WorldWideScience

Sample records for maximum energy production

  1. Overview of Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques for Photovoltaic Energy Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    A substantial growth of the installed photovoltaic systems capacity has occurred around the world during the last decade, thus enhancing the availability of electric energy in an environmentally friendly way. The maximum power point tracking technique enables maximization of the energy production...... of photovoltaic sources during stochastically varying solar irradiation and ambient temperature conditions. Thus, the overall efficiency of the photovoltaic energy production system is increased. Numerous techniques have been presented during the last decade for implementing the maximum power point tracking...... process in a photovoltaic system. This article provides an overview of the operating principles of these techniques, which are suited for either uniform or non-uniform solar irradiation conditions. The operational characteristics and implementation requirements of these maximum power point tracking...

  2. Overview of Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques for Photovoltaic Energy Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    production of PV sources, despite the stochastically varying solar irradiation and ambient temperature conditions. Thereby, the overall efficiency of the PV energy production system is increased. Numerous techniques have been presented during the last decades for implementing the MPPT process in a PV system......A substantial growth of the installed photovoltaic (PV) systems capacity has occurred around the world during the last decade, thus enhancing the availability of electric energy in an environmentally friendly way. The maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique enables to maximize the energy....... This chapter provides an overview of the operating principles of these techniques, which are suited for either uniform or nonuniform solar irradiation conditions. The operational characteristics and implementation requirements of these MPPT methods are also analyzed in order to demonstrate their performance...

  3. Optimal initial fuel distribution in a thermal reactor for maximum energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran-Lopez, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Using the fuel burnup as objective function, it is desired to determine the initial distribution of the fuel in a reactor in order to obtain the maximum energy possible, for which, without changing a fixed initial fuel mass, the results for different initial fuel and control poison configurations are analyzed and the corresponding running times compared. One-dimensional, two energy-group theory is applied to a reflected cylindrical reactor using U-235 as fuel and light water as moderator and reflector. Fissions in both fast and thermal groups are considered. The reactor is divided into several annular regions, and the constant flux approximation in each depletion step is then used to solve the fuel and fission-product poisons differential equations in each region. The computer code OPTIME was developed to determine the time variation of core properties during the fuel cycle. At each depletion step, OPTIME calls ODMUG, [12] a criticality search program, from which the spatially-averaged neutron fluxes and control poison cross sections are obtained

  4. A parametrization of two-dimensional turbulence based on a maximum entropy production principle with a local conservation of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri

    2014-01-01

    In the context of two-dimensional (2D) turbulence, we apply the maximum entropy production principle (MEPP) by enforcing a local conservation of energy. This leads to an equation for the vorticity distribution that conserves all the Casimirs, the energy, and that increases monotonically the mixing entropy (H-theorem). Furthermore, the equation for the coarse-grained vorticity dissipates monotonically all the generalized enstrophies. These equations may provide a parametrization of 2D turbulence. They do not generally relax towards the maximum entropy state. The vorticity current vanishes for any steady state of the 2D Euler equation. Interestingly, the equation for the coarse-grained vorticity obtained from the MEPP turns out to coincide, after some algebraic manipulations, with the one obtained with the anticipated vorticity method. This shows a connection between these two approaches when the conservation of energy is treated locally. Furthermore, the newly derived equation, which incorporates a diffusion term and a drift term, has a nice physical interpretation in terms of a selective decay principle. This sheds new light on both the MEPP and the anticipated vorticity method. (paper)

  5. Maximum entropy production rate in quantum thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beretta, Gian Paolo, E-mail: beretta@ing.unibs.i [Universita di Brescia, via Branze 38, 25123 Brescia (Italy)

    2010-06-01

    In the framework of the recent quest for well-behaved nonlinear extensions of the traditional Schroedinger-von Neumann unitary dynamics that could provide fundamental explanations of recent experimental evidence of loss of quantum coherence at the microscopic level, a recent paper [Gheorghiu-Svirschevski 2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 054102] reproposes the nonlinear equation of motion proposed by the present author [see Beretta G P 1987 Found. Phys. 17 365 and references therein] for quantum (thermo)dynamics of a single isolated indivisible constituent system, such as a single particle, qubit, qudit, spin or atomic system, or a Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac field. As already proved, such nonlinear dynamics entails a fundamental unifying microscopic proof and extension of Onsager's reciprocity and Callen's fluctuation-dissipation relations to all nonequilibrium states, close and far from thermodynamic equilibrium. In this paper we propose a brief but self-contained review of the main results already proved, including the explicit geometrical construction of the equation of motion from the steepest-entropy-ascent ansatz and its exact mathematical and conceptual equivalence with the maximal-entropy-generation variational-principle formulation presented in Gheorghiu-Svirschevski S 2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 022105. Moreover, we show how it can be extended to the case of a composite system to obtain the general form of the equation of motion, consistent with the demanding requirements of strong separability and of compatibility with general thermodynamics principles. The irreversible term in the equation of motion describes the spontaneous attraction of the state operator in the direction of steepest entropy ascent, thus implementing the maximum entropy production principle in quantum theory. The time rate at which the path of steepest entropy ascent is followed has so far been left unspecified. As a step towards the identification of such rate, here we propose a possible

  6. Paving the road to maximum productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, C

    1998-01-01

    "Job security" is an oxymoron in today's environment of downsizing, mergers, and acquisitions. Workers find themselves living by new rules in the workplace that they may not understand. How do we cope? It is the leader's charge to take advantage of this chaos and create conditions under which his or her people can understand the need for change and come together with a shared purpose to effect that change. The clinical laboratory at Arkansas Children's Hospital has taken advantage of this chaos to down-size and to redesign how the work gets done to pave the road to maximum productivity. After initial hourly cutbacks, the workers accepted the cold, hard fact that they would never get their old world back. They set goals to proactively shape their new world through reorganizing, flexing staff with workload, creating a rapid response laboratory, exploiting information technology, and outsourcing. Today the laboratory is a lean, productive machine that accepts change as a way of life. We have learned to adapt, trust, and support each other as we have journeyed together over the rough roads. We are looking forward to paving a new fork in the road to the future.

  7. The maximum entropy production and maximum Shannon information entropy in enzyme kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobovišek, Andrej; Markovič, Rene; Brumen, Milan; Fajmut, Aleš

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate that the maximum entropy production principle (MEPP) serves as a physical selection principle for the description of the most probable non-equilibrium steady states in simple enzymatic reactions. A theoretical approach is developed, which enables maximization of the density of entropy production with respect to the enzyme rate constants for the enzyme reaction in a steady state. Mass and Gibbs free energy conservations are considered as optimization constraints. In such a way computed optimal enzyme rate constants in a steady state yield also the most uniform probability distribution of the enzyme states. This accounts for the maximal Shannon information entropy. By means of the stability analysis it is also demonstrated that maximal density of entropy production in that enzyme reaction requires flexible enzyme structure, which enables rapid transitions between different enzyme states. These results are supported by an example, in which density of entropy production and Shannon information entropy are numerically maximized for the enzyme Glucose Isomerase.

  8. Small scale wind energy harvesting with maximum power tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that energy harvesting from wind can be used to power remote monitoring systems. There are several studies that use wind energy in small-scale systems, mainly with wind turbine vertical axis. However, there are very few studies with actual implementations of small wind turbines. This paper compares the performance of horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines for energy harvesting on wireless sensor network applications. The problem with the use of wind energy is that most of the time the wind speed is very low, especially at urban areas. Therefore, this work includes a study on the wind speed distribution in an urban environment and proposes a controller to maximize the energy transfer to the storage systems. The generated power is evaluated by simulation and experimentally for different load and wind conditions. The results demonstrate the increase in efficiency of wind generators that use maximum power transfer tracking, even at low wind speeds.

  9. Maximum field capability of energy saver superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkot, F.; Cooper, W.E.; Hanft, R.; McInturff, A.

    1983-01-01

    At an energy of 1 TeV the superconducting cable in the Energy Saver dipole magnets will be operating at ca. 96% of its nominal short sample limit; the corresponding number in the quadrupole magnets will be 81%. All magnets for the Saver are individually tested for maximum current capability under two modes of operation; some 900 dipoles and 275 quadrupoles have now been measured. The dipole winding is composed of four individually wound coils which in general come from four different reels of cable. As part of the magnet fabrication quality control a short piece of cable from both ends of each reel has its critical current measured at 5T and 4.3K. In this paper the authors describe and present the statistical results of the maximum field tests (including quench and cycle) on Saver dipole and quadrupole magnets and explore the correlation of these tests with cable critical current

  10. Maximum gravitational-wave energy emissible in magnetar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Alessandra; Owen, Benjamin J.

    2011-05-01

    Recent searches of gravitational-wave data raise the question of what maximum gravitational-wave energies could be emitted during gamma-ray flares of highly magnetized neutron stars (magnetars). The highest energies (˜1049erg) predicted so far come from a model [K. Ioka, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.MNRAA40035-8711 327, 639 (2001), http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001MNRAS.327..639I] in which the internal magnetic field of a magnetar experiences a global reconfiguration, changing the hydromagnetic equilibrium structure of the star and tapping the gravitational potential energy without changing the magnetic potential energy. The largest energies in this model assume very special conditions, including a large change in moment of inertia (which was observed in at most one flare), a very high internal magnetic field, and a very soft equation of state. Here we show that energies of 1048-1049erg are possible under more generic conditions by tapping the magnetic energy, and we note that similar energies may also be available through cracking of exotic solid cores. Current observational limits on gravitational waves from magnetar fundamental modes are just reaching these energies and will beat them in the era of advanced interferometers.

  11. Maximum gravitational-wave energy emissible in magnetar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsi, Alessandra; Owen, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent searches of gravitational-wave data raise the question of what maximum gravitational-wave energies could be emitted during gamma-ray flares of highly magnetized neutron stars (magnetars). The highest energies (∼10 49 erg) predicted so far come from a model [K. Ioka, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327, 639 (2001), http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001MNRAS.327..639I] in which the internal magnetic field of a magnetar experiences a global reconfiguration, changing the hydromagnetic equilibrium structure of the star and tapping the gravitational potential energy without changing the magnetic potential energy. The largest energies in this model assume very special conditions, including a large change in moment of inertia (which was observed in at most one flare), a very high internal magnetic field, and a very soft equation of state. Here we show that energies of 10 48 -10 49 erg are possible under more generic conditions by tapping the magnetic energy, and we note that similar energies may also be available through cracking of exotic solid cores. Current observational limits on gravitational waves from magnetar fundamental modes are just reaching these energies and will beat them in the era of advanced interferometers.

  12. Theory and application of maximum magnetic energy in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.K.

    1992-02-01

    The magnetic energy in an inductively driven steady-state toroidal plasma is a maximum for a given rate of dissipation of energy (Poynting flux). A purely resistive steady state of the piecewise force-free configuration, however, cannot exist, as the periodic removal of the excess poloidal flux and pressure, due to heating, ruptures the static equilibrium of the partitioning rational surfaces intermittently. The rupture necessitates a plasma with a negative q'/q (as in reverse field pinches and spheromaks) to have the same α in all its force-free regions and with a positive q'/q (as in tokamaks) to have centrally peaked α's

  13. Maximum wind energy extraction strategies using power electronic converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quincy Qing

    2003-10-01

    This thesis focuses on maximum wind energy extraction strategies for achieving the highest energy output of variable speed wind turbine power generation systems. Power electronic converters and controls provide the basic platform to accomplish the research of this thesis in both hardware and software aspects. In order to send wind energy to a utility grid, a variable speed wind turbine requires a power electronic converter to convert a variable voltage variable frequency source into a fixed voltage fixed frequency supply. Generic single-phase and three-phase converter topologies, converter control methods for wind power generation, as well as the developed direct drive generator, are introduced in the thesis for establishing variable-speed wind energy conversion systems. Variable speed wind power generation system modeling and simulation are essential methods both for understanding the system behavior and for developing advanced system control strategies. Wind generation system components, including wind turbine, 1-phase IGBT inverter, 3-phase IGBT inverter, synchronous generator, and rectifier, are modeled in this thesis using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The simulation results have been verified by a commercial simulation software package, PSIM, and confirmed by field test results. Since the dynamic time constants for these individual models are much different, a creative approach has also been developed in this thesis to combine these models for entire wind power generation system simulation. An advanced maximum wind energy extraction strategy relies not only on proper system hardware design, but also on sophisticated software control algorithms. Based on literature review and computer simulation on wind turbine control algorithms, an intelligent maximum wind energy extraction control algorithm is proposed in this thesis. This algorithm has a unique on-line adaptation and optimization capability, which is able to achieve maximum wind energy conversion efficiency through

  14. Evaluating Maximum Wind Energy Exploitation in Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siano, Pierluigi; Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    The increased spreading of distributed and renewable generation requires moving towards active management of distribution networks. In this paper, in order to evaluate maximum wind energy exploitation in active distribution networks, a method based on a multi-period optimal power flow (OPF......) analysis is proposed. Active network management schemes such as coordinated voltage control, energy curtailment and power factor control are integrated in the method in order to investigate their impacts on the maximization of wind energy exploitation. Some case studies, using real data from a Danish...... distribution system, confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method in evaluating the optimal applications of active management schemes to increase wind energy harvesting without costly network reinforcement for the connection of wind generation....

  15. Radiation pressure acceleration: The factors limiting maximum attainable ion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulanov, S. S.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C. B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bulanov, S. V. [KPSI, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); A. M. Prokhorov Institute of General Physics RAS, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M. [KPSI, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Pegoraro, F. [Physics Department, University of Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, CNR, Pisa 56127 (Italy); Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) is a highly efficient mechanism of laser-driven ion acceleration, with near complete transfer of the laser energy to the ions in the relativistic regime. However, there is a fundamental limit on the maximum attainable ion energy, which is determined by the group velocity of the laser. The tightly focused laser pulses have group velocities smaller than the vacuum light speed, and, since they offer the high intensity needed for the RPA regime, it is plausible that group velocity effects would manifest themselves in the experiments involving tightly focused pulses and thin foils. However, in this case, finite spot size effects are important, and another limiting factor, the transverse expansion of the target, may dominate over the group velocity effect. As the laser pulse diffracts after passing the focus, the target expands accordingly due to the transverse intensity profile of the laser. Due to this expansion, the areal density of the target decreases, making it transparent for radiation and effectively terminating the acceleration. The off-normal incidence of the laser on the target, due either to the experimental setup, or to the deformation of the target, will also lead to establishing a limit on maximum ion energy.

  16. Novel methods for estimating lithium-ion battery state of energy and maximum available energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Linfeng; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Guoxiu; He, Tingting; Wei, Yiying

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Study on temperature, current, aging dependencies of maximum available energy. • Study on the various factors dependencies of relationships between SOE and SOC. • A quantitative relationship between SOE and SOC is proposed for SOE estimation. • Estimate maximum available energy by means of moving-window energy-integral. • The robustness and feasibility of the proposed approaches are systematic evaluated. - Abstract: The battery state of energy (SOE) allows a direct determination of the ratio between the remaining and maximum available energy of a battery, which is critical for energy optimization and management in energy storage systems. In this paper, the ambient temperature, battery discharge/charge current rate and cell aging level dependencies of battery maximum available energy and SOE are comprehensively analyzed. An explicit quantitative relationship between SOE and state of charge (SOC) for LiMn_2O_4 battery cells is proposed for SOE estimation, and a moving-window energy-integral technique is incorporated to estimate battery maximum available energy. Experimental results show that the proposed approaches can estimate battery maximum available energy and SOE with high precision. The robustness of the proposed approaches against various operation conditions and cell aging levels is systematically evaluated.

  17. Application of the maximum entropy production principle to electrical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    For a simple class of electrical systems, the principle of the maximum entropy production rate (MaxEP) is discussed. First, we compare the MaxEP principle and the principle of the minimum entropy production rate and illustrate the superiority of the MaxEP principle for the example of two parallel constant resistors. Secondly, we show that the Steenbeck principle for the electric arc as well as the ohmic contact behaviour of space-charge limited conductors follow from the MaxEP principle. In line with work by Dewar, the investigations seem to suggest that the MaxEP principle can also be applied to systems far from equilibrium, provided appropriate information is available that enters the constraints of the optimization problem. Finally, we apply the MaxEP principle to a mesoscopic system and show that the universal conductance quantum, e 2 /h, of a one-dimensional ballistic conductor can be estimated

  18. Optimal operating conditions for maximum biogas production in anaerobic bioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmant, W.; Oliveira, B.H.; Mitchell, D.A.; Vargas, J.V.C.; Ordonez, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the existence of optimal residence time and substrate inlet mass flow rate for maximum methane production through numerical simulations performed with a general transient mathematical model of an anaerobic biodigester introduced in this study. It is herein suggested a simplified model with only the most important reaction steps which are carried out by a single type of microorganisms following Monod kinetics. The mathematical model was developed for a well mixed reactor (CSTR – Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor), considering three main reaction steps: acidogenesis, with a μ max of 8.64 day −1 and a K S of 250 mg/L, acetogenesis, with a μ max of 2.64 day −1 and a K S of 32 mg/L, and methanogenesis, with a μ max of 1.392 day −1 and a K S of 100 mg/L. The yield coefficients were 0.1-g-dry-cells/g-pollymeric compound for acidogenesis, 0.1-g-dry-cells/g-propionic acid and 0.1-g-dry-cells/g-butyric acid for acetogenesis and 0.1 g-dry-cells/g-acetic acid for methanogenesis. The model describes both the transient and the steady-state regime for several different biodigester design and operating conditions. After model experimental validation, a parametric analysis was performed. It was found that biogas production is strongly dependent on the input polymeric substrate and fermentable monomer concentrations, but fairly independent of the input propionic, acetic and butyric acid concentrations. An optimisation study was then conducted and optimal residence time and substrate inlet mass flow rate were found for maximum methane production. The optima found were very sharp, showing a sudden drop of methane mass flow rate variation from the observed maximum to zero, within a 20% range around the optimal operating parameters, which stresses the importance of their identification, no matter how complex the actual bioreactor design may be. The model is therefore expected to be a useful tool for simulation, design, control and

  19. Multifield stochastic particle production: beyond a maximum entropy ansatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Mustafa A.; Garcia, Marcos A.G.; Xie, Hong-Yi; Wen, Osmond, E-mail: mustafa.a.amin@gmail.com, E-mail: marcos.garcia@rice.edu, E-mail: hxie39@wisc.edu, E-mail: ow4@rice.edu [Physics and Astronomy Department, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    We explore non-adiabatic particle production for N {sub f} coupled scalar fields in a time-dependent background with stochastically varying effective masses, cross-couplings and intervals between interactions. Under the assumption of weak scattering per interaction, we provide a framework for calculating the typical particle production rates after a large number of interactions. After setting up the framework, for analytic tractability, we consider interactions (effective masses and cross couplings) characterized by series of Dirac-delta functions in time with amplitudes and locations drawn from different distributions. Without assuming that the fields are statistically equivalent, we present closed form results (up to quadratures) for the asymptotic particle production rates for the N {sub f}=1 and N {sub f}=2 cases. We also present results for the general N {sub f} >2 case, but with more restrictive assumptions. We find agreement between our analytic results and direct numerical calculations of the total occupation number of the produced particles, with departures that can be explained in terms of violation of our assumptions. We elucidate the precise connection between the maximum entropy ansatz (MEA) used in Amin and Baumann (2015) and the underlying statistical distribution of the self and cross couplings. We provide and justify a simple to use (MEA-inspired) expression for the particle production rate, which agrees with our more detailed treatment when the parameters characterizing the effective mass and cross-couplings between fields are all comparable to each other. However, deviations are seen when some parameters differ significantly from others. We show that such deviations become negligible for a broad range of parameters when N {sub f}>> 1.

  20. The mechanics of granitoid systems and maximum entropy production rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Bruce E; Ord, Alison

    2010-01-13

    A model for the formation of granitoid systems is developed involving melt production spatially below a rising isotherm that defines melt initiation. Production of the melt volumes necessary to form granitoid complexes within 10(4)-10(7) years demands control of the isotherm velocity by melt advection. This velocity is one control on the melt flux generated spatially just above the melt isotherm, which is the control valve for the behaviour of the complete granitoid system. Melt transport occurs in conduits initiated as sheets or tubes comprising melt inclusions arising from Gurson-Tvergaard constitutive behaviour. Such conduits appear as leucosomes parallel to lineations and foliations, and ductile and brittle dykes. The melt flux generated at the melt isotherm controls the position of the melt solidus isotherm and hence the physical height of the Transport/Emplacement Zone. A conduit width-selection process, driven by changes in melt viscosity and constitutive behaviour, operates within the Transport Zone to progressively increase the width of apertures upwards. Melt can also be driven horizontally by gradients in topography; these horizontal fluxes can be similar in magnitude to vertical fluxes. Fluxes induced by deformation can compete with both buoyancy and topographic-driven flow over all length scales and results locally in transient 'ponds' of melt. Pluton emplacement is controlled by the transition in constitutive behaviour of the melt/magma from elastic-viscous at high temperatures to elastic-plastic-viscous approaching the melt solidus enabling finite thickness plutons to develop. The system involves coupled feedback processes that grow at the expense of heat supplied to the system and compete with melt advection. The result is that limits are placed on the size and time scale of the system. Optimal characteristics of the system coincide with a state of maximum entropy production rate. This journal is © 2010 The Royal Society

  1. Wavestar Energy Production Outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter Bak; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    It is of paramount importance to decrease the Cost of Energy (CoE) from Wavestar wave energy con-verters (WECs) in order to make the WECs competitive to other sources of renewable energy. The CoE can be decreased by reducing the cost of the machines (CAPEX and OPEX) and by increasing the in......-come. The income can most obviously be enlarged by increasing the energy production. The focus of the present note is solely on expectations to the yearly energy production from future Wavestar WECs....

  2. Ethylene Production Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Compliance Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    This July 2006 document is intended to help owners and operators of ethylene processes understand and comply with EPA's maximum achievable control technology standards promulgated on July 12, 2002, as amended on April 13, 2005 and April 20, 2006.

  3. Productivity and energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovins, H. [Rocky Mountain Inst., Snowmass, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Energy efficient building and office design offers the possibility of significantly increased worker productivity. By improving lighting, heating and cooling, workers can be made more comfortable and productive. An increase of 1 percent in productivity can provide savings to a company that exceed its entire energy bill. Efficient design practices are cost effective just from their energy savings. The resulting productivity gains make them indispensable. This paper documents eight cases in which efficient lighting, heating, and cooling have measurably increased worker productivity, decreased absenteeism, and/or improved the quality of work performed. They also show that efficient lighting can measurably increase work quality by removing errors and manufacturing defects. The case studies presented include retrofit of existing buildings and the design of new facilities, and cover a variety of commercial and industrial settings. Each case study identifies the design changes that were most responsible for increased productivity. As the eight case studies illustrate, energy efficient design may be one of the least expensive ways for a business to improve the productivity of its workers and the quality of its product. (author). 15 refs.

  4. Energy production systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, Thomas Howard

    2017-01-01

    Energy Production Systems Engineering presents IEEE, Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA), and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards of engineering systems and equipment in utility electric generation stations. Electrical engineers that practice in the energy industry must understand the specific characteristics of electrical and mechanical equipment commonly applied to energy production and conversion processes, including the mechanical and chemical processes involved, in order to design, operate and maintain electrical systems that support and enable these processes. To aid this understanding, Energy Production Systems Engineeringdescribes the equipment and systems found in various types of utility electric generation stations. This information is accompanied by examples and practice problems. It also addresses common issues of electrical safety that arise in electric generation stations.

  5. Maximum herd efficiency in meat production I. Optima for slaughter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profit rate for a meat production enterprise can be decomposedinto the unit price for meat and herd ... supply and demand, whereas breeding improvement is gen- ... Herd efficiency is total live mass for slaughter divided by costs .... tenance and above-maintenance components by Dickerson, and ..... Growth and productivity.

  6. Maximum herd efficiency in meat production II. The influence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    surface in terms of plots of total efficiency against percentages of mature body .... Dickerson (1978) shows that, for cattle and sheep, the energy .... protein metabolism. ... metric slope b is a scale-free parameter is convenient and .... Simulation.

  7. Different types of maximum power point tracking techniques for renewable energy systems: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Junaid; Shukla, Praveen; Mustafa, Rashid; Chatterji, S.; Mathew, Lini

    2016-03-01

    Global demand for electricity is increasing while production of energy from fossil fuels is declining and therefore the obvious choice of the clean energy source that is abundant and could provide security for development future is energy from the sun. In this paper, the characteristic of the supply voltage of the photovoltaic generator is nonlinear and exhibits multiple peaks, including many local peaks and a global peak in non-uniform irradiance. To keep global peak, MPPT is the important component of photovoltaic systems. Although many review articles discussed conventional techniques such as P & O, incremental conductance, the correlation ripple control and very few attempts have been made with intelligent MPPT techniques. This document also discusses different algorithms based on fuzzy logic, Ant Colony Optimization, Genetic Algorithm, artificial neural networks, Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Firefly, Extremum seeking control method and hybrid methods applied to the monitoring of maximum value of power at point in systems of photovoltaic under changing conditions of irradiance.

  8. The Maximum Free Magnetic Energy Allowed in a Solar Active Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Two whole-active-region magnetic quantities that can be measured from a line-of-sight magnetogram are (sup L) WL(sub SG), a gauge of the total free energy in an active region's magnetic field, and sup L(sub theta), a measure of the active region's total magnetic flux. From these two quantities measured from 1865 SOHO/MDI magnetograms that tracked 44 sunspot active regions across the 0.5 R(sub Sun) central disk, together with each active region's observed production of CMEs, X flares, and M flares, Falconer et al (2009, ApJ, submitted) found that (1) active regions have a maximum attainable free magnetic energy that increases with the magnetic size (sup L) (sub theta) of the active region, (2) in (Log (sup L)WL(sub SG), Log(sup L) theta) space, CME/flare-productive active regions are concentrated in a straight-line main sequence along which the free magnetic energy is near its upper limit, and (3) X and M flares are restricted to large active regions. Here, from (a) these results, (b) the observation that even the greatest X flares produce at most only subtle changes in active region magnetograms, and (c) measurements from MSFC vector magnetograms and from MDI line-of-sight magnetograms showing that practically all sunspot active regions have nearly the same area-averaged magnetic field strength: =- theta/A approximately equal to 300 G, where theta is the active region's total photospheric flux of field stronger than 100 G and A is the area of that flux, we infer that (1) the maximum allowed ratio of an active region's free magnetic energy to its potential-field energy is 1, and (2) any one CME/flare eruption releases no more than a small fraction (less than 10%) of the active region's free magnetic energy. This work was funded by NASA's Heliophysics Division and NSF's Division of Atmospheric Sciences.

  9. Material and energy productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberger, Julia K; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2011-02-15

    Resource productivity, measured as GDP output per resource input, is a widespread sustainability indicator combining economic and environmental information. Resource productivity is ubiquitous, from the IPAT identity to the analysis of dematerialization trends and policy goals. High resource productivity is interpreted as the sign of a resource-efficient, and hence more sustainable, economy. Its inverse, resource intensity (resource per GDP) has the reverse behavior, with higher values indicating environmentally inefficient economies. In this study, we investigate the global systematic relationship between material, energy and carbon productivities, and economic activity. We demonstrate that different types of materials and energy exhibit fundamentally different behaviors, depending on their international income elasticities of consumption. Biomass is completely inelastic, whereas fossil fuels tend to scale proportionally with income. Total materials or energy, as aggregates, have intermediate behavior, depending on the share of fossil fuels and other elastic resources. We show that a small inelastic share is sufficient for the total resource productivity to be significantly correlated with income. Our analysis calls into question the interpretation of resource productivity as a sustainability indicator. We conclude with suggestions for potential alternatives.

  10. Maximum Power Output of Quantum Heat Engine with Energy Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The difference between quantum isoenergetic process and quantum isothermal process comes from the violation of the law of equipartition of energy in the quantum regime. To reveal an important physical meaning of this fact, here we study a special type of quantum heat engine consisting of three processes: isoenergetic, isothermal and adiabatic processes. Therefore, this engine works between the energy and heat baths. Combining two engines of this kind, it is possible to realize the quantum Carnot engine. Furthermore, considering finite velocity of change of the potential shape, here an infinite square well with moving walls, the power output of the engine is discussed. It is found that the efficiency and power output are both closely dependent on the initial and final states of the quantum isothermal process. The performance of the engine cycle is shown to be optimized by control of the occupation probability of the ground state, which is determined by the temperature and the potential width. The relation between the efficiency and power output is also discussed.

  11. The Maximum Entropy Production Principle: Its Theoretical Foundations and Applications to the Earth System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Kleidon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Maximum Entropy Production (MEP principle has been remarkably successful in producing accurate predictions for non-equilibrium states. We argue that this is because the MEP principle is an effective inference procedure that produces the best predictions from the available information. Since all Earth system processes are subject to the conservation of energy, mass and momentum, we argue that in practical terms the MEP principle should be applied to Earth system processes in terms of the already established framework of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, with the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium at the appropriate scales.

  12. Risk of energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhaber, Herbert.

    1978-03-01

    Every human activity involves risk of accident or disease. Generation of energy is no exception. Although such risk has been considered for conventional systems (coal, oil and nuclear), a similar analysis for the so-called alternative or non-conventional systems (solar, wind, ocean thermal and methanol) has been lacking. This paper presents an evaluation of the risk, both occupational and to the public, of non-conventional energy systems. They are considered both in absolute terms and in relation to conventional systems. The risk of most non-conventional systems, per unit of energy output, is comparable to, and in some cases much higher than, the risk from coal and oil. This conclusion holds whether we consider deaths or injuries. Nuclear power and natural gas had the lowest overall risk of the ten technologies considered. Ocean thermal energy ranked third. The surprising result is that the other seven technologies considered were found to be up to 100 times less safe. The total risk is calculated by considering six components: material acquisition and construction, emissions caused by material production, operation and maintenance, energy back-up, energy storage, and transportation. In this way the risk of widely different systems can be fairly assessed. This methodology of 'risk accounting' will not tell us which energy technology to use. However, it can be employed to inform society of the risk inherent in competing energy systems. (author)

  13. Energy production from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestebroer, S.I.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the task group 'Energy Production from Biomass', initiated by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, was to identify bottlenecks in the development of biomass for energy production. The bottlenecks were identified by means of a process analysis of clean biomass fuels to the production of electricity and/or heat. The subjects in the process analysis are the potential availability of biomass, logistics, processing techniques, energy use, environmental effects, economic impact, and stimulation measures. Three categories of biomass are distinguished: organic residual matter, imported biomass, and energy crops, cultivated in the Netherlands. With regard to the processing techniques attention is paid to co-firing of clean biomass in existing electric power plants (co-firing in a coal-fired power plant or co-firing of fuel gas from biomass in a coal-fired or natural gas-fired power plant), and the combustion or gasification of clean biomass in special stand-alone installations. 5 figs., 13 tabs., 28 refs

  14. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and maximum entropy production in the Earth system: applications and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidon, Axel

    2009-06-01

    The Earth system is maintained in a unique state far from thermodynamic equilibrium, as, for instance, reflected in the high concentration of reactive oxygen in the atmosphere. The myriad of processes that transform energy, that result in the motion of mass in the atmosphere, in oceans, and on land, processes that drive the global water, carbon, and other biogeochemical cycles, all have in common that they are irreversible in their nature. Entropy production is a general consequence of these processes and measures their degree of irreversibility. The proposed principle of maximum entropy production (MEP) states that systems are driven to steady states in which they produce entropy at the maximum possible rate given the prevailing constraints. In this review, the basics of nonequilibrium thermodynamics are described, as well as how these apply to Earth system processes. Applications of the MEP principle are discussed, ranging from the strength of the atmospheric circulation, the hydrological cycle, and biogeochemical cycles to the role that life plays in these processes. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and the MEP principle have potentially wide-ranging implications for our understanding of Earth system functioning, how it has evolved in the past, and why it is habitable. Entropy production allows us to quantify an objective direction of Earth system change (closer to vs further away from thermodynamic equilibrium, or, equivalently, towards a state of MEP). When a maximum in entropy production is reached, MEP implies that the Earth system reacts to perturbations primarily with negative feedbacks. In conclusion, this nonequilibrium thermodynamic view of the Earth system shows great promise to establish a holistic description of the Earth as one system. This perspective is likely to allow us to better understand and predict its function as one entity, how it has evolved in the past, and how it is modified by human activities in the future.

  15. Neural Modeling of Fuzzy Controllers for Maximum Power Point Tracking in Photovoltaic Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Guede, Jose Manuel; Ramos-Hernanz, Josean; Altın, Necmi; Ozdemir, Saban; Kurt, Erol; Azkune, Gorka

    2018-06-01

    One field in which electronic materials have an important role is energy generation, especially within the scope of photovoltaic energy. This paper deals with one of the most relevant enabling technologies within that scope, i.e, the algorithms for maximum power point tracking implemented in the direct current to direct current converters and its modeling through artificial neural networks (ANNs). More specifically, as a proof of concept, we have addressed the problem of modeling a fuzzy logic controller that has shown its performance in previous works, and more specifically the dimensionless duty cycle signal that controls a quadratic boost converter. We achieved a very accurate model since the obtained medium squared error is 3.47 × 10-6, the maximum error is 16.32 × 10-3 and the regression coefficient R is 0.99992, all for the test dataset. This neural implementation has obvious advantages such as a higher fault tolerance and a simpler implementation, dispensing with all the complex elements needed to run a fuzzy controller (fuzzifier, defuzzifier, inference engine and knowledge base) because, ultimately, ANNs are sums and products.

  16. Potential role of motion for enhancing maximum output energy of triboelectric nanogenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Kyung-Eun; Lee, Min-Hyun; Cho, Yeonchoo; Nam, Seung-Geol; Shin, Hyeon-Jin; Park, Seongjun

    2017-07-01

    Although triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has been explored as one of the possible candidates for the auxiliary power source of portable and wearable devices, the output energy of a TENG is still insufficient to charge the devices with daily motion. Moreover, the fundamental aspects of the maximum possible energy of a TENG related with human motion are not understood systematically. Here, we confirmed the possibility of charging commercialized portable and wearable devices such as smart phones and smart watches by utilizing the mechanical energy generated by human motion. We confirmed by theoretical extraction that the maximum possible energy is related with specific form factors of a TENG. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrated the effect of human motion in an aspect of the kinetic energy and impulse using varying velocity and elasticity, and clarified how to improve the maximum possible energy of a TENG. This study gives insight into design of a TENG to obtain a large amount of energy in a limited space.

  17. Production of events with two or three muons in the final state during the interaction on nucleons of neutrinos and anti-neutrinos of the CERN narrow band beam with a maximum energy of 200 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, Jacques.

    1979-03-01

    A study was made of the production of dimuons and trimuons in the neutrino interactions using the data of the CDHS (CERN-Dortmund-Heidelberg-Saclay Cooperation) experiment taken in the CERN narrow band beam. The analysis of the quick results (since the statistics are weak) leads to significant conclusions on these events: 1) the c quark fragmentation function is approximately flat, 2) the production of heavy leptons, if this exists, only represents a very small part of the charged currents (10 -4 approximately). 3) the pair production of charmed quarks can explain some of the dimuons of same sign, the greater part of these events coming from the semi leptonic disintegration of pions and kaons (π→μν,K → μν) produced in the hadronic jet. 4) any other process (for instance the production of b quarks) is very weak ( -3 of the charged currents) [fr

  18. A maximum power point tracking algorithm for buoy-rope-drum wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. Q.; Zhang, X. C.; Zhou, Y.; Cui, Z. C.; Zhu, L. S.

    2016-08-01

    The maximum power point tracking control is the key link to improve the energy conversion efficiency of wave energy converters (WEC). This paper presents a novel variable step size Perturb and Observe maximum power point tracking algorithm with a power classification standard for control of a buoy-rope-drum WEC. The algorithm and simulation model of the buoy-rope-drum WEC are presented in details, as well as simulation experiment results. The results show that the algorithm tracks the maximum power point of the WEC fast and accurately.

  19. Existence and uniqueness of the maximum likelihood estimator for models with a Kronecker product covariance structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, B.P.; Bijma, F.; de Munck, J.C.; de Gunst, M.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with multivariate Gaussian models for which the covariance matrix is a Kronecker product of two matrices. We consider maximum likelihood estimation of the model parameters, in particular of the covariance matrix. There is no explicit expression for the maximum likelihood estimator

  20. Geothermal Energy as source or energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, E.

    1998-01-01

    This article shows the use and utilization of geothermal energy. This calorific energy can be used, through the wells perforation, in generation of electricity and many other tasks. In Colombia is possible the utilization of this energy in the electrical production due to the volcanic presence in the Western and Central mountain chains

  1. Lower Bounds on the Maximum Energy Benefit of Network Coding for Wireless Multiple Unicast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goseling, J.; Matsumoto, R.; Uyematsu, T.; Weber, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the energy savings that can be obtained by employing network coding instead of plain routing in wireless multiple unicast problems. We establish lower bounds on the benefit of network coding, defined as the maximum of the ratio of the minimum energy required by routing and network coding

  2. Lower bounds on the maximum energy benefit of network coding for wireless multiple unicast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goseling, Jasper; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh; Uyematsu, Tomohiko; Weber, Jos H.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the energy savings that can be obtained by employing network coding instead of plain routing in wireless multiple unicast problems. We establish lower bounds on the benefit of network coding, defined as the maximum of the ratio of the minimum energy required by routing and network coding

  3. Electron energy spectrum and maximum disruption angle under multi-photon beamstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoya, Kaoru; Chen, Pisin

    1989-03-01

    The final electron energy spectrum under multi-photon beamstrahlung process is derived analytically in the classical and the intermediate regimes. The maximum disruption angle from the low energy tail of the spectrum is also estimated. The results are then applied to the TLC and the CLIC parameters. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Higher renewable energy integration into the existing energy system of Finland – Is there any maximum limit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakeri, Behnam; Syri, Sanna; Rinne, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    Finland is to increase the share of RES (renewable energy sources) up to 38% in final energy consumption by 2020. While benefiting from local biomass resources Finnish energy system is deemed to achieve this goal, increasing the share of other intermittent renewables is under development, namely wind power and solar energy. Yet the maximum flexibility of the existing energy system in integration of renewable energy is not investigated, which is an important step before undertaking new renewable energy obligations. This study aims at filling this gap by hourly analysis and comprehensive modeling of the energy system including electricity, heat, and transportation, by employing EnergyPLAN tool. Focusing on technical and economic implications, we assess the maximum potential of different RESs separately (including bioenergy, hydropower, wind power, solar heating and PV, and heat pumps), as well as an optimal mix of different technologies. Furthermore, we propose a new index for assessing the maximum flexibility of energy systems in absorbing variable renewable energy. The results demonstrate that wind energy can be harvested at maximum levels of 18–19% of annual power demand (approx. 16 TWh/a), without major enhancements in the flexibility of energy infrastructure. With today's energy demand, the maximum feasible renewable energy for Finland is around 44–50% by an optimal mix of different technologies, which promises 35% reduction in carbon emissions from 2012's level. Moreover, Finnish energy system is flexible to augment the share of renewables in gross electricity consumption up to 69–72%, at maximum. Higher shares of RES calls for lower energy consumption (energy efficiency) and more flexibility in balancing energy supply and consumption (e.g. by energy storage). - Highlights: • By hourly analysis, we model the whole energy system of Finland. • With existing energy infrastructure, RES (renewable energy sources) in primary energy cannot go beyond 50%.

  5. Intelligent Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller for Energy Enhancement in Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subiyanto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV system is one of the promising renewable energy technologies. Although the energy conversion efficiency of the system is still low, but it has the advantage that the operating cost is free, very low maintenance and pollution-free. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT is a significant part of PV systems. This paper presents a novel intelligent MPPT controller for PV systems. For the MPPT algorithm, an optimized fuzzy logic controller (FLC using the Hopfield neural network is proposed. It utilizes an automatically tuned FLC membership function instead of the trial-and-error approach. The MPPT algorithm is implemented in a new variant of coupled inductor soft switching boost converter with high voltage gain to increase the converter output from the PV panel. The applied switching technique, which includes passive and active regenerative snubber circuits, reduces the insulated gate bipolar transistor switching losses. The proposed MPPT algorithm is implemented using the dSPACE DS1104 platform software on a DS1104 board controller. The prototype MPPT controller is tested using an agilent solar array simulator together with a 3 kW real PV panel. Experimental test results show that the proposed boost converter produces higher output voltages and gives better efficiency (90% than the conventional boost converter with an RCD snubber, which gives 81% efficiency. The prototype MPPT controller is also found to be capable of tracking power from the 3 kW PV array about 2.4 times more than that without using the MPPT controller.

  6. Maximum production rate optimization for sulphuric acid decomposition process in tubular plug-flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Lingen; Xia, Shaojun; Sun, Fengrui

    2016-01-01

    A sulphuric acid decomposition process in a tubular plug-flow reactor with fixed inlet flow rate and completely controllable exterior wall temperature profile and reactants pressure profile is studied in this paper by using finite-time thermodynamics. The maximum production rate of the aimed product SO 2 and the optimal exterior wall temperature profile and reactants pressure profile are obtained by using nonlinear programming method. Then the optimal reactor with the maximum production rate is compared with the reference reactor with linear exterior wall temperature profile and the optimal reactor with minimum entropy generation rate. The result shows that the production rate of SO 2 of optimal reactor with the maximum production rate has an increase of more than 7%. The optimization of temperature profile has little influence on the production rate while the optimization of reactants pressure profile can significantly increase the production rate. The results obtained may provide some guidelines for the design of real tubular reactors. - Highlights: • Sulphuric acid decomposition process in tubular plug-flow reactor is studied. • Fixed inlet flow rate and controllable temperature and pressure profiles are set. • Maximum production rate of aimed product SO 2 is obtained. • Corresponding optimal temperature and pressure profiles are derived. • Production rate of SO 2 of optimal reactor increases by 7%.

  7. An automotive thermoelectric-photovoltaic hybrid energy system using maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaodong; Chau, K.T.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been active research on exhaust gas waste heat energy recovery for automobiles. Meanwhile, the use of solar energy is also proposed to promote on-board renewable energy and hence to improve their fuel economy. In this paper, a new thermoelectric-photovoltaic (TE-PV) hybrid energy system is proposed and implemented for automobiles. The key is to newly develop the power conditioning circuit using maximum power point tracking so that the output power of the proposed TE-PV hybrid energy system can be maximized. An experimental system is prototyped and tested to verify the validity of the proposed system.

  8. Energy production in stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethe, Hans.

    1977-01-01

    Energy in stars is released partly by gravitation, partly by nuclear reactions. For ordinary stars like our sun, nuclear reactions predominate. However, at the end of the life of a star very large amounts of energy are released by gravitational collapse; this can amount to as much as 10 times the total energy released nuclear reactions. The rotational energy of pulsars is a small remnant of the energy of gravitation. The end stage of small stars is generally a white dwarf, of heavy stars a neutron star of possibly a black hole

  9. ENERGY STAR Certified Roof Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Roof Products that are effective as of July 1,...

  10. Petroleum production at Maximum Efficient Rate Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This document provides an analysis of the potential impacts associated with the proposed action, which is continued operation of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. I (NPR-1) at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER) as authorized by Public law 94-258, the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976 (Act). The document also provides a similar analysis of alternatives to the proposed action, which also involve continued operations, but under lower development scenarios and lower rates of production. NPR-1 is a large oil and gas field jointly owned and operated by the federal government and Chevron U.SA Inc. (CUSA) pursuant to a Unit Plan Contract that became effective in 1944; the government's interest is approximately 78% and CUSA's interest is approximately 22%. The government's interest is under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The facility is approximately 17,409 acres (74 square miles), and it is located in Kern County, California, about 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield and 100 miles north of Los Angeles in the south central portion of the state. The environmental analysis presented herein is a supplement to the NPR-1 Final Environmental Impact Statement of that was issued by DOE in 1979 (1979 EIS). As such, this document is a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS)

  11. Maximum entropy production: Can it be used to constrain conceptual hydrological models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.C. Westhoff; E. Zehe

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, optimality principles have been proposed to constrain hydrological models. The principle of maximum entropy production (MEP) is one of the proposed principles and is subject of this study. It states that a steady state system is organized in such a way that entropy production is maximized. Although successful applications have been reported in...

  12. Potential role of motion for enhancing maximum output energy of triboelectric nanogenerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Eun Byun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG has been explored as one of the possible candidates for the auxiliary power source of portable and wearable devices, the output energy of a TENG is still insufficient to charge the devices with daily motion. Moreover, the fundamental aspects of the maximum possible energy of a TENG related with human motion are not understood systematically. Here, we confirmed the possibility of charging commercialized portable and wearable devices such as smart phones and smart watches by utilizing the mechanical energy generated by human motion. We confirmed by theoretical extraction that the maximum possible energy is related with specific form factors of a TENG. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrated the effect of human motion in an aspect of the kinetic energy and impulse using varying velocity and elasticity, and clarified how to improve the maximum possible energy of a TENG. This study gives insight into design of a TENG to obtain a large amount of energy in a limited space.

  13. Energy-Efficient Algorithm for Sensor Networks with Non-Uniform Maximum Transmission Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin Yu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, the energy hole problem is a key factor affecting the network lifetime. In a circular multi-hop sensor network (modeled as concentric coronas, the optimal transmission ranges of all coronas can effectively improve network lifetime. In this paper, we investigate WSNs with non-uniform maximum transmission ranges, where sensor nodes deployed in different regions may differ in their maximum transmission range. Then, we propose an Energy-efficient algorithm for Non-uniform Maximum Transmission range (ENMT, which can search approximate optimal transmission ranges of all coronas in order to prolong network lifetime. Furthermore, the simulation results indicate that ENMT performs better than other algorithms.

  14. High-energy solar flare observations at the Y2K maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, A. Gordon

    2000-04-01

    Solar flares afford an opportunity to observe processes associated with the acceleration and propagation of high-energy particles at a level of detail not accessible in any other astrophysical source. I will review some key results from previous high-energy solar flare observations, including those from the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, and the problems that they pose for our understanding of energy release and particle acceleration processes in the astrophysical environment. I will then discuss a program of high-energy observations to be carried out during the upcoming 2000-2001 solar maximum that is aimed at addressing and resolving these issues. A key element in this observational program is the High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI) spacecraft, which will provide imaging spectroscopic observations with spatial, temporal, and energy resolutions commensurate with the physical processes believed to be operating, and will in addition provide the first true gamma-ray spectroscopy of an astrophysical source. .

  15. Lower Bounds on the Maximum Energy Benefit of Network Coding for Wireless Multiple Unicast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Ryutaroh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the energy savings that can be obtained by employing network coding instead of plain routing in wireless multiple unicast problems. We establish lower bounds on the benefit of network coding, defined as the maximum of the ratio of the minimum energy required by routing and network coding solutions, where the maximum is over all configurations. It is shown that if coding and routing solutions are using the same transmission range, the benefit in d-dimensional networks is at least . Moreover, it is shown that if the transmission range can be optimized for routing and coding individually, the benefit in 2-dimensional networks is at least 3. Our results imply that codes following a decode-and-recombine strategy are not always optimal regarding energy efficiency.

  16. Thermoelectric automotive waste heat energy recovery using maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Chuang; Chau, K.T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes and implements a thermoelectric waste heat energy recovery system for internal combustion engine automobiles, including gasoline vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. The key is to directly convert the heat energy from automotive waste heat to electrical energy using a thermoelectric generator, which is then regulated by a DC-DC Cuk converter to charge a battery using maximum power point tracking. Hence, the electrical power stored in the battery can be maximized. Both analysis and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system can work well under different working conditions, and is promising for automotive industry.

  17. The maximum energy of cosmic rays gained in the jet of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tascau, Oana; Biermann, Peter

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we will present the results of the calculation of maximum energy gained by a particle in the acceleration process done by the black hole mechanism. We are using here the model of P. Biermann and H. Falcke to determine if and how the black holes contribute to the cosmic rays that reach the Earth. The conclusion is that at the highest energy only M87 contributes, as has been claimed for many years. Secondly, at lower energy, Cen A may indeed take over as second most important source, again as expected for some time. (authors)

  18. Maximizing the transferred power to electric arc furnace for having maximum production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, Haidar; Ghanbari, Teymoor; Ghaisari, Jafar

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase production of an EAF (electric arc furnace) by reduction of melting time, one can increase transferred power to the EAF. In other words a certain value of energy can be transferred to the EAF in less time. The transferred power to the EAF reduces when series reactors are utilized in order to have stable arc with desired characteristics. To compensate the reduced transferred power, the secondary voltage of the EAF transformer should be increased by tap changing of the transformer. On the other hand, after any tap changing of the EAF transformer, improved arc stability is degraded. Therefore, the series reactor and EAF transformer tap changing should be simultaneously determined to achieve arc with desired characteristics. In this research, three approaches are proposed to calculate the EAF system parameters, by which the optimal set-points of the different series reactor and EAF transformer taps are determined. The electric characteristics relevant to the EAF for the all transformer and series reactor taps with and without SVC (static VAr compensator) are plotted and based on these graphs the optimal set-points are tabulated. Finally, an economic evaluation is also presented for the methods. - Highlights: • The main goal is to transfer the maximum power to electric arc furnace. • Optimal transformer and series reactor taps are determined. • Arc stability and transferred power to EAF determine the optimal performance. • An economic assessment is done and the number of increased meltings is calculated

  19. Modelling the existing Irish energy-system to identify future energy costs and the maximum wind penetration feasible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, D.; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2010-01-01

    energy- system to future energy costs by considering future fuel prices, CO2 prices, and different interest rates. The final investigation identifies the maximum wind penetration feasible on the 2007 Irish energy- system from a technical and economic perspective, as wind is the most promising fluctuating...... for the existing Irish energy-system is approximately 30% from both a technical and economic perspective based on 2020 energy prices. Future studies will use the model developed in this study to show that higher wind penetrations can be achieved if the existing energy-system is modified correctly. Finally...... renewable resource available in Ireland. It is concluded that the reference model simulates the Irish energy-system accurately, the annual fuel costs for Ireland’s energy could increase by approximately 58% from 2007 to 2020 if a business-as-usual scenario is followed, and the optimum wind penetration...

  20. Estimation of the Maximum Theoretical Productivity of Fed-Batch Bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomble, Yannick J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); St. John, Peter C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Crowley, Michael F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-18

    A key step towards the development of an integrated biorefinery is the screening of economically viable processes, which depends sharply on the yields and productivities that can be achieved by an engineered microorganism. In this study, we extend an earlier method which used dynamic optimization to find the maximum theoretical productivity of batch cultures to explicitly include fed-batch bioreactors. In addition to optimizing the intracellular distribution of metabolites between cell growth and product formation, we calculate the optimal control trajectory of feed rate versus time. We further analyze how sensitive the productivity is to substrate uptake and growth parameters.

  1. Evaluation of maximum power point tracking in hydrokinetic energy conversion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangir Khan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Maximum power point tracking is a mature control issue for wind, solar and other systems. On the other hand, being a relatively new technology, detailed discussion on power tracking of hydrokinetic energy conversion systems are generally not available. Prior to developing sophisticated control schemes for use in hydrokinetic systems, existing know-how in wind or solar technologies can be explored. In this study, a comparative evaluation of three generic classes of maximum power point scheme is carried out. These schemes are (a tip speed ratio control, (b power signal feedback control, and (c hill climbing search control. In addition, a novel concept for maximum power point tracking: namely, extremum seeking control is introduced. Detailed and validated system models are used in a simulation environment. Potential advantages and drawbacks of each of these schemes are summarised.

  2. Determining Mean Annual Energy Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Folley, Matt

    2016-01-01

    This robust book presents all the information required for numerical modelling of a wave energy converter, together with a comparative review of the different available techniques. The calculation of the mean annual energy production (MAEP) is critical to the assessment of the levelized cost...... of energy for a wave energy converter or wave farm. Fundamentally, the MAEP is equal to the sum of the product of the power capture of a set of sea-states and their average annual occurrence. In general, it is necessary in the calculation of the MAEP to achieve a balance between computational demand...

  3. Determination of the wind power systems load to achieve operation in the maximum energy area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chioncel, C. P.; Tirian, G. O.; Spunei, E.; Gillich, N.

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyses the operation of the wind turbine, WT, in the maximum power point, MPP, by linking the load of the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator, PMSG, with the wind speed value. The load control methods at wind power systems aiming an optimum performance in terms of energy are based on the fact that the energy captured by the wind turbine significantly depends on the mechanical angular speed of the wind turbine. The presented control method consists in determining the optimal mechanical angular speed, ωOPTIM, using an auxiliary low power wind turbine, WTAUX, operating without load, at maximum angular velocity, ωMAX. The method relies on the fact that the ratio ωOPTIM/ωMAX has a constant value for a given wind turbine and does not depend on the time variation of the wind speed values.

  4. Maximum hardness and minimum polarizability principles through lattice energies of ionic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Savaş, E-mail: savaskaya@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas 58140 (Turkey); Kaya, Cemal, E-mail: kaya@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas 58140 (Turkey); Islam, Nazmul, E-mail: nazmul.islam786@gmail.com [Theoretical and Computational Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Basic Science and Humanities/Chemistry Techno Global-Balurghat, Balurghat, D. Dinajpur 733103 (India)

    2016-03-15

    The maximum hardness (MHP) and minimum polarizability (MPP) principles have been analyzed using the relationship among the lattice energies of ionic compounds with their electronegativities, chemical hardnesses and electrophilicities. Lattice energy, electronegativity, chemical hardness and electrophilicity values of ionic compounds considered in the present study have been calculated using new equations derived by some of the authors in recent years. For 4 simple reactions, the changes of the hardness (Δη), polarizability (Δα) and electrophilicity index (Δω) were calculated. It is shown that the maximum hardness principle is obeyed by all chemical reactions but minimum polarizability principles and minimum electrophilicity principle are not valid for all reactions. We also proposed simple methods to compute the percentage of ionic characters and inter nuclear distances of ionic compounds. Comparative studies with experimental sets of data reveal that the proposed methods of computation of the percentage of ionic characters and inter nuclear distances of ionic compounds are valid.

  5. Maximum hardness and minimum polarizability principles through lattice energies of ionic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Savaş; Kaya, Cemal; Islam, Nazmul

    2016-01-01

    The maximum hardness (MHP) and minimum polarizability (MPP) principles have been analyzed using the relationship among the lattice energies of ionic compounds with their electronegativities, chemical hardnesses and electrophilicities. Lattice energy, electronegativity, chemical hardness and electrophilicity values of ionic compounds considered in the present study have been calculated using new equations derived by some of the authors in recent years. For 4 simple reactions, the changes of the hardness (Δη), polarizability (Δα) and electrophilicity index (Δω) were calculated. It is shown that the maximum hardness principle is obeyed by all chemical reactions but minimum polarizability principles and minimum electrophilicity principle are not valid for all reactions. We also proposed simple methods to compute the percentage of ionic characters and inter nuclear distances of ionic compounds. Comparative studies with experimental sets of data reveal that the proposed methods of computation of the percentage of ionic characters and inter nuclear distances of ionic compounds are valid.

  6. ENERGY STAR Certified Products - Lighting

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set contains a simplified list of all currently certified ENERGY STAR Lighting models with basic model information collected across all product categories...

  7. Novel high efficient speed sensorless controller for maximum power extraction from wind energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel sensorless MPPT technique without drawbacks of other sensor/sensorless methods. • Tracking the actual MPP of WECSs, no tracking the MPP of their wind turbines. • Actually extracting the highest output power from WECSs. • Novel MPPT technique having the MPPT efficiency more than 98.5% for WECSs. • Novel MPPT technique having short convergence time for WECSs. - Abstract: In this study, a novel high accurate sensorless maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method is proposed. The technique tracks the actual maximum power point of a wind energy conversion system (WECS) at which maximum output power is extracted from the system, not the maximum power point of its wind turbine at which maximum mechanical power is obtained from the turbine, so it actually extracts the highest output power from the system. The technique only uses input voltage and current of the converter used in the system, and neither needs any speed sensors (anemometer and tachometer) nor has the drawbacks of other sensor/sensorless based MPPT methods. The technique has been implemented as a MPPT controller by constructing a WECS. Theoretical results, the technique performance, and its advantages are validated by presenting real experimental results. The real static-dynamic response of the MPPT controller is experimentally obtained that verifies the proposed MPPT technique high accurately extracts the highest instant power from wind energy conversion systems with the MPPT efficiency of more than 98.5% and a short convergence time that is only 25 s for the constructed system having a total inertia and friction coefficient of 3.93 kg m 2 and 0.014 N m s, respectively.

  8. Uninterrupted thermoelectric energy harvesting using temperature-sensor-based maximum power point tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae-Do; Lee, Hohyun; Bond, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Feedforward MPPT scheme for uninterrupted TEG energy harvesting is suggested. • Temperature sensors are used to avoid current measurement or source disconnection. • MPP voltage reference is generated based on OCV vs. temperature differential model. • Optimal operating condition is maintained using hysteresis controller. • Any type of power converter can be used in the proposed scheme. - Abstract: In this paper, a thermoelectric generator (TEG) energy harvesting system with a temperature-sensor-based maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method is presented. Conventional MPPT algorithms for photovoltaic cells may not be suitable for thermoelectric power generation because a significant amount of time is required for TEG systems to reach a steady state. Moreover, complexity and additional power consumption in conventional circuits and periodic disconnection of power source are not desirable for low-power energy harvesting applications. The proposed system can track the varying maximum power point (MPP) with a simple and inexpensive temperature-sensor-based circuit without instantaneous power measurement or TEG disconnection. This system uses TEG’s open circuit voltage (OCV) characteristic with respect to temperature gradient to generate a proper reference voltage signal, i.e., half of the TEG’s OCV. The power converter controller maintains the TEG output voltage at the reference level so that the maximum power can be extracted for the given temperature condition. This feedforward MPPT scheme is inherently stable and can be implemented without any complex microcontroller circuit. The proposed system has been validated analytically and experimentally, and shows a maximum power tracking error of 1.15%

  9. Production of bio-energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurtler, J.L.; Femenias, A.; Blondy, J.

    2009-01-01

    After having indicated the various possible origins of biomass, this paper considers the issue of bio-energies, i.e., energies produced with biomass related to forest or agriculture production. Some indicators are defined (share of renewable energies, share of biomass in the energy production and consumption, number of production units). Stake holders are identified. Then, major and emerging trends are identified and discussed. The major trends are: development and diversification of renewable energies, development of bio-fuels with the support of incentive policies, prevalence of the wood-energy sector on the whole renewable energies, increase of surfaces dedicated to bio-fuels since the end of the 1990's, a French biogas sector which is late with respect to other countries. The emerging trends are: the important role of oil price in the development of bio-fuels, a necessary public support for the development of biogas, mobilization of research and development of competitiveness poles for bio-industries. Some prospective issues are also discussed in terms of uncertainties (soil availabilities, environmental performance of bio-fuels, available biomass resource, need of a technological advance, and evolution of energy needs on a medium term, tax and public policy). Three hypotheses of bio-energy evolutions are discussed

  10. Maximum Entropy Production Modeling of Evapotranspiration Partitioning on Heterogeneous Terrain and Canopy Cover: advantages and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Jurado, H. A.; Guan, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, H.; Bras, R. L.; Simmons, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of evapotranspiration (ET) and its partition over regions of heterogeneous topography and canopy poses a challenge using traditional approaches. In this study, we report the results of a novel field experiment design guided by the Maximum Entropy Production model of ET (MEP-ET), formulated for estimating evaporation and transpiration from homogeneous soil and canopy. A catchment with complex terrain and patchy vegetation in South Australia was instrumented to measure temperature, humidity and net radiation at soil and canopy surfaces. Performance of the MEP-ET model to quantify transpiration and soil evaporation was evaluated during wet and dry conditions with independently and directly measured transpiration from sapflow and soil evaporation using the Bowen Ratio Energy Balance (BREB). MEP-ET transpiration shows remarkable agreement with that obtained through sapflow measurements during wet conditions, but consistently overestimates the flux during dry periods. However, an additional term introduced to the original MEP-ET model accounting for higher stomatal regulation during dry spells, based on differences between leaf and air vapor pressure deficits and temperatures, significantly improves the model performance. On the other hand, MEP-ET soil evaporation is in good agreement with that from BREB regardless of moisture conditions. The experimental design allows a plot and tree scale quantification of evaporation and transpiration respectively. This study confirms for the first time that the MEP-ET originally developed for homogeneous open bare soil and closed canopy can be used for modeling ET over heterogeneous land surfaces. Furthermore, we show that with the addition of an empirical function simulating the plants ability to regulate transpiration, and based on the same measurements of temperature and humidity, the method can produce reliable estimates of ET during both wet and dry conditions without compromising its parsimony.

  11. Maximum Energy Yield Oriented Turbine Control in PMSG based Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Jie; Zhou, Dao; Su, Chi

    2017-01-01

    : In the modern power systems, with the fast integration of the wind power into the grid, it turns to develop large-scale offshore wind farms equipped with the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind turbine. In large-scale offshore wind farms, the wind turbine operating reliability...... and the wake effect in the wind farm became important issues. The pitch angle and tip speed ratio are the two degrees of freedom for the PMSG wind turbine active power control, which are also the determining factors of the wind turbine lifetime. As the energy production of the wind turbine is the product...... of its active power and lifetime, the energy production can be maximised by optimising its pitch angle and tip speed ratio. In this study, the energy production of a 2 MW PMSG wind turbine is maximised by optimising its pitch angle and tip speed ratio. Moreover, taking into account the wake effect...

  12. Ion energy loss at maximum stopping power in a laser-generated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayzac, W.

    2013-01-01

    In the frame of this thesis, a new experimental setup for the measurement of the energy loss of carbon ions at maximum stopping power in a hot laser-generated plasma has been developed and successfully tested. In this parameter range where the projectile velocity is of the same order of magnitude as the thermal velocity of the plasma free electrons, large uncertainties of up to 50% are present in the stopping-power description. To date, no experimental data are available to perform a theory benchmarking. Testing the different stopping theories is yet essential for inertial confinement fusion and in particular for the understanding of the alpha-particle heating of the thermonuclear fuel. Here, for the first time, precise measurements were carried out in a reproducible and entirely characterized beam-plasma configuration. It involved a nearly fully-stripped ion beam probing a homogeneous fully-ionized plasma. This plasma was generated by irradiating a thin carbon foil with two high-energy laser beams and features a maximum electron temperature of 200 eV. The plasma conditions were simulated with a two-dimensional radiative hydrodynamic code, while the ion-beam charge-state distribution was predicted by means of a Monte-Carlo code describing the charge-exchange processes of projectile ions in plasma. To probe at maximum stopping power, high-frequency pulsed ion bunches were decelerated to an energy of 0.5 MeV per nucleon. The ion energy loss was determined by a time-of-flight measurement using a specifically developed chemical-vapor-deposition diamond detector that was screened against any plasma radiation. A first experimental campaign was carried out using this newly developed platform, in which a precision better than 200 keV on the energy loss was reached. This allowed, via the knowledge of the plasma and of the beam parameters, to reliably test several stopping theories, either based on perturbation theory or on a nonlinear T-Matrix formalism. A preliminary

  13. Rare earth magnets with high energy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirosawa, S.; Kaneko, Y.

    1998-01-01

    High energy-products exceeding 430 kj/m 3 (54 MGOe) have been realized on anisotropic permanent magnets based on the Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase, recently. To produce extremely high-energy-product permanent magnets, special processes have been designed in order to realize the minimum oxygen content, the maximum volume fraction of the hard magnetic Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase, the highest orientation of the easy axis of magnetization, and small and homogeneous crystalline grain sizes in the finished magnets. For the powder metallurgical process, special techniques such as low-oxygen fine powder processing and magnetic alignment using pulsed magnetic fields have been developed. It has been shown that a good control of both homogeneity of distribution of constituent phases and the narrowness of the size distribution in the starting powder have great influences on the magnetic energy products. It is emphasized that the recently developed techniques are applicable in a large-scale production, meaning that extremely high-energy-product magnets are available on commercial basis. (orig.)

  14. Modelling the existing Irish energy-system to identify future energy costs and the maximum wind penetration feasible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, D.; Leahy, M.; Lund, H.; Mathiesen, B.V.

    2010-01-01

    In this study a model of the Irish energy-system was developed using EnergyPLAN based on the year 2007, which was then used for three investigations. The first compares the model results with actual values from 2007 to validate its accuracy. The second illustrates the exposure of the existing Irish energy-system to future energy costs by considering future fuel prices, CO 2 prices, and different interest rates. The final investigation identifies the maximum wind penetration feasible on the 2007 Irish energy-system from a technical and economic perspective, as wind is the most promising fluctuating renewable resource available in Ireland. It is concluded that the reference model simulates the Irish energy-system accurately, the annual fuel costs for Ireland's energy could increase by approximately 58% from 2007 to 2020 if a business-as-usual scenario is followed, and the optimum wind penetration for the existing Irish energy-system is approximately 30% from both a technical and economic perspective based on 2020 energy prices. Future studies will use the model developed in this study to show that higher wind penetrations can be achieved if the existing energy-system is modified correctly. Finally, these results are not only applicable to Ireland, but also represent the issues facing many other countries. (author)

  15. Comments on a derivation and application of the 'maximum entropy production' principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinstein, G; Linsker, R

    2007-01-01

    We show that (1) an error invalidates the derivation (Dewar 2005 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 38 L371) of the maximum entropy production (MaxEP) principle for systems far from equilibrium, for which the constitutive relations are nonlinear; and (2) the claim (Dewar 2003 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 36 631) that the phenomenon of 'self-organized criticality' is a consequence of MaxEP for slowly driven systems is unjustified. (comment)

  16. Unbinned maximum likelihood fit for the CP conserving couplings for W + photon production at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannon, K.

    1994-01-01

    We present an unbinned maximum likelihood fit as an alternative to the currently used fit for the CP conserving couplings W plus photon production studied at CDF. We show that a four parameter double exponential fits the E T spectrum of the photon very well. We also show that the fit parameters can be related to and by a second order polynomial. Finally, we discuss various conclusions we have reasoned from our results to the fit so far

  17. Hydrogen production from solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstadt, M. M.; Cox, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    Three alternatives for hydrogen production from solar energy have been analyzed on both efficiency and economic grounds. The analysis shows that the alternative using solar energy followed by thermochemical decomposition of water to produce hydrogen is the optimum one. The other schemes considered were the direct conversion of solar energy to electricity by silicon cells and water electrolysis, and the use of solar energy to power a vapor cycle followed by electrical generation and electrolysis. The capital cost of hydrogen via the thermochemical alternative was estimated at $575/kW of hydrogen output or $3.15/million Btu. Although this cost appears high when compared with hydrogen from other primary energy sources or from fossil fuel, environmental and social costs which favor solar energy may prove this scheme feasible in the future.

  18. Formulation of charged-particle pseudorapidity distribution in Au-Au collisions at the maximum RHIC energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu-Hu, Liu; Dong-Hai, Zhang; Mai-Ying, Duan

    2003-01-01

    The pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles produced in relativistic heavy-ion collider experiment are analyzed by the thermalized two-cylinder model. The calculated results are compared and found to be in agreement with the experimental data of Au-Au collisions at the maximum RHIC energy (the energy in the center-of-mass reference frame is √s = 200 A GeV) which is the maximum energy in the present accelerator energy region. (authors)

  19. Power electronics and control techniques for maximum energy harvesting in photovoltaic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Femia, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Incentives provided by European governments have resulted in the rapid growth of the photovoltaic (PV) market. Many PV modules are now commercially available, and there are a number of power electronic systems for processing the electrical power produced by PV systems, especially for grid-connected applications. Filling a gap in the literature, Power Electronics and Control Techniques for Maximum Energy Harvesting in Photovoltaic Systems brings together research on control circuits, systems, and techniques dedicated to the maximization of the electrical power produced by a photovoltaic (PV) so

  20. Maximum power point tracking techniques for wind energy systems using three levels boost converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Cuong Hung; Nollet, Frédéric; Essounbouli, Najib; Hamzaoui, Abdelaziz

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents modeling and simulation of three level Boost DC-DC converter in Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS). Three-level Boost converter has significant advantage compared to conventional Boost. A maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method for a variable speed wind turbine using permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is also presented. Simulation of three-level Boost converter topology with Perturb and Observe algorithm and Fuzzy Logic Control is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Results of this simulation show that the system with MPPT using fuzzy logic controller has better performance to the Perturb and Observe algorithm: fast response under changing conditions and small oscillation.

  1. Maximum power point tracking: a cost saving necessity in solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enslin, J H.R. [Stellenbosch Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    1992-12-01

    A well engineered renewable remote energy system, utilizing the principal of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) can improve cost effectiveness, has a higher reliability and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. A high-efficient power electronic converter, for converting the output voltage of a solar panel, or wind generator, to the required DC battery bus voltage has been realized. The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the input source under varying input and output parameters. Maximum power point tracking for relative small systems is achieved by maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor based algorithm. Through practical field measurements it is shown that a minimum input source saving of between 15 and 25% on 3-5 kWh/day systems can easily be achieved. A total cost saving of at least 10-15% on the capital cost of these systems are achievable for relative small rating Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) systems. The advantages at large temperature variations and high power rated systems are much higher. Other advantages include optimal sizing and system monitor and control. (author).

  2. Maximum power tracking in WECS (Wind energy conversion systems) via numerical and stochastic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnaggar, M.; Abdel Fattah, H.A.; Elshafei, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a complete design of a two-level control system to capture maximum power in wind energy conversion systems. The upper level of the proposed control system adopts a modified line search optimization algorithm to determine a setpoint for the wind turbine speed. The calculated speed setpoint corresponds to the maximum power point at given operating conditions. The speed setpoint is fed to a generalized predictive controller at the lower level of the control system. A different formulation, that treats the aerodynamic torque as a disturbance, is postulated to derive the control law. The objective is to accurately track the setpoint while keeping the control action free from unacceptably fast or frequent variations. Simulation results based on a realistic model of a 1.5 MW wind turbine confirm the superiority of the proposed control scheme to the conventional ones. - Highlights: • The structure of a MPPT (maximum power point tracking) scheme is presented. • The scheme is divided into the optimization algorithm and the tracking controller. • The optimization algorithm is based on an online line search numerical algorithm. • The tracking controller is treating the aerodynamics torque as a loop disturbance. • The control technique is simulated with stochastic wind speed by Simulink and FAST

  3. Causal nexus between energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission for Malaysia using maximum entropy bootstrap approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Sehrish; Zou, Xiang; Hassan, Che Hashim; Azam, Muhammad; Zaman, Khalid

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the relationship between energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission in the causal framework, as the direction of causality remains has a significant policy implication for developed and developing countries. The study employed maximum entropy bootstrap (Meboot) approach to examine the causal nexus between energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission using bivariate as well as multivariate framework for Malaysia, over a period of 1975-2013. This is a unified approach without requiring the use of conventional techniques based on asymptotical theory such as testing for possible unit root and cointegration. In addition, it can be applied in the presence of non-stationary of any type including structural breaks without any type of data transformation to achieve stationary. Thus, it provides more reliable and robust inferences which are insensitive to time span as well as lag length used. The empirical results show that there is a unidirectional causality running from energy consumption to carbon emission both in the bivariate model and multivariate framework, while controlling for broad money supply and population density. The results indicate that Malaysia is an energy-dependent country and hence energy is stimulus to carbon emissions.

  4. Productivity response of calcareous nannoplankton to Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dedert

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Early Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2 at ~53.7 Ma is one of multiple hyperthermal events that followed the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~56 Ma. The negative carbon excursion and deep ocean carbonate dissolution which occurred during the event imply that a substantial amount (103 Gt of carbon (C was added to the ocean-atmosphere system, consequently increasing atmospheric CO2(pCO2. This makes the event relevant to the current scenario of anthropogenic CO2 additions and global change. Resulting changes in ocean stratification and pH, as well as changes in exogenic cycles which supply nutrients to the ocean, may have affected the productivity of marine phytoplankton, especially calcifying phytoplankton. Changes in productivity, in turn, may affect the rate of sequestration of excess CO2 in the deep ocean and sediments. In order to reconstruct the productivity response by calcareous nannoplankton to ETM2 in the South Atlantic (Site 1265 and North Pacific (Site 1209, we employ the coccolith Sr/Ca productivity proxy with analysis of well-preserved picked monogeneric populations by ion probe supplemented by analysis of various size fractions of nannofossil sediments by ICP-AES. The former technique of measuring Sr/Ca in selected nannofossil populations using the ion probe circumvents possible contamination with secondary calcite. Avoiding such contamination is important for an accurate interpretation of the nannoplankton productivity record, since diagenetic processes can bias the productivity signal, as we demonstrate for Sr/Ca measurements in the fine (<20 μm and other size fractions obtained from bulk sediments from Site 1265. At this site, the paleoproductivity signal as reconstructed from the Sr/Ca appears to be governed by cyclic changes, possibly orbital forcing, resulting in a 20–30% variability in Sr/Ca in dominant genera as obtained by ion probe. The ~13 to 21

  5. Information Entropy Production of Maximum Entropy Markov Chains from Spike Trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cofré

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The spiking activity of neuronal networks follows laws that are not time-reversal symmetric; the notion of pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurons, stimulus correlations and noise correlations have a clear time order. Therefore, a biologically realistic statistical model for the spiking activity should be able to capture some degree of time irreversibility. We use the thermodynamic formalism to build a framework in the context maximum entropy models to quantify the degree of time irreversibility, providing an explicit formula for the information entropy production of the inferred maximum entropy Markov chain. We provide examples to illustrate our results and discuss the importance of time irreversibility for modeling the spike train statistics.

  6. Microwatt power consumption maximum power point tracking circuit using an analogue differentiator for piezoelectric energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Z. J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-12-01

    A maximum power point tracking (MPPT) scheme by tracking the open-circuit voltage from a piezoelectric energy harvester using a differentiator is presented in this paper. The MPPT controller is implemented by using a low-power analogue differentiator and comparators without the need of a sensing circuitry and a power hungry controller. This proposed MPPT circuit is used to control a buck converter which serves as a power management module in conjunction with a full-wave bridge diode rectifier. Performance of this MPPT control scheme is verified by using the prototyped circuit to track the maximum power point of a macro-fiber composite (MFC) as the piezoelectric energy harvester. The MFC was bonded on a composite material and the whole specimen was subjected to various strain levels at frequency from 10 to 100 Hz. Experimental results showed that the implemented full analogue MPPT controller has a tracking efficiency between 81% and 98.66% independent of the load, and consumes an average power of 3.187 μW at 3 V during operation.

  7. Maximum power gains of radio-frequency-driven two-energy-component tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.

    1974-11-01

    Two-energy-component fusion reactors in which the suprathermal component (D) is produced by harmonic cyclotron ''runaway'' of resonant ions are considered. In one ideal case, the fast hydromagnetic wave at ω = 2ω/sub cD/ produces an energy distribution f(W) approximately constant (up to W/sub max/) that includes all deuterons, which then thermalize and react with the cold tritons. In another ideal case, f(W) approximately constant is maintained by the fast wave at ω = ω/sub cD/. If one neglects (1) direct rf input to the bulk-plasma electrons and tritons, and (2) the fact that many deuterons are not resonantly accelerated, then the maximum ideal power gain is about 0.85 Q/sub m/ in the first case and 1.05 Q/sub m/ in the second case, where Q/sub m/ is the maximum fusion gain in the beam-injection scheme (e.g., Q/sub m/ = 1.9 at T/sub e/ = 10 keV). Because of nonideal effects, the cyclotron runaway phenomenon may find its most practical use in the heating of 50:50 D--T plasmas to ignition. (auth)

  8. A single European pharmaceutical market: Does maximum harmonization enhance medicinal product innovation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faeh, Andrea Beata

    2013-01-01

    the orphan medicinal products scheme. The latter is subject to uniform Union rules specifically introduced to stimulate research and development and has led to the development of a number of new products. The article shows that the most radical positive integration depends to a large extent on the prospect...... – Innovation Union’ – market fragmentation to be one of the major causes of the lack of innovation. In order to establish if maximum harmonization benefits innovation, two distinct legal regimes in the pharmaceutical sector will be compared. The general rules for medicinal products are weighed against...... of it yielding revenue for the innovator. Hence, fuller harmonization can benefit innovation, but it is just as important, if not more important, to address other factors such as pricing, reimbursement and patent protection....

  9. Fusion Energy for Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillo, J. A.; Powell, J. R.; Steinberg, M.; Salzano, F.; Benenati, R.; Dang, V.; Fogelson, S.; Isaacs, H.; Kouts, H.; Kushner, M.; Lazareth, O.; Majeski, S.; Makowitz, H.; Sheehan, T. V.

    1978-09-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approximately 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approximately 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets.

  10. Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Leon; Wade, Dave

    2003-07-01

    During the past decade the interest in hydrogen as transportation fuel has greatly escalated. This heighten interest is partly related to concerns surrounding local and regional air pollution from the combustion of fossil fuels along with carbon dioxide emissions adding to the enhanced greenhouse effect. More recently there has been a great sensitivity to the vulnerability of our oil supply. Thus, energy security and environmental concerns have driven the interest in hydrogen as the clean and secure alternative to fossil fuels. Remarkable advances in fuel-cell technology have made hydrogen fueled transportation a near-term possibility. However, copious quantities of hydrogen must be generated in a manner independent of fossil fuels if environmental benefits and energy security are to be achieved. The renewable technologies, wind, solar, and geothermal, although important contributors, simply do not comprise the energy density required to deliver enough hydrogen to displace much of the fossil transportation fuels. Nuclear energy is the only primary energy source that can generate enough hydrogen in an energy secure and environmentally benign fashion. Methods of production of hydrogen from nuclear energy, the relative cost of hydrogen, and possible transition schemes to a nuclear-hydrogen economy will be presented.

  11. Ergodicity, Maximum Entropy Production, and Steepest Entropy Ascent in the Proofs of Onsager's Reciprocal Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfenati, Francesco; Beretta, Gian Paolo

    2018-04-01

    We show that to prove the Onsager relations using the microscopic time reversibility one necessarily has to make an ergodic hypothesis, or a hypothesis closely linked to that. This is true in all the proofs of the Onsager relations in the literature: from the original proof by Onsager, to more advanced proofs in the context of linear response theory and the theory of Markov processes, to the proof in the context of the kinetic theory of gases. The only three proofs that do not require any kind of ergodic hypothesis are based on additional hypotheses on the macroscopic evolution: Ziegler's maximum entropy production principle (MEPP), the principle of time reversal invariance of the entropy production, or the steepest entropy ascent principle (SEAP).

  12. A Novel Maximum Power Point Tracking Control for Permanent Magnet Direct Drive Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel optimal current given (OCG maximum power point tracking (MPPT control strategy based on the theory of power feedback and hill climb searching (HCS for a permanent magnet direct drive wind energy conversion system (WECS. The presented strategy not only has the advantages of not needing the wind speed and wind turbine characteristics of the traditional HCS method, but it also improves the stability and accuracy of MPPT by estimating the exact loss torque. The OCG MPPT control strategy is first carried out by simulation, then an experimental platform based on the dSPACE1103 controller is built and a 5.5 kW permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG is tested. Furthermore, the proposed method is compared experimentally with the traditional optimum tip speed ratio (TSR MPPT control. The experiments verify the effectiveness of the proposed OCG MPPT strategy and demonstrate its better performance than the traditional TSR MPPT control.

  13. Spatiotemporal fusion of multiple-satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) products using Bayesian maximum entropy method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qingxin; Bo, Yanchen; Zhu, Yuxin

    2016-04-01

    Merging multisensor aerosol optical depth (AOD) products is an effective way to produce more spatiotemporally complete and accurate AOD products. A spatiotemporal statistical data fusion framework based on a Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) method was developed for merging satellite AOD products in East Asia. The advantages of the presented merging framework are that it not only utilizes the spatiotemporal autocorrelations but also explicitly incorporates the uncertainties of the AOD products being merged. The satellite AOD products used for merging are the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 5.1 Level-2 AOD products (MOD04_L2) and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Deep Blue Level 2 AOD products (SWDB_L2). The results show that the average completeness of the merged AOD data is 95.2%,which is significantly superior to the completeness of MOD04_L2 (22.9%) and SWDB_L2 (20.2%). By comparing the merged AOD to the Aerosol Robotic Network AOD records, the results show that the correlation coefficient (0.75), root-mean-square error (0.29), and mean bias (0.068) of the merged AOD are close to those (the correlation coefficient (0.82), root-mean-square error (0.19), and mean bias (0.059)) of the MODIS AOD. In the regions where both MODIS and SeaWiFS have valid observations, the accuracy of the merged AOD is higher than those of MODIS and SeaWiFS AODs. Even in regions where both MODIS and SeaWiFS AODs are missing, the accuracy of the merged AOD is also close to the accuracy of the regions where both MODIS and SeaWiFS have valid observations.

  14. User's guide: Nimbus-7 Earth radiation budget narrow-field-of-view products. Scene radiance tape products, sorting into angular bins products, and maximum likelihood cloud estimation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, H. Lee; Hucek, Richard R.; Groveman, Brian; Frey, Richard

    1990-01-01

    The archived Earth radiation budget (ERB) products produced from the Nimbus-7 ERB narrow field-of-view scanner are described. The principal products are broadband outgoing longwave radiation (4.5 to 50 microns), reflected solar radiation (0.2 to 4.8 microns), and the net radiation. Daily and monthly averages are presented on a fixed global equal area (500 sq km), grid for the period May 1979 to May 1980. Two independent algorithms are used to estimate the outgoing fluxes from the observed radiances. The algorithms are described and the results compared. The products are divided into three subsets: the Scene Radiance Tapes (SRT) contain the calibrated radiances; the Sorting into Angular Bins (SAB) tape contains the SAB produced shortwave, longwave, and net radiation products; and the Maximum Likelihood Cloud Estimation (MLCE) tapes contain the MLCE products. The tape formats are described in detail.

  15. Biomass in Switzerland. Energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggisberg, B.

    2006-01-01

    In the long term, biomass could be used for energy production in a three times more intensive way, compared to current figures. A major contribution would be delivered to Switzerland's energy supply. Numerous biomass conversion technologies do exist, for the production of heat, power or vehicle fuel. However, the implementation of such a large-scale utilisation of biomass requires a couple of strategic decisions in order to improve the framework conditions for biomass development and precisely target the supporting measures applicable to both research and pilot plants. In short, a clear and efficient strategy is necessary in what regards biomass, that will be used for the definition of a future catalogue of measures. (author)

  16. Productivity feedback did not terminate the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Torfstein

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM occurred approximately 55 million years ago, and is one of the most dramatic abrupt global warming events in the geological record. This warming was triggered by the sudden release of thousands of gigatons of carbon into the atmosphere and is widely perceived to be the best analogue for current anthropogenic climate change. Yet, the mechanism of recovery from this event remains controversial. A massive increase in the intensity of the marine biological pump ("productivity feedback" has been suggested to cause a drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and subsequent carbon sequestration in the ocean. A re-evaluation of the "productivity feedback hypothesis", based on biogenic barium mass accumulation rates (Ba-MARs for a site in the Southern Ocean, finds that any increase in export production lagged the initial carbon release by at least ~70 000 years. This implies that export production did not facilitate rapid removal of excess carbon from the atmosphere. Thus, the most likely mechanism for carbon removal appears to be silicate weathering, which occurred at much slower rates than previously assumed.

  17. A novel minimum cost maximum power algorithm for future smart home energy management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Singaravelan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With the latest development of smart grid technology, the energy management system can be efficiently implemented at consumer premises. In this paper, an energy management system with wireless communication and smart meter are designed for scheduling the electric home appliances efficiently with an aim of reducing the cost and peak demand. For an efficient scheduling scheme, the appliances are classified into two types: uninterruptible and interruptible appliances. The problem formulation was constructed based on the practical constraints that make the proposed algorithm cope up with the real-time situation. The formulated problem was identified as Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP problem, so this problem was solved by a step-wise approach. This paper proposes a novel Minimum Cost Maximum Power (MCMP algorithm to solve the formulated problem. The proposed algorithm was simulated with input data available in the existing method. For validating the proposed MCMP algorithm, results were compared with the existing method. The compared results prove that the proposed algorithm efficiently reduces the consumer electricity consumption cost and peak demand to optimum level with 100% task completion without sacrificing the consumer comfort.

  18. A novel minimum cost maximum power algorithm for future smart home energy management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaravelan, A; Kowsalya, M

    2017-11-01

    With the latest development of smart grid technology, the energy management system can be efficiently implemented at consumer premises. In this paper, an energy management system with wireless communication and smart meter are designed for scheduling the electric home appliances efficiently with an aim of reducing the cost and peak demand. For an efficient scheduling scheme, the appliances are classified into two types: uninterruptible and interruptible appliances. The problem formulation was constructed based on the practical constraints that make the proposed algorithm cope up with the real-time situation. The formulated problem was identified as Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problem, so this problem was solved by a step-wise approach. This paper proposes a novel Minimum Cost Maximum Power (MCMP) algorithm to solve the formulated problem. The proposed algorithm was simulated with input data available in the existing method. For validating the proposed MCMP algorithm, results were compared with the existing method. The compared results prove that the proposed algorithm efficiently reduces the consumer electricity consumption cost and peak demand to optimum level with 100% task completion without sacrificing the consumer comfort.

  19. Climate-simulated raceway pond culturing: quantifying the maximum achievable annual biomass productivity of Chlorella sorokiniana in the contiguous USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesemann, M.; Chavis, A.; Edmundson, S.; Rye, D.; Hobbs, S.; Sun, N.; Wigmosta, M.

    2017-09-13

    Chlorella sorokiniana (DOE 1412) emerged as one of the most promising microalgae strains from the NAABB consortium project, with a remarkable doubling time under optimal conditions of 2.57 hr-1. However, its maximum achievable annual biomass productivity in outdoor ponds in the contiguous United States remained unknown. In order to address this knowledge gap, this alga was cultured in indoor LED-lighted and temperature-controlled raceways in nutrient replete freshwater (BG-11) medium at pH 7 under conditions simulating the daily sunlight intensity and water temperature fluctuations during three seasons in Southern Florida, an optimal outdoor pond culture location for this organism identified by biomass growth modeling. Prior strain characterization indicated that the average maximum specific growth rate (µmax) at 36 ºC declined continuously with pH, with µmax corresponding to 5.92, 5.83, 4.89, and 4.21 day-1 at pH 6, 7, 8, and 9, respectively. In addition, the maximum specific growth rate declined nearly linearly with increasing salinity until no growth was observed above 35 g/L NaCl. In the climate-simulated culturing studies, the volumetric ash-free dry weight-based biomass productivities during the linear growth phase were 57, 69, and 97 mg/L-day for 30-year average light and temperature simulations for January (winter), March (spring), and July (summer), respectively, which corresponds to average areal productivities of 11.6, 14.1, and 19.9 g/m2-day at a constant pond depth of 20.5 cm. The photosynthetic efficiencies (PAR) in the three climate-simulated pond culturing experiments ranged from 4.1 to 5.1%. The annual biomass productivity was estimated as ca. 15 g/m2-day, nearly double the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 2015 State of Technology annual cultivation productivity of 8.5 g/m2-day, but this is still significantly below the projected 2022 target of ca. 25 g/m2-day (U.S. DOE, 2016) for economic microalgal biofuel production, indicating the need for

  20. Inertial fusion and energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzrichter, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) is a technology for releasing nuclear energy from the fusion of light nuclei. For energy production, the most reactive hydrogen isotopes (deuterium (D) and tritium (T)) are commonly considered. The energy aplication requires the compression of a few milligrams of a DT mixture to great density, approximately 1000 times its liquid-state density, and to a high temperature, nearly 100 million 0 K. Under these conditions, efficient nuclear-fusion reactions occur, which can result in over 30% burn-up of the fusion fuel. The high density and temperature can be achieved by focusing very powerful laser or ion beams onto the target. The resultant ablation of the outer layers of the target compresses the fuel in the target, DT ignition occurs, and burn-up of the fuel results as the thermonuclear burn wave propagates outward. The DT-fuel burn-up occurs in about 199 picoseconds. On this short time scale, inertial forces are sufficiently strong to prevent target disassembly before fuel burn-up occurs. The energy released by the DT fusion is projected to be several hundred times greater than the energy delivered by the driver. The present statuds of ICF technology is described

  1. Multi-digit maximum voluntary torque production on a circular object

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHIM, JAE KUN; HUANG, JUNFENG; HOOKE, ALEXANDER W.; LATSH, MARK L.; ZATSIORSKY, VLADIMIR M.

    2010-01-01

    Individual digit-tip forces and moments during torque production on a mechanically fixed circular object were studied. During the experiments, subjects positioned each digit on a 6-dimensional force/moment sensor attached to a circular handle and produced a maximum voluntary torque on the handle. The torque direction and the orientation of the torque axis were varied. From this study, it is concluded that: (1) the maximum torque in the closing (clockwise) direction was larger than in the opening (counter clockwise) direction; (2) the thumb and little finger had the largest and the smallest share of both total normal force and total moment, respectively; (3) the sharing of total moment between individual digits was not affected by the orientation of the torque axis or by the torque direction, while the sharing of total normal force between the individual digit varied with torque direction; (4) the normal force safety margins were largest and smallest in the thumb and little finger, respectively. PMID:17454086

  2. Hydrogen Production Using Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verfondern, K. [Research Centre Juelich (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    world. In recent years, the scope of the IAEA's programme has been widened to include other more promising applications such as nuclear hydrogen production and higher temperature process heat applications. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Euratom and the Generation IV International Forum have also shown interest in the non-electric applications of nuclear power based on future generation advanced and innovative nuclear reactors. This report was developed under an IAEA project with the objective of providing updated, balanced and objective information on the current status of hydrogen production processes using nuclear energy. It documents the state of the art of the development of hydrogen as an energy carrier in many Member States, as well as its corresponding production through the use of nuclear power. The report includes an introduction to the technology of nuclear process heat reactors as a means of producing hydrogen or other upgraded fuels, with a focus on high temperature reactor technology to achieve simultaneous generation of electricity and high temperature process heat and steam. Special emphasis is placed on the safety aspects of nuclear hydrogen production systems.

  3. Particle production at collider energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geich-Gimbel, C.

    1987-11-01

    Key features of the SPS panti p Collider and the detectors of the UA-experiments involved are dealt with in chapter 2, which includes and accord to the ramping mode of the Collider, which allowed to raise the c.m. energy to 900 GeV in the UA5/2 experiment. The following chapters concentrate on physics results. Starting with a discussion of cross sections and diffraction dissociation in chapter 3 we then continue with a presentation of basic features of particle production such as rapidity and multiplicity distributions in chapter 4. There one of the unexpected findings at Collider energies, the breakdown of the so-called KNO-scaling, and new regularities potentially governing multiplicity distributions, are discussed. The findings about correlations among the final state particles, which may tell about the underlying dynamics of multi-particle production and be relevant to models thereof, are described in due detail in chapter 5. Transverse spectra and their trends with energy are shown in chapter 6. Results on identified particles are collected in a separate chapter in order to stress that this piece of information was an important outcome of the UA5 experiment. (orig./HSI)

  4. Maruhn-Greiner Maximum for Confirmation of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) via a Compound Nucleus with Double Magic Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hora, Heinrich; Miley, George

    2007-03-01

    One of the most convincing facts about LENR due to deuterons (ds) or protons of very high concentration in host metals of palladium is the measurement of the large scale minimum in the reaction probability with product elements centered around the nucleon number A = 153. The local maximum was measured in this region is similar to fission of uranium at A = 119 where the local maximum follows the Maruhn-Greiner mechanism^1. We suggest this phenomenon can be explained by the strong screening of the Maxwellian ds on the degenerate rigid electron background within the swimming electrons at the metal surface or thin filem interfaces. The deuterons behave like neutrals at distances of above 2 picometers (pm) and form clusters due to soft attraction in the range of thermal energy; 10 pm diameter clusters can react over long time scales (10^6 s) with Pd leading to double magic number compound nuclei 306x126 decaying via fission to an A=153 element distribution. J. Maruhn et al, Phys. Rev. Letters 32, 548 (1974) H. Hora, G.H. Miley, CzechJ. Phys. 48, 1111 (1998)

  5. Environmental impact of energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidgate, David

    1992-01-01

    Care of the environment is set to be one of the growth industries of the 1990s. Unfortunately, information as to the effect current life styles are having on the environment and, therefore, what remedial action is necessary, varies from the full to the non-existent and, worst of all, from the misleading to the incorrect. For various reasons, some aspects of technology have received greater attention from the media and environmental pressure groups than others. Energy production and conversion technologies, of course, are very much in this category. Indeed, the problem in these areas is not lack of information but a positive surfeit. (author)

  6. Nuclear energy for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verfondern, K.

    2007-01-01

    In the long term, H 2 production technologies will be strongly focusing on CO 2 -neutral or CO 2 -free methods. Nuclear with its virtually no air-borne pollutants emissions appears to be an ideal option for large-scale centralized H 2 production. It will be driven by major factors such as production rates of fossil fuels, political decisions on greenhouse gas emissions, energy security and independence of foreign oil uncertainties, or the economics of large-scale hydrogen production and transmission. A nuclear reactor operated in the heat and power cogeneration mode must be located in close vicinity to the consumer's site, i.e., it must have a convincing safety concept of the combined nuclear/ chemical production plant. A near-term option of nuclear hydrogen production which is readily available is conventional low temperature electrolysis using cheap off-peak electricity from present nuclear power plants. This, however, is available only if the share of nuclear in power production is large. But as fossil fuel prices will increase, the use of nuclear outside base-load becomes more attractive. Nuclear steam reforming is another important near-term option for both the industrial and the transportation sector, since principal technologies were developed, with a saving potential of some 35 % of methane feedstock. Competitiveness will benefit from increasing cost level of natural gas. The HTGR heated steam reforming process which was simulated in pilot plants both in Germany and Japan, appears to be feasible for industrial application around 2015. A CO 2 emission free option is high temperature electrolysis which reduces the electricity needs up to about 30 % and could make use of high temperature heat and steam from an HTGR. With respect to thermochemical water splitting cycles, the processes which are receiving presently most attention are the sulfur-iodine, the Westinghouse hybrid, and the calcium-bromine (UT-3) cycles. Efficiencies of the S-I process are in the

  7. Dependency of maximum goitrogenic response on some minimal level of thyroid hormone production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, B.E.; Poon, R.

    1981-01-01

    Thyroidal activity was studied in chicks given dietary thiouracil in conjunction with daily doses of thyroxine and with diets adequate and deficient in iodine. DL-thyroxine administered at doses up to 1.0 microgram per day for 10 to 12 days had no effect or slightly increased thyroid weight. Both the epithelial and colloid components of the thyroid gland were increased in response to thiouracil and to thiouracil in combination with low dosages of exogenous thyroxine. Radioiodine uptake was increased above the control with thiouracil and with thiouracil in conjunction with .5 and 1.0 microgram DL-thyroxine given daily. Birds receiving thiouracil, with and without exogenous thyroxine, showed a different pattern of radioiodine uptake and release than the control birds. Thiouracil-treated birds showed a rapid uptake of iodine following its administration, which was followed by a rapid decline immediately after peak accumulation, whereas in control birds thyroidal radioiodine concentration reached a plateau at the maximum concentration attained. The goitrogenic response to thiouracil was much greater when the diet was supplemented with iodine than when the diet was iodine-deficient. Thyroids under iodine deficiency contained greater percentages of epithelial tissue than with iodine-supplemented diets. Thyroid glands of chicks given thiouracil in an iodine-supplemented diet contained much more colloid than glands from iodine-deficient chicks with or without thiouracil. DL-thyroxine at a dosage of .5 microgram per day to chicks given thiouracil in an iodine-adequate diet increased, whereas higher dosages decreased thyroidal colloid. It is concluded that some minimal concentration of thyroid hormone is required for maximum goitrogenic response. It is not clear whether the response is entirely due to an effect on thyrotropin production or whether there is an effect of thyroid hormone on the thyroid gland itself

  8. Concerning the maximum energy of ions accelerated at the front of a relativistic electron cloud expanding into vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulanov, S.V.; Esirkepov, T.Zh.; Koga, J.; Tajima, T.; Farina, D.

    2004-01-01

    Results of particle-in-cell simulations are presented that demonstrate characteristic interaction regimes of high-power laser radiation with plasma. It is shown that the maximum energy of fast ions can substantially exceed the electron energy. A theoretical model is proposed of ion acceleration at the front of a relativistic electron cloud expanding into vacuum in the regime of strong charge separation. The model describes the electric field structure and the dynamics of fast ions inside the electron cloud. The maximum energy the ions can gain at the front of the expanding electron cloud is found

  9. Maximum Power Tracking by VSAS approach for Wind Turbine, Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacer Kouider Msirdi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a review of the most efficient algorithms designed to track the maximum power point (MPP for catching the maximum wind power by a variable speed wind turbine (VSWT. We then design a new maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm using the Variable Structure Automatic Systems approach (VSAS. The proposed approachleads efficient algorithms as shown in this paper by the analysis and simulations.

  10. Evaluation of a photovoltaic energy mechatronics system with a built-in quadratic maximum power point tracking algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, R.M.; Ko, S.H.; Lin, I.H. [Department of Systems and Naval Mechatronics Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Pai, F.S. [Department of Electronic Engineering, National University of Tainan (China); Chang, C.C. [Department of Environment and Energy, National University of Tainan (China)

    2009-12-15

    The historically high cost of crude oil price is stimulating research into solar (green) energy as an alternative energy source. In general, applications with large solar energy output require a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm to optimize the power generated by the photovoltaic effect. This work aims to provide a stand-alone solution for solar energy applications by integrating a DC/DC buck converter to a newly developed quadratic MPPT algorithm along with its appropriate software and hardware. The quadratic MPPT method utilizes three previously used duty cycles with their corresponding power outputs. It approaches the maximum value by using a second order polynomial formula, which converges faster than the existing MPPT algorithm. The hardware implementation takes advantage of the real-time controller system from National Instruments, USA. Experimental results have shown that the proposed solar mechatronics system can correctly and effectively track the maximum power point without any difficulties. (author)

  11. Wave Energy Converter Annual Energy Production Uncertainty Using Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton E. Hiles

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Critical to evaluating the economic viability of a wave energy project is: (1 a robust estimate of the electricity production throughout the project lifetime and (2 an understanding of the uncertainty associated with said estimate. Standardization efforts have established mean annual energy production (MAEP as the metric for quantification of wave energy converter (WEC electricity production and the performance matrix approach as the appropriate method for calculation. General acceptance of a method for calculating the MAEP uncertainty has not yet been achieved. Several authors have proposed methods based on the standard engineering approach to error propagation, however, a lack of available WEC deployment data has restricted testing of these methods. In this work the magnitude and sensitivity of MAEP uncertainty is investigated. The analysis is driven by data from simulated deployments of 2 WECs of different operating principle at 4 different locations. A Monte Carlo simulation approach is proposed for calculating the variability of MAEP estimates and is used to explore the sensitivity of the calculation. The uncertainty of MAEP ranged from 2%–20% of the mean value. Of the contributing uncertainties studied, the variability in the wave climate was found responsible for most of the uncertainty in MAEP. Uncertainty in MAEP differs considerably between WEC types and between deployment locations and is sensitive to the length of the input data-sets. This implies that if a certain maximum level of uncertainty in MAEP is targeted, the minimum required lengths of the input data-sets will be different for every WEC-location combination.

  12. Vertical and horizontal processes in the global atmosphere and the maximum entropy production conjecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to reconsider the Maximum Entropy Production conjecture (MEP in the context of a very simple two-dimensional zonal-vertical climate model able to represent the total material entropy production due at the same time to both horizontal and vertical heat fluxes. MEP is applied first to a simple four-box model of climate which accounts for both horizontal and vertical material heat fluxes. It is shown that, under condition of fixed insolation, a MEP solution is found with reasonably realistic temperature and heat fluxes, thus generalising results from independent two-box horizontal or vertical models. It is also shown that the meridional and the vertical entropy production terms are independently involved in the maximisation and thus MEP can be applied to each subsystem with fixed boundary conditions. We then extend the four-box model by increasing its resolution, and compare it with GCM output. A MEP solution is found which is fairly realistic as far as the horizontal large scale organisation of the climate is concerned whereas the vertical structure looks to be unrealistic and presents seriously unstable features. This study suggest that the thermal meridional structure of the atmosphere is predicted fairly well by MEP once the insolation is given but the vertical structure of the atmosphere cannot be predicted satisfactorily by MEP unless constraints are imposed to represent the determination of longwave absorption by water vapour and clouds as a function of the state of the climate. Furthermore an order-of-magnitude estimate of contributions to the material entropy production due to horizontal and vertical processes within the climate system is provided by using two different methods. In both cases we found that approximately 40 mW m−2 K−1 of material entropy production is due to vertical heat transport and 5–7 mW m−2 K−1 to horizontal heat transport.

  13. Maximum Entropy Production Is Not a Steady State Attractor for 2D Fluid Convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Bartlett

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple authors have claimed that the natural convection of a fluid is a process that exhibits maximum entropy production (MEP. However, almost all such investigations were limited to fixed temperature boundary conditions (BCs. It was found that under those conditions, the system tends to maximize its heat flux, and hence it was concluded that the MEP state is a dynamical attractor. However, since entropy production varies with heat flux and difference of inverse temperature, it is essential that any complete investigation of entropy production allows for variations in heat flux and temperature difference. Only then can we legitimately assess whether the MEP state is the most attractive. Our previous work made use of negative feedback BCs to explore this possibility. We found that the steady state of the system was far from the MEP state. For any system, entropy production can only be maximized subject to a finite set of physical and material constraints. In the case of our previous work, it was possible that the adopted set of fluid parameters were constraining the system in such a way that it was entirely prevented from reaching the MEP state. Hence, in the present work, we used a different set of boundary parameters, such that the steady states of the system were in the local vicinity of the MEP state. If MEP was indeed an attractor, relaxing those constraints of our previous work should have caused a discrete perturbation to the surface of steady state heat flux values near the value corresponding to MEP. We found no such perturbation, and hence no discernible attraction to the MEP state. Furthermore, systems with fixed flux BCs actually minimize their entropy production (relative to the alternative stable state, that of pure diffusive heat transport. This leads us to conclude that the principle of MEP is not an accurate indicator of which stable steady state a convective system will adopt. However, for all BCs considered, the quotient of

  14. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics, maximum entropy production and Earth-system evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidon, Axel

    2010-01-13

    The present-day atmosphere is in a unique state far from thermodynamic equilibrium. This uniqueness is for instance reflected in the high concentration of molecular oxygen and the low relative humidity in the atmosphere. Given that the concentration of atmospheric oxygen has likely increased throughout Earth-system history, we can ask whether this trend can be generalized to a trend of Earth-system evolution that is directed away from thermodynamic equilibrium, why we would expect such a trend to take place and what it would imply for Earth-system evolution as a whole. The justification for such a trend could be found in the proposed general principle of maximum entropy production (MEP), which states that non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems maintain steady states at which entropy production is maximized. Here, I justify and demonstrate this application of MEP to the Earth at the planetary scale. I first describe the non-equilibrium thermodynamic nature of Earth-system processes and distinguish processes that drive the system's state away from equilibrium from those that are directed towards equilibrium. I formulate the interactions among these processes from a thermodynamic perspective and then connect them to a holistic view of the planetary thermodynamic state of the Earth system. In conclusion, non-equilibrium thermodynamics and MEP have the potential to provide a simple and holistic theory of Earth-system functioning. This theory can be used to derive overall evolutionary trends of the Earth's past, identify the role that life plays in driving thermodynamic states far from equilibrium, identify habitability in other planetary environments and evaluate human impacts on Earth-system functioning. This journal is © 2010 The Royal Society

  15. Relation between Peak Power Output in Sprint Cycling and Maximum Voluntary Isometric Torque Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, Mehdi; Goodall, Stuart; Barratt, Paul; Rowley, Nicola; Leeder, Jonathan; Howatson, Glyn

    2017-08-01

    From a cycling paradigm, little has been done to understand the relationships between maximal isometric strength of different single joint lower body muscle groups and their relation with, and ability to predict PPO and how they compare to an isometric cycling specific task. The aim of this study was to establish relationships between maximal voluntary torque production from isometric single-joint and cycling specific tasks and assess their ability to predict PPO. Twenty male trained cyclists participated in this study. Peak torque was measured by performing maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) of knee extensors, knee flexors, dorsi flexors and hip extensors whilst instrumented cranks measured isometric peak torque from MVC when participants were in their cycling specific position (ISOCYC). A stepwise regression showed that peak torque of the knee extensors was the only significant predictor of PPO when using SJD and accounted for 47% of the variance. However, when compared to ISOCYC, the only significant predictor of PPO was ISOCYC, which accounted for 77% of the variance. This suggests that peak torque of the knee extensors was the best single-joint predictor of PPO in sprint cycling. Furthermore, a stronger prediction can be made from a task specific isometric task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Origin of a maximum of the astrophysical S factor in heavy-ion fusion reactions at deep subbarrier energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagino, K.; Balantekin, A. B.; Lwin, N. W.; Thein, Ei Shwe Zin

    2018-03-01

    The hindrance phenomenon of heavy-ion fusion cross sections at deep subbarrier energies often accompanies a maximum of an astrophysical S factor at a threshold energy for fusion hindrance. We argue that this phenomenon can naturally be explained when the fusion excitation function is fitted with two potentials, with a larger (smaller) logarithmic slope at energies lower (higher) than the threshold energy. This analysis clearly suggests that the astrophysical S factor provides a convenient tool to analyze the deep subbarrier hindrance phenomenon, even though the S factor may have a strong energy dependence for heavy-ion systems unlike that for astrophysical reactions.

  17. Plywood production wastes to energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubov, V. K.; Popov, A. N.

    2017-11-01

    Wood and by-products of its processing are a renewable energy source with carbon neutral and may be used in solving energy problems. ZAO «Arkhangelsk plywood factory» installed and put into operation the boiler with capacity of 22 MW (saturated steam of 1.2 MPa) to reduce the cost of thermal energy, the impact of environmental factors on stability of the company’s development and for reduction of harmful emissions into the environment. Fuel for boiler is the mixture consists of chip plywood, birch bark, wood sanding dust (WSD) and sawdust of the plywood processing. The components of the fuel mixture significantly differ in thermotechnical characteristics and technological parameters but especially in size composition. Particle dimensions in the fuel mixture differ by more than a thousand times which makes it «unique» and very difficult to ensure the effective and non-explosive use. WSD and sawdust from line of cutting of plywood are small fraction material and relate to IV group of explosion. Criterion of explosive for them has great values (КfWSD=10.85 Кfsaw=9.66). Boiler’s furnace equipped with reciprocating grate where implemented a three-stage scheme of combustion. For a comprehensive survey of the effectiveness of installed equipment was analyzed the design features of the boiler, defined the components of thermal balance, studied nitrogen oxide emissions, carbon and particulate matter with the determination of soot emissions. Amount of solid particles depending on their shape and size was analyzed.

  18. Energy ratios in Finnish agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. MIKKOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess energy ratios and net energy in plant production and energy ratios in animal production in Finland. Energy ratios and net energy were determined on the basis of plant- and animal-specific energy analyses. In plant production, energy ratios and net energy were assessed as a function of nitrogen fertilization, because indirect energy input in the form of agrochemicals was 54—73% from the total energy input and nitrogen was responsible for the major part of this. The highest energy ratio was 18.6 for reed canary grass. As a whole reed canary grass was superior to the other crops, which were barley, spring wheat, spring turnip rape, ley for silage, potato and sugar beet. Reed canary grass and sugar beet gained the highest net energy yields of 111–115 GJ ha-1. The optimum energy ratio was gained in general with less nitrogen fertilization intensity than farmers use. The energy ratios in pork production varied between 0.14–1.28 depending on what was included or excluded in the analysis and for milk production between 0.15–1.85. Ratios of 1.28 in pork production and 1.85 in milk production are unrealistic as they do not give any shelter to the animals, although they can be approached in very low-input production systems. If the ratio is calculated with feed energy content then the ratio is low, 0.14–0.22 for pork and 0.15 for milk. This shows that animals can convert 14–22 percent of the input energy to usable products. In pork production, the largest portion of the energy input was the ventilation of the building. In milk production milking and cooling consumes a lot of energy and for this reason the electricity consumption is high.;

  19. Manufactering of par-fried french-fries. Part 3: a blueprint to predict the maximum production yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, D.J.; Capelle, A.; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    Very little research on the production yield of par-fried French-fries has been reported in the literature. This paper bridges the knowledge gap and outlines the development of a model to predict the maximum production yield of par-fried French-fries. This yield model can be used to calculate the

  20. Optimization of Culture Parameters for Maximum Polyhydroxybutyrate Production by Selected Bacterial Strains Isolated from Rhizospheric Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathwal, Priyanka; Nehra, Kiran; Singh, Manpreet; Jamdagni, Pragati; Rana, Jogender S

    2015-01-01

    The enormous applications of conventional non-biodegradable plastics have led towards their increased usage and accumulation in the environment. This has become one of the major causes of global environmental concern in the present century. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a biodegradable plastic is known to have properties similar to conventional plastics, thus exhibiting a potential for replacing conventional non-degradable plastics. In the present study, a total of 303 different bacterial isolates were obtained from soil samples collected from the rhizospheric area of three crops, viz., wheat, mustard and sugarcane. All the isolates were screened for PHB (Poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid) production using Sudan Black staining method, and 194 isolates were found to be PHB positive. Based upon the amount of PHB produced, the isolates were divided into three categories: high, medium and low producers. Representative isolates from each category were selected for biochemical characterization; and for optimization of various culture parameters (carbon source, nitrogen source, C/N ratio, different pH, temperature and incubation time periods) for maximizing PHB accumulation. The highest PHB yield was obtained when the culture medium was supplemented with glucose as the carbon source, ammonium sulphate at a concentration of 1.0 g/l as the nitrogen source, and by maintaining the C/N ratio of the medium as 20:1. The physical growth parameters which supported maximum PHB accumulation included a pH of 7.0, and an incubation temperature of 30 degrees C for a period of 48 h. A few isolates exhibited high PHB accumulation under optimized conditions, thus showing a potential for their industrial exploitation.

  1. Energy production from renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This table summarizes the electricity and heat produced in France and in overseas departments from renewable energy sources for 1998 (revised), 1999 (temporary) and 2000 (estimated): hydraulic, wind, solar photovoltaic and thermal, geothermal, solid municipal wastes, wood and wood wastes, biogas, ethanol and ester bio-fuels. (J.S.)

  2. Information Entropy Production of Maximum Entropy Markov Chains from Spike Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofré, Rodrigo; Maldonado, Cesar

    2018-01-01

    We consider the maximum entropy Markov chain inference approach to characterize the collective statistics of neuronal spike trains, focusing on the statistical properties of the inferred model. We review large deviations techniques useful in this context to describe properties of accuracy and convergence in terms of sampling size. We use these results to study the statistical fluctuation of correlations, distinguishability and irreversibility of maximum entropy Markov chains. We illustrate these applications using simple examples where the large deviation rate function is explicitly obtained for maximum entropy models of relevance in this field.

  3. Biomass gasification for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, H.; Morris, M.; Rensfelt, E. [TPS Termiska Prosesser Ab, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Biomass and waste are becoming increasingly interesting as fuels for efficient and environmentally sound power generation. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification for biomass and waste has been developed and applied to kilns both in the pulp and paper industry and the cement industry. A demonstration plant in Greve-in- Chianti, Italy includes two 15 MW{sub t}h RDF-fuelled CFB gasifiers of TPS design, the product gas from which is used in a cement kiln or in steam boiler for power generation. For CFB gasification of biomass and waste to reach a wider market, the product gas has to be cleaned effectively so that higher fuel to power efficiencies can be achieved by utilizing power cycles based on engines or gas turbines. TPS has developed both CFB gasification technology and effective secondary stage tar cracking technology. The integrated gasification - gas-cleaning technology is demonstrated today at pilot plant scale. To commercialise the technology, the TPS`s strategy is to first demonstrate the process for relatively clean fuels such as woody biomass and then extend the application to residues from waste recycling. Several demonstration projects are underway to commercialise TPS`s gasification and gas cleaning technology. In UK the ARBRE project developed by ARBRE Energy will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 Mw of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK`s Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from EC`s THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. (author)

  4. Biomass gasification for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, H; Morris, M; Rensfelt, E [TPS Termiska Prosesser Ab, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    Biomass and waste are becoming increasingly interesting as fuels for efficient and environmentally sound power generation. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification for biomass and waste has been developed and applied to kilns both in the pulp and paper industry and the cement industry. A demonstration plant in Greve-in- Chianti, Italy includes two 15 MW{sub t}h RDF-fuelled CFB gasifiers of TPS design, the product gas from which is used in a cement kiln or in steam boiler for power generation. For CFB gasification of biomass and waste to reach a wider market, the product gas has to be cleaned effectively so that higher fuel to power efficiencies can be achieved by utilizing power cycles based on engines or gas turbines. TPS has developed both CFB gasification technology and effective secondary stage tar cracking technology. The integrated gasification - gas-cleaning technology is demonstrated today at pilot plant scale. To commercialise the technology, the TPS`s strategy is to first demonstrate the process for relatively clean fuels such as woody biomass and then extend the application to residues from waste recycling. Several demonstration projects are underway to commercialise TPS`s gasification and gas cleaning technology. In UK the ARBRE project developed by ARBRE Energy will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 Mw of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK`s Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from EC`s THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. (author)

  5. Energy balance of the lavender oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman GÖKDOĞAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to determine the energy input-output analysis of lavender oil production. Data from agricultural farms in Isparta province was used. Energy input was calculated as 1993.89 MJ and energy output was calculated as 2925.51 MJ. Wood energy, fresh stalked lavender flower energy, equipment energy, human labour energy, electricity energy, and water energy inputs were 54.22 %, 41.86 %, 3.40 %, 0.23 %, 0.18 %, and 0.10 % of energy inputs, respectively. In this production, it is noteworthy that wood was used as fuel in the lavender oil production distillation process as the highest input. In the energy outputs, an average of 3.10 kg lavender oil and 130 kg lavender water were extracted by processing 234 kg fresh stalked lavender flower. Energy use efficiency, specific energy, energy productivity, and net energy for lavender oil production were calculated as 1.47, 643.19 MJ kg-1, 0.002 kg MJ-1 and 931.62 MJ, respectively.

  6. Energy intensities of food products. Energie-intensiteiten van voedingsmiddelen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, R.; Biesiot, W.; Wilting, H.C.

    1993-08-01

    The energy intensity of a product is the amount of primary energy used per Dutch guilder spent on consumer goods. The energy intensity can differ for each spending and varies from household to household. The aim of this study is to calculate the energy intensities and to provide an overview of the total package of consumer goods, including sociological categories and lifestyles, and the related use of primary energy to produce these goods. Use is made of the Energy Analysis Program (EAP) to calculate the energy intensities. EAP is based on the hybrid method: both the process analysis and the input-output analysis are applied in the model. The data input of the model consists of data from the Budget Survey 1990 of the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics, which holds data of consumptions from 2767 households. In the chapters 4 to 10 energy intensities are given of the categories bread, pastry and groceries (chapter four), potatoes, vegetables and fruits (chapter five), sugary products and beverages (chapter six), oils and fats (chapter seven), meat, meat products and fish (chapter eight), dairy products (chapter nine), and other food products (chapter ten). The highest energy intensity is found for oils and fats (13.5 MJ per Dutch guilder). The energy intensities for the other products vary from 4.0 to 6.6 MJ/gld. It appears that most of the energy intensive products are products which do not use a large part of the primary energy, mainly because the consumption of these products is low. On the other hand many of the products that consume much of the primary energy (i.e. are consumed much themselves) are relatively energy extensive. The products that show a high consumption rate have relatively low energy intensities. Some of the options to shift towards a more energy extensive food package are the use of fresh products and outside grown products instead of treated products or greenhouse products and a more balanced diet. 5 figs., 18 tabs., 2 appendices, 52 refs.

  7. IEA Energy Technology Essentials: Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    The IEA Energy Technology Essentials series offers concise four-page updates on the different technologies for producing, transporting and using energy. Biofuel Production is the topic covered in this edition.

  8. Simulations of the energy loss of ions at the stopping-power maximum in a laser-induced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayzac, W.; Malka, G.; Frank, A.; Bagnoud, V.; Blažević, A.; Schlegel, T.; Ortner, A.; Bedacht, S.; Deppert, O.; Knetsch, A.; Schaumann, G.; Wagner, F.; Basko, M.M.; Gericke, D.O.; Hallo, L.; Pépitone, K.; Kraus, D.; Schumacher, D.; Tauschwitz, An.; Vorberger, J.

    2016-01-01

    Simulations have been performed to study the energy loss of carbon ions in a hot, laser-generated plasma in the velocity region of the stopping-power maximum. In this parameter range, discrepancies of up to 30% exist between the various stopping theories and hardly any experimental data are available. The considered plasma, created by irradiating a thin carbon foil with two high-energy laser beams, is fully-ionized with a temperature of nearly 200 eV. To study the interaction at the maximum stopping power, Monte-Carlo calculations of the ion charge state in the plasma are carried out at a projectile energy of 0.5 MeV per nucleon. The predictions of various stopping-power theories are compared and experimental campaigns are planned for a first-time theory benchmarking in this low-velocity range. (paper)

  9. 9 CFR 381.168 - Maximum percent of skin in certain poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry products. 381.168 Section 381.168 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and...

  10. A new maximum power point method based on a sliding mode approach for solar energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhat, Maissa; Barambones, Oscar; Sbita, Lassaad

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Create a simple, easy of implement and accurate V_M_P_P estimator. • Stability analysis of the proposed system based on the Lyapunov’s theory. • A comparative study versus P&O, highlight SMC good performances. • Construct a new PS-SMC algorithm to include the partial shadow case. • Experimental validation of the SMC MPP tracker. - Abstract: This paper presents a photovoltaic (PV) system with a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) facility. The goal of this work is to maximize power extraction from the photovoltaic generator (PVG). This goal is achieved using a sliding mode controller (SMC) that drives a boost converter connected between the PVG and the load. The system is modeled and tested under MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. In simulation, the sliding mode controller offers fast and accurate convergence to the maximum power operating point that outperforms the well-known perturbation and observation method (P&O). The sliding mode controller performance is evaluated during steady-state, against load varying and panel partial shadow (PS) disturbances. To confirm the above conclusion, a practical implementation of the maximum power point tracker based sliding mode controller on a hardware setup is performed on a dSPACE real time digital control platform. The data acquisition and the control system are conducted all around dSPACE 1104 controller board and its RTI environment. The experimental results demonstrate the validity of the proposed control scheme over a stand-alone real photovoltaic system.

  11. Essential Oil of Amomum maximum Roxb. and Its Bioactivities against Two Stored-Product Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shan-Shan; You, Chun-Xue; Liang, Jun-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Yang, Kai; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Du, Shu-Shan; Lei, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Amomum maximum Roxb. is a perennial herb distributed in South China and Southeast Asia. The objective of this work was to analyze the chemical constituents and assess insecticidal and repellent activities of the essential oil from Amomum maximum fruits against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Liposcelis bostrychophila (Badonnel). The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be β-pinene (23.39%), β-caryophyllene (16.43%), α-pinene (7.55%), sylvestrene (6.61%) and ç-cadinene (4.19%). It was found that the essential oil of A. maximum fruits possessed contact and fumigant toxicities against T. castaneum adults (LD50 = 29.57 μg/adult and LC(50) = 23.09 mg/L air, respectively) and showed contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila (LD(50) = 67.46 μg/cm(2)). Repellency of the crude oil was also evaluated. After 2 h treatment, the essential oil possessed 100% repellency at 78.63 nL/cm(2) against T. castaneum and 84% repellency at 63.17 nL/cm(2) against L. bostrychophila. The results indicated that the essential oil of A. maximum fruits had the potential to be developed as a natural insecticide and repellent for control of T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila.

  12. Transverse energy production at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Raghunath

    2006-01-01

    The quest for understanding of the possible formation and existence of the quark-gluon plasma (Qp), the deconfined phase of quarks and gluons, has been a major area of research in high energy nuclear physics. High energy nuclear collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has opened a new domain for the exploration of strongly interacting matter at very high energy density and temperature

  13. Promoting greater Federal energy productivity [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Mark; Dudich, Luther

    2003-03-05

    This document is a close-out report describing the work done under this DOE grant to improve Federal Energy Productivity. Over the four years covered in this document, the Alliance To Save Energy conducted liaison with the private sector through our Federal Energy Productivity Task Force. In this time, the Alliance held several successful workshops on the uses of metering in Federal facilities and other meetings. We also conducted significant research on energy efficiency, financing, facilitated studies of potential energy savings in energy intensive agencies, and undertook other tasks outlined in this report.

  14. A consistent high primary production and chlorophyll-a maximum in a narrow strait – effects of hydraulic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, Lars Chresten; Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard; Bruhn, Annette

    2008-01-01

    and the North Sea. The time-series were supplemented with Scan Fish transects — a towed CTD, ADCP measurements, and nutrient data. There is a significant maximum in primary production (mg C m− 2 day− 1) in central LB, which is 30% higher than outside the LB region. Chl-a concentrations are 30% higher in central...

  15. Universality, maximum radiation, and absorption in high-energy collisions of black holes with spin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperhake, Ulrich; Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor; Pretorius, Frans

    2013-07-26

    We explore the impact of black hole spins on the dynamics of high-energy black hole collisions. We report results from numerical simulations with γ factors up to 2.49 and dimensionless spin parameter χ=+0.85, +0.6, 0, -0.6, -0.85. We find that the scattering threshold becomes independent of spin at large center-of-mass energies, confirming previous conjectures that structure does not matter in ultrarelativistic collisions. It has further been argued that in this limit all of the kinetic energy of the system may be radiated by fine tuning the impact parameter to threshold. On the contrary, we find that only about 60% of the kinetic energy is radiated for γ=2.49. By monitoring apparent horizons before and after scattering events we show that the "missing energy" is absorbed by the individual black holes in the encounter, and moreover the individual black-hole spins change significantly. We support this conclusion with perturbative calculations. An extrapolation of our results to the limit γ→∞ suggests that about half of the center-of-mass energy of the system can be emitted in gravitational radiation, while the rest must be converted into rest-mass and spin energy.

  16. Energy production and reactor efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Doubts have been raised in relation to the economic and energetic efficiency of nuclear reactors. Some economists are questioning whether, when all the capital and material inputs to fission technology are considered, nuclear reactors yield sufficiently large amounts of energy to show a nett gain of energy. (author)

  17. Process configuration of Liquid-nitrogen Energy Storage System (LESS) for maximum turnaround efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Rohan; Ghosh, Parthasarathi; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2017-12-01

    Diverse power generation sector requires energy storage due to penetration of variable renewable energy sources and use of CO2 capture plants with fossil fuel based power plants. Cryogenic energy storage being large-scale, decoupled system with capability of producing large power in the range of MWs is one of the options. The drawback of these systems is low turnaround efficiencies due to liquefaction processes being highly energy intensive. In this paper, the scopes of improving the turnaround efficiency of such a plant based on liquid Nitrogen were identified and some of them were addressed. A method using multiple stages of reheat and expansion was proposed for improved turnaround efficiency from 22% to 47% using four such stages in the cycle. The novelty here is the application of reheating in a cryogenic system and utilization of waste heat for that purpose. Based on the study, process conditions for a laboratory-scale setup were determined and presented here.

  18. Production of sintered alumina from powder; optimization of the sinterized parameters for the maximum mechanical resistence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, J.C. da.

    1981-02-01

    Pure, sinterized alumina and the optimization of the parameters of sinterization in order to obtain the highest mechanical resistence are discussed. Test materials are sinterized from a fine powder of pure alumina (Al 2 O 3 ), α phase, at different temperatures and times, in air. The microstructures are analysed concerning porosity and grain size. Depending on the temperature or the time of sinterization, there is a maximum for the mechanical resistence. (A.R.H.) [pt

  19. Expected energy production evaluation for photovoltaic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Peng, Wang

    2011-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system consists of many solar panels, which are connected in series, parallel or a combination of both. Energy production for the PV system with various configurations is different. In this paper, a methodology is developed to evaluate and analyze the expected energy production...

  20. L1 Adaptive Speed Control of a Small Wind Energy Conversion System for Maximum Power Point Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an L1 adaptive controller for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of a small variable speed Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS). The proposed controller generates the optimal torque command for the vector controlled generator side converter (GSC) based on the wi......) is used to carry out case studies using Matlab/Simulink. The case study results show that the designed L1 adaptive controller has good tracking performance even with unmodeled dynamics and in the presence of parameter uncertainties and unknown disturbances.......This paper presents the design of an L1 adaptive controller for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of a small variable speed Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS). The proposed controller generates the optimal torque command for the vector controlled generator side converter (GSC) based on the wind...

  1. Periodic variations of Auger energy maximum distribution following He2+ + H2 collisions: A complete analogy with photon interferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholet, M.; Minerbe, F.; Oliviero, G.; Pestel, V.; Frémont, F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Young type interferences with electrons are revisited. • Oscillations in the angular distribution of the energy maximum of Auger spectra are evidenced. • Model calculations are in good agreement with the experimental result. • The position of the Auger spectra oscillates in counterphase with the total intensity. - Abstract: In this article, we present experimental evidence of a particular electron-interference phenomenon. The electrons are provided by autoionization of 2l2l′ doubly excited He atoms following the capture of H 2 electrons by a slow He 2+ incoming ion. We observe that the position of the energy maximum of the Auger structures oscillates with the detection angle. Calculation based on a simple model that includes interferences clearly shows that the present oscillations are due to Young-type interferences caused by electrons scattering on both H + centers

  2. Determination of maximum power transfer conditions of bimorph piezoelectric energy harvesters

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al

    2012-07-23

    In this paper, a method to find the maximum power transfer conditions in bimorph piezoelectric-based harvesters is proposed. Explicitly, we derive a closed form expression that relates the load resistance to the mechanical parameters describing the bimorph based on the electromechanical, single degree of freedom, analogy. Further, by taking into account the intrinsic capacitance of the piezoelectric harvester, a more descriptive expression of the resonant frequency in piezoelectric bimorphs was derived. In interest of impartiality, we apply the proposed philosophy on previously published experimental results and compare it with other reported hypotheses. It was found that the proposed method was able to predict the actual optimum load resistance more accurately than other methods reported in the literature. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Energy and environmental implications of copper production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvardo, Sergio [Chile Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Santiago (Chile); Maldonado, Pedro; Jaques, Ivan [Chile Univ., Energy Research Program, Santiago (Chile)

    1999-04-01

    Primary copper production is a major activity in the mining sector. It is highly energy-intensive, ranking third in specific energy consumption (SEC) among the five major basic metals (aluminum, copper, iron, lead and zinc) and poses important environmental hazards. We examine the large discrepancy between theoretical (from thermodynamics) and actual (from empirical data) SECs and then describe relevant environmental issues, focusing on the most significant energy-related environmental impacts of primary copper production with emphasis on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. An example of GHG energy-related abatement that concurrently improves energy use is presented. (Author)

  4. Environmental considerations in energy crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranney, J.W.; Mann, L.K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a preliminary attempt to provide information on the probable environmental effects of energy crop production relative to other potential uses of the land. While dedicated energy crop production is anticipated to occur primarily on land currently in agricultural production, some pastureland and forestland with a high potential for conversion to agricultural production may be utilized. Experimental results suggest that chemical use on energy crops will be lower than on most row crops and that land producing energy crops should experience less erosion than land producing row crops. Long-term site productivity should not be a major issue if macro-and micro-fertilizers are added as needed and nutrient-conserving production techniques are used. (Author)

  5. Experimental determination of a critical temperature for maximum anaerobic digester biogas production

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sichilalu, S

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available fission of methanogenic bacteria. The temperature was varied over time over several days and the biogas production is recorded every after 24 hours(1 day) . Based on the experiment setup, the results show a higher biogas production proportional to the rise...

  6. Prêt-à-Loger : Zero-energy home with maximum living quality increase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.

    2015-01-01

    At the Solar Decathlon Europe 2014 (SDE2014) competition (Versailles, France), the team from the Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) took a stance by not constructing a new-built house but demonstrating the energy renovation of a typical Dutch terraced house. Around a quarter of Dutch housing

  7. Dual-Axis Solar Tracking System for Maximum Power Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    ABSTRACT: The power developed in a solar energy system depends fundamentally upon the ... for power generation. ... determined because they are functions of the solar angles that ..... able to withstand the weight and the blowing wind.

  8. Between research and energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirbus, F.B.

    1977-01-01

    When on March 20th, 1974, the nuclear power plant in Atucha, 100 km to the north-west of Argentine's capital Buenos Aires, built by Siemens, was taken into operation, it seemed as if South America had resolutely stepped into the atomic age. In the meantime, Brazil makes preparations for fortified construction of nuclear power plants and its own nuclear industry, and Mexico is accelerating its investigations in order to replace its dwindlung hydroelectric reserves as soon as possible with nuclear energy. The effect of the oil crisis was that Latin American countries, too, take a different look at the peaceful uses of atomic energy. (orig.) [de

  9. Energy production and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, J.R.; Brown, C.D.; Dixon-Davis, D.K.; Grahn, D.; Ludy, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: development and evaluation of socioeconomic and demographic factors; and quantitative aspects of the impacts of energy-related effluents on human health. Environmental effects of electric power generation by gas, oil, coal, nuclear energy, and water were studied at 15 sites. A system of general demographic models was developed for projecting number of deaths and population size by sex, age, and cause of death through time for any defined initial population and set of vital rates

  10. Energy efficiency and cleaner production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinoff, M.; Grozeva, Iv.

    1999-01-01

    Energy is the fundamental driver of the economic growth in the todays society. It is an absolute prerequisite for the industrial development in the developed countries as well as for improving the quality of life and reducing the poverty in the developing world. It is expected that the energy demand in the developing countries will increase rapidly in the next decades, and will even exceed the level of consumption in the rich countries due to rising population and incomes. The burning of fossil fuel, however, inevitably leads to negative environmental impact, which no longer can be neglected

  11. Analysis to determine the maximum dimensions of flexible apertures in sensored security netting products.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murton, Mark; Bouchier, Francis A.; vanDongen, Dale T.; Mack, Thomas Kimball; Cutler, Robert P; Ross, Michael P.

    2013-08-01

    Although technological advances provide new capabilities to increase the robustness of security systems, they also potentially introduce new vulnerabilities. New capability sometimes requires new performance requirements. This paper outlines an approach to establishing a key performance requirement for an emerging intrusion detection sensor: the sensored net. Throughout the security industry, the commonly adopted standard for maximum opening size through barriers is a requirement based on square inchestypically 96 square inches. Unlike standard rigid opening, the dimensions of a flexible aperture are not fixed, but variable and conformable. It is demonstrably simple for a human intruder to move through a 96-square-inch opening that is conformable to the human body. The longstanding 96-square-inch requirement itself, though firmly embedded in policy and best practice, lacks a documented empirical basis. This analysis concluded that the traditional 96-square-inch standard for openings is insufficient for flexible openings that are conformable to the human body. Instead, a circumference standard is recommended for these newer types of sensored barriers. The recommended maximum circumference for a flexible opening should be no more than 26 inches, as measured on the inside of the netting material.

  12. Energy production, conversion, storage, conservation, and coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Yaşar

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the sustainable use of energy in various processes is an integral part of engineering and scientific studies, which rely on a sound knowledge of energy systems. Whilst many institutions now offer degrees in energy-related programs, a comprehensive textbook, which introduces and explains sustainable energy systems and can be used across engineering and scientific fields, has been lacking. Energy: Production, Conversion, Storage, Conservation, and Coupling provides the reader with a practical understanding of these five main topic areas of energy including 130 examples and over 600 practice problems. Each chapter contains a range of supporting figures, tables, thermodynamic diagrams and charts, while the Appendix supplies the reader with all the necessary data including the steam tables. This new textbook presents a clear introduction of basic vocabulary, properties, forms, sources, and balances of energy before advancing to the main topic areas of: • Energy production and conversion in importa...

  13. Biochemical and photosynthetic aspects of energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Pietro, A [ed.

    1980-01-01

    Photosynthesis is the only method of solar energy conversion presently practiced on a large scale, supplying all food energy as well as fiber and wood. This book is an attempt to describe and evaluate biological processes that may serve in the future to provide alternative energy resources. Areas covered include marine biomass production, algal-bacterial systems, agricultural residues, energy farming and biological nitrogen fixation with an emphasis on the legumes.

  14. Achieving energy efficiency through product policy: the UK experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Brenda

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on energy efficiency of domestic equipment. It is contended that, in the UK and--by extension--elsewhere. Government has to take the lead in defining low-energy standards for products. In the absence of policy, manufacturers do not recognize the need for carbon reductions in the equipment they design and consumers are unaware of the variation in energy performance in the product range. At present, neither market pull nor technology push can be relied upon to deliver energy savings. The imposition of a weak minimum standard on domestic fridges and freezers in 1999 will, over the lifetime of the appliances already sold by December 2002, save 1 Mt C of carbon dioxide at nil cost to government or to the manufacturers, and a net benefit to consumers of pound 855 m: a highly cost-effective policy. The difference between energy efficiency and energy conservation is that it takes time for the cumulative benefits of an energy efficiency improvement to result in the maximum effect on energy demand reduction: the benefits of the 1999 energy efficiency standard will accumulate until at least 2020. This period is equivalent to the cycle of stock replacement for that particular object. The final level of energy conservation depends upon the offsetting effects of growth in ownership levels and the size of new equipment purchases

  15. Maximum power point tracking analysis of a coreless ironless electric generator for renewable energy application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Akhtar; Rahman, Fadhlur; Leong, Yap Wee; Razali Hanipah, Mohd; Azri Hizami, Mohd

    2018-04-01

    The magnetism attraction between permanent magnets and soft ironcore lamination in a conventional electric ironcore generator is often known as cogging. Cogging requires an additional input power to overcome, hence became one of the power loss sources. With the increasing of power output, the cogging is also proportionally increased. This leads to the increasing of the supplied power of the driver motor to overcome the cog. Therefore, this research is embarked to study fundamentally about the possibility of removing ironcore lamination in an electric generator to see its performance characteristic. In the maximum power point tracking test, the fabricated ironless coreless electricity generator was tested by applying the load on the ironless coreless electricity generator optimization to maximize the power generated, voltage and the current produced by the ironless coreless electricity generator when the rotational speed of the rotor increased throughout the test. The rotational torque and power output are measured, and efficiency is then analyzed. Results indicated that the generator produced RMS voltage of 200VAC at rotational speed of 318 RPM. Torque required to rotate the generator was at 10.8Nm. The generator had working efficiency of 77.73% and the power generated was at 280W.

  16. Bounds on the maximum attainable equilibrium spin polarization of protons at high energy in HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, M.

    2000-12-01

    For some years HERA has been supplying longitudinally spin polarised electron and positron (e ± ) beams to the HERMES experiment and in the future longitudinal polarisation will be supplied to the II1 and ZEUS experiments. As a result there has been a development of interest in complementing the polarised e ± beams with polarised protons. In contrast to the case of e ± where spin flip due to synchrotron radiation in the main bending dipoles leads to self polarisation owing to an up-down asymmetry in the spin flip rates (Sokolov-Ternov effect), there is no convincing self polarisation mechanism for protons at high energy. Therefore protons must be polarised almost at rest in a source and then accelerated to the working energy. At HERA, if no special measures are adopted, this means that the spins must cross several thousand ''spin-orbit resonances''. Resonance crossing can lead to loss of polarisation and at high energy such effects are potentially strong since spin precession is very pronounced in the very large magnetic fields needed to contain the proton beam in HERA-p. Moreover simple models which have been successfully used to describe spin motion at low and medium energies are no longer adequate. Instead, careful numerical spin-orbit tracking simulations are needed and a new, mathematically rigorous look at the theoretical concepts is required. This thesis describes the underlying theoretical concepts, the computational tools (SPRINT) and the results of such a study. In particular strong emphasis is put on the concept of the invariant spin field and its non-perturbative construction. The invariant spin field is then used to define the amplitude dependent spin tune and to obtain numerical non-perturbative estimates of the latter. By means of these two key concepts the nature of higher order resonances in the presence of snakes is clarified and their impact on the beam polarisation is analysed. We then go on to discuss the special aspects of the HERA-p ring

  17. Inaugural Maximum Values for Sodium in Processed Food Products in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norm; Legowski, Barbara; Legetic, Branka; Nilson, Eduardo; L'Abbé, Mary

    2015-08-01

    Reducing dietary salt/sodium is one of the most cost-effective interventions to improve population health. There are five initiatives in the Americas that independently developed targets for reformulating foods to reduce salt/sodium content. Applying selection criteria, recommended by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)/World Health Organization (WHO) Technical Advisory Group on Dietary Salt/Sodium Reduction, a consortium of governments, civil society, and food companies (the Salt Smart Consortium) agreed to an inaugural set of regional maximum targets (upper limits) for salt/sodium levels for 11 food categories, to be achieved by December 2016. Ultimately, to substantively reduce dietary salt across whole populations, targets will be needed for the majority of processed and pre-prepared foods. Cardiovascular and hypertension organizations are encouraged to utilize the regional targets in advocacy and in monitoring and evaluation of progress by the food industry. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Toxicological aspects of energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    Part I reviews the principles of toxicology, describes the biological fate of chemicals in the body, discusses basic pathobiology, and reviews short-term toxicity tests. Part II describes the toxicology and pathology of pollutants in several important organ systems. The greatest emphasis is placed on the respiratory tract because of its high probability as a route of exposure to pollutants from energy technologies and its high sensitivity to pollutant related tissue damage. Part III describes the toxicological aspects of specific chemical classes associated with fossil fuels; these include polycyclic hydrocarbons, gases and metals. Part IV describes the biomedical effects associated with each energy technology, including coal and oil, fossil fuel and biomass conversions, solar and geothermal and radiological health aspects associated with uranium mining, nuclear fission and fusion, and with nonionising radiations and electromagnetic fields

  19. Energy security for India: Biofuels, energy efficiency and food productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunatilake, Herath; Roland-Holst, David; Sugiyarto, Guntur

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of biofuel as a renewable energy source offers opportunities for significant climate change mitigation and greater energy independence to many countries. At the same time, biofuel represents the possibility of substitution between energy and food. For developing countries like India, which imports over 75% of its crude oil, fossil fuels pose two risks—global warming pollution and long-term risk that oil prices will undermine real living standards. This paper examines India's options for managing energy price risk in three ways: biofuel development, energy efficiency promotion, and food productivity improvements. Our salient results suggest that biodiesel shows promise as a transport fuel substitute that can be produced in ways that fully utilize marginal agricultural resources and hence promote rural livelihoods. First-generation bioethanol, by contrast, appears to have a limited ability to offset the impacts of oil price hikes. Combining the biodiesel expansion policy with energy efficiency improvements and food productivity increases proved to be a more effective strategy to enhance both energy and food security, help mitigate climate change, and cushion the economy against oil price shocks. - Highlights: • We investigate the role of biofuels in India applying a CGE model. • Biodiesel enhances energy security and improve rural livelihoods. • Sugarcane ethanol does not show positive impact on the economy. • Biodiesel and energy efficiency improvements together provide better results. • Food productivity further enhances biodiesel, and energy efficiency impacts

  20. Automatic control algorithm effects on energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnerney, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    A computer model was developed using actual wind time series and turbine performance data to simulate the power produced by the Sandia 17-m VAWT operating in automatic control. The model was used to investigate the influence of starting algorithms on annual energy production. The results indicate that, depending on turbine and local wind characteristics, a bad choice of a control algorithm can significantly reduce overall energy production. The model can be used to select control algorithms and threshold parameters that maximize long term energy production. The results from local site and turbine characteristics were generalized to obtain general guidelines for control algorithm design.

  1. Particle production at AGS energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steadman, S.G.; Rothschild, P.J.; Sung, T.W.; Zachary, D.

    1995-01-01

    The authors discuss particle production from 14.6 A·GeV/c Si and 11.6 A·GeV/c Au projectiles on Al and Au targets. The second-level trigger utilized by E859 allows high precision measurements of K - , bar p, Λ and bar Λ. The bar Λ yield is larger than expected, and a surprisingly large fraction of the bar p's are observed to arise from the decay of bar Λ

  2. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  3. Neural Network Based Maximum Power Point Tracking Control with Quadratic Boost Converter for PMSG—Wind Energy Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramji Tiwari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an artificial neural network (ANN based maximum power point tracking (MPPT control strategy for wind energy conversion system (WECS implemented with a DC/DC converter. The proposed topology utilizes a radial basis function network (RBFN based neural network control strategy to extract the maximum available power from the wind velocity. The results are compared with a classical Perturb and Observe (P&O method and Back propagation network (BPN method. In order to achieve a high voltage rating, the system is implemented with a quadratic boost converter and the performance of the converter is validated with a boost and single ended primary inductance converter (SEPIC. The performance of the MPPT technique along with a DC/DC converter is demonstrated using MATLAB/Simulink.

  4. Sectoral Energy, and Labour, Productivity Convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, P.; De Groot, H.L.F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the development of cross-country differences in energy- and labour productivity. The analysis is performed at a detailed sectoral level for 14 OECD countries, covering the period 1970-1997. A ρ-convergence analysis reveals that the development over time of the cross-country variation in productivity performance differs across sectors as well as across different levels of aggregation. Both patterns of convergence as well as divergence are found. Cross-country variation of productivity levels is typically larger for energy than for labour. A β-convergence analysis provides support for the hypothesis that in most sectors lagging countries tend to catch up with technological leaders, in particular in terms of energy productivity. Moreover, the results show that convergence is conditional, meaning that productivity levels converge to country-specific steady states. Energy prices and wages are shown to positively affect energy- and labour-productivity growth, respectively. We also find evidence for the importance of economies of scale, whereas the investment share, openness and specialization play only a modest role in explaining cross-country variation in energy- and labour-productivity growth

  5. Dual-Axis Solar Tracking System for Maximum Power Production in PV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhd.Ikram Mohd. Rashid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The power developed in a solar energy system depends fundamentally upon the amount of sunlight captured by the photovoltaic modules/arrays. This paper describes a simple electro-mechanical dual axis solar tracking system designed and developed in a study. The control of the two axes was achieved by the pulses generated from the data acquisition (DAQ card fed into four relays. This approach was so chosen to effectively avoid the error that usually arises in sensor-based methods. The programming of the mathematical models of the solar elevation and azimuth angles was done using Borland C++ Builder. The performance and accuracy of the developed system was evaluated with a PV panel at latitude 3.53o N and longitude 103.5o W in Malaysia. The results obtained reflect the effectiveness of the developed tracking system in terms of the energy yield when compared with that generated from a fixed panel. Overall, 20%, 23% and 21% additional energy were produced for the months of March, April and May respectively using the tracker developed in this study.

  6. Conjugated Polymers for Energy Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livi, Francesco

    This dissertation is aimed at developing materials for flexible, large area, ITO-free polymer solar cells (PSCs) fully printed under ambient conditions. A large screening of conjugated polymers, both novel and well-known materials, has been carried out in order to find suitable candidates...... polymerization method for industrial production of polymers. Several DArP protocols have been employed for the synthesis of PPDTBT leading to polymers with high structural regularity and photovoltaic performances comparable with the same materials synthesized via Stille cross-coupling polymerization...

  7. Implementation of a new maximum power point tracking control strategy for small wind energy conversion systems without mechanical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daili, Yacine; Gaubert, Jean-Paul; Rahmani, Lazhar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new maximum power point tracking algorithm for small wind turbines is proposed. • This algorithm resolves the problems of the classical perturb and observe method. • The proposed method has been tested under several wind speed profiles. • The validity of the new algorithm has been confirmed by the experimental results. - Abstract: This paper proposes a modified perturbation and observation maximum power point tracking algorithm for small wind energy conversion systems to overcome the problems of the conventional perturbation and observation technique, namely rapidity/efficiency trade-off and the divergence from peak power under a fast variation of the wind speed. Two modes of operation are used by this algorithm, the normal perturbation and observation mode and the predictive mode. The normal perturbation and observation mode with small step-size is switched under a slow wind speed variation to track the true maximum power point with fewer fluctuations in steady state. When a rapid change of wind speed is detected, the algorithm tracks the new maximum power point in two phases: in the first stage, the algorithm switches to the predictive mode in which the step-size is auto-adjusted according to the distance between the operating point and the estimated optimum point to move the operating point near to the maximum power point rapidly, and then the normal perturbation and observation mode is used to track the true peak power in the second stage. The dc-link voltage variation is used to detect rapid wind changes. The proposed algorithm does not require either knowledge of system parameters or of mechanical sensors. The experimental results confirm that the proposed algorithm has a better performance in terms of dynamic response and efficiency compared with the conventional perturbation and observation algorithm

  8. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C.

    1999-01-01

    'Wood for Energy Production', 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named 'Wood Chips for Energy Production'. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. 'Wood for Energy Production' is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  9. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-10-01

    `Wood for Energy Production`, 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named `Wood Chips for Energy Production`. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. `Wood for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  10. Energy aspects of microalgal biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Martinez-Guerra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Algal biodiesel production will play a significant role in sustaining future transportation fuel supplies. A large number of researchers around the world are investigating into making this process sustainable by increasing the energy gains and by optimizing resource-utilization efficiencies. Although, research is being pursued aggressively in all aspects of algal biodiesel production from microalgal cell cultivation, cell harvesting, and extraction and transesterification steps to the final product separation and purification, there is a large disparity in the data presented in recent reports making it difficult to assess the real potential of microalgae as a future energy source. This article discusses some of the key issues in energy consumption in the process of algal biodiesel production and identifies the areas for improvement to make this process energy-positive and sustainable.

  11. Inclusive production at LHC energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino, C.; Pajares, C.; Shabelski, Yu.M.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the first LHC data for pp collisions in the framework of Regge theory. The integral cross sections and inclusive densities of secondaries are determined by the Pomeron exchange, and we present the corresponding predictions for them. The first measurements of inclusive densities in the midrapidity region are in agreement with these predictions. The contribution of the baryon-number transfer due to String Junction diffusion in the rapidity space is at the origin of the differences in the inclusive spectra of particle and antiparticle in the central region, and this effect could be significant at LHC energies. We discuss the first data of ALICE and LHCb collaborations on the baryon/antibaryon asymmetry at LHC. (orig.)

  12. ABOUT RATIONING MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE DEFECT DEPTH ON THE SURFACE OF STEEL BILLETS IN PRODUCTION OF HOT-ROLLED STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARUSOV E. V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. Significant influence on the quality of rolled steel have various defects on its surface, which in its turn inherited from surface defects of billet and possible damage to the surface of rolled steel in the rolling mill line. One of the criteria for assessing the quality indicators of rolled steel is rationing of surface defects [1; 2; 3; 6; 7]. Current status of the issue. Analyzing the different requirements of regulations to the surface quality of the rolled high-carbon steels, we can conclude that the maximum allowable depth of defects on the surface of billet should be in the range of 2.0...5.0 mm (depending on the section of the billet, method of its production and further the destination Purpose. Develop a methodology for calculating the maximum allowable depth of defects on the steel billet surface depending on the requirements placed on the surface quality of hot-rolled steel. Results. A simplified method of calculation, allowing at the rated depth of defects on the surface of the hot-rolled steel to make operatively calculation of the maximum allowable depth of surface defects of steel billets before heating the metal in the heat deformation was developed. The findings shows that the maximum allowable depth of surface defects is reduced with increasing diameter rolled steel, reducing the initial section steel billet and degrees of oxidation of the metal in the heating furnace.

  13. Environmental costs of fossil fuel energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, A.; Trebeschi, C.

    1997-01-01

    The costs of environmental impacts caused by fossil fuel energy production are external to the energy economy and normally they are not reflected in energy prices. To determine the environmental costs associated with an energy source a detailed analysis of all environmental impacts of the complete energy cycle is required. The economic evaluation of environmental damages is presented caused by atmospheric emissions produced by fossil fuel combustion for different uses. Considering the emission factors of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, dust and carbon dioxide and the economic evaluation of their environmental damages reported in literature, a range of environmental costs associated with different fossil fuels and technologies is presented. A comparison of environmental costs resulting from atmospheric emissions produced by fossil-fuel combustion for energy production shows that natural gas has a significantly higher environmental value than other fossil fuels. (R.P.)

  14. Wind energy status in renewable electrical energy production in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Main electrical energy sources of Turkey are thermal and hydraulic. Most of the thermal sources are derived from natural gas. Turkey imports natural gas; therefore, decreasing usage of natural gas is very important for both economical and environmental aspects. Because of disadvantages of fossil fuels, renewable energy sources are getting importance for sustainable energy development and environmental protection. Among the renewable sources, Turkey has very high wind energy potential. The estimated wind power capacity of Turkey is about 83,000 MW while only 10,000 MW of it seems to be economically feasible to use. Start 2009, the total installed wind power capacity of Turkey was only 4.3% of its total economical wind power potential (433 MW). However, the strong development of wind energy in Turkey is expected to continue in the coming years. In this study, Turkey's installed electric power capacity, electric energy production is investigated and also Turkey current wind energy status is examined. (author)

  15. ENERGY USE IN CITRUS PRODUCTION OF MAZANDARAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    The aim of this study was to evaluate energy use in citrus production in the Mazandaran Province in Iran. Data used in this study were obtained from 155 farmers using a face-to-face interview method. The total energy .... control mainly were mechanised and a few of them ... fertilisers was manual; while manure application.

  16. All energy production involves danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleym, H.

    1976-01-01

    s pointed out that while the protective ozone layer in the upper atmosphere is threatened by supersonic air traffic and releases of freon, there is an increase in the concentration of ozone in the biosphere. The biological effect of ozone in forming free radicals is similar to the biological effect of ionising rad radiation, and the normal atmospheric concentration of ozone produces 3600 times the number of free radicals per person per year as does a background radiation of 100 mrem per year. It is also pointed out that the limits for sulphur oxides and nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere are 100 and 5 times the background levels respectively, while the limit for radioactive release is 1/100 th of the background level. The transmission of solar energy from space stations by microwave is also thought to be dubious due to possible biological effects of such radiation. In conclusion a balanced view on the biological and environmental hazards of power generation from all sources, and not only nuclear, is called for. (JIW)

  17. Exploiting maximum energy from variable speed wind power generation systems by using an adaptive Takagi-Sugeno-Kang fuzzy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galdi, V.; Piccolo, A.; Siano, P.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, incentives and financing options for developing renewable energy facilities and the new development in variable speed wind technology make wind energy a competitive source if compared with conventional generation ones. In order to improve the effectiveness of variable speed wind systems, adaptive control systems able to cope with time variances of the system under control are necessary. On these basis, a data driven designing methodology for TSK fuzzy models design is presented in this paper. The methodology, on the basis of given input-output numerical data, generates the 'best' TSK fuzzy model able to estimate with high accuracy the maximum extractable power from a variable speed wind turbine. The design methodology is based on fuzzy clustering methods for partitioning the input-output space combined with genetic algorithms (GA), and recursive least-squares (LS) optimization methods for model parameter adaptation

  18. Self-energy production applied to buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlo, Fabricio Ramos del; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [Sao Paulo State University Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: perrella@feg.unesp.br; Holanda, Marcelo Rodrigues de [Sao Paulo Univ. (EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Engineering School], E-mail: marcelo@debas.eel.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The decentralization of energy production in order to obtain better environmental conditions, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the cost reduction of electricity and thermal energy consumed in residential buildings has been proposed in the literature. This paper proposes to demonstrate what are the chances of having a microcogeneration system toward the residential application. In this study, we contemplate the technologies involved and their possible inputs that are arranged in a superstructure to be studied. As a first step we obtain the cost of the products generated by the configuration that consists basically of two sources of power generation, and through optimization calculations intended to obtain the best configuration, taking into consideration the selection between four fuels, two equipment generators (Fuel Cell and Internal Combustion Engine)and three levels of energy production for each one. An economic analysis is also presented to evaluate the opportunity of selling the energy generated considering the fluctuations of the residential building consumption needs. (author)

  19. Grasses for energy production: hydrological guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.L.

    2003-07-01

    This report provides hydrological guidelines for growers, land and water resource managers, environmental groups and other parties interested in utilising grasses for energy production. The aim of the report is to help interested parties decide if a location is suitable for planting energy grasses by considering whether potential hydrological impacts will have an adverse effect on crop productivity and yield. The guidelines consider: the water use of energy grasses compared with other crops; the factors governing water use; the water requirements for a productive crop; and the likely impacts on the availability and quantity of water. The report points out that there are still gaps in our knowledge of the processes controlling the water use and growth of energy grasses and notes that, in some situations, there will be considerable uncertainty in predictions of water use and the magnitude of the associated hydrological impacts.

  20. Nuclear energy for sustainable Hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyoshev, G.

    2004-01-01

    There is general agreement that hydrogen as an universal energy carrier could play increasingly important role in energy future as part of a set of solutions to a variety of energy and environmental problems. Given its abundant nature, hydrogen has been an important raw material in the organic chemical industry. At recent years strong competition has emerged between nations as diverse as the U.S., Japan, Germany, China and Iceland in the race to commercialize hydrogen energy vehicles in the beginning of 21st Century. Any form of energy - fossil, renewable or nuclear - can be used to generate hydrogen. The hydrogen production by nuclear electricity is considered as a sustainable method. By our presentation we are trying to evaluate possibilities for sustainable hydrogen production by nuclear energy at near, medium and long term on EC strategic documents basis. The main EC documents enter water electrolysis by nuclear electricity as only sustainable technology for hydrogen production in early stage of hydrogen economy. In long term as sustainable method is considered the splitting of water by thermochemical technology using heat from high temperature reactors too. We consider that at medium stage of hydrogen economy it is possible to optimize the sustainable hydrogen production by high temperature and high pressure water electrolysis by using a nuclear-solar energy system. (author)

  1. Efficient Maximum Likelihood Estimation for Pedigree Data with the Sum-Product Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Alexander; Rieger, Anna; Tresch, Achim; Mansmann, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    We analyze data sets consisting of pedigrees with age at onset of colorectal cancer (CRC) as phenotype. The occurrence of familial clusters of CRC suggests the existence of a latent, inheritable risk factor. We aimed to compute the probability of a family possessing this risk factor as well as the hazard rate increase for these risk factor carriers. Due to the inheritability of this risk factor, the estimation necessitates a costly marginalization of the likelihood. We propose an improved EM algorithm by applying factor graphs and the sum-product algorithm in the E-step. This reduces the computational complexity from exponential to linear in the number of family members. Our algorithm is as precise as a direct likelihood maximization in a simulation study and a real family study on CRC risk. For 250 simulated families of size 19 and 21, the runtime of our algorithm is faster by a factor of 4 and 29, respectively. On the largest family (23 members) in the real data, our algorithm is 6 times faster. We introduce a flexible and runtime-efficient tool for statistical inference in biomedical event data with latent variables that opens the door for advanced analyses of pedigree data. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Environmental consequences of energy production: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1989-01-01

    The Seventeenth Annual Illinois Energy conference entitled Environmental consequences of Energy Production was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 19-20, 1989. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of information on the technical, economic and institutional issues surrounding energy production and related environmental problems. The conference program was developed by a planning committee which included Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. The conference included presentations on four major topic areas. The issue areas were: urban pollution: where are we now and what needs to be done in the future; the acid rain problem: implications of proposed federal legislation on the Midwest; global warming: an update on the scientific debate; and strategies to minimize environmental damage. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual presentations. (FL)

  3. Optimal Control to Increase Energy Production of Wind Farm Considering Wake Effect and Lifetime Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Jie; Zhou, Dao; Su, Chi

    2017-01-01

    as an example. Due to the small range of the effective wake area, it is found that the energy production is almost the same. Finally, the pitch angle curve and active power curve are optimized according to the Maximum Energy Production (MEP) of a wind farm. Upon considering and contrasting the MPPT method...... to maximize the energy production of wind farms by considering the wake effect and the lifetime of wind turbine. It starts with the analysis of the pitch angle curve and active power curve seen from the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of individual wind turbines. Taking the wake effect into account......, the pitch angle curve and active power curve are optimized with the aim of Maximum Power Generation (MPG) of the wind farm. Afterwards, considering the lifetime of wind turbines, a comparison is offered between the MPPT method and the MPG method for energy production using a simplified two-turbine wind farm...

  4. Oil sand synfuel production using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.

    1984-10-01

    The importance of oil sand as a primary energy carrier is illustrated. The oil sand mining project 'synfuel' in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, is described. On the basis of a layout of an In-situ-process different possibilities of introducing nuclear energy to the process are described. This leads to an increase of the product yield, leading finally to a doubling of the energy output compared to the reference layout. The introduction of nuclear energy contributes to the reduction of emissions, in particular to the emission of carbon dioxide in the conversion process. (orig.)

  5. The two-box model of climate: limitations and applications to planetary habitability and maximum entropy production studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph D

    2010-05-12

    The 'two-box model' of planetary climate is discussed. This model has been used to demonstrate consistency of the equator-pole temperature gradient on Earth, Mars and Titan with what would be predicted from a principle of maximum entropy production (MEP). While useful for exposition and for generating first-order estimates of planetary heat transports, it has too low a resolution to investigate climate systems with strong feedbacks. A two-box MEP model agrees well with the observed day : night temperature contrast observed on the extrasolar planet HD 189733b.

  6. Further European initiatives and regulations concerning radiation protection: drinking water guideline, maximum permissible contamination in food products and feeding stuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundigl, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The radiation protection community has observed intensively the development of basic safety standards concerning protection against hazards of ionizing radiation. The new core part of the European radiation protection legislation is complemented by several specialized regulations relevant for radiation protection. Besides the existing regulations in the field of emergency protection the European Commission initiated a drinking water guideline that will be published in the near future. Furthermore the European commission approved a revised regulation concerning the maximum permissible contamination limits for food products and feeding stuff in case of a future nuclear accident. Together with the new radiation protection basic standards a new complete, coherent and modernized European regulation package will be accomplished.

  7. Determination of Energy Use Efficiency of Sesame Production

    OpenAIRE

    BARAN, Mehmet Firat

    2018-01-01

    In this research it was aimed to determine an energy use efficiency of sesame production in Şanlıurfa province, during the production season of 2015. In order to determine the energy use efficiency of sesame production, trials and measurement were performed in sesame farm in the Bozova district of Şanlıurfa province. As energy inputs, human labour energy, machinery energy, chemical fertilizers energy, irrigation water energy, chemicals energy, diesel fuel energy and seed energy as were calcul...

  8. Production processes at extremely high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Gastmans, R; Wu, Tai Tsun

    2013-01-01

    The production processes are identified that contribute to the rise of the total cross section in proton-proton scattering at extremely high energies, s->~. At such energies, the scattering can be described by a black disk (completely absorptive) with a radius expanding logarithmically with energy surrounded by a gray fringe (partially absorptive). For the leading term of (lns)^2 in the increasing total cross section, the gray fringe is neglected, and geometrical optics is generalized to production processes. It is known that half of the rise in the total cross section is due to elastic scattering. The other half is found to originate from the production of jets with relatively small momenta in the center-of-mass system.

  9. Straw for energy production. Technology - Environment - Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaisen, L.; Nielsen, C.; Larsen, M.G.; Nielsen, V.; Zielke, U.; Kristensen, J.K.; Holm-Christensen, B.

    1998-12-31

    `Straw for Energy Production`, second edition, provides a readily accessible background information of special relevance to the use of straw in the Danish energy supply. Technical, environmental, and economic aspects are described in respect of boiler plants for farms, district heating plants, and combined heat and power plants (CHP). The individual sections deal with both well-known, tested technology and the most recent advances in the field of CHP production. This publication is designed with the purpose of reaching the largest possible numbers of people and so adapted that it provides a valuable aid and gives the non-professional, general reader a thorough knowledge of the subject. `Straw for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  10. Biomass production for direct generation of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In continuing its activities for the formation of public opinion the Deutsche Farming Association) held a colloquium in 1991 on the issue of biomass production and combustion. Its aim was to gather all current knowledge on this issue and, for the first time, to make a comprehensive appraisal of it. The following aspects were dealt with: Abatement of atmospheric pollution, ecologically oriented production, nature conservation, organisation of decentralized power plant operating corporations, state of the art in combustion technology, operational calculations and, not least, agrarin-political framework conditions. The meeting yielded important statements on remarkable innovations in the area of ecological biomass production and for its utilization as an energy source together with the conventional energy sources of oil, gas, coal and nuclear energy. (orig.) [de

  11. Hydrogen Production from Optimal Wind-PV Energies Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tafticht, T.; Agbossou, K. [Institut de recherche sur l hydrogene, Universite du Quebec - Trois-Rivieres, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivieres, (Ciheam), G9A 5H7, (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energies (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production has been developed at the Hydrogen Research Institute and successfully tested for automatic operation with designed control devices. The system is composed of a wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) array, an electrolyser, batteries for buffer energy storage, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, a fuel cell, AC and DC loads, power conditioning devices and different sensors. The long-term excess energy with respect to load demand has been sent to the electrolyser for hydrogen production and then the fuel cell has utilised this stored hydrogen to produce electricity when there were insufficient wind and solar energies with respect to load requirements. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated on the DC bus through power conditioning devices for optimal operation by using the developed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method. The experimental results show that the power gain obtained by this method clearly increases the hydrogen production and storage rate from wind-PV systems. (authors)

  12. Hydrogen Production from Optimal Wind-PV Energies Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T Tafticht; K Agbossou

    2006-01-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energies (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production has been developed at the Hydrogen Research Institute and successfully tested for automatic operation with designed control devices. The system is composed of a wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) array, an electrolyzer, batteries for buffer energy storage, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, a fuel cell, AC and DC loads, power conditioning devices and different sensors. The long-term excess energy with respect to load demand has been sent to the electrolyser for hydrogen production and then the fuel cell has utilised this stored hydrogen to produce electricity when there were insufficient wind and solar energies with respect to load requirements. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated on the DC bus through power conditioning devices for optimal operation by using the developed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method. The experimental results show that the power gain obtained by this method clearly increases the hydrogen production and storage rate from wind-PV systems. (authors)

  13. Hydrogen Production from Optimal Wind-PV Energies Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafticht, T.; Agbossou, K.

    2006-01-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energies (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production has been developed at the Hydrogen Research Institute and successfully tested for automatic operation with designed control devices. The system is composed of a wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) array, an electrolyser, batteries for buffer energy storage, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, a fuel cell, AC and DC loads, power conditioning devices and different sensors. The long-term excess energy with respect to load demand has been sent to the electrolyser for hydrogen production and then the fuel cell has utilised this stored hydrogen to produce electricity when there were insufficient wind and solar energies with respect to load requirements. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated on the DC bus through power conditioning devices for optimal operation by using the developed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method. The experimental results show that the power gain obtained by this method clearly increases the hydrogen production and storage rate from wind-PV systems. (authors)

  14. Hydrogen Production from Optimal Wind-PV Energies Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T Tafticht; K Agbossou [Institut de recherche sur l hydrogene, Universite du Quebec - Trois-Rivieres, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivieres, (Ciheam), G9A 5H7, (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energies (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production has been developed at the Hydrogen Research Institute and successfully tested for automatic operation with designed control devices. The system is composed of a wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) array, an electrolyzer, batteries for buffer energy storage, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, a fuel cell, AC and DC loads, power conditioning devices and different sensors. The long-term excess energy with respect to load demand has been sent to the electrolyser for hydrogen production and then the fuel cell has utilised this stored hydrogen to produce electricity when there were insufficient wind and solar energies with respect to load requirements. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated on the DC bus through power conditioning devices for optimal operation by using the developed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method. The experimental results show that the power gain obtained by this method clearly increases the hydrogen production and storage rate from wind-PV systems. (authors)

  15. Electrorheology for energy production and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ke

    Recently, based on the physics of viscosity, we developed a new technology, which utilizes electric or magnetic fields to change the rheology of complex fluids to reduce the viscosity, while keeping the temperature unchanged. The method is universal and applicable to all complex fluids with suspended particles of nano-meter, submicrometer, or micrometer size. Completely different from the traditional viscosity reduction method, raising the temperature, this technology is energy-efficient, as it only requires small amount of energy to aggregate the suspended particles. In this thesis, we will first discuss this new technology in detail, both in theory and practice. Then, we will report applications of our technology to energy science research. Presently, 80% of all energy sources are liquid fuels. The viscosity of liquid fuels plays an important role in energy production and energy conservation. With an electric field, we can reduce the viscosity of asphalt-based crude oil. This is important and useful for heavy crude oil and off-shore crude oil production and transportation. Especially, since there is no practical way to raise the temperature of crude oil inside the deepwater pipelines, our technology may play a key role in future off-shore crude oil production. Electrorehology can also be used to reduce the viscosity of refinery fuels, such as diesel fuel and gasoline. When we apply this technology to fuel injection, the fuel droplets in the fuel atomization become smaller, leading to faster combustion in the engine chambers. As the fuel efficiency of internal combustion engines depends on the combustion speed and timing, the fast combustion produces much higher fuel efficiency. Therefore, adding our technology on existing engines improves the engine efficiency significantly. A theoretical model for the engine combustion, which explains how fast combustion improves the engine efficiency, is also presented in the thesis. As energy is the key to our national

  16. Energy condensed packaged systems. Composition, production, properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor L. Kovalenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is presented the substantiation of choice of fuel phase composition and optimal technology of emulsion production on the basis of binary solution of ammonium and calcium nitrates, which provide the obtaining of energy condensed packaged systems with specified properties. The thermal decomposition of energy condensed systems on the basis of ammonium nitrate is investigated. It is shown that the fuel phase of emulsion systems should be based on esters of polyunsaturated acids or on combinations thereof with petroleum products. And ceresin or petroleum wax can be used as the structuring additive. The influence of the technology of energy condensed systems production on the physicochemical and detonation parameters of emulsion explosives is considered. It is shown the possibility of obtaining of emulsion systems with dispersion of 1.3...1.8 microns and viscosity higher than 103 Pa∙s in the apparatus of original design. The sensitizing effect of chlorinated paraffin CP-470 on the thermolysis of energy condensed emulsion system is shown. The composition and production technology of energy condensed packaged emulsion systems of mark Ukrainit-P for underground mining in mines not dangerous on gas and dust are developed.

  17. Energy production and social marginalisation in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip Andrews-Speed; Xin Ma

    2008-05-15

    The exploitation and production of primary energy resources and the supply of this energy is critical for China's economic development. Despite the obvious economic benefit to the nation, this energy production has had significant negative socio-economic impacts on certain groups of people at local and national scales. This paper documents three cases of energy production in China and demonstrates that, in each case, marginalisation of social groups has either been created or has been enhanced. These cases are the Three Gorges Dam, the Yumen oilfield, and township and village coal mines. The causes of this marginalisation have their roots in the structures, processes and approaches taken in the making and implementation of national policy in China, and are compounded by poor regulation and monitoring, poor civil rights, and the tension between central and local governments. The government which came to power in 2003 recognised the extent and importance of these social challenges relating to energy production, and has started to take steps to address them.

  18. High energy photons production in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.; Pinston, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Hard photon production, in nucleus-nucleus collisions, were studied at beam energies between 10 and 125 MeV. The main characteristics of the photon emission are deduced. They suggest that the neutron-proton collisions in the early stage of the reaction are the main source of high energy gamma-rays. An overview of the theoretical approaches is given and compared with experimental results. Theoretical attempts to include the contribution of charged pion exchange currents to photon production, in calculations of proton-nucleus-gamma and nucleus-nucleus-gamma reactions, showed suitable fitting with experimental data

  19. Assessment of potential biomass energy production in China towards 2030 and 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guangling

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a more detailed picture of potential biomass energy production in the Chinese energy system towards 2030 and 2050. Biomass for bioenergy feedstocks comes from five sources, which are agricultural crop residues, forest residues and industrial wood waste, energy crops and woody crops, animal manure, and municipal solid waste. The potential biomass production is predicted based on the resource availability. In the process of identifying biomass resources production, assumptions are made regarding arable land, marginal land, crops yields, forest growth rate, and meat consumption and waste production. Four scenarios were designed to describe the potential biomass energy production to elaborate the role of biomass energy in the Chinese energy system in 2030. The assessment shows that under certain restrictions on land availability, the maximum potential biomass energy productions are estimated to be 18,833 and 24,901 PJ in 2030 and 2050.

  20. Bio energy: Bio fuel - Properties and Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmsen, Gunnar; Martinsen, Arnold Kyrre; Sandberg, Eiliv; Fladset, Per Olav; Kjerschow, Einar; Teslo, Einar

    2001-01-01

    This is Chapter 3 of the book ''Bio energy - Environment, technique and market''. Its main sections are: (1) Definitions and properties, (2) Bio fuel from the forest, (3) Processed bio fuel - briquettes, pellets and powder, (4) Bio fuel from agriculture, (5) Bio fuel from agro industry, (6) Bio fuel from lakes and sea, (7) Bio fuel from aquaculture, (8) Bio fuel from wastes and (9) Hydrogen as a fuel. The exposition largely describes the conditions in Norway. The chapter on energy from the forest includes products from the timber and sawmill industry, the pulp and paper industry, furniture factories etc. Among agricultural sources are straw, energy forests, vegetable oil, bio ethanol, manure

  1. Transforming Global Markets for Clean Energy Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper looks at three clean energy product categories: equipment energy efficiency; low-carbon transport, including high-efficiency vehicles and electric/plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEVs); and solar photovoltaic (PV) power. Each section identifies ways to enhance global co-operation among major economies through case studies and examples, and ends with specific suggestions for greater international collaboration on market transformation efforts. An annex with more detailed case studies on energy-efficient electric motors, televisions, external power supplies and compact fluorescent lights is included in the paper.

  2. Water for energy and fuel production

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Yatish T

    2014-01-01

    Water, in all its forms, may be the key to an environmentally friendly energy economy. Water is free, there is plenty of it, plus it carries what is generally believed to be the best long-term source of green energy-hydrogen. Water for Energy and Fuel Production explores the many roles of water in the energy and fuel industry. The text not only discusses water's use as a direct source of energy and fuel-such as hydrogen from water dissociation, methane from water-based clathrate molecules, hydroelectric dams, and hydrokinetic energy from tidal waves, off-shore undercurrents, and inland waterways-but also: Describes water's benign application in the production of oil, gas, coal, uranium, biomass, and other raw fuels, and as an energy carrier in the form of hot water and steam Examines water's role as a reactant, reaction medium, and catalyst-as well as steam's role as a reactant-for the conversion of raw fuels to synthetic fuels Explains how supercritical water can be used to convert fossil- and bio-based feed...

  3. Solar energy; Product information. Zonne-energie; Produktinformatie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruisheer, N

    1992-03-20

    In five brief articles product information is given on solar energy applications with special attention to the Netherlands. After an introduction on solar energy availability in the Netherlands the developments in solar boiler techniques are dealt with. Solar water heaters have advantages for the environment, and government subsidies stimulate different uses of such water heaters. Also the developments of solar cells show good prospects, not only for developing countries, but also for the industrialized countries. In brief the developments in solar energy storage and the connection of solar equipment to the grid are discussed. Finally attention is paid to the applications of passive solar energy in the housing construction, the use of transparent thermal insulation and the developments of translucent materials. 18 figs., 18 ills.

  4. Biotechnology for energy production. Biotechnologie zur Energieerzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, J.; Hall, D.O.; Chartier, P.

    1985-01-01

    Starting from the mechanisms of photosynthesis in plants and the environmental parameters influencing growth generally the book deals with the various possibilities for improving productivity in growing biomass. In particular, the modern methods of biotechnology are considered. The investigation submitted was carried through with a view to future energy farms in Europe.

  5. Reactors Save Energy, Costs for Hydrogen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    While examining fuel-reforming technology for fuel cells onboard aircraft, Glenn Research Center partnered with Garrettsville, Ohio-based Catacel Corporation through the Glenn Alliance Technology Exchange program and a Space Act Agreement. Catacel developed a stackable structural reactor that is now employed for commercial hydrogen production and results in energy savings of about 20 percent.

  6. Innovative energy production in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iiyoshi, A.; Momota, H.; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Sudo, S.; Tomita, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M.; Uenosono, C.

    1993-10-01

    Concepts of innovative energy production in neutron-lean fusion reactors without having the conventional turbine-type generator are proposed for improving the plant efficiency. These concepts are (a) traveling wave direct energy conversion of 14.7 MeV protons, (b) cusp type direct energy conversion of charged particles, (c) efficient use of radiation with semiconductor and supplying clean fuel in a form of hydrogen gas, and (d) direct energy conversion from deposited heat to electric power with semiconductor utilizing Nernst effect. The candidates of reactors such as a toroidal system and an open system are also studied for application of the new concepts. The study shows the above concepts for a commercial reactor are promising. (author)

  7. Innovative energy production in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iiyoshi, A.; Momota, H.; Motojima, O.

    1994-01-01

    Concepts of innovative energy production in neutron-lean fusion reactors without having the conventional turbine-type generator are proposed for improving the plant efficiency. These concepts are (a) traveling wave direct energy conversion of 14.7 MeV protons, (b) cusp type direct energy conversion of charged particles, (c) efficient use of radiation with semiconductor and supplying clean fuel in a form of hydrogen gas, and (d) direct energy conversion from deposited heat to electric power with semiconductor utilizing Nernst effect. The candidates of reactors such as a toroidal system and an open system are also studied for application of the new concepts. The study shows the above concepts for a commercial reactor are promising. (author)

  8. Innovative energy production in fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iiyoshi, A.; Momota, H.; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Sudo, S.; Tomita, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M.; Uenosono, C.

    1993-10-01

    Concepts of innovative energy production in neutron-lean fusion reactors without having the conventional turbine-type generator are proposed for improving the plant efficiency. These concepts are: (1) traveling wave direct energy conversion of 14.7 MeV protons; (2) cusp type direct energy conversion of charged particles; (3) efficient use of radiation with semiconductor and supplying clean fuel in a form of hydrogen gas; and (4) direct energy conversion from deposited heat to electric power with semiconductor utilizing Nernst effect. The candidates of reactors such as a toroidal system and an open system are also studied for application of the new concepts. The study shows the above concepts for a commercial reactor are promising.

  9. Innovative energy production in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iiyoshi, A.; Momota, H.; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Sudo, S.; Tomita, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M.; Uenosono, C.

    1993-10-01

    Concepts of innovative energy production in neutron-lean fusion reactors without having the conventional turbine-type generator are proposed for improving the plant efficiency. These concepts are (a) traveling wave direct energy conversion of 14.7 MeV protons, (b) cusp type direct energy conversion of charged particles, (c) efficient use of radiation with semiconductor and supplying clean fuel in a form of hydrogen gas, and (d) direct energy conversion from deposited heat to electric power with semiconductor utilizing Nernst effect. The candidates of reactors such as a toroidal system and an open system are also studied for application of the new concepts. The study shows the above concepts for a commercial reactor are promising. (author).

  10. A basic introduction to the thermodynamics of the Earth system far from equilibrium and maximum entropy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidon, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Earth system is remarkably different from its planetary neighbours in that it shows pronounced, strong global cycling of matter. These global cycles result in the maintenance of a unique thermodynamic state of the Earth's atmosphere which is far from thermodynamic equilibrium (TE). Here, I provide a simple introduction of the thermodynamic basis to understand why Earth system processes operate so far away from TE. I use a simple toy model to illustrate the application of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and to classify applications of the proposed principle of maximum entropy production (MEP) to such processes into three different cases of contrasting flexibility in the boundary conditions. I then provide a brief overview of the different processes within the Earth system that produce entropy, review actual examples of MEP in environmental and ecological systems, and discuss the role of interactions among dissipative processes in making boundary conditions more flexible. I close with a brief summary and conclusion. PMID:20368248

  11. A basic introduction to the thermodynamics of the Earth system far from equilibrium and maximum entropy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidon, A

    2010-05-12

    The Earth system is remarkably different from its planetary neighbours in that it shows pronounced, strong global cycling of matter. These global cycles result in the maintenance of a unique thermodynamic state of the Earth's atmosphere which is far from thermodynamic equilibrium (TE). Here, I provide a simple introduction of the thermodynamic basis to understand why Earth system processes operate so far away from TE. I use a simple toy model to illustrate the application of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and to classify applications of the proposed principle of maximum entropy production (MEP) to such processes into three different cases of contrasting flexibility in the boundary conditions. I then provide a brief overview of the different processes within the Earth system that produce entropy, review actual examples of MEP in environmental and ecological systems, and discuss the role of interactions among dissipative processes in making boundary conditions more flexible. I close with a brief summary and conclusion.

  12. Power production and energy consumption in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The main electrical resource of Norway comes from its rivers: 99% of the electric power is produced by hydroelectric power plants. Other sources, like wind and natural gas, are envisaged for the enhancement of Norway's energy production capacity. In this document, the part devoted to power production presents the different electricity production sources and their impact on the Norwegian economy. The energy consumption is detailed in the third part with an historical review of its evolution and a description of the main sectors involved in this consumption. The forth part describes the main actors of the energy sector with their industrial structure, the research institutes and universities performing R and D in this domain, and the energy trades with surrounding countries. The fifth part stresses on the research projects, on the government promoting actions through the Norwegian Research Council, and gives some examples of todays research projects. The sixth part deals with international cooperation in the R and D domain with a particular attention given to the relations between Norway, France and Europe. (J.S.)

  13. Target production for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodworth, J.G.; Meier, W.

    1995-03-01

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will require the ignition and burn of 5-10 fusion fuel targets every second. The technology to economically mass produce high-quality, precision targets at this rate is beyond the current state of the art. Techniques that are scalable to high production rates, however, have been identified for all the necessary process steps, and many have been tested in laboratory experiments or are similar to current commercial manufacturing processes. In this paper, we describe a baseline target factory conceptual design and estimate its capital and operating costs. The result is a total production cost of ∼16 cents per target. At this level, target production represents about 6% of the estimated cost of electricity from a 1-GW e IFE power plant. Cost scaling relationships are presented and used to show the variation in target cost with production rate and plant power level

  14. Oil and gas products and energy equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The planned activities of the Canadian oil and gas products and energy equipment industry for 1996-1997, were presented. The sector is made up of approximately 1500 small and medium sized enterprises. The Canadian oil field manufacturing and servicing industry holds only a small 2.5% share of the world export market, but it is recognized internationally as one of the leading suppliers of advanced petroleum equipment. Their exports include specialized equipment for extracting oil sands, gathering and treatment facilities for sour gas, underbalanced drilling technologies, equipment for wells experiencing declining production rates, top motor drives, winter drilling rigs, and horizontal drilling technologies. They also offer petroleum industry software products. Most exploration and production equipment sold abroad by Canadian firms is manufactured in Canada, but there is an increasing trend toward manufacturing in the country of operation. 2 tabs

  15. Geothermal energy production with supercritical fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Donald W.

    2003-12-30

    There has been invented a method for producing geothermal energy using supercritical fluids for creation of the underground reservoir, production of the geothermal energy, and for heat transport. Underground reservoirs are created by pumping a supercritical fluid such as carbon dioxide into a formation to fracture the rock. Once the reservoir is formed, the same supercritical fluid is allowed to heat up and expand, then is pumped out of the reservoir to transfer the heat to a surface power generating plant or other application.

  16. Production of Energy Efficient Preform Structures (PEEPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. John A. Baumann

    2012-06-08

    Due to its low density, good structural characteristics, excellent fabrication properties, and attractive appearance, aluminum metal and its alloys continue to be widely utilized. The transportation industry continues to be the largest consumer of aluminum products, with aerospace as the principal driver for this use. Boeing has long been the largest single company consumer of heat-treated aluminum in the U.S. The extensive use of aluminum to build aircraft and launch vehicles has been sustained, despite the growing reliance on more structurally efficient carbon fiber reinforced composite materials. The trend in the aerospace industry over the past several decades has been to rely extensively on large, complex, thin-walled, monolithic machined structural components, which are fabricated from heavy billets and thick plate using high speed machining. The use of these high buy-to-fly ratio starting product forms, while currently cost effective, is energy inefficient, with a high environmental impact. The widespread implementation of Solid State Joining (SSJ) technologies, to produce lower buy-to-fly ratio starting forms, tailored to each specific application, offers the potential for a more sustainable manufacturing strategy, which would consume less energy, require less material, and reduce material and manufacturing costs. One objective of this project was to project the energy benefits of using SSJ techniques to produce high-performance aluminum structures if implemented in the production of the world fleet of commercial aircraft. A further objective was to produce an energy consumption prediction model, capable of calculating the total energy consumption, solid waste burden, acidification potential, and CO2 burden in producing a starting product form - whether by conventional or SSJ processes - and machining that to a final part configuration. The model needed to be capable of computing and comparing, on an individual part/geometry basis, multiple possible

  17. Nuclear energy products except the electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Technically the fission reactors, on service or under construction, can produce other products than the electric power. Meanwhile, these applications are known since the beginning of the reactors exploitation, they never have been developed industrially. This report examines the necessary technical characteristics for using the nuclear systems on non electric power applications with an economical efficiency. What are the markets for these products? What are the strategical challenges to favor the development of non electric power applications of the nuclear energy? (A.L.B.)

  18. Energy inputs for production of wheat in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    The energetics of the wheat crop on rainfed farms have been worked out and compared with the farms having canal and tube well irrigation. A survey was conducted to investigate the pattern of energy used in production of wheat. The information was recorded from selected farms through biweekly visits. Results indicated that the farmers on bullock operated farms used more family labour than tractor operated farms, whereas, farmers on tractor operated farms used more casual labour. Bullocks were main source of power for all farms operations on bullock operated farms, however, threshing was performed with tractor driven threshers on almost all farms. Farmers on tube well irrigated farms used maximum energy to irrigate their crop.(author)

  19. Biomass gasification for production of 'green energy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mambre, V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the differences between biomass gasification and biomass methanation, two ways of using biomass for decentralized production of energy. The stakes of biomass and biomass gasification for meeting the European and national energy goals and environmental targets are summarized. The gasification principle is described and in particular the FICFB optimized process from Repotec for the production of concentrated syngas. The four different ways of syngas valorization (combined heat and power (CHP), 'green methane' (SNG), 'green hydrogen' (gas shift) and liquid biofuels of 2. generation (Fisher-Tropsch)) are recalled and compared with each other. Finally, the economical and environmental key issues of the global chain are summarized with their technological and scientific key locks. The GAYA R and D project of Gaz de France Suez group, which aims at developing gasification and methanation demonstration plants through different programs with European partners, is briefly presented. (J.S.)

  20. Quantifying biomass production in crops grown for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, M J; Christian, D; Wilkins, C

    1997-12-31

    One estimate suggests that continued CAP (Common Agricultural Policy) reform may lead to as much as 2 million hectares of land set aside from arable production by the year 2020 in the UK alone, with 20 million hectares in the EU in total. Set-aside currently occupies more than 500,000 hectares in the UK. Set-aside land is providing more opportunities for non-food crops, for example fuel crops, which provide biomass for energy. Whilst any crop species will produce biomass which can be burnt to produce energy, arable crops were not developed with this in mind but rather a specific harvestable commodity, e.g. grain, and therefore the total harvestable commodity is seldom maximised. The characteristics of an ideal fuel crop have been identified as: dry harvested material for efficient combustion; perennial growth to minimise establishment costs and lengthen the growing season; good disease resistance; efficient conversion of solar radiation to biomass energy; efficient use of nitrogen fertiliser (where required) and water; and yield close to the theoretical maximum. Miscanthus, a genus of Oriental and African C4 perennial grasses, has been identified as possessing the above characteristics. There may be other species, which, if not yielding quite as much biomass, have other characteristics of merit. This has led to the need to identify inherently productive species which are adapted to the UK, and to validate the productivity of species which have already been 'discovered'. (author)

  1. Quantifying biomass production in crops grown for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, M.J.; Christian, D.; Wilkins, C.

    1996-12-31

    One estimate suggests that continued CAP (Common Agricultural Policy) reform may lead to as much as 2 million hectares of land set aside from arable production by the year 2020 in the UK alone, with 20 million hectares in the EU in total. Set-aside currently occupies more than 500,000 hectares in the UK. Set-aside land is providing more opportunities for non-food crops, for example fuel crops, which provide biomass for energy. Whilst any crop species will produce biomass which can be burnt to produce energy, arable crops were not developed with this in mind but rather a specific harvestable commodity, e.g. grain, and therefore the total harvestable commodity is seldom maximised. The characteristics of an ideal fuel crop have been identified as: dry harvested material for efficient combustion; perennial growth to minimise establishment costs and lengthen the growing season; good disease resistance; efficient conversion of solar radiation to biomass energy; efficient use of nitrogen fertiliser (where required) and water; and yield close to the theoretical maximum. Miscanthus, a genus of Oriental and African C4 perennial grasses, has been identified as possessing the above characteristics. There may be other species, which, if not yielding quite as much biomass, have other characteristics of merit. This has led to the need to identify inherently productive species which are adapted to the UK, and to validate the productivity of species which have already been 'discovered'. (author)

  2. Water use alternatives for Navajo energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbey, D.

    1979-01-01

    The Navajo have substantial resources of coal and uranium, and water use is certain to accompany development of these resources. A variety of supplies, however, are available--water in storage in Navajo Reservoir, water in existing uses which may be transferred, and groundwater. Furthermore, the quantity of water use varies over a wide range depending on the use of water conservation technologies such as dry coolers and wastewater treatment units. Joint management of energy and water resources requires a basic understanding of the water supply and demand alternatives available to the energy industry. Thus, the uses of water for key energy activities--coal and uranium mining, coal transportation (slurry pipelines), and coal conversion (electricity and synthetic gas production) are reviewed. For those activities for which water conservation is feasible, the technologies and estimate costs ($/af saved) are described. The range of water requirements are then compared to energy and water resource estimates. Finally, alternative (not necessarily exclusive) criteria for energy and water resource management are discussed: a) promote energy activities with the lowest minimum water requirements; b) require industry to use low-quality water resources and the most effective water conservation technology; and c) maximize the economic return on Navajo water resources

  3. Energy from biomass production - photosynthesis of microalgae?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamparter, Tilman [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Botanisches Institut, Geb. 10.40, Kaiserstr. 2, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The composition of our atmosphere in the past, present and future is largely determined by photosynthetic activity. Other biological processes such as respiration consume oxygen and produce, like the use of the limited fossil fuel resources, CO{sub 2} whose increasing atmospheric concentration is a major concern. There is thus a demand on the development of alternative energy sources that replace fossil fuel. The use of crop plants for the production of biofuel is one step towards this direction. Since most often the same areas are used as for the production of food, the increased production of biofuel imposes secondary problems, however. In this context, the use of microalgae for biomass production has been proposed. Not only algae in the botanical sense (lower plants, photosynthetic eukaryotes) but also cyanobacteria, which belong to the prokaryotes, are used as ''microalgae''. The conversion of light energy into biomass can reach much higher efficiencies than in crop plants, in which a great portion of photosynthesis products is used to build up non-photosynthetic tissues such as roots or stems. Microalgae can grow in open ponds or bioreactors and can live on water of varying salinity. It has been proposed to grow microalgae in sea water on desert areas. Ongoing research projects aim at optimizing growth conditions in bioreactors, the recycling of CO{sub 2} from flue gases (e.g. from coal-fired power plants), the production of hydrogen, ethanol or lipids, and the production of valuable other substances such as carotenoids.

  4. Production, consumption and research on solar energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz-Casado, Elias; Lascurain-Sánchez, Maria Luisa; Serrano-Lopez, Antonio Eleazar

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of scientific publications on solar energy was conducted to determine whether public interest in the subject is mirrored by more intense research in the area. To this end, the research published by Spain and Germany, the two EU countries with the highest installed photovoltaic capacity......, was analyzed based on Web of Science data. The results show that: solar output has risen substantially; solar research has a greater impact (measured in terms of citations) than publications on other renewables such as wind power; scientific production on solar energy is high in Germany and Spain, which...... intense. The main conclusion is the divergence in Germany and Spain between solar energy demand/output growth, being exponential, and the growth of research papers on the subject, which is linear...

  5. Efficiency in energy production and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Ryan Mayer

    This dissertation deals with economic efficiency in the energy industry and consists of three parts. The first examines how joint experience between pairs of firms working together in oil and gas drilling improves productivity. Part two asks whether oil producers time their drilling optimally by taking real options effects into consideration. Finally, I investigate the efficiency with which energy is consumed, asking whether extending Daylight Saving Time (DST) reduces electricity use. The chapter "Learning by Drilling: Inter-Firm Learning and Relationship Persistence in the Texas Oilpatch" examines how oil production companies and the drilling rigs they hire improve drilling productivity by learning through joint experience. I find that the joint productivity of a lead firm and its drilling contractor is enhanced significantly as they accumulate experience working together. Moreover, this result is robust to other relationship specificities and standard firm-specific learning-by-doing effects. The second chapter, "Drill Now or Drill Later: The Effect of Expected Volatility on Investment," investigates the extent to which firms' drilling behavior accords with a key prescription of real options theory: irreversible investments such as drilling should be deferred when the expected volatility of the investments' payoffs increases. I combine detailed data on oil drilling with expectations of future oil price volatility that I derive from the NYMEX futures options market. Conditioning on expected price levels, I find that oil production companies significantly reduce the number of wells they drill when expected price volatility is high. I conclude with "Daylight Time and Energy: Evidence from an Australian Experiment," co-authored with Hendrik Wolff. This chapter assesses DST's impact on electricity demand using a quasi-experiment in which parts of Australia extended DST in 2000 to facilitate the Sydney Olympics. We show that the extension did not reduce overall

  6. Low Energy Nuclear Reaction Products at Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, David J.

    2008-03-01

    This paper examines the evidence for LENR occurring on or very near to the surface of materials. Several types of experimental indications for LENR surface reactions have been reported and will be reviewed. LENR result in two types of products, energy and the appearance of new elements. The level of instantaneous power production can be written as the product of four factors: (1) the total area of the surface on which the reactions can occur, (2) the fraction of the area that is active at any time, (3) the reaction rate, that is, the number of reactions per unit active area per second, and (4) the energy produced per reaction. Each of these factors, and their limits, are reviewed. A graphical means of relating these four factors over their wide variations has been devised. The instantaneous generation of atoms of new elements can also be written as the product of the first three factors and the new elemental mass produced per reaction. Again, a graphical means of presenting the factors and their results over many orders of magnitude has been developed.

  7. Correlation between blister skin thickness, the maximum in the damage-energy distribution, and projected ranges of He+ ions in metals: V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminsky, M.; Das, S.K.; Fenske, G.

    1976-01-01

    In these experiments a systematic study of the correlation of the skin thickness measured directly by scanning electron microscopy with both the calculated projected-range values and the maximum in the damage-energy distribution has been conducted for a broad helium-ion energy range (100 keV-1000 keV in polycrystalline vanadium. (Auth.)

  8. Energy production from marine biomass (Ulva lactuca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaisen, L; Daugbjerg Jensen, P; Svane Bech, K [Danish Technological Institute (DTI), Taastrup (Denmark); and others

    2011-11-15

    In this project, methods for producing liquid, gaseous and solid biofuel from the marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca has been studied. To get an understanding of the growth conditions of Ulva lactuca, laboratory scale growth experiments describing N, P, and CO{sub 2} uptake and possible N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} production are carried out. The macroalgae have been converted to bioethanol and methane (biogas) in laboratory processes. Further the potential of using the algae as a solid combustible biofuel is studied. Harvest and conditioning procedures are described together with the potential of integrating macroalgae production at a power plant. The overall conclusions are: 1. Annual yield of Ulva lactuca is 4-5 times land-based energy crops. 2. Potential for increased growth rate when bubbling with flue gas is up to 20%. 3. Ethanol/butanol can be produced from pretreated Ulva of C6 and - for butanol - also C5 sugars. Fermentation inhibitors can possibly be removed by mechanical pressing. The ethanol production is 0,14 gram pr gram dry Ulva lactuca. The butanol production is lower. 4. Methane yields of Ulva are at a level between cow manure and energy crops. 5. Fast pyrolysis produces algae oil which contains 78 % of the energy content of the biomass. 6. Catalytic supercritical water gasification of Ulva lactuca is feasible and a methane rich gas can be obtained. 7. Thermal conversion of Ulva is possible with special equipment as low temperature gasification and grate firing. 8. Co-firing of Ulva with coal in power plants is limited due to high ash content. 9. Production of Ulva only for energy purposes at power plants is too costly. 10. N{sub 2}O emission has been observed in lab scale, but not in pilot scale production. 11. Analyses of ash from Ulva lactuca indicates it as a source for high value fertilizers. 12. Co-digestion of Ulva lactuca together with cattle manure did not alter the overall fertilization value of the digested cattle manure alone. (LN)

  9. ENERGY USE IN APPLE PRODUCTION IN THE ESFAHAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    Apple production needs to improve the efficiency of energy consumption and to employ renewable energy. ... derived from Neyman method (Ozkan et al.,. 2004). .... management might reduce the indirect energy .... Handbook of Energy.

  10. 78 FR 17648 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy'', dated April 26, 2012... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...

  11. Energy resources, CO2 production and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Callaghan, P.W.

    1993-01-01

    World fossil fuel reserves, historical and current rates of consumption are reviewed and estimates of indigeneous lives in geographical regions are made. Rates of production and accumulations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are calculated and correlations made with measured global mean temperatures and concomitant sea-level rises. It is concluded that, if present rates of global fossil-fuel consumptions continue unabated, the world's fossil-fuel store will be depleted by the year 2050. This would be accompanied by a substantial rise in global mean temperature. The effects of various protocols for the reductions of emissions are examined. It is concluded that there is no alternative than to cease the production and release into the atmosphere of the more damaging man-made greenhouse gases as soon as is practicably possible and to seek a sustained reduction in the rates of combustion of fossil fuels world-wide via energy management and conservation. (author)

  12. The availability of biomass for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevalkink, J.A.; Borsboom, N.W.J.; Sikkema, R.

    1997-12-01

    The Dutch energy policy aims at 75 PJ energy production from biomass in the Netherlands by the year 2020. This requires the development of a biomass market for biomass fuels so that suppliers as well as users can sell and buy biomass, respectively. The study concentrates on the contribution that information about biomass supply and demand can make to the realization of such a market for biomass fuels and stimulating its functioning. During the study, an inventory was made of public information on biomass quantities that are expected to become available for energy production in the short term. It was proposed to set up a database that contains information about the supply and suppliers of forest wood (specifically thinnings), (clean) waste wood from wood-processing industries, used timber and green wood waste from public parks. On the basis of rough estimates it can be concluded that these biomass flows account for an approximate annual quantity of 900,000 tonnes of dry biomass, or an annual 16,000 W energy production. This quantity would cover 66% of the goal set for the year 2000 and 20% of the goal set for 2020. Various database models were described and discussed during a workshop which was organized for potentially interested parties so as to find out their interest in and potential support for such an information system. Though the results of the survey conducted earlier suggested otherwise, it turned out that there was only minor interest in an information system, i.e. there was an interest in a survey of the companies involved in biomass supply and demand. In addition, most parties preferred bilateral confidential contacts to contract biomass. The opinion of many parties was that Novem's major tasks were to characterize biomass quality, and to give support to the discussions about the legal framework for using (waste) wood for energy production. It was concluded that at this moment a database must not be set up; in the future, however, there could be a

  13. Deep Geothermal Energy Production in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Agemar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Germany uses its low enthalpy hydrothermal resources predominantly for balneological applications, space and district heating, but also for power production. The German Federal government supports the development of geothermal energy in terms of project funding, market incentives and credit offers, as well as a feed-in tariff for geothermal electricity. Although new projects for district heating take on average six years, geothermal energy utilisation is growing rapidly, especially in southern Germany. From 2003 to 2013, the annual production of geothermal district heating stations increased from 60 GWh to 530 GWh. In the same time, the annual power production increased from 0 GWh to 36 GWh. Currently, almost 200 geothermal facilities are in operation or under construction in Germany. A feasibility study including detailed geological site assessment is still essential when planning a new geothermal facility. As part of this assessment, a lot of geological data, hydraulic data, and subsurface temperatures can be retrieved from the geothermal information system GeotIS, which can be accessed online [1].

  14. A rapid method for measuring maximum density temperatures in water and aqueous solutions for the study of quantum zero point energy effects in these liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeney, F A; O'Leary, J P

    2008-01-01

    The connection between quantum zero point fluctuations and a density maximum in water and in liquid He 4 has recently been established. Here we present a description of a simple and rapid method of determining the temperatures at which maximum densities in water and aqueous solutions occur. The technique is such as to allow experiments to be carried out in one session of an undergraduate laboratory thereby introducing students to the concept of quantum zero point energy

  15. Renewable energies for the production of bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moedinger, F.

    2006-01-01

    The research for alternatives to the classical, mainly fossil, sources of energy sources within a high energy consumption sector as brick making can certainly be very rewarding. Within this framework the production of biogas by anaerobic digestion of locally available biomasses and the integration of such a facility in a brick yard where all fermentation wastes, both liquid and solid, can be used can be considered a strategic and profitable business goal: reduction of the dependence on fossil fuels. From an environmental point of view the substitution of fossil fuels with fuels from renewable sources is certainly desire able. Into account might also be taken the possible profitable trade of emission certificates of different type

  16. Primary energy sources for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassmann, K.; Kuehne, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    The costs for hydrogen production through water electrolysis are estimated, assuming the electricity is produced from solar, hydro-, fossil, or nuclear power. The costs for hydrogen end-use in the power generation, heat and transportation sectors are also calculated, based on a state of the art technology and a more advanced technology expected to represent the state by the year 2010. The costs for hydrogen utilization (without energy taxes) are shown to be higher than current prices for fossil fuels (including taxes). Without restrictions imposed on fossil fuel consumption, hydrogen shall not gain a significant market share in either of the cases discussed. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 4 refs

  17. Drell-Yan production at collider energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerven, W.L. Van

    1995-01-01

    We present some results of the Drell-Yan cross sections dσ/dm and σ tot which includes the O (α s 2 ) contribution to the coefficient function. In particular we study the total cross section σ tot for vector boson production and dσ/dm for low invariant masses m of the lepton pairs at large hadron collider energies. This study includes a detailed discussion of the dependence of the cross sections on the chosen scheme (bar MS versus DIS) and the factorization scale

  18. The maximum temperature of a thermodynamic cycle effect on weight-dimensional characteristics of the NPP energy blocks with air cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezborodov, Yu.A.; Bubnov, V.P.; Nesterenko, V.B.

    1982-01-01

    The cycle maximum temperature effect on the properties of individual apparatuses and total NPP energy blocks characteristics has been investigated. Air, nitrogen, helium and chemically reacting system N 2 O 4 +2NO+O 2 have been considered as coolants. The conducted investigations have shown that maximum temperature of thermodynamical cycle affects considerably both the weight-dimensional characteristics of individual elements of NPP and total characteristics of NPP energy block. Energy blocks of NPP with air cooling wherein dissociating nitrogen tetroxide is used as working body, have better indexes on the majority of characteristics in comparison with blocks with air, nitrogen and helium cooling. If technical restrictions are to be taken into account (thermal resistance of metals, coolant decomposition under high temperatures, etc.) then dissociating nitrogen tetroxide should be recommended as working body and maximum cycle temperature in the range from 500 up to 600 deg C

  19. Energy consumption in the manufacture of sawn goods and wood-based panel products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usenius, A.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made of energy consumption in 1979 and the possibilities of saving energy in the sawmill, plywood, particle board, fibreboard, joinery, wooden houses, glulam, and wood preservation industries. The energy consumption per product unit is minimum in sawmilling, 1.38 GJ/cubic meters and maximum in fibreboard manufacturing, 9.98 GJ/t. In plywood production, the energy consumption (6.95 GJ/cubic meters) is about double that in particleboard production (3.40 GJ/cubic meters). The main part of the energy (70-85%) is heat. In the drying process about 70-85% of total energy is used in individual processes. Over half (53.9%) of the total energy consumption is in the sawmill industry, 19.2% in the plywood industry, 12.2% in the particleboard industry, and 7.2% in the fibreboard industry.

  20. Use of nuclear energy for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, Damian

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The potentials of three hydrogen production processes under development for the industrial production of hydrogen using nuclear energy, namely the advanced electrolysis the steam reforming, the sulfur-iodine water splitting cycle, are compared and evaluated in this paper. Water electrolysis and steam reforming of methane are proven and used extensively today for the production of hydrogen. The overall thermal efficiency of the electrolysis includes the efficiency of the electrical power generation and of the electrolysis itself. The electrolysis process efficiency is about 75 % and of electrical power generation is only about 30 %, the overall thermal efficiency for H 2 generation being about 25 %. Steam reforming process consists of reacting methane (or natural gas) and steam in a chemical reactor at 800-900 deg. C, with a thermal efficiency of about 70 %. In a reforming process, with heat supplied by nuclear reactor, the heat must be supplied by a secondary loop from the nuclear side and be transferred to the methane/steam mixture, via a heat exchanger type reactor. The sulfur-iodine cycle, a thermochemical water splitting, is of particular interest because it produces hydrogen efficiently with no CO 2 as byproduct. If heated with a nuclear source it could prove to be an ideal environmental solution to hydrogen production. Steam reforming remains the cheapest hydrogen production method based on the latest estimates, even when implemented with nuclear reactor. The S-I cycle offers a close second solution and the electrolysis is the most expensive of the options for industrial H 2 production. The nuclear plant could power electrolysis operations right away; steam reforming with nuclear power is a little bit further off into the future, the first operation with nuclear facility is expected to have place in Japan in 2008. The S-I cycle implementation is still over the horizon, it will be more than 10 years until we will see that cycle in full scale

  1. Energy scenarios for hydrogen production in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega V, E.; Francois L, J. L.

    2009-10-01

    The hydrogen is a clean and very efficient fuel, its combustion does not produce gases of greenhouse effect, ozone precursors and residual acids. Also the hydrogen produced by friendly energy sources with the environment like nuclear energy could help to solve the global problems that it confronts the energy at present time. Presently work fuel cycles of hydrogen production technologies in Mexico are judged, by means of a structured methodology in the concept of sustainable development in its social, economic and environmental dimensions. The methodology is divided in three scenarios: base, Outlook 2030 and capture of CO 2 . The first scenario makes reference to cycles analysis in a current context for Mexico, the second taking in account the demand projections reported by the IAEA in its report Outlook and the third scenario, capture of CO 2 , the technologies are analyzed supposing a reduction in capture costs of 75%. Each scenario also has four cases (base, social, environmental and economic) by means of which the cycles are analyzed in the dimensions of sustainable development. For scenarios base and capture, results show that combination nuclear energy- reformed of gas it is the best alternative for cases base and economic. For social case, the evaluated better technology is the hydraulics, and for environmental case, the best option is represented by the regenerative thermochemistry cycles. The scenario Outlook 2030 show a favorable tendency of growth of renewable sources, being the aeolian energy the best technology evaluated in the cases base and environmental, the hydraulics technology in the social case and in the economic case the reformed of natural gas that uses nuclear heat. (Author)

  2. Petroleum production at Maximum Efficient Rate Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California. Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This document provides an analysis of the potential impacts associated with the proposed action, which is continued operation of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. I (NPR-1) at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER) as authorized by Public law 94-258, the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976 (Act). The document also provides a similar analysis of alternatives to the proposed action, which also involve continued operations, but under lower development scenarios and lower rates of production. NPR-1 is a large oil and gas field jointly owned and operated by the federal government and Chevron U.SA Inc. (CUSA) pursuant to a Unit Plan Contract that became effective in 1944; the government`s interest is approximately 78% and CUSA`s interest is approximately 22%. The government`s interest is under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The facility is approximately 17,409 acres (74 square miles), and it is located in Kern County, California, about 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield and 100 miles north of Los Angeles in the south central portion of the state. The environmental analysis presented herein is a supplement to the NPR-1 Final Environmental Impact Statement of that was issued by DOE in 1979 (1979 EIS). As such, this document is a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS).

  3. Energy productivity, fertilization rate and profitability of wheat production after various predecessors II.Profitability of wheat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Uhr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In the course of our study on the adaptation of modern genotypes common winter wheat (Triticum aestivum to the requirements of sustainable agriculture data were received concerning the influence of the predecessor and nitrogen fertilizer rate on energy efficiency and recyclable nitrogen fertilization and profitability of productivity.We share these data with the scientific community, as they are up-to-date and informative in both theoretical and practical aspects. The analyses are based on data from field experiments fertilizer derived after predecessor cereals – regular crop of sorghum, millet, maize and legumes after predecessor - separate sowing of chickpeas. Energy efficiency of nitrogen fertilization was calculated as the ratio between the energy supplied in the additional grain yield and energy input in the form of fertilizers. Refundable efficiency of nitrogen fertilization is the additional amount of nitrogen accumulated in the grain, with respect to the applied nitrogen fertilization. Economic profitability of production is evaluated by coefficient R = P/Ra (ratio of benefits/costs. The results show that energy efficiency and recyclable nitrogen fertilization are on average five times higher after cereal than after legumes predecessor, and decreased with increasing the fertilizer rate, the decrease was statistically significant only for the first item (exponent. Profitability ratio of production after the introduction of legumes predecessor in crop rotation increases by an average of 42% and retains maximum values of fertilization levels 0.06, 0.12 and 0.18 t/ha nitrogen. Profitability of wheat production using pre-legumes crop is not determined by the parameters nitrogen fertilizer rate and energy efficiency of nitrogen fertilization and refundable efficiency of nitrogen fertilization.

  4. Hadron production in high energy muon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment was performed to study muon-proton scattering at an incident energy of 225 GeV and a total effective flux of 4.3 x 10 10 muons. This experiment is able to detect charged particles in coincidence with the scattered muon in the forward hemisphere, and results are reported for the neutral strange particles K/sub s/ 0 and Λ 0 decaying into two charged particles. Within experimental limits the masses and lifetimes of these particles are consistent with previous measurements. The distribution of hadrons produced in muon scattering was determined, measuring momentum components parallel and transverse to the virtual photon direction, and these distributions are compared to other high energy experiments involving the scattering of pions, protons, and neutrinos from protons. Structure functions for hadron production and particle ratios are calculated. No azimuthal dependence is observed, and lambda production does not appear to be polarized. The physical significance of the results is discussed within the frame-work of the quark-proton model

  5. Hadron production in high energy muon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment was performed to study muon-proton scattering at an incident energy of 225 GeV and a total effective flux of 4.3 x 10 10 muons. This experiment is able to detect charged particles in coincidence with the scattered muon in the forward hemisphere, and results are reported for the neutral strange particles K/sub s/ 0 and Λ 0 decaying into two charged particles. Within experimental limits the masses and lifetimes of these particles are consistent with previous measurements. The distribution of hadrons produced in muon scattering is determined, measuring momentum components parallel and transverse to the virtual photon direction, and these distributions are compared to other high energy experiments involving the scattering of pions, protons, and neutrinos from protons. Structure functions for hadron production and particle ratios are calculated. No azimuthal dependence is observed, and lambda production does not appear to be polarized. The physical significance of the results is discussed within the framework of the quark-parton model. 29 references

  6. 76 FR 13168 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... average unit costs of residential energy in a Federal Register notice entitled, ``Energy Conservation... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...

  7. Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C W

    2010-01-01

    In this letter I compare two measures of energy quality, energy return on energy invested (EROI) and energy intensity ratio (EIR) for the fossil fuel consumption and production of the United States. All other characteristics being equal, a fuel or energy system with a higher EROI or EIR is of better quality because more energy is provided to society. I define and calculate the EIR for oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity as measures of the energy intensity (units of energy divided by money) of the energy resource relative to the energy intensity of the overall economy. EIR measures based upon various unit prices for energy (e.g. $/Btu of a barrel of oil) as well as total expenditures on energy supplies (e.g. total dollars spent on petroleum) indicate net energy at different points in the supply chain of the overall energy system. The results indicate that EIR is an easily calculated and effective proxy for EROI for US oil, gas, coal, and electricity. The EIR correlates well with previous EROI calculations, but adds additional information on energy resource quality within the supply chain. Furthermore, the EIR and EROI of oil and gas as well as coal were all in decline for two time periods within the last 40 years, and both time periods preceded economic recessions.

  8. Introduction to energy balance of biomass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzanares, P.

    1997-01-01

    During last years, energy crops have been envisaged as an interesting alternative to biomass residues utilization as renewable energy source. In this work, main parameters used in calculating the energy balance of an energy crop are analyzed. The approach consists of determining energy equivalents for the different inputs and outputs of the process, thus obtaining energy ratios of the system, useful to determine if the energy balance is positive, that is, if the system generates energy. Energy costs for inputs and assessment approaches for energy crop yields (output) are provided. Finally, as a way of illustration, energy balances of some representative energy crops are shown. (Author) 15 refs

  9. Paleo-Productivity across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, Walvis Ridge Transect (ODP Sites 1262, 1263, and 1266)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, C. O.; Delaney, M. L.; Zachos, J. C.

    2005-12-01

    Walvis Ridge transect (Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 208) provides the first high-resolution depth-transect of deep-sea sediments recovered from the south Atlantic across the P/E boundary. A geographically restricted depth transect (~ 2.2 km, water depths between 2500 and 4770 m) allows us to constrain the surface waters by assuming marine productivity conditions in the overlying water column are similar across all sites. The sediment record will reveal variations for processes that are water-depth dependent. We use the geochemical tracers; biogenic barium, phosphorus, calcium carbonate, and the redox sensitive trace elements manganese and uranium, to reconstruct nutrient burial, paleoproductivity, and bottom water redox chemistry across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). We calculate our concentrations on a calcium carbonate-free basis to account for dilution by non-carbonate sediments. Trace metal enrichment factors (EFs) are calculated relative to bulk crustal averages. We chose three sites from the depth transect: the shallowest (Site 1263, 2717 m water depth), an intermediate site (Site 1266, 3798 m water depth), and the deepest site (Site 1262, 4755 m water depth). We sampled each site at a sample resolution of ~ 1-2 kyr for 5 m.y. centered at 55 Ma. Uranium EFs at the shallow site exhibits values ~ 5 pre-event and drop to values near crustal averages during and after the carbon isotope excursion (CIE). No dramatic changes in U EFs across the P/E boundary are recorded at the deep and intermediate sites. Mn EFs range between 2.9 -8.6 prior to the event across all three sites, suggesting an oxygenated depositional environment. At the boundary, Mn EFs drop to crustal averages at all sites, then gradually return to pre-event values, indicating more reducing environments during the CIE, a possible explanation for the benthic extinction event (BEE) observed across this transect. Ba excess and reactive phosphorus exhibit decreased concentrations during

  10. J/ψ+χcJ production at the B factories under the principle of maximum conformality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Sheng-Quan; Wu, Xing-Gang; Zheng, Xu-Chang; Shen, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Qiong-Lian

    2013-01-01

    Under the conventional scale setting, the renormalization scale uncertainty usually constitutes a systematic error for a fixed-order perturbative QCD estimation. The recently suggested principle of maximum conformality (PMC) provides a principle to eliminate such scale ambiguity in a step-by-step way. Using the PMC, all non-conformal terms in perturbative expansion series are summed into the running coupling, and one obtains a unique, scale-fixed, scheme-independent prediction at any finite order. In the paper, we make a detailed PMC analysis for both the polarized and the unpolarized cross sections for the double charmonium production process, e + +e − →J/ψ(ψ ′ )+χ cJ with (J=0,1,2). The running behavior for the coupling constant, governed by the PMC scales, are determined exactly for the specific processes. We compare our predictions with the measurements at the B factories, BaBar and Belle, and the theoretical estimations obtained in the literature. Because the non-conformal terms are different for various polarized and unpolarized cross sections, the PMC scales of these cross sections are different in principle. It is found that all the PMC scales are almost independent of the initial choice of renormalization scale. Thus, the large renormalization scale uncertainty usually adopted in the literature up to ∼40% at the NLO level, obtained from the conventional scale setting, for both the polarized and the unpolarized cross sections are greatly suppressed. It is found that the charmonium production is dominated by J=0 channel. After PMC scale setting, we obtain σ(J/ψ+χ c0 )=12.25 −3.13 +3.70 fb and σ(ψ ′ +χ c0 )=5.23 −1.32 +1.56 fb, where the squared average errors are caused by bound state parameters as m c , |R J/ψ (0)| and |R χ cJ ′ (0)|, which are non-perturbative error sources in different to the QCD scale setting problem. In comparison to the experimental data, a more accurate theoretical estimation shall be helpful for a precise

  11. Molten salts and nuclear energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Brun, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Molten salts (fluorides or chlorides) were considered near the beginning of research into nuclear energy production. This was initially due to their advantageous physical and chemical properties: good heat transfer capacity, radiation insensitivity, high boiling point, wide range solubility for actinides. In addition it was realised that molten salts could be used in numerous situations: high temperature heat transfer, core coolants with solid fuels, liquid fuel in a molten salt reactor, solvents for spent nuclear solid fuel in the case of pyro-reprocessing and coolant and tritium production in the case of fusion. Molten salt reactors, one of the six innovative concepts chosen by the Generation IV international forum, are particularly interesting for use as either waste incinerators or thorium cycle systems. As the neutron balance in the thorium cycle is very tight, the possibility to perform online extraction of some fission product poisons from the salt is very attractive. In this article the most important questions that must be addressed to demonstrate the feasibility of molten salt reactor will be reviewed

  12. Structural Materials for Efficient Energy Production Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Briceno, D.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing the efficiency of electric power production systems implies increasing the operating temperature above those of systems currently in operation. The viability of new systems depends completely on the availability of structural materials that withstand the operating conditions specified in the design: adequate features under mechanical stress at high temperatures and compatibility with the medium. In the case of nuclear systems (fission, fusion), an important requirement is their response to irradiation induced damage. In spite of the significant differences that exist in the design of nuclear power plants, fusion reactors, innovative fission systems, supercritical fossil plants, biomass plants, solar concentration thermal plants, etc., all of them have as a common characteristic the use of resistant materials at high temperatures. The qualification of existing materials for the new and more demanding operating conditions and the development of new materials is one of the challenges faced by the electric power production industry. The science of materials and the understanding of the basic processes that take place in structural materials on exposure to the operating conditions of energy production systems are the tools that are available to obtain safe and economically viable solutions. (Authors) 4 refs.

  13. Optimization of PV-based energy production by dynamic PV-panel/inverter configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Kasper; Nymand, Morten; Haase, Frerk

    This paper investigates the possible increase in annual energy production of a PV system with more than one MPPT (maximum power point tracker) input channels under Nordic illumination conditions, in case a concept of dynamic switching of the PV panels is used at the inputs of the inverters....

  14. Energy use and gross margin analysis for sesame production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the negative impacts of energy by-products affect the climate, the knowledge and efficient use of energy in crop production will minimise environmental problems and promote sustainable agriculture as an economic production system in Nigeria and else where. The aim of the study was to evaluate energy use and gross ...

  15. Energy productivity growth in the Dutch Greenhouse Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Ondersteijn, C.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Profitability of Dutch greenhouse firms is largely dependent on energy costs, and policy makers focus on reducing the use of energy by these firms. This article uses Russell measures of TE to develop indicators of energy productivity growth. Results show that energy productivity grew by 2.8%

  16. Towards a more efficient energy use in photovoltaic powered products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, S.Y.; Strijk, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the energy saving and power management solutions necessary to improve the energy consumption efficiency in photovoltaic powered products. Important in the design of such products is not only the energy supply optimization required to deliver the actual energy to fulfil their

  17. The impact of predicted demand on energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    El kafazi, I.; Bannari, R.; Aboutafail, My. O.

    2018-05-01

    Energy is crucial for human life, a secure and accessible supply of power is essential for the sustainability of societies. Economic development and demographic progression increase energy demand, prompting countries to conduct research and studies on energy demand and production. Although, increasing in energy demand in the future requires a correct determination of the amount of energy supplied. Our article studies the impact of demand on energy production to find the relationship between the two latter and managing properly the production between the different energy sources. Historical data of demand and energy production since 2000 are used. The data are processed by the regression model to study the impact of demand on production. The obtained results indicate that demand has a positive and significant impact on production (high impact). Production is also increasing but at a slower pace. In this work, Morocco is considered as a case study.

  18. Solar Energy - An Option for Future Energy Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the exponential growth of energy consumption and future consequences. Possible methods of converting solar energy to power such as direct energy conversion, focusing collectors, selective rediation absorbers, ocean thermal gradient, and space solar power are considered. (DF)

  19. Renewable energy for productive uses in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanley, C.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a USAID/USDOE sponsored program to implement renewable energy in Mexico for productive uses. The objectives are to expand markets for US and Mexican industries, and to combat global climate change - primarily greenhouse gas emissions. The focus is on off-grid applications, with an emphasis on developing the institution structure to support the development of these industries within the country. Agricultural development is an example of the type of industry approached, where photovoltaic and wind power can be used for water pumping. There are hundreds of projects under review, and this interest has put renewables as a line item in Mexico`s rural development budget. Village power projects are being considered in the form of utility partnerships.

  20. Experimental workflow for developing a feed forward strategy to control biomass growth and exploit maximum specific methane productivity of Methanothermobacter marburgensis in a biological methane production process (BMPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Krajete

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, interests for new biofuel generations allowing conversion of gaseous substrate(s to gaseous product(s arose for power to gas and waste to value applications. An example is biological methane production process (BMPP with Methanothermobacter marburgensis. The latter, can convert carbon dioxide (CO2 and hydrogen (H2, having different origins and purities, to methane (CH4, water and biomass. However, these gas converting bioprocesses are tendentiously gas limited processes and the specific methane productivity per biomass amount (qCH4 tends to be low. Therefore, this contribution proposes a workflow for the development of a feed forward strategy to control biomass, growth (rx and qCH4 in a continuous gas limited BMPP. The proposed workflow starts with a design of experiment (DoE to optimize media composition and search for a liquid based limitation to control selectively growth. From the DoE it came out that controlling biomass growth was possible independently of the dilution and gassing rate applied while not affecting methane evolution rates (MERs. This was done by shifting the process from a natural gas limited state to a controlled liquid limited growth. The latter allowed exploiting the maximum biocatalytic activity for methane formation of Methanothermobacter marburgensis. An increase of qCH4 from 42 to 129 mmolCH4 g−1 h−1 was achieved by applying a liquid limitation compare with the reference state. Finally, a verification experiment was done to verify the feeding strategy transferability to a different process configuration. This evidenced the ratio of the fed KH2PO4 to rx (R(FKH2PO4/rx has an appropriate parameter for scaling feeds in a continuous gas limited BMPP. In the verification experiment CH4 was produced in a single bioreactor step at a methane evolution rate (MER of   132 mmolCH4*L−1*h−1 at a CH4 purity of 93 [Vol.%].

  1. Modelling energy consumption in a manufacturing plant using productivity KPIs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallachoir, Brian O.; Cahill, Caiman (Sustainable Energy Research Group, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Univ. College Cork (Ireland))

    2009-07-01

    Energy efficiency initiatives in industrial plants are often focused on getting energy-consuming utilities and devices to operate more efficiently, or on conserving energy. While such device-oriented energy efficiency measures can achieve considerable savings, greater energy efficiency improvement may be achieved by improving the overall productivity and quality of manufacturing processes. The paper highlights the observed relationship between productivity and energy efficiency using aggregated data on unit consumption and production index data for Irish industry. Past studies have developed simple top-down models of final energy consumption in manufacturing plants using energy consumption and production output figures, but these models do not help identify opportunities for energy savings that could achieved through increased productivity. This paper proposes an improved and innovative method of modelling plant final energy demand that introduces standard productivity Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) into the model. The model demonstrates the relationship between energy consumption and productivity, and uses standard productivity metrics to identify the areas of manufacturing activity that offer the most potential for improved energy efficiency. The model provides a means of comparing the effect of device-oriented energy efficiency measures with the potential for improved energy efficiency through increased productivity.

  2. 78 FR 9631 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of public meeting.... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J...

  3. Hybrid reactors: Nuclear breeding or energy production?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piera, Mireia; Lafuente, Antonio; Abanades, Alberto; Martinez-Val, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    After reviewing the long-standing tradition on hybrid research, an assessment model is presented in order to characterize the hybrid performance under different objectives. In hybrids, neutron multiplication in the subcritical blanket plays a major role, not only for energy production and nuclear breeding, but also for tritium breeding, which is fundamental requirement in fusion-fission hybrids. All three objectives are better achieved with high values of the neutron multiplication factor (k-eff) with the obvious and fundamental limitation that it cannot reach criticality under any event, particularly, in the case of a loss of coolant accident. This limitation will be very important in the selection of the coolant. Some general considerations will be proposed, as guidelines for assessing the hybrid potential in a given scenario. Those guidelines point out that hybrids can be of great interest for the future of nuclear energy in a framework of Sustainable Development, because they can contribute to the efficient exploitation of nuclear fuels, with very high safety features. Additionally, a proposal is presented on a blanket specially suited for fusion-fission hybrids, although this reactor concept is still under review, and new work is needed for identifying the most suitable blanket composition, which can vary depending on the main objective of the hybrid.

  4. Variability in climate and productivity during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum in the western Tethys (Forada section)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusberti, L.; Boscolo Galazzo, F.; Thomas, E.

    2016-02-01

    The Forada section (northeastern Italy) provides a continuous, expanded deep-sea record of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in the central-western Tethys. We combine a new, high-resolution, benthic foraminiferal assemblage record with published calcareous plankton, mineralogical and biomarker data to document climatic and environmental changes across the PETM, highlighting the benthic foraminiferal extinction event (BEE). The onset of the PETM, occurring ˜ 30 kyr after a precursor event, is marked by a thin, black, barren clay layer, possibly representing a brief pulse of anoxia and carbonate dissolution. The BEE occurred within the 10 cm interval including this layer. During the first 3.5 kyr of the PETM, several agglutinated recolonizing taxa show rapid species turnover, indicating a highly unstable, CaCO3-corrosive environment. Calcareous taxa reappeared after this interval, and the next ˜9 kyr were characterized by rapid alternation of peaks in abundance of various calcareous and agglutinated recolonizers. These observations suggest that synergistic stressors, including deepwater CaCO3 corrosiveness, low oxygenation, and high environmental instability caused the extinction. Combined faunal and biomarker data (BIT index, higher plant n-alkane average chain length) and the high abundance of the mineral chlorite suggest that erosion and weathering increased strongly at the onset of the PETM, due to an overall wet climate with invigorated hydrological cycle, which led to storm flood events carrying massive sediment discharge into the Belluno Basin. This interval was followed by the core of the PETM, characterized by four precessionally paced cycles in CaCO3 %, hematite %, δ13C, abundant occurrence of opportunistic benthic foraminiferal taxa, and calcareous nannofossil and planktonic foraminiferal taxa typical of high-productivity environments, radiolarians, and lower δDn-alkanes. We interpret these cycles as reflecting alternation between an overall

  5. Benthic foraminifera at the Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum in the western Tethys (Forada section): variability in climate and productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusberti, L.; Boscolo Galazzo, F.; Thomas, E.

    2015-09-01

    The Forada section (northeastern Italy) provides a continuous, expanded deep-sea record of the Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) in the central-western Tethys. We combine a new, high resolution, benthic foraminiferal assemblage record with published calcareous plankton, mineralogical and biomarker data to document climatic and environmental changes across the PETM, highlighting the benthic foraminiferal extinction event (BEE). The onset of the PETM, occurring ~ 30 kyr after a precursor event, is marked by a thin, black, barren clay layer, possibly representing a brief pulse of anoxia and carbonate dissolution. The BEE occurred within the 10 cm interval including this layer. During the first 3.5 kyr of the PETM several agglutinated recolonizing taxa show rapid species turnover, indicating a highly unstable, CaCO3-corrosive environment. Calcareous taxa reappeared after this interval, and the next ~ 9 kyr were characterized by rapid alternation of peaks in abundance of various calcareous and agglutinant recolonizers. These observations suggest that synergistic stressors including deep water CaCO3-corrosiveness, low oxygenation, and high environmental instability caused the extinction. Combined faunal and biomarker data (BIT index, higher plant n-alkane average chain length) and the high abundance of the mineral chlorite suggest that erosion and weathering increased strongly at the onset of the PETM, due to an overall wet climate with invigorated hydrological cycle, which led to storm flood-events carrying massive sediment discharge into the Belluno Basin. This interval was followed by the core of the PETM, characterized by four precessionally paced cycles in CaCO3%, hematite%, δ13C, abundant occurrence of opportunistic benthic foraminiferal taxa, as well as calcareous nannofossil and planktonic foraminiferal taxa typical of high productivity environments, radiolarians, and lower δDn-alkanes. We interpret these cycles as reflecting alternation between an

  6. 48 CFR 52.223-15 - Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Energy Efficiency in... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-15 Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. As prescribed in 23.206, insert the following clause: Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products (DEC 2007) (a) Definition. As...

  7. ENERGY USE ANALYSIS FOR RICE PRODUCTION IN NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussaini Yusuf Ibrahim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to analyze energy use for in rice production in Nasarawa state Nigeria using a sample of 120 randomly selected rice farmers. Energy productivity, energy efficiency and specific energy were computed and simple descriptive statistics was used for data analysis. The energy use pattern shows that, rice production consumed an average total energy of 12906.8 MJha-1, with herbicide energy input contributing the largest share (53.55 %. Human labour had the least share (0.74 % of the total energy input used. The energy productivity, Specific energy and energy efficiency were 0.3 MJ-1, 3.6 MJ-1 and 4.1 respectively. A total of 10925.0 MJ of energy was used in the form of indirect energy and 1981.8MJ was in the direct form of energy. Non-renewable energy forms contributed the largest share (80.63 % of the total energy input used for rice production in the study area. Rice production in the study area was observed to be mainly dependent on non-renewable and indirect energy input especially herbicide. Thus, the study recommends the introduction of integrated weed management system in order to reduce cost and dependence on a non-renewable input for weed control.

  8. A step by step selection method for the location and the size of a waste-to-energy facility targeting the maximum output energy and minimization of gate fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakis, Efstathios; Psomopoulos, Constantinos; Kokkotis, Panagiotis; Bourtsalas, Athanasios; Themelis, Nikolaos

    2017-06-23

    This study attempts the development of an algorithm in order to present a step by step selection method for the location and the size of a waste-to-energy facility targeting the maximum output energy, also considering the basic obstacle which is in many cases, the gate fee. Various parameters identified and evaluated in order to formulate the proposed decision making method in the form of an algorithm. The principle simulation input is the amount of municipal solid wastes (MSW) available for incineration and along with its net calorific value are the most important factors for the feasibility of the plant. Moreover, the research is focused both on the parameters that could increase the energy production and those that affect the R1 energy efficiency factor. Estimation of the final gate fee is achieved through the economic analysis of the entire project by investigating both expenses and revenues which are expected according to the selected site and outputs of the facility. In this point, a number of commonly revenue methods were included in the algorithm. The developed algorithm has been validated using three case studies in Greece-Athens, Thessaloniki, and Central Greece, where the cities of Larisa and Volos have been selected for the application of the proposed decision making tool. These case studies were selected based on a previous publication made by two of the authors, in which these areas where examined. Results reveal that the development of a «solid» methodological approach in selecting the site and the size of waste-to-energy (WtE) facility can be feasible. However, the maximization of the energy efficiency factor R1 requires high utilization factors while the minimization of the final gate fee requires high R1 and high metals recovery from the bottom ash as well as economic exploitation of recovered raw materials if any.

  9. Energy conservation opportunities: audit vis-a-vis mine productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, G.H.

    2009-07-01

    Mining operation, whether opencast or underground, with modern equipment is highly energy intensive, needing energy conservation and management to ensure efficiency, cost effectiveness, and overall productivity. Exhaustible primary energy resources such as coal, lignite, oil, and nuclear fuels are being mined out to meet our energy needs. An attempt has been made in this paper to highlight the energy conservation opportunities, energy audit, the relevant Energy Conservation Act 2001 and certain energy saving measures leading to higher productivity followed by a few case study examples. 3 refs.

  10. Energy production and use in Dutch agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, W.A.; Lange, J.M.; Wit, de C.T.

    1974-01-01

    Energy relationschips in the agriculture of one of the most densely populated areas of the world, the Nether lands, are described. The Netherlands appear selfsupporting in food energy. However, if one takes account of energy consumption in horticulture, the direct and indirect fossil energy cost

  11. Factors that promote renewable energy production in U.S. states: A fixed effect estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokeji, Ekwuniru Chika

    2011-12-01

    also affect renewable energy production. It therefore appears that to obtain a maximum renewable energy production, policymakers need to adopt a policy approach that incorporates these contextual factors.

  12. Biofuels, fossil energy ratio, and the future of energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, David

    2017-05-01

    Two hundred years ago, much of humanity's energy came from burning wood. As energy needs outstripped supplies, we began to burn fossil fuels. This transition allowed our civilization to modernize rapidly, but it came with heavy costs including climate change. Today, scientists and engineers are taking another look at biofuels as a source of energy to fuel our ever-increasing consumption.

  13. Assessment of environmental external effects in the production of energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleisner, L.; Meyer, H.J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    A project in Denmark has been carried out with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The energy production technologies that will be reported in this paper are wind power and a conventional coal fired plant. In the project the environm......A project in Denmark has been carried out with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The energy production technologies that will be reported in this paper are wind power and a conventional coal fired plant. In the project...... the environmental damages for the energy production technologies are compared, and externalities in the production of energy using renewable energy and fossil fuels are identified, estimated and monetized....

  14. 77 FR 38743 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue SW...

  15. Barriers to retail marketing of renewable energy products in an energy-rich province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haner, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Personal experiences in attempting to market photovoltaics and other renewable energy products in Alberta, a province rich in energy sources, are recounted as part of an exploration of ways to help industry to develop strategies that will advance the acceptance of renewable energy products, particularly in areas of the world that are not concerned about energy supply. Social acceptability, emphasis on a healthy and convenient lifestyle associated with renewable energy products, practical, user-friendly products, and competitive prices, are some of the key elements in successfully marketing renewable energy products

  16. On risk assessment of energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunii, Katsuhiko

    2005-07-01

    Today we cannot ignore the risk of health and/or environment by energy production such as power generation since the risk has been made large enough. In this report an information survey has been done in order to know the outline and points of risk assessment. Based on the information of reports and literature about risk assessment, have been surveyed mainly the external cost assessment of power generation (in which quantification of health and/or environment risk has been done), in addition, risks of disasters, accidents, investments, finance etc. and impacts of those risks on social activities. The remarks obtained by the survey are as follows: 1) Some of external cost assessment of power generation show different results even if the assessment conditions of technology, site, etc. are mostly the same. It is necessary to remark on the information such as basic data, model, background, application limit of assessment considering the reliability. 2) Especially it is considered that the reliability of risk assessment is not enough at present because of the lack of basic data. (author)

  17. Process and device for thermal energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangus, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    The main aim of the invention is to create a heating cycle arrangement, for the energy production facilities as from liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors, that will stand up to the temperature changes of the heated steam at least as from the high pressure turbine. This arrangement includes a first system in which flows a liquid metal coolant between a heat source, a steam generator and a utilisation system on which flows a vaporisable fluid from this generator, passing through a first turbine, a heater, at least a second turbine and a condenser. The steam heated in the heater is heated by the liquid metal coolant. A preheater is located in the heated steam system upstream of the heater. This preheater is connected so as to heat the steam to a preset, practically constant value, before this steam to be heated enters the heater heated by the liquid metal. This arrangement reduces the thermal transitions in the superheater and the heater during load changes. In a preferential design mode, the steam from the steam generator is sent to a moisture extraction drum and the heater is exposed to the steam in this drum [fr

  18. Dossier: renewable energies for heat production; Dossier: energies renouvelables pour la production de chaleur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-09-01

    This dossier makes a state-of-the-art of today's applications of renewable energy sources in the residential, collective and tertiary sectors for the space heating and the hot water production. In France, three energy sources profit by a particularly favorable evolution: the solar thermal, the wood fuel and the geothermal energies. In these sectors, the offer of reliable and technically achieved appliances has been considerably widen thanks to the impulse of some French and German manufacturers. Part 1 - solar thermal: individual solar water heaters (monobloc, thermosyphon with separate tank, forced circulation systems, auxiliary heating systems); combined solar systems (direct heating floor, system with storage); collective solar systems for hot water production (receivers, efficiency, heat storage and transfer, auxiliary heating, decentralized systems); heating of open-air swimming pools; some attempts in air-conditioning; the warranty of results. Part 2 - wood fuels: domestic space heating (log boilers, installation rules, hydro-accumulation, automatic boilers); collective and tertiary wood-fueled heating plants (design of boiler plants, fuel supply, combustion chamber, smoke purification systems, ash removal, regulation system), fuels for automatic collective plants, design and installation rules. Part 3 - geothermal energy: different types (water-source and ground-source heat pumps, financial incentive). (J.S.)

  19. A field study of energy consumption in wheat production in Canterbury, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safa, M.; Samarasinghe, S.; Mohssen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We determine the energy use in wheat production base on farm operation and energy sources on dryland and irrigated farms in New Zealand. → The study estimate and compare different energy inputs in wheat production using around 40 samples. → The results show fertilizer is the most important energy inputs on farms. → The significant correlation between energy use and wheat production must be taken into consideration. -- Abstract: This paper examines the energy consumption of wheat production in Canterbury province, New Zealand. This study was conducted within a 35,300 ha of irrigated and dry land wheat fields in Canterbury in the 2007-2008 harvest year. Total energy consumption for wheat production was estimated at 25,600 MJ/ha. On average, fertilizer and electricity were used more than other energy sources, at around 10,654 (47%) and 4870 (22%) MJ/ha, respectively. The energy consumption for wheat in irrigated farming systems and dry land farming systems was estimated at 25,600 and 17,458 MJ/ha, respectively. The main source of energy in both systems is fertilizer and it consumed around 10,188 and 11,429 MJ/ha for irrigated farming and dry land farming, respectively. The average operational energy consumption was 7997 MJ/ha. In irrigated farming system, operational energy was approximately three times more than that in dry land farming. The maximum energy consumed in operational wheat production was about 7762 (71%) MJ/ha for irrigated farming systems, including irrigation, and it was 1451 (46%) MJ/ha for dry land farming including tillage. The average values of estimated output to input energy ratio for wheat in irrigated and dry land farming systems were 11.5 and 15.1, respectively.

  20. Periodic variations of Auger energy maximum distribution following He{sup 2+} + H{sub 2} collisions: A complete analogy with photon interferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cholet, M.; Minerbe, F.; Oliviero, G.; Pestel, V. [Université de Caen, 6 bd du Mal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Frémont, F., E-mail: francois.fremont@ensicaen.fr [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique, Unité Mixte Université de Caen-CEA-CNRS-EnsiCaen, 6 bd du Mal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex 4 (France)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Young type interferences with electrons are revisited. • Oscillations in the angular distribution of the energy maximum of Auger spectra are evidenced. • Model calculations are in good agreement with the experimental result. • The position of the Auger spectra oscillates in counterphase with the total intensity. - Abstract: In this article, we present experimental evidence of a particular electron-interference phenomenon. The electrons are provided by autoionization of 2l2l′ doubly excited He atoms following the capture of H{sub 2} electrons by a slow He{sup 2+} incoming ion. We observe that the position of the energy maximum of the Auger structures oscillates with the detection angle. Calculation based on a simple model that includes interferences clearly shows that the present oscillations are due to Young-type interferences caused by electrons scattering on both H{sup +} centers.

  1. Energy. From natural sources to production challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    Human beings have always needed energy to feed themselves and move about. Energy can be found in various forms. Today's technologies are capable of tapping all possible resources (e.g. fossil fuels, water, wind, sun) to produce large quantities of energy. Now, at the start of the 21. century, energy remains essential for mankind. It represents a major political, economic, scientific and environmental challenge. Of the many properties found in material objects, energy is not only one of the most important but also one of the most abstract, since it is not actually tangible. (authors)

  2. Nitrous oxide emissions of energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, L.

    1998-01-01

    The share of energy production of the world-wide total N 2 O emissions is about 10 %. In 1991 the N 2 O emissions estimated to be up to 30 %. The previous estimates based on incorrect measurements. The measurement methods have been improved during the past few years. The present measurements have shown that the share of the combustion of fossil fuels is about 2.0 % and the share biomass combustion about 5.0 % of the total. The uncertainty of the values can be few percentage units. According to the present measurements the share of natural emissions and the fertilizers of the total N 2 O emissions is up to 60 %. The formation of nitrous oxide has been studied widely in various countries in the world. In Finland nitrous oxide has been studied in the national LIEKKI research programme. As a result of the research carried out in the programme it has been possible to reduce the formation of N 2 O by using appropriate catalysts and combustion technologies. Nitrous oxide is formed e.g. in fluidized-bed combustion of nitrogen containing fuels. The combustion temperature of other combustion methods is so high that the gas disintegrates in the furnace. By the new methods the nitrous oxide emissions of the fluidized-bed combustion has been possible to reduce from 100-200 ppm to the level less than 50 ppm of the flue gas volume. The Japanese research has shown that the nitrous oxide emissions of bubbling beds vary in between 58 - 103 ppm, but when combusting paper the emissions are 6 - 29 ppm. The corresponding value of circulating fluidized beds is 40 - 153 ppm

  3. From Policy to Compliance: Federal Energy Efficient Product Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMates, Laurèn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Scodel, Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-09-06

    Federal buyers are required to purchase energy-efficient products in an effort to minimize energy use in the federal sector, save the federal government money, and spur market development of efficient products. The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)’s Energy Efficient Product Procurement (EEPP) Program helps federal agencies comply with the requirement to purchase energy-efficient products by providing technical assistance and guidance and setting efficiency requirements for certain product categories. Past studies have estimated the savings potential of purchasing energy-efficient products at over $500 million per year in energy costs across federal agencies.1 Despite the strong policy support for EEPP and resources available, energy-efficient product purchasing operates within complex decision-making processes and operational structures; implementation challenges exist that may hinder agencies’ ability to comply with purchasing requirements. The shift to purchasing green products, including energy-efficient products, relies on “buy in” from a variety of potential actors throughout different purchasing pathways. Challenges may be especially high for EEPP relative to other sustainable acquisition programs given that efficient products frequently have a higher first cost than non-efficient ones, which may be perceived as a conflict with fiscal responsibility, or more simply problematic for agency personnel trying to stretch limited budgets. Federal buyers may also face challenges in determining whether a given product is subject to EEPP requirements. Previous analysis on agency compliance with EEPP, conducted by the Alliance to Save Energy (ASE), shows that federal agencies are getting better at purchasing energy-efficient products. ASE conducted two reviews of relevant solicitations for product and service contracts listed on Federal Business Opportunities (FBO), the centralized website where federal agencies are required to post procurements greater

  4. Market distortions and aggregate productivity: Evidence from Chinese energy enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Xiaoyong; Cheng, Liwei

    2016-01-01

    Market distortions can generate resource misallocations across heterogeneous firms and reduce aggregate productivity. This paper measures market distortions and aggregate productivity growth in China's energy sector. We use the wedge between output elasticities and factor shares in revenues to recover a measure of firm-level market distortions. Using data on a large sample of Chinese energy enterprises from 1999 to 2007, our estimations provide strong evidence of the existence of both factor and product market distortions within and across China's various energy industries. The productivity aggregation and decomposition results demonstrate that the estimated aggregate productivity growth (APG) is, on average, 2.595% points per year, of which technological change, resource reallocation, and firm entries and exits account for 1.981, 0.068, and 0.546% points, respectively. The weak contributions of resource reallocation and firm turnover to APG are also found in energy sub-industries, except in the coal industry. Our research suggests that China's energy sector has major potential for productivity gains from resource reallocation through the reduction of market distortions. - Highlights: •We estimate market distortions and productivity growth of China's energy sector. •We use a large sample of Chinese energy enterprises. •There are evidences of the existence of factor and product market distortions. •Aggregate productivity growth is largely driven by firm-level technological change. •China's energy sector can realize productivity gains from resource reallocations.

  5. Life cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact assessment of bioethanol production from sweet potato based on different production modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Jia, Chunrong; Wu, Yi; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Lijun; Zhai, Youlong

    2017-01-01

    The bioethanol is playing an increasingly important role in renewable energy in China. Based on the theory of circular economy, integration of different resources by polygeneration is one of the solutions to improve energy efficiency and to reduce environmental impact. In this study, three modes of bioethanol production were selected to evaluate the life cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact of sweet potato-based bioethanol. The results showed that, the net energy ratio was greater than 1 and the value of net energy gain was positive in the three production modes, in which the maximum value appeared in the circular economy mode (CEM). The environment emission mainly occurred to bioethanol conversion unit in the conventional production mode (CPM) and the cogeneration mode (CGM), and eutrophication potential (EP) and global warming potential (GWP) were the most significant environmental impact category. While compared with CPM and CGM, the environmental impact of CEM significantly declined due to increasing recycling, and plant cultivation unit mainly contributed to EP and GWP. And the comprehensive evaluation score of environmental impact decreased by 73.46% and 23.36%. This study showed that CEM was effective in improving energy efficiency, especially in reducing the environmental impact, and it provides a new method for bioethanol production. PMID:28672044

  6. Energy harvesting: small scale energy production from ambient sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Eric M.

    2009-03-01

    Energy harvesting - the collection of otherwise unexploited energy in the local environment - is attracting increasing attention for the powering of electronic devices. While the power levels that can be reached are typically modest (microwatts to milliwatts), the key motivation is to avoid the need for battery replacement or recharging in portable or inaccessible devices. Wireless sensor networks are a particularly important application: the availability of essentially maintenance free sensor nodes, as enabled by energy harvesting, will greatly increase the feasibility of large scale networks, in the paradigm often known as pervasive sensing. Such pervasive sensing networks, used to monitor buildings, structures, outdoor environments or the human body, offer significant benefits for large scale energy efficiency, health and safety, and many other areas. Sources of energy for harvesting include light, temperature differences, and ambient motion, and a wide range of miniature energy harvesters based on these sources have been proposed or demonstrated. This paper reviews the principles and practice in miniature energy harvesters, and discusses trends, suitable applications, and possible future developments.

  7. Greener energy systems energy production technologies with minimum environmental impact

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffs, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen acceleration in the development of cleaner energy systems. In Europe and North America, many old coal-fired power plants will be shut down in the next few years and will likely be replaced by combined cycle plants with higher-efficiency gas turbines that can start up and load quickly. With the revival of nuclear energy, designers are creating smaller nuclear reactors of a simpler integrated design that could expand the application of clean, emission-free energy to industry. And a number of manufacturers now offer hybrid cars with an electric motor and a gasoline engine t

  8. Producción de semilla de guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq. en un sistema intensivo de ceba de ganado vacuno Seed production of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. in an intensive cattle fattening system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Oquend

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En un suelo Pardo sialítico del subtipo Cambisol cálcico, localizado en la Empresa Pecuaria «Calixto García», en la provincia de Holguín, se estudio la producción de semilla de guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq. en un sistema intensivo de ceba de ganado vacuno, en condiciones de riego. Los tratamientos fueron cinco varieda­des del pasto guinea: A Común; B Likoni; C Mombasa; D Tanzania; y E Tobiatá. Los siguientes métodos se consideraron a su vez como subtratamientos: 1 Siembra con semilla gámica; 2 Plantación por macollas; y 3 Por vía de trasplante. La carga se mantuvo ajustada a 2 UGM/ha. En la producción de semillas existieron interacciones favorables entre los métodos de siembra y las variedades: semilla gámica-guinea Likoni; maco­lla-guinea Mombasa, Tanzania y Tobiatá; trasplante-guinea Común. En todo el sistema de explotación se obtuvo un aporte adicional superior a los $1 000/ha por concepto de producción de semilla, sin afectar la producción animal, en la que se obtuvieron ganancias superiores a los 800 g/animal/día y producciones pro­medio de 46 212 t de carne en pie por ciclo de ceba. Se considera factible la producción de semilla del pasto guinea en sistemas intensivos de ceba de ganado vacuno.On a sialitic Brown soil of the calcic Cambisol subtype, located at the «Calixto García» Livestock Production Enterprise, in the Holguín province, the production of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. was studied in an intensive cattle fattening system, with irrigation. The treatments were five varieties of Guinea grass: A Common; B Likoni; C Mombasa; D Tanzania; and E Tobiatá. The following methods were considered, in turn, sub-treatments: 1 Seeding with gamic seed; 2 Planting with tillers; and 3 Transplanting. The stocking rate remained adjusted at 2 animals/ha. In seed production there were favorable interactions between the planting methods and the varieties: gamic seed-Guinea grass Likoni; tiller-Guinea grass

  9. Sovereign funds: energy products and investors in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertin Delacour, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Energy, especially oil, is the source of wealth of two-thirds of SWFs, located in the Middle East, Africa, America, Russia and Norway. The countries exporting natural resources use these investment vehicles to fight against the drawbacks of their rent economy: price volatility, non-renewal of resources, resource curse and 'dutch disease'. SWFs can indeed stabilize export earnings, preserve wealth for future generations and diversify the economy. Energy is also a prime area for investment of sovereign wealth funds, which have different objectives depending on their origin. The funds of the Persian Gulf, already rich in fossil resources, form partnerships with leading groups in the field of energy to acquire the technology they lack. The funds from countries lacking natural resources, such as China, seek to take control of foreign companies operating or processing raw materials with a view to secure energy independence of their country

  10. Carbon and nitrogen trade-offs in biomass energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucek, Lidija; Klemes, Jiri Jaromir [University of Pannonia, Centre for Process Integration and Intensification (CPI" 2), Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, Veszprem (Hungary); Kravanja, Zdravko [University of Maribor, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Maribor (Slovenia)

    2012-06-15

    This contribution provides an overview of carbon (CFs) and nitrogen footprints (NFs) concerning their measures and impacts on the ecosystem and human health. The adversarial relationship between them is illustrated by the three biomass energy production applications, which substitute fossil energy production applications: (i) domestic wood combustion where different fossil energy sources (natural gas, coal, and fuel oil) are supplemented, (ii) bioethanol production from corn grain via the dry-grind process, where petrol is supplemented, and (iii) rape methyl ester production from rape seed oil via catalytic trans-esterification, where diesel is supplemented. The life cycle assessment is applied to assess the CFs and NFs resulting from different energy production applications from 'cradle-to-grave' span. The results highlighted that all biomass-derived energy generations have lower CFs and higher NFs whilst, on the other hand, fossil energies have higher CFs and lower NFs. (orig.)

  11. Energy production and financial analysis of photovoltaic energy plants in Ivory Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Guaita Pradas, Inmaculada; Marí Soucase, Bernabé; BOKO, AKA

    2015-01-01

    One key factor for boosting economic growth in developing countries is the energetic independence of the countries. Renewable energies are well suited for such purpose even if effective dissemination of renewable energies is their production price. The energy production of solar plants is highly dependent of both sun radiation and climate data and therefore dependent of their location. This paper reports on the economic and financial calculations related to the energy production of a standard...

  12. Assessment of energy return on energy investment (EROEI) of oil bearing crops for renewable fuel production

    OpenAIRE

    A. Restuccia; S. Failla; D. Longo; L. Caruso; I. Mallia; G. Schillaci

    2013-01-01

    As reported in literature the production of biodiesel should lead to a lower energy consumption than those obtainable with its use. So, to justify its consumption, a sustainable and “low input” production should be carried out. In order to assess the sustainability of Linum usitatissimum, Camelina sativa and Brassica carinata cultivation for biodiesel production in terms of energy used compared to that obtained, the index EROEI (Energy Return On Energy Invested) has been used. At this aim, an...

  13. Agrification: Agriculture for the industry and energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The new aspect of agrification is the production of alternative products, which can replace fossil sources. This substitution is necessary in order to replace hazardous materials and to find a solution for the problem of depletion of conventional energy sources and basic materials. Attention is paid to some developments in Germany: agricultural products for the production of energy, and new industrial applications for vegetable filaments. With regard to energy production from agricultrual products one should distinguish between (a) solid energy sources (biomass), f.e. straw, fast-growing wood, elephant's grass, hay and rapeseed, and (b) fluid and gaseous energy sources, f.e. purified and partly refined rapeseed oil, rapeseed oil methyl-ester (RME), ethanol from sugar beet, methanol from straw and hydrogen from straw and/or elephant's grass. 4 figs., 7 refs

  14. Go offshore -Combining food and energy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Stuiver, Marian; Guanche, Raul

    European oceans will be subject to massive development of marine infrastructure in the near future. The development includes energy facilities, e.g. offshore wind farms, exploitation of wave energy, and also development and implementation of marine aquaculture This change of infrastructure makes ...

  15. Energy production for environmental issues in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Ibrahim; Arman, Hasan; Halil Demirel, Ibrahim

    2017-11-01

    Due to the diversification efforts of energy sources, use of natural gas that was newly introduced into Turkish economy, has been growing rapidly. Turkey has large reserves of coal, particularly of lignite. The proven lignite reserves are 8.0 billion tons. The estimated total possible reserves are 30 billion tons. Turkey, with its young population and growing energy demand per person, its fast growing urbanization, and its economic development, has been one of the fast growing power markets of the world for the last two decades. It is expected that the demand for electric energy in Turkey will be 580 billion kWh by the year 2020. Turkey's electric energy demand is growing about 6-8% yearly due to fast economic growing. This paper deals with energy demand and consumption for environmental issues in Turkey.

  16. Energy efficiency and econometric analysis of broiler production farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidari, M.D.; Omid, M.; Akram, A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the energy consumption per 1000 bird for the broiler production in Yazd province, Iran. The data were collected from 44 farms by using a face-to-face questionnaire method during January–February 2010. The collected information was analyzed using descriptive statistics, economic analysis and stochastic frontier production function. The production technology of the farmer was assumed to be specified by the Cobb–Douglas (CD) production function. Total input energy was found to be 186,885.87 MJ (1000 bird) −1 while the output energy was 27,461.21 MJ (1000 bird) −1 . The values of specific energy and energy ratio were calculated at 71.95 MJ kg −1 and 0.15, respectively. The sensitivity of energy inputs was estimated using the marginal physical productivity (MPP) method. The MPP value showed the high impact of human labor and machinery energy inputs on output energy. Returns to scale (RTS) values for broiler were found to be 0.96; thus, there prevailed a decreasing RTS for the estimated model. The net return was found positive, as 1386.53 $ (1000 bird) −1 and the benefit to cost ratio from broiler production was calculated to be 1.38. The study revealed that production of meat was profitable in the studied area. -- Highlights: ► We determined the energy use efficiency (EUE) for the broiler production as 0.15, indicating inefficiency use of energy in these farms. ► Total input and output energies were found to be 186,885.87 MJ (1000 bird) −1 and 27,461.21 MJ (1000 bird) −1 , respectively. ► Cobb–Douglas (CD) frontier production function was found useful in developing econometric model for broiler production. ► The results of budgetary analysis indicate production of meat in broiler farms is profitable in the studied area.

  17. The impact of future energy demand on renewable energy production – Case of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Eva; Lind, Arne; Espegren, Kari Aamodt

    2013-01-01

    Projections of energy demand are an important part of analyses of policies to promote conservation, efficiency, technology implementation and renewable energy production. The development of energy demand is a key driver of the future energy system. This paper presents long-term projections of the Norwegian energy demand as a two-step methodology of first using activities and intensities to calculate a demand of energy services, and secondly use this as input to the energy system model TIMES-Norway to optimize the Norwegian energy system. Long-term energy demand projections are uncertain and the purpose of this paper is to illustrate the impact of different projections on the energy system. The results of the analyses show that decreased energy demand results in a higher renewable fraction compared to an increased demand, and the renewable energy production increases with increased energy demand. The most profitable solution to cover increased demand is to increase the use of bio energy and to implement energy efficiency measures. To increase the wind power production, an increased renewable target or higher electricity export prices have to be fulfilled, in combination with more electricity export. - Highlights: • Projections to 2050 of Norwegian energy demand services, carriers and technologies. • Energy demand services calculated based on intensities and activities. • Energy carriers and technologies analysed by TIMES-Norway. • High renewable target results in more wind power production and electricity export. • Increased energy efficiency is important for a high renewable fraction

  18. Tool life and cutting speed for the maximum productivity at the drilling of the stainless steel X22CrMoV12-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlase, A.; Blăjină, O.; Iacob, M.; Darie, V.

    2015-11-01

    Two addressed issues in the research regarding the cutting machinability, establishing of the optimum cutting processing conditions and the optimum cutting regime, do not yet have sufficient data for solving. For this reason, in the paper it is proposed the optimization of the tool life and the cutting speed at the drilling of a certain stainless steel in terms of the maximum productivity. For this purpose, a nonlinear programming mathematical model to maximize the productivity at the drilling of the steel is developed in the paper. The optimum cutting tool life and the associated cutting tool speed are obtained by solving the numerical mathematical model. Using this proposed model allows increasing the accuracy in the prediction of the productivity for the drilling of a certain stainless steel and getting the optimum tool life and the optimum cutting speed for the maximum productivity. The results presented in this paper can be used in the production activity, in order to increase the productivity of the stainless steels machining. Also new research directions for the specialists in this interested field may come off from this paper.

  19. Energy use in citrus production of Mazandaran province in Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total energy requirement under citrus farming was 17,112.2 MJ ha-1, whereas 36.3 and 33.62% was consumed due to fertilisers and pesticides, respectively. Renewable energy was about 12% of total energy input. The energy ratio, productivities, specific and net energy gain were 1.71, 0.905, 1.104 and 12,251.4 MJ ...

  20. 24 Energy production and financial analysis of photovoltaic energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernabé Marí Soucase

    ISSN 1813-548X, http://www.afriquescience.info. Inmaculada ... returns of the electricity production is calculated by using capital budgeting techniques. It is demonstrated ... into account in order to assess the profitability of the investment.

  1. Maruhn-Greiner Maximum of Uranium Fission for Confirmation of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions LENR via a Compound Nucleus with Double Magic Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hora, H.; Miley, G. H.

    2007-12-01

    One of the most convincing facts about LENR due to deuterons of very high concentration in host metals as palladium is the measurement of the large scale minimum of the reaction probability depending on the nucleon number A of generated elements at A = 153 where a local maximum was measured. This is similar to the fission of uranium at A = 119 where the local maximum follows from the Maruhn-Greiner theory if the splitting nuclei are excited to about MeV energy. The LENR generated elements can be documented any time after the reaction by SIMS or K-shell X-ray excitation to show the very unique distribution with the local maximum. An explanation is based on the strong Debye screening of the Maxwellian deuterons within the degenerate rigid electron background especially within the swimming electron layer at the metal surface or at interfaces. The deuterons behave like neutrals at distances of about 2 picometers. They may form clusters due to soft attraction in the range above thermal energy. Clusters of 10 pm diameter may react over long time probabilities (megaseconds) with Pd nuclei leading to a double magic number compound nucleus which splits like in fission to the A = 153 element distribution.

  2. Calendar Year 2008 Program Benefits for ENERGY STAR Labeled Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homan, GregoryK; Sanchez, Marla; Brown, RichardE; Lai, Judy

    2010-08-24

    This paper presents current and projected savings for ENERGY STAR labeled products, and details the status of the model as implemented in the September 2009 spreadsheets. ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency labeling program operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices. Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products, and currently labels more than thirty products, spanning office equipment, heating, cooling and ventilation equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with stakeholders. This report presents savings estimates for ENERGY STAR labeled products. We present estimates of energy, dollar, and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2008, annual forecasts for 2009 and 2010, and cumulative savings estimates for the period 1993 through 2008 and cumulative forecasts for the period 2009 through 2015. Through 2008 the program saved 8.8 Quads of primary energy and avoided the equivalent of 158 metric tones carbon (MtC). The forecast for the period 2009-2015 is 18.1 Quads or primary energy saved and 316 MtC emissions avoided. The sensitivity analysis bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 104 MtC and 213 MtC (1993 to 2008) and between 206 MtC and 444 MtC (2009 to 2015). In this report we address the following questions for ENERGY STAR labeled products: (1) How are ENERGY STAR impacts quantified; (2) What are the ENERGY STAR achievements; and (3) What are the limitations to our method?

  3. Evaluation of electrical energy production patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, F.; Graziani, G.; Zanantoni, C.

    1975-06-01

    The main features and typical applications of the code TOTEM, developed by the CCR under request of DG XVII are described. The code is used to evaluate the physical and economical consequences of electrical power station installation policies. The input data are: the time-dependent electrical energy demand and its load duration curve, the physical and economical characteristics of the power stations, and the splitting of the energy between the various types of stations, apart from the energy produced by a plutonium burner and plutonium producer, which is calculated by the code. The output includes; costs, fuel consumption, separative work requirements

  4. Nanoenergy Nanotechnology Applied for Energy Production

    CERN Document Server

    Leite, Edson

    2013-01-01

    Low dimensional systems have revolutionized the science and technology in several areas. However, their understanding is still a great challenge for the scientific community. Solar energy conversion devices based on nanostructured materials have shown exceptional gains in efficiency and stability. In this context, nanostructures allow an improvement of surface properties, transport and charge transfer, as well as direct application as sensors and storage devices and energy conversion. This book discuss the recent advances and future trends of the nanoscience in solar energy conversion and storage. It explores and discusses recent developments both in theory as well as in experimental studies and is of interest to materials scientists, chemists, physicists and engineers.

  5. Energy production on farms. Sustainability of energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zeijts, H.

    1995-01-01

    In this article the results of a study on sustainability of energy crops are discussed. Contribution to the reduction of the greenhouse effect and other environmental effects were investigated for the Netherlands. The study assumed that energy crops are grown on set-aside land or grain land. Generating electricity and/or heat from hemp, reed, miscanthus, poplar and willow show the best prospects. These crops are sustainable and may in the future be economically feasible. Ethanol from winter wheat shows the most favourable environmental effects, but is not economically efficient. Liquid fuels from oil seed rape and sugar beet are not very sustainable. 2 tabs., 4 refs

  6. Studies of meson production at SIS energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartnack, Ch.; David, Ch.; Aichelin, J.

    1996-01-01

    IQMD results on kaon and pion data are presented. The influence of the equation of state and of the elementary kaon cross sections on the excitation function and on the system size dependence is analyzed. Effects of density dependent threshold reductions for the production of positive and negative kaons are studied. The influence of the Delta lifetime on the pion production is discussed. (author)

  7. Bacterial and phytoplankton production in the maximum turbidity zone of three European estuaries: the Elbe, Westerschelde and Gironde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosen, N.K.; Kromkamp, J.C.; Peene, J.; Van Rijswijk, P.; Van Breugel, P.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass and production of phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria in spring are presented for three turbid European estuaries, the Elbe (Germany), the Westerschelde (The Netherlands) and the Gironde (France), with emphasis on the effect of turbidity on microbial community densities and activities.

  8. Productivity and Energy Expenditure by Sawyers When Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, based on overall results it is concluded that, the PLSP is technically more appropriate technology or method for reducing energy expenditure and for increasing productivity during timber harvesting in agroforestry farms. Keywords: Productivity, Energy expenditure, Pitsawing and Portable log sawing. Rwanda ...

  9. Power production with direct energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochau, G.; Lipinski, R.; Polansky, G.; Seidel, D.; Slutz, S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Morrow, C. [Morrow Consulting, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anghaie, S. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States); Beller, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Brown, L. [General Atomic Co., San Diego, CA (United States); Parish, T. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2001-07-01

    The direct energy conversion (DEC) project has as its main goal the development of a direct energy conversion process suitable for commercial development. We define direct energy conversion as any fission process that returns usable energy without using an intermediate thermal process. During the first phase of study, nine different concepts were investigated and 3 were selected: 1) quasi-spherical magnetically insulated fission electrode cell, 2) fission fragment magnetic collimator, and 3) gaseous core reactor with MHD generator. Selection was based on efficiency and feasibility. The realization of their potential requires an investment in both technically and commercially oriented research. The DEC project has a process in place to take one of these concepts forward and to outline the road map for further development. (A.C.)

  10. Power production with direct energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochau, G.; Lipinski, R.; Polansky, G.; Seidel, D.; Slutz, S.; Morrow, C.; Anghaie, S.; Beller, D.; Brown, L.; Parish, T.

    2001-01-01

    The direct energy conversion (DEC) project has as its main goal the development of a direct energy conversion process suitable for commercial development. We define direct energy conversion as any fission process that returns usable energy without using an intermediate thermal process. During the first phase of study, nine different concepts were investigated and 3 were selected: 1) quasi-spherical magnetically insulated fission electrode cell, 2) fission fragment magnetic collimator, and 3) gaseous core reactor with MHD generator. Selection was based on efficiency and feasibility. The realization of their potential requires an investment in both technically and commercially oriented research. The DEC project has a process in place to take one of these concepts forward and to outline the road map for further development. (A.C.)

  11. Problems of environment pollution in energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyberk, Oe.

    2000-01-01

    This publication relates to nuclear fuel cycle and environment, nuclear accidents, risk analysis, test of nuclear weapon, security problems of nuclear power plants, advantages and disadvantages of energy sources, climate variation due to environment pollution

  12. Study on the detached house plan using of a maximum natural energy. Part 1; Shizen energy fukugo riyo no keikaku ni kansuru kenkyu. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, I; Mino, M; Miyata, T; Okawa, M [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The geographical position or environment is set on the assumption that the natural energy of a detached house is used in a hybrid state. Moreover, the energy consumption of the house and the natural energy supply obtained from the geographical position were compared and investigated. As a result, the energy consumption is 10,617 kWh, and the energy supply is 8,236 kWh. About 78% of the whole consumption can be theoretically made from natural energy. The energy supply is calculated on the low side during prediction. Therefore, an increase in the energy supply is expected by installing a solar collector based on solar energy, expanding the solar panel area, and increasing the number of wind mills. However, this energy is partially lost via an inverter while it is supplied to the general domestic equipment. At the six main points in Tokyo and its districts, the adaptability of natural energy used based on the regional characteristics is investigated presently and the installation of a system is examined. 13 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. The role of energy policy in agricultural biogas energy production in Visegrad countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chodkowska-Miszczuk Justyna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy production by agricultural biogas plants has recently recorded considerable growth in Visegrad countries. The development was enhanced by European Union’s efforts to increase the proportion of energy produced from renewable sources. The paper aims to assess the role of energy policy in the development of agricultural biogas energy production in Visegrad region. Conducted studies have shown that among various forms of support for energy production from renewable energy sources, the price system prevails, including the support by feed in tariffs and bonuses. Feed in tariffs were adopted in Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia. Another kind of support system – a quota system – was adopted in Poland, what includes tendering and certificate systems. The results confirm the adoption of legal framework was necessary step to enable agricultural biogas energy production in Visegrad countries, but itself it was not enough to stimulate development of agricultural biogas energy production significantly. Rapid development in each country was recorded only after the certain financial support systems took effect, what made production of agricultural biogas energy economically efficient for investors. The production of energy from agricultural biogas grew the most in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, where the financial support was the highest. Nevertheless, the protracted process of changes in legal framework and transformation of energy policy, certain measures including state-controlled price-making systems, risk regarding with auction system might hamper agricultural biogas energy production further development.

  14. 24 Energy production and financial analysis of photovoltaic energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernabé Marí Soucase

    A techno-economic analysis has been used for project cost control, ... First of all, we defined Cash Flow as movements of money in and out of any ... cost of electric energy in Côte d'Ivoire for the common use of families and small companies [9].

  15. The power of design product innovation in sustainable energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Reinders, Angele H; Brezet, Han

    2012-01-01

    The Power of Design offers an introduction and a practical guide to product innovation, integrating the key topics that are necessary for the design of sustainable and energy-efficient products using sustainable energy technologies. Product innovation in sustainable energy technologies is an interdisciplinary field. In response to its growing importance and the need for an integrated view on the development of solutions, this text addresses the functional principles of various energy technologies next to the latest design processes and innovation methods. From the perspec

  16. Energy constraints and organizational change in US production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    There is still considerable uncertainty about the way in which energy-supply constraints affect industrial thinking and activity. Yet, this is an important issue in determining the effectiveness of conservation programs and in formulating energy policy. The authors expand on a survey of US business attitudes and responses to energy constraints first published in the September 1979 Energy Policy with the results of further analysis of their survey. In particular, they examine correlations between perceived causes and preferred solutions of energy problems, organizational adjustments to energy constraints in energy-intensive industries, and the ways in which production operations have changed in response to supply problems. 5 references, 5 tables.

  17. High energy gamma-ray production in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinston, J.A.; Nifenecker, H.; Nifenecker, H.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental techniques used to study high energy gamma-ray production in nuclear reactions are reviewed. High energy photon production in nucleus-nucleus collisions is discussed. Semi-classical descriptions of the nucleus-nucleus gamma reactions are introduced. Nucleon-nucleon gamma cross sections are considered, including theoretical aspects and experimental data. High energy gamma ray production in proton-nucleus reactions is explained. Theoretical explanations of photon emission in nucleus-nucleus collisions are treated. The contribution of charged pion currents to photon production is mentioned

  18. Energy accounting of materials, products, processes and services. [Ten papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbraeck, A [ed.

    1976-01-01

    Ten papers were presented, namely: Units in Energy Accounting--How Are They Defined, How Are They Measured, by Dr. Malcolm Slesser; Economics of Energy Analysis, by Dr. Thomas Veach Long II; Energy Considerations in Synthetic and Natural Fibers, by Mr. A. H. Woodhead; Energy Accounting in Food Products, by Mr. Gerald Leach; Energy Analysis of Transportation Systems, by Dr. E. J. Tuininga; Energy Accounting of Packaging Materials for Liquids and Their Transport viz Bottles and Pipes, by Mr. A. Bolzinger; Energy Accounting of Steel, by Dr. A. Decker; Energy Accounting of Aluminium, by Dr. D. Altenpohl, T. S. Daugherty, and W. Blum; Energy Requirement of Some Energy Sources, by Dr. P. F. Chapman and Dr. D. F. Hemming; Energy Analysis of Materials and Structures in the Building Industry, by Professor Dr. P. C. Kreijger. A panel discussion in response to a large number of questions was chaired by Professor Dr. W. van Gool. (MCW)

  19. Net energy yield from production of conventional oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, Michael; Krumdieck, Susan; Bodger, Pat

    2011-01-01

    Historic profitability of bringing oil to market was profound, but most easy oil has been developed. Higher cost resources, such as tar sands and deep off-shore, are considered the best prospects for the future. Economic modelling is currently used to explore future price scenarios commensurate with delivering fuel to market. Energy policy requires modelling scenarios capturing the complexity of resource and extraction aspects as well as the economic profitability of different resources. Energy-return-on-investment (EROI) expresses the profitability of bringing energy products to the market. Net energy yield (NEY) is related to the EROI. NEY is the amount of energy less expenditures necessary to deliver a fuel to the market. This paper proposes a pattern for EROI of oil production, based on historic oil development trends. Methodology and data for EROI is not agreed upon. The proposed EROI function is explored in relation to the available data and used to attenuate the International Energy Agency (IEA) world oil production scenarios to understand the implications of future declining EROI on net energy yield. The results suggest that strategies for management and mitigation of deleterious effects of a peak in oil production are more urgent than might be suggested by analyses focussing only on gross production. - Highlights: → Brief introduction to methodological issues concerning net energy analysis. → Description of EROI function over the whole production cycle of an energy resource. → Calibration of this function to EROI data from historic oil production. → Application to determine the net energy yield from current global oil production. → Calculation of net energy yield from IEA projections of future oil production.

  20. Sensible use of primary energy in organic greenhouse production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanghellini, C.; Baptista, F.; Eriksson, Evert; Gilli, Celine; Giuffrida, F.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Munoz, P.; Stepowska, Agnieszka; Montero, J.I.

    2016-01-01

    Review of the major sources for energy consumption in organic greenhouse horticulture and analyse of the options available to reduce energy consumption or, at least, increase the energy use efficiency of organic production in greenhouses. At the moment, the best way to match demand and availability

  1. Calendar Year 2009 Program Benefits for ENERGY STAR Labeled Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homan, Gregory K; Sanchez, Marla C.; Brown, Richard E.

    2010-11-15

    ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency labeling program operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices. Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products, and currently labels more than thirty products, spanning office equipment, heating, cooling and ventilation equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with stakeholders. This report presents savings estimates from the use ENERGY STAR labeled products. We present estimates of energy, dollar, and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2009, annual forecasts for 2010 and 2011, and cumulative savings estimates for the period 1993 through 2009 and cumulative forecasts for the period 2010 through 2015. Through 2009 the program saved 9.5 Quads of primary energy and avoided the equivalent of 170 million metric tons carbon (MMTC). The forecast for the period 2009-2015 is 11.5 Quads or primary energy saved and 202 MMTC emissions avoided. The sensitivity analysis bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 110 MMTC and 231 MMTC (1993 to 2009) and between 130 MMTC and 285 MMTC (2010 to 2015).

  2. Energy efficiency improvement target for SIC 34 - fabricated metal products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrer, T. G.; Billhardt, C. F.; Farkas, M. S.

    1977-03-15

    A March 15, 1977 revision of a February 15, 1977 document on the energy improvement target for the Fabricated Metal Products industry (SIC 34) is presented. A net energy savings in 1980 of 24% as compared with 1972 energy consumption in SIC 34 is considered a realistic goal. (ERA citation 04:045008)

  3. Biomass energy production in agriculture: A weighted goal programming analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballarin, A.; Vecchiato, D.; Tempesta, T.; Marangon, F.; Troiano, S.

    2011-01-01

    Energy production from biomasses can be an important resource that, when combined with other green energies such as wind power and solar plants, can contribute to reduce dependency on fossil fuels. The aim of this study is to assess how agriculture could contribute to the production of bio-energy. A multi-period Weighted Goal Programming model (MpWGP) has been applied to identify the optimal land use combinations that simultaneously maximise farmers' income and biomass energy production under three concurrent constraints: water, labour and soil availability. Alternative scenarios are considered that take into account the effect of climate change and social change. The MpWGP model was tested with data from the Rovigo county area (Italy) over a 15-year time period. Our findings show that trade-off exists between the two optimisation targets considered. Although the optimisation of the first target requires traditional agricultural crops, which are characterised by high revenue and a low production of biomass energy, the latter would be achievable with intensive wood production, namely, high-energy production and low income. Our results also show the importance of the constraints imposed, particularly water availability; water scarcity has an overall negative effect and specifically affects the level of energy production. - Research Highlights: → The aim of this study is to assess how agriculture could contribute to the production of bio-energy. → A multi-period (15-year) Weighted Goal Programming model (MpWGP) has been applied. → We identify the optimal land use combinations that simultaneously maximise farmers' income and biomass energy production. → Three concurrent constraints have been considered: water, labour and soil availability.→ Water scarcity has an overall negative effect and specifically affects the level of energy production.

  4. Application of controlled thermonuclear reactor fusion energy for food production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, M.

    1975-06-01

    Food and energy shortages in many parts of the world in the past two years raise an immediate need for the evaluation of energy input in food production. The present paper investigates systematically (1) the energy requirement for food production, and (2) the provision of controlled thermonuclear fusion energy for major energy intensive sectors of food manufacturing. Among all the items of energy input to the ''food industry,'' fertilizers, water for irrigation, food processing industries, such as beet sugar refinery and dough making and single cell protein manufacturing, have been chosen for study in detail. A controlled thermonuclear power reactor was used to provide electrical and thermal energy for all these processes. Conceptual design of the application of controlled thermonuclear power, water and air for methanol and ammonia synthesis and single cell protein production is presented. Economic analysis shows that these processes can be competitive. (auth)

  5. Energy analysis of solar photovoltaic module production in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, R.; Bansal, N.K.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate the energy consumption in solar photovoltaic (SPV) module production in India and examine its implications for large-scale introduction of SPV plants in the country. Data on energy used in SPV production were collected from existing manufacturing facilities in the country. The energy payback period turns out to be approximately 4 years. This is comparable to energy payback periods of similar modules produced internationally. However, if an ambitious program of introducing SPV power production is undertaken to contribute substantially to the power scenario in the country, an annual growth rate beyond 21% will render the program an energy sink rather than an energy source, as borne out by dynamic energy analysis. Policy implications are also discussed in light of this analysis

  6. Associated strangeness production at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saghai, B.

    1996-04-01

    Elementary strangeness production reactions with hadronic and electromagnetic probes are briefly reviewed. Some recent theoretical and experimental findings are underlined and a few open questions are singled out. (author)

  7. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Meibom, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy...... production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments...... and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO2 quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste...

  8. Multi-Train Energy Saving for Maximum Usage of Regenerative Energy by Dwell Time Optimization in Urban Rail Transit Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With its large capacity, the total urban rail transit energy consumption is very high; thus, energy saving operations are quite meaningful. The effective use of regenerative braking energy is the mainstream method for improving the efficiency of energy saving. This paper examines the optimization of train dwell time and builds a multiple train operation model for energy conservation of a power supply system. By changing the dwell time, the braking energy can be absorbed and utilized by other traction trains as efficiently as possible. The application of genetic algorithms is proposed for the optimization, based on the current schedule. Next, to validate the correctness and effectiveness of the optimization, a real case is studied. Actual data from the Beijing subway Yizhuang Line are employed to perform the simulation, and the results indicate that the optimization method of the dwell time is effective.

  9. Production of chemical energy carriers by non-expendable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsch, J

    1976-01-01

    The different forms of energy (radiation, high-temperature heat and electricity) arising from non-expendable energy sources like solar energy can be used for the production of chemical energy-carriers. Possible methods are the splitting of water by means of photolysis, thermochemical cycles and electrolysis, as well as the storage of energy in closed loop chemical systems. These methods are described and efficiencies and costs of the production of these energy carriers are specified. Special problems of the long-distance transportation of hydrogen produced by solar energy are described and the resulting costs are estimated.

  10. Next generation of energy production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouault, J.; Garnier, J.C.; Carre, F.

    2003-01-01

    This document gathers the slides that have been presented at the Gedepeon conference. Gedepeon is a research group involving scientists from Cea (French atomic energy commission), CNRS (national center of scientific research), EDF (electricity of France) and Framatome that is devoted to the study of new energy sources and particularly to the study of the future generations of nuclear systems. The contributions have been classed into 9 topics: 1) gas cooled reactors, 2) molten salt reactors (MSBR), 3) the recycling of plutonium and americium, 4) reprocessing of molten salt reactor fuels, 5) behavior of graphite under radiation, 6) metallic materials for molten salt reactors, 7) refractory fuels of gas cooled reactors, 8) the nuclear cycle for the next generations of nuclear systems, and 9) organization of research programs on the new energy sources

  11. Strategic environmental assessment for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Amongst the approaches that have developed to improve environmental protection within the energy sector, strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has received relatively little attention. This is despite its potential to overcome some of the shortcomings associated with project-level assessment by intervening at higher levels of energy system planning. In this article, a review is presented of the extent to which SEA has been adopted and otherwise promoted in strategic energy planning processes in a wide range of countries throughout the world (with an emphasis on European Union nations). In this regard, the growing importance of regulatory compliance is underlined, especially within the EU, with a particular focus upon the application of SEA to grid systems. The case of the Belgian transmission system is described, illustrating a proactive approach to SEA. But the difficulties inherent in introducing SEA to an increasingly fragmented and liberalised sector are also drawn out, leading to suggestions by which these difficulties may be addressed.

  12. Simulation Tool For Energy Consumption and Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nysteen, Michael; Mynderup, Henrik; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    In order to promote adoption of smart grid with the general public it is necessary to be able to visualize the benefits of a smart home. Software tools that model the effects can help significantly with this. However, only little work has been done in the area of simulating and visualizing...... the energy consumption in smart homes. This paper presents a prototype simulation tool that allows graphical modeling of a home. Based on the modeled homes the user is able to simulate the energy consumptions and compare scenarios. The simulations are based on dynamic weather and energy price data as well...... as well as appliances and other electrical components used in the modeled homes....

  13. The Prospects of Rubberwood Biomass Energy Production in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegatheswaran Ratnasingam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rubber has been shown to be one of the most important plantation crops in Malaysia, and rubber tree biomass has widespread applications in almost all sectors of the wood products manufacturing sector. Despite its abundance, the exploitation of rubberwood biomass for energy generation is limited when compared to other available biomass such as oil palm, rice husk, cocoa, sugarcane, coconut, and other wood residues. Furthermore, the use of biomass for energy generation is still in its early stages in Malaysia, a nation still highly dependent on fossil fuels for energy production. The constraints for large scale biomass energy production in Malaysia are the lack of financing for such projects, the need for large investments, and the limited research and development activities in the sector of efficient biomass energy production. The relatively low cost of energy in Malaysia, through the provision of subsidy, also restricts the potential utilization of biomass for energy production. In order to fully realize the potential of biomass energy in Malaysia, the environmental cost must be factored into the cost of energy production.

  14. Algae production for energy and foddering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Attila; Jobbagy, Peter; Durko, Emilia [University of Debrecen, Faculty of Applied Economics and Rural Development (UD-FAERD), Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2011-09-15

    This study not only presents the results of our own experiments in alga production, but also shows the expected economic results of the various uses of algae (animal feed, direct burning, pelleting, bio-diesel production), the technical characteristics of a new pelleting method based on literature, and also our own recommended alga production technology. In our opinion, the most promising alternative could be the production of alga species with high levels of oil content, which are suitable for utilization as by-products for animal feed and in the production of bio-diesel, as well as for use in waste water management and as a flue gas additive. Based on the data from our laboratory experiments, of the four species we analyzed, Chlorella vulgaris should be considered the most promising species for use in large-scale experiments. Taking expenses into account, our results demonstrate that the use of algae for burning technology purposes results in a significant loss under the current economic conditions; however, the utilization of algae for feeding and bio-diesel purposes - in spite of their innovative nature - is nearing the level needed for competitiveness. By using the alga production technology recommended by us and described in the present study in detail, with an investment of 545 to 727 thousand EUR/ha, this technology should be able to achieve approximately 0-29 thousand EUR/ha net income, depending on size. More favorable values emerge in the case of the 1-ha (larger) size, thanks to the significant savings on fixed costs (depreciation and personnel costs). (orig.)

  15. Utilization of solar and nuclear energy for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, M.

    1987-01-01

    Although the world-wide energy supply situation appears to have eased at present, non-fossil primary energy sources and hydrogen as a secondary energy carrier will have to take over a long-term and increasing portion of the energy supply system. The only non-fossil energy sources which are available in relevant quantities, are nuclear energy, solar energy and hydropower. The potential of H 2 for the extensive utilization of solar energy is of particular importance. Status, progress and development potential of the electrolytic H 2 production with photovoltaic generators, solar-thermal power plants and nuclear power plants are studied and discussed. The joint German-Saudi Arabian Research, Development and Demonstration Program HYSOLAR for the solar hydrogen production and utilization is summarized. (orig.)

  16. Sustainable Production of Switchgrass for Biomass Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a C4 grass native to the North American tallgrass prairies, which historically extended from Mexico to Canada. It is the model perennial warm-season grass for biomass energy. USDA-ARS in Lincoln, NE has studied switchgrass continuously since 1936. Plot-scale rese...

  17. Hydrogen - From hydrogen to energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    More than a century ago, Jules Verne wrote in 'The Mysterious Island' that water would one day be employed as fuel: 'Hydrogen and oxygen, which constitute it, used singly or together, will furnish an inexhaustible source of heat and light'. Today, the 'water motor' is not entirely the dream of a writer. Fiction is about to become fact thanks to hydrogen, which can be produced from water and when burned in air itself produces water. Hydrogen is now at the heart of international research. So why do we have such great expectations of hydrogen? 'Hydrogen as an energy system is now a major challenge, both scientifically and from an environmental and economic point of view'. Dominated as it is by fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal), our current energy system has left a dual threat hovering over our environment, exposing the planet to the exhaustion of its natural reserves and contributing to the greenhouse effect. If we want sustainable development for future generations, it is becoming necessary to diversify our methods of producing energy. Hydrogen is not, of course, a source of energy, because first it has to be produced. But it has the twofold advantage of being both inexhaustible and non-polluting. So in the future, it should have a very important role to play. (author)

  18. The 2004 production of renewable energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    This presentation offers a state of the art of the production of all types of renewable energies, taking into account the primary electric power connected or not the the network. The first chart concerns the primary production, the second the available electric and thermal productions. (A.L.B.)

  19. Energy-Performance as a driver for optimal production planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salahi, Niloofar; Jafari, Mohsen A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A 2-dimensional Energy-Performance measure is proposed for energy aware production. • This is a novel approach integrates energy efficiency with production requirements. • This approach simultaneously incorporates machine and process related specifications. • The problem is solved as stochastic MILP with constraints addressing risk averseness. • The optimization is illustrated for 2 cases of single and serial machining operation. • Impact of various electricity pricing schemes on proposed production plan is analyzed. - Abstract: In this paper, we present energy-aware production planning using a two-dimensional “Energy-Performance” measure. With this measure, the production plan explicitly takes into account machine-level requirements, process control strategies, product types and demand patterns. The “Energy-Performance” measure is developed based on an existing concept, namely, “Specific Energy” at machine level. It is further expanded to an “Energy-Performance” profile for a production line. A production planning problem is formulated as a stochastic MILP with risk-averse constraints to account for manufacturer’s risk averseness. The objective is to attain an optimal production plan that minimizes the total loss distribution subject to system throughput targets, probabilistic risk constraints and constraints imposed by the underlying “Energy-Performance” pattern. Electricity price and demand per unit time are assumed to be stochastic. Conditional Value at Risk (CVaR) of loss distributions is used as the manufacturer’s risk measure. Both single-machine and production lines are studied for different profiles and electricity pricing schemes. It is shown that the shape of “Energy-Performance” profile can change optimal plans.

  20. Present status of research on hydrogen energy and perspective of HTGR hydrogen production system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Ogawa, Masuro; Akino, Norio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-03-01

    A study was performed to make a clear positioning of research and development on hydrogen production systems with a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) under currently promoting at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute through a grasp of the present status of hydrogen energy, focussing on its production and utilization as an energy in future. The study made clear that introduction of safe distance concept for hydrogen fire and explosion was practicable for a HTGR hydrogen production system, including hydrogen properties and need to provide regulations applying to handle hydrogen. And also generalization of hydrogen production processes showed technical issues of the HTGR system. Hydrogen with HTGR was competitive to one with fossil fired system due to evaluation of production cost. Hydrogen is expected to be used as promising fuel of fuel cell cars in future. In addition, the study indicated that there were a large amount of energy demand alternative to high efficiency power generation and fossil fuel with nuclear energy through the structure of energy demand and supply in Japan. Assuming that hydrogen with HTGR meets all demand of fuel cell cars, an estimation would show introduction of the maximum number of about 30 HTGRs with capacity of 100 MWt from 2020 to 2030. (author)

  1. Validation of calculated tissue maximum ratio obtained from measured percentage depth dose (PPD) data for high energy photon beam ( 6 MV and 15 MV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osei, J.E.

    2014-07-01

    During external beam radiotherapy treatments, high doses are delivered to the cancerous cell. Accuracy and precision of dose delivery are primary requirements for effective and efficiency in treatment. This leads to the consideration of treatment parameters such as percentage depth dose (PDD), tissue air ratio (TAR) and tissue phantom ratio (TPR), which show the dose distribution in the patient. Nevertheless, tissue air ratio (TAR) for treatment time calculation, calls for the need to measure in-air-dose rate. For lower energies, measurement is not a problem but for higher energies, in-air measurement is not attainable due to the large build-up material required for the measurement. Tissue maximum ratio (TMR) is the quantity required to replace tissue air ratio (TAR) for high energy photon beam. It is known that tissue maximum ratio (TMR) is an important dosimetric function in radiotherapy treatment. As the calculation methods used to determine tissue maximum ratio (TMR) from percentage depth dose (PDD) were derived by considering the differences between TMR and PDD such as geometry and field size, where phantom scatter or peak scatter factors are used to correct dosimetric variation due to field size difference. The purpose of this study is to examine the accuracy of calculated tissue maximum ratio (TMR) data with measured TMR values for 6 MV and 15 MV photon beam at Sweden Ghana Medical Centre. With the help of the Blue motorize water phantom and the Omni pro-Accept software, Pdd values from which TMRs are calculated were measured at 100 cm source-to-surface distance (SSD) for various square field sizes from 5x5 cm to 40x40 cm and depth of 1.5 cm to 25 cm for 6 MV and 15 MV x-ray beam. With the same field sizes, depths and energies, the TMR values were measured. The validity of the calculated data was determined by making a comparison with values measured experimentally at some selected field sizes and depths. The results show that; the reference depth of maximum

  2. A climate-change policy induced shift from innovations in carbon-energy production to carbon-energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlagh, Reyer

    2008-01-01

    We develop an endogenous growth model with capital, labor and carbon-energy as production factors and three technology variables that measure accumulated innovations for carbon-energy production, carbon-energy savings, and neutral growth. All markets are complete and perfect, except for research, for which we assume that the marginal social benefits exceed the marginal private benefits by factor four. The model constants are calibrated so that the model reproduces the relevant global trends over the 1970-2000 period. The model contains a simple climate module, and is used to assess the impact of Induced Technological Change (ITC) for a policy that aims at a maximum level of atmospheric CO 2 concentration (450 ppmv). ITC is shown to reduce the required carbon tax by more than a factor 2, and to reduce costs of such a policy by half. When we do not constrain aggregate R and D expenditures to benchmark levels, costs are further reduced. Numerical simulations show that knowledge accumulation shifts from energy production to energy saving technology. We discuss reasons for differences between our results and earlier results reported in the literature. (author)

  3. Energy and Production Planning for Process Industry Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Waldemarsson, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This thesis addresses industrial energy issues from a production economic perspective. During the past decade, the energy issue has become more important, partly due to rising energy prices in general, but also from a political pressure on environmental awareness concerning the problems with climate change. As a large user of energy the industry sector is most likely responsible for a lot of these problems. Things need to change and are most likely to do so considering current and assumed fut...

  4. White Paper on Energy Efficiency Status of Energy-Using Products in China (2011)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This White Paper focuses on the areas and products involved in the above tasks, based on the White Paper - Energy Efficiency Status of Energy-Using Products in China (2010), here referred to as “White Paper 2010”, which analyzed the energy efficiency status of 21 typical energy-using products in five sectors: household appliances, office equipment, commercial equipment, industrial equipment, and lighting equipment. Table 1 illustrates the detailed product coverage for this year’s paper, noting the addition of three household appliance items (automatic electric rice cooker, AC electric fan, and household induction cooktop) and one industrial sector item (three-phase distribution transformer).

  5. Water Use of Fossil Energy Production and Supply in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fossil energy and water resources are both important for economic and social development in China, and they are tightly interlinked. Fossil energy production consumes large amounts of water, and it is essential to investigate the water footprint of fossil energy production (WFEP in China. In addition, fossil energy is supplied to consumers in China by both domestic and foreign producers, and understanding the water footprint of fossil energy supply (WFES is also highly significant for water and energy development programs in the long-term. The objectives of this paper were to provide an estimation of the blue component of WFEP and WFES in China for the period from 2001 to 2014, and to evaluate the impact on water resources from energy production, the contribution of internal and external WFES, and water-energy related issues of the international energy trade by applying water footprint analysis based on the bottom-up approach. The results indicate that generally, the WFEP and WFES in China both maintained steady growth before 2013, with the WFEP increasing from approximately 3900 million m3/year to 10,400 million m3/year, while the WFES grew from 3900 million m3/year to 11,600 million m3/year. The fossil energy production caps of the 13th Five Year Plan can bring the water consumed for fossil energy production back to a sustainable level. Over the long-term, China’s energy trade plan should also consider the water and energy resources of the countries from which fossil energy is imported.

  6. Energy requirement and economic analysis of citrus production in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Burhan E-mail: bozkan@akdeniz.edu.tr; Akcaoz, Handan; Karadeniz, Feyza

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the energy requirements of the inputs and output in citrus production in the Antalya province of Turkey. Data for the production of citrus fruits (orange, lemon and mandarin) were collected from 105 citrus farms by using a face to face questionnaire method. The research results revealed that lemon production was the most energy intensive among the three fruits investigated. The energy input of chemical fertilizer (49.68%), mainly nitrogen, has the biggest share in the total energy inputs followed by Diesel (30.79%). The lemon production consumed a total of 62 977.87 MJ/ha followed by orange and mandarin with 60 949.69 and 48 838.17 MJ/ha, respectively. The energy ratios for orange, mandarin and lemon were estimated to be 1.25, 1.17 and 1.06, respectively. On average, the non-renewable form of energy input was 95.90% of the total energy input used in citrus production compared to only 3.74% for the renewable form. The benefit-cost ratio was the highest in orange production (2.37) followed by lemon. The results indicate that orange production in the research area is most remunerative to growers compared to lemon and mandarin.

  7. Estimating climatological variability of solar energy production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juruš, Pavel; Eben, Kryštof; Resler, Jaroslav; Krč, Pavel; Kasanický, Ivan; Pelikán, Emil; Brabec, Marek; Hošek, Jiří

    98 Part C, December (2013), s. 255-264 ISSN 0038-092X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12009 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:68378289 Keywords : MERRA * reanalysis * numerical weather prediction * photovoltaic power production Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.541, year: 2013

  8. Affordability for sustainable energy development products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Clean cookstoves that also generate electricity improve affordability. • Excel spreadsheet model to assist stakeholders to choose optimum technology. • Presents views for each stakeholder villager, village and country. • By adding certain capital costs, affordability and sustainability are improved. • Affordability is highly dependent on carbon credits and social understandings. - Abstract: Clean burning products, for example cooking stoves, can reduce household air pollution (HAP), which prematurely kills 3.5 million people each year. By careful selection of components into a product package with micro-finance used for the capital payment, barriers to large-scale uptake of products that remove HAP are reduced. Such products reduce smoke from cooking and the lighting from electricity produced, eliminates smoke from kerosene lamps. A bottom-up financial model, that is cognisant of end user social needs, has been developed to compare different products for use in rural areas of developing countries. The model is freely available for use by researchers and has the ability to assist in the analysis of changing assumptions. Business views of an individual villager, the village itself and a country view are presented. The model shows that affordability (defined as the effect on household expenses as a result of a product purchase) and recognition of end-user social needs are as important as product cost. The effects of large-scale deployment (greater that 10 million per year) are described together with level of subsidy required by the poorest people. With the assumptions given, the model shows that pico-hydro is the most cost effective, but not generally available, one thermo-acoustic technology option does not require subsidy, but it is only at technology readiness level 2 (NASA definition) therefore costs are predicted and very large investment in manufacturing capability is needed to meet the cost target. Thermo-electric is currently the only

  9. DEPENDENCE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND COST OF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sklyarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic systems exist on condition of receipt and spending of energy. Energy consumption is a necessary condition for the existence and functioning of the economic systems of any scale: macroeconomics, microeconomics, regional economy or the world economy.The economic system operates on the scale at which it is able to produce energy and get access to energy. Moreover, receipt and consumption of energy in the operation of the economic system is mainly determined by, the level of energy production from energy sources, since this level is determined by the level of energy consumption by industries and enterprises of the economy.Currently, the economic system does not produce energy in reserve. Thus, the question of energy effi ciency and energy saving was always acute.The article describes the energy efficiency and energy saving effect on the cost of production. Were used two methods: “costs and release” matrix and “price - value added” matrix. The result is the equation of dependence of energy efficiency and costs.

  10. Investigation of Energy Indices and Energy Consumption Optimization for Peach Production- Case Study: Saman Region in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important conditions in sustainable agriculture, optimization of energy consumption in agriculture is necessary in order to reduce the production cost and saving non renewable resources as well as reduction of air pollutants. In this regard, this study was conducted in Saman region, Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province. A linear programming based on Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA was used for optimization of energy consumption in peach production in order to increase the technical efficiency. By performing a linear regression analysis, some inputs including animal fertilizer, pesticide, human labor and machinery had no significant influence on product yield, while some other inputs including fuel, electricity, water and chemical fertilizer showed a significant effect on the product yield. Therefore, the latter inputs and the product yield were considered as the inputs and output, respectively. Selecting the BCC model (efficiency to variable scale model of input nature and using DEA Solver software, efficient and inefficient farmers were determined. The efficient farmers had the technical efficiency of unit (one and the inefficient farmers had this value within 0.47-0.94. Also, the technical efficiency of inefficient farmers was computed as 0.74. This means that using 74% of the inputs and keeping the current yield, the inefficient farmers can approach to the efficiency limit. Total technical efficiency of all farmers was found to be 0.82. Based on the results, the maximum value of inefficiency belonged to electricity energy with 65.32%.

  11. An Integrated Approach to Water-Energy Nexus in Shale-Gas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhil Y. Al-Aboosi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Shale gas production is associated with significant usage of fresh water and discharge of wastewater. Consequently, there is a necessity to create proper management strategies for water resources in shale gas production and to integrate conventional energy sources (e.g., shale gas with renewables (e.g., solar energy. The objective of this study is to develop a design framework for integrating water and energy systems including multiple energy sources, the cogeneration process and desalination technologies in treating wastewater and providing fresh water for shale gas production. Solar energy is included to provide thermal power directly to a multi-effect distillation plant (MED exclusively (to be more feasible economically or indirect supply through a thermal energy storage system. Thus, MED is driven by direct or indirect solar energy and excess or direct cogeneration process heat. The proposed thermal energy storage along with the fossil fuel boiler will allow for the dual-purpose system to operate at steady-state by managing the dynamic variability of solar energy. Additionally, electric production is considered to supply a reverse osmosis plant (RO without connecting to the local electric grid. A multi-period mixed integer nonlinear program (MINLP is developed and applied to discretize the operation period to track the diurnal fluctuations of solar energy. The solution of the optimization program determines the optimal mix of solar energy, thermal storage and fossil fuel to attain the maximum annual profit of the entire system. A case study is solved for water treatment and energy management for Eagle Ford Basin in Texas.

  12. Energy productivity and efficiency of wheat farming in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Sanzidur; Hasan, M. Kamrul

    2014-01-01

    Wheat is the second most important cereal crop in Bangladesh and production is highly sensitive to variations in the environment. We estimate productivity and energy efficiency of wheat farming in Bangladesh by applying a stochastic production frontier approach while accounting for the environmental constraints affecting production. Wheat farming is energy efficient with a net energy balance of 20,596 MJ per ha and energy ratio of 2.34. Environmental constraints such as a combination of unsuitable land, weed and pest attack, bad weather, planting delay and infertile soils significantly reduce wheat production and its energy efficiency. Environmental constraints account for a mean energy efficiency of 3 percentage points. Mean technical efficiency is 88% thereby indicating that elimination of inefficiencies can increase wheat energy output by 12%. Farmers' education, access to agricultural information and training in wheat production significantly improves efficiency, whereas events such as a delay in planting and first fertilization significantly reduce it. Policy recommendations include development of varieties that are resistant to environmental constraints and suitable for marginal areas; improvement of wheat farming practices; and investments in education and training of farmers as well as dissemination of information. - Highlights: • Bangladesh wheat farming is energy efficient at 20,596 MJha −1 ; energy ratio 2.34. • Environmental factors significantly influence productivity and energy efficiency. • Environmental factors must be taken into account when estimating wheat productivity. • Government policies must focus on ways of alleviating environmental factors. • Farmers' education, training and information sources increase technical efficiency

  13. Energy conservation and maximal entropy production in enzyme reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobovišek, Andrej; Vitas, Marko; Brumen, Milan; Fajmut, Aleš

    2017-08-01

    A procedure for maximization of the density of entropy production in a single stationary two-step enzyme reaction is developed. Under the constraints of mass conservation, fixed equilibrium constant of a reaction and fixed products of forward and backward enzyme rate constants the existence of maximum in the density of entropy production is demonstrated. In the state with maximal density of entropy production the optimal enzyme rate constants, the stationary concentrations of the substrate and the product, the stationary product yield as well as the stationary reaction flux are calculated. The test, whether these calculated values of the reaction parameters are consistent with their corresponding measured values, is performed for the enzyme Glucose Isomerase. It is found that calculated and measured rate constants agree within an order of magnitude, whereas the calculated reaction flux and the product yield differ from their corresponding measured values for less than 20 % and 5 %, respectively. This indicates that the enzyme Glucose Isomerase, considered in a non-equilibrium stationary state, as found in experiments using the continuous stirred tank reactors, possibly operates close to the state with the maximum in the density of entropy production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The impact of energy prices on industrial energy efficiency and productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Energy prices moved into the forefront of concern in the mid and late seventies when two oil price shocks drove up energy prices dramatically. The analysis of the subsequent increase in industrial energy efficiency, i.e., decline in energy use per unit of industrial output, has filled volumes of government and private studies. Despite the volumes of analysis, there remains no consensus on the magnitude of the effect of energy prices on industrial energy efficiency or the effect of the change in energy prices on productivity. This paper examines some sources of the controversy to initiate a dialog between policy makers, analysts, and the energy consumers and producers

  15. Energy production using fission fragment rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapline, G.; Matsuda, Y.

    1991-08-01

    Fission fragment rockets are nuclear reactors with a core consisting of thin fibers in a vacuum, and which use magnetic fields to extract the fission fragments from the reactor core. As an alternative to ordinary nuclear reactors, fission fragment rockets would have the following advantages: Approximately twice as efficient if one can directly convert the fission fragment energy into electricity; by reducing the buildup of a fission fragment inventory in the reactor one could avoid a Chernobyl type disaster; and collecting the fission fragments outside the reactor could simplify the waste disposal problem. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Energy Production from Marine Biomass (Ulva lactuca)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolaisen, Lars; Daugbjerg Jensen, Peter; Svane Bech, Karin

    The background for this research activity is that the 2020 goals for reduction of the CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are so challenging that exorbitant amounts of biomass and other renewable sources of energy must be mobilised in order to – maybe – fulfil the ambitious 2020 goals. The macroalgae...... is an unexploited, not researched, not developed source of biomass and is at the same time an enormous resource by mass. It is therefore obvious to look into this vast biomass resource and by this report give some of the first suggestions of how this new and promising biomass resource can be exploited....

  17. Primary energy sources for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassmann, K.; Kuehne, H.-M.

    1993-01-01

    The cost of hydrogen from water electrolysis is estimated, assuming that the electricity was produced from solar, hydro-, fossil, or nuclear power. The costs for hydrogen end-use in the sectors of power generation, heat and transportation are calculated, based on a state-of-the-art technology and a more advanced technology expected to represent the state by the year 2010. The cost of hydrogen utilization (without energy taxes) is higher than the current price of fossil fuels (including taxes). Without restrictions imposed on fossil fuel consumption, hydrogen will not gain a significant market share in either of the cases discussed. (Author)

  18. Energy efficiency improvements in ammonia production--perspectives and uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiqul, Islam; Weber, Christoph; Lehmann, Bianca; Voss, Alfred

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the energy consumption and energy saving potential for a major energy-intensive product in the chemical industry-ammonia, based on technologies currently in use and possible process improvements. The paper consists of four parts. In the first part, mainly references to various ammonia production technologies are given. Energy consumption, emissions and saving potentials are discussed in the second part. Thereby, the situation in Europe, the US and India is highlighted and various data sources are compared. In the third part of the paper, a novel approach for modeling energy efficiency improvements is described that accounts for uncertainties and unobserved heterogeneity in the production processes. Besides new investments, revamping investments are also included in the modeling and the development of the production stock is accounted for. Finally, in the fourth part, this approach is applied to the modeling of energy efficiency improvements and CO 2 emission reductions in ammonia production. Thereby, considerable improvements in specific energy use and CO 2 emissions are found in the reference scenario, yet under the assumption of high oil and gas prices, a partial switch to coal based technologies is expected which lowers notably the CO 2 efficiency. Introduction of a CO 2 penalty under a certificate trading or other regime is on contrary found to foster energy efficiency and the use of low carbon technologies

  19. Report revision master: an energy analysis of consumer products packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This report serves as a foundation for quantifying the potential for energy conservation in the Canadian consumer products packaging sector. Investigation was made of energy consumption, waste management, and energy conservation potential in the various stages of the packaging and consumption process: raw material acquisition, material and packaging manufacture, package filling and distribution, consumer use, post-consumption options (energy recovery, disposal, recycling), and cleaning and transportation (if applicable) between each stage. The food and beverage industry was singled out as the most important sector because of its large consumption of packaging. Significant opportunities for energy conservation were found, although any savings accomplished through packaging changes appear to be difficult to implement. Packaging energy savings seem to be able to be achieved only through a product-by-product, industry-by-industry initiative by means of product and package standardization. An efficient example of this is the milk distribution system, where refillable plastic jugs require only 1.4 MBtu per 3000 quarts delivered (as compared with, for example, 68.9 MBtu for disposable aluminium soft drink cans). Other conclusions are made concerning the optimization of packaging energy, with respect to types of packaging, energy requirements related to use of packaged products, impact of government policies and of retailing techiques, consumer lifestyles, and the like. 95 refs., 3 figs., 54 tabs.

  20. 78 FR 79638 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Proposed Determination of Hearth Products as a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Proposed Determination of Hearth Products as a Covered Consumer... determined that hearth products qualify as a covered product under Part A of Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as amended. More specifically, DOE has tentatively determined that hearth...

  1. Toxic organic compounds from energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hites, R.A.

    1991-09-20

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) has supported work in our laboratory since 1977. The general theme of this program has been the identification of potentially toxic organic compounds associated with various combustion effluents, following the fates of these compounds in the environment, and improving the analytical methodology for making these measurements. The projects currently investigation include: an improved sampler for semi-volatile compounds in the atmosphere; the wet and dry deposition of dioxins and furans from the atmosphere; the photodegradation and mobile sources of dioxins and furans; and the bioaccumulation of PAH by tree bark. These projects are all responsive to OHER's interest in the pathways and mechanisms by which energy-related agents move through and are modified by the atmosphere''. The projects on gas chromatographic and liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry are both responsive to OHER's interest in new and more sensitive technologies for chemical measurements''. 35 refs., 9 figs.

  2. European energy security: The future of Norwegian natural gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederbergh, Bengt; Jakobsson, Kristofer; Aleklett, Kjell

    2009-01-01

    The European Union (EU) is expected to meet its future growing demand for natural gas by increased imports. In 2006, Norway had a 21% share of EU gas imports. The Norwegian government has communicated that Norwegian gas production will increase by 25-40% from today's level of about 99 billion cubic meters (bcm)/year. This article shows that only a 20-25% growth of Norwegian gas production is possible due to production from currently existing recoverable reserves and contingent resources. A high and a low production forecast for Norwegian gas production is presented. Norwegian gas production exported by pipeline peaks between 2015 and 2016, with minimum peak production in 2015 at 118 bcm/year and maximum peak production at 127 bcm/year in 2016. By 2030 the pipeline export levels are 94-78 bcm. Total Norwegian gas production peaks between 2015 and 2020, with peak production at 124-135 bcm/year. By 2030 the production is 96-115 bcm/year. The results show that there is a limited potential for increased gas exports from Norway to the EU and that Norwegian gas production is declining by 2030 in all scenarios. Annual Norwegian pipeline gas exports to the EU, by 2030, may even be 20 bcm lower than today's level.

  3. Energy production, nutrient recovery and greenhouse gas emission Potentials from Integrated Pig Manure Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prapaspongsa, Trakarn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2010-01-01

    of waste materials were considered. Data for the analyses were obtained from existing waste treatment facilities, experimental plants, laboratory measurements and literature. The assessment reveals that incineration combined with liquid/solid separation and drying of the solids is a promising management...... option yielding a high potential energy utilization rate and greenhouse gas savings. If maximum electricity production is desired, anaerobic digestion is advantageous as the biogas can be converted to electricity at high efficiency in a gas engine while allowing production of heat for operation...

  4. Icing Impacts on Wind Energy Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil

    was developed for the identification of icing periods from the turbine power data and the nacelle wind speeds. This method was based on the spread of power production observations at cold temperatures that was not seen during warmer periods. Using the insights gained through the observational analysis...... and the turbine power loss. The model took the shape of a hierarchal model that combined a decision tree model, based on the existence of ice on the turbine blade, and two Generalized Additive Models (GAM). The GAM for periods where icing was forecast was found to include the terms wind speed, total ice mass...

  5. Sustainable Algal Energy Production and Environmental Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, William E. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2012-07-14

    Overall, our results confirm that wild algal species sequester a wide range of organic and metal contaminants and excess nutrients (PAHs, trace metals, and nutrients) from natural waters, and suggest parameters that could be useful in predicting uptake rates for algae growing on an algal floway or other algal growth systems in the environment or in industrial processes. The implication for various fuel production processes differ with the detailed unit operations involved, and these results will be of use in the developing of scaling experiments for various types of engineering process designs.

  6. The forest products industry at an energy/climate crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Marilyn A.; Baek, Youngsun

    2010-01-01

    Transformational energy and climate policies are being debated worldwide that could have significant impact upon the future of the forest products industry. Because woody biomass can produce alternative transportation fuels, low-carbon electricity, and numerous other 'green' products in addition to traditional paper and lumber commodities, the future use of forest resources is highly uncertain. Using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), this paper assesses the future of the forest products industry under three possible U.S. policy scenarios: (1) a national renewable electricity standard, (2) a national policy of carbon constraints, and (3) incentives for industrial energy efficiency. In addition, we discuss how these policy scenarios might interface with the recently strengthened U.S. renewable fuels standards. The principal focus is on how forest products including residues might be utilized under different policy scenarios, and what such market shifts might mean for electricity and biomass prices, as well as energy consumption and carbon emissions. The results underscore the value of incentivizing energy efficiency in a portfolio of energy and climate policies in order to moderate electricity and biomass price escalation while strengthening energy security and reducing CO 2 emissions. - Research highlights: →Transformational energy and climate policies such as a national renewable electricity standard, a national policy of carbon constraints, and incentives for industrial energy efficiency could have significant impact upon the future of the forest products industry. →Each policy scenario reduces CO 2 emissions over time, compared to the business-as-usual forecast, with the carbon constrained policy producing the largest decline. As a package, the three policies together could cut CO 2 emissions from the electricity sector by an estimated 41% by 2030. →This study underscores the value of incentivizing energy efficiency in a portfolio of energy and

  7. Research on Energy-Saving Production Scheduling Based on a Clustering Algorithm for a Forging Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Tong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is a buzzword of the 21st century. With the ever growing need for energy efficient and low-carbon production, it is a big challenge for high energy-consumption enterprises to reduce their energy consumption. To this aim, a forging enterprise, DVR (the abbreviation of a forging enterprise, is researched. Firstly, an investigation into the production processes of DVR is given as well as an analysis of forging production. Then, the energy-saving forging scheduling is decomposed into two sub-problems. One is for cutting and machining scheduling, which is similar to traditional machining scheduling. The other one is for forging and heat treatment scheduling. Thirdly, former forging production scheduling is presented and solved based on an improved genetic algorithm. Fourthly, the latter is discussed in detail, followed by proposed dynamic clustering and stacking combination optimization. The proposed stacking optimization requires making the gross weight of forgings as close to the maximum batch capacity as possible. The above research can help reduce the heating times, and increase furnace utilization with high energy efficiency and low carbon emissions.

  8. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy[Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-07-01

    'Wood for Energy Production', 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named 'Wood Chips for Energy Production'. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. 'Wood for Energy Production' is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  9. THE RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT NEXUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorkemli Kazar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As renewable energy requirements increases, its relation with development is controversial. In this study, by taking human development index for development level, the relationship between renewable electricity net generation values and development has been searched with panel analysis. Study covers two different time periods: 1980-2010 with 5 year data to analyze long term effects and 2005-2010 yearly data for short term effects. Unlike previous studies, energy generation has been taken into consideration for it is thought to be more related with economic development. It is found that in the long run economic development will be leading to renewable energy production, while in the short run there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between renewable energy production and economic development. In addition, the causal relationship between economic development and renewable energy production varies both in the long run and in the short run due to human development level of the countries.

  10. Biohydrogen production as a potential energy fuel in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.T. Sekoai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biohydrogen production has captured increasing global attention due to it social, economic and environmental benefits. Over the past few years, energy demands have been growing significantly in South Africa due to rapid economic and population growth. The South African parastatal power supplier i.e. Electricity Supply Commission (ESKOM has been unable to meet the country’s escalating energy needs. As a result, there have been widespread and persistent power cuts throughout the country. This prompts an urgent need for exploration and implementation of clean and sustainable energy fuels like biohydrogen production in order to address this crisis. Therefore, this paper discusses the current global energy challenges in relation to South Africa’s problems. It then examines the feasibility of using biohydrogen production as a potential energy fuel in South Africa. Finally, it reviews the hydrogen-infrastructure development plans in the country.

  11. Department of Energy programs and objectives: energy conservation in agricultural production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    This document describes the current Department of Energy agriculture research program as it relates to the research recommendations submitted by a 1976 workshop on energy conservation in agricultural production. In-depth discussions on fertilizers, irrigation, crop drying, fuel substitution, crop and animal production systems, greenhouses, materials handling, and transport systems are included. (MCW)

  12. Produção de forragem do capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 pastejado em diferentes alturas Forage production of Tanzaniagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 grazed at different heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovenilson Cláudio Perissato Cano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este experimento, avaliar a massa de forragem (MF, massa de lâmina verde (MLV, massa de colmo + bainha verde (MCV, massa de material morto (MMM, massa de forragem verde (MFV, relação folha/colmo (F/C, taxa de acúmulo de massa seca (TAMS, acúmulo de massa de forragem (AMF, índice de área foliar (IAF, porcentagem de solo descoberto (SD e porcentagem de solo coberto com liteira (SCL em pastagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 manejada em quatro alturas do dossel forrageiro (20, 40, 60 e 80 cm. O método de pastejo utilizado foi o de lotação contínua e taxa de lotação variável, com novilhos da raça Nelore com peso médio de 340 kg. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com duas repetições e realizaram-se cinco avaliações. MLV, MCV, MMM, MFV, MF, IAF, TAMS e AMF aumentaram com o avanço da altura do dossel, sendo que a porcentagem de SD, SCL e material morto diminui em pastos mais altos. O manejo do capim-Tanzânia nas alturas de 40 e 60 cm, apresentou as melhores respostas de composição morfológica, garantindo boa oferta de folhas, de cobertura do solo e taxa de acúmulo de massa seca. As alturas de 20 e 80 cm não devem ser recomendadas para o manejo do capim-Tanzânia quando o objetivo for produção com qualidade e quantidade.This experiment was conducted out to evaluate the forage mass (FM, green leaf lamina mass (GLLM, green stem + leaf sheath mass (GSSM, mass of dead material (MDM, green forage mass (GMF, total forage mass (TFM, leaf/stem ratio (L/S, dry matter accumulation rate (DMAR, leaf area index (LAI, % of bare soil (BS and litter cover percentage (LCP in Tanzaniagrass pasture (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 managed at four different sward heights (20, 40, 60 and 80 cm. The grazing method was the continuous stocking with variable stocking rate, and the grazing animals were Nellore steers with average weight of 340 kg. The completely

  13. Hypernucleus Production at RHIC and HIRFL-CSR Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.; Xu, Z.; Chen, J.H.; Ma, Y.G.; Tang, Z.B.

    2010-01-01

    We calculated the hypertriton production at RHIC-STAR and HIRFL-CSR acceptance, with a multi-phase transport model (AMPT) and a relativistic transport model (ART), respectively. In specific, we calculated the Strangeness Population Factor S 3 = Λ 3 H/( 3 H e x Λ/p) at different beam energy. Our results from AGS to RHIC energy indicated that the collision system may change from hadronic phase at AGS energies to partonic phase at RHIC energies. Our calculation at HIRFL-CSR energy supports the proposal to measure hypertriton at HIRFL-CSR.

  14. Achieving sustainable biomass conversion to energy and bio products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteson, G. C.

    2009-01-01

    The present effort in to maximize biomass conversion-to-energy and bio products is examined in terms of sustain ability practices. New goals, standards in practice, measurements and certification are needed for the sustainable biomass industry. Sustainable practices produce biomass energy and products in a manner that is secure, renewable, accessible locally, and pollution free. To achieve sustainable conversion, some new goals are proposed. (Author)

  15. Nuclear energy contribution to restraining greenhouse gas emissions and long-term energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoda-Bakhsh, R.

    2004-01-01

    An important source of greenhouse gases, in particular Co 2 , is fossil fuel combustion for energy applications. Since nuclear power is an energy source that does not produce Co 2 , nuclear energy is already making a contribution to restraining greenhouse gas emissions. Because it has been internationally decided to reduce carbon dioxide emission before the year 2005 in order to avoid the green house catastrophy of the earth's atmosphere, and since there is an urgent need of energy especially in the developing countries, there is now a strong demand for alternative energy sources. While the established low cost energy production by light water nuclear fission reactors could be a solution for a period of transition (limited by resources of the light Uranium isotope), fusion energy is of interest for long- term and large scale energy production to provide the increased energy demand

  16. Energy use pattern and optimization of energy required for broiler production using data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sama Amid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A literature review shows that energy consumption in agricultural production in Iran is not efficient and a high degree of inefficiency in broiler production exists in Iran. Energy consumption of broiler production in Ardabil province of Iran was studied and the non-parametric method of data envelopment analysis (DEA was used to analyze energy efficiency, separate efficient from inefficient broiler producers, and calculate wasteful use of energy to optimize energy. Data was collected using face-to-face questionnaires from 70 broiler farmers in the study area. Constant returns to scale (CCR and variable returns to scale (BCC models of DEA were applied to assess the technical efficiency of broiler production. The results indicated that total energy use was 154,283 MJ (1000 bird−1 and the share of fuel at 61.4% was the highest of all inputs. The indices of energy efficiency, energy productivity, specific energy, and net energy were found to be 0.18, 0.02 kg MJ−1, 59.56 MJ kg−1, and −126,836 MJ (1000 bird−1, respectively. The DEA results revealed that 40% and 22.86% of total units were efficient based on the CCR and BCC models, respectively. The average technical, pure technical, and scale efficiency of broiler farmers was 0.88, 0.93, and 0.95, respectively. The results showed that 14.53% of total energy use could be saved by converting the present units to optimal conditions. The contribution of fuel input to total energy savings was 72% and was the largest share, followed by feed and electricity energy inputs. The results of this study indicate that there is good potential for increasing energy efficiency of broiler production in Iran by following the recommendations for efficient energy use.

  17. Visions on energy production technologies for Finland up to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, Mikko

    2003-01-01

    The energy sector will face major challenges in the coming decades. Global demand for primary energy is continuously increasing, as are its related environmental effects. On the other hand, the limited resources of especially oil and gas will lead to increasing price instability. Deregulation of energy markets is a challenge for the infrastructure. This deregulation is leading to restructuring of the energy market. States and owners of energy companies and energy policy decision-makers will find it difficult to play this double role. At European level and in Finland the biggest challenge is the attainment of the Kyoto target and then further reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Renewables, nuclear power and growing imports of natural gas from Russia will play a crucial role in Finland. This presentation focuses on the development of the energy production technologies that are most important for Finland's energy supply and energy technology exports. In order to analyse the possible role of various emerging and evolving technologies in the future energy system of Finland, three scenarios has been created for a comprehensive energy system model. The model is based on a bottom-up, technology oriented representation of the energy system, including both the supply and end-use sector. Mathematically, the model is a quasi-dynamic linear optimisation model that stimulates the behaviour of energy-economic decision-making by minimising the total present value of all costs and other expenditures in the energy system during the entire time horizon under consideration. (BA)

  18. Wood Energy Production, Sustainable Farming Livelihood and Multifunctionality in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Suvi

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and the projected depletion of fossil energy resources pose multiple global challenges. Innovative technologies offer interesting possibilities to achieve more sustainable outcomes in the energy production sector. Local, decentralized alternatives have the potential to sustain livelihoods in rural areas. One example of such a…

  19. Low energy production processes in manufacturing of silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, A. R.

    1976-01-01

    Ion implantation and pulsed energy techniques are being combined for fabrication of silicon solar cells totally under vacuum and at room temperature. Simplified sequences allow very short processing times with small process energy consumption. Economic projections for fully automated production are excellent.

  20. Implications of energy efficiency measures in wheat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Aurich, Andreas; Ziegler, T.; Scholz, L.

    The economic and environmental effect of energy saving measures were analyzed for a typical wheat production system in Germany. The introduction of precision farming, reduced nitrogen fertilization and improved crop drying technologies proved to be efficient measures for enhancing energy efficiency...

  1. ENERGY PRODUCTION AND RESIDENTIAL HEATING: TAXATION, SUBSIDIES, AND COMPARATIVE COSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This analysis is in support of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. It examines the effect of economic incentives on public and private decisions affecting energy production and us...

  2. Optimal use of biomass for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruijgrok, W.; Cleijne, H.

    2000-10-01

    In addition to the EWAB programme, which is focused mainly on the application of waste and biomass for generating electricity, Novem is also working on behalf of the government on the development of a programme for gaseous and liquid energy carriers (GAVE). The Dutch ministries concerned have requested that Novem provide more insight concerning two aspects. The first aspect is the world-wide availability of biomass in the long term. A study group under the leadership of the University of Utrecht has elaborated this topic in greater detail in the GRAIN project. The second aspect is the question of whether the use of biomass for biofuels, as aimed at in the GAVE programme, can go hand in hand with the input for the electricity route. Novem has asked the Dutch research institute for the electric power industry (KEMA) to study the driving forces that determine the future use of biomass for electricity and biofuels, the competitive strength of each of the routes, and the possible future scenarios that emerge. The results of this report are presented in the form of copies of overhead sheets

  3. 78 FR 57922 - American Energy Production, Inc., Best Energy Services, Inc., Community Central Bank Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] American Energy Production, Inc., Best Energy Services, Inc., Community Central Bank Corporation, Explortex Energy, Inc., HemoBioTech, Inc., Larrea... concerning the securities of Community Central Bank Corporation because it has not filed any periodic reports...

  4. Energy Production System Management - Renewable energy power supply integration with Building Automation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Joao; Martins, Joao

    2010-01-01

    Intelligent buildings, historically and technologically, refers to the integration of four distinctive systems: Building Automation Systems (BAS), Telecommunication Systems, Office Automation Systems and Computer Building Management Systems. The increasing sophisticated BAS has become the 'heart and soul' of modern intelligent buildings. Integrating energy supply and demand elements - often known as Demand-Side Management (DSM) - has became an important energy efficiency policy concept. Nowadays, European countries have diversified their power supplies, reducing the dependence on OPEC, and developing a broader mix of energy sources maximizing the use of renewable energy domestic sources. In this way it makes sense to include a fifth system into the intelligent building group: Energy Production System Management (EPSM). This paper presents a Building Automation System where the Demand-Side Management is fully integrated with the building's Energy Production System, which incorporates a complete set of renewable energy production and storage systems.

  5. Energy use pattern analyses of greenhouse vegetable production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canakci, M.; Akinci, I. [Department of Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Agriculture, Akdeniz University, 07070 Antalya (Turkey)

    2006-07-15

    Greenhouse farming is a growing industry in many states. It is a very expensive way to produce greenhouse crops and there are many variables to consider before the farmer decides to take this route. A good location is essential for crop planning and growing. However, current studies related to energy use patterns and resources present in vegetable production are very limited. This research attempts to investigate the energy use patterns in greenhouse vegetable production, to determine the energy output-input ratio and their relationships. Antalya province, which has greenhouse area of about 13,337ha (30.2%), is the center of greenhouse farming in Turkey. A questionnaire was distributed to 101 greenhouse farms from 11 villages in order to obtain the available data for vegetable production. Power requirement of the machines used in greenhouse operations were measured by using a computer based data acquisition system. Energy and economical variables (i.e. output-input ratio, specific energy, production cost, net return, etc.) were calculated by using the standard equations. As a result, the operational energy and energy source requirements of the greenhouse vegetable production were found between the ranges of 23,883.5-28,034.7 and 45,763.3-49,978.8MJ/1000m{sup 2}, respectively. The energy ratio of four major greenhouse vegetables-tomato, pepper, cucumber and eggplant-was 0.32, 0.19, 0.31, 0.23, respectively. The crop yields increased as a function of the total energy inputs with the best form being second-degree polynomial. The net return of the vegetable production was found in the 595.6-2775.3$/1000m{sup 2} ranges. Among the greenhouse vegetables, tomato cultivation resulted in being the most profitable. (author)

  6. Forecasting forest chip energy production in Finland 2008-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Energy policy measures aim to increase energy production from forest chips in Finland to 10 TWh by year 2010. However, on the regional level production differences are large, and the regional estimates of the potential base of raw materials for the production of forest chips are heterogeneous. In order to analyse the validity of the above target, two methods are proposed to derive forecasts for region-level energy production from forest chips in Finland in the years 2008-2014. The plant-level data from 2003-2007 gives a starting point for a detailed statistical analysis of present and future region-level forest chip production. Observed 2008 regional levels are above the estimated prediction 95% confidence intervals based on aggregation of plant-level time averages. A simple time trend model with fixed-region effects provides accurate forecasts for the years 2008-2014. Forest chip production forecast confidence intervals cover almost all regions for the 2008 levels and the estimates of potential production levels for 2014. The forecast confidence intervals are also derived with re-sampling methods, i.e. with bootstrap methods, to obtain more reliable results. Results confirm that a general materials shortfall is not expected in the near future for forest chip energy production in Finland.

  7. Energy inputs and outputs in a chickpea production system in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the most important grain legumes which traditionally cultivated in marginal areas and saline soils. In this study, chickpea production in Kurdistan, Iran and the energy equivalences of input used in production were investigated. The aims of this study were to determine the amount of ...

  8. Economic feasibility constraints for renewable energy source power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.

    1992-01-01

    Suitable analysis criteria for use in economic feasibility studies of renewable energy source power plants are examined for various plant types, e.g., pumped storage hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, refuse-fuelled, etc. The paper focusses on the impacts, on operating cost and rate structure, of the necessity, depending on demand characteristics, to integrate renewable energy source power production with conventional power production in order to effectively and economically meet peak power demand. The influence of commercialization and marketing trends on renewable energy source power plant economic feasibility are also taken into consideration

  9. Synergies between renewable energy and fresh water production. Scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geurts, F.; Noothout, P.; Schaap, A. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    The IEA Implementing Agreement for Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (IEA-RETD) investigated the opportunities for coupling renewable energy systems with fresh water supply systems. The four main conclusions of the scoping study, carried out by Ecofys, are: (1) Fresh water production based on desalination technologies provide most options for synergies with renewable energy production; (2) Linking desalination to renewable sources is currently not economically viable; (3) There is a large potential for small scale (decentralised) desalination plants; (4) Current commercially-sized desalination technologies are in need of a constant operation point. Reverse osmosis and thermal membrane technologies might give future synergies as deferrable load.

  10. Contribution of National near Real Time MODIS Forest Maximum Percentage NDVI Change Products to the U.S. ForWarn System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Gasser, Gerald; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip D.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation reviews the development, integration, and testing of Near Real Time (NRT) MODIS forest % maximum NDVI change products resident to the USDA Forest Service (USFS) ForWarn System. ForWarn is an Early Warning System (EWS) tool for detection and tracking of regionally evident forest change, which includes the U.S. Forest Change Assessment Viewer (FCAV) (a publically available on-line geospatial data viewer for visualizing and assessing the context of this apparent forest change). NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) is working collaboratively with the USFS, ORNL, and USGS to contribute MODIS forest change products to ForWarn. These change products compare current NDVI derived from expedited eMODIS data, to historical NDVI products derived from MODIS MOD13 data. A new suite of forest change products are computed every 8 days and posted to the ForWarn system; this includes three different forest change products computed using three different historical baselines: 1) previous year; 2) previous three years; and 3) all previous years in the MODIS record going back to 2000. The change product inputs are maximum value NDVI that are composited across a 24 day interval and refreshed every 8 days so that resulting images for the conterminous U.S. are predominantly cloud-free yet still retain temporally relevant fresh information on changes in forest canopy greenness. These forest change products are computed at the native nominal resolution of the input reflectance bands at 231.66 meters, which equates to approx 5.4 hectares or 13.3 acres per pixel. The Time Series Product Tool, a MATLAB-based software package developed at NASA SSC, is used to temporally process, fuse, reduce noise, interpolate data voids, and re-aggregate the historical NDVI into 24 day composites, and then custom MATLAB scripts are used to temporally process the eMODIS NDVIs so that they are in synch with the historical NDVI products. Prior to posting, an in-house snow mask classification product

  11. Dual-energy CT angiography in peripheral arterial occlusive disease - accuracy of maximum intensity projections in clinical routine and subgroup analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kau, Thomas; Eicher, Wolfgang; Reiterer, Christian; Niedermayer, Martin; Rabitsch, Egon; Hausegger, Klaus A.; Senft, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of dual-energy CT angiography (DE-CTA) maximum intensity projections (MIPs) in symptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). In 58 patients, DE-CTA of the lower extremities was performed on dual-source CT. In a maximum of 35 arterial segments, severity of the most stenotic lesion was graded (<10%, 10-49% and 50-99% luminal narrowing or occlusion) independently by two radiologists, with DSA serving as the reference standard. In DSA, 52.3% of segments were significantly stenosed or occluded. Agreement of DE-CTA MIPs with DSA was good in the aorto-iliac and femoro-popliteal regions (κ = 0.72; κ = 0.66), moderate in the crural region (κ = 0.55), slight in pedal arteries (κ = 0.10) and very good in bypass segments (κ = 0.81). Accuracy was 88%, 78%, 74%, 55% and 82% for the respective territories and moderate (75%) overall, with good sensitivity (84%) and moderate specificity (67%). Sensitivity and specificity was 82% and 76% in claudicants and 84% and 61% in patients with critical limb ischaemia. While correlating well with DSA above the knee, accuracy of DE-CTA MIPs appeared to be moderate in the calf and largely insufficient in calcified pedal arteries, especially in patients with critical limb ischaemia. (orig.)

  12. Energy budget and greenhouse gas balance evaluation of sustainable coppice systems for electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettens, Suzanna; Muys, Bart; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Moons, Ellen; Garcia, Juan; Coppin, Pol

    2003-01-01

    The use of bio-energy crops for electricity production is considered an effective means to mitigate the greenhouse effect, mainly due to its ability to substitute fossil fuels. A whole range of crops qualify for bio-energy production and a rational choice is not readily made. This paper evaluates the energy and greenhouse gas balance of a mixed indigenous hardwood coppice as an extensive, low-input bio-energy crop. The impact on fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emission is calculated and discussed by comparing its life cycle (cultivation, processing and conversion into energy) with two conventional bio-energy crops (short rotation systems of willow and Miscanthus). For each life cycle process, the flows of fossil energy and greenhouse gas that are created for the production of one functional unit are calculated. The results show that low-input bio-energy crops use comparatively less fossil fuel and avoid more greenhouse gas emission per unit of produced energy than conventional bio-energy crops during the first 100 yr. Where the mixed coppice system avoids up till 0.13 t CO 2 eq./GJ, Miscanthus does not exceed 0.07 t CO 2 eq./GJ. After 100 yr their performances become comparable, amounting to 0.05 t CO 2 eq./ha/GJ. However, if the land surface itself is chosen as a functional unit, conventional crops perform better with respect to mitigating the greenhouse effect. Miscanthus avoids a maximum of 12.9 t CO 2 eq./ha/yr, while mixed coppice attains 9.5 t CO 2 eq./ha/yr at the most

  13. Interest in energy wood and energy crop production among Finnish non-industrial private forest owners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raemoe, A.-K.; Jaervinen, E.; Latvala, T.; Toivonen, R.; Silvennoinen, H.

    2009-01-01

    EU targets and regulations regarding energy production and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been tightening in the 2000s. In Finland the targets are planned to be achieved mainly by increasing the use of biomass. Wood already accounts for a marked proportion of Finnish energy production, but additional reserves are still available. Energy crop production also has considerable potential. Practically all Finnish farmers are also forest owners. Therefore, private forest owners are in a decisive position regarding the supply of energy wood and crops in Finland. In this paper the future supply of biomass is examined according to their past behaviour, intentions and attitudes. Finnish forest owners have a positive attitude towards the use of wood and crops in energy production. Price is becoming more critical as a motive for the supply of energy wood. Recreation and nature conservation play a smaller role than factors related to wood production and forest management as for motives for harvesting energy wood. However, almost a half of forest owners in this study were uncertain of their willingness to supply biomass. This is partly due to limited knowledge of the issues involved in energy wood and agricultural energy crop production and the underdeveloped markets for energy biomass. In order to achieve the targets, supply should be activated by further developing market practices, information, guidance and possibly other incentives for landowners. In general, there is interest among landowners in increasing the supply of energy biomass. However, the growth of supply presumes that production is an economically attractive and competitive alternative, that the markets are better organized than at present, and that more comprehensive information is available about bioenergy and biomass markets and production techniques.

  14. Fission of intermediate mass nuclei by photons of stopping radiation in the maximum energy range 0,8 - 1,8 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, D.A. de.

    1983-07-01

    The fission of intermediate mass nuclei in Al - Ta interval, induced by stopping radiation phtons of maximum energies between 0,8 and 1.8 GeV is studied. Nd and Sm thin targets and Al, Ti, Co, Zr, Nb, Ag, In and Ta thick targets were used, considering all peculiarities inherent to absorption of fission fragments in the target. The samples were exposed into the 2.5 GeV Electron Synchrotron in Bonn Univerity. The fission fragment tracks were registered in foil type detectors using mica muscovite for Sm and Nd, CR-39 for Al and Ti and makrofol for Co, Zr; Nb, Ag, In, Nd and Ta. The track length and track depth angle distributions were measured for determining fission efficiencies. The fission cross sections and nuclear fissionable of the studied elements were evaluated. (M.C.K.) [pt

  15. Towards nuclear energy applications other than electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, M.

    2007-01-01

    Use of nuclear energy relies on operation of a boiler, involving practically no greenhouse gas emission. Whereas production of electricity is, nowadays, virtually its sole purpose, demand for heat production could equally arise, particularly with the emergence of high-temperature, or even very-high-temperature reactors. With the abilities this involves, as regards the recovery of heavy crude oils from tar sands, seawater desalination, or, most importantly, production of hydrogen by electrolysis, or thermochemistry, this being the energy carrier of tomorrow. (authors)

  16. Mesonic atom production in high-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakai, M.; Bando, H.; Sano, M.

    1987-08-01

    The production probability of π-mesonic atom in high-energy nuclear collisions is estimated by a coalescence model. The production cross section is calculated for p + Ne and Ne + Ne systems at 2.1 GeV/A and 5.0 GeV/A beam energy. It is shown that nuclear fragments with larger charge numbers have the advantage in the formation of π-mesonic atoms. The cross section is proportional to Z 3 and of the order of magnitude of 1 ∼ 10 μb in all the above cases. The production cross sections of K-mesonic atoms are also estimated. (author)

  17. Intrinsic charm and charmed particle production at Serpukhov energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmushko, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the charmed particle production by protons on nuclei in the framework of two-component model at the Serpukhov energies. This model combines the leading-twist QCD and intrinsic charm contributions. It is shown that both contributions are comparable at 70 GeV energy of a proton, which makes possible the testing of the intrinsic charm predictions: the asymmetry between the leading and non-leading charm production and the A dependence of charm production. The asymmetry for D-bar/D mesons and Λ c + /Λ c - baryons and the cross section ratios for different nuclei are estimated [ru

  18. Higgs production as a probe of dark energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brax, Philippe; Davis, Anne-Christine; Seery, David

    2009-11-01

    We study Higgs production under the influence of a light, scalar dark energy field with chameleon-like couplings to matter. Our analysis is relevant for hadron colliders, such as the Large Hadron Collider, which are expected to manufacture Higgs particles through weak boson fusion, or associated production with a Z or W ± . We show that the corrections arising in these models are too small to be observed. This result can be attributed to the gauge invariance of the low energy Lagrangian. As a by-product of our analysis, we provide the first microphysical realization of a dark energy model coupled to the electromagnetic field strength. In models where dark energy couples to all matter species in a uniform manner we are able to give a new, stringent bound on its coupling strength. (orig.)

  19. Higgs production as a probe of dark energy interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, Philippe; Davis, Anne-Christine; Seery, David; Weltman, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    We study Higgs production under the influence of a light, scalar dark energy field with chameleon-like couplings to matter. Our analysis is relevant for hadron colliders, such as the Large Hadron Collider, which are expected to manufacture Higgs particles through weak boson fusion, or associated production with a Z or W. We show that the corrections arising in these models are too small to be observed. This result can be attributed to the gauge invariance of the low energy Lagrangian. As a by-product of our analysis, we provide the first microphysical realization of a dark energy model coupled to the electromagnetic field strength. In models where dark energy couples to all matter species in a uniform manner we are able to give a new, stringent bound on its coupling strength.

  20. Disaggregate energy consumption and industrial production in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziramba, Emmanuel [Department of Economics, University of South Africa, P.O Box 392, UNISA 0003 (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    This paper tries to assess the relationship between disaggregate energy consumption and industrial output in South Africa by undertaking a cointegration analysis using annual data from 1980 to 2005. We also investigate the causal relationships between the various disaggregate forms of energy consumption and industrial production. Our results imply that industrial production and employment are long-run forcing variables for electricity consumption. Applying the [Toda, H.Y., Yamamoto, T., 1995. Statistical inference in vector autoregressions with possibly integrated processes. Journal of Econometrics 66, 225-250] technique to Granger-causality, we find bi-directional causality between oil consumption and industrial production. For the other forms of energy consumption, there is evidence in support of the energy neutrality hypothesis. There is also evidence of causality between employment and electricity consumption as well as coal consumption causing employment. (author)

  1. Disaggregate energy consumption and industrial production in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziramba, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    This paper tries to assess the relationship between disaggregate energy consumption and industrial output in South Africa by undertaking a cointegration analysis using annual data from 1980 to 2005. We also investigate the causal relationships between the various disaggregate forms of energy consumption and industrial production. Our results imply that industrial production and employment are long-run forcing variables for electricity consumption. Applying the [Toda, H.Y., Yamamoto, T., 1995. Statistical inference in vector autoregressions with possibly integrated processes. Journal of Econometrics 66, 225-250] technique to Granger-causality, we find bi-directional causality between oil consumption and industrial production. For the other forms of energy consumption, there is evidence in support of the energy neutrality hypothesis. There is also evidence of causality between employment and electricity consumption as well as coal consumption causing employment.

  2. Higgs production as a probe of dark energy interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brax, Philippe [CEA, IPhT, CNRS, URA2306, Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Inst. de Physique Theorique; Burrage, Clare [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Davis, Anne-Christine; Seery, David [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences; Weltmann, Amanda [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences; Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics; Centre for Theoretical Cosmology Fellow, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    We study Higgs production under the influence of a light, scalar dark energy field with chameleon-like couplings to matter. Our analysis is relevant for hadron colliders, such as the Large Hadron Collider, which are expected to manufacture Higgs particles through weak boson fusion, or associated production with a Z or W{sup {+-}}. We show that the corrections arising in these models are too small to be observed. This result can be attributed to the gauge invariance of the low energy Lagrangian. As a by-product of our analysis, we provide the first microphysical realization of a dark energy model coupled to the electromagnetic field strength. In models where dark energy couples to all matter species in a uniform manner we are able to give a new, stringent bound on its coupling strength. (orig.)

  3. Energy production study of crops with biofuel potential in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donato, Lidia; Huerga, Ignacio; Hilbert, Jorge [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (CIA/INTA), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro de Investigacion de Agroindustria. Inst. de Ingenieria Rural], Emails: ingdonato@cnia.inta.gov.ar, ihuerga@cnia.inta.gov.ar, hilbert@cnia.inta.gov.ar

    2008-07-01

    The present study is focus on the final energy balance of bioenergy production in Argentina using soybean, sunflower, rapeseed, corn and sorghum as feedstocks. The balance considers the difference between the energy contained per unit and the amount used for its generation in all the different steps from sowing to final destination. For direct energy consumption Costo Maq software was employed using local fuel consumption forecast for each field labor. Particular attention is paid to the energy consumption in the agricultural steps considering the distinctive no till system spread out in Argentina that has a very low energy input. Direct and indirect energy were considered in the different steps of bioethanol and biodiesel generation. Industrial conversion consumption was based on international literature data. Comparisons were made between tilled and no till practices and considering or not the energy contained in co products. Results indicate a balance ranging from 0.96 to 1.54 not considering the co products. If co products were introduced the balances ranged between 1.09 and 4.67. (author)

  4. Waste incineration with production of clean and reliable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlas, Martin; Tous, Michal; Klimek, Petr; Bebar, Ladislav [Brno University of Technology, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering (UPEI VUT Brno), Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-08-15

    Discussion about utilization of waste for energy production (waste-to-energy, WTE) has moved on to next development phase. Waste fired power plants are discussed and investigated. These facilities focus on electricity production whereas heat supply is diminished and operations are not limited by insufficient heat demand. Present results of simulation prove that increase of net electrical efficiency above 20% for units processing 100 kt/year (the most common ones) is problematic and tightly bound with increased investments. Very low useful heat production in Rankine-cycle based cogeneration system with standard steam parameters leads to ineffective utilization of energy. This is documented in this article with the help of newly developed methodology based on primary energy savings evaluation. This approach is confronted with common method for energy recovery efficiency evaluation required by EU legislation (Energy Efficiency - R1 Criteria). New term highly-efficient WTE is proposed and condition under which is the incinerator classified as highly efficient are specified and analyzed. Once sole electricity production is compelled by limited local heat demand, application of non-conventional arrangements is highly beneficial to secure effective energy utilization. In the paper a system where municipal solid waste incinerator is integrated with combined gas-steam cycle is evaluated in the same manner. (orig.)

  5. Technology selection for hydrogen production using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Alimah; Erlan Dewita

    2008-01-01

    The NPP can either be used to produce electricity, or as heat source for non-electric applications (cogeneration). High Temperature Reactor (HTR) with high outlet coolant temperature around 900~1000 o C, is a reactor type potential for cogeneration purposes such as hydrogen production and other chemical industry processes that need high heat. Considering the national energy policy that a balanced arrangement of renewable and unrenewable natural resources has to be made to keep environmental conservation for the sake of society prosperity in the future, hydrogen gas production using nuclear heat is an appropriate choice. Hydrogen gas is a new energy which is environmentally friendly that it is a prospecting alternative energy source in the future. Within the study, a comparison of three processes of hydrogen gas production covering electrolysis, steam reforming and sulfur-iodine cycle, have been conducted. The parameters that considered are the production cost, capital cost and energy cost, technological status, the independence of fossil fuel, the environmental friendly aspect, as well as the efficiency and the independence of corrosion-resistance material. The study result showed that hydrogen gas production by steam reforming is a better process compared to electrolysis and sulfur-iodine process. Therefore, steam reforming process can be a good choice for hydrogen gas production using nuclear energy in Indonesia. (author)

  6. Energy sources consumption: end uses, efficiency and productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This document analyzes the impact of the choices made by all actors, from the energy producers to the process and infrastructure designers and the end users, in the evolution of energy consumptions. Some very little improvements made in the energy efficiency of appliances can become equivalent to the production of several oil fields or power plants at the world scale. More efficient energy uses will not replace the additional productions but they must be considered together to be compared. The energy files are first analyzed as a whole in order to show the hidden field of energy choices. In this framework, users, designers and fitters have to face very different choices because they consider efficiency improvements under different aspects: scientifical, technical, economical and social (public information and habits). These differences in efficiency uses have a time and spatial impact on the growth of energy consumption. The economical and social factors influence the collective way to consume energy and are expressed by the energy intensity of the economic activity. The last part of this document analyzes the influence of this notion on the world energy consumption scenarios at the 2050 prospects. (J.S.)

  7. Evaluating Fenestration Products for Zero-Energy Buildings: Issuesfor Discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arasteh, Dariush; Curcija, Charlie; Huang, Joe; Huizenga,Charlie; Kohler, Christian

    2006-07-25

    Computer modeling to determine fenestration product energy properties (U-factor, SHGC, VT) has emerged as the most cost-effective and accurate means to quantify them. Fenestration product simulation tools have been effective in increasing the use of low-e coatings and gas fills in insulating glass and in the widespread use of insulating frame designs and materials. However, for more efficient fenestration products (low heat loss products, dynamic products, products with non-specular optical characteristics, light re-directing products) to achieve widespread use, fenestration modeling software needs to be improved. This paper addresses the following questions: (1) Are the current properties (U, SHGC, VT) calculated sufficient to compare and distinguish between windows suitable for Zero Energy Buildings and conventional window products? If not, what data on the thermal and optical performance, on comfort, and on peak demand of windows is needed. (2) Are the algorithms in the tools sufficient to model the thermal and optical processes? Are specific heat transfer and optical effects not accounted for? Is the existing level of accuracy enough to distinguish between products designed for Zero Energy Buildings? Is the current input data adequate?

  8. Flux and energy dependence of methane production from graphite due to H+ impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.W.; Haasz, A.A.; Stangeby, P.C.

    1986-06-01

    Carbon is in widespread use for limiter surfaces, as well as first wall coatings in current tokamaks. Chemical erosion via methane formation, due to energetic H + impact, is expected to contribute to the total erosion rate of carbon from these surfaces. Experimental results are presented for the methane yield from pyrolytic graphite due to H + exposure, using a mass analyzed ion beam. H + energies of 0.1-3 keV and flux densities of ∼ 5x10 13 to l0 16 H + /cm 2 s were used. The measured methane yield (CH 4 /H + ) initially increases with flux density, then reaches a maximum, which is followed by a gradual decrease. The magnitude of the maximum yield and the flux density at which it occurs depends on the graphite temperature. The yields obtained at temperatures corresponding to yield maxima at specific flux densities also show an initial increase, followed by a shallow maximum and a gradual decrease as a function of flux density; the maximum occurs at ∼10 15 H + /cm 2 s. Also presented are results on the methane production dependence on ion energy over the range 0.1 to 3 keV, and graphite temperature dependence measurements

  9. Hydrogen Production Costs of Various Primary Energy Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Hyuk; Tak, Nam Il; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Won Seok

    2005-11-01

    Many studies on the economical aspects of hydrogen energy technologies have been conducted with the increase of the technical and socioeconomic importance of the hydrogen energy. However, there is still no research which evaluates the economy of hydrogen production from the primary energy sources in consideration of Korean situations. In this study, the hydrogen production costs of major primary energy sources are compared in consideration of the Korean situations such as feedstock price, electricity rate, and load factor. The evaluation methodology is based on the report of the National Academy of Science (NAS) of U.S. The present study focuses on the possible future technology scenario defined by NAS. The scenario assumes technological improvement that may be achieved if present research and development (R and D) programs are successful. The production costs by the coal and natural gas are 1.1 $/kgH 2 and 1.36 $/kgH 2 , respectively. However, the fossil fuels are susceptible to the price variation depending on the oil and the raw material prices, and the hydrogen production cost also depends on the carbon tax. The economic competitiveness of the renewable energy sources such as the wind, solar, and biomass are relatively low when compared with that of the other energy sources. The estimated hydrogen production costs from the renewable energy sources range from 2.35 $/kgH 2 to 6.03 $/kgH 2 . On the other hand, the production cost by nuclear energy is lower than that of natural gas or coal when the prices of the oil and soft coal are above $50/barrel and 138 $/ton, respectively. Taking into consideration the recent rapid increase of the oil and soft coal prices and the limited fossil resource, the nuclear-hydrogen option appears to be the most economical way in the future

  10. Microalgal cultivation and utilization in sustainable energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakaniemi, A.-M.

    2012-07-01

    Microalgae are a promising feedstock for biofuel and bioenergy production due to their high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates and no need for external organic carbon supply. However, microalgal biomass cultivation for energy production purposes is still rare in commercial scale. Further research and development is needed to make microalgal derived energy sustainable and economically competitive. This work investigated cultivation of fresh water microalga Chlorella vulgaris and marine microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta and their utilization in production of hydrogen, methane, electricity, butanol and bio-oil after bulk harvesting the biomass. Growth of the two microalgae was studied in five different photobioreactor (PBR) configurations especially concentrating on the quantification and characterization of heterotrophic bacteria in non-axenic microalgal cultivations and microalgal utilization of different nitrogen sources. Anaerobic cultures used for the energy conversion processes were enriched from a mesophilic municipal sewage digester separately for production of H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and electricity from the two microalgal species. After culture enrichment, energy conversion yields of microalgal biomass to the different energy carriers were compared. In summary, this study demonstrated that both C. vulgaris and D. tertiolecta can be used for production of Hv(2), CHv(4), electricity, butanol and lipids. Based on this study C. vulgaris is more suitable for bioenergy production than D. tertiolecta. Depending on cellular lipid content, lipid utilization for bio-oil production and anaerobic digestion were the most potent means of converting C. vulgaris biomass to energy. The study also revealed diverse microbial communities in non-axenic microalgal photobioreactor cultures and in anaerobic consortia converting microalgal biomass to energy carriers

  11. Energy consumption and total factor productivity growth in Iranian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Moghaddasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the relation between energy consumption and growth of total factor productivity (TFP of agriculture in Iran from 1974 to 2012 using Solow residual method. The results from estimated aggregate Cobb–Douglas production function showed that one percent change in the value of labor, capital and energy will lead to 4.07, 0.09 and 0.49 percent change in agriculture value added, respectively. Also in a long term, based on the Johansen cointegration test, there is a negative relation between TFP growth and energy consumption in Iranian agriculture which might be due to cheap and inefficient energy use in this sector. Gradual liberalization of energy price and use of so called green box support policies is recommended.

  12. Hydrogen production through nuclear energy, a sustainable scenario in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega V, E.; Francois L, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    The energy is a key point in the social and economic development of a country, for such motive to assure the energy supply in Mexico it is of vital importance. The hydrogen it is without a doubt some one of the alternating promising fuels before the visible one necessity to decentralize the energy production based on hydrocarbons. The versatility of their applications, it high heating power and having with the more clean fuel cycle of the energy basket with which count at the moment, they are only some examples of their development potential. However the more abundant element of the universe it is not in their elementary form in our planet, it forms molecules like in the hydrocarbons or water and it stops their use it should be extracted. At the present time different methods are known for the extraction of hydrogen, there is thermal, electric, chemical, photovoltaic among others. The election of the extraction method and the primary energy source to carry out it are decisive to judge the sustainability of the hydrogen production. The sustainable development is defined as development that covers the present necessities without committing the necessity to cover the necessities of the future generations, and in the mark of this definition four indicators of the sustainable development of the different cycles of fuel were evaluated in the hydrogen production in Mexico. These indicators take in consideration the emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (environment), the readiness of the energy resources (technology), the impacts in the floor use (social) and the production costs of the cycles (economy). In this work the processes were studied at the moment available for the generation of hydrogen, those that use coal, natural gas, hydraulic, eolic energy, biomass and nuclear, as primary energy sources. These processes were evaluated with energy references of Mexico to obtain the best alternative for hydrogen production. (Author)

  13. Properties of Eucalyptus benthamii wood for energy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Agostinho Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the energy potential of Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden et Cambage wood. The samples were collected in the municipality of Cerro Negro, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Samples were collected from 5 trees at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of commercial height. It was determined basic density, high calorific value, elemental composition, immediate chemical analysis, lower calorific value, energy density, carbon storage and energy production. The physical and chemical variables studied and energy potential of wood did not present differences along the stem.

  14. Green energy criteria and life cycle assessment in assessing environmental competitiveness of energy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maelkki, H.; Hongisto, M.; Turkulainen, T.; Kuisma, J.; Loikkanen, T.

    1999-01-01

    The liberalisation of energy markets has increased the need to enlarge the information base of fuel chains, to evaluate the environmental quality of energy products transparently and to communicate results in a credible way. The preparedness of energy purchasers, producers and sellers to support energy choices of their customers and to meet the information requirements of various stake holders can be strengthened. The environmental impacts related to energy products are turning into a significant dimension of competitiveness. Possibilities to promote market-driven environmental protection mechanisms and to construct incentives, which cover the whole energy production system exist and can be supported. Knowledge of environmental impacts of various energy products can be increased by means of several supplementary instruments like eco-profiles, environmental labels and life cycle assessments of products. Life cycle assessment forms a systematic basis of information, which supports the environmental communications directed to various stake holders. In this study selected public LCA-studies concerning energy production have been compared, criteria of green energy have been charted and their outlook has been assessed. In addition the development of an LCA- based relative environmental performance indicator system, which supports various transparent comparisons, has been outlined. The mapping of methodological differences of published LCA-studies regarding various energy alternatives proves, that there is differences e.g. in allocation principles, system boundaries, and age of source information and in many other details. These discrepancies should be known, because they also affect the results. That is why the use of available LCA studies as a basis for comparative assertions may be problematic. The renewability of an energy source is a threshold requirement in eco-energy criteria formulated and introduced by Finnish, Swedish and Norwegian nature conservation

  15. Assessment of energy return on energy investment (EROEI of oil bearing crops for renewable fuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Restuccia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As reported in literature the production of biodiesel should lead to a lower energy consumption than those obtainable with its use. So, to justify its consumption, a sustainable and “low input” production should be carried out. In order to assess the sustainability of Linum usitatissimum, Camelina sativa and Brassica carinata cultivation for biodiesel production in terms of energy used compared to that obtained, the index EROEI (Energy Return On Energy Invested has been used. At this aim, an experimental field was realised in the south-eastern Sicilian land. During the autumn-winter crop cycle, no irrigation was carried out and some suitable agricultural practices have been carried out taking into account the peculiarity of each type of used seeds. The total energy consumed for the cultivation of oil bearing crops from sowing to the production of biodiesel represents the Input of the process. In particular, this concerned the energy embodied in machinery and tools utilized, in seed, chemical fertilizer and herbicide but also the energy embodied in diesel fuels and lubricant oils. In addition, the energy consumption relating to machines and reagents required for the processes of extraction and transesterification of the vegetable oil into biodiesel have been calculated for each crops. The energy obtainable from biodiesel production, taking into account the energy used for seed pressing and for vegetable oil transesterification into biodiesel, represents the Output of the process. The ratio Output/Input gets the EROEI index which in the case of Camelina sativa and Linum usatissimum is greater than one. These results show that the cultivation of these crops for biofuels production is convenient in terms of energy return on energy investment. The EROEI index for Brassica carinata is lower than one. This could means that some factors, concerning mechanisation and climatic

  16. France's energy balance for 2014: production peak and a consumption low

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouquette, Celine

    2015-07-01

    2014 was the warmest year since 1900 in France and in the rest of the world. In particular, the mild winter led to heating needs 7 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe) lower than the needs in an average year. Real primary energy consumption fell below the symbolic 250 Mtoe level, a low it had not reached since 1995. Although energy demand decreased, national primary energy production increased for the second year running, reaching 139 Mtoe, a little over 1 Mtoe higher than in 2013. This rise in production is explained by nuclear generated electricity. The 2014 physical trade deficit for energy therefore decreased significantly, by 10 Mtoe, to below 114 Mtoe. Such a low level had not been observed since 1988. The level of energy self-sufficiency rose sharply in 2014, to 55.8%, a level not hitherto reached. The decrease in net energy imports was accompanied by a drop in quoted prices for energy products on the European and international markets. As a result, France's energy bill was 17% lower than in 2013. At around euro 55 billion, it fell to a level close to that of the early 1980's. Even excluding the effects of the higher temperatures in 2014, thereby adjusting for climate variations, primary energy went from 275 Mtoe - its maximum, reached in 2005 - to 257 Mtoe, with an average annual decrease of -2 Mtoe, confirming the downward trend initiated in the mid-2000's. Final energy consumption was 150 Mtoe in 2014, the lowest level since 1996. It decreased by a little more than 1% in relation to 2013, with reductions in all sectors except for transport, where consumption remained stable. (author)

  17. Bio-based products from solar energy and carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Producing bio-based products directly from CO₂ and solar energy is a desirable alternative to the conventional biorefining that relies on biomass feedstocks. The production paradigm is based on an artificial photosynthetic system that converts sunlight to electricity and H₂ via water electrolysis. An autotrophic H₂-oxidizing bacterium fixes CO₂ in dark conditions. The assimilated CO₂ is stored in bacterial cells as polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), from which a range of products can be derived. Compared with natural photosynthesis of a fast-growing cyanobacterium, the artificial photosynthetic system has much higher energy efficiency and productivity of bio-based products. The new technology looks promising because of possible cost reduction in feedstock, equipment, and operation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Energy Address Delivery Technologies and Thermal Transformations in Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdo O.G.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, energetic and technical paradoxes in food nanotechnologies and traditional approaches to evaluation of energy recourses using are considered. Hypotheses of improvement of food production energy technologies are formulated. Classification of principles of address delivery of energy to food raw materials elements is given. We had substantiated the perspective objectives for heat-pumps installations and biphasic heat-transfer systems. The energy efficiency of new technolo-gies is compared on base of the number of energy impact. Principles of mass transfer modeling in ex-traction, dehydration and pasteurization combined processes are considered by food production exam-ple. The objectives of mathematical modeling of combined hydrodynamic and heat and mass transfer processes in modern energy technologies are set. The fuel energy conversion diagrams for drying, in-novative installations on the base of thermal siphons, heat pumps and electromagnetic energy genera-tors are represented. In this article, we illustrate how electromagnetic field, biphasic heat-transfer sys-tems and heat pumps can be effective tools for energy efficiency technologies.

  19. Study of renewable energy, fuel cell and demotics integration for stationary energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andaloro, L.; Ferraro, M.; Sergi, F.; Brunaccini, G.; Antonucci, V. [National Research Inst., Messina (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    This paper described a study in which a small house equipped with various renewable technologies was modelled. The aim of the study was to evaluated the integration of fuel cells with various other energy sources. Technologies installed in the house included a photovoltaic (PV) system; a hydrogen system; fuel cells; a battery-storage system; and a thermal solar panel. Maximum energy savings were evaluated for different configurations and combinations of the installed energy sources. A domotic system was also used to automatically control the use of electrical appliances and improve safety and comfort. An energy side management system was designed and compared with a demand side management system. Various scenarios were simulated in order to test the energy management systems in relation to the automated domotic system.

  20. Estimation of external costs of energy production in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estlander, A.; Otterstroem, T.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the project is to develop a method for estimation of external costs of energy production in Finland. The purpose of the method is to take into account all the most important impacts on health, materials and the environment. The study will assess environmental effects of emissions from Finnish energy production on people and the environment locally (population centres), nationally (Finland) and globally. The different energy production forms to be included in the study are heat and electric energy generated with coal, natural gas, fuel oil and peat (not industry's energy production). Local and national environmental impact assessment is carried out within the Finnish borders. The economic influence of emissions (in particular greenhouse gases) originating outside Finland but with global impact will also be assessed, as far as Finland is concerned. When studying the amounts of emissions the whole fuel chain is taken into account: production, processing or transport, storage in the different stages of the chain of use, and end use. The main components under review are SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , H x C y , CO, particulates and a couple of heavy metals. In addition. the study considers ozone (O 3 ), which is formed in the atmosphere. The primary monetary valuation method used is the indirect monetarization. which is based on dose-response functions and the use of both market prices and willingness-to-pay assessments. The method to be developed during the project for monetary valuation of effects caused by emissions on health, materials and the environment can be utilized in further monetarization studies. The results of the work can used to assess the profitability of energy production plants and energy companies from the economic point of view

  1. Sustainability of energy production and use in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karbassi, A.R.; Abduli, M.A.; Mahin Abdollahzadeh, E. [Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14155-6135, Teheran (Iran)

    2007-10-15

    The issue of oil and gas policies in Iran is rather complex. In the present investigation, it is aimed to formulate plans for increasing the capacity of the country's energy production. Analysis of energy consumption pattern over last decades is indicative of inefficient usage. The low energy prices in Iran do not reflect economic costs. Further distortions exist in the tariff structures of most energy sources and in their relative prices. It is recognized that price reform is a key policy element for promotion of energy conservation and fuel substitution with renewable energies. Mitigation policies in the energy sector are crucial to Iran's overall policies. Emission of greenhouse gases can be reduced from 752,156 to 560,791 Gg CO{sub 2} equivalents in 2010 by implementing the policies proposed for the energy sub-sectors. Enhancing energy efficiency, including combined cycle power generation, has proved to be the most economic option for greenhouse gases reduction in energy sector. Iran's energy consumption pattern is unsustainable and consumption oriented. (author)

  2. Sustainability of energy production and use in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbassi, A.R.; Abduli, M.A.; Mahin Abdollahzadeh, E.

    2007-01-01

    The issue of oil and gas policies in Iran is rather complex. In the present investigation, it is aimed to formulate plans for increasing the capacity of the country's energy production. Analysis of energy consumption pattern over last decades is indicative of inefficient usage. The low energy prices in Iran do not reflect economic costs. Further distortions exist in the tariff structures of most energy sources and in their relative prices. It is recognized that price reform is a key policy element for promotion of energy conservation and fuel substitution with renewable energies. Mitigation policies in the energy sector are crucial to Iran's overall policies. Emission of greenhouse gases can be reduced from 752,156 to 560,791 Gg CO 2 equivalents in 2010 by implementing the policies proposed for the energy sub-sectors. Enhancing energy efficiency, including combined cycle power generation, has proved to be the most economic option for greenhouse gases reduction in energy sector. Iran's energy consumption pattern is unsustainable and consumption oriented

  3. Nuclear Energy - Hydrogen Production - Fuel Cell: A Road Towards Future China's Sustainable Energy Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhiwei Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable development of Chinese economy in 21. century will mainly rely on self-supply of clean energy with indigenous natural resources. The burden of current coal-dominant energy mix and the environmental stress due to energy consumptions has led nuclear power to be an indispensable choice for further expanding electricity generation capacity in China and for reducing greenhouse effect gases emission. The application of nuclear energy in producing substitutive fuels for road transportation vehicles will also be of importance in future China's sustainable energy strategy. This paper illustrates the current status of China's energy supply and the energy demand required for establishing a harmonic and prosperous society in China. In fact China's energy market faces following three major challenges, namely (1) gaps between energy supply and demand; (2) low efficiency in energy utilization, and (3) severe environmental pollution. This study emphasizes that China should implement sustainable energy development policy and pay great attention to the construction of energy saving recycle economy. Based on current forecast, the nuclear energy development in China will encounter a high-speed track. The demand for crude oil will reach 400-450 million tons in 2020 in which Chinese indigenous production will remain 180 million tons. The increase of the expected crude oil will be about 150 million tons on the basis of 117 million tons of imported oil in 2004 with the time span of 15 years. This demand increase of crude oil certainly will influence China's energy supply security and to find the substitution will be a big challenge to Chinese energy industry. This study illustrates an analysis of the market demands to future hydrogen economy of China. Based on current status of technology development of HTGR in China, this study describes a road of hydrogen production with nuclear energy. The possible technology choices in relation to a number of types of nuclear reactors are

  4. Productivity effects of technology diffusion induced by an energy tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walz, R.

    1999-01-01

    In the political discussion, the economy-wide effects of an energy tax have gained considerable attention. So far, macroeconomic analyses have focused on either (positive or negative) costs triggered by an energy tax, or on the efficiency gains resulting from new energy taxes combined with lower distortionary taxes. By contrast, the innovative effects of climate protection measures have not yet been thoroughly analysed. This paper explores the productivity effects of a 50 per cent energy tax in the German industry sector employing a technology-based, three-step bottom-up approach. In the first step, the extensive IKARUS database is used to identify the technological adjustments arising from an energy tax. In the second step, the technologies are classified into different clusters. In the third step, the productivity effects generated by the technological adjustments are examined. The results imply that an energy tax induces mainly sector-specific and process-integrated technologies rather than add-on and cross-cutting technologies. Further, it is shown that the energy-saving technologies tend to increase productivity. This is particularly the case for process-integrated, sector specific technologies. (author)

  5. Energy management in production: A novel method to develop key performance indicators for improving energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, Gökan; Barletta, Ilaria; Stahl, Bojan; Taisch, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a 7-step methodology to develop firm-tailored energy-related KPIs (e-KPIs). • We provide a practical guide for companies to identify their most important e-KPIs. • e-KPIs support identification of energy efficiency improvement areas in production. • The method employs an action plan for achieving energy saving targets. • The paper strengthens theoretical base for energy-based decision making in manufacturing. - Abstract: Measuring energy efficiency performance of equipments, processes and factories is the first step to effective energy management in production. Thus, enabled energy-related information allows the assessment of the progress of manufacturing companies toward their energy efficiency goals. In that respect, the study addresses this challenge where current industrial approaches lack the means and appropriate performance indicators to compare energy-use profiles of machines and processes, and for the comparison of their energy efficiency performance to that of competitors’. Focusing on this challenge, the main objective of the paper is to present a method which supports manufacturing companies in the development of energy-based performance indicators. For this purpose, we provide a 7-step method to develop production-tailored and energy-related key performance indicators (e-KPIs). These indicators allow the interpretation of cause-effect relationships and therefore support companies in their operative decision-making process. Consequently, the proposed method supports the identification of weaknesses and areas for energy efficiency improvements related to the management of production and operations. The study therefore aims to strengthen the theoretical base necessary to support energy-based decision making in manufacturing industries

  6. Factorial estimation of energy requirement for egg production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André

    1992-01-01

    Based on balance and respiration measurements with 60 White Leghorns during the laying period from 27 to 48 wk of age, a factorial method for estimating the energy requirement for egg production is proposed. The present experiment showed that the deposition of fat and energy increased during...... the laying period, but protein deposition slightly decreased. It has been shown that the efficiency of ME utilization for fat energy deposition is higher than for protein energy deposition in the egg. Because the proportions of protein and fat differ during the laying period, and because energy utilization...... is different between protein and fat, the ME requirement was calculated as the sum of ME for maintenance and the partial requirements for protein, fat, and carbohydrate deposition. For practical applications, functions for prediction of protein (OP), fat (OF), and energy (OE) in eggs during the laying period...

  7. Application of solar energy to agricultural production processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The presentations in this report were a result of research and development projects funded and managed by Interagency Agreements between the Department of Energy and the Department of Agriculture. The performing institutions were selected on the basis of peer reviews of invited and/or unsolicited proposals. During the time period covered, approximately 9 years, hundreds of technical reports and presentations have been made. The audience for these reports has included other researchers, manufacturers, sales people, contractors and end users of the information. As a result, thousands of installations have been made. Some of these have been highly successful, while others have been less successful, and some have failed. Nevertheless, these projects have shown areas where solar energy can be profitably applied to replace non-renewable forms of energy for agricultural production; areas where the use of solar energy is marginal; and areas where the use of solar energy is not profitable with current costs of non-renewable energy.

  8. Production of ethanol from lepthochloa fusca L. (kallar grass) and panicum maximum using cellulases from trichoderma SSP and cultures of saccharomyces carlsbergensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajoka, M.I.; Malik, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Saline sodic soils have been used for production of biomass using salt tolerant grass, kallar grass followed by lesser tolerant plants, namely, sasbania aculeata or Panicum maximum or to provide biomass throughout the year for it utilization for microbial conversion. These substrates have been utilized to produce single cell protein and cellases or hemicellulases. The enzyme titer obtained after growth of cellulomonas biazotea on kallar grass could saccharify wheat straw ad bagasse for subsequent conversion to ethanol but kallar grass itself was saccharified to lesser extent, however, enzyme titres from different fungi could saccherify the biomass produced on saline lands to monomeric sugars. In these studies, the enzyme titre from Trichoderma spp. were used for saccharification purpose. (author)

  9. Effect of temperature on energy potential of pyrolysis products from oil palm shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina María Romero Millán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: Taking into account that near 220 000 tons of oil palm shells are produced every year in Colombia, as a waste of the Elaeis Guineensis palm oil transformation process, the aim of this work is to determine the energy potential of oil palm shells, when transformed through slow pyrolysis process. Methods: Using a fixed bed lab scale reactor, different oil palm shells pyrolysis tests were performed between 300°C and 500°C. The effect of the temperature in the process product yield and in the energy content of produced solids and gases were analyzed. Results: With a maximum mass yield of 50%, the char is considered the main product of oil palm shells pyrolysis, containing up to 73% of the raw biomass energy. The heating value of char raised with the temperature, from 29,6 MJ/kg at 300°C to 31,34 MJ/kg at 500°C. Moreover, the gas produced in the established temperature range had up to 13% of the energy content of the raw biomass, with a heating value near 12,5 MJ/m3. Conclusions: According to the results, slow pyrolysis can be considered an interesting process for the valorization of residual biomass as oil palm shells, through the production of solids and gases that can be used as fuels, or as precursor of other value-added products.

  10. Meson production in two-photon interactions at LHC energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, D. T.; Goncalves, V. P.; Sauter, W. K. [Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Campus Universitario UFPel, CP 354, 96010-900, Capao do Leao-RS (Brazil)

    2013-03-25

    The LHC opens a new kinematical regime at high energy, where several questions related to the description of the high-energy regime of the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) remain without satisfactory answers. Some open questions are the search for non-q-bar q resonances, the determination of the spectrum of q-bar q states and the identification of states with anomalous {gamma}{gamma} couplings. A possible way to study these problems is the study of meson production in two-photon interactions. In this contribution we calculate the meson production in two-photon interactions at LHC energies considering proton - proton collisions and estimate the total cross section for the production of the mesons {pi}, a, f, {eta} and {chi}.

  11. The unintended energy impacts of increased nitrate contamination from biofuels production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Kelly M; Stillwell, Ashlynn S; Webber, Michael E

    2010-01-01

    Increases in corn cultivation for biofuels production, due to the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, are likely to lead to increases in nitrate concentrations in both surface and groundwater resources in the United States. These increases might trigger the requirement for additional energy consumption for water treatment to remove the nitrates. While these increasing concentrations of nitrate might pose a human health concern, most water resources were found to be within current maximum contaminant level (MCL) limits of 10 mg L(-1) NO(3)-N. When water resources exceed this MCL, energy-intensive drinking water treatment is required to reduce nitrate levels below 10 mg L(-1). Based on prior estimates of water supplies currently exceeding the nitrate MCL, we calculate that advanced drinking water treatment might require an additional 2360 million kWh annually (for nitrate affected areas only)--a 2100% increase in energy requirements for water treatment in those same areas--to mitigate nitrate contamination and meet the MCL requirement. We predict that projected increases in nitrate contamination in water may impact the energy consumed in the water treatment sector, because of the convergence of several related trends: (1) increasing cornstarch-based ethanol production, (2) increasing nutrient loading in surface water and groundwater resources as a consequence of increased corn-based ethanol production, (3) additional drinking water sources that exceed the MCL for nitrate, and (4) potentially more stringent drinking water standards for nitrate.

  12. The Role of Bio-productivity on Bio-energy Yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc J. J. Janssens

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The principal photosynthetic pathways convert solar energy differently depending on the environmental conditions and the plant morphotype. Partitioning of energy storage within crops will vary according to environmental and seasonal conditions as well. Highest energy concentration is found in terpens like latex and, to a lesser extent, in lipids. Ideally, we want plant ingredients with high energy content easily amenable to ready-to-use bio-fuel. Generally, these crops are adapted to drier areas and tend to save on eco-volume space. Competition with food crops could be avoided by fetching energy from cheap agricultural by-products or waste products such as bagasse in the sugar cane. This would in fact mean that reducing power of agricultural residues should be extracted from the biomass through non-photosynthetic processes like animal ingestion or industrial bio-fermentation. Conversion and transformation efficiencies in the production chain are illustrated for some relevant crops in the light of the maximum power theorem.

  13. Long term energy-related environmental issues of copper production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, S. [University of Chile, Santiago (Chile). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Maldonado, P.; Barrios, A.; Jaques, I. [University of Chile, Santiago (Chile). Energy Research Program

    2002-02-01

    Primary copper production is a major activity in the mining sector of several countries. However, it is highly energy-intensive and poses important environmental hazards. In the case of Chile, the world's largest copper producer (40% of world total), we examine its energy consumption and energy-related environmental implications over a time horizon of 25 years. Concerning the latter, we focus on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, one of the most debated environmental issues. This paper follows up our previous report in which the current situation was analyzed and a particular technical option for improving the energy efficiency and concurrently reducing GHG emissions was discussed. Estimated reference or base (BS) and mitigation (MS) scenarios are developed for the period ending in 2020. The former assesses the energy demand projected in accordance with production forecasts and specific energy consumption patterns (assuming that energy efficiency measures are adopted 'spontaneously') with their resultant GHG emissions, while the latter assumes induced actions intended to reduce emissions by adopting an aggressive policy of efficient energy use. For the year 2020, the main results are: (i) BS, 1214 t of CO{sub 2}/ton of refined copper content (49% lower than in 1994); (ii) MS, 1037 t of CO{sub 2}/t of refined copper content (56% lower than in 1994). CO{sub 2} emissions have been estimated considering both fuel and electricity process requirements. (author)

  14. Long term energy-related environmental issues of copper production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, S.; Maldonado, P.; Barrios, A.; Jaques, I.

    2002-01-01

    Primary copper production is a major activity in the mining sector of several countries. However, it is highly energy-intensive and poses important environmental hazards. In the case of Chile, the world's largest copper producer (40% of world total), we examine its energy consumption and energy-related environmental implications over a time horizon of 25 years. Concerning the latter, we focus on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, one of the most debated environmental issues. This paper follows up our previous report in which the current situation was analyzed and a particular technical option for improving the energy efficiency and concurrently reducing GHG emissions was discussed. Estimated reference or base (BS) and mitigation (MS) scenarios are developed for the period ending in 2020. The former assesses the energy demand projected in accordance with production forecasts and specific energy consumption patterns (assuming that energy efficiency measures are adopted 'spontaneously') with their resultant GHG emissions, while the latter assumes induced actions intended to reduce emissions by adopting an aggressive policy of efficient energy use. For the year 2020, the main results are: (i) BS, 1214 t of CO 2 /ton of refined copper content (49% lower than in 1994); (ii) MS, 1037 t of CO 2 /t of refined copper content (56% lower than in 1994). CO 2 emissions have been estimated considering both fuel and electricity process requirements. (author)

  15. Utilization of geothermal energy for drying fish products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arason, S.; Arnason, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is about industrial uses of geothermal energy for drying of fish products. Drying is an ancient method for preservation of foods, the main purpose of which is to increase the preservation time. For drying, an external source of energy is needed to extract water. In this paper an emphasis is placed on drying fish and associated processes, and how geothermal energy can be used to substitute oil or electricity. The Icelandic Fisheries Laboratories have been experimenting with different methods of drying, and several drying stations have been designed for indoor drying of fish products. Today there are more than a dozen companies in this country which are drying fish indoors using for that purpose electricity and/or geothermal energy. Further possibilities are available when fish processing plants are located in geothermal areas

  16. Effective-energy budget in multiparticle production in nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Aditya Nath; Sahoo, Raghunath [Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Discipline of Physics, School of Basic Sciences, Indore (India); Sarkisyan, Edward K.G. [CERN, Department of Physics, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); The University of Texas at Arlington, Department of Physics, Arlington, TX (United States); Sakharov, Alexander S. [CERN, Department of Physics, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    The dependencies of charged particle pseudorapidity density and transverse energy pseudorapidity density at midrapidity on the collision energy and on the number of nucleon participants, or centrality, measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied in the energy range spanning a few GeV to a few TeV per nucleon. The approach in which the multiparticle production is driven by the dissipating effective energy of participants is introduced. This approach is based on the earlier proposed consideration, combining the constituent quark picture together with Landau relativistic hydrodynamics shown to interrelate the measurements from different types of collisions. Within this picture, the dependence on the number of participants in heavy-ion collisions are found to be well described in terms of the effective energy defined as a centrality-dependent fraction of the collision energy. For both variables under study, the effective-energy approach reveals a similarity in the energy dependence obtained for the most central collisions and centrality data in the entire available energy range. Predictions are made for the investigated dependencies for the forthcoming higher-energy measurements in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. (orig.)

  17. Effective-energy budget in multiparticle production in nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Aditya Nath; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sarkisyan, Edward K.G.; Sakharov, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    The dependencies of charged particle pseudorapidity density and transverse energy pseudorapidity density at midrapidity on the collision energy and on the number of nucleon participants, or centrality, measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied in the energy range spanning a few GeV to a few TeV per nucleon. The approach in which the multiparticle production is driven by the dissipating effective energy of participants is introduced. This approach is based on the earlier proposed consideration, combining the constituent quark picture together with Landau relativistic hydrodynamics shown to interrelate the measurements from different types of collisions. Within this picture, the dependence on the number of participants in heavy-ion collisions are found to be well described in terms of the effective energy defined as a centrality-dependent fraction of the collision energy. For both variables under study, the effective-energy approach reveals a similarity in the energy dependence obtained for the most central collisions and centrality data in the entire available energy range. Predictions are made for the investigated dependencies for the forthcoming higher-energy measurements in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. (orig.)

  18. Characterization of Various Biomass Feedstocks for Energy Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Biomass represents the renewable energy source and their use reduces the consumption of fossil fuels and limits the emission of CO2. In this work, various biomass feedstocks were assessed for assessing their suitability as energy production sources using thermochemical conversion routes especially...... hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process. The methods used to analyze involved performing proximate, ultimate and thermogravimetry analysis. On the basis of proximate, ultimate, and thermogravimetry analysis, the dried distiller grains with solubles (DDGS), corn silage, chlorella vulgaris, spirulina platensis...

  19. Possibility of some radionuclides production using high energy electron Bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balzhinnyam, N.; Belov, A.G.; Gehrbish, Sh; Maslov, O.D.; Shvetsov, V.N.; Ganbold, G.

    2008-01-01

    The method of some radionuclides production using high energy Bremsstrahlung of electron accelerators and determination of photonuclear reaction yield and specific activities for some radionuclides is described. Photonuclear reaction yield and specific activities for some radionuclides are determined for 117m Sn, 111 In and 195m Pt. Based on the experimental data obtained at low energy (E e- e- = 75 MeV) of the IREN facility (FLNR, JINR) at irradiation of high purity platinum and tin metals

  20. A novel microalgal system for energy production with nitrogen cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minowa, T.; Sawayama, S. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    A microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, could grow in the recovered solution from the low temperature catalytic gasification of itself, by which methane rich fuel gas was obtained. All nitrogen in the microalga was converted to ammonia during the gasification, and the recovered solution, in which ammonia was dissolved, could be used as nitrogen nutrient. The result of the energy evaluation indicated that the novel microalgal system for energy production with nitrogen cycling could be created. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. The applied theory of energy substitution in production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Henry

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the applied theory of energy cross price partial elasticities of substitution, and presents it in a transparent fashion. It uses log linear and translog production and cost functions due to their economic properties and convenient estimating forms, but the theory applies other functional forms. The objective is to encourage increased empirical research that would deepen understanding and appreciation of energy substitution. (author)

  2. Environmental assessment. Energy efficiency standards for consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSwain, Berah

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 requires DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for 13 consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps), furnaces, dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. This Environmental Assessment evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts expected as a result of setting efficiency standards for all of the consumer products covered by the CPES program. DOE has proposed standards for eight of the products covered by the Program in a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR). DOE expects to propose standards for home heating equipment, central air conditioners (heat pumps only), dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers in 1981. No significant adverse environmental or socioeconomic impacts have been found to result from instituting the CPES.

  3. Sources of energy productivity change in China during 1997–2012: A decomposition analysis based on the Luenberger productivity indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ke; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Given that different energy inputs play different roles in production and that energy policy decision making requires an evaluation of productivity change in individual energy input to provide insight into the scope for improvement of the utilization of specific energy input, this study develops, based on the Luenberger productivity indicator and data envelopment analysis models, an aggregated specific energy productivity indicator combining the individual energy input productivity indicators that account for the contributions of each specific energy input toward energy productivity change. In addition, these indicators can be further decomposed into four factors: pure efficiency change, scale efficiency change, pure technology change, and scale of technology change. These decompositions enable a determination of which specific energy input is the driving force of energy productivity change and which of the four factors is the primary contributor of energy productivity change. An empirical analysis of China's energy productivity change over the period 1997–2012 indicates that (i) China's energy productivity growth may be overestimated if energy consumption structure is omitted; (ii) in regard to the contribution of specific energy input toward energy productivity growth, oil and electricity show positive contributions, but coal and natural gas show negative contributions; (iii) energy-specific productivity changes are mainly caused by technical changes rather than efficiency changes; and (iv) the Porter Hypothesis is partially supported in China that carbon emissions control regulations may lead to energy productivity growth. - Highlights: • An energy input specific Luenberger productivity indicator is proposed. • It enables to examine the contribution of specific energy input productivity change. • It can be decomposed for identifying pure and scale efficiency changes, as well as pure and scale technical changes. • China's energy productivity growth may

  4. Advertising, marketing and purchase behavior for energy-related products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiedemann, K.; Nelson, D.

    1998-07-01

    Energy conservation programs have relied heavily on incentives and regulatory standards to reduce residential energy consumption. However, in the changing market environment characterized by competitive pressures, alternative mechanisms such as marketing and promotions may increase substantially in importance compared to the demand-side management programs which have been the focus of most research. This paper describes the role of marketing and promotions in encouraging energy efficiency at the household level in British Columbia. The paper examines three related issues: first, the purchase process for energy-related products; second, the criteria used by customers in making purchase decisions; and third, the impact and effectiveness of alternative marketing tools. A key finding is the energy-related purchases do not fall into the impulse purchase category. There are two reasons for this: first, most of these products require installation and this requires a high level of commitment on the part of the purchaser; second, many energy-related products require a significant outlay of funds and this reduces impulse buying.

  5. Subsumed complexity: abiogenesis as a by-product of complex energy transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Z. R.; Zubarev, D.; Aono, M.; Cleaves, H. James

    2017-11-01

    The origins of life bring into stark relief the inadequacy of our current synthesis of thermodynamic, chemical, physical and information theory to predict the conditions under which complex, living states of organic matter can arise. Origins research has traditionally proceeded under an array of implicit or explicit guiding principles in lieu of a universal formalism for abiogenesis. Within the framework of a new guiding principle for prebiotic chemistry called subsumed complexity, organic compounds are viewed as by-products of energy transduction phenomena at different scales (subatomic, atomic, molecular and polymeric) that retain energy in the form of bonds that inhibit energy from reaching the ground state. There is evidence for an emergent level of complexity that is overlooked in most conceptualizations of abiogenesis that arises from populations of compounds formed from atomic energy input. We posit that different forms of energy input can exhibit different degrees of dissipation complexity within an identical chemical medium. By extension, the maximum capacity for organic chemical complexification across molecular and macromolecular scales subsumes, rather than emerges from, the underlying complexity of energy transduction processes that drive their production and modification. This article is part of the themed issue 'Reconceptualizing the origins of life'.

  6. Energy and exergy analysis of the silicon production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takla, M.; Kamfjord, N.E.; Tveit, Halvard; Kjelstrup, S.

    2013-01-01

    We used energy and exergy analysis to evaluate two industrial and one ideal (theoretical) production process for silicon. The industrial processes were considered in the absence and presence of power production from waste heat in the off-gas. The theoretical process, with pure reactants and no side-reactions, was used to provide a more realistic upper limit of performance for the others. The energy analysis documented the large thermal energy source in the off-gas system, while the exergy analysis documented the potential for efficiency improvement. We found an exergetic efficiency equal to 0.33 ± 0.02 for the process without power production. The value increased to 0.41 ± 0.03 when waste heat was utilized. For the ideal process, we found an exergetic efficiency of 0.51. Utilization of thermal exergy in an off-gas of 800 °C increased this exergetic efficiency to 0.71. Exergy destructed due to combustion of by-product gases and exergy lost with the furnace off-gas were the largest contributors to the thermodynamic inefficiency of all processes. - Highlights: • The exergetic efficiency for an industrial silicon production process when silicon is the only product was estimated to 0.33. • With additional power production from thermal energy in the off-gas we estimated the exergetic efficiency to 0.41. • The theoretical silicon production process is established as the reference case. • Exergy lost with the off-gas and exergy destructed due to combustion account for roughly 75% of the total losses. • With utilization of the thermal exergy in the off-gas at a temperature of 800 °C the exergetic efficiency was 0.71

  7. Airports offer unrealized potential for alternative energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVault, Travis L; Belant, Jerrold L; Blackwell, Bradley F; Martin, James A; Schmidt, Jason A; Wes Burger, L; Patterson, James W

    2012-03-01

    Scaling up for alternative energy such as solar, wind, and biofuel raises a number of environmental issues, notably changes in land use and adverse effects on wildlife. Airports offer one of the few land uses where reductions in wildlife abundance and habitat quality are necessary and socially acceptable, due to risk of wildlife collisions with aircraft. There are several uncertainties and limitations to establishing alternative energy production at airports, such as ensuring these facilities do not create wildlife attractants or other hazards. However, with careful planning, locating alternative energy projects at airports could help mitigate many of the challenges currently facing policy makers, developers, and conservationists.

  8. On the negligible emissions from stationary energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, Leif

    2002-01-01

    According to this article, the emissions from stationary energy production are so small that it is immaterial which energy carriers are used. Percentage comparison may be misleading. There are many myths about the emissions from various energy carriers, one deals with bio fuel and the emission of cadmium, another with light oil and the emission of SO 2 . However, wood-burning accounts for substantial amounts of dust emission and old-fashioned stoves should have been forbidden in built-up areas. The article concludes by recommending that Norway should use more district heating

  9. Microalgae as sustainable renewable energy feedstock for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medipally, Srikanth Reddy; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Shariff, M

    2015-01-01

    The world energy crisis and increased greenhouse gas emissions have driven the search for alternative and environmentally friendly renewable energy sources. According to life cycle analysis, microalgae biofuel is identified as one of the major renewable energy sources for sustainable development, with potential to replace the fossil-based fuels. Microalgae biofuel was devoid of the major drawbacks associated with oil crops and lignocelluloses-based biofuels. Algae-based biofuels are technically and economically viable and cost competitive, require no additional lands, require minimal water use, and mitigate atmospheric CO2. However, commercial production of microalgae biodiesel is still not feasible due to the low biomass concentration and costly downstream processes. The viability of microalgae biodiesel production can be achieved by designing advanced photobioreactors, developing low cost technologies for biomass harvesting, drying, and oil extraction. Commercial production can also be accomplished by improving the genetic engineering strategies to control environmental stress conditions and by engineering metabolic pathways for high lipid production. In addition, new emerging technologies such as algal-bacterial interactions for enhancement of microalgae growth and lipid production are also explored. This review focuses mainly on the problems encountered in the commercial production of microalgae biofuels and the possible techniques to overcome these difficulties.

  10. India's Fertilizer Industry: Productivity and Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, K.; Sathaye, J.

    1999-07-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's fertilizer sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. Our analysis shows that in the twenty year period, 1973 to 1993, productivity in the fertilizer sector increased by 2.3% per annum. An econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's fertilizer sector has been biased towards the use of energy, while it has been capital and labor saving. The increase in productivity took place during the era of total control when a retention price system and distribution control was in effect. With liberalization of the fertilizer sector and reduction of subsidies productivity declined substantially since the early 1990s. Industrial policies and fiscal incentives still play a major role in the Indian fertilizer sect or. As substantial energy savings and carbon reduction potential exists, energy policies can help overcome barriers to the adoption of these measures in giving proper incentives and correcting distorted prices.

  11. Microalgae as Sustainable Renewable Energy Feedstock for Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth Reddy Medipally

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The world energy crisis and increased greenhouse gas emissions have driven the search for alternative and environmentally friendly renewable energy sources. According to life cycle analysis, microalgae biofuel is identified as one of the major renewable energy sources for sustainable development, with potential to replace the fossil-based fuels. Microalgae biofuel was devoid of the major drawbacks associated with oil crops and lignocelluloses-based biofuels. Algae-based biofuels are technically and economically viable and cost competitive, require no additional lands, require minimal water use, and mitigate atmospheric CO2. However, commercial production of microalgae biodiesel is still not feasible due to the low biomass concentration and costly downstream processes. The viability of microalgae biodiesel production can be achieved by designing advanced photobioreactors, developing low cost technologies for biomass harvesting, drying, and oil extraction. Commercial production can also be accomplished by improving the genetic engineering strategies to control environmental stress conditions and by engineering metabolic pathways for high lipid production. In addition, new emerging technologies such as algal-bacterial interactions for enhancement of microalgae growth and lipid production are also explored. This review focuses mainly on the problems encountered in the commercial production of microalgae biofuels and the possible techniques to overcome these difficulties.

  12. Microalgae as Sustainable Renewable Energy Feedstock for Biofuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Fatimah Md.; Shariff, M.

    2015-01-01

    The world energy crisis and increased greenhouse gas emissions have driven the search for alternative and environmentally friendly renewable energy sources. According to life cycle analysis, microalgae biofuel is identified as one of the major renewable energy sources for sustainable development, with potential to replace the fossil-based fuels. Microalgae biofuel was devoid of the major drawbacks associated with oil crops and lignocelluloses-based biofuels. Algae-based biofuels are technically and economically viable and cost competitive, require no additional lands, require minimal water use, and mitigate atmospheric CO2. However, commercial production of microalgae biodiesel is still not feasible due to the low biomass concentration and costly downstream processes. The viability of microalgae biodiesel production can be achieved by designing advanced photobioreactors, developing low cost technologies for biomass harvesting, drying, and oil extraction. Commercial production can also be accomplished by improving the genetic engineering strategies to control environmental stress conditions and by engineering metabolic pathways for high lipid production. In addition, new emerging technologies such as algal-bacterial interactions for enhancement of microalgae growth and lipid production are also explored. This review focuses mainly on the problems encountered in the commercial production of microalgae biofuels and the possible techniques to overcome these difficulties. PMID:25874216

  13. Significant thermal energy reduction in lactic acid production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujtaba, Iqbal M.; Edreder, Elmahboub A.; Emtir, Mansour

    2012-01-01

    Lactic acid is widely used as a raw material for the production of biodegradable polymers and in food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The global market for lactic acid is expected to reach 259 thousand metric tons by the year 2012. For batch production of lactic acid, the traditional process includes the following steps: (i) esterification of impure lactic acid with methanol in a batch reactor to obtain methyl lactate (ester), (ii) separation of the ester in a batch distillation, (iii) hydrolysis of the ester with water in a batch reactor to produce lactic acid and (iv) separation of lactic acid (in high purity) in a batch distillation. Batch reactive distillation combines the benefit of both batch reactor and batch distillation and enhances conversion and productivity (Taylor and Krishna, 2000 ; Mujtaba and Macchietto, 1997 ). Therefore, the first and the last two steps of the lactic acid production process can be combined together in batch reactive distillation () processes. However, distillation (batch or continuous) is an energy intensive process and consumes large amount of thermal energy (via steam). This paper highlights how significant (over 50%) reduction in thermal energy consumption can be achieved for lactic acid production process by carefully controlling the reflux ratio but without compromising the product specification. In this paper, only the simultaneous hydrolysis of methyl lactate ester and the separation of lactic acid using batch reactive distillation is considered.

  14. The US department of energy programme on hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paster, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Clean forms of energy are needed to support sustainable global economic growth while mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and impacts on air quality. To address these challenges, the U.S. President's National Energy Policy and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Strategic Plan call for expanding the development of diverse domestic energy supplies. Working with industry, the Department developed a national vision for moving toward a hydrogen economy - a solution that holds the potential to provide sustainable clean, safe, secure, affordable, and reliable energy. In February 2003, President George W. Bush announced a new Hydrogen Fuel Initiative to achieve this vision. To realize this vision, the U.S. must develop and demonstrate advanced technologies for hydrogen production, delivery, storage, conversion, and applications. Toward this end, the DOE has worked with public and private organizations to develop a National Hydrogen Energy Technology Road-map. The Road-map identifies the technological research, development, and demonstration steps required to make a successful transition to a hydrogen economy. One of the advantages of hydrogen is that it can utilize a variety of feedstocks and a variety of production technologies. Feedstock options include fossil resources such as coal, natural gas, and oil, and non-fossil resources such as biomass and water. Production technologies include thermochemical, biological, electrolytic and photolytic processes. Energy needed for these processes can be supplied through fossil, renewable, or nuclear sources. Hydrogen can be produced in large central facilities and distributed to its point of use or it can be produced in a distributed manner in small volumes at the point of use such as a refueling station or stationary power facility. In the shorter term, distributed production will play an important role in initiating the use of hydrogen due to its lower capital investment. In the longer term, it is likely that centralized

  15. Environmental Policies, Product Market Regulation and Innovation in Renewable Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesta, Lionel; Vona, Francesco; Nicolli, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of policies in favor of innovation in renew- able energy under different levels of competition. Using information regarding renewable energy policies, product market regulation and high-quality green patents for OECD countries since the late 1970's, we develop a pre-sample mean count-data econometric specification that also accounts for the endogeneity of policies. We find that renewable energy policies are significantly more effective in fostering green innovation in countries with deregulated energy markets. We also find that public support for renewable energy is crucial only in the generation of high-quality green patents, whereas competition enhances the generation of green patents irrespective of their quality. (authors)

  16. Manure and energy crops for biogas production. Status and barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H.B.; Nielsen, A.M.; Murto, M.; Christensson, K.; Rintala, J.; Svensson, M.; Seppaelae, M.; Paavola, T.; Angelidaki, I.; Kaparaju, P.L.

    2008-07-01

    This study has evaluated the development of biogas technology in three Nordic countries and analysed the effects of using nine model energy crops as supplement to manure feedstocks in biogas plants. The study compares the global warming impacts and the energy balance for the nine crops used for heat and power production. The energy balances and impacts on greenhouse gases of the studied crops differ between the countries. In Sweden and Denmark, the same crops turned out to be the most promising in terms of energy yield and impact on greenhouse gases. In general, the same crops that score high in terms of energy yield also score high in reducing the amount of greenhouse gases. Based on the examined parameters, it can be concluded that the most promising crops are Jerusalem artichoke, beets, maize, and, in Finland, reed canary grass as well. (au)

  17. Regional drivers of on-farm energy production in Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, Axel; Düvelmeyer, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Bavaria's energy policy seeks to increase the share of power supply from renewable sources related to on-farm energy production (agricultural biogas, wind- and solar energy) from currently 15% to more than 30% in 2021. It is therefore of particular interest for policy-makers to identify regional drivers of and barriers to this concept. The presented study addresses this issue and applies a spatial regression analysis to Bavaria’s 71 rural counties. The findings indicate significant impacts of technological regional transformation ability, agricultural structure (degree of professionalization and consolidation of organic farming) and neighborhood effects. This is in contrast to most geographical factors, which seem to be of minor relevance. - Highlights: •Energy transition is largely carried by farmers’ adoption of renewable energy (RE). •Adoption of RE generally follows an s-shaped diffusion curve. •Drivers are regions’ transformation ability and professionalization of agriculture. •Adoption of RE conflicts with organic farming.

  18. EFFECTIVENESS OF SELECTION OF WHEAT TO MODERN REQUIREMENTS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE III. ENERGY PRODUCTIVITY OF CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisaveta Vasileva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to conclude on adaptation of modern varieties to the requirements of sustainable agriculture and hence the effectiveness of their methods of selection with respect to these requirements. The comparison between genotypes in two directions - by the selection methods by which they were established and according to the time of their creation. Energy assessment shows that the gross energy yield of grain is higher ( in average 5% over standard for varieties produced by the methods of the Intervarietal hybridization and during the period 1995 to 1999. While absolute maximum values of the energy productivity of grain (at N18 and maximum average total gross energy productivity of crops (4% above standard were detected in genotypes generated by the methods of mutagenesis by irradiation with gamma rays. Absolute maximum value of the energy productivity of crops were reported in cultivar Zdravko (at N18, which was established by the method of plant biotechnology by combining and somaclonal variation.

  19. Dissipated energy and entropy production for an unconventional heat engine: the stepwise `circular cycle'

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Liberto, Francesco; Pastore, Raffaele; Peruggi, Fulvio

    2011-05-01

    When some entropy is transferred, by means of a reversible engine, from a hot heat source to a colder one, the maximum efficiency occurs, i.e. the maximum available work is obtained. Similarly, a reversible heat pumps transfer entropy from a cold heat source to a hotter one with the minimum expense of energy. In contrast, if we are faced with non-reversible devices, there is some lost work for heat engines, and some extra work for heat pumps. These quantities are both related to entropy production. The lost work, i.e. ? , is also called 'degraded energy' or 'energy unavailable to do work'. The extra work, i.e. ? , is the excess of work performed on the system in the irreversible process with respect to the reversible one (or the excess of heat given to the hotter source in the irreversible process). Both quantities are analysed in detail and are evaluated for a complex process, i.e. the stepwise circular cycle, which is similar to the stepwise Carnot cycle. The stepwise circular cycle is a cycle performed by means of N small weights, dw, which are first added and then removed from the piston of the vessel containing the gas or vice versa. The work performed by the gas can be found as the increase of the potential energy of the dw's. Each single dw is identified and its increase, i.e. its increase in potential energy, evaluated. In such a way it is found how the energy output of the cycle is distributed among the dw's. The size of the dw's affects entropy production and therefore the lost and extra work. The distribution of increases depends on the chosen removal process.

  20. The potential for energy production from crop residues in Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jingura, R.M.; Matengaifa, R. [School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Chinhoyi University of Technology, P. Bag 7724, Chinhoyi (Zimbabwe)

    2008-12-15

    There is increasing interest in Zimbabwe in the use of renewable energy sources as a means of meeting the country's energy requirements. Biomass provides 47% of the gross energy consumption in Zimbabwe. Energy can be derived from various forms of biomass using various available conversion technologies. Crop residues constitute a large part of the biomass available from the country's agriculture-based economy. The potential for energy production of crop residues is examined using data such as estimates of the quantities of the residues and their energy content. The major crops considered are maize, sugarcane, cotton, soyabeans, groundnuts, wheat, sorghum, fruits and forestry plantations. Quantities of residues are estimated from crop yields by using conversion coefficients for the various crops. Long-term crop yields data from 1970 to 1999 were used. Total annual residue yields for crops, fruits and forestry plantations are 7.805 Mt, 378 kt and 3.05 Mt, respectively. The crops, fruits and forestry residues have energy potential of 81.5, 4.9 and 44.3 PJ per year, respectively. This represents about 44% of the gross energy consumption in Zimbabwe. The need to balance use of crop residues for both energy purposes and other purposes such as animal feeding and soil fertility improvement is also highlighted. (author)

  1. Calendar Year 2007 Program Benefits for ENERGY STAR Labeled Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Marla Christine; Homan, Gregory; Brown, Richard

    2008-10-31

    ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with committed stakeholders. Through 2007, the program saved 7.1 Quads of primary energy and avoided 128 MtC equivalent. The forecast shows that the program is expected to save 21.2 Quads of primary energy and avoid 375 MtC equivalent over the period 2008-2015. The sensitivity analysis bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 84 MtC and 172 MtC (1993 to 2007) and between 243 MtC and 519 MtC (2008 to 2015).

  2. Maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enslin, J.H.R.

    1990-01-01

    A well engineered renewable remote energy system, utilizing the principal of Maximum Power Point Tracking can be m ore cost effective, has a higher reliability and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. This paper reports that a high-efficient power electronic converter, for converting the output voltage of a solar panel, or wind generator, to the required DC battery bus voltage has been realized. The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the input source under varying input and output parameters. Maximum power point tracking for relative small systems is achieved by maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor based algorithm. Through practical field measurements it is shown that a minimum input source saving of 15% on 3-5 kWh/day systems can easily be achieved. A total cost saving of at least 10-15% on the capital cost of these systems are achievable for relative small rating Remote Area Power Supply systems. The advantages at larger temperature variations and larger power rated systems are much higher. Other advantages include optimal sizing and system monitor and control

  3. Danish energy-sector exports. Products and consulting services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolter, H.C.

    2000-06-01

    Danish Energy Agency has previously carried out studies of Danish energy-sector exports. The latest results were published in the report, Energisektorens eksport. Produkter og raadgivning. Danish Energy Agency, September 1998. The present survey is an update of the earlier studies, and includes 1998 exports. As previously, the study, carried out in cooperation with the Confederation of Danish Industries and the Danish Council of Consulting Architects and Engineers, is based on questionnaires sent to relevant companies. In addition, information has been obtained from companies that do not belong to these organisations. On the basis of the answers received, 58 Danish companies exported products to a value of approximately DKK 16,000 million, and 22 consulting firms exported consulting services to a value of approximately DKK 370 million. These exports of approximately DKK 16.5 billion accounted for 5% of all Danish exports in 1998. In comparison with 1996, energy-sector exports have risen by more than 40% in a period in which Danish exports in general have risen by an average of 8%. Energy sector exports provide employment for more than 18,000 persons in Denmark - approximately 17,500 employees in companies that export products, and approximately 600 persons in consulting firms. To this must be added a presumably significantly larger number of persons employed by sub-suppliers to the above companies computed by value, 80% of the exports come from relatively few companies, i.e. 13 companies with products, and five offering consulting services. Energy-sector exports fall within the following product areas: 1) Wind turbines (25%). 2) District heating and combined heat and power (CHP) (21%). 3) Energy savings and control (20%). 4) Oil and natural gas (13%). 5) Electricity plants and power supply (13%). 6) Other (8%). 67% of the exports go to Western Europe, 18% to Asia, 7% to Eastern and Central Europe, and 8% to other parts of the world. (EHS)

  4. Information theory explanation of the fluctuation theorem, maximum entropy production and self-organized criticality in non-equilibrium stationary states

    CERN Document Server

    Dewar, R

    2003-01-01

    Jaynes' information theory formalism of statistical mechanics is applied to the stationary states of open, non-equilibrium systems. First, it is shown that the probability distribution p subGAMMA of the underlying microscopic phase space trajectories GAMMA over a time interval of length tau satisfies p subGAMMA propor to exp(tau sigma subGAMMA/2k sub B) where sigma subGAMMA is the time-averaged rate of entropy production of GAMMA. Three consequences of this result are then derived: (1) the fluctuation theorem, which describes the exponentially declining probability of deviations from the second law of thermodynamics as tau -> infinity; (2) the selection principle of maximum entropy production for non-equilibrium stationary states, empirical support for which has been found in studies of phenomena as diverse as the Earth's climate and crystal growth morphology; and (3) the emergence of self-organized criticality for flux-driven systems in the slowly-driven limit. The explanation of these results on general inf...

  5. Normalizing the maximum permissible seal failure of the fuel cladding of VVER and the activity of the fission products in the coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzanova, L.M.; Miglo, V.N.; Slavyagin, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    In most countries developing a nuclear power industry based on pressurized water reactors, one of the conditions for issuing a license under normal operating conditions for issuing a license stipulates that the fuel elements may not lose their hermetic seal either under normal operating conditions or during presumable disturbances of the conditions of normal use. At a conference on radiation safety the ALARA principle was taken to be fundamental, it being attempted to keep the activity of the coolant of the primary circuit, including the fission products emerging from unsealed fuel elements, to a level as low as reasonably possible. As many years of experience in the nuclear power industry have shown, nuclear power stations are in many cases operated with nonhermetic fuel elements in the core. Therefore, from the point of view of safety and economy, the best way to operate a power plant is to try to ensure maximum burnup of the fuel of the unsealed elements as they operate within the limits of safe activity of the fission products in the fuel circuits

  6. An approach for siting poplar energy production systems to increase productivity and associated ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.S. Jr. Zalesny; D.M. Donner; D.R. Coyle; W.L. Headlee; R.B. Hall

    2010-01-01

    Short rotation woody crops (SRWC) such as Populus species and hybrids (i.e., poplars) are renewable energy feedstocks that are vital to reducing our dependence on non-renewable and foreign sources of energy used for heat, power, and transportation fuels. Highly productive poplars grown primarily on marginal agricultural sites are an important...

  7. Energy production forecasting, experiences from Lillgrund. Lillgrund Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Lasse; Schelander, Peter; Haakansson, Maans; Hansson, Johan (Vattenfall Vindkraft AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    Forecasts of energy production at Lillgrund are being made with the prediction tool WPPT. The forecasts are updated every hour with observed wind- and production data. WPPT combines statistical and physical methods and the nature of the model changes with time. In the very short range, the observed data is the dominant factor predicting energy production while the physical methods, e.g. the weather forecasts, gradually are given more weight as we go further away from the production hour. Until recently Vattenfall has relied solely on weather forecasts from one institute, namely DMI (The Danish Meteorological Institute), in predicting the energy produced at Lillgrund. The uncertainty in the forecast has been given some attention but since only one source of information has been available the possibilities of a comprehensive uncertainty analysis has been limited. To meet the growing demand for quality and delivery reliability, Vattenfall has begun to purchase additional weather data from the Swedish supplier WeatherTech Scandinavia. These data will be used together with data from DMI. You get a kind of ensemble forecast approach. The difference in structure, configuration and physical approaches of the models presumably makes the model related forecast errors uncorrelated. This lays the path for quality improvements when the different forecasts are combined optimally. WPPT has been used in forecasting the energy production at Lillgrund since production began in 2007. The average absolute error in the production forecast / turbine is 0.17 MW. If WPPT only relied on a persistence forecast for the next 24 hours the error will become almost three times as high. So far WPPT has a skill score of 86% in the 24-hour forecasts compared to an assumption of persistence. There is a clearly visible pattern that WPPT underestimates production in situations with strong winds and conversely overestimate production when winds are weak. This is also typical for pure persistence

  8. Mobile energy recording unit - the basis to improve energy productivity with principles of lean production; Mobile Energie-Erfassungseinheit (MobEE). Eine Grundlage zur Steigerung der Energieproduktivitaet auf Basis von Lean Production Prinzipien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnellbach, Peter [Fraunhofer IWU, Augsburg (Germany). Projektgruppe fuer Ressourceneffiziente mechatronische Verarbeitungsmaschinen; Beisbart, Ulrich [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany). Abt. Steuerung Facility Management, Energie, Mobilitaet, Dienstleistungsmanagement; Reinhardt, Gunther [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Betriebswissenschaften; RMV Augsburg (Germany). IWU Projektguppe; Schneider, Oliver

    2012-10-15

    Improvement of energy productivity in production processes will become more important in future. As one large customer, manufacturing industry has to take responsibility to make its contribution in this field. The mobile energy recording unit helps to create the necessary transparency to identify possible energy savings on the basis of lean production principles.

  9. Energy dissipation and charged particle production in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Aditya Nath; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sarkisyan Edward, K.G.; )

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use a model combining the constituent quark picture with Landau relativistic hydrodynamics. Within this model, the secondary particle production in nucleus-nucleus or nucleon-nucleon (p-barp/pp) collisions is basically driven by the amount of the initial effective energy deposited by participants (quarks or nucleons) into the Lorentz contracted overlap region

  10. Harnessing Solar Energy for the Production of Clean Fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandit, A.; Holzwarth, A.; de Groot, H.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The European Union and its member states are being urged by leading scientists to make a major multi million Euro commitment to solar driven production of environmentally clean electricity, hydrogen and other fuels, as the only sustainable long-term solution for global energy needs. The most

  11. Seasonal energy storage using bioenergy production from abandoned croplands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott Campbell, J; Zumkehr, Andrew; Lobell, David B; Genova, Robert C; Field, Christopher B

    2013-01-01

    Bioenergy has the unique potential to provide a dispatchable and carbon-negative component to renewable energy portfolios. However, the sustainability, spatial distribution, and capacity for bioenergy are critically dependent on highly uncertain land-use impacts of biomass agriculture. Biomass cultivation on abandoned agriculture lands is thought to reduce land-use impacts relative to biomass production on currently used croplands. While coarse global estimates of abandoned agriculture lands have been used for large-scale bioenergy assessments, more practical technological and policy applications will require regional, high-resolution information on land availability. Here, we present US county-level estimates of the magnitude and distribution of abandoned cropland and potential bioenergy production on this land using remote sensing data, agriculture inventories, and land-use modeling. These abandoned land estimates are 61% larger than previous estimates for the US, mainly due to the coarse resolution of data applied in previous studies. We apply the land availability results to consider the capacity of biomass electricity to meet the seasonal energy storage requirement in a national energy system that is dominated by wind and solar electricity production. Bioenergy from abandoned croplands can supply most of the seasonal storage needs for a range of energy production scenarios, regions, and biomass yield estimates. These data provide the basis for further down-scaling using models of spatially gridded land-use areas as well as a range of applications for the exploration of bioenergy sustainability. (letter)

  12. Green energy products in the United Kingdom, Germany and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hast, Aira; McDermott, Liisa; Järvelä, Marja; Syri, Sanna

    2014-12-01

    In liberalized electricity markets, suppliers are offering several kinds of voluntary green electricity products marketed as environmentally friendly. This paper focuses on the development of these voluntary markets at household level in the UK, Germany and Finland. Since there are already existing renewable energy policies regulating and encouraging the use of renewable energy, it is important to consider whether voluntary products offer real additional benefits above these policies. Problems such as double counting or re-marketing hydropower produced in existing plants are identified. According to our study, the demand varies between countries: in Germany the number of green electricity customers has increased and is also higher than in the UK or Finland. Typically the average additional cost to consumer from buying green electricity product instead of standard electricity product is in the range of 0-5% in all studied countries, although the level of price premium depends on several factors like electricity consumption. Case study of Finland and literature show that the impacts of green energy are not solely environmental. Renewable energy can benefit local public policy.

  13. Strangeness and charm production in high energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Nu

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the dynamical effects of strangeness and charm production in high energy nuclear collisions. In order to understand the early stage dynamical evolution, it is necessary to study the transverse momentum distributions of multi-strange hadrons like Ξ and Ω and charm mesons like J/Ψ as a function of collision centrality

  14. Session chair "Women's leadership on energy justice in productive sectors"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing energy access for productive use will generate opportunities for women to earn a living for themselves and their families, but the debate thus far has been mainly focused on women's domestic needs. At this side-event, we will look beyond the household door and discuss how to empower women

  15. Dietary energy level for optimum productivity and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine dietary energy levels for optimum productivity and carcass characteristics of indigenous Venda chickens raised in closed confinement. Four dietary treatments were considered in the first phase (1 to 7 weeks) on two hundred day-old unsexed indigenous Venda chicks indicated as EVS1, ...

  16. Neutral strange particle production in neutrino interactions at Tevatron energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, K.

    1988-05-01

    This thesis reports on a study of neutral strange particle production by high energy muon-neutrinos. The neutrinos were obtained from a 800 GeV proton beam-dump at Fermilab. Neutrino events were observed using a hybrid bubble chamber detector system. The data contained deep inelastic neutrino-nucleon interactions with an average momentum transfer 2 > = 23 (GeV/c) 2 . Rates for K 0 and Λ production in neutrino and anti-neutrino charged current events are presented. The distributions of these particles in Feynman x and rapidity are also studied. Significant differences were observed in the production mechanism for the K 0 meson and the Λ baryon. The production rates of K 0 's were observed to increase with energy, whereas the rates for Λ production remained essentially constant. In Feynman x, the K 0 's were produced in the central region and the Λ's were produced backwards. The data are compared with the LUND monte carlo for string fragmentation. In the monte carlo, K 0 's are mostly produced from s/bar s/ pair production during fragmentation. The Λ's are generally produced through recombination with the diquark from the target nucleon. The data agree with this model for strange particle production. 39 refs., 24 figs., 10 tabs

  17. Comparison between exergy and energy analysis for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelio, A.; Van de Voorde, T.; Creemers, C.; Degrève, J.; Darvishmanesh, S.; Luis, P.; Van der Bruggen, B.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the exergy concept for use in chemical engineering applications, and compares the energy and exergy methodology for the production process of biodiesel. A process for biodiesel production was suggested and simulated in view of the energy and exergy analysis. A method was developed to implement the exergy concept in Aspen Plus 7.3. A comparison between the energy and the exergy approach reveals that the concepts have similarities but also some differences. In the exergy study, the reaction section has the largest losses whereas in the energy study separation steps are the most important. An optimization, using both concepts, was carried out using the same parameters. The optimized results were different depending on the objective function. It was concluded that exergy analysis is crucial during the design or redesign step in order to investigate thermodynamic efficiencies in each part of the process. - Highlights: • New flowsheet for the production of biodiesel simulated with Aspen Plus. • Calculation of the exergetic costs and several interesting indexes. • Comparison of exergy and energy analysis for the process studied.

  18. Energy-Based Evaluations on Eucalyptus Biomass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago L. Romanelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependence on finite resources brings economic, social, and environmental concerns. Planted forests are a biomass alternative to the exploitation of natural forests. In the exploitation of the planted forests, planning and management are key to achieve success, so in forestry operations, both economic and noneconomic factors must be considered. This study aimed to compare eucalyptus biomass production through energy embodiment of anthropogenic inputs and resource embodiment including environmental contribution (emergy for the commercial forest in the Sao Paulo, Brazil. Energy analyses and emergy synthesis were accomplished for the eucalyptus production cycles. It was determined that emergy synthesis of eucalyptus production and sensibility analysis for three scenarios to adjust soil acidity (lime, ash, and sludge. For both, energy analysis and emergy synthesis, harvesting presented the highest input demand. Results show the differences between energy analysis and emergy synthesis are in the conceptual underpinnings and accounting procedures. Both evaluations present similar trends and differ in the magnitude of the participation of an input due to its origin. For instance, inputs extracted from ores, which represent environmental contribution, are more relevant for emergy synthesis. On the other hand, inputs from industrial processes are more important for energy analysis.

  19. Higgs production as a probe of chameleon dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brax, Philippe; Burrage, Clare; Davis, Anne-Christine; Seery, David; Weltman, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study various particle physics effects of a light, scalar dark energy field with chameleonlike couplings to matter. We show that a chameleon model with only matter couplings will induce a coupling to photons. In doing so, we derive the first microphysical realization of a chameleonic dark energy model coupled to the electromagnetic field strength. This analysis provides additional motivation for current and near-future tests of axionlike and chameleon particles. We find a new bound on the coupling strength of chameleons in uniformly coupled models. We also study the effect of chameleon fields on Higgs production, which is relevant for hadron colliders. These are expected to manufacture Higgs particles through weak boson fusion, or associated production with a Z or W ± . We show that, like the Tevatron, the LHC will not be able to rule out or observe chameleons through this mechanism, because gauge invariance of the low energy Lagrangian suppresses the corrections that may arise.

  20. Turkey's High Temperature Geothermal Energy Resources and Electricity Production Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Ö.

    2012-04-01

    Turkey is in the first 7 countries in the world in terms of potential and applications. Geothermal energy which is an alternative energy resource has advantages such as low-cost, clean, safe and natural resource. Geothermal energy is defined as hot water and steam which is formed by heat that accumulated in various depths of the Earth's crust; with more than 20oC temperature and which contain more than fused minerals, various salts and gases than normal underground and ground water. It is divided into three groups as low, medium and high temperature. High-temperature fluid is used in electricity generation, low and medium temperature fluids are used in greenhouses, houses, airport runways, animal farms and places such as swimming pools heating. In this study high temperature geothermal fields in Turkey which is suitable for electricity production, properties and electricity production potential was investigated.

  1. Resource Assessment for Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production Potential from Fossil and Renewable Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the energy resources required to produce 4-10 million metric tonnes of domestic, low-carbon hydrogen in order to fuel approximately 20-50 million fuel cell electric vehicles. These projected energy resource requirements are compared to current consumption levels, projected 2040 business as usual consumptions levels, and projected 2040 consumption levels within a carbonconstrained future for the following energy resources: coal (assuming carbon capture and storage), natural gas, nuclear (uranium), biomass, wind (on- and offshore), and solar (photovoltaics and concentrating solar power). The analysis framework builds upon previous analysis results estimating hydrogen production potentials and drawing comparisons with economy-wide resource production projections

  2. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, M; Meibom, P

    2010-12-01

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO(2) quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste incineration continues to treat the largest amount of waste. Investments in new waste incineration capacity may, however, be superseded by investments in new Waste-to-Energy technologies, particularly those utilising sorted fractions such as organic waste and refuse derived fuel. The changed use of waste proves to always affect a combination of technologies. What is affected varies among the different Waste-to-Energy technologies and is furthermore dependent on the CO(2) quota costs and on the geographical scope. The necessity for investments in flexibility measures varies with the different technologies such as storage of heat and waste as well as expansion of district heating networks. Finally, inflexible technologies such as nuclear power plants are shown to be affected. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reduction of environmental and energy footprint of microalgal biodiesel production through material and energy integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Raja; Viamajala, Sridhar; Gerlach, Robin

    2012-03-01

    The life cycle impacts were assessed for an integrated microalgal biodiesel production system that facilitates energy- and nutrient- recovery through anaerobic digestion, and utilizes glycerol generated within the facility for additional heterotrophic biodiesel production. Results show that when external fossil energy inputs are lowered through process integration, the energy demand, global warming potential (GWP), and process water demand decrease significantly and become less sensitive to algal lipid content. When substitution allocation is used to assign additional credit for avoidance of fossil energy use (through utilization of recycled nutrients and biogas), GWP and water demand can, in fact, increase with increase in lipid content. Relative to stand-alone algal biofuel facilities, energy demand can be lowered by 3-14 GJ per ton of biodiesel through process integration. GWP of biodiesel from the integrated system can be lowered by up to 71% compared to petroleum fuel. Evaporative water loss was the primary water demand driver. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The feasibility of biomass production for the Netherlands energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysen, E.H.; Daey Ouwens, C.; Van Onna, M.J.G.; Blok, K.; Okken, P.A.; Goudriaan, J.

    1992-05-01

    The title study aims at providing a reliable overview of the technical and financial parameters for the available and potential methods of energy production through biomass. In the study the production of biomass has been separated as much as possible from the transport and the conversion of energy carriers such as fuels or electricity. The assessment of the feasibility is based upon data analysis in phase A of the study and subsequent interviews with key institutes and industries in the Netherlands in phase B. The problems in agriculture and environment justify an active policy with respect to the use of biomass for the Netherlands' energy economy. The developments and the programmes in other European countries and the USA, the fact that a good infrastructure is present in the Netherlands, and the possible spin-off for developing countries justify this conclusion. It is recommended to initiate a focused national programme in the field of biomass energy, properly coordinated with the present ongoing Energy from Waste programme (EWAB) and with ongoing international programmes. The programme should encompass both research and development, as well as a few demonstration projects. Research to reduce costs of biomass is important, largely through reaching higher yields. In view of the competitive kWh costs of combined biomass gasifier/steam and gas turbines systems, based upon energy and environmental considerations, development and demonstration of this system is appropriate. 14 figs., 24 tabs., 6 app., 99 refs

  5. 75 FR 32177 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Commonwealth of Massachusetts Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy [Docket Number EERE-BT-PET-0024] Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Commonwealth of Massachusetts Petition for Exemption From Federal Preemption of Massachusetts' Energy Efficiency Standard for Residential Non...

  6. One gluon, two gluon: multigluon production via high energy evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovner, Alex; Lublinsky, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We develop an approach for calculating the inclusive multigluon production within the JIMWLK high energy evolution. We give a formal expression of multigluon cross section in terms of a generating functional for arbitrary number of gluons n. In the dipole limit the expression simplifies dramatically. We recover the previously known results for single and double gluon inclusive cross section and generalize those for arbitrary multigluon amplitude in terms of Feynman diagramms of Pomeron - like objects coupled to external rapidity dependent field s(η). We confirm the conclusion that the AGK cutting rules in general are violated in multigluon production. However we present an argument to the effect that for doubly inclusive cross section the AGK diagramms give the leading contribution at high energy, while genuine violation only occurs for triple and higher inclusive gluon production. We discuss some general properties of our expressions and suggest a line of argument to simplify the approach further

  7. Production and decay of exotic fermions in high energy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz Filho, Pedro Pacheco de

    1995-05-01

    In this work, we investigate the production and decay of exotic fermions predicted by some extensions of the standard model. We select for our study the more popular models: vector singlet, vector doublet and Fermion Mirror-Fermion. We want to establish the differences between these models and also in relation to the Standard Model. We make investigations by Monte Carlo simulations, to study the phenomenology of the particles expected in these models, particularly the exotic fermions. These studies were done for electron-proton collisions at DESY HERA energies. We considered the investigation of exotic quark production, electron-positron collisions in LEP II and NLC energies in order to study the production of exotic leptons, and virtual exotic lepton contribution in the specific process e + e - → ιν-bar ι W + . (author)

  8. Process for production of a carbide by-product with microwave energy and aluminum by electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, T.E.; Finell, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    Means and method for utilizing radiated electromagnetic energy to elevate at least one of two or more reactants to a temperature at which a chemical reaction will take place so as to provide a desired reaction product. In practice, at least one of reactants must be, or be made, susceptible to heating when radiated with electromagnetic energy. Electromagnetic energy source provides sufficient power to raise the temperature of said at least one reactant to cause that reactant to further raise the temperature of associated reactant materials making them further susceptible to heating under the influence of the impinging electromagnetic energy waves. The electromagnetic energy is provided at sufficient power to raise the temperature to the point at which reactants will react chemically to produce a desired reaction product. Since the heating action is localized, little or no energy is wasted in raising the wall temperatures of the reaction vessel in which the material is radiated. The use of a temperature sensitive sphincter output of reactor vessel provides means for recovering the desired chemical reaction product and for controlling the active time of microwave energy source and the injection of new reactant material when the product of the reaction is drawn off

  9. Potential of hydrogen production from wind energy in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uqaili, M. A.; Harijan, K.; Memon, M.

    2007-01-01

    The transport sector consumes about 34% of the total commercial energy consumption in Pakistan. About 97% of fuel used in this sector is oil and the remaining 3% is CNG and electricity. The indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country is heavily dependent on the import of oil. The oil import bill is serious strain on the country's economy. The production, transportation and consumption of fossil fuels also degrade the environment. Therefore, it is important to explore the opportunities for clean renewable energy for long-term energy supply in the transport sector. Sindh, the second largest province of Pakistan, has about 250 km long coastline. The estimated average annual wind speed at 50 m height at almost all sites is about 6-7 m/s, indicating that Sindh has the potential to effectively utilize wind energy source for power generation and hydrogen production. A system consisting of wind turbines coupled with electrolyzers is a promising design to produce hydrogen. This paper presents an assessment of the potential of hydrogen production from wind energy in the coastal area of Sindh, Pakistan. The estimated technical potential of wind power is 386 TWh per year. If the wind electricity is used to power electrolyzers, 347.4 TWh hydrogen can be produced annually, which is about 1.2 times the total energy consumption in the transport sector of Pakistan in 2005. The substitution of oil with renewable hydrogen is essential to increase energy independence, improve domestic economies, and reduce greenhouse gas and other harmful emissions

  10. Energy yield for the production of ethanol from corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, X.; Frangi, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    This article establishes the primary energy balance for making ethanol out of corn in the USA, calculated from the farm to the fuel station, following a methodology described in Chavanne and Frangi (C. R. Geoscience 339 (2007) 519-535). Raw data (direct energy and material consumption as well as their heat value and external costs) come from published papers related to this topic, technical textbooks, as well as reports from the US Departments of Agriculture and Energy. For the 2001 harvest, over the area producing more than 90% of ethanol and for the 2005 network of working refineries, 100 J of ethanol and recovery of by-products (the energy saved by the replacement of animal feed by these by-products is around 12% of the ethanol heat value) needed 86 ± 3 J of energy spending, of which more than 50 J is natural gas and 62 J is used in refineries. A third of the area of Nebraska corn must be irrigated with water pumped from underground, at an added cost of 26 ± 3 J. In 1996, the extra drying required, because of heavy rains, added 6 J. By comparison, 100 J of gasoline cost less than 25 J to be produced out of crude oil. Complementary studies of resource availability are not performed here. The largest possible reduction in energy costs can be achieved at the refinery stage, by fermenting by-products, gas residues, (from 62 J to around 12 J). The article gives also an expression for the expenditure to enable comparison between different energy systems, including everything from biomass to transport. For the ethanol case, the average cost is 130 J for 100 J of corn grain heat. (authors)

  11. Bremsstrahlung and pair production in crystals at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikishov, A.I.

    1981-01-01

    The probabilities for bremsstrahlung and pair production in crystals are discussed under stringent condition when the trajectory of the high-energy electron crosses very many atoms of a crystal row (or plane). It is shown that for sufficiently long path in such conditions the probabilities are described by the formulas for these processes in a strong constant magnetic field exerting on electron the same deflection as the atom row. It turns out that for lead at energy approximately 10 12 eV the radiation length is shortened many hundred times. For greater energies the decrease of probabilities per unit length with increase of energy goes as W varies as Esup(-1/3)

  12. Production of energy in a high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The cooling gas having left the reactor core is fed to a generator for direct production of current from the kinetic energy. Afterwards the gas is fed to a heat exchanger for cooling, then compressed and refed to the reactor core. The method further comprises that one part of the energy of the fission material is directly converted to electric energy in the reactor core, whereas the other part of the energy of the fission material is impressed upon the cooling gas. According to the invention the cooling gas when entering the reactor is first fed to that part of the reactor core which serves as a thermoionic or thermoelectric transducer. Afterwards the cooling gas is fed to the remaining part of the reactor gas. (P.K.)

  13. Hydrogen Production Costs of Various Primary Energy Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Hyuk; Tak, Nam Il; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Won Seok

    2005-01-01

    The limited resource and environmental impacts of fossil fuels are becoming more and more serious problems in the world. Consequently, hydrogen is in the limelight as a future alternative energy due to its clean combustion and inexhaustibility and a transition from the traditional fossil fuel system to a hydrogen-based energy system is under considerations. Several countries are already gearing the industries to the hydrogen economy to cope with the limitations of the current fossil fuels. Unfortunately, hydrogen has to be chemically separated from the hydrogen compounds in nature such as water by using some energy sources. In this paper, the hydrogen production costs of major primary energy sources are compared in consideration of the Korean situations. The evaluation methodology is based on the report of the National Academy of Science (NAS) of U.S

  14. Technology diffusion of energy-related products in residential markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, L.J.; Bruneau, C.L.

    1987-05-01

    Acceptance of energy-related technologies by end residential consumers, manufacturers of energy-related products, and other influential intermediate markets such as builders will influence the potential for market penetration of innovative energy-related technologies developed by the Department of Energy, Office of Building and Community Systems (OBCS). In this report, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed the available information on technology adoption, diffusion, and decision-making processes to provide OBCS with a background and understanding of the type of research that has previously been conducted on this topic. Insight was gained as to the potential decision-making criteria and motivating factors that influence the decision-maker(s) selection of new technologies, and some of the barriers to technology adoption faced by potential markets for OBCS technologies.

  15. Forecast of wind energy production and ensuring required balancing power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkulov, M.

    2010-01-01

    The wind energy is gaining larger part of the energy mix around the world as well as in Bulgaria. Having in mind the irregularity of the wind, we are in front of a challenge for management of the power grid in new unknown conditions. The world's experience has proven that there could be no effective management of the grid without forecasting tools, even with small scale of wind power penetration. Application of such tools promotes simple management of large wind energy production and reduction of the quantities of required balancing powers. The share of the expenses and efforts for forecasting of the wind energy is incomparably small in comparison with expenses for keeping additional powers in readiness. The recent computers potential allow simple and rapid processing of large quantities of data from different sources, which provides required conditions for modeling the world's climate and producing sophisticated forecast. (author)

  16. Evaluation of AECB-1119, risk of energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Inhaber report, 'Risk of Energy Production', is evaluated based on how the conclusions of the report match its objectives, the methodology used to reach the report's conclusions, and the presentation of the report. The authors recommend that a second volume containing the pertinent data used in the report should be published; and that total risks should be calculated ignoring material acquisition, construction and transportation risks, using the actual energy output of the various systems without imposing a backup energy supply, and comparing systems in such a way that death, injury and disease risks may be considered separately. They propose that the Atomic Energy Control Board should show how the report results relate to nuclear safety, and that the AECB should clarify the criteria for evaluating the small probability of a catastrophic nuclear accident. The response of the author of AECB--1119 is given in a separate section

  17. Energy and exergy analyses of electrolytic hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, M A [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-07-01

    The thermodynamic performance is investigated of a water-electrolysis process for producing hydrogen, based on current-technology equipment. Both energy and exergy analyses are used. Three cases are considered in which the principal driving energy inputs are (i) electricity, (ii) the high-temperature heat used to generate the electricity, and (iii) the heat source used to produce the high-temperature heat. The nature of the heat source (e.g.) fossil fuel, nuclear fuel, solar energy, (etc.) is left as general as possible. The analyses indicate that, when the main driving input is the hypothetical heat source, the principal thermodynamic losses are associated with water splitting, electricity generation and heat production; the losses are mainly due to the irreversibilities associated with converting a heat source to heat, and heat transfer across large temperature differences. The losses associated with the waste heat in used cooling water, because of its low quality, are not as significant as energy analysis indicates. (Author)

  18. Biodiesel Production From Algae to Overcome the Energy Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliman Khan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of energy sources has reached at the level that whole world is relying on it. Being the major source of energy, fuels are considered the most important. The fear of diminishing the available sources thirst towards biofuel production has increased during last decades. Considering the food problems, algae gain the most attention to be used as biofuel producers. The use of crop and food-producing plants will never be a best fit into the priorities for biofuel production as they will disturb the food needs. Different types of algae having the different production abilities. Normally algae have 20%–80% oil contents that could be converted into different types of fuels such as kerosene oil and biodiesel. The diesel production from algae is economical and easy. Different species such as tribonema, ulothrix and euglena have good potential for biodiesel production. Gene technology can be used to enhance the production of oil and biodiesel contents and stability of algae. By increasing the genetic expressions, we can find the ways to achieve the required biofuel amounts easily and continuously to overcome the fuels deficiency. The present review article focusses on the role of algae as a possible substitute for fossil fuel as an ideal biofuel reactant.

  19. Nuclear-Renewable Energy Systems Secondary Product Market Analysis Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, Wesley Ray [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    In order to properly create a program surrounding the development of any technological concept it is necessary to fully understand the market in which it is being developed. In the case of Integrated Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems (HES), there are two economic markets in which it must be able to participate in: the electricity market and the secondary product market associated with the specific system. The purpose of the present report is to characterize the secondary product market in the U.S. and to provide recommendations for further developing the HES program. While HESs have been discussed in depth in many other reports, it is helpful to discuss them briefly in the present work [REF]. The concept of the HES can be deduced to a system, featuring a combination of a nuclear power plant, a renewable energy source, and an industrial manufacturing plant . The system is designed in a fashion that allows it either to produce electricity or to manufacture a secondary product as needed. The primary benefit of this concept lies in its ability to maximize economic performance of the integrated system and to manufacture products in a carbon-free manner. A secondary benefit is the enhanced supply-side flexibility gained by allowing the HES to economically provide grid services. A key tenant to nuclear power plant economics in today’s electricity market is their ability to operate at a very high capacity factor. Unfortunately, in regions with a high penetration of renewable energy, the carbon free energy produced by nuclear power may not be needed at all times. This forces the nuclear power plant to find a user for its excess capacity. This may include paying the electric grid to find a user, releasing energy to the environment by ‘dumping steam’, or reducing power. If the plant is unable to economically or safely do any of these actions, the plant is at risk of being shutdown. In order to allow for nuclear power plants to continue to contribute carbon free

  20. Nuclear-Renewable Energy Systems Secondary Product Market Analysis Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deason, Wesley Ray

    2015-01-01

    In order to properly create a program surrounding the development of any technological concept it is necessary to fully understand the market in which it is being developed. In the case of Integrated Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems (HES), there are two economic markets in which it must be able to participate in: the electricity market and the secondary product market associated with the specific system. The purpose of the present report is to characterize the secondary product market in the U.S. and to provide recommendations for further developing the HES program. While HESs have been discussed in depth in many other reports, it is helpful to discuss them briefly in the present work [REF]. The concept of the HES can be deduced to a system, featuring a combination of a nuclear power plant, a renewable energy source, and an industrial manufacturing plant . The system is designed in a fashion that allows it either to produce electricity or to manufacture a secondary product as needed. The primary benefit of this concept lies in its ability to maximize economic performance of the integrated system and to manufacture products in a carbon-free manner. A secondary benefit is the enhanced supply-side flexibility gained by allowing the HES to economically provide grid services. A key tenant to nuclear power plant economics in today's electricity market is their ability to operate at a very high capacity factor. Unfortunately, in regions with a high penetration of renewable energy, the carbon free energy produced by nuclear power may not be needed at all times. This forces the nuclear power plant to find a user for its excess capacity. This may include paying the electric grid to find a user, releasing energy to the environment by -dumping steam', or reducing power. If the plant is unable to economically or safely do any of these actions, the plant is at risk of being shutdown. In order to allow for nuclear power plants to continue to contribute carbon free