of numerical experiments carried out using climate models in the framework of the international project CMIP5. A change in the duration of the ice phenomena period, the ice cover period and the maximum thickness of ice on the rivers for the scenario RCP 8.5 by the end of the 21st century for a spatial grid with a distance between the nodes of 1.75x1.75 degrees in latitude and longitude has been estimated. We elaborated series of the maps. Main features of the ice regime changes are consistent with the expected changes in the duration of the cold season and the accumulated negative air temperatures. The significant changes are expected for the rivers of the Kola Peninsula and the lower reaches of the rivers Northern Dvina and Pechora, whereas the lowest changes - for the center of Eastern Siberia. 

  13. Community dynamics of bottom-ice algae in Dease Strait of the Canadian Arctic (United States)

    Campbell, K.; Mundy, C. J.; Landy, J. C.; Delaforge, A.; Michel, C.; Rysgaard, S.


    Sea ice algae are a characteristic feature in ice-covered seas, contributing a significant fraction of the total primary production in many areas and providing a concentrated food source of high nutritional value to grazers in the spring. Algae respond to physical changes in the sea ice environment by modifying their cellular carbon, nitrogen and pigment content, and by adjusting their photophysiological characteristics. In this study we examined how the ratios of particulate organic carbon (POC) to nitrogen (PON), and POC to chlorophyll a (chl a), responded to the evolving snow-covered sea ice environment near Cambridge Bay, Nunavut, during spring 2014. We also estimated photosynthesis-irradiance (PI) curves using oxygen-optodes and evaluated the resulting time-series of PI parameters under thin and thick snow-covered sites. There were no significant differences in PI parameters between samples from different overlying snow depths, and only the maximum photosynthetic rates in the absence of photoinhibition (PsB) and photoacclimation (IS) parameters changed significantly over the spring bloom. Furthermore, we found that both these parameters increased over time in response to increasing percent transmission of photosynthetically active radiation (TPAR) through the ice, indicating that light was a limiting factor of photosynthesis and was an important driver of temporal (over the spring) rather than spatial (between snow depths) variability in photophysiological response. However, we note that spatial variability in primary production was evident. Higher TPAR over the spring and under thin snow affected the composition of algae over both time and space, causing greater POC:chl a estimates in late spring and under thin snow cover. Nitrogen limitation was pronounced in this study, likely reducing PsB and algal photosynthetic rates, and increasing POC:PON ratios to over six times the Redfield average. Our results highlight the influence of both light and nutrients on

  14. Extreme Low Light Requirement for Algae Growth Underneath Sea Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancke, Kasper; Lund-Hansen, Lars C.; Lamare, Maxim L.


    Microalgae colonizing the underside of sea ice in spring are a key component of the Arctic foodweb as they drive early primary production and transport of carbon from the atmosphere to the ocean interior. Onset of the spring bloom of ice algae is typically limited by the availability of light......, and the current consensus is that a few tens-of-centimeters of snow is enough to prevent sufficient solar radiation to reach underneath the sea ice. We challenge this consensus, and investigated the onset and the light requirement of an ice algae spring bloom, and the importance of snow optical properties...... for light penetration. Colonization by ice algae began in May under >1 m of first-year sea ice with approximate to 1 m thick snow cover on top, in NE Greenland. The initial growth of ice algae began at extremely low irradiance (...

  15. Knowledge-based sea ice classification by polarimetric SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Henning; Dierking, Wolfgang


    Polarimetric SAR images acquired at C- and L-band over sea ice in the Greenland Sea, Baltic Sea, and Beaufort Sea have been analysed with respect to their potential for ice type classification. The polarimetric data were gathered by the Danish EMISAR and the US AIRSAR which both are airborne...... systems. A hierarchical classification scheme was chosen for sea ice because our knowledge about magnitudes, variations, and dependences of sea ice signatures can be directly considered. The optimal sequence of classification rules and the rules themselves depend on the ice conditions/regimes. The use...... of the polarimetric phase information improves the classification only in the case of thin ice types but is not necessary for thicker ice (above about 30 cm thickness)...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ya. Lipenkov


    Full Text Available Petrographic studies performed on the continuous basis along the two ice cores obtained from holes 5G-1 and 5G-2 at Vostok Station has allowed to characterize with great details the evolution of the ice texture and fabric in the 232-m thick stratum of accreted ice formed from theLakeVostokwater. Conventionally the whole thickness of accreted ice is divided into two strata: lake ice 1 and lake ice 2. Lake ice 1 (3537–3618 m, formed in the sallow strait50 kmupstream of Vostok, is characterized by presence of disseminated mineral inclusions of Lake Vostok sediments, as well as of «water pockets» that represent frozen water inclusions trapped during the ice accretion. The latter constitute less than 1% of the total ice volume, their mean size is about0.5 cm. Gases trapped by «water pockets» during ice formation transform into crystalline inclusions of mixed gas hydrates. Accretion of lake ice 2 (3618–3769 m proceeds in the deep part of the lake at a very small rate that does not assume trapping of liquid water inclusions and gases.Both strata of accreted ice are formed by orthotropic crystal growth from pure water. The main tendency in the evolution of accreted ice texture is growth of the mean crystal size with depth as the lake ice becomes younger towards the ice-water interface. The high-amplitude variations of crystal size and orientation observed around this general trend are shown to be linked with temporal and spatial variability of the supercooled melt-water flux from the northern part of the lake towards the ice formation site. The presence of supercooled water at the crystallization front supports persistent preferable growth of ice crystals with sub-horizontally oriented c-axes. The lack of supercooled water in turn support persistent growth of ice crystals with vertical or inclined with respect to the crystallization front c-axis orientation. It means that each of these preferred fabric orientations could serve as an indicator of

  17. Maximum likely scale estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo


    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...

  18. Robust Maximum Association Estimators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Alfons (Andreas); C. Croux (Christophe); P. Filzmoser (Peter)


    textabstractThe maximum association between two multivariate variables X and Y is defined as the maximal value that a bivariate association measure between one-dimensional projections αX and αY can attain. Taking the Pearson correlation as projection index results in the first canonical correlation

  19. Coherent Surface Clutter Suppression Techniques with Topography Estimation for Multi-Phase-Center Radar Ice Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik; Dall, Jørgen; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup


    Radar ice sounding enables measurement of the thickness and internal structures of the large ice sheets on Earth. Surface clutter masking the signal of interest is a major obstacle in ice sounding. Algorithms for surface clutter suppression based on multi-phase-center radars are presented. These ...

  20. The effect of sea ice on the solar energy budget in the astmosphere-sea ice-ocean system: A model study (United States)

    Jin, Z.; Stamnes, Knut; Weeks, W. F.; Tsay, Si-Chee


    A coupled one-dimensional multilayer and multistream radiative transfer model has been developed and applied to the study of radiative interactions in the atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean system. The consistent solution of the radiative transfer equation in this coupled system automatically takes into account the refraction and reflection at the air-ice interface and allows flexibility in choice of stream numbers. The solar radiation spectrum (0.25 micron-4.0 micron) is divided into 24 spectral bands to account adequately for gaseous absorption in the atmosphere. The effects of ice property changes, including salinity and density variations, as well as of melt ponds and snow cover variations over the ice on the solar energy distribution in the entire system have been studied quantitatively. The results show that for bare ice it is the scattering, determined by air bubbles and brine pockets, in just a few centimeters of the top layer of ice that plays the most important role in the solar energy absorption and partitioning in the entire system. Ice thickness is important to the energy distribution only when the ice is thin, while the absorption in the atmosphere is not sensitive to ice thickness exceeds about 70 cm. The presence of clouds moderates all the sensitivities of the absorptive amounts in each layer to the variations in the ice properties and ice thickness. Comparisons with observational spectral albedo values for two simple ice types are also presented.

  1. Ice Forces on Offshore Wind Power Plants. Descriptions of mechanisms and recommendations for dimensioning; Islaster paa vindkraftverk till havs. Beskrivning av mekanismer och rekommendationer foer dimensionering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergdahl, Lars [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept of Water Environment Transport


    Mechanisms for ice-loads on off-shore wind power plants are described, The ice-loads are due to thermal expansion, water level variations, drifting ice and ice-reefing. Ice accretion is briefly treated. Ice instance, ice thickness, ice retention time, water level variations and stream velocities in Swedish waters are compiled. The main text deals with recommendations for dimensioning wind power plants at sea. In the appendices, a thorough review of the physical and mechanical properties of ice is presented.

  2. Dead-ice environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Johannes; Kjær, Kurt H.; Schomacker, Anders


    glacier environment. The scientific challenges are to answer the key questions. What are the conditions for dead-ice formation? From which sources does the sediment cover originate? Which melting and reworking processes act in the ice-cored moraines? What is the rate of de-icing in the ice-cored moraines...

  3. Major new sources of biological ice nuclei (United States)

    Moffett, B. F.; Hill, T.; Henderson-Begg, S. K.


    Almost all research on biological ice nucleation has focussed on a limited number of bacteria. Here we characterise several major new sources of biogenic ice nuclei. These include mosses, hornworts, liverworts and cyanobacteria. Ice nucleation in the eukaryotic bryophytes appears to be ubiquitous. The temperature at which these organisms nucleate is that at which the difference in vapour pressure over ice and water is at or close to its maximum. At these temperatures (-8 to -18 degrees C) ice will grow at the expense of supercooled water. These organisms are dependent for their water on occult precipitation - fog, dew and cloudwater which by its nature is not collected in conventional rain gauges. Therefore we suggest that these organism produce ice nuclei as a water harvesting mechanism. Since the same mechanism would also drive the Bergeron-Findeisen process, and as moss is known to become airborne, these nuclei may have a role in the initiation of precipitation. The properties of these ice nuclei are very different from the well characterised bacterial nuclei. We will also present DNA sequence data showing that, although related, the proteins responsible are only very distantly related to the classical bacterial ice nuclei.

  4. Structural experiments with ice (composite) shells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belis, J.; Martens, K.; Van Lancker, B.; Pronk, A.; Zingoni, Alphose


    ABSTRACT: Ice can be a very suitable building material for temporary structures in a freezing environment. When water, mixed with small fibre reinforcements, is sprayed onto an inflatable membrane structure in suitable cold outdoor conditions, a thin shell is formed which increases thickness layer

  5. Investigations of the form and flow of ice sheets and glaciers using radio-echo sounding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowdeswell, J A; Evans, S [Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1ER (United Kingdom)


    Radio-echo sounding (RES), utilizing a variety of radio frequencies, was developed to allow glaciologists to measure the thickness of ice sheets and glaciers. We review the nature of electromagnetic wave propagation in ice and snow, including the permittivity of ice, signal attenuation and volume scattering, along with reflection from rough and specular surfaces. The variety of instruments used in RES of polar ice sheets and temperate glaciers is discussed. The applications and insights that a knowledge of ice thickness, and the wider nature of the form and flow of ice sheets, provides are also considered. The thickest ice measured is 4.7 km in East Antarctica. The morphology of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets, and many of the smaller ice caps and glaciers of the polar regions, has been investigated using RES. These findings are being used in three-dimensional numerical models of the response of the cryosphere to environmental change. In addition, the distribution and character of internal and basal reflectors within ice sheets contains information on, for example, ice-sheet layering and its chrono-stratigraphic significance, and has enabled the discovery and investigation of large lakes beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Today, RES from ground-based and airborne platforms remains the most effective tool for measuring ice thickness and internal character.

  6. Sea Ice Summer Camp: Bringing Together Arctic Sea Ice Modelers and Observers (United States)

    Perovich, D. K.; Holland, M. M.


    The Arctic sea ice has undergone dramatic change and numerical models project this to continue for the foreseeable future. Understanding the mechanisms behind sea ice loss and its consequences for the larger Arctic and global systems is of critical importance if we are to anticipate and plan for the future. One impediment to progress is a disconnect between the observational and modeling communities. A sea ice summer camp was held in Barrow Alaska from 26 May to 1 June 2016 to overcome this impediment and better integrate the sea ice community. The 25 participants were a mix of modelers and observers from 13 different institutions at career stages from graduate student to senior scientist. The summer camp provided an accelerated program on sea ice observations and models and also fostered future collaborative interdisciplinary activities. Each morning was spent in the classroom with a daily lecture on an aspect of modeling or remote sensing followed by practical exercises. Topics included using models to assess sensitivity, to test hypotheses and to explore sources of uncertainty in future Arctic sea ice loss. The afternoons were spent on the ice making observations. There were four observational activities; albedo observations, ice thickness measurements, ice coring and physical properties, and ice morphology surveys. The last field day consisted of a grand challenge where the group formulated a hypothesis, developed an observational and modeling strategy to test the hypothesis, and then integrated the observations and model results. The impacts of changing sea ice are being felt today in Barrow Alaska. We opened a dialog with Barrow community members to further understand these changes. This included an evening discussion with two Barrow sea ice experts and a community presentation of our work in a public lecture at the Inupiat Heritage Center.

  7. Regional Changes in the Sea Ice Cover and Ice Production in the Antarctic (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.


    Coastal polynyas around the Antarctic continent have been regarded as sea ice factories because of high ice production rates in these regions. The observation of a positive trend in the extent of Antarctic sea ice during the satellite era has been intriguing in light of the observed rapid decline of the ice extent in the Arctic. The results of analysis of the time series of passive microwave data indicate large regional variability with the trends being strongly positive in the Ross Sea, strongly negative in the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Seas and close to zero in the other regions. The atmospheric circulation in the Antarctic is controlled mainly by the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and the marginal ice zone around the continent shows an alternating pattern of advance and retreat suggesting the presence of a propagating wave (called Antarctic Circumpolar Wave) around the circumpolar region. The results of analysis of the passive microwave data suggest that the positive trend in the Antarctic sea ice cover could be caused primarily by enhanced ice production in the Ross Sea that may be associated with more persistent and larger coastal polynyas in the region. Over the Ross Sea shelf, analysis of sea ice drift data from 1992 to 2008 yields a positive rate-of-increase in the net ice export of about 30,000 km2 per year. For a characteristic ice thickness of 0.6 m, this yields a volume transport of about 20 km3/year, which is almost identical, within error bars, to our estimate of the trend in ice production. In addition to the possibility of changes in SAM, modeling studies have also indicated that the ozone hole may have a role in that it causes the deepening of the lows in the western Antarctic region thereby causing strong winds to occur offthe Ross-ice shelf.

  8. Thickness and roughness measurements for air-dried longleaf pine bark (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt


    Bark thicknesses for longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) were investigated using disks collected from trees harvested on a 70-year-old plantation. Maximum inner bark thickness was relatively constant along the tree bole whereas maximum outer bark thickness showed a definite decrease from the base of the tree to the top. The minimum whole bark thickness followed the...

  9. Maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enslin, J.H.R.


    A well engineered renewable remote energy system, utilizing the principal of Maximum Power Point Tracking can be m ore cost effective, has a higher reliability and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. This paper reports that a high-efficient power electronic converter, for converting the output voltage of a solar panel, or wind generator, to the required DC battery bus voltage has been realized. The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the input source under varying input and output parameters. Maximum power point tracking for relative small systems is achieved by maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor based algorithm. Through practical field measurements it is shown that a minimum input source saving of 15% on 3-5 kWh/day systems can easily be achieved. A total cost saving of at least 10-15% on the capital cost of these systems are achievable for relative small rating Remote Area Power Supply systems. The advantages at larger temperature variations and larger power rated systems are much higher. Other advantages include optimal sizing and system monitor and control

  10. The color of melt ponds on Arctic sea ice (United States)

    Lu, Peng; Leppäranta, Matti; Cheng, Bin; Li, Zhijun; Istomina, Larysa; Heygster, Georg


    Pond color, which creates the visual appearance of melt ponds on Arctic sea ice in summer, is quantitatively investigated using a two-stream radiative transfer model for ponded sea ice. The upwelling irradiance from the pond surface is determined and then its spectrum is transformed into RGB (red, green, blue) color space using a colorimetric method. The dependence of pond color on various factors such as water and ice properties and incident solar radiation is investigated. The results reveal that increasing underlying ice thickness Hi enhances both the green and blue intensities of pond color, whereas the red intensity is mostly sensitive to Hi for thin ice (Hi 1.5 m), similar to the behavior of melt-pond albedo. The distribution of the incident solar spectrum F0 with wavelength affects the pond color rather than its intensity. The pond color changes from dark blue to brighter blue with increasing scattering in ice, and the influence of absorption in ice on pond color is limited. The pond color reproduced by the model agrees with field observations for Arctic sea ice in summer, which supports the validity of this study. More importantly, the pond color has been confirmed to contain information about meltwater and underlying ice, and therefore it can be used as an index to retrieve Hi and Hp. Retrievals of Hi for thin ice (Hi measurements than retrievals for thick ice, but those of Hp are not good. The analysis of pond color is a new potential method to obtain thin ice thickness in summer, although more validation data and improvements to the radiative transfer model will be needed in future.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Alekseyev


    heavily influenced by aufeis deposits and processes taking place at the aufeis surfaces, especially in areas of discontinuous and continuous permafrost where an average thickness of the ice cover on rivers ranges from 1.0 to 2.5 m, and the major part of the ice cover is accumulated layer by layer due to freezing of discharged groundwater. In the permafrost zone, the intensity of cryogenic channelling is clearly cyclical, and the cycles depend on accumulation of aufeis ice above the river level during the autumn low-water period. Five stages of cryogenic channelling are distinguished: I – pre-glacial development, II – transgression, III – stabilization, IV – regression, and V – post-glacial development. Each stage is characterised by a specific glaciohydrological regime of runoff channels and their specific shapes, sizes and spatial patterns.The channel network is subject to the maximum transformation in aufeis development stages III and IV, when the transit flow channel is split into several shallow-water branches, producing a complicated plan pattern of the terrain. In the mature aufeis glades, there are sites undergoing various development stages, which gives evidence that aufeis channelling is variable in a wide range in both space and time. With respect to sizes of aufeis glades, river flow capacities and geological, geomorphological, cryo-hydrogeological conditions, aufeis patterns of the channel network are classified into five types as follows: fan-shaped, cone-shaped, treelike, reticular, and longitudinal-insular types. The aufeis channel network is a reliable indicator of intensity of both recent and ancient geodynamic processes in the cryolithozone.In Siberia and the Far East, the aufeis deposits are much larger, more numerous and more important in terms of morpholithology in comparison with the 'classical' (sedimentary metamorphic icing structures. The more contrasting is the terrain, the more active are neotectonic movements, the lower is the mean

  12. Maximum likelihood estimation for integrated diffusion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltazar-Larios, Fernando; Sørensen, Michael

    We propose a method for obtaining maximum likelihood estimates of parameters in diffusion models when the data is a discrete time sample of the integral of the process, while no direct observations of the process itself are available. The data are, moreover, assumed to be contaminated...... EM-algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in the diffusion model. As part of the algorithm, we use a recent simple method for approximate simulation of diffusion bridges. In simulation studies for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the CIR process the proposed method works...... by measurement errors. Integrated volatility is an example of this type of observations. Another example is ice-core data on oxygen isotopes used to investigate paleo-temperatures. The data can be viewed as incomplete observations of a model with a tractable likelihood function. Therefore we propose a simulated...

  13. A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets. (United States)

    Alibert, Yann


    We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope.

  14. The Sea-Ice Floe Size Distribution (United States)

    Stern, H. L., III; Schweiger, A. J. B.; Zhang, J.; Steele, M.


    The size distribution of ice floes in the polar seas affects the dynamics and thermodynamics of the ice cover and its interaction with the ocean and atmosphere. Ice-ocean models are now beginning to include the floe size distribution (FSD) in their simulations. In order to characterize seasonal changes of the FSD and provide validation data for our ice-ocean model, we calculated the FSD in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas over two spring-summer-fall seasons (2013 and 2014) using more than 250 cloud-free visible-band scenes from the MODIS sensors on NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, identifying nearly 250,000 ice floes between 2 and 30 km in diameter. We found that the FSD follows a power-law distribution at all locations, with a seasonally varying exponent that reflects floe break-up in spring, loss of smaller floes in summer, and the return of larger floes after fall freeze-up. We extended the results to floe sizes from 10 m to 2 km at selected time/space locations using more than 50 high-resolution radar and visible-band satellite images. Our analysis used more data and applied greater statistical rigor than any previous study of the FSD. The incorporation of the FSD into our ice-ocean model resulted in reduced sea-ice thickness, mainly in the marginal ice zone, which improved the simulation of sea-ice extent and yielded an earlier ice retreat. We also examined results from 17 previous studies of the FSD, most of which report power-law FSDs but with widely varying exponents. It is difficult to reconcile the range of results due to different study areas, seasons, and methods of analysis. We review the power-law representation of the FSD in these studies and discuss some mathematical details that are important to consider in any future analysis.

  15. Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation During the Last Glacial Maximum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynch-Stieglitz, J.; Adkins, J.F.; Curry, W.B.; Dokken, T.; Hall, I.R.; Herguera, J.C.; Hirschi, J.J.-M.; Ivanova, E.V.; Kissel, C.; Marchal, O.; Marchitto, T.M.; McCave, I.N.; McManus, J.F.; Mulitza, S.; Ninnemann, U.; Peeters, F.J.C.; Yu, E.-F.; Zahn, R.


    The circulation of the deep Atlantic Ocean during the height of the last ice age appears to have been quite different from today. We review observations implying that Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the Last Glacial Maximum was neither extremely sluggish nor an enhanced version of

  16. High density amorphous ice and its phase transition to ice XII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohl, I.


    30 K min -1 ) of 130 K. The change of the heat capacity is 1.62 ± 0.09 J mol -1 K -1 . This endothermic change of the heat capacity is attributed to the transition of a static to a dynamic structure of the hydrogen atoms on heating. After annealing ice XII at 119 K for 120 min there is an additional endothermic effect with an enthalpy change of 11 ± 2 J mol -1 and an entropy change of 0.08 ± 0.02 J mol -1 K -1 . The enthalpy and entropy loss during annealing can be due to the increase of proton ordering in ice XII at low temperatures of the order of 2.3 % of the calculated maximum entropy value due to proton order in ice. (author) [de

  17. Reconstructing the last Irish Ice Sheet 2: a geomorphologically-driven model of ice sheet growth, retreat and dynamics (United States)

    Greenwood, Sarah L.; Clark, Chris D.


    The ice sheet that once covered Ireland has a long history of investigation. Much prior work focussed on localised evidence-based reconstructions and ice-marginal dynamics and chronologies, with less attention paid to an ice sheet wide view of the first order properties of the ice sheet: centres of mass, ice divide structure, ice flow geometry and behaviour and changes thereof. In this paper we focus on the latter aspect and use our new, countrywide glacial geomorphological mapping of the Irish landscape (>39 000 landforms), and our analysis of the palaeo-glaciological significance of observed landform assemblages (article Part 1), to build an ice sheet reconstruction yielding these fundamental ice sheet properties. We present a seven stage model of ice sheet evolution, from initiation to demise, in the form of palaeo-geographic maps. An early incursion of ice from Scotland likely coalesced with local ice caps and spread in a south-westerly direction 200 km across Ireland. A semi-independent Irish Ice Sheet was then established during ice sheet growth, with a branching ice divide structure whose main axis migrated up to 140 km from the west coast towards the east. Ice stream systems converging on Donegal Bay in the west and funnelling through the North Channel and Irish Sea Basin in the east emerge as major flow components of the maximum stages of glaciation. Ice cover is reconstructed as extending to the continental shelf break. The Irish Ice Sheet became autonomous (i.e. separate from the British Ice Sheet) during deglaciation and fragmented into multiple ice masses, each decaying towards the west. Final sites of demise were likely over the mountains of Donegal, Leitrim and Connemara. Patterns of growth and decay of the ice sheet are shown to be radically different: asynchronous and asymmetric in both spatial and temporal domains. We implicate collapse of the ice stream system in the North Channel - Irish Sea Basin in driving such asymmetry, since rapid

  18. Pressure melting and ice skating (United States)

    Colbeck, S. C.


    Pressure melting cannot be responsible for the low friction of ice. The pressure needed to reach the melting temperature is above the compressive failure stress and, if it did occur, high squeeze losses would result in very thin films. Pure liquid water cannot coexist with ice much below -20 °C at any pressure and friction does not increase suddenly in that range. If frictional heating and pressure melting contribute equally, the length of the wetted contact could not exceed 15 μm at a speed of 5 m/s, which seems much too short. If pressure melting is the dominant process, the water films are less than 0.08 μm thick because of the high pressures.

  19. Ice ages and nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahonen, L.; Ruskeeniemi, T.; Luukkonen, A.; Pitkaenen, P.; Rasilainen, K.


    This report is an overview of Quaternary Ice Age and its potential consequences for nuclear waste disposal. Geological information on past climatic changes is shortly reviewed, based on the following records: geomorphological information, loessic deposits, deep-sea carbonate sediments, ice-core records, and continental calcite precipitates. Even though the present 'Great Ice Age' has lasted more that two million years, the present variation in cycles of about 100 000 years seems to have commenced only about 600 - 700 thousands years ago. According to the present understanding, southern Finland was during a major span of Weichsel free of continental ice sheet. However, the conditions may have been very cold, periglacial, when the continental ice sheet covered the Caledonian mountains and large areas of central Fennoscandia. The last glacial maximum of Weichsel glaciation was shorter than estimated earlier. Periglacial conditions are characterized by deep permafrost, reaching even the depth of nuclear waste disposal. Calculations of the advancement of permafrost indicate that the permafrost-front may reach the depth of about 500 meters in less than 10 000 years. The crust beneath the continental ice cover depresses, and rebounds when the ice sheet retreats. During the most intensive vertical movement of the crust, some crush zones may be activated and bedrock movements may take place along them. Due to the growth of ice sheets, ocean water table also depresses during glacial maximum, thus changing hydrogeological conditions in non-glaciated terrains. Increase in global ice volume is manifested in the stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios. Based on isotope signals, as well other hydrogeochemical interpretation methods, indications of the earlier glaciations have been recognized in present groundwaters. (orig.)

  20. Maximum entropy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponman, T.J.


    For some years now two different expressions have been in use for maximum entropy image restoration and there has been some controversy over which one is appropriate for a given problem. Here two further entropies are presented and it is argued that there is no single correct algorithm. The properties of the four different methods are compared using simple 1D simulations with a view to showing how they can be used together to gain as much information as possible about the original object. (orig.)

  1. Experimental Analysis of Sublimation Dynamics for Buried Glacier Ice in Beacon Valley, Antarctica (United States)

    Ehrenfeucht, S.; Dennis, D. P.; Marchant, D. R.


    The age of the oldest known buried ice in Beacon Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) Antarctica is a topic of active debate due to its implications for the stability of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Published age estimates range from as young as 300 ka to as old as 8.1 Ma. In the upland MDV, ablation occurs predominantly via sublimation. The relict ice in question (ancient ice from Taylor Glacier) lies buried beneath a thin ( 30-70 cm) layer of sublimation till, which forms as a lag deposit as underlying debris-rich ice sublimes. As the ice sublimates, the debris held within the ice accumulates slowly on the surface, creating a porous boundary between the buried-ice surface and the atmosphere, which in turn influences gas exchange between the ice and the atmosphere. Additionally, englacial debris adds several salt species that are ultimately concentrated on the ice surface. It is well documented the rate of ice sublimation varies as a function of overlying till thickness. However, the rate-limiting dynamics under varying environmental conditions, including the threshold thicknesses at which sublimation is strongly retarded, are not yet defined. To better understand the relationships between sublimation rate, till thickness, and long-term surface evolution, we build on previous studies by Lamp and Marchant (2017) and evaluate the role of till thickness as a control on ice loss in an environmental chamber capable of replicating the extreme cold desert conditions observed in the MDV. Previous work has shown that this relationship exhibits exponential decay behavior, with sublimation rate significantly dampened under less than 10 cm of till. In our experiments we pay particular attention to the effect of the first several cm of till in order to quantify the dynamics that govern the transition from bare ice to debris-covered ice. We also examine this transition for various forms of glacier ice, including ice with various salt species.

  2. A fiber-optic ice detection system for large-scale wind turbine blades (United States)

    Kim, Dae-gil; Sampath, Umesh; Kim, Hyunjin; Song, Minho


    Icing causes substantial problems in the integrity of large-scale wind turbines. In this work, a fiber-optic sensor system for detection of icing with an arrayed waveguide grating is presented. The sensor system detects Fresnel reflections from the ends of the fibers. The transition in Fresnel reflection due to icing gives peculiar intensity variations, which categorizes the ice, the water, and the air medium on the wind turbine blades. From the experimental results, with the proposed sensor system, the formation of icing conditions and thickness of ice were identified successfully in real time.

  3. Early Winter Sea Ice Dynamics in the Ross Sea from In Situ and Satellite Observations (United States)

    Maksym, T.; Ackley, S. F.; Stammerjohn, S. E.; Tison, J. L.; Hoeppner, K.


    The Ross Sea sea ice cover is one of the few regions of the cryosphere that have been expanding in recent decades. However, 2017 saw a significantly delayed autumn ice advance and record low early winter sea ice extent. Understanding the causes and impacts of this variability has been hampered by a lack of in situ observations. A winter cruise into the Ross Sea in April-June 2017 provided some of the only in situ winter observations of sea ice processes in this region in almost 20 years. We present a first look at data from arrays of drifting buoys deployed in the ice pack and outflow from these polynyas, supplemented by a suite of high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. Additional observations included high-resolution sonar imagery of ice deformation features from an autonomous underwater vehicle, shipboard visual observations of sea ice properties, and in situ measurements of snow and thickness and structural properties. These data show that the delay in ice advance led to a thin, highly dynamic sea ice pack, with substantial ice production and export from the Ross Ice Shelf and Terra Nova Bay polynyas. Despite these high rates of ice production, the pack ice remained thin due to rapid export and northward drift. Compared to the only prior winter observations made in 1995 and 1998, the ice was thinner, with less ridging and snow cover, reflecting a younger ice cover. Granular ice was less prevalent than in these prior cruises, particularly in the outer pack, likely due to less snow ice formation and less pancake ice formation at the advancing ice edge. Despite rapid basal ice growth, the buoy data suggest that deformation may be the dominant mechanism for sea ice thickening in the pack once an initial ice cover forms.

  4. Stochastic ice stream dynamics. (United States)

    Mantelli, Elisa; Bertagni, Matteo Bernard; Ridolfi, Luca


    Ice streams are narrow corridors of fast-flowing ice that constitute the arterial drainage network of ice sheets. Therefore, changes in ice stream flow are key to understanding paleoclimate, sea level changes, and rapid disintegration of ice sheets during deglaciation. The dynamics of ice flow are tightly coupled to the climate system through atmospheric temperature and snow recharge, which are known exhibit stochastic variability. Here we focus on the interplay between stochastic climate forcing and ice stream temporal dynamics. Our work demonstrates that realistic climate fluctuations are able to (i) induce the coexistence of dynamic behaviors that would be incompatible in a purely deterministic system and (ii) drive ice stream flow away from the regime expected in a steady climate. We conclude that environmental noise appears to be crucial to interpreting the past behavior of ice sheets, as well as to predicting their future evolution.

  5. Sea Ice Ecosystems (United States)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.


    Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

  6. Seasonal evolution of the Arctic marginal ice zone and its power-law obeying floe size distribution (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Stern, H. L., III; Schweiger, A. J. B.; Steele, M.; Hwang, P. B.


    A thickness, floe size, and enthalpy distribution (TFED) sea ice model, implemented numerically into the Pan-arctic Ice-Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System (PIOMAS), is used to investigate the seasonal evolution of the Arctic marginal ice zone (MIZ) and its floe size distribution. The TFED sea ice model, by coupling the Zhang et al. [2015] sea ice floe size distribution (FSD) theory with the Thorndike et al. [1975] ice thickness distribution (ITD) theory, simulates 12-category FSD and ITD explicitly and jointly. A range of ice thickness and floe size observations were used for model calibration and validation. The model creates FSDs that generally obey a power law or upper truncated power law, as observed by satellites and aerial surveys. In this study, we will examine the role of ice fragmentation and lateral melting in altering FSDs in the Arctic MIZ. We will also investigate how changes in FSD impact the seasonal evolution of the MIZ by modifying the thermodynamic processes.

  7. Constraining the Depth of Polar Ice Deposits and Evolution of Cold Traps on Mercury with Small Craters in Permanently Shadowed Regions (United States)

    Deutsch, Ariel N.; Head, James W.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Chabot, Nancy L.


    Earth-based radar observations revealed highly reflective deposits at the poles of Mercury [e.g., 1], which collocate with permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) detected from both imagery and altimetry by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft [e.g., 2]. MESSENGER also measured higher hydrogen concentrations at the north polar region, consistent with models for these deposits to be composed primarily of water ice [3]. Enigmatic to the characterization of ice deposits on Mercury is the thickness of these radar-bright features. A current minimum bound of several meters exists from the radar measurements, which show no drop in the radar cross section between 13- and 70-cm wavelength observations [4, 5]. A maximum thickness of 300 m is based on the lack of any statistically significant difference between the height of craters that host radar-bright deposits and those that do not [6]. More recently, this upper limit on the depth of a typical ice deposit has been lowered to approximately 150 m, in a study that found a mean excess thickness of 50 +/- 35 m of radar-bright deposits for 6 craters [7]. Refining such a constraint permits the derivation of a volumetric estimate of the total polar ice on Mercury, thus providing insight into possible sources of water ice on the planet. Here, we take a different approach to constrain the thickness of water-ice deposits. Permanently shadowed surfaces have been resolved in images acquired with the broadband filter on MESSENGER's wide-angle camera (WAC) using low levels of light scattered by crater walls and other topography [8]. These surfaces are not featureless and often host small craters (less than a few km in diameter). Here we utilize the presence of these small simple craters to constrain the thickness of the radar-bright ice deposits on Mercury. Specifically, we compare estimated depths made from depth-to-diameter ratios and depths from individual Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA

  8. Ice Penetrating Radar Reveals Spatially Variable Features in Basal Channel under the Nansen Ice Shelf, Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica (United States)

    Wray, P. L.; Dow, C. F.; Mueller, D.; Lee, W. S.; Lindzey, L.; Greenbaum, J. S.; Blankenship, D. D.


    The stability of Antarctic ice shelves is of great concern as their current thinning and future collapse will contribute to sea-level rise via the acceleration of grounded tributary glaciers into the ocean. The study of the sub-ice-shelf environment is essential for understanding ice-ocean interaction, where warming ocean temperatures have already begun to threaten the long-term viability of Antarctic ice shelves. Obtaining direct measurements of the sub-ice-shelf cavity remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate that ground-based geophysical methods can deliver high resolution monitoring and mapping of the spatial and temporal changes in features, melt rates, and ice mass transport of this environment. In November 2016, 84 km of ground-based, low frequency, Ice Penetrating Radar (IPR) surveys were completed on three sites over the Nansen Ice Shelf in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica. The surveys examined an ocean-sourced basal channel incised into the bottom of the shelf, originally detected from a large surface depression. Results reveal high resolution features of a several kilometre-wide, 100 m high channel, with 40 m high sub-channels, zones of significant marine ice accumulation, and basal crevasses penetrating large fractions of the ice shelf thickness. Data from multiple airborne geophysical surveys were compared to the November 2016 IPR data to calculate mass change both spatially and temporally. Many of the smaller scale features we detected are not represented through hydrostatic equilibrium as calculated from ice thicknesses, due to bridging stresses, and as such can not be detected with satellite based remote sensing methods. Our in-field geophysical methods produced high-resolution information of these features, which underscores the need for similar surveys over vulnerable ice shelves to better understand ice-ocean processes.

  9. Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctic Ice and Clouds (United States)


    In this view of Antarctic ice and clouds, (56.5S, 152.0W), the Ross Ice Shelf of Antarctica is almost totally clear, showing stress cracks in the ice surface caused by wind and tidal drift. Clouds on the eastern edge of the picture are associated with an Antarctic cyclone. Winds stirred up these storms have been known to reach hurricane force.

  10. On the nature of the sea ice albedo feedback in simple models. (United States)

    Moon, W; Wettlaufer, J S


    We examine the nature of the ice-albedo feedback in a long-standing approach used in the dynamic-thermodynamic modeling of sea ice. The central issue examined is how the evolution of the ice area is treated when modeling a partial ice cover using a two-category-thickness scheme; thin sea ice and open water in one category and "thick" sea ice in the second. The problem with the scheme is that the area evolution is handled in a manner that violates the basic rules of calculus, which leads to a neglected area evolution term that is equivalent to neglecting a leading-order latent heat flux. We demonstrate the consequences by constructing energy balance models with a fractional ice cover and studying them under the influence of increased radiative forcing. It is shown that the neglected flux is particularly important in a decaying ice cover approaching the transitions to seasonal or ice-free conditions. Clearly, a mishandling of the evolution of the ice area has leading-order effects on the ice-albedo feedback. Accordingly, it may be of considerable importance to reexamine the relevant climate model schemes and to begin the process of converting them to fully resolve the sea ice thickness distribution in a manner such as remapping, which does not in principle suffer from the pathology we describe.

  11. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Topsøe


    Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over

  12. Significance of Thermal Fluvial Incision and Bedrock Transfer due to Ice Advection on Greenland Ice Sheet Topography (United States)

    Crozier, J. A.; Karlstrom, L.; Yang, K.


    Ice sheet surface topography reflects a complicated combination of processes that act directly upon the surface and that are products of ice advection. Using recently-available high resolution ice velocity, imagery, ice surface elevation, and bedrock elevation data sets, we seek to determine the domain of significance of two important processes - thermal fluvial incision and transfer of bedrock topography through the ice sheet - on controlling surface topography in the ablation zone. Evaluating such controls is important for understanding how melting of the GIS surface during the melt season may be directly imprinted in topography through supraglacial drainage networks, and indirectly imprinted through its contribution to basal sliding that affects bedrock transfer. We use methods developed by (Karlstrom and Yang, 2016) to identify supraglacial stream networks on the GIS, and use high resolution surface digital elevation models as well as gridded ice velocity and melt rate models to quantify surface processes. We implement a numerically efficient Fourier domain bedrock transfer function (Gudmundsson, 2003) to predict surface topography due to ice advection over bedrock topography obtained from radar. Despite a number of simplifying assumptions, the bedrock transfer function predicts the observed ice sheet surface in most regions of the GIS with ˜90% accuracy, regardless of the presence or absence of supraglacial drainage networks. This supports the hypothesis that bedrock is the most significant driver of ice surface topography on wavelengths similar to ice thickness. Ice surface topographic asymmetry on the GIS is common, with slopes in the direction of ice flow steeper than those faced opposite to ice flow, consistent with bedrock transfer theory. At smaller wavelengths, topography consistent with fluvial erosion by surface hydrologic features is evident. We quantify the effect of ice advection versus fluvial thermal erosion on supraglacial longitudinal stream

  13. Probable maximum flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L.


    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility

  14. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.


    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. We review the need for such methods in data analysis and show, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. We conclude with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  15. Solar maximum observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, D.M.


    The successful retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite by Shuttle astronauts in April 1984 permitted continuance of solar flare observations that began in 1980. The SMM carries a soft X ray polychromator, gamma ray, UV and hard X ray imaging spectrometers, a coronagraph/polarimeter and particle counters. The data gathered thus far indicated that electrical potentials of 25 MeV develop in flares within 2 sec of onset. X ray data show that flares are composed of compressed magnetic loops that have come too close together. Other data have been taken on mass ejection, impacts of electron beams and conduction fronts with the chromosphere and changes in the solar radiant flux due to sunspots. 13 references

  16. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.


    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. The author reviews the need for such methods in data analysis and shows, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. He concludes with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  17. Functional Maximum Autocorrelation Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg


    MAF outperforms the functional PCA in concentrating the interesting' spectra/shape variation in one end of the eigenvalue spectrum and allows for easier interpretation of effects. Conclusions. Functional MAF analysis is a useful methods for extracting low dimensional models of temporally or spatially......Purpose. We aim at data where samples of an underlying function are observed in a spatial or temporal layout. Examples of underlying functions are reflectance spectra and biological shapes. We apply functional models based on smoothing splines and generalize the functional PCA in......\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{ramsay97} to functional maximum autocorrelation factors (MAF)\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{switzer85,larsen2001d}. We apply the method to biological shapes as well as reflectance spectra. {\\$\\backslash\\$bf Methods}. MAF seeks linear combination of the original variables that maximize autocorrelation between...

  18. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yunji; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin


    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  19. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan


    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  20. The Role of Sea Ice in 2 x CO2 Climate Model Sensitivity. Part 2; Hemispheric Dependencies (United States)

    Rind, D.; Healy, R.; Parkinson, C.; Martinson, D.


    How sensitive are doubled CO2 simulations to GCM control-run sea ice thickness and extent? This issue is examined in a series of 10 control-run simulations with different sea ice and corresponding doubled CO2 simulations. Results show that with increased control-run sea ice coverage in the Southern Hemisphere, temperature sensitivity with climate change is enhanced, while there is little effect on temperature sensitivity of (reasonable) variations in control-run sea ice thickness. In the Northern Hemisphere the situation is reversed: sea ice thickness is the key parameter, while (reasonable) variations in control-run sea ice coverage are of less importance. In both cases, the quantity of sea ice that can be removed in the warmer climate is the determining factor. Overall, the Southern Hemisphere sea ice coverage change had a larger impact on global temperature, because Northern Hemisphere sea ice was sufficiently thick to limit its response to doubled CO2, and sea ice changes generally occurred at higher latitudes, reducing the sea ice-albedo feedback. In both these experiments and earlier ones in which sea ice was not allowed to change, the model displayed a sensitivity of -0.02 C global warming per percent change in Southern Hemisphere sea ice coverage.

  1. CryoSat: ESA's Ice Explorer Mission: status and achievements (United States)

    Parrinello, Tommaso; Mardle, Nicola; Hoyos Ortega, Berta; Bouzinac, Catherine; Badessi, Stefano; Frommknecht, Bjorn; Davidson, Malcolm; Fornari, Marco; Cullen, Robert


    CryoSat-2 was launched on the 8th April 2010 and it is the first European ice mission dedicated to monitoring precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice over a 3-year period. Cryosat-2 carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL) with two antennas and with extended capabilities to meet the measurement requirements for ice-sheets elevation and sea-ice freeboard. Experimental evidence have shown that data is of high quality thanks to an altimeter that is behaving exceptional well within its design specifications. In April 2012, the first winter [2010 -2011] sea-ice variation map of the Arctic was released to the scientific community. Scope of this paper is to describe the current mission status and the main scientific achievements in the last twelve months. Topics will also include programmatic highlights and information on accessing Cryosat products following the new ESA Earth Observation Data Policy.

  2. Climate change and ice hazards in the Beaufort Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barber, D. G.; McCullough, G.; Babb, D.


    Recent reductions in the summer extent of sea ice have focused the world’s attention on the effects of climate change. Increased CO2-derived global warming is rapidly shrinking the Arctic multi-year ice pack. This shift in ice regimes allows for increasing development opportunities for large oil...... will be a much more complex task than modeling average ice circulation. Given the observed reduction in sea ice extent and thickness this rather counterintuitive situation, associated with a warming climate, poses significant hazards to Arctic marine oil and gas development and marine transportation. Accurate...... forecasting of hazardous ice motion will require improved real-time surface wind and ocean current forecast models capable of ingesting local satellite-derived wind data and/or local, closely-spaced networks of anemometers and improved methods of determining high-frequency components of surface ocean current...

  3. Fundamental Ice Crystal Accretion Physics Studies (United States)

    Struk, Peter M.; Broeren, Andy P.; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Vargas, Mario; Wright, William B.; Currie, Tom; Knezevici, Danny; Fuleki, Dan


    Due to numerous engine power-loss events associated with high-altitude convective weather, ice accretion within an engine due to ice crystal ingestion is being investigated. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada are starting to examine the physical mechanisms of ice accretion on surfaces exposed to ice-crystal and mixed-phase conditions. In November 2010, two weeks of testing occurred at the NRC Research Altitude Facility utilizing a single wedge-type airfoil designed to facilitate fundamental studies while retaining critical features of a compressor stator blade or guide vane. The airfoil was placed in the NRC cascade wind tunnel for both aerodynamic and icing tests. Aerodynamic testing showed excellent agreement compared with CFD data on the icing pressure surface and allowed calculation of heat transfer coefficients at various airfoil locations. Icing tests were performed at Mach numbers of 0.2 to 0.3, total pressures from 93 to 45 kPa, and total temperatures from 5 to 15 C. Ice and liquid water contents ranged up to 20 and 3 g/m3, respectively. The ice appeared well adhered to the surface in the lowest pressure tests (45 kPa) and, in a particular case, showed continuous leading-edge ice growth to a thickness greater than 15 mm in 3 min. Such widespread deposits were not observed in the highest pressure tests, where the accretions were limited to a small area around the leading edge. The suction surface was typically ice-free in the tests at high pressure, but not at low pressure. The icing behavior at high and low pressure appeared to be correlated with the wet-bulb temperature, which was estimated to be above 0 C in tests at 93 kPa and below 0 C in tests at lower pressure, the latter enhanced by more evaporative cooling of water. The authors believe that the large ice accretions observed in the low pressure tests would undoubtedly cause the aerodynamic performance of a compressor component

  4. A natural ice boom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, H.R. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)


    Planning for ice jams and ice movements are critical on the Nelson River in northern Manitoba in designing cofferdams. Experience on the St. Lawrence River demonstrated the possibility of exercising some control over ice action by judicious placement of log booms or ice control structures. The success of experiments with man-made controls led to field tests in which an ice sheet of sufficient magnitude and competence was introduced into the open water stream of the Nelson River. The ice sheet was subsequently jammed in a narrow channel, thereby creating a natural ice bridge or boom upstream of a proposed hydro development. Under favourable conditions, this boom would initiate the progression of the ice cover from its location upstream, cutting off the downstream reach from the ice producing potential of the upstream reach. Although ice would still be generated downstream, the length of the reach between the ice boom and the development site would be short enough that ice jamming at the development site would never occur. Although problems in blasting prevented the introduction of a competent ice sheet into the main stream of the river at the location chosen, sufficient confidence in the theory was gained to warrant further consideration. 4 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  5. Biogeochemical cycling in a subarctic fjord adjacent to the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meire, L.


    Temperatures in the Arctic have increased rapidly in recent years resulting in the melting of sea ice and glaciers at unprecedented rates. In 2012, sea ice extent across the Arctic reached a record minimum and the melt extent of Greenland Ice Sheet reached a record maximum. The accelerated mass loss

  6. From cyclic ice streaming to Heinrich-like events: the grow-and-surge instability in the Parallel Ice Sheet Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Feldmann


    Full Text Available >Here we report on a cyclic, physical ice-discharge instability in the Parallel Ice Sheet Model, simulating the flow of a three-dimensional, inherently buttressed ice-sheet-shelf system which periodically surges on a millennial timescale. The thermomechanically coupled model on 1 km horizontal resolution includes an enthalpy-based formulation of the thermodynamics, a nonlinear stress-balance-based sliding law and a very simple subglacial hydrology. The simulated unforced surging is characterized by rapid ice streaming through a bed trough, resulting in abrupt discharge of ice across the grounding line which is eventually calved into the ocean. We visualize the central feedbacks that dominate the subsequent phases of ice buildup, surge and stabilization which emerge from the interaction between ice dynamics, thermodynamics and the subglacial till layer. Results from the variation of surface mass balance and basal roughness suggest that ice sheets of medium thickness may be more susceptible to surging than relatively thin or thick ones for which the surge feedback loop is damped. We also investigate the influence of different basal sliding laws (ranging from purely plastic to nonlinear to linear on possible surging. The presented mechanisms underlying our simulations of self-maintained, periodic ice growth and destabilization may play a role in large-scale ice-sheet surging, such as the surging of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, which is associated with Heinrich events, and ice-stream shutdown and reactivation, such as observed in the Siple Coast region of West Antarctica.

  7. Processes driving sea ice variability in the Bering Sea in an eddying ocean/sea ice model: Mean seasonal cycle (United States)

    Li, Linghan; McClean, Julie L.; Miller, Arthur J.; Eisenman, Ian; Hendershott, Myrl C.; Papadopoulos, Caroline A.


    The seasonal cycle of sea ice variability in the Bering Sea, together with the thermodynamic and dynamic processes that control it, are examined in a fine resolution (1/10°) global coupled ocean/sea-ice model configured in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) framework. The ocean/sea-ice model consists of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Parallel Ocean Program (POP) and the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE). The model was forced with time-varying reanalysis atmospheric forcing for the time period 1970-1989. This study focuses on the time period 1980-1989. The simulated seasonal-mean fields of sea ice concentration strongly resemble satellite-derived observations, as quantified by root-mean-square errors and pattern correlation coefficients. The sea ice energy budget reveals that the seasonal thermodynamic ice volume changes are dominated by the surface energy flux between the atmosphere and the ice in the northern region and by heat flux from the ocean to the ice along the southern ice edge, especially on the western side. The sea ice force balance analysis shows that sea ice motion is largely associated with wind stress. The force due to divergence of the internal ice stress tensor is large near the land boundaries in the north, and it is small in the central and southern ice-covered region. During winter, which dominates the annual mean, it is found that the simulated sea ice was mainly formed in the northern Bering Sea, with the maximum ice growth rate occurring along the coast due to cold air from northerly winds and ice motion away from the coast. South of St Lawrence Island, winds drive the model sea ice southwestward from the north to the southwestern part of the ice-covered region. Along the ice edge in the western Bering Sea, model sea ice is melted by warm ocean water, which is carried by the simulated Bering Slope Current flowing to the northwest, resulting in the S-shaped asymmetric ice edge. In spring and fall, similar thermodynamic and dynamic

  8. Modelling firn thickness evolution during the last deglaciation: constraints on sensitivity to temperature and impurities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bréant


    Full Text Available The transformation of snow into ice is a complex phenomenon that is difficult to model. Depending on surface temperature and accumulation rate, it may take several decades to millennia for air to be entrapped in ice. The air is thus always younger than the surrounding ice. The resulting gas–ice age difference is essential to documenting the phasing between CO2 and temperature changes, especially during deglaciations. The air trapping depth can be inferred in the past using a firn densification model, or using δ15N of air measured in ice cores. All firn densification models applied to deglaciations show a large disagreement with δ15N measurements at several sites in East Antarctica, predicting larger firn thickness during the Last Glacial Maximum, whereas δ15N suggests a reduced firn thickness compared to the Holocene. Here we present modifications of the LGGE firn densification model, which significantly reduce the model–data mismatch for the gas trapping depth evolution over the last deglaciation at the coldest sites in East Antarctica (Vostok, Dome C, while preserving the good agreement between measured and modelled modern firn density profiles. In particular, we introduce a dependency of the creep factor on temperature and impurities in the firn densification rate calculation. The temperature influence intends to reflect the dominance of different mechanisms for firn compaction at different temperatures. We show that both the new temperature parameterization and the influence of impurities contribute to the increased agreement between modelled and measured δ15N evolution during the last deglaciation at sites with low temperature and low accumulation rate, such as Dome C or Vostok. We find that a very low sensitivity of the densification rate to temperature has to be used in the coldest conditions. The inclusion of impurity effects improves the agreement between modelled and measured δ15N at cold East Antarctic sites during the last

  9. Forecast Icing Product (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Forecast Icing Product (FIP) is an automatically-generated index suitable for depicting areas of potentially hazardous airframe icing. The FIP algorithm uses...

  10. Current Icing Product (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Current Icing Product (CIP) is an automatically-generated index suitable for depicting areas of potentially hazardous airframe icing. The CIP algorithm combines...

  11. Record low sea-ice concentration in the central Arctic during summer 2010 (United States)

    Zhao, Jinping; Barber, David; Zhang, Shugang; Yang, Qinghua; Wang, Xiaoyu; Xie, Hongjie


    The Arctic sea-ice extent has shown a declining trend over the past 30 years. Ice coverage reached historic minima in 2007 and again in 2012. This trend has recently been assessed to be unique over at least the last 1450 years. In the summer of 2010, a very low sea-ice concentration (SIC) appeared at high Arctic latitudes—even lower than that of surrounding pack ice at lower latitudes. This striking low ice concentration—referred to here as a record low ice concentration in the central Arctic (CARLIC)—is unique in our analysis period of 2003-15, and has not been previously reported in the literature. The CARLIC was not the result of ice melt, because sea ice was still quite thick based on in-situ ice thickness measurements. Instead, divergent ice drift appears to have been responsible for the CARLIC. A high correlation between SIC and wind stress curl suggests that the sea ice drift during the summer of 2010 responded strongly to the regional wind forcing. The drift trajectories of ice buoys exhibited a transpolar drift in the Atlantic sector and an eastward drift in the Pacific sector, which appeared to benefit the CARLIC in 2010. Under these conditions, more solar energy can penetrate into the open water, increasing melt through increased heat flux to the ocean. We speculate that this divergence of sea ice could occur more often in the coming decades, and impact on hemispheric SIC and feed back to the climate.

  12. Ocean Tide Influences on the Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheets (United States)

    Padman, Laurie; Siegfried, Matthew R.; Fricker, Helen A.


    Ocean tides are the main source of high-frequency variability in the vertical and horizontal motion of ice sheets near their marine margins. Floating ice shelves, which occupy about three quarters of the perimeter of Antarctica and the termini of four outlet glaciers in northern Greenland, rise and fall in synchrony with the ocean tide. Lateral motion of floating and grounded portions of ice sheets near their marine margins can also include a tidal component. These tide-induced signals provide insight into the processes by which the oceans can affect ice sheet mass balance and dynamics. In this review, we summarize in situ and satellite-based measurements of the tidal response of ice shelves and grounded ice, and spatial variability of ocean tide heights and currents around the ice sheets. We review sensitivity of tide heights and currents as ocean geometry responds to variations in sea level, ice shelf thickness, and ice sheet mass and extent. We then describe coupled ice-ocean models and analytical glacier models that quantify the effect of ocean tides on lower-frequency ice sheet mass loss and motion. We suggest new observations and model developments to improve the representation of tides in coupled models that are used to predict future ice sheet mass loss and the associated contribution to sea level change. The most critical need is for new data to improve maps of bathymetry, ice shelf draft, spatial variability of the drag coefficient at the ice-ocean interface, and higher-resolution models with improved representation of tidal energy sinks.

  13. Solar maximum mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.


    By understanding the sun, astrophysicists hope to expand this knowledge to understanding other stars. To study the sun, NASA launched a satellite on February 14, 1980. The project is named the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). The satellite conducted detailed observations of the sun in collaboration with other satellites and ground-based optical and radio observations until its failure 10 months into the mission. The main objective of the SMM was to investigate one aspect of solar activity: solar flares. A brief description of the flare mechanism is given. The SMM satellite was valuable in providing information on where and how a solar flare occurs. A sequence of photographs of a solar flare taken from SMM satellite shows how a solar flare develops in a particular layer of the solar atmosphere. Two flares especially suitable for detailed observations by a joint effort occurred on April 30 and May 21 of 1980. These flares and observations of the flares are discussed. Also discussed are significant discoveries made by individual experiments

  14. Multiscale Observation System for Sea Ice Drift and Deformation (United States)

    Lensu, M.; Haapala, J. J.; Heiler, I.; Karvonen, J.; Suominen, M.


    combined with SAR images gives information on how large scale ice cover motions manifest as local scale deformations. The research includes also ice stress measurements for relating the kinematic state and modeled stresses to local scale ice cover stresses, and ice thickness mappings with profiling sonars and EM methods. Downscaling results based on four-month campaing during winter 2011 are presented.

  15. Arctic sea ice trends, variability and implications for seasonal ice forecasting. (United States)

    Serreze, Mark C; Stroeve, Julienne


    September Arctic sea ice extent over the period of satellite observations has a strong downward trend, accompanied by pronounced interannual variability with a detrended 1 year lag autocorrelation of essentially zero. We argue that through a combination of thinning and associated processes related to a warming climate (a stronger albedo feedback, a longer melt season, the lack of especially cold winters) the downward trend itself is steepening. The lack of autocorrelation manifests both the inherent large variability in summer atmospheric circulation patterns and that oceanic heat loss in winter acts as a negative (stabilizing) feedback, albeit insufficient to counter the steepening trend. These findings have implications for seasonal ice forecasting. In particular, while advances in observing sea ice thickness and assimilating thickness into coupled forecast systems have improved forecast skill, there remains an inherent limit to predictability owing to the largely chaotic nature of atmospheric variability. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Sputtering of water ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baragiola, R.A.; Vidal, R.A.; Svendsen, W.; Schou, J.; Shi, M.; Bahr, D.A.; Atteberrry, C.L.


    We present results of a range of experiments of sputtering of water ice together with a guide to the literature. We studied how sputtering depends on the projectile energy and fluence, ice growth temperature, irradiation temperature and external electric fields. We observed luminescence from the decay of H(2p) atoms sputtered by heavy ion impact, but not bulk ice luminescence. Radiolyzed ice does not sputter under 3.7 eV laser irradiation

  17. SPH Modelling of Sea-ice Pack Dynamics (United States)

    Staroszczyk, Ryszard


    The paper is concerned with the problem of sea-ice pack motion and deformation under the action of wind and water currents. Differential equations describing the dynamics of ice, with its very distinct mateFfigrial responses in converging and diverging flows, express the mass and linear momentum balances on the horizontal plane (the free surface of the ocean). These equations are solved by the fully Lagrangian method of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). Assuming that the ice behaviour can be approximated by a non-linearly viscous rheology, the proposed SPH model has been used to simulate the evolution of a sea-ice pack driven by wind drag stresses. The results of numerical simulations illustrate the evolution of an ice pack, including variations in ice thickness and ice area fraction in space and time. The effects of different initial ice pack configurations and of different conditions assumed at the coast-ice interface are examined. In particular, the SPH model is applied to a pack flow driven by a vortex wind to demonstrate how well the Lagrangian formulation can capture large deformations and displacements of sea ice.

  18. Review of ice and snow runway pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg White


    Full Text Available Antarctica is the highest, driest, coldest, windiest, most remote and most pristine place on Earth. Polar operations depend heavily on air transportation and support for personnel and equipment. It follows that improvement in snow and ice runway design, construction and maintenance will directly benefit polar exploration and research. Current technologies and design methods for snow and ice runways remain largely reliant on work performed in the 1950s and 1960s. This paper reviews the design and construction of polar runways using snow and ice as geomaterials. The inability to change existing snow and ice thickness or temperature creates a challenge for polar runway design and construction, as does the highly complex mechanical behaviour of snow, including the phenomena known as sintering. It is recommended that a modern approach be developed for ice and snow runway design, based on conventional rigid and flexible pavement design principles. This requires the development on an analytical model for the prediction of snow strength, based on snow age, temperature history and density. It is also recommended that the feasibility of constructing a snow runway at the South Pole be revisited, in light of contemporary snow sintering methods. Such a runway would represent a revolutionary advance for the logistical support of Antarctic research efforts. Keywords: Runway, Pavement, Snow, Ice, Antarctic

  19. Channelization of plumes beneath ice shelves

    KAUST Repository

    Dallaston, M.  C.; Hewitt, I. J.; Wells, A. J.


    © 2015 Cambridge University Press. We study a simplified model of ice-ocean interaction beneath a floating ice shelf, and investigate the possibility for channels to form in the ice shelf base due to spatial variations in conditions at the grounding line. The model combines an extensional thin-film description of viscous ice flow in the shelf, with melting at its base driven by a turbulent ocean plume. Small transverse perturbations to the one-dimensional steady state are considered, driven either by ice thickness or subglacial discharge variations across the grounding line. Either forcing leads to the growth of channels downstream, with melting driven by locally enhanced ocean velocities, and thus heat transfer. Narrow channels are smoothed out due to turbulent mixing in the ocean plume, leading to a preferred wavelength for channel growth. In the absence of perturbations at the grounding line, linear stability analysis suggests that the one-dimensional state is stable to initial perturbations, chiefly due to the background ice advection.

  20. Channelization of plumes beneath ice shelves

    KAUST Repository

    Dallaston, M. C.


    © 2015 Cambridge University Press. We study a simplified model of ice-ocean interaction beneath a floating ice shelf, and investigate the possibility for channels to form in the ice shelf base due to spatial variations in conditions at the grounding line. The model combines an extensional thin-film description of viscous ice flow in the shelf, with melting at its base driven by a turbulent ocean plume. Small transverse perturbations to the one-dimensional steady state are considered, driven either by ice thickness or subglacial discharge variations across the grounding line. Either forcing leads to the growth of channels downstream, with melting driven by locally enhanced ocean velocities, and thus heat transfer. Narrow channels are smoothed out due to turbulent mixing in the ocean plume, leading to a preferred wavelength for channel growth. In the absence of perturbations at the grounding line, linear stability analysis suggests that the one-dimensional state is stable to initial perturbations, chiefly due to the background ice advection.

  1. Past and future ice age initiation: the role of an intrinsic deep-ocean millennial oscillation (United States)

    Johnson, R. G.


    became a search for the cause of the loss of the southward flow of polar water. The loss could have occurred if denser and more saline Atlantic water replaced the polar water in-flow. Medieval historical records suggest that an analogous partial replacement probably did occur during the early medieval climatic optimum, with some warmer Atlantic water removing the thick perennial sea ice along Greenland's north coast. The NADW formation rate and the Spitsbergen-Atlantic Current (SAC) flow were then near maximum values. I hypothesize that enough of the thick perennial sea ice along Greenland's north coast was removed by the penetration of the SAC flow into the polar ocean to enable a medieval voyage eastward along the coast in AD 1118. This voyage is implied by an old map record showing Greenland realistically as an island. An even stronger SAC flow associated with a stronger maximum in the 1500 yr intrinsic oscillation of the oceanic system was the likely trigger for the initial conditions of ice-sheet growth when the Last Ice Age began. The third contribution of this paper is the hypothesis that modern society's activities might cause a repetition of the transition to an ice age threshold climate within one or two decades from 2013. This possibility depends on a continuing increase of salinity in the seas east of Greenland, with a corresponding increase of NADW formation and the SAC flow. The increase is currently being driven by the increasing rate of the saline Mediterranean outflow that contributes to the North Atlantic Drift. The rate increase is a consequence of the increasing salinity of the Mediterranean Sea as reported by European oceanographers (Science, 279, 483-484, 1998). The rising salinity of the Mediterranean and its increasing outflow is attributed to the diversion of nearly all the in-flowing rivers for irrigation. A further substantial salinity increase should occur with the loss of all perennial polar sea ice possibly within one or two decades from

  2. Design, fabrication, and testing of an ultrasonic de-icing system for helicopter rotor blades (United States)

    Palacios, Jose Luis

    A low-power, non-thermal ultrasonic de-icing system is introduced as a possible substitute for current electro-thermal systems. The system generates delaminating ultrasonic transverse shear stresses at the interface of accreted ice. A PZT-4 disk driven at 28.5 KHz (radial resonance of the disk) instantaneously de-bonds 2 mm thick freezer ice layers. The ice layers are accreted to a 0.7 mm thick, 30.4 cm x 30.4 cm steel plate at an environment temperature of -20°C. A power input of 50 Watts is applied to the actuator (50 V, 19.6 KV/m), which translates to a de-icing power of 0.07 W/cm2. A finite element model of the actuator bonded to the isotropic plate is used to guide the design of the system, and predicts the transverse shear stresses at the ice interface. Wind tunnel icing tests were conducted to demonstrate the potential use of the proposed system under impact icing conditions. Both glaze ice and rime ice were generated on steel and composite plates by changing the cloud conditions of the wind tunnel. Continuous ultrasonic vibration prevented impact ice formation around the actuator location at an input power not exceeding 0.18 W/cm 2 (1.2 W/in2). As ice thickness reached a critical thickness of approximately 1.2 mm, shedding occurred on those locations where ultrasonic transverse shear stresses exceeded the shear adhesion strength of the ice. Finite element transverse shear stress predictions correlate with observed experimental impact ice de-bonding behavior. To increase the traveling distance of propagating ultrasonic waves, ultrasonic shear horizontal wave modes are studied. Wave modes providing large modal interface transverse shear stress concentration coefficients (ISCC) between the host structure (0.7 mm thick steel plate) and accreted ice (2.5 mm thick ice layer) are identified and investigated for a potential increase in the wave propagation distance. Ultrasonic actuators able to trigger these optimum wave modes are designed and fabricated. Despite

  3. Calibration of sea ice dynamic parameters in an ocean-sea ice model using an ensemble Kalman filter (United States)

    Massonnet, F.; Goosse, H.; Fichefet, T.; Counillon, F.


    The choice of parameter values is crucial in the course of sea ice model development, since parameters largely affect the modeled mean sea ice state. Manual tuning of parameters will soon become impractical, as sea ice models will likely include more parameters to calibrate, leading to an exponential increase of the number of possible combinations to test. Objective and automatic methods for parameter calibration are thus progressively called on to replace the traditional heuristic, "trial-and-error" recipes. Here a method for calibration of parameters based on the ensemble Kalman filter is implemented, tested and validated in the ocean-sea ice model NEMO-LIM3. Three dynamic parameters are calibrated: the ice strength parameter P*, the ocean-sea ice drag parameter Cw, and the atmosphere-sea ice drag parameter Ca. In twin, perfect-model experiments, the default parameter values are retrieved within 1 year of simulation. Using 2007-2012 real sea ice drift data, the calibration of the ice strength parameter P* and the oceanic drag parameter Cw improves clearly the Arctic sea ice drift properties. It is found that the estimation of the atmospheric drag Ca is not necessary if P* and Cw are already estimated. The large reduction in the sea ice speed bias with calibrated parameters comes with a slight overestimation of the winter sea ice areal export through Fram Strait and a slight improvement in the sea ice thickness distribution. Overall, the estimation of parameters with the ensemble Kalman filter represents an encouraging alternative to manual tuning for ocean-sea ice models.

  4. Pan-Arctic sea ice-algal chl a biomass and suitable habitat are largely underestimated for multiyear ice. (United States)

    Lange, Benjamin A; Flores, Hauke; Michel, Christine; Beckers, Justin F; Bublitz, Anne; Casey, John Alec; Castellani, Giulia; Hatam, Ido; Reppchen, Anke; Rudolph, Svenja A; Haas, Christian


    There is mounting evidence that multiyear ice (MYI) is a unique component of the Arctic Ocean and may play a more important ecological role than previously assumed. This study improves our understanding of the potential of MYI as a suitable habitat for sea ice algae on a pan-Arctic scale. We sampled sea ice cores from MYI and first-year sea ice (FYI) within the Lincoln Sea during four consecutive spring seasons. This included four MYI hummocks with a mean chl a biomass of 2.0 mg/m 2 , a value significantly higher than FYI and MYI refrozen ponds. Our results support the hypothesis that MYI hummocks can host substantial ice-algal biomass and represent a reliable ice-algal habitat due to the (quasi-) permanent low-snow surface of these features. We identified an ice-algal habitat threshold value for calculated light transmittance of 0.014%. Ice classes and coverage of suitable ice-algal habitat were determined from snow and ice surveys. These ice classes and associated coverage of suitable habitat were applied to pan-Arctic CryoSat-2 snow and ice thickness data products. This habitat classification accounted for the variability of the snow and ice properties and showed an areal coverage of suitable ice-algal habitat within the MYI-covered region of 0.54 million km 2 (8.5% of total ice area). This is 27 times greater than the areal coverage of 0.02 million km 2 (0.3% of total ice area) determined using the conventional block-model classification, which assigns single-parameter values to each grid cell and does not account for subgrid cell variability. This emphasizes the importance of accounting for variable snow and ice conditions in all sea ice studies. Furthermore, our results indicate the loss of MYI will also mean the loss of reliable ice-algal habitat during spring when food is sparse and many organisms depend on ice-algae. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Timing of the Little Ice Age in southern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kurt H.; Kjeldsen, Kristian K.; Bjørk, Anders A.


    as a signal for ice-free terrain being overridden by LIA glacier advances, and data from threshold lakes showing the onset of glacier-fed lakes, thus revealing the advance-maximum phase initiating the LIA. Finally, we have compiled lichenometry results indicating the onset of bedrock vegetation succeeding ice......Northern hemisphere temperatures reached their Holocene minimum and most glaciers reached their maximum during The Little Ice Age (LIA), but the timing of specific cold intervals is site-specific. In southern Greenland, we have compiled data from organic matter incorporated in LIA sediments, used...

  6. Summer sea ice characteristics and morphology in the Pacific Arctic sector as observed during the CHINARE 2010 cruise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Xie


    Full Text Available In the summer of 2010, atmosphere–ice–ocean interaction was studied aboard the icebreaker R/V Xuelong during the Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (CHINARE, in the sea ice zone of the Pacific Arctic sector between 150° W and 180° W up to 88.5° N. The expedition lasted from 21 July to 28 August and comprised of ice observations and measurements along the cruise track, 8 short-term stations and one 12-day drift station. Ship-based observations of ice thickness and concentration are compared with ice thickness measured by an electromagnetic induction device (EM31 mounted off the ship's side and ice concentrations obtained from AMSR-E. It is found that the modal thickness from ship-based visual observations matches well with the modal thickness from the mounted EM31. A grid of 8 profiles of ice thickness measurements (four repeats was conducted at the 12-day drift station in the central Arctic (~ 86°50´ N–87°20´ N and an average melt rate of 2 cm day−1, primarily bottom melt, was found. As compared with the 2005 data from the Healy/Oden Trans-Arctic Expedition (HOTRAX for the same sector but ~ 20 days later (9 August to 10 September, the summer 2010 was first-year ice dominant (vs. the multi-year ice dominant in 2005, 70% or less in mean ice concentration (vs. 90% in 2005, and 94–114 cm in mean ice thickness (vs. 150 cm in 2005. Those changes suggest the continuation of ice thinning, less concentration, and younger ice for the summer sea ice in the sector since 2007 when a record minimum sea ice extent was observed. Overall, the measurements provide a valuable dataset of sea ice morphological properties over the Arctic Pacific Sector in summer 2010 and can be used as a benchmark for measurements of future changes.

  7. Lead Thickness Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, R.


    The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in 3 , an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.

  8. Winter Arctic sea ice growth: current variability and projections for the coming decades (United States)

    Petty, A.; Boisvert, L.; Webster, M.; Holland, M. M.; Bailey, D. A.; Kurtz, N. T.; Markus, T.


    Arctic sea ice increases in both extent and thickness during the cold winter months ( October to May). Winter sea ice growth is an important factor controlling ocean ventilation and winter water/deep water formation, as well as determining the state and vulnerability of the sea ice pack before the melt season begins. Key questions for the Arctic community thus include: (i) what is the current magnitude and variability of winter Arctic sea ice growth and (ii) how might this change in a warming Arctic climate? To address (i), our current best guess of pan-Arctic sea ice thickness, and thus volume, comes from satellite altimetry observations, e.g. from ESA's CryoSat-2 satellite. A significant source of uncertainty in these data come from poor knowledge of the overlying snow depth. Here we present new estimates of winter sea ice thickness from CryoSat-2 using snow depths from a simple snow model forced by reanalyses and satellite-derived ice drift estimates, combined with snow depth estimates from NASA's Operation IceBridge. To address (ii), we use data from the Community Earth System Model's Large Ensemble Project, to explore sea ice volume and growth variability, and how this variability might change over the coming decades. We compare and contrast the model simulations to observations and the PIOMAS ice-ocean model (over recent years/decades). The combination of model and observational analysis provide novel insight into Arctic sea ice volume variability.

  9. Evidence of unfrozen liquids and seismic anisotropy at the base of the polar ice sheets (United States)

    Wittlinger, Gérard; Farra, Véronique


    We analyze seismic data from broadband stations located on the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets to determine polar ice seismic velocities. P-to-S converted waves at the ice/rock interface and inside the ice sheets and their multiples (the P-receiver functions) are used to estimate in-situ P-wave velocity (Vp) and P-to-S velocity ratio (Vp/Vs) of polar ice. We find that the polar ice sheets have a two-layer structure; an upper layer of variable thickness (about 2/3 of the total thickness) with seismic velocities close to the standard ice values, and a lower layer of approximately constant thickness with standard Vp but ∼25% smaller Vs. The lower layer ceiling corresponds approximately to the -30 °C isotherm. Synthetic modeling of P-receiver functions shows that strong seismic anisotropy and low vertical S velocity are needed in the lower layer. The seismic anisotropy results from the preferred orientation of ice crystal c-axes toward the vertical. The low vertical S velocity may be due to the presence of unfrozen liquids resulting from premelting at grain joints and/or melting of chemical solutions buried in the ice. The strongly preferred ice crystal orientation fabric and the unfrozen fluids may facilitate polar ice sheet basal flow.

  10. ICESat Observations of Arctic Sea Ice: A First Look (United States)

    Kwok, Ron; Zwally, H. Jay; Yi, Donghui


    Analysis of near-coincident ICESat and RADARSAT imagery shows that the retrieved elevations from the laser altimeter are sensitive to new openings (containing thin ice or open water) in the sea ice cover as well as to surface relief of old and first-year ice. The precision of the elevation estimates, measured over relatively flat sea ice, is approx. 2 cm. Using the thickness of thin-ice in recent openings to estimate sea level references, we obtain the sea-ice freeboard along the altimeter tracks. This step is necessitated by the large uncertainties in the sea surface topography compared to that required for accurate determination of freeboard. Unknown snow depth introduces the largest uncertainty in the conversion of freeboard to ice thickness. Surface roughness is also derived, for the first time, from the variability of successive elevation estimates along the altimeter track. Overall, these ICESat measurements provide an unprecedented view of the Arctic Ocean ice cover at length scales at and above the spatial dimension of the altimeter footprint of approx. 70 m.

  11. Quantifying the ice-albedo feedback through decoupling (United States)

    Kravitz, B.; Rasch, P. J.


    The ice-albedo feedback involves numerous individual components, whereby warming induces sea ice melt, inducing reduced surface albedo, inducing increased surface shortwave absorption, causing further warming. Here we attempt to quantify the sea ice albedo feedback using an analogue of the "partial radiative perturbation" method, but where the governing mechanisms are directly decoupled in a climate model. As an example, we can isolate the insulating effects of sea ice on surface energy and moisture fluxes by allowing sea ice thickness to change but fixing Arctic surface albedo, or vice versa. Here we present results from such idealized simulations using the Community Earth System Model in which individual components are successively fixed, effectively decoupling the ice-albedo feedback loop. We isolate the different components of this feedback, including temperature change, sea ice extent/thickness, and air-sea exchange of heat and moisture. We explore the interactions between these different components, as well as the strengths of the total feedback in the decoupled feedback loop, to quantify contributions from individual pieces. We also quantify the non-additivity of the effects of the components as a means of investigating the dominant sources of nonlinearity in the ice-albedo feedback.

  12. Helicopter Icing Review. (United States)


    helicopter (i.e. in an icing tunnel or engine test cell ) and therefore can be subjected to controlled icing where spe- cific problems can be safely...evaluation. 69 Ice Protection Systems Demonstration Many of the systems noted in can be evaluated in icing test cells or icing wind tunnels...Figure 2-32 illustrates a typical rotor deice system control arrangement. 104 (N >4 A.dO INaH -E- C4) uo U En 9 E-1 H m I ~z O 04 04iH U 0 El4 E-f C E

  13. Simulation of the Greenland Ice Sheet over two glacial–interglacial cycles: investigating a sub-ice-shelf melt parameterization and relative sea level forcing in an ice-sheet–ice-shelf model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Bradley


    Full Text Available Observational evidence, including offshore moraines and sediment cores, confirm that at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS expanded to a significantly larger spatial extent than seen at present, grounding into Baffin Bay and out onto the continental shelf break. Given this larger spatial extent and its close proximity to the neighbouring Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS and Innuitian Ice Sheet (IIS, it is likely these ice sheets will have had a strong non-local influence on the spatial and temporal behaviour of the GrIS. Most previous paleo ice-sheet modelling simulations recreated an ice sheet that either did not extend out onto the continental shelf or utilized a simplified marine ice parameterization which did not fully include the effect of ice shelves or neglected the sensitivity of the GrIS to this non-local bedrock signal from the surrounding ice sheets. In this paper, we investigated the evolution of the GrIS over the two most recent glacial–interglacial cycles (240 ka BP to the present day using the ice-sheet–ice-shelf model IMAU-ICE. We investigated the solid earth influence of the LIS and IIS via an offline relative sea level (RSL forcing generated by a glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA model. The RSL forcing governed the spatial and temporal pattern of sub-ice-shelf melting via changes in the water depth below the ice shelves. In the ensemble of simulations, at the glacial maximums, the GrIS coalesced with the IIS to the north and expanded to the continental shelf break to the southwest but remained too restricted to the northeast. In terms of the global mean sea level contribution, at the Last Interglacial (LIG and LGM the ice sheet added 1.46 and −2.59 m, respectively. This LGM contribution by the GrIS is considerably higher (∼  1.26 m than most previous studies whereas the contribution to the LIG highstand is lower (∼  0.7 m. The spatial and temporal behaviour of the northern margin was

  14. Type-Dependent Responses of Ice Cloud Properties to Aerosols From Satellite Retrievals (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Gu, Yu; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Xiaohong; Huang, Lei; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Su, Hui


    Aerosol-cloud interactions represent one of the largest uncertainties in external forcings on our climate system. Compared with liquid clouds, the observational evidence for the aerosol impact on ice clouds is much more limited and shows conflicting results, partly because the distinct features of different ice cloud and aerosol types were seldom considered. Using 9-year satellite retrievals, we find that, for convection-generated (anvil) ice clouds, cloud optical thickness, cloud thickness, and cloud fraction increase with small-to-moderate aerosol loadings (types provide valuable constraints on the modeling assessment of aerosol-ice cloud radiative forcing.

  15. Photophysiology and cellular composition of sea ice algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizotte, M.P.


    The productivity of sea ice algae depends on their physiological capabilities and the environmental conditions within various microhabitats. Pack ice is the dominant form of sea ice, but the photosynthetic activity of associated algae has rarely been studied. Biomass and photosynthetic rates of ice algae of the Weddell-Scotia Sea were investigated during autumn and winter, the period when ice cover grows from its minimum to maximum. Biomass-specific photosynthetic rates typically ranged from 0.3 to 3.0 μg C · μg chl -1 · h -1 higher than land-fast ice algae but similar to Antarctic phytoplankton. Primary production in the pack ice during winter may be minor compared to annual phytoplankton production, but could represent a vital seasonal contribution to the Antarctic ecosystem. Nutrient supply may limit the productivity of ice algae. In McMurdo Sound, congelation ice algae appeared to be more nutrient deficient than underlying platelet ice algae based on: lower nitrogen:carbon, chlorophyll:carbon, and protein:carbohydrate; and 14 C-photosynthate distribution to proteins and phospholipids was lower, while distribution to polysaccharides and neutral lipids was higher. Depletion of nitrate led to decreased nitrogen:carbon, chlorophyll:carbon, protein:carbohydrate, and 14 C-photosynthate to proteins. Studied were conducted during the spring bloom; therefore, nutrient limitation may only apply to dense ice algal communities. Growth limiting conditions may be alleviated when algae are released into seawater during the seasonal recession of the ice cover. To continue growth, algae must adapt to the variable light field encountered in a mixed water column. Photoadaptation was studied in surface ice communities and in bottom ice communities

  16. Ice slurry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffeld, M. [Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences, Moltkestr. 30, 76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Wang, M.J.; Goldstein, V. [Sunwell Technologies Inc., 180 Caster Avenue, Woodbridge, L4L 5Y (Canada); Kasza, K.E. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)


    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single-phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. (author)

  17. Education and "Thick" Epistemology (United States)

    Kotzee, Ben


    In this essay Ben Kotzee addresses the implications of Bernard Williams's distinction between "thick" and "thin" concepts in ethics for epistemology and for education. Kotzee holds that, as in the case of ethics, one may distinguish between "thick" and "thin" concepts of epistemology and, further, that this distinction points to the importance of…

  18. Thick film hydrogen sensor (United States)

    Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.


    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  19. Autonomous Aerial Ice Observation for Ice Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Haugen


    Full Text Available One of the tasks in ice defense is to gather information about the surrounding ice environment using various sensor platforms. In this manuscript we identify two monitoring tasks known in literature, namely dynamic coverage and target tracking, and motivate how these tasks are relevant in ice defense using RPAS. An optimization-based path planning concept is outlined for solving these tasks. A path planner for the target tracking problem is elaborated in more detail and a hybrid experiment, which consists of both a real fixed-wing aircraft and simulated objects, is included to show the applicability of the proposed framework.

  20. Constraints on martian lobate debris apron evolution and rheology from numerical modeling of ice flow (United States)

    Parsons, Reid A.; Nimmo, Francis; Miyamoto, Hideaki


    Radar observations in the Deuteronilus Mensae region by Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have constrained the thickness and dust concentration found within mid-latitude ice deposits, providing an opportunity to more accurately estimate the rheology of ice responsible for the formation of lobate debris aprons based on their apparent age of ˜100 Myr. We developed a numerical model simulating ice flow under martian conditions using results from ice deformation experiments, theory of ice grain growth based on terrestrial ice cores, and observational constraints from radar profiles and laser altimetry. By varying the ice grain size, the ice temperature, the subsurface slope, and the initial ice volume we determine the combination of parameters that best reproduce the observed LDA lengths and thicknesses over a period of time comparable to the apparent ages of LDA surfaces (90-300 Myr). We find that an ice temperature of 205 K, an ice grain size of 5 mm, and a flat subsurface slope give reasonable ages for many LDAs in the northern mid-latitudes of Mars. Assuming that the ice grain size is limited by the grain boundary pinning effect of incorporated dust, these results limit the dust volume concentration to less than 4%. However, assuming all LDAs were emplaced by a single event, we find that there is no single combination of grain size, temperature, and subsurface slope which can give realistic ages for all LDAs, suggesting that some or all of these variables are spatially heterogeneous. Based on our model we conclude that the majority of northern mid-latitude LDAs are composed of clean (⩽4 vol%), coarse (⩾1 mm) grained ice, but regional differences in either the amount of dust mixed in with the ice, or in the presence of a basal slope below the LDA ice must be invoked. Alternatively, the ice temperature and/or timing of ice deposition may vary significantly between different mid-latitude regions. Either eventuality can be tested with future observations.

  1. The Heat Flux through the Ice Shell on Europa, Constraints from Measurements in Terrestrial Conditions (United States)

    Hruba, J.; Kletetschka, G.


    Heat transport across the ice shell of Europa controls the thermal evolution of its interior. Such process involves energy sources that drive ice resurfacing (1). More importantly, heat flux through the ice shell controls the thickness of the ice (2), that is poorly constrained between 1 km to 30+ km (3). Thin ice would allow ocean water to be affected by radiation from space. Thick ice would limit the heat ocean sources available to the rock-ocean interface at the ocean's bottom due to tidal dissipation and potential radioactive sources. The heat flux structures control the development of geometrical configurations on the Europa's surface like double ridges, ice diapirs, chaos regions because the rheology of ice is temperature dependent (4).Analysis of temperature record of growing ice cover over a pond and water below revealed the importance of solar radiation during the ice growth. If there is no snow cover, a sufficient amount of solar radiation can penetrate through the ice and heat the water below. Due to temperature gradient, there is a heat flux from the water to the ice (Qwi), which may reduce ice growth at the bottom. Details and variables that constrain the heat flux through the ice can be utilized to estimate the ice thickness. We show with this analog analysis provides the forth step towards measurement strategy on the surface of Europa. We identify three types of thermal profiles (5) and fourth with combination of all three mechanisms.References:(1) Barr, A. C., A. P. Showman, 2009, Heat transfer in Europa's icy shell, University of Arizona Press, p. 405-430.(2) Ruiz, J., J. A. Alvarez-Gómez, R. Tejero, and N. Sánchez, 2007, Heat flow and thickness of a convective ice shell on Europa for grain size-dependent rheologies: Icarus, v. 190, p. 145-154.(3) Billings, S. E., S. A. Kattenhorn, 2005, The great thickness debate: Ice shell thickness models for Europa and comparisons with estimates based on flexure at ridges: Icarus, v. 177, p. 397-412.(4) Quick

  2. Observations of sea-ice conditions in the Antarctic coastal region using ship-board video cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruhito Shimoda


    Full Text Available During the 30th, 31st, and 32nd Japanese Antarctic Research Expeditions (JARE-30,JARE-31,and JARE-32, sea-ice conditions were recorded by video camera on board the SHIRASE. Then, the sea-ice images were used to estimate compactness and thickness quantitatively. Analyzed legs are those toward Breid Bay and from Breid Bay to Syowa Station during JARE-30 and JARE-31,and those toward the Prince Olav Coast, from the Prince Olav Coast to Breid Bay, and from Breid Bay to Syowa Station during JARE-32. The results show yearly variations of ice compactness and thickness, latitudinal variations of thickness, and differences in thickness histograms between JARE-30 and JARE-32 in Lutzow-Holm Bay. Albedo values were measured simultaneously by a shortwave radiometer. These values are proportional to those of ice compactness. Finally, we examined the relationship between ice compactness and vertical gradient of air temperature above sea ice.

  3. Arctic landfast sea ice (United States)

    Konig, Christof S.

    Landfast ice is sea ice which forms and remains fixed along a coast, where it is attached either to the shore, or held between shoals or grounded icebergs. Landfast ice fundamentally modifies the momentum exchange between atmosphere and ocean, as compared to pack ice. It thus affects the heat and freshwater exchange between air and ocean and impacts on the location of ocean upwelling and downwelling zones. Further, the landfast ice edge is essential for numerous Arctic mammals and Inupiat who depend on them for their subsistence. The current generation of sea ice models is not capable of reproducing certain aspects of landfast ice formation, maintenance, and disintegration even when the spatial resolution would be sufficient to resolve such features. In my work I develop a new ice model that permits the existence of landfast sea ice even in the presence of offshore winds, as is observed in mature. Based on viscous-plastic as well as elastic-viscous-plastic ice dynamics I add tensile strength to the ice rheology and re-derive the equations as well as numerical methods to solve them. Through numerical experiments on simplified domains, the effects of those changes are demonstrated. It is found that the modifications enable landfast ice modeling, as desired. The elastic-viscous-plastic rheology leads to initial velocity fluctuations within the landfast ice that weaken the ice sheet and break it up much faster than theoretically predicted. Solving the viscous-plastic rheology using an implicit numerical method avoids those waves and comes much closer to theoretical predictions. Improvements in landfast ice modeling can only verified in comparison to observed data. I have extracted landfast sea ice data of several decades from several sources to create a landfast sea ice climatology that can be used for that purpose. Statistical analysis of the data shows several factors that significantly influence landfast ice distribution: distance from the coastline, ocean depth, as

  4. Investigating cold based summit glaciers through direct access to the glacier base: a case study constraining the maximum age of Chli Titlis glacier, Switzerland (United States)

    Bohleber, Pascal; Hoffmann, Helene; Kerch, Johanna; Sold, Leo; Fischer, Andrea


    Cold glaciers at the highest locations of the European Alps have been investigated by drilling ice cores to retrieve their stratigraphic climate records. Findings like the Oetztal ice man have demonstrated that small ice bodies at summit locations of comparatively lower altitudes may also contain old ice if locally frozen to the underlying bedrock. In this case, constraining the maximum age of their lowermost ice part may help to identify past periods with minimum ice extent in the Alps. However, with recent warming and consequent glacier mass loss, these sites may not preserve their unique climate information for much longer. Here we utilized an existing ice cave at Chli Titlis (3030 m), central Switzerland, to perform a case study for investigating the maximum age of cold-based summit glaciers in the Alps. The cave offers direct access to the glacier stratigraphy without the logistical effort required in ice core drilling. In addition, a pioneering exploration had already demonstrated stagnant cold ice conditions at Chli Titlis, albeit more than 25 years ago. Our englacial temperature measurements and the analysis of the isotopic and physical properties of ice blocks sampled at three locations within the ice cave show that cold ice still exists fairly unchanged today. State-of-the-art micro-radiocarbon analysis constrains the maximum age of the ice at Chli Titlis to about 5000 years before present. By this means, the approach presented here will contribute to a future systematic investigation of cold-based summit glaciers, also in the Eastern Alps.

  5. Polynyas and Ice Production Evolution in the Ross Sea (PIPERS) (United States)

    Ackley, S. F.


    One focus of the PIPERS cruise into the Ross Sea ice cover during April-June 2017 was the Terra Nova Bay (TNB) polynya where joint measurements of air-ice-ocean wave interaction were conducted over twelve days. In Terra Nova Bay, measurements were made in three katabatic wind events each with sustained winds over 35 ms-1 and air temperatures below -15C. Near shore, intense wave fields with wave amplitudes of over 2m and 7-9 sec periods built and large amounts of frazil ice crystals grew. The frazil ice gathered initially into short and narrow plumes that eventually were added laterally to create longer and wider streaks or bands. Breaking waves within these wider streaks were dampened which appeared to enhance the development of pancake ice. Eventually, the open water areas between the streaks sealed off, developing a complete ice cover of 100 percent concentration (80-90 percent pancakes, 20-10 percent frazil) over a wide front (30km). The pancakes continued to grow in diameter and thickness as waves alternately contracted and expanded the ice cover, with the thicker larger floes further diminishing the wave field and lateral motion between pancakes until the initial pancake ice growth ceased. The equilibrium thickness of the ice was 20-30cm in the pancake ice. While the waves had died off however, katabatic wind velocities were sustained and resulted in a wide area of concentrated, rafted, pancake ice that was rapidly advected downstream until the end of the katabatic event. High resolution TerraSar-X radar satellite imagery showed the length of the ice area produced in one single event extended over 300km or ten times the length of the open water area during one polynya event. The TNB polynya is therefore an "ice factory" where frazil ice is manufactured into pancake ice floes that are then pushed out of the assembly area and advected, rafted (and occasionally piled up into "dragon skin" ice), until the katabatic wind dies off at the coastal source.

  6. Monitoring Bedfast Ice and Ice Phenology in Lakes of the Lena River Delta Using TerraSAR-X Backscatter and Coherence Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Antonova


    Full Text Available Thermokarst lakes and ponds are major elements of permafrost landscapes, occupying up to 40% of the land area in some Arctic regions. Shallow lakes freeze to the bed, thus preventing permafrost thaw underneath them and limiting the length of the period with greenhouse gas production in the unfrozen lake sediments. Radar remote sensing permits to distinguish lakes with bedfast ice due to the difference in backscatter intensities from bedfast and floating ice. This study investigates the potential of a unique time series of three-year repeat-pass TerraSAR-X (TSX imagery with high temporal (11 days and spatial (10 m resolution for monitoring bedfast ice as well as ice phenology of lakes in the zone of continuous permafrost in the Lena River Delta, Siberia. TSX backscatter intensity is shown to be an excellent tool for monitoring floating versus bedfast lake ice as well as ice phenology. TSX-derived timing of ice grounding and the ice growth model CLIMo are used to retrieve the ice thicknesses of the bedfast ice at points where in situ ice thickness measurements were available. Comparison shows good agreement in the year of field measurements. Additionally, for the first time, an 11-day sequential interferometric coherence time series is analyzed as a supplementary approach for the bedfast ice monitoring. The coherence time series detects most of the ice grounding as well as spring snow/ice melt onset. Overall, the results show the great value of TSX time series for monitoring Arctic lake ice and provide a basis for various applications: for instance, derivation of shallow lakes bathymetry, evaluation of winter water resources and locating fish winter habitat as well as estimation of taliks extent in permafrost.

  7. Removable cruciform for ice condenser ice basket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrabis, C.M.; Mazza, G.E.; Golick, L.R.; Pomaibo, P.


    A removable cruciform for use in an ice basket having a generally cylindrical sidewall defining a central, vertical axis of the ice basket and plural, generally annular retaining rings secured to the interior of the cylindrical sidewall of the ice basket at predetermined, spaced elevations throughout the axial height of the ice basket is described comprising: a pair of brackets, each comprising a central, base portion having parallel longitudinal edges and a pair of integral legs extending at corresponding angles relative to the base portion from the perspective parallel longitudinal edges thereof; a pair of support plate assemblies secured to and extending in parallel, spaced relationship from one of the pair of brackets; a pair of slide support plates secured to the other of the pair of brackets and extending therefrom in spaced, parallel relationship; and spring means received within the housing and engaging the base portions of the brackets and applying a resilient biasing force thereto for maintaining the spaced relationship thereof

  8. Ice cream structure modification by ice-binding proteins. (United States)

    Kaleda, Aleksei; Tsanev, Robert; Klesment, Tiina; Vilu, Raivo; Laos, Katrin


    Ice-binding proteins (IBPs), also known as antifreeze proteins, were added to ice cream to investigate their effect on structure and texture. Ice recrystallization inhibition was assessed in the ice cream mixes using a novel accelerated microscope assay and the ice cream microstructure was studied using an ice crystal dispersion method. It was found that adding recombinantly produced fish type III IBPs at a concentration 3 mg·L -1 made ice cream hard and crystalline with improved shape preservation during melting. Ice creams made with IBPs (both from winter rye, and type III IBP) had aggregates of ice crystals that entrapped pockets of the ice cream mixture in a rigid network. Larger individual ice crystals and no entrapment in control ice creams was observed. Based on these results a model of ice crystals aggregates formation in the presence of IBPs was proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This work consists in the simulation of the ice accretion in the leading edge of aerodynamic profiles and our proposed model encompasses: geometry generation, calculation of the potential flow around the body, boundary layer thickness computation, water droplet trajectory computation, heat and mass balances and the consequent modification of the geometry by the ice growth. The flow calculation is realized with panel methods, using only segments defined over the body contour. The viscous effects are considered using the Karman-Pohlhausen method for the laminar boundary layer. The local heat transfer coefficient is obtained by applying the Smith-Spalding method for the thermal boundary layer. The ice accretion limits and the collection efficiency are determined by computing water droplet trajectories impinging the surface. The heat transfer process is analyzed with an energy and a mass balance in each segment defining the body. Finally, the geometry is modified by the addition of the computed ice thickness to the respective panel. The process by repeating all the steps. The model validation is done using a selection of problems with experimental solution, CIRA (the CESAR project. Hereinafter, results are obtained for different aerodynamic profiles, angles of attack and meteorological parameters

  10. Late Quaternary glaciation history of northernmost Greenland - Evidence of shelf-based ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Kjær, Kurt H.; Funder, Svend Visby


    We present the mapping of glacial landforms and sediments from northernmost Greenland bordering 100 km of the Arctic Ocean coast. One of the most important discoveries is that glacial landforms, sediments, including till fabric measurements, striae and stoss-lee boulders suggest eastward ice......-flow along the coastal plain. Volcanic erratic boulders document ice-transport from 80 to 100 km west of the study area. We argue that these findings are best explained by local outlet glaciers from the Greenland Ice Sheet and local ice caps that merged to form a shelf-based ice in the Arctic Ocean...... and possibly confirming an extensive ice shelf in the Lincoln Sea between Greenland and Ellesmere Island. It is speculated that the shelf-based ice was largely affected by the presence of thick multiyear sea ice in the Arctic Ocean that prevented it from breaking up and forced the outlet glaciers to flow...

  11. Reducing uncertainty in high-resolution sea ice models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston


    Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system, reflecting a significant amount of solar radiation, insulating the ocean from the atmosphere and influencing ocean circulation by modifying the salinity of the upper ocean. The thickness and extent of Arctic sea ice have shown a significant decline in recent decades with implications for global climate as well as regional geopolitics. Increasing interest in exploration as well as climate feedback effects make predictive mathematical modeling of sea ice a task of tremendous practical import. Satellite data obtained over the last few decades have provided a wealth of information on sea ice motion and deformation. The data clearly show that ice deformation is focused along narrow linear features and this type of deformation is not well-represented in existing models. To improve sea ice dynamics we have incorporated an anisotropic rheology into the Los Alamos National Laboratory global sea ice model, CICE. Sensitivity analyses were performed using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA) to determine the impact of material parameters on sea ice response functions. Two material strength parameters that exhibited the most significant impact on responses were further analyzed to evaluate their influence on quantitative comparisons between model output and data. The sensitivity analysis along with ten year model runs indicate that while the anisotropic rheology provides some benefit in velocity predictions, additional improvements are required to make this material model a viable alternative for global sea ice simulations.

  12. Airborne geophysics for mesoscale observations of polar sea ice in a changing climate (United States)

    Hendricks, S.; Haas, C.; Krumpen, T.; Eicken, H.; Mahoney, A. R.


    Sea ice thickness is an important geophysical parameter with a significant impact on various processes of the polar energy balance. It is classified as Essential Climate Variable (ECV), however the direct observations of the large ice-covered oceans are limited due to the harsh environmental conditions and logistical constraints. Sea-ice thickness retrieval by the means of satellite remote sensing is an active field of research, but current observational capabilities are not able to capture the small scale variability of sea ice thickness and its evolution in the presence of surface melt. We present an airborne observation system based on a towed electromagnetic induction sensor that delivers long range measurements of sea ice thickness for a wide range of sea ice conditions. The purpose-built sensor equipment can be utilized from helicopters and polar research aircraft in multi-role science missions. While airborne EM induction sounding is used in sea ice research for decades, the future challenge is the development of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform that meet the requirements for low-level EM sea ice surveys in terms of range and altitude of operations. The use of UAV's could enable repeated sea ice surveys during the the polar night, when manned operations are too dangerous and the observational data base is presently very sparse.

  13. Mass loss of the Greenland Ice Sheet since the Little Ice Age, implications on sea level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, K. K.; Bjork, A. A.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas

    The impact of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) on 20th Century sea level rise (SLR) has long been subject to intense discussions. While globally distributed tide gauges suggest a global mean SLR of 15-20 cm, quantifying the separate components is of great concern - in particular...... for modeling sea level projections into the 21st Century. Estimates of the past GrIS contribution to SLR have been derived using a number of different approaches, e.g. surface mass balance (SMB) calculations combined with estimates of ice discharge found by in correlating SMB anomalies and calving rates. Here......-2010, NASA's Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) from 2003-2009, and NASA's Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS) from 2010, to estimate mass loss throughout the 20th and early 21st Century. We present mass balance estimates of the GrIS since retreat commence from the maximum extent...

  14. Parameterizing the competition between homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing in ice cloud formation – polydisperse ice nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Barahona


    Full Text Available This study presents a comprehensive ice cloud formation parameterization that computes the ice crystal number, size distribution, and maximum supersaturation from precursor aerosol and ice nuclei. The parameterization provides an analytical solution of the cloud parcel model equations and accounts for the competition effects between homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing, and, between heterogeneous freezing in different modes. The diversity of heterogeneous nuclei is described through a nucleation spectrum function which is allowed to follow any form (i.e., derived from classical nucleation theory or from observations. The parameterization reproduces the predictions of a detailed numerical parcel model over a wide range of conditions, and several expressions for the nucleation spectrum. The average error in ice crystal number concentration was −2.0±8.5% for conditions of pure heterogeneous freezing, and, 4.7±21% when both homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing were active. The formulation presented is fast and free from requirements of numerical integration.

  15. High Arctic Holocene temperature record from the Agassiz ice cap and Greenland ice sheet evolution. (United States)

    Lecavalier, Benoit S; Fisher, David A; Milne, Glenn A; Vinther, Bo M; Tarasov, Lev; Huybrechts, Philippe; Lacelle, Denis; Main, Brittany; Zheng, James; Bourgeois, Jocelyne; Dyke, Arthur S


    We present a revised and extended high Arctic air temperature reconstruction from a single proxy that spans the past ∼12,000 y (up to 2009 CE). Our reconstruction from the Agassiz ice cap (Ellesmere Island, Canada) indicates an earlier and warmer Holocene thermal maximum with early Holocene temperatures that are 4-5 °C warmer compared with a previous reconstruction, and regularly exceed contemporary values for a period of ∼3,000 y. Our results show that air temperatures in this region are now at their warmest in the past 6,800-7,800 y, and that the recent rate of temperature change is unprecedented over the entire Holocene. The warmer early Holocene inferred from the Agassiz ice core leads to an estimated ∼1 km of ice thinning in northwest Greenland during the early Holocene using the Camp Century ice core. Ice modeling results show that this large thinning is consistent with our air temperature reconstruction. The modeling results also demonstrate the broader significance of the enhanced warming, with a retreat of the northern ice margin behind its present position in the mid Holocene and a ∼25% increase in total Greenland ice sheet mass loss (∼1.4 m sea-level equivalent) during the last deglaciation, both of which have implications for interpreting geodetic measurements of land uplift and gravity changes in northern Greenland.

  16. Sea ice inertial oscillations in the Arctic Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gimbert


    Full Text Available An original method to quantify the amplitude of inertial motion of oceanic and ice drifters, through the introduction of a non-dimensional parameter M defined from a spectral analysis, is presented. A strong seasonal dependence of the magnitude of sea ice inertial oscillations is revealed, in agreement with the corresponding annual cycles of sea ice extent, concentration, thickness, advection velocity, and deformation rates. The spatial pattern of the magnitude of the sea ice inertial oscillations over the Arctic Basin is also in agreement with the sea ice thickness and concentration patterns. This argues for a strong interaction between the magnitude of inertial motion on one hand, the dissipation of energy through mechanical processes, and the cohesiveness of the cover on the other hand. Finally, a significant multi-annual evolution towards greater magnitudes of inertial oscillations in recent years, in both summer and winter, is reported, thus concomitant with reduced sea ice thickness, concentration and spatial extent.

  17. Ice Load Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, Timothy J. [DNV GL, Seattle, WA (United States); Brown, Thomas [IFC Engineering, Calgary, AB (Canada); Byrne, Alex [DNV GL, Seattle, WA (United States)


    As interest and investment in offshore wind projects increase worldwide, some turbines will be installed in locations where ice of significant thickness forms on the water surface. This ice moves under the driving forces of wind, current, and thermal effects and may result in substantial forces on bottom-fixed support structures. The North and Baltic Seas in Europe have begun to see significant wind energy development and the Great Lakes of the United States and Canada may host wind energy development in the near future. Design of the support structures for these projects is best performed through the use of an integrated tool that can calculate the cumulative effects of forces due to turbine operations, wind, waves, and floating ice. The dynamic nature of ice forces requires that these forces be included in the design simulations, rather than added as static forces to simulation results. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard[2] for offshore wind turbine design and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard[3] for offshore structures provide requirements and algorithms for the calculation of forces induced by surface ice; however, currently none of the major wind turbine dynamic simulation codes provides the ability to model ice loads. The scope of work of the project described in this report includes the development of a suite of subroutines, collectively named IceFloe, that meet the requirements of the IEC and ISO standards and couples with four of the major wind turbine dynamic simulation codes. The mechanisms by which ice forces impinge on offshore structures generally include the forces required for crushing of the ice against vertical-sided structures and the forces required to fracture the ice as it rides up on conical-sided structures. Within these two broad categories, the dynamic character of the forces with respect to time is also dependent on other factors such as the velocity and thickness of the moving ice

  18. Geomorphology and till architecture of terrestrial palaeo-ice streams of the southwest Laurentide Ice Sheet: A borehole stratigraphic approach (United States)

    Norris, Sophie L.; Evans, David J. A.; Cofaigh, Colm Ó.


    A multidimensional study, utilising geomorphological mapping and the analysis of regional borehole stratigraphy, is employed to elucidate the regional till architecture of terrestrial palaeo-ice streams relating to the Late Wisconsinan southwest Laurentide Ice Sheet. Detailed mapping over a 57,400 km2 area of southwestern Saskatchewan confirms previous reconstructions of a former southerly flowing ice stream, demarcated by a 800 km long corridor of megaflutes and mega-scale glacial lineations (Ice Stream 1) and cross cut by three, formerly southeast flowing ice streams (Ice Streams 2A, B and C). Analysis of the lithologic and geophysical characteristics of 197 borehole samples within these corridors reveals 17 stratigraphic units comprising multiple tills and associated stratified sediments overlying preglacial deposits, the till thicknesses varying with both topography and distance down corridor. Reconciling this regional till architecture with the surficial geomorphology reveals that surficial units are spatially consistent with a dynamic switch in flow direction, recorded by the cross cutting corridors of Ice Streams 1, 2A, B and C. The general thickening of tills towards lobate ice stream margins is consistent with subglacial deformation theory and variations in this pattern on a more localised scale are attributed to influences of subglacial topography including thickening at buried valley margins, thinning over uplands and thickening in overridden ice-marginal landforms.

  19. Prediction of ice accretion and anti-icing heating power on wind turbine blades using standard commercial software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalpando, Fernando; Reggio, Marcelo; Ilinca, Adrian


    An approach to numerically simulate ice accretion on 2D sections of a wind turbine blade is presented. The method uses standard commercial ANSYS-Fluent and Matlab tools. The Euler-Euler formulation is used to calculate the water impingement on the airfoil, and a UDF (Used Defined Function) has been devised to turn the airfoil's solid wall into a permeable boundary. Mayer's thermodynamic model is implemented in Matlab for computing ice thickness and for updating the airfoil contour. A journal file is executed to systematize the procedure: meshing, droplet trajectory calculation, thermodynamic model application for computing ice accretion, and the updating of airfoil contours. The proposed ice prediction strategy has been validated using iced airfoil contours obtained experimentally in the AMIL refrigerated wind tunnel (Anti-icing Materials International Laboratory). Finally, a numerical prediction method has been generated for anti-icing assessment, and its results compared with data obtained in this laboratory. - Highlights: • A methodology for ice accretion prediction using commercial software is proposed. • Euler model gives better prediction of airfoil water collection with detached flow. • A source term is used to change from a solid wall to a permeable wall in Fluent. • Energy needed for ice-accretion mitigation system is predicted.

  20. Aircraft Surveys of the Beaufort Sea Seasonal Ice Zone (United States)

    Morison, J.


    The Seasonal Ice Zone Reconnaissance Surveys (SIZRS) is a program of repeated ocean, ice, and atmospheric measurements across the Beaufort-Chukchi sea seasonal sea ice zone (SIZ) utilizing US Coast Guard Arctic Domain Awareness (ADA) flights of opportunity. The SIZ is the region between maximum winter sea ice extent and minimum summer sea ice extent. As such, it contains the full range of positions of the marginal ice zone (MIZ) where sea ice interacts with open water. The increasing size and changing air-ice-ocean properties of the SIZ are central to recent reductions in Arctic sea ice extent. The changes in the interplay among the atmosphere, ice, and ocean require a systematic SIZ observational effort of coordinated atmosphere, ice, and ocean observations covering up to interannual time-scales, Therefore, every year beginning in late Spring and continuing to early Fall, SIZRS makes monthly flights across the Beaufort Sea SIZ aboard Coast Guard C-130H aircraft from USCG Air Station Kodiak dropping Aircraft eXpendable CTDs (AXCTD) and Aircraft eXpendable Current Profilers (AXCP) for profiles of ocean temperature, salinity and shear, dropsondes for atmospheric temperature, humidity, and velocity profiles, and buoys for atmosphere and upper ocean time series. Enroute measurements include IR imaging, radiometer and lidar measurements of the sea surface and cloud tops. SIZRS also cooperates with the International Arctic Buoy Program for buoy deployments and with the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory atmospheric chemistry sampling program on board the aircraft. Since 2012, SIZRS has found that even as SIZ extent, ice character, and atmospheric forcing varies year-to-year, the pattern of ocean freshening and radiative warming south of the ice edge is consistent. The experimental approach, observations and extensions to other projects will be discussed.

  1. Effect of Salted Ice Bags on Surface and Intramuscular Tissue Cooling and Rewarming Rates. (United States)

    Hunter, Eric J; Ostrowski, Jennifer; Donahue, Matthew; Crowley, Caitlyn; Herzog, Valerie


    Many researchers have investigated the effectiveness of different cryotherapy agents at decreasing intramuscular tissue temperatures. However, no one has looked at the effectiveness of adding salt to an ice bag. To compare the cooling effectiveness of different ice bags (wetted, salted cubed, and salted crushed) on cutaneous and intramuscular temperatures. Repeated-measures counterbalanced design. University research laboratory. 24 healthy participants (13 men, 11 women; age 22.46 ± 2.33 y, height 173.25 ± 9.78 cm, mass 74.51 ± 17.32 kg, subcutaneous thickness 0.63 ± 0.27 cm) with no lower-leg injuries, vascular diseases, sensitivity to cold, compromised circulation, or chronic use of NSAIDs. Ice bags made of wetted ice (2000 mL ice and 300 mL water), salted cubed ice (intervention A; 2000 mL of cubed ice and 1/2 tablespoon of salt), and salted crushed ice (intervention B; 2000 mL of crushed ice and 1/2 tablespoon of salt) were applied to the posterior gastrocnemius for 30 min. Each participant received all conditions with at least 4 d between treatments. Cutaneous and intramuscular (2 cm plus adipose thickness) temperatures of nondominant gastrocnemius were measured during a 10-min baseline period, a 30-min treatment period, and a 45-min rewarming period. Differences from baseline were observed for all treatments. The wetted-ice and salted-cubed-ice bags produced significantly lower intramuscular temperatures than the salted-crushed-ice bag. Wetted-ice bags produced the greatest temperature change for cutaneous tissues. Wetted- and salted-cubed-ice bags were equally effective at decreasing intramuscular temperature at 2 cm subadipose. Clinical practicality may favor salted-ice bags over wetted-ice bags.

  2. Ocean Sediment Thickness Contours (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean sediment thickness contours in 200 meter intervals for water depths ranging from 0 - 18,000 meters. These contours were derived from a global sediment...

  3. Sea ice dynamics influence halogen deposition to Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Spolaor


    Full Text Available Sea ice is an important parameter in the climate system and its changes impact upon the polar albedo and atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Iodine (I and bromine (Br have been measured in a shallow firn core drilled at the summit of the Holtedahlfonna glacier (Northwest Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Changing I concentrations can be linked to the March–May maximum sea ice extension. Bromine enrichment, indexed to the Br / Na sea water mass ratio, appears to be influenced by changes in the seasonal sea ice area. I is emitted from marine biota and so the retreat of March–May sea ice coincides with enlargement of the open-ocean surface which enhances marine primary production and consequent I emission. The observed Br enrichment could be explained by greater Br emissions during the Br explosions that have been observed to occur mainly above first year sea ice during the early springtime. In this work we present the first comparison between halogens in surface snow and Arctic sea ice extension. Although further investigation is required to characterize potential depositional and post-depositional processes, these preliminary findings suggest that I and Br can be linked to variability in the spring maximum sea ice extension and seasonal sea ice surface area.

  4. L-band radiometry for sea ice applications (United States)

    Heygster, G.; Hedricks, S.; Mills, P.; Kaleschke, L.; Stammer, D.; Tonboe, R.


    Although sea ice remote sensing has reached the level of operational exploitation with well established retrieval methods, several important tasks are still unsolved. In particular during freezing and melting periods with mixed ice and water surfaces, estimates of ice concentration with passive and active microwave sensors remain challenging. Newly formed thin ice is also hard to distinguish from open water with radiometers for frequencies above 8 GHz. The SMOS configuration (planned launch 2009) with a radiometer at 1.4 GHz is a promising technique to complement observations at higher microwave frequencies. ESA has initiated a project to investigate the possibilities for an additional Level-2 sea ice data product based on SMOS. In detail, the project objectives are (1) to model the L band emission of sea ice, and to assess the potential (2) to retrieve sea ice parameters, especially concentration and thickness, and (3) to use cold water regions for an external calibration of SMOS. Modelling of L band emission: Several models have are investigated. All of them work on the same basic principles and have a vertically-layered, plane-parallel geometry. They are comprised of three basic components: (1) effective permittivities are calculated for each layer based on ice bulk and micro-structural properties; (2) these are integrated across the total depth to derive emitted brightness temperature; (3) scattering terms can also be added because of the granular structure of ice and snow. MEMLS (Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks (Wiesmann and Matzler 1999)) is one such model that contains all three elements in a single Matlab program. In the absence of knowledge about the internal structure of the sea ice, three-layer (air, ice and water) dielectric slab models which take as input a single effective permittivity for the ice layer are appropriate. By ignoring scattering effects one can derive a simple analytic expression for a dielectric slab as shown by Apinis and

  5. Volcano-ice interactions on Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.C.


    Central volcanic eruptions beneath terrestrial glaciers have built steep-sided, flat-topped mountains composed of pillow lava, glassy tuff, capping flows, and cones of basalt. Subglacial fissure eruptions produced ridges of similar compostion. In some places the products from a number of subglacial vents have combined to form widespread deposits. The morphologies of these subglacial volcanoes are distinctive enough to allow their recognition at the resolutions characteristic of Viking orbiter imagery. Analogs to terrestrial subglacial volcanoes have been identified on the northern plains and near the south polar cap of Mars. The polar feature provides probable evidence of volcanic eruptions beneath polar ice. A mixed unit of rock and ice is postulated to have overlain portions of the northern plains, with eruptions into this ground ice having produced mountains and ridges analogous to those in Iceland. Subsequent breakdown of this unit due to ice melting revealed the volcanic features. Estimated heights of these landforms indicate that the ice-rich unit once ranged from approximately 100 to 1200 m thick

  6. SMOS sea ice product: Operational application and validation in the Barents Sea marginal ice zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaleschke, Lars; Tian-Kunze, Xiangshan; Maaß, Nina


    system for ship route optimisation has been developed and was tested during this field campaign with the ice-strengthened research vessel RV Lance. The ship cruise was complemented with coordinated measurements from a helicopter and the research aircraft Polar 5. Sea ice thickness was measured using...... an electromagnetic induction (EM) system from the bow of RV Lance and another EM-system towed below the helicopter. Polar 5 was equipped among others with the L-band radiometer EMIRAD-2. The experiment yielded a comprehensive data set allowing the evaluation of the operational forecast and route optimisation system...

  7. Aircraft Icing Handbook. (Update) (United States)


    Report 1946-1947, U. S. Air Material Command Tech. Rept. 5676. Findeisen , W., *Meteorological Commentary of D (air) 1209, Icing,* Germany, Reichsamt fur...Wetterdienst, Forschungs-und Krfahrungsberichte, Ser. a, No. 29, 1943. Findeisen , W., *Meteorological-Physical Limitations of Icing on the Atmosphere...Apparatus for Measurement,’ Harvard - Mt. Washington Icing Research Report 1946-1947, U. S. Air Material Command Tech. Rept. 5676.. Findeisen , W., "The

  8. A Finite Element Analysis of Optimal Variable Thickness Sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Joakim S


    A quasimixed Finite Element (FE) method for maximum stiffness of variablethickness sheets is analysed. The displacement is approximated with ninenode Lagrange quadrilateral elements and the thickness is approximated aselementwise constant. One is guaranteed that the FE displacement solutionswill ...

  9. Disk and circumsolar radiances in the presence of ice clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Haapanala


    Full Text Available The impact of ice clouds on solar disk and circumsolar radiances is investigated using a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model. The monochromatic direct and diffuse radiances are simulated at angles of 0 to 8° from the center of the sun. Input data for the model are derived from measurements conducted during the 2010 Small Particles in Cirrus (SPARTICUS campaign together with state-of-the-art databases of optical properties of ice crystals and aerosols. For selected cases, the simulated radiances are compared with ground-based radiance measurements obtained by the Sun and Aureole Measurements (SAM instrument. First, the sensitivity of the radiances to the ice cloud properties and aerosol optical thickness is addressed. The angular dependence of the disk and circumsolar radiances is found to be most sensitive to assumptions about ice crystal roughness (or, more generally, non-ideal features of ice crystals and size distribution, with ice crystal habit playing a somewhat smaller role. Second, in comparisons with SAM data, the ice cloud optical thickness is adjusted for each case so that the simulated radiances agree closely (i.e., within 3 % with the measured disk radiances. Circumsolar radiances at angles larger than ≈ 3° are systematically underestimated when assuming smooth ice crystals, whereas the agreement with the measurements is better when rough ice crystals are assumed. Our results suggest that it may well be possible to infer the particle roughness directly from ground-based SAM measurements. In addition, the results show the necessity of correcting the ground-based measurements of direct radiation for the presence of diffuse radiation in the instrument's field of view, in particular in the presence of ice clouds.

  10. Acoustic Monitoring of the Arctic Ice Cap (United States)

    Porter, D. L.; Goemmer, S. A.; Chayes, D. N.


    Introduction The monitoring of the Arctic Ice Cap is important economically, tactically, and strategically. In the scenario of ice cap retreat, new paths of commerce open, e.g. waterways from Northern Europe to the Far East. Where ship-going commerce is conducted, the U.S. Navy and U.S. Coast Guard have always stood guard and been prepared to assist from acts of nature and of man. It is imperative that in addition to measuring the ice from satellites, e.g. Icesat, that we have an ability to measure the ice extent, its thickness, and roughness. These parameters play an important part in the modeling of the ice and the processes that control its growth or shrinking and its thickness. The proposed system consists of three subsystems. The first subsystem is an acoustic source, the second is an array of geophones and the third is a system to supply energy and transmit the results back to the analysis laboratory. The subsystems are described below. We conclude with a plan on how to tackle this project and the payoff to the ice cap modeler and hence the users, i.e. commerce and defense. System Two historically tested methods to generate a large amplitude multi-frequency sound source include explosives and air guns. A new method developed and tested by the University of Texas, ARL is a combustive Sound Source [Wilson, et al., 1995]. The combustive sound source is a submerged combustion chamber that is filled with the byproducts of the electrolysis of sea water, i.e. Hydrogen and Oxygen, an explosive mixture which is ignited via a spark. Thus, no additional compressors, gases, or explosives need to be transported to the Arctic to generate an acoustic pulse capable of the sediment and the ice. The second subsystem would be geophones capable of listening in the O(10 Hz) range and transmitting that data back to the laboratory. Thus two single arrays of geophones arranged orthogonal to each other with a range of 1000's of kilometers and a combustive sound source where the two

  11. On the influence of model physics on simulations of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Massonnet


    Full Text Available Two hindcast (1983–2007 simulations are performed with the global, ocean-sea ice models NEMO-LIM2 and NEMO-LIM3 driven by atmospheric reanalyses and climatologies. The two simulations differ only in their sea ice component, while all other elements of experimental design (resolution, initial conditions, atmospheric forcing are kept identical. The main differences in the sea ice models lie in the formulation of the subgrid-scale ice thickness distribution, of the thermodynamic processes, of the sea ice salinity and of the sea ice rheology. To assess the differences in model skill over the period of investigation, we develop a set of metrics for both hemispheres, comparing the main sea ice variables (concentration, thickness and drift to available observations and focusing on both mean state and seasonal to interannual variability. Based upon these metrics, we discuss the physical processes potentially responsible for the differences in model skill. In particular, we suggest that (i a detailed representation of the ice thickness distribution increases the seasonal to interannual variability of ice extent, with spectacular improvement for the simulation of the recent observed summer Arctic sea ice retreats, (ii the elastic-viscous-plastic rheology enhances the response of ice to wind stress, compared to the classical viscous-plastic approach, (iii the grid formulation and the air-sea ice drag coefficient affect the simulated ice export through Fram Strait and the ice accumulation along the Canadian Archipelago, and (iv both models show less skill in the Southern Ocean, probably due to the low quality of the reanalyses in this region and to the absence of important small-scale oceanic processes at the models' resolution (~1°.

  12. Safe Loads on Ice Sheets (Ice Engineering. Number 13)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haynes, F. D; Carey, Kevin L; Cattabriga, Gioia


    Every winter, ice sheets that grow on lakes and rivers in northern states are used for ice roads, ice bridges, construction platforms, airstrips, and recreational activities, It becomes very important...

  13. Evaluation of Sea Ice Kinematics and their Impact on Ice Thickness Distribution in the Arctic (United States)


    operational and research data to interested users. The position error for these buoys has been estimated as 0.3 km by Thorndike and Colony (1980...1297–1300. ———, and ———,1999: Annular Modes in the Extratropical Circulations. Part II: Trends. J. Clim., 13, 1018–1036. Thorndike , A. S., and R

  14. Evolution of the Eurasian Ice Sheets during the Last Deglaciation (25-10 kyr) (United States)

    Hughes, A. L. C.; Gyllencreutz, R.; Mangerud, J.; Svendsen, J. I.; Lohne, Ø. S.


    Both the timing of maximum extent and subsequent pace of retreat of the interconnected Eurasian (British-Irish, Scandinavian, Svalbard-Barents-Kara Sea) Ice Sheets were spatially variable likely reflecting contrasts in response to forcing mechanisms, geographical settings and glacial dynamics both between individual ice sheets and ice-sheet sectors. For example the maximum limit along the western continental shelf edge was reached up to 3,000 years earlier than the maximum, mainly terrestrial, limits in the east. We present new time-slice reconstructions of the ice-sheet evolution through the last deglaciation based on a compiled chronology of over 5,000 dates and published ice-margin positions. Ice-sheet margins are depicted every 1,000 years (25-10 kyr) and include uncertainty estimates (represented by maximum, minimum and most-credible lines). The new ice-sheet scale reconstructions summarise and provide the means for direct comparison of the empirical geological record against simulations of the deglacial ice-sheet evolution from numerical and isostatic ice-sheet modelling and the timing of abrupt events observed in deglacial climate and ocean records. The reconstruction process has identified both instances of conflicting evidence and gaps in the geological record that should be a focus for future studies. This work is part of an on-going project to reconstruct the changing limits of the Eurasian Ice Sheets through the last glacial cycle (

  15. Bacterial Standing Stock, Activity, and Carbon Production during Formation and Growth of Sea Ice in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. (United States)

    Grossmann, S; Dieckmann, G S


    Bacterial response to formation and growth of sea ice was investigated during autumn in the northeastern Weddell Sea. Changes in standing stock, activity, and carbon production of bacteria were determined in successive stages of ice development. During initial ice formation, concentrations of bacterial cells, in the order of 1 x 10 to 3 x 10 liter, were not enhanced within the ice matrix. This suggests that physical enrichment of bacteria by ice crystals is not effective. Due to low concentrations of phytoplankton in the water column during freezing, incorporation of bacteria into newly formed ice via attachment to algal cells or aggregates was not recorded in this study. As soon as the ice had formed, the general metabolic activity of bacterial populations was strongly suppressed. Furthermore, the ratio of [H]leucine incorporation into proteins to [H]thymidine incorporation into DNA changed during ice growth. In thick pack ice, bacterial activity recovered and growth rates up to 0.6 day indicated actively dividing populations. However, biomass-specific utilization of organic compounds remained lower than in open water. Bacterial concentrations of up to 2.8 x 10 cells liter along with considerably enlarged cell volumes accumulated within thick pack ice, suggesting reduced mortality rates of bacteria within the small brine pores. In the course of ice development, bacterial carbon production increased from about 0.01 to 0.4 mug of C liter h. In thick ice, bacterial secondary production exceeded primary production of microalgae.

  16. Evolution of Planetary Ice-Ocean Systems: Effects of Salinity (United States)

    Allu Peddinti, D.; McNamara, A. K.


    Planetary oceanography is enjoying renewed attention thanks to not only the detection of several exoplanetary ocean worlds but also due to the expanding family of ocean worlds within our own star system. Our solar system is now believed to host about nine ocean worlds including Earth, some dwarf planets and few moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Amongst them, Europa, like Earth is thought to have an ice Ih-liquid water system. However, the thickness of the Europan ice-ocean system is much larger than that of the Earth. The evolution of this system would determine the individual thicknesses of the ice shell and the ocean. In turn, these thicknesses can alter the course of evolution of the system. In a pure H2O system, the thickness of the ice shell would govern if heat loss occurs entirely by conduction or if the shell begins to convect as it attains a threshold thickness. This switch between conduction-convection regimes could determine the longevity of the subsurface ocean and hence define the astrobiological potential of the planetary body at any given time. In reality, however, the system is not pure water ice. The detected induced magnetic field infers a saline ocean layer. Salts are expected to act as an anti-freeze allowing a subsurface ocean to persist over long periods but the amount of salts would determine the extent of that effect. In our current study, we use geodynamic models to examine the effect of salinity on the evolution of ice-ocean system. An initial ocean with different salinities is allowed to evolve. The effect of salinity on thickness of the two layers at any time is examined. We also track how salinity controls the switch between conductive-convective modes. The study shows that for a given time period, larger salinities can maintain a thick vigorously convecting ocean while the smaller salinities behave similar to a pure H2O system leading to a thick convecting ice-shell. A range of salinities identified can potentially predict the current state

  17. A one stop website for sharing sea ice, ocean and ice sheet data over the polar regions (United States)

    Chen, Z.; Cheng, X.; Liu, J.; Hui, F.; Ding, Y.


    The polar regions, including the Arctic and Antarctic, are changing rapidly. Our capabilities to remotely monitor the state of the polar regions are increasing greatly. Satellite and airborne technologies have been deployed and further improvements are underway. Meanwhile, various algorithms have been developed to retrieve important parameters to maximize the effectiveness of available remote sensing data. These technologies and algorithms promise to greatly increase our understanding of variations in sea ice, ocean and ice sheet. However, so much information is scattered out there. It is challenging to find exactly what you are looking for by just searching it through the network. Therefore, we try to establish a common platform to sharing some key parameters for the polar regions. A group of scientists from Beijing Normal University and University at Albany developed a website as a "one-stop shop" for the current state of the polar regions. The website provides real-time (or near real-time) key parameters derived from a variety of operational satellites in an understandable, accessible and credible way. Three types of parameter, which are sea ice, ocean and ice sheet respectively, are shown and available to be downloaded in the website. Several individual parameters are contained in a specific type of parameter. The parameters of sea ice include sea ice concentration, sea ice thickness, melt pond, sea ice leads and sea ice drift. The ocean parameters contain sea surface temperature and sea surface wind. Ice sheet balance, ice velocity and some other parameters are classified into the type of ice sheet parameter. Some parameters are well-calibrated and available to be obtained from other websites, such as sea ice concentration, sea ice thickness sea surface temperature. Since these parameters are retrieved from different sensors, such as SSMI, AMSR2 etc., data format, spatial resolution of the parameters are not unified. We collected and reprocessed these

  18. Relationship between Physiological Off-Ice Testing, On-Ice Skating, and Game Performance in Division I Women's Ice Hockey Players. (United States)

    Boland, Michelle; Miele, Emily M; Delude, Katie


    The purpose was to identify off-ice testing variables that correlate to skating and game performance in Division I collegiate women ice hockey players. Twenty female, forward and defensive players (19.95 ± 1.35 yr) were assessed for weight, height, percent fat mass (%FAT), bone mineral density, predicted one repetition maximum (RM) absolute and relative (REL%) bench press (BP) and hex bar deadlift (HDL), lower body explosive power, anaerobic power, countermovement vertical jump (CMJ), maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), and on-ice repeated skate sprint (RSS) performance. The on-ice RSS test included 6 timed 85.6 m sprints with participants wearing full hockey equipment; fastest time (FT), average time (AT) and fatigue index (FI) for the first length skate (FLS; 10 m) and total length skate (TLS; 85.6 m) were used for analysis. Game performance was evaluated with game statistics: goals, assists, points, plus-minus, and shots on goal (SOG). Correlation coefficients were used to determine relationships. Percent fat mass was positively correlated (p Game performance in women ice hockey players may be enhanced by greater MIP, repeat acceleration ability, and mode-specific training. Faster skating times were associated with lower %FAT. Skating performance in women ice hockey players may be enhanced by improving body composition, anaerobic power, and both lower and upper body strength in off-ice training.

  19. Credal Networks under Maximum Entropy


    Lukasiewicz, Thomas


    We apply the principle of maximum entropy to select a unique joint probability distribution from the set of all joint probability distributions specified by a credal network. In detail, we start by showing that the unique joint distribution of a Bayesian tree coincides with the maximum entropy model of its conditional distributions. This result, however, does not hold anymore for general Bayesian networks. We thus present a new kind of maximum entropy models, which are computed sequentially. ...

  20. Bacterial Ice Crystal Controlling Proteins (United States)

    Lorv, Janet S. H.; Rose, David R.; Glick, Bernard R.


    Across the world, many ice active bacteria utilize ice crystal controlling proteins for aid in freezing tolerance at subzero temperatures. Ice crystal controlling proteins include both antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins. Antifreeze proteins minimize freezing damage by inhibiting growth of large ice crystals, while ice nucleation proteins induce formation of embryonic ice crystals. Although both protein classes have differing functions, these proteins use the same ice binding mechanisms. Rather than direct binding, it is probable that these protein classes create an ice surface prior to ice crystal surface adsorption. Function is differentiated by molecular size of the protein. This paper reviews the similar and different aspects of bacterial antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins, the role of these proteins in freezing tolerance, prevalence of these proteins in psychrophiles, and current mechanisms of protein-ice interactions. PMID:24579057

  1. Parameterisation of sea and lake ice in numerical weather prediction models of the German Weather Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrii Mironov


    Full Text Available A bulk thermodynamic (no rheology sea-ice parameterisation scheme for use in numerical weather prediction (NWP is presented. The scheme is based on a self-similar parametric representation (assumed shape of the evolving temperature profile within the ice and on the integral heat budget of the ice slab. The scheme carries ordinary differential equations (in time for the ice surface temperature and the ice thickness. The proposed sea-ice scheme is implemented into the NWP models GME (global and COSMO (limited-area of the German Weather Service. In the present operational configuration, the horizontal distribution of the sea ice is governed by the data assimilation scheme, no fractional ice cover within the GME/COSMO grid box is considered, and the effect of snow above the ice is accounted for through an empirical temperature dependence of the ice surface albedo with respect to solar radiation. The lake ice is treated similarly to the sea ice, except that freeze-up and break-up of lakes occurs freely, independent of the data assimilation. The sea and lake ice schemes (the latter is a part of the fresh-water lake parameterisation scheme FLake show a satisfactory performance in GME and COSMO. The ice characteristics are not overly sensitive to the details of the treatment of heat transfer through the ice layer. This justifies the use of a simplified but computationally efficient bulk approach to model the ice thermodynamics in NWP, where the ice surface temperature is a major concern whereas details of the temperature distribution within the ice are of secondary importance. In contrast to the details of the heat transfer through the ice, the cloud cover is of decisive importance for the ice temperature as it controls the radiation energy budget at the ice surface. This is particularly true for winter, when the long-wave radiation dominates the surface energy budget. During summer, the surface energy budget is also sensitive to the grid-box mean ice

  2. Active microwave measurements of sea ice under fall conditions: The RADARSAT/FIREX fall experiment. [in the Canadian Arctic (United States)

    Onstott, R. G.; Kim, Y. S.; Moore, R. K.


    A series of measurements of the active microwave properties of sea ice under fall growing conditions was conducted. Ice in the inland waters of Mould Bay, Crozier Channel, and intrepid inlet and ice in the Arctic Ocean near Hardinge Bay was investigated. Active microwave data were acquired using a helicopter borne scatterometer. Results show that multiyear ice frozen in grey or first year ice is easily detected under cold fall conditions. Multiyear ice returns were dynamic due to response to two of its scene constituents. Floe boundaries between thick and thin ice are well defined. Multiyear pressure ridge returns are similar in level to background ice returns. Backscatter from homogeneous first year ice is seen to be primarily due to surface scattering. Operation at 9.6 GHz is more sensitive to the detailed changes in scene roughness, while operation at 5.6 GHz seems to track roughness changes less ably.

  3. ICESat-2, its retrievals of ice sheet elevation change and sea ice freeboard, and potential synergies with CryoSat-2 (United States)

    Neumann, Thomas; Markus, Thorsten; Smith, Benjamin; Kwok, Ron


    Understanding the causes and magnitudes of changes in the cryosphere remains a priority for Earth science research. Over the past decade, NASA's and ESA's Earth-observing satellites have documented a decrease in both the areal extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice, and an ongoing loss of grounded ice from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Understanding the pace and mechanisms of these changes requires long-term observations of ice-sheet mass, sea-ice thickness, and sea-ice extent. NASA's ICESat-2 mission is the next-generation space-borne laser altimeter mission and will use three pairs of beams, each pair separated by about 3 km across-track with a pair spacing of 90 m. The spot size is 17 m with an along-track sampling interval of 0.7 m. This measurement concept is a result of the lessons learned from the original ICESat mission. The multi-beam approach is critical for removing the effects of ice sheet surface slope from the elevation change measurements of most interest. For sea ice, the dense spatial sampling (eliminating along-track gaps) and the small footprint size are especially useful for sea surface height measurements in the, often narrow, leads needed for sea ice freeboard and ice thickness retrievals. Currently, algorithms are being developed to calculate ice sheet elevation change and sea ice freeboard from ICESat-2 data. The orbits of ICESat-2 and Cryosat-2 both converge at 88 degrees of latitude, though the orbit altitude differences result in different ground track patterns between the two missions. This presentation will present an overview of algorithm approaches and how ICESat-2 and Cryosat-2 data may augment each other.

  4. Multi-Decadal Averages of Basal Melt for Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica Using Airborne Observations (United States)

    Das, I.; Bell, R. E.; Tinto, K. J.; Frearson, N.; Kingslake, J.; Padman, L.; Siddoway, C. S.; Fricker, H. A.


    Changes in ice shelf mass balance are key to the long term stability of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Although the most extensive ice shelf mass loss currently is occurring in the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica, many other ice shelves experience changes in thickness on time scales from annual to ice age cycles. Here, we focus on the Ross Ice Shelf. An 18-year record (1994-2012) of satellite radar altimetry shows substantial variability in Ross Ice Shelf height on interannual time scales, complicating detection of potential long-term climate-change signals in the mass budget of this ice shelf. Variability of radar signal penetration into the ice-shelf surface snow and firn layers further complicates assessment of mass changes. We investigate Ross Ice Shelf mass balance using aerogeophysical data from the ROSETTA-Ice surveys using IcePod. We use two ice-penetrating radars; a 2 GHz unit that images fine-structure in the upper 400 m of the ice surface and a 360 MHz radar to identify the ice shelf base. We have identified internal layers that are continuous along flow from the grounding line to the ice shelf front. Based on layer continuity, we conclude that these layers must be the horizons between the continental ice of the outlet glaciers and snow accumulation once the ice is afloat. We use the Lagrangian change in thickness of these layers, after correcting for strain rates derived using modern day InSAR velocities, to estimate multidecadal averaged basal melt rates. This method provides a novel way to quantify basal melt, avoiding the confounding impacts of spatial and short-timescale variability in surface accumulation and firn densification processes. Our estimates show elevated basal melt rates (> -1m/yr) around Byrd and Mullock glaciers within 100 km from the ice shelf front. We also compare modern InSAR velocity derived strain rates with estimates from the comprehensive ground-based RIGGS observations during 1973-1978 to estimate the potential magnitude of

  5. Quantifying Seasonal Skill In Coupled Sea Ice Models Using Freeboard Measurements From Spaceborne Laser Altimeters (United States)


    Data collection periods during the ICESat mission were influenced by the presence of atmospheric clouds and aerosols, and also LASER malfunctions. Upon...measurements after that satellite is launched next year. 14. subject terms Arctic, climate change, Regional Arctic System Model, altimetry...measurements, sea ice, sea ice thickness, freeboard, ICESat, ICESat-2, climate model, coupled model, Operation IceBridge 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 147 16

  6. Digital Imaging for Siple Dome Ice Core Analysis, Antarctica, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains high-resolution digital images of thin and thick sections cut from the 1003 meter Siple Dome A main ice core. The images are useful for...

  7. Validation of 3-D Ice Accretion Measurement Methodology for Experimental Aerodynamic Simulation (United States)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Lee, Sam; Monastero, Marianne C.


    Determining the adverse aerodynamic effects due to ice accretion often relies on dry-air wind-tunnel testing of artificial, or simulated, ice shapes. Recent developments in ice-accretion documentation methods have yielded a laser-scanning capability that can measure highly three-dimensional (3-D) features of ice accreted in icing wind tunnels. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the aerodynamic accuracy of ice-accretion simulations generated from laser-scan data. Ice-accretion tests were conducted in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel using an 18-in. chord, two-dimensional (2-D) straight wing with NACA 23012 airfoil section. For six ice-accretion cases, a 3-D laser scan was performed to document the ice geometry prior to the molding process. Aerodynamic performance testing was conducted at the University of Illinois low-speed wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 1.8 × 10(exp 6) and a Mach number of 0.18 with an 18-in. chord NACA 23012 airfoil model that was designed to accommodate the artificial ice shapes. The ice-accretion molds were used to fabricate one set of artificial ice shapes from polyurethane castings. The laser-scan data were used to fabricate another set of artificial ice shapes using rapid prototype manufacturing such as stereolithography. The iced-airfoil results with both sets of artificial ice shapes were compared to evaluate the aerodynamic simulation accuracy of the laser-scan data. For five of the six ice-accretion cases, there was excellent agreement in the iced-airfoil aerodynamic performance between the casting and laser-scan based simulations. For example, typical differences in iced-airfoil maximum lift coefficient were less than 3 percent with corresponding differences in stall angle of approximately 1 deg or less. The aerodynamic simulation accuracy reported in this paper has demonstrated the combined accuracy of the laser-scan and rapid-prototype manufacturing approach to simulating ice accretion for a NACA 23012 airfoil. For several

  8. Observational evidence for the aerosol impact on ice cloud properties regulated by cloud/aerosol types (United States)

    Zhao, B.; Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Jiang, J. H.; Li, Q.; Liu, X.; Huang, L.; Wang, Y.; Su, H.


    The interactions between aerosols and ice clouds (consisting only of ice) represent one of the largest uncertainties in global radiative forcing from pre-industrial time to the present. The observational evidence for the aerosol impact on ice cloud properties has been quite limited and showed conflicting results, partly because previous observational studies did not consider the distinct features of different ice cloud and aerosol types. Using 9-year satellite observations, we find that, for ice clouds generated from deep convection, cloud thickness, cloud optical thickness (COT), and ice cloud fraction increase and decrease with small-to-moderate and high aerosol loadings, respectively. For in-situ formed ice clouds, however, the preceding cloud properties increase monotonically and more sharply with aerosol loadings. The case is more complicated for ice crystal effective radius (Rei). For both convection-generated and in-situ ice clouds, the responses of Rei to aerosol loadings are modulated by water vapor amount in conjunction with several other meteorological parameters, but the sensitivities of Rei to aerosols under the same water vapor amount differ remarkably between the two ice cloud types. As a result, overall Rei slightly increases with aerosol loading for convection-generated ice clouds, but decreases for in-situ ice clouds. When aerosols are decomposed into different types, an increase in the loading of smoke aerosols generally leads to a decrease in COT of convection-generated ice clouds, while the reverse is true for dust and anthropogenic pollution. In contrast, an increase in the loading of any aerosol type can significantly enhance COT of in-situ ice clouds. The modulation of the aerosol impacts by cloud/aerosol types is demonstrated and reproduced by simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Adequate and accurate representations of the impact of different cloud/aerosol types in climate models are crucial for reducing the

  9. The study of fresh-water lake ice using multiplexed imaging radar (United States)

    Leonard, Bryan M.; Larson, R.W.


    The study of ice in the upper Great Lakes, both from the operational and the scientific points of view, is receiving continued attention. Quantitative and qualitative field work is being conducted to provide the needed background for accurate interpretation of remotely sensed data. The data under discussion in this paper were obtained by a side-looking multiplexed airborne radar (SLAR) supplemented with ground-truth data.Because of its ability to penetrate adverse weather, radar is an especially important instrument for monitoring ice in the upper Great Lakes. It has previously been shown that imaging radars can provide maps of ice cover in these areas. However, questions concerning both the nature of the surfaces reflecting radar energy and the interpretation of the radar imagery continually arise.Our analysis of ice in Whitefish Bay (Lake Superior) indicates that the combination of the ice/water interlace and the ice/air interface is the major contributor to the radar backscatter as seen on the imagery At these frequencies the ice has a very low relative dielectric permittivity (types studied include newly formed black ice, pancake ice, and frozen and consolidated pack and brash ice.Although ice thickness cannot be measured directly from the received signals, it is suspected that by combining the information pertaining to radar backscatter with data on the meteorological and sea-state history of the area, together with some basic ground truth, better estimates of the ice thickness may be provided. In addition, certain ice features (e.g. ridges, ice-foot formation, areas of brash ice) may be identified with reasonable confidence. There is a continued need for additional ground work to verify the validity of imaging radars for these types of interpretations.

  10. Ikaite crystal distribution in Arctic winter sea ice and implications for CO2 system dynamics (United States)

    Rysgaard, S.; Søgaard, D. H.; Cooper, M.; Pućko, M.; Lennert, K.; Papakyriakou, T. N.; Wang, F.; Geilfus, N. X.; Glud, R. N.; Ehn, J.; McGinnnis, D. F.; Attard, K.; Sievers, J.; Deming, J. W.; Barber, D.


    The precipitation of ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O) in polar sea ice is critical to the efficiency of the sea ice-driven carbon pump and potentially important to the global carbon cycle, yet the spatial and temporal occurrence of ikaite within the ice is poorly known. We report unique observations of ikaite in unmelted ice and vertical profiles of ikaite abundance and concentration in sea ice for the crucial season of winter. Ice was examined from two locations: a 1 m thick land-fast ice site and a 0.3 m thick polynya site, both in the Young Sound area (74° N, 20° W) of NE Greenland. Ikaite crystals, ranging in size from a few µm to 700 µm were observed to concentrate in the interstices between the ice platelets in both granular and columnar sea ice. In vertical sea-ice profiles from both locations, ikaite concentration determined from image analysis, decreased with depth from surfaceice values of 700-900 µmol kg-1 ice (~ 25 × 106 crystals kg-1) to bottom-layer values of 100-200 µmol kg-1 ice (1-7 × 106 kg-1), all of which are much higher (4-10 times) than those reported in the few previous studies. Direct measurements of total alkalinity (TA) in surface layers fell within the same range as ikaite concentration whereas TA concentrations in bottom layers were twice as high. This depth-related discrepancy suggests interior ice processes where ikaite crystals form in surface sea ice layers and partly dissolved in bottom layers. From these findings and model calculations we relate sea ice formation and melt to observed pCO2 conditions in polar surface waters, and hence, the air-sea CO2 flux.

  11. Leveraging Subsidence in Permafrost with Remotely Sensed Active Layer Thickness (ReSALT) Products (United States)

    Schaefer, K. M.; Chen, A.; Chen, J.; Chen, R. H.; Liu, L.; Michaelides, R. J.; Moghaddam, M.; Parsekian, A.; Tabatabaeenejad, A.; Thompson, J. A.; Zebker, H. A.; Meyer, F. J.


    The Remotely Sensed Active Layer Thickness (ReSALT) product uses the Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technique to measure ground subsidence in permafrost regions. Seasonal subsidence results from the expansion of soil water into ice as the surface soil or active layer freezes and thaws each year. Subsidence trends result from large-scale thaw of permafrost and from the melting and subsequent drainage of excess ground ice in permafrost-affected soils. The attached figure shows the 2006-2010 average seasonal subsidence from ReSALT around Barrow, Alaska. The average active layer thickness (the maximum surface thaw depth during summer) is 30-40 cm, resulting in an average seasonal subsidence of 1-3 cm. Analysis of the seasonal subsidence and subsidence trends provides valuable insights into important permafrost processes, such as the freeze/thaw of the active layer, large-scale thawing due to climate change, the impact of fire, and infrastructure vulnerability. ReSALT supports the Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) field campaign in Alaska and northwest Canada and is a precursor for a potential NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR) product. ReSALT includes uncertainties for all parameters and is validated against in situ measurements from the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) network, Ground Penetrating Radar and mechanical probe measurements. Here we present examples of ReSALT products in Alaska to highlight the untapped potential of the InSAR technique to understand permafrost dynamics, with a strong emphasis on the underlying processes that drive the subsidence.

  12. Sputtering of water ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baragiola, R.A.; Vidal, R.A.; Svendsen, W.


    We present results of a range of experiments of sputtering of water ice together with a guide to the literature. We studied how sputtering depends on the projectile energy and fluence, ice growth temperature, irradiation temperature and external electric fields. We observed luminescence from...

  13. Ice sheet in peril

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Christine Schøtt


    Earth's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are major contributors to sea level change. At present, the Greenland Ice Sheet (see the photo) is losing mass in response to climate warming in Greenland (1), but the present changes also include a long-term response to past climate transitions...

  14. Turning into Ice (United States)

    Pietsch, Renée B.; Hanlon, Regina; Bohland, Cynthia; Schmale, David G., III


    This article describes an interdisciplinary unit in which students explore biological "ice nucleation"--by particles that cause water to freeze at temperatures above -38°C--through the lens of the microbial ice nucleator "Pseudomonas syringae." Such This activity, which aligns with the "Next Generation Science…

  15. CALICE: Calibrating Plant Biodiversity in Glacier Ice (United States)

    Festi, Daniela; Cristofori, Antonella; Vernesi, Cristiano; Zerbe, Stefan; Wellstein, Camilla; Maggi, Valter; Oeggl, Klaus


    The objective of the project is to reconstruct plant biodiversity and its trend archived in Alpine glacier ice by pollen and eDNA (environmental DNA) during the last five decades by analyzing a 40 m ice core. For our study we chose the Adamello glacier (Trentino - Südtirol, Lombardia) because of i) the good preservation conditions for pollen and eDNA in ice, ii) the thickness of the ice cap (270m) and iii) the expected high time resolution. The biodiversity estimates gained by pollen analysis and eDNA will be validated by historical biodiversity assessments mainly based on vegetation maps, aerial photos and vegetation surveys in the catchment area of the Adamello glacier for the last five decades. This historical reconstruction of biodiversity trends will be performed on a micro-, meso- and macro-scale (5, 20-50 and 50-100 Km radius, respectively). The results will serve as a calibration data set on biodiversity for future studies, such as the second step of the coring by the POLLiCE research consortium ( In fact, arrangements are currently been made to drill the complete ice cap and retrieve a 270 m thick core which has the potential to cover a time span of minimum 400 years up to several millennia. This second stage will extend the time scale and enable the evaluation of dissimilarity/similarity of modern biodiversity in relation to Late Holocene trends. Finally, we believe this case study has the potential to be applied in other glaciated areas to evaluate biodiversity for large regions (e.g. central Asian mountain ranges, Tibet and Tian Shan or the Andes).

  16. Monitoring production target thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oothoudt, M.A.


    Pion and muon production targets at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility consist of rotating graphite wheels. The previous target thickness monitoring Procedure scanned the target across a reduced intensity beam to determine beam center. The fractional loss in current across the centered target gave a measure of target thickness. This procedure, however, required interruption of beam delivery to experiments and frequently indicated a different fractional loss than at normal beam currents. The new monitoring Procedure compares integrated ups and downs toroid current monitor readings. The current monitors are read once per minute and the integral of readings are logged once per eight-hour shift. Changes in the upstream to downstream fractional difference provide a nonintrusive continuous measurement of target thickness under nominal operational conditions. Target scans are now done only when new targets are installed or when unexplained changes in the current monitor data are observed

  17. Geomorphological evidence for ground ice on dwarf planet Ceres (United States)

    Schmidt, Britney E.; Hughson, Kynan H.G.; Chilton, Heather T.; Scully, Jennifer E. C.; Platz, Thomas; Nathues, Andreas; Sizemore, Hanna; Bland, Michael T.; Byrne, Shane; Marchi, Simone; O'Brien, David; Schorghofer, Norbert; Hiesinger, Harald; Jaumann, Ralf; Hendrick Pasckert, Jan; Lawrence, Justin D.; Buzckowski, Debra; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Sykes, Mark V.; Schenk, Paul M.; DeSanctis, Maria-Cristina; Mitri, Giuseppe; Formisano, Michelangelo; Li, Jian-Yang; Reddy, Vishnu; Le Corre, Lucille; Russell, Christopher T.; Raymond, Carol A.


    Five decades of observations of Ceres suggest that the dwarf planet has a composition similar to carbonaceous meteorites and may have an ice-rich outer shell protected by a silicate layer. NASA’s Dawn spacecraft has detected ubiquitous clays, carbonates and other products of aqueous alteration across the surface of Ceres, but surprisingly it has directly observed water ice in only a few areas. Here we use Dawn Framing Camera observations to analyse lobate morphologies on Ceres’ surface and we infer the presence of ice in the upper few kilometres of Ceres. We identify three distinct lobate morphologies that we interpret as surface flows: thick tongue-shaped, furrowed flows on steep slopes; thin, spatulate flows on shallow slopes; and cuspate sheeted flows that appear fluidized. The shapes and aspect ratios of these flows are different from those of dry landslides—including those on ice-poor Vesta—but are morphologically similar to ice-rich flows on other bodies, indicating the involvement of ice. Based on the geomorphology and poleward increase in prevalence of these flows, we suggest that the shallow subsurface of Ceres is comprised of mixtures of silicates and ice, and that ice is most abundant near the poles.

  18. Large sea ice outflow into the Nares Strait in 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, R.; Pedersen, L.T.; Gudmandsen, Preben


    Sea ice flux through the Nares Strait is most active during the fall and early winter, ceases in mid- to late winter after the formation of ice arches along the strait, and re-commences after breakup in summer. In 2007, ice arches failed to form. This resulted in the highest outflow of Arctic sea...... at Fram Strait. Clearly, the ice arches control Arctic sea ice outflow. The duration of unobstructed flow explains more than 84% of the variance in the annual area flux. In our record, seasonal stoppages are always associated with the formation of an arch near the same location in the southern Kane Basin...... ice in the 13-year record between 1997 and 2009. The 2007 area and volume outflows of 87 x 10(3) km(2) and 254 km(3) are more than twice their 13-year means. This contributes to the recent loss of the thick, multiyear Arctic sea ice and represents similar to 10% of our estimates of the mean ice export...

  19. Update on Simulating Ice-Cliff Failure (United States)

    Parizek, B. R.; Christianson, K. A.; Alley, R. B.; Voytenko, D.; Vankova, I.; Dixon, T. H.; Walker, R. T.; Holland, D.


    Using a 2D full-Stokes diagnostic ice-flow model and engineering and glaciological failure criteria, we simulate the limiting physical conditions for rapid structural failure of subaerial ice cliffs. Previously, using a higher-order flowline model, we reported that the threshold height, in crevassed ice and/or under favorable conditions for hydrofracture or crack lubrication, may be only slightly above the 100-m maximum observed today and that under well-drained or low-melt conditions, mechanically-competent ice supports cliff heights up to 220 m (with a likely range of 180-275 m) before ultimately succumbing to tensional and compressive failure along a listric surface. However, proximal to calving fronts, bridging effects lead to variations in vertical normal stress from the background glaciostatic stress state that give rise to the along-flow gradients in vertical shear stress that are included within a full-Stokes momentum balance. When including all flowline stresses within the physics core, diagnostic solutions continue to support our earlier findings that slumping failure ultimately limits the upper bound for cliff heights. Shear failure still requires low cohesive strength, tensile failure leads to deeper dry-crevasse propagation (albeit, less than halfway through the cliff), and compressive failure drops the threshold height for triggering rapid ice-front retreat via slumping to 200 m (145-280 m).

  20. Climate change and the long-term viability of the World's busiest heavy haul ice road (United States)

    Mullan, Donal; Swindles, Graeme; Patterson, Tim; Galloway, Jennifer; Macumber, Andrew; Falck, Hendrik; Crossley, Laura; Chen, Jie; Pisaric, Michael


    Climate models project that the northern high latitudes will warm at a rate in excess of the global mean. This will pose severe problems for Arctic and sub-Arctic infrastructure dependent on maintaining low temperatures for structural integrity. This is the case for the economically important Tibbitt to Contwoyto Winter Road (TCWR)—the world's busiest heavy haul ice road, spanning 400 km across mostly frozen lakes within the Northwest Territories of Canada. In this study, future climate scenarios are developed for the region using statistical downscaling methods. In addition, changes in lake ice thickness are projected based on historical relationships between measured ice thickness and air temperatures. These projections are used to infer the theoretical operational dates of the TCWR based on weight limits for trucks on the ice. Results across three climate models driven by four RCPs reveal a considerable warming trend over the coming decades. Projected changes in ice thickness reveal a trend towards thinner lake ice and a reduced time window when lake ice is at sufficient thickness to support trucks on the ice road, driven by increasing future temperatures. Given the uncertainties inherent in climate modelling and the resultant projections, caution should be exercised in interpreting the magnitude of these scenarios. More certain is the direction of change, with a clear trend towards winter warming that will reduce the operation time window of the TCWR. This illustrates the need for planners and policymakers to consider future changes in climate when planning annual haulage along the TCWR.

  1. Slush Fund: Modeling the Multiphase Physics of Oceanic Ices (United States)

    Buffo, J.; Schmidt, B. E.


    melting events will be discussed for terrestrial ice. The impact of fluid motion within the mushy layer on nutrient transport and habitability will be discussed. Results from the model's application to icy moon environments will be presented, highlighting ice shell composition, thickness, thermodynamics, and role in potential habitability.

  2. Influence of sea ice on Arctic coasts (United States)

    Barnhart, K. R.; Kay, J. E.; Overeem, I.; Anderson, R. S.


    Coasts form the dynamic interface between the terrestrial and oceanic systems. In the Arctic, and in much of the world, the coast is a focal point for population, infrastructure, biodiversity, and ecosystem services. A key difference between Arctic and temperate coasts is the presence of sea ice. Changes in sea ice cover can influence the coast because (1) the length of the sea ice-free season controls the time over which nearshore water can interact with the land, and (2) the location of the sea ice edge controls the fetch over which storm winds can interact with open ocean water, which in turn governs nearshore water level and wave field. We first focus on the interaction of sea ice and ice-rich coasts. We combine satellite records of sea ice with a model for wind-driven storm surge and waves to estimate how changes in the sea ice-free season have impacted the nearshore hydrodynamic environment along Alaska's Beaufort Sea Coast for the period 1979-2012. This region has experienced some of the greatest changes in both sea ice cover and coastal erosion rates in the Arctic: the median length of the open-water season has expanded by 90 percent, while coastal erosion rates have more than doubled from 8.7 to 19 m yr-1. At Drew Point, NW winds increase shoreline water levels that control the incision of a submarine notch, the rate-limiting step of coastal retreat. The maximum water-level setup at Drew Point has increased consistently with increasing fetch. We extend our analysis to the entire Arctic using both satellite-based observations and global coupled climate model output from the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble (CESM-LE) project. This 30-member ensemble employs a 1-degree version of the CESM-CAM5 historical forcing for the period 1920-2005, and RCP 8.5 forcing from 2005-2100. A control model run with constant pre-industrial (1850) forcing characterizes internal variability in a constant climate. Finally, we compare observations and model results to

  3. Seasonal sea ice predictions for the Arctic based on assimilation of remotely sensed observations (United States)

    Kauker, F.; Kaminski, T.; Ricker, R.; Toudal-Pedersen, L.; Dybkjaer, G.; Melsheimer, C.; Eastwood, S.; Sumata, H.; Karcher, M.; Gerdes, R.


    The recent thinning and shrinking of the Arctic sea ice cover has increased the interest in seasonal sea ice forecasts. Typical tools for such forecasts are numerical models of the coupled ocean sea ice system such as the North Atlantic/Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Model (NAOSIM). The model uses as input the initial state of the system and the atmospheric boundary condition over the forecasting period. This study investigates the potential of remotely sensed ice thickness observations in constraining the initial model state. For this purpose it employs a variational assimilation system around NAOSIM and the Alfred Wegener Institute's CryoSat-2 ice thickness product in conjunction with the University of Bremen's snow depth product and the OSI SAF ice concentration and sea surface temperature products. We investigate the skill of predictions of the summer ice conditions starting in March for three different years. Straightforward assimilation of the above combination of data streams results in slight improvements over some regions (especially in the Beaufort Sea) but degrades the over-all fit to independent observations. A considerable enhancement of forecast skill is demonstrated for a bias correction scheme for the CryoSat-2 ice thickness product that uses a spatially varying scaling factor.

  4. Seasonal and interannual variability of fast ice extent in the southeastern Laptev Sea between 1999 and 2013 (United States)

    Selyuzhenok, V.; Krumpen, T.; Mahoney, A.; Janout, M.; Gerdes, R.


    Along with changes in sea ice extent, thickness, and drift speed, Arctic sea ice regime is characterized by a decrease of fast ice season and reduction of fast ice extent. The most extensive fast ice cover in the Arctic develops in the southeastern Laptev Sea. Using weekly operational sea ice charts produced by Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI, Russia) from 1999 to 2013, we identified five main key events that characterize the annual evolution of fast ice in the southeastern Laptev Sea. Linking the occurrence of the key events with the atmospheric forcing, bathymetry, freezeup, and melt onset, we examined the processes driving annual fast ice cycle. The analysis revealed that fast ice in the region is sensitive to thermodynamic processes throughout a season, while the wind has a strong influence only on the first stages of fast ice development. The maximal fast ice extent is closely linked to the bathymetry and local topography and is primarily defined by the location of shoals, where fast ice is likely grounded. The annual fast ice cycle shows significant changes over the period of investigation, with tendencies toward later fast ice formation and earlier breakup. These tendencies result in an overall decrease of the fast ice season by 2.8 d/yr, which is significantly higher than previously reported trends.

  5. Estimation of degree of sea ice ridging based on dual-polarized C-band SAR data (United States)

    Gegiuc, Alexandru; Similä, Markku; Karvonen, Juha; Lensu, Mikko; Mäkynen, Marko; Vainio, Jouni


    For ship navigation in the Baltic Sea ice, parameters such as ice edge, ice concentration, ice thickness and degree of ridging are usually reported daily in manually prepared ice charts. These charts provide icebreakers with essential information for route optimization and fuel calculations. However, manual ice charting requires long analysis times, and detailed analysis of large areas (e.g. Arctic Ocean) is not feasible. Here, we propose a method for automatic estimation of the degree of ice ridging in the Baltic Sea region, based on RADARSAT-2 C-band dual-polarized (HH/HV channels) SAR texture features and sea ice concentration information extracted from Finnish ice charts. The SAR images were first segmented and then several texture features were extracted for each segment. Using the random forest method, we classified them into four classes of ridging intensity and compared them to the reference data extracted from the digitized ice charts. The overall agreement between the ice-chart-based degree of ice ridging and the automated results varied monthly, being 83, 63 and 81 % in January, February and March 2013, respectively. The correspondence between the degree of ice ridging reported in the ice charts and the actual ridge density was validated with data collected during a field campaign in March 2011. In principle the method can be applied to the seasonal sea ice regime in the Arctic Ocean.

  6. An ice flow modeling perspective on bedrock adjustment patterns of the Greenland ice sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Olaizola


    Full Text Available Since the launch in 2002 of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellites, several estimates of the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS have been produced. To obtain ice mass changes, the GRACE data need to be corrected for the effect of deformation changes of the Earth's crust. Recently, a new method has been proposed where ice mass changes and bedrock changes are simultaneously solved. Results show bedrock subsidence over almost the entirety of Greenland in combination with ice mass loss which is only half of the currently standing estimates. This subsidence can be an elastic response, but it may however also be a delayed response to past changes. In this study we test whether these subsidence patterns are consistent with ice dynamical modeling results. We use a 3-D ice sheet–bedrock model with a surface mass balance forcing based on a mass balance gradient approach to study the pattern and magnitude of bedrock changes in Greenland. Different mass balance forcings are used. Simulations since the Last Glacial Maximum yield a bedrock delay with respect to the mass balance forcing of nearly 3000 yr and an average uplift at present of 0.3 mm yr−1. The spatial pattern of bedrock changes shows a small central subsidence as well as more intense uplift in the south. These results are not compatible with the gravity based reconstructions showing a subsidence with a maximum in central Greenland, thereby questioning whether the claim of halving of the ice mass change is justified.

  7. Human locomotion on ice: the evolution of ice-skating energetics through history. (United States)

    Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E


    More than 3000 years ago, peoples living in the cold North European regions started developing tools such as ice skates that allowed them to travel on frozen lakes. We show here which technical and technological changes determined the main steps in the evolution of ice-skating performance over its long history. An in-depth historical research helped identify the skates displaying significantly different features from previous models and that could consequently determine a better performance in terms of speed and energy demand. Five pairs of ice skates were tested, from the bone-skates, dated about 1800 BC, to modern ones. This paper provides evidence for the fact that the metabolic cost of locomotion on ice decreased dramatically through history, the metabolic cost of modern ice-skating being only 25% of that associated with the use of bone-skates. Moreover, for the same metabolic power, nowadays skaters can achieve speeds four times higher than their ancestors could. In the range of speeds considered, the cost of travelling on ice was speed independent for each skate model, as for running. This latter finding, combined with the accepted relationship between time of exhaustion and the sustainable fraction of metabolic power, gives the opportunity to estimate the maximum skating speed according to the distance travelled. Ice skates were probably the first human powered locomotion tools to take the maximum advantage from the biomechanical properties of the muscular system: even when travelling at relatively high speeds, the skating movement pattern required muscles to shorten slowly so that they could also develop a considerable amount of force.

  8. GLERL Radiation Transfer Through Freshwater Ice (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radiation transmittance (ratio of transmitted to incident radiation) through clear ice, refrozen slush ice and brash ice, from ice surface to ice-water interface in...

  9. Investigating cosmic rays and air shower physics with IceCube/IceTop (United States)

    Dembinski, Hans


    IceCube is a cubic-kilometer detector in the deep ice at South Pole. Its square-kilometer surface array, IceTop, is located at 2800 m altitude. IceTop is large and dense enough to cover the cosmic-ray energy spectrum from PeV to EeV energies with a remarkably small systematic uncertainty, thanks to being close to the shower maximum. The experiment offers new insights into hadronic physics of air showers by observing three components: the electromagnetic signal at the surface, GeV muons in the periphery of the showers, and TeV muons in the deep ice. The cosmic-ray flux is measured with the surface signal. The mass composition is extracted from the energy loss of TeV muons observed in the deep ice in coincidence with signals at the surface. The muon lateral distribution is obtained from GeV muons identified in surface signals in the periphery of the shower. The energy spectrum of the most energetic TeV muons is also under study, as well as special events with laterally separated TeV muon tracks which originate from high-pT TeV muons. A combination of all these measurements opens the possibility to perform powerful new tests of hadronic interaction models used to simulate air showers. The latest results will be reviewed from this perspective.

  10. Investigating cosmic rays and air shower physics with IceCube/IceTop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dembinski Hans


    Full Text Available IceCube is a cubic-kilometer detector in the deep ice at South Pole. Its square-kilometer surface array, IceTop, is located at 2800 m altitude. IceTop is large and dense enough to cover the cosmic-ray energy spectrum from PeV to EeV energies with a remarkably small systematic uncertainty, thanks to being close to the shower maximum. The experiment offers new insights into hadronic physics of air showers by observing three components: the electromagnetic signal at the surface, GeV muons in the periphery of the showers, and TeV muons in the deep ice. The cosmic-ray flux is measured with the surface signal. The mass composition is extracted from the energy loss of TeV muons observed in the deep ice in coincidence with signals at the surface. The muon lateral distribution is obtained from GeV muons identified in surface signals in the periphery of the shower. The energy spectrum of the most energetic TeV muons is also under study, as well as special events with laterally separated TeV muon tracks which originate from high-pT TeV muons. A combination of all these measurements opens the possibility to perform powerful new tests of hadronic interaction models used to simulate air showers. The latest results will be reviewed from this perspective.

  11. Torque and Axial Loading Physics for Measuring Atmospheric Icing Load and Icing Rate


    Mughal, Umair Najeeb; Virk, Muhammad Shakeel


    Measuring icing load and icing rate are important parameters for an atmospheric icing sensor. A new icing sensor has recently been designed and developed at Narvik University College for measuring atmospheric icing rate, icing load and icing type. Unlike the existing atmospheric icing sensors commercially available in market, which uses the axial loading for measuring icing load and icing rate, this new sensory system measures icing load and icing rate using the torque loading physics. The pe...

  12. Importance of aggregation and small ice crystals in cirrus clouds, based on observations and an ice particle growth model (United States)

    Mitchell, David L.; Chai, Steven K.; Dong, Yayi; Arnott, W. Patrick; Hallett, John


    The 1 November 1986 FIRE I case study was used to test an ice particle growth model which predicts bimodal size spectra in cirrus clouds. The model was developed from an analytically based model which predicts the height evolution of monomodal ice particle size spectra from the measured ice water content (IWC). Size spectra from the monomodal model are represented by a gamma distribution, N(D) = N(sub o)D(exp nu)exp(-lambda D), where D = ice particle maximum dimension. The slope parameter, lambda, and the parameter N(sub o) are predicted from the IWC through the growth processes of vapor diffusion and aggregation. The model formulation is analytical, computationally efficient, and well suited for incorporation into larger models. The monomodal model has been validated against two other cirrus cloud case studies. From the monomodal size spectra, the size distributions which determine concentrations of ice particles less than about 150 mu m are predicted.

  13. Modelling snow ice and superimposed ice on landfast sea ice in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixin Wang


    Full Text Available Snow ice and superimposed ice formation on landfast sea ice in a Svalbard fjord, Kongsfjorden, was investigated with a high-resolution thermodynamic snow and sea-ice model, applying meteorological weather station data as external forcing. The model shows that sea-ice formation occurs both at the ice bottom and at the snow/ice interface. Modelling results indicated that the total snow ice and superimposed ice, which formed at the snow/ice interface, was about 14 cm during the simulation period, accounting for about 15% of the total ice mass and 35% of the total ice growth. Introducing a time-dependent snow density improved the modelled results, and a time-dependent oceanic heat flux parameterization yielded reasonable ice growth at the ice bottom. Model results suggest that weather conditions, in particular air temperature and precipitation, as well as snow thermal properties and surface albedo are the most critical factors for the development of snow ice and superimposed ice in Kongsfjorden. While both warming air and higher precipitation led to increased snow ice and superimposed ice forming in Kongsfjorden in the model runs, the processes were more sensitive to precipitation than to air temperature.

  14. Detecting high spatial variability of ice shelf basal mass balance, Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Berger


    Full Text Available Ice shelves control the dynamic mass loss of ice sheets through buttressing and their integrity depends on the spatial variability of their basal mass balance (BMB, i.e. the difference between refreezing and melting. Here, we present an improved technique – based on satellite observations – to capture the small-scale variability in the BMB of ice shelves. As a case study, we apply the methodology to the Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica, and derive its yearly averaged BMB at 10 m horizontal gridding. We use mass conservation in a Lagrangian framework based on high-resolution surface velocities, atmospheric-model surface mass balance and hydrostatic ice-thickness fields (derived from TanDEM-X surface elevation. Spatial derivatives are implemented using the total-variation differentiation, which preserves abrupt changes in flow velocities and their spatial gradients. Such changes may reflect a dynamic response to localized basal melting and should be included in the mass budget. Our BMB field exhibits much spatial detail and ranges from −14.7 to 8.6 m a−1 ice equivalent. Highest melt rates are found close to the grounding line where the pressure melting point is high, and the ice shelf slope is steep. The BMB field agrees well with on-site measurements from phase-sensitive radar, although independent radar profiling indicates unresolved spatial variations in firn density. We show that an elliptical surface depression (10 m deep and with an extent of 0.7 km × 1.3 km lowers by 0.5 to 1.4 m a−1, which we tentatively attribute to a transient adaptation to hydrostatic equilibrium. We find evidence for elevated melting beneath ice shelf channels (with melting being concentrated on the channel's flanks. However, farther downstream from the grounding line, the majority of ice shelf channels advect passively (i.e. no melting nor refreezing toward the ice shelf front. Although the absolute, satellite

  15. Mapping Ross Ice Shelf with ROSETTA-Ice airborne laser altimetry (United States)

    Becker, M. K.; Fricker, H. A.; Padman, L.; Bell, R. E.; Siegfried, M. R.; Dieck, C. C. M.


    The Ross Ocean and ice Shelf Environment and Tectonic setting Through Aerogeophysical surveys and modeling (ROSETTA-Ice) project combines airborne glaciological, geological, and oceanographic observations to enhance our understanding of the history and dynamics of the large ( 500,000 square km) Ross Ice Shelf (RIS). Here, we focus on the Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data collected in 2015 and 2016. This data set represents a significant advance in resolution: Whereas the last attempt to systematically map RIS (the surface-based RIGGS program in the 1970s) was at 55 km grid spacing, the ROSETTA-Ice grid has 10-20 km line spacing and much higher along-track resolution. We discuss two different strategies for processing the raw LiDAR data: one that requires proprietary software (Riegl's RiPROCESS package), and one that employs open-source programs and libraries. With the processed elevation data, we are able to resolve fine-scale ice-shelf features such as the "rampart-moat" ice-front morphology, which has previously been observed on and modeled for icebergs. This feature is also visible in the ROSETTA-Ice shallow-ice radar data; comparing the laser data with radargrams provides insight into the processes leading to their formation. Near-surface firn state and total firn air content can also be investigated through combined analysis of laser altimetry and radar data. By performing similar analyses with data from the radar altimeter aboard CryoSat-2, we demonstrate the utility of the ROSETTA-Ice LiDAR data set in satellite validation efforts. The incorporation of the LiDAR data from the third and final field season (December 2017) will allow us to construct a DEM and an ice thickness map of RIS for the austral summers of 2015-2017. These products will be used to validate and extend observations of height changes from satellite radar and laser altimetry, as well as to update regional models of ocean circulation and ice dynamics.

  16. Coating thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The standard specifies measurements of the coating thickness, which make use of beta backscattering and/or x-ray fluorescence. For commonly used combinations of coating material and base material the appropriate measuring ranges and radionuclides to be used are given for continuous as well as for discontinuous measurements

  17. The effects of additional black carbon on the albedo of Arctic sea ice: variation with sea ice type and snow cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Marks


    Full Text Available The response of the albedo of bare sea ice and snow-covered sea ice to the addition of black carbon is calculated. Visible light absorption and light-scattering cross-sections are derived for a typical first-year and multi-year sea ice with both "dry" and "wet" snow types. The cross-sections are derived using data from a 1970s field study that recorded both reflectivity and light penetration in Arctic sea ice and snow overlying sea ice. The variation of absorption cross-section over the visible wavelengths suggests black carbon is the dominating light-absorbing impurity. The response of first-year and multi-year sea ice albedo to increasing black carbon, from 1 to 1024 ng g−1, in a top 5 cm layer of a 155 cm-thick sea ice was calculated using a radiative-transfer model. The albedo of the first-year sea ice is more sensitive to additional loadings of black carbon than the multi-year sea ice. An addition of 8 ng g−1 of black carbon causes a decrease to 98.7% of the original albedo for first-year sea ice compared to a decrease to 99.7% for the albedo of multi-year sea ice, at a wavelength of 500 nm. The albedo of sea ice is surprisingly unresponsive to additional black carbon up to 100 ng g−1 . Snow layers on sea ice may mitigate the effects of black carbon in sea ice. Wet and dry snow layers of 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 cm depth were added onto the sea ice surface. The albedo of the snow surface was calculated whilst the black carbon in the underlying sea ice was increased. A layer of snow 0.5 cm thick greatly diminishes the effect of black carbon in sea ice on the surface albedo. The albedo of a 2–5 cm snow layer (less than the e-folding depth of snow is still influenced by the underlying sea ice, but the effect of additional black carbon in the sea ice is masked.

  18. Constraints on Lobate Debris Apron Evolution and Rheology from Numerical Modeling of Ice Flow (United States)

    Parsons, R.; Nimmo, F.


    Recent radar observations of mid-latitude lobate debris aprons (LDAs) have confirmed the presence of ice within these deposits. Radar observations in Deuteronilus Mensae have constrained the concentration of dust found within the ice deposits to <30% by volume based on the strength of the returned signal. In addition to constraining the dust fraction, these radar observations can measure the ice thickness - providing an opportunity to more accurately estimate the flow behavior of ice responsible for the formation of LDAs. In order to further constrain the age and rheology of LDA ice, we developed a numerical model simulating ice flow under Martian conditions using results from ice deformation experiments, theory of ice grain growth based on terrestrial ice cores, and observational constraints from radar profiles and laser altimetry. This finite difference model calculates the LDA profile shape as it flows over time assuming no basal slip. In our model, the ice rheology is determined by the concentration of dust which influences the ice grain size by pinning the ice grain boundaries and halting ice grain growth. By varying the dust fraction (and therefore the ice grain size), the ice temperature, the subsurface slope, and the initial ice volume we are able to determine the combination of parameters that best reproduce the observed LDA lengths and thicknesses over a period of time comparable to crater age dates of LDA surfaces (90 - 300 My, see figure). Based on simulations using different combinations of ice temperature, ice grain size, and basal slope, we find that an ice temperature of 205 K, a dust volume fraction of 0.5% (resulting in an ice grain size of 5 mm), and a flat subsurface slope give reasonable model LDA ages for many LDAs in the northern mid-latitudes of Mars. However, we find that there is no single combination of dust fraction, temperature, and subsurface slope which can give realistic ages for all LDAs suggesting that all or some of these

  19. Improving volume loss estimates of the northwestern Greenland Ice Sheet 2002-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Niels Jákup; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup

    Studies have been carried out using various methods to estimate the Greenland ice sheet mass balance. Remote sensing techniques used to determine the ice sheet volume includes airborne and satellite radar and laser methods and measurements of ice flow of outlet glaciers use InSAR satellite radar......) does not work on sloping surfaces and is affected by rada