AN INVERSE MAXIMUM CAPACITY PATH PROBLEM WITH LOWER BOUND CONSTRAINTS
杨超; 陈学旗
2002-01-01
The computational complexity of inverse mimimum capacity path problem with lower bound on capacity of maximum capacity path is examined, and it is proved that solution of this problem is NP-complete. A strong polynomial algorithm for a local optimal solution is provided.
Maximum physical capacity testing in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy
Knutsen, L.; Quist, M; Midtgaard, J
2006-01-01
BACKGROUND: Over the past few years there has been a growing interest in the field of physical exercise in rehabilitation of cancer patients, leading to requirements for objective maximum physical capacity measurement (maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) and one-repetition maximum (1RM)) to determine...
Maximum capacities of the 100-B water plant
Strand, N.O.
1953-04-27
Increases in process water flows will be needed as the current program of increasing pile power levels continues. The future process water flows that will be required are known to be beyond the present maximum capacities of component parts of the water system. It is desirable to determine the present maximum capacities of each major component part so that plans can be mode for modifications and/or additions to the present equipment to meet future required flows. The apparent hydraulic limit of the present piles is about 68,000 gpm. This figure is based on a tube inlet pressure of 400 psi, a tube flow of 34 gpm, and 2,000 effective tubes. In this document the results of tests and calculations to determine the present maximum capacities of each major component part of the 100-B water system will be presented. Emergency steam operated pumps will not be considered as it is doubtful of year around operation of a steam driven pump could be economically justified. Some possible ways to increase the process water flows of each component part of the water system to the ultimate of 68,000 gpm are given.
Maximum work configurations of finite potential capacity reservoir chemical engines
无
2010-01-01
An isothermal endoreversible chemical engine operating between the finite potential capacity high-chemical-potential reservoir and the infinite potential capacity low-chemical-potential reservoir has been studied in this work.Optimal control theory was applied to determine the optimal cycle configurations corresponding to the maximum work output per cycle for the fixed total cycle time and a universal mass transfer law.Analyses of special examples showed that the optimal cycle configuration with the mass transfer law g∝△μ,where△μis the chemical potential difference,is an isothermal endoreversible chemical engine cycle,in which the chemical potential(or the concentration) of the key component in the working substance of low-chemical-potential side is a constant,while the chemical potentials(or the concentrations) of the key component in the finite potential capacity high-chemical-potential reservoir and the corresponding side working substance change nonlinearly with time,and the difference of the chemical potentials(or the ratio of the concentrations) of the key component between the high-chemical-potential reservoir and the working substance is a constant.While the optimal cycle configuration with the mass transfer law g∝△μc,where △μc is the concentration difference,is different from that with the mass transfer law g∝△μ significantly.When the high-chemical-potential reservoir is also an infinite potential capacity chemical potential reservoir,the optimal cycle configuration of the isothermal endoreversible chemical engine consists of two constant chemical potential branches and two instantaneous constant mass-flux branches,which is independent of the mass transfer law.The object studied in this paper is general,and the results can provide some guidelines for optimal design and operation of real chemical engines.
On the Maximum Storage Capacity of the Hopfield Model
Folli, Viola; Leonetti, Marco; Ruocco, Giancarlo
2017-01-01
Recurrent neural networks (RNN) have traditionally been of great interest for their capacity to store memories. In past years, several works have been devoted to determine the maximum storage capacity of RNN, especially for the case of the Hopfield network, the most popular kind of RNN. Analyzing the thermodynamic limit of the statistical properties of the Hamiltonian corresponding to the Hopfield neural network, it has been shown in the literature that the retrieval errors diverge when the number of stored memory patterns (P) exceeds a fraction (≈ 14%) of the network size N. In this paper, we study the storage performance of a generalized Hopfield model, where the diagonal elements of the connection matrix are allowed to be different from zero. We investigate this model at finite N. We give an analytical expression for the number of retrieval errors and show that, by increasing the number of stored patterns over a certain threshold, the errors start to decrease and reach values below unit for P ≫ N. We demonstrate that the strongest trade-off between efficiency and effectiveness relies on the number of patterns (P) that are stored in the network by appropriately fixing the connection weights. When P≫N and the diagonal elements of the adjacency matrix are not forced to be zero, the optimal storage capacity is obtained with a number of stored memories much larger than previously reported. This theory paves the way to the design of RNN with high storage capacity and able to retrieve the desired pattern without distortions. PMID:28119595
Estimating landscape carrying capacity through maximum clique analysis.
Donovan, Therese M; Warrington, Gregory S; Schwenk, W Scott; Dinitz, Jeffrey H
2012-12-01
Habitat suitability (HS) maps are widely used tools in wildlife science and establish a link between wildlife populations and landscape pattern. Although HS maps spatially depict the distribution of optimal resources for a species, they do not reveal the population size a landscape is capable of supporting--information that is often crucial for decision makers and managers. We used a new approach, "maximum clique analysis," to demonstrate how HS maps for territorial species can be used to estimate the carrying capacity, N(k), of a given landscape. We estimated the N(k) of Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapillus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) in an 1153-km2 study area in Vermont, USA. These two species were selected to highlight different approaches in building an HS map as well as computational challenges that can arise in a maximum clique analysis. We derived 30-m2 HS maps for each species via occupancy modeling (Ovenbird) and by resource utilization modeling (bobcats). For each species, we then identified all pixel locations on the map (points) that had sufficient resources in the surrounding area to maintain a home range (termed a "pseudo-home range"). These locations were converted to a mathematical graph, where any two points were linked if two pseudo-home ranges could exist on the landscape without violating territory boundaries. We used the program Cliquer to find the maximum clique of each graph. The resulting estimates of N(k) = 236 Ovenbirds and N(k) = 42 female bobcats were sensitive to different assumptions and model inputs. Estimates of N(k) via alternative, ad hoc methods were 1.4 to > 30 times greater than the maximum clique estimate, suggesting that the alternative results may be upwardly biased. The maximum clique analysis was computationally intensive but could handle problems with < 1500 total pseudo-home ranges (points). Given present computational constraints, it is best suited for species that occur in clustered distributions (where the problem can be
Power optimization for maximum channel capacity in MIMO relay system
无
2007-01-01
Introducing multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay channel could offer significant capacity gain.And it is of great importance to develop effective power allocation strategies to achieve power efficiency and improve channel capacity in amplify-and-forward relay system.This article investigates a two-hop MIMO relay system with multiple antennas in relay node (RN) and receiver (RX).Maximizing capacity with antenna selection (MCAS) and maximizing capacity with eigen-decomposition (MCED) schemes are proposed to efficiently allocate power among antennas in RN under first and second hop limited scenarios.The analysis and simulation results show that both MCED and MCAS can improve the channel capacity compared with uniform power allocation (UPA) scheme in most of the studied areas.The MCAS bears comparison with MCED with an acceptable capacity loss, but lowers the complexity by saving channel state information (CSI) feedback to the transmitter (TX).Moreover, when the RN is close to RX, the performance of UPA is also close to the upper bound as the performance of first hop is limited.
Maximum Flow in Planar Networks with Exponentially Distributed Arc Capacities.
1984-12-01
avoid constructing the dual, are described in Itai and Shiloach P 97 91. In this paper, we consider the maximum flow problem in (st) planar networks...use arc e and lies completely below P. If no such path exists we say P(e) - *. An algorithm tc construct P(e) given P and e is described in Itai and...suggested in Ford and Fulkerson [1956], developed in Berge and Ghouila-Houri [1962] and its time complexity is reduced to 0( IVI log IVI ) by Itai and
2010-01-01
@@ The State Council published"The notification about further strengthen the elimination of backward production capacity"(hereinafter referred to as"the Notification")on February 6th.Very soon China will allow market to play fundamental roles in resource allocation,and make full use of the restraining role of laws and regulations and the threshold role of technical standards in order to eliminate backward production capacity in electricity,coal,steel,cement,nonferrous metals,coke,paper,leather,printing and dye industries.
Microbial response and elimination capacity in biofilters subjected to high toluene loadings.
Song, JiHyeon; Kinney, Kerry A
2005-09-01
Elimination capacity (EC) is frequently used as a performance and design criterion for vapor-phase biofilters without further verification of the microbial quantity and activity. This study was conducted to investigate how biofilters respond to high pollutant loadings and ultimately how this affects the EC of the biofilter. Two identical laboratory-scale biofilters were maintained at an initial toluene loading rate of 46 g m-3 h-1 for a period of 24 days. After the initial biofilm development stage, the loading rates were increased to 91 g m-3 h-1 and 137 g m-3 h-1, respectively. Following a short period of pseudo-steady state, toluene removal efficiencies rapidly declined in both biofilters, with a concurrent decline in both critical and maximum ECs. The decline was mainly due to deterioration in the biodegradation activity of the biofilm and a decline in the toluene-degrading bacterial population within the biofilm phase. The findings imply that high toluene loadings accelerated the deterioration in overall performance due to a rapid accumulation of inactive biomass. As a result, care must be used when relying on EC values for biofilter design and operational purposes, since the values do not appropriately reflect the temporal changes in biodegradation activity and active biomass quantities that can occur in biofilters subjected to high inlet loadings.
Hijnen, W.A.M.; Medema, Gerriet Jan
2007-01-01
In the process of Quantitative Microbial Risk Analysis prescribed by the Dutch Drinking Water Decree quantitative information about the elimination capacity of water treatment is necessary. Site specific data can be collected by monitoring the removal of surrogates like bacteriophages, indicator bac
Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; Wu, Xing-Gang; /Chongqing U.
2012-04-02
The uncertainty in setting the renormalization scale in finite-order perturbative QCD predictions using standard methods substantially reduces the precision of tests of the Standard Model in collider experiments. It is conventional to choose a typical momentum transfer of the process as the renormalization scale and take an arbitrary range to estimate the uncertainty in the QCD prediction. However, predictions using this procedure depend on the choice of renormalization scheme, leave a non-convergent renormalon perturbative series, and moreover, one obtains incorrect results when applied to QED processes. In contrast, if one fixes the renormalization scale using the Principle of Maximum Conformality (PMC), all non-conformal {l_brace}{beta}{sub i}{r_brace}-terms in the perturbative expansion series are summed into the running coupling, and one obtains a unique, scale-fixed, scheme-independent prediction at any finite order. The PMC renormalization scale {mu}{sub R}{sup PMC} and the resulting finite-order PMC prediction are both to high accuracy independent of choice of the initial renormalization scale {mu}{sub R}{sup init}, consistent with renormalization group invariance. Moreover, after PMC scale-setting, the n!-growth of the pQCD expansion is eliminated. Even the residual scale-dependence at fixed order due to unknown higher-order {l_brace}{beta}{sub i}{r_brace}-terms is substantially suppressed. As an application, we apply the PMC procedure to obtain NNLO predictions for the t{bar t}-pair hadroproduction cross-section at the Tevatron and LHC colliders. There are no renormalization scale or scheme uncertainties, thus greatly improving the precision of the QCD prediction. The PMC prediction for {sigma}{sub t{bar t}} is larger in magnitude in comparison with the conventional scale-setting method, and it agrees well with the present Tevatron and LHC data. We also verify that the initial scale-independence of the PMC prediction is satisfied to high accuracy at the
Using Fourier-Motzkin-Elimination to Derive Capacity Models of Container Vessels
Ajspur, Mai Lise; Jensen, Rune Møller
2017-01-01
Due to its high computational complexity, Fourier-Motzkin-Elimination (FME) is mainly known as a theoretical approach to determine feasibility of a linear program (LP). Current applications of FME in static program analysis and logic programming is based on the fact that it is a transformation co...... objective is to simplify the LP by eliminating most of its variables. We show that this is possible for the key challenge in liner shipping of defining the capacity of container vessels as a function of the mixture of cargo they carry....
A MODEL FOR THE "MAXIMUM CAPACITY" OF ROOMS OR OF SPACE
Zi-yan WU
2003-01-01
A discrete optimum mathematical model to derive the "maximum capacity" of people in a roomor in a space used for public gatherings is developed. There are two outcomes in the model. One isfocused on whether the person farthest from exits can escape from the room. The other concentrateson the evacuation time of all the people in the room. According to the results of the two outcomes, amore reasonable "maximum capacity" can be worked out in a simple way.
2010-01-01
@@ In order to implement the plan and requirements set forth by the State Council to further strengthen the work of eliminating backward production capacity,and assign and implement the tasks in 2010,the working conference of the national industrial system on eliminating backward production capacity was held in Beijing on May 27th and 28th,2010.
STUDY ON MAXIMUM HYDROGEN CAPACITY FOR Zr-Ni AMORPHOUS ALLOY
无
2000-01-01
To design the amorphous hydrogen storage alloy efficiently, the maximum hydrogen capacities for Zr-Ni amorphous alloy were calculated. Based on the Rhomb Unit Structure Model(RUSM) for amorphous alloy and the experimental result that hydrogen atoms exist in 3Zr1Ni and 4Zr tetrahedron interstices in Zr-Ni amorphous alloy, the numbers of 3Zr-1Ni and 4Zr tetrahedron interstices in a RUSM were calculated which correspond to the hydrogen capacity. The two extremum Zr distribution states were calculated, such as highly heterogeneous Zr distribution and homogeneous Zr distribution. The calculated curves of hydrogen capacity with different Zr contents at two states indicate that the hydrogen capacity increases with increasing Zr content and reaches its maximum when Zr is 75%. The theoretical maximum hydrogen capacity for Zr-Ni amorphous alloy is 2.0(H/M). Meanwhile, the hydrogen capacity of heterogeneous Zr distribution alloy is higher than that of homogenous one at the same Zr content. The experimental results prove the calculated results reasonable, and accordingly, the experimental results that the distribution of Zr atom in amorphous alloy occur heterogeneous after a few hydrogen absorption-desorption cycles can be explained.
2010-01-01
@@ On January 27th,the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology spokesman Zhu Hongren revealed that the state will provide financial incentives to local governments who eliminate backward production capacity actively.
Brodsky, Stanley J
2012-01-01
The uncertainty in setting the renormalization scale in finite-order perturbative QCD predictions using standard methods substantially reduces the precision of tests of the Standard Model in collider experiments. It is conventional to choose a typical momentum transfer of the process as the renormalization scale and take an arbitrary range to estimate the uncertainty in the QCD prediction. However, predictions using this procedure depend on the choice of renormalization scheme, and moreover, one obtains incorrect results when applied to QED processes. In contrast, if one fixes the renormalization scale using the Principle of Maximum Conformality (PMC), all non-conformal $\\{\\beta_i\\}$-terms in the perturbative expansion series are summed into the running coupling, and one obtains a unique, scale-fixed, scheme-independent prediction at any finite order. The PMC renormalization scale $\\mu^{\\rm PMC}_R$ and the resulting finite-order PMC prediction are both to high accuracy independent of choice of the initial ren...
2010-01-01
@@ In order to implement the spirit of "The Announcement from the State Council about Issuing the 2009 Work Plan on Energy-Saving and Emission-Reduction" and the adjustment and revitalization plan for key industries, and further improve the work to eliminate backward production capacity, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology issued a notice on the detail breakdown and implementation of tasks to eliminate 2009 backward production capacity on November 25, 2009.
Lihui Guo
2015-01-01
Full Text Available With the increasing penetration of wind power, the randomness and volatility of wind power output would have a greater impact on safety and steady operation of power system. In allusion to the uncertainty of wind speed and load demand, this paper applied box set robust optimization theory in determining the maximum allowable installed capacity of wind farm, while constraints of node voltage and line capacity are considered. Optimized duality theory is used to simplify the model and convert uncertainty quantities in constraints into certainty quantities. Under the condition of multi wind farms, a bilevel optimization model to calculate penetration capacity is proposed. The result of IEEE 30-bus system shows that the robust optimization model proposed in the paper is correct and effective and indicates that the fluctuation range of wind speed and load and the importance degree of grid connection point of wind farm and load point have impact on the allowable capacity of wind farm.
Brodsky, Stanley J; Wu, Xing-Gang
2012-07-27
It is conventional to choose a typical momentum transfer of the process as the renormalization scale and take an arbitrary range to estimate the uncertainty in the QCD prediction. However, predictions using this procedure depend on the renormalization scheme, leave a nonconvergent renormalon perturbative series, and moreover, one obtains incorrect results when applied to QED processes. In contrast, if one fixes the renormalization scale using the principle of maximum conformality (PMC), all nonconformal {β(i)} terms in the perturbative expansion series are summed into the running coupling, and one obtains a unique, scale-fixed, scheme-independent prediction at any finite order. The PMC scale μ(R)(PMC) and the resulting finite-order PMC prediction are both to high accuracy independent of the choice of initial renormalization scale μ(R)(init), consistent with renormalization group invariance. As an application, we apply the PMC procedure to obtain next-to-next-to-leading-order (NNLO) predictions for the tt-pair production at the Tevatron and LHC colliders. The PMC prediction for the total cross section σ(tt) agrees well with the present Tevatron and LHC data. We also verify that the initial scale independence of the PMC prediction is satisfied to high accuracy at the NNLO level: the total cross section remains almost unchanged even when taking very disparate initial scales μ(R)(init) equal to m(t), 20m(t), and √s. Moreover, after PMC scale setting, we obtain A(FB)(tt)≃12.5%, A(FB)(pp)≃8.28% and A(FB)(tt)(M(tt)>450 GeV)≃35.0%. These predictions have a 1σ deviation from the present CDF and D0 measurements; the large discrepancy of the top quark forward-backward asymmetry between the standard model estimate and the data are, thus, greatly reduced.
Abhishek Khanna
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We revisit the problem of optimal power extraction in four-step cycles (two adiabatic and two heat-transfer branches when the finite-rate heat transfer obeys a linear law and the heat reservoirs have finite heat capacities. The heat-transfer branch follows a polytropic process in which the heat capacity of the working fluid stays constant. For the case of ideal gas as working fluid and a given switching time, it is shown that maximum work is obtained at Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency. Our expressions clearly show the dependence on the relative magnitudes of heat capacities of the fluid and the reservoirs. Many previous formulae, including infinite reservoirs, infinite-time cycles, and Carnot-like and non-Carnot-like cycles, are recovered as special cases of our model.
Ghiyasvand Mehdi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new problem on a directed network is presented. Let D be a feasible network such that all arc capacities are equal to U. Given a t > 0, the network D with arc capacities U - t is called the t-network. The goal of the problem is to compute the largest t such that the t-network is feasible. First, we present a weakly polynomial time algorithm to solve this problem, which runs in O(log(nU maximum flow computations, where n is the number of nodes. Then, an O(m2n time approach is presented, where m is the number of arcs. Both the weakly and strongly polynomial algorithms are inspired by McCormick and Ervolina (1994.
Yang, Hui; Zhu, Xiaoxu; Bai, Wei; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Zhu; Zhou, Ziguan; Ou, Qinghai
2016-09-01
Virtualization is considered to be a promising solution to support various emerging applications. This paper illustrates the problem of virtual mapping from a new perspective, and mainly focuses on survivable mapping of virtual networks and the potential trade-off between spectral resource usage effectiveness and failure resilience level. We design an optimum shared protection mapping (OSPM) scheme in elastic optical networks. A differentiable maximum shared capacity of each frequency slot is defined to more efficiently shared protection resource. In order to satisfy various assessment standards, a metric called ambiguity similitude is defined for the first time to give insight on the optimizing difficulty. Simulation results are presented to compare the outcome of the novel OSPM algorithm with traditional dedicated link protection and maximum shared protection mapping. By synthetic analysis, OSPM outperforms the other two schemes in terms of striking a perfect balance among blocking probability, resources utilization, protective success rate, and spectrum redundancy.
Impact of Maximum Allowable Cost on CO2 Storage Capacity in Saline Formations.
Mathias, Simon A; Gluyas, Jon G; Goldthorpe, Ward H; Mackay, Eric J
2015-11-17
Injecting CO2 into deep saline formations represents an important component of many greenhouse-gas-reduction strategies for the future. A number of authors have posed concern over the thousands of injection wells likely to be needed. However, a more important criterion than the number of wells is whether the total cost of storing the CO2 is market-bearable. Previous studies have sought to determine the number of injection wells required to achieve a specified storage target. Here an alternative methodology is presented whereby we specify a maximum allowable cost (MAC) per ton of CO2 stored, a priori, and determine the corresponding potential operational storage capacity. The methodology takes advantage of an analytical solution for pressure build-up during CO2 injection into a cylindrical saline formation, accounting for two-phase flow, brine evaporation, and salt precipitation around the injection well. The methodology is applied to 375 saline formations from the U.K. Continental Shelf. Parameter uncertainty is propagated using Monte Carlo simulation with 10 000 realizations for each formation. The results show that MAC affects both the magnitude and spatial distribution of potential operational storage capacity on a national scale. Different storage prospects can appear more or less attractive depending on the MAC scenario considered. It is also shown that, under high well-injection rate scenarios with relatively low cost, there is adequate operational storage capacity for the equivalent of 40 years of U.K. CO2 emissions.
Maximum jaw opening capacity in adolescents in relation to general joint mobility.
Westling, L; Helkimo, E
1992-09-01
Mandibular jaw opening was related with general joint mobility in a non-patient adolescent group. The angular rotation of the mandible at maximum jaw opening was slightly larger in females than in males and significantly larger in hypermobile individuals. No significant relationship between linear measuring of maximal mandibular opening capacity and peripheral joint mobility was found either at active (AROM) or at passive range of mandibular opening (PROM). PROM was strongly correlated to the mandibular length. Clinical signs in the great jaw closer muscles could not be associated to decreased AROM. The mean value of the difference between PROM-AROM (DPA) was 1.2 mm. Frequent clenching and/or grinding was correlated to increased DPA only in hypermobile adolescents (r = 0.49***). Those with DPA exceeding 5mm had all reciprocal clicking.
Del Rio Vilas, Victor J; Burgeño, Adamelia; Montibeller, Gilberto; Clavijo, Alfonso; Vigilato, Marco Antonio; Cosivi, Ottorino
2013-10-01
The region of the Americas pledged to eliminate dog-transmitted human rabies by 2015. After 30 years of sustained efforts, regional elimination appears possible as dog-mediated human rabies cases are at an all-time low, and a number of countries and territories have already eliminated the disease. In this setting, there is an opportunity to generate a framework to support countries strategies in the achievement and maintenance of rabies-free status (RFS). To this end, we describe the development of a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) model to help the evaluation of rabies programmes and the identification of the best investment strategy for countries and territories to improve and efficiently maintain their rabies status. The model contemplates human and animal related capacities, six in each area, to comprehensively assess the wide scope of rabies programmes. An initial elicitation of expert opinion of values and weights for the MCDA model was performed via a web-based questionnaire. Even at this pilot stage, the model produces comparable capacity-scores, and overall (combined for public and animal health areas) as well as area-specific investment strategies. The model is being developed by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) as part of the regional efforts towards dog-mediated human rabies elimination and will be presented to the countries for review, refinement, contextualization, and testing. The aspiration is that countries use the model to identify the best allocation of resources towards the elimination of dog-mediated human rabies.
P. Heydari
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Background: The maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max can be used to evaluate the cardio-pulmonary condition and to provide physiological balance between a person and his job. Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the maximum aerobic capacity and its associated factors among students of medical emergencies in Qazvin. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 36 male students of medical emergencies in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, 2015. The Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q and demographic questionnaire were completed by the participants. The participants meeting the inclusion criteria were assessed using the Gerkin treadmill protocol. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis. Findings: Mean maximum aerobic capacity was 1.94±0.27 L/min. The maximum aerobic capacity was associated with weight and height groups. There was significant positive correlation between maximal aerobic capacity and height, weight and body mass index. Conclusion: The Gerkin treadmill test is useful for estimation of the maximum aerobic capacity and the maximum working ability in students of medical emergencies.
L. T. Murray
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The oxidative capacity of past atmospheres is highly uncertain. We present here a new climate-biosphere-chemistry modeling framework to determine oxidant levels in the present and past troposphere. We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model driven by meteorological fields from the NASA Goddard Institute of Space Studies (GISS ModelE, with land cover and fire emissions from dynamic global vegetation models. We present time-slice simulations for the present day, late preindustrial (AD 1770, and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 19–23 ka, and we test the sensitivity of model results to uncertainty in lightning and fire emissions. We find that most preindustrial and paleo climate simulations yield reduced oxidant levels relative to the present day. Contrary to prior studies, tropospheric mean OH in our ensemble shows little change at the LGM relative to the preindustrial (0.5 ± 12%, despite large reductions in methane concentrations. We find a simple linear relationship between tropospheric mean ozone photolysis rates, water vapor, and total emissions of NOx and reactive carbon that explains 72% of the variability in global mean OH in 11 different simulations across the last glacial-interglacial time interval and the Industrial Era. Key parameters controlling the tropospheric oxidative capacity over glacial-interglacial periods include overhead stratospheric ozone, tropospheric water vapor, and lightning NOx emissions. Variability in global mean OH since the LGM is insensitive to fire emissions. Our simulations are broadly consistent with ice-core records of Δ17O in sulfate and nitrate at the LGM, and CO, HCHO, and H2O2 in the preindustrial. Our results imply that the glacial-interglacial changes in atmospheric methane observed in ice cores are predominantly driven by changes in its sources as opposed to its sink with OH.
Giese, Heiner; Azizan, Amizon; Kümmel, Anne; Liao, Anping; Peter, Cyril P; Fonseca, João A; Hermann, Robert; Duarte, Tiago M; Büchs, Jochen
2014-02-01
In biotechnological screening and production, oxygen supply is a crucial parameter. Even though oxygen transfer is well documented for viscous cultivations in stirred tanks, little is known about the gas/liquid oxygen transfer in shake flask cultures that become increasingly viscous during cultivation. Especially the oxygen transfer into the liquid film, adhering on the shake flask wall, has not yet been described for such cultivations. In this study, the oxygen transfer of chemical and microbial model experiments was measured and the suitability of the widely applied film theory of Higbie was studied. With numerical simulations of Fick's law of diffusion, it was demonstrated that Higbie's film theory does not apply for cultivations which occur at viscosities up to 10 mPa s. For the first time, it was experimentally shown that the maximum oxygen transfer capacity OTRmax increases in shake flasks when viscosity is increased from 1 to 10 mPa s, leading to an improved oxygen supply for microorganisms. Additionally, the OTRmax does not significantly undermatch the OTRmax at waterlike viscosities, even at elevated viscosities of up to 80 mPa s. In this range, a shake flask is a somehow self-regulating system with respect to oxygen supply. This is in contrary to stirred tanks, where the oxygen supply is steadily reduced to only 5% at 80 mPa s. Since, the liquid film formation at shake flask walls inherently promotes the oxygen supply at moderate and at elevated viscosities, these results have significant implications for scale-up.
Geng, Jing; Lu, Yong-long; Ren, Bing-nan; Wang, Tie-yu
2016-03-15
Phase-out of backward production facilities can significantly reduce the emissions of unintentional persistent organic pollutants from the industrial thermal process. An estimation of reduced dioxin emissions due to closure of backward production capacities is valuable to objectively evaluate China's efforts in and contribution to performing the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. Our group previously evaluated environmental effects of the phase-out of backward production facilities on dioxin emissions from 2006 to 2009. Based on the above study, due to the phase-out of backward production capacities from 2010 to 2013, the reductions in dioxin emissions to air from power generation sector, coke sector, and iron & steel (including ferroalloy) sector were estimated to be 86.13, 133.94 and 78.78 g · a⁻¹, respectively. Because the emission factors used in this paper are a little bit conservative, the actual reduced emissions may be greater than the estimated values. Besides the industrial sectors mentioned above, reduced dioxin emissions can also be estimated in more industrial sectors such as cement, calcium carbide, metal smelting and papermaking sectors. The paper also provided methods for the future comprehensive evaluation of dioxin reduction.
Benkhelifa, Fatma
2013-04-01
In this letter, we study the ergodic capacity of a maximum ratio combining (MRC) Rician fading channel with full channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter and at the receiver. We focus on the low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) regime and we show that the capacity scales as L ΩK+L SNRx log(1SNR), where Ω is the expected channel gain per branch, K is the Rician fading factor, and L is the number of diversity branches. We show that one-bit CSI feedback at the transmitter is enough to achieve this capacity using an on-off power control scheme. Our framework can be seen as a generalization of recently established results regarding the fading-channels capacity characterization in the low-SNR regime. © 2012 IEEE.
Bahrami Hamid Reza
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The ergodic capacity of MIMO frequency-flat and -selective channels depends greatly on the eigenvalue distribution of spatial correlation matrices. Knowing the eigenstructure of correlation matrices at the transmitter is very important to enhance the capacity of the system. This fact becomes of great importance in MIMO wireless systems where because of the fast changing nature of the underlying channel, full channel knowledge is difficult to obtain at the transmitter. In this paper, we first investigate the effect of eigenvalues distribution of spatial correlation matrices on the capacity of frequency-flat and -selective channels. Next, we introduce a practical scheme known as linear precoding that can enhance the ergodic capacity of the channel by changing the eigenstructure of the channel by applying a linear transformation. We derive the structures of precoders using eigenvalue decomposition and linear algebra techniques in both cases and show their similarities from an algebraic point of view. Simulations show the ability of this technique to change the eigenstructure of the channel, and hence enhance the ergodic capacity considerably.
Ar Rasyid Shadiqin
2013-11-01
Full Text Available This study is aimed to compare the blood cholesterol profile, before and after the measurement of maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max in the students of Jurusan Pendidikan Olahraga dan Kesehatan (JPOK pada Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan (FKIP Universitas Lambung Mangkurat Banjarmasin.Variables in this study consist of lipid profiles, including total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, triglyceride (TG and Maximum Aerobic Capacity (VO2max. The concept of VO2max according to Kent(1994:268: “maximum oxygen volume consumed per minute to show total work capacity, or volume per minute relative to body weight (ml/kg.min”. Operationally, VO2max referred in this study is the maximum volume of oxygen that can be consumed per minute, as measured at progressive run (Bleep Test.The method used in this study is pre-experimental with one group pretest-posttest design. This design implies that a group of subjects are treated for a specific period and the measurements are taken both pre and post.The results: There are changes in blood cholesterol profile after the measurement of maximum oxygen capacity (VO2max, shown by significant decrease of total cholesterol variable, increased HDL, and decreased LDL. Changes in triglyceride variable showed no significant decrease despite the statistic differences. Specific HDL sub-class increasing after exercise is a constructive lipoprotein sub-class whereas LDL is destructive lipoproteins sub-class that might damage the body. Therefore, an increase in HDL and decrease in LDL found in this study appears to be advantageous and consequently might alter the risk of coronary heart disease.
Shieh, Shin-Lin; Han, Yunghsiang S
2007-01-01
A common problem on sequential-type decoding is that at the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) below the one corresponding to the cutoff rate, the average decoding complexity per information bit and the required stack size grow rapidly with the information length. In order to alleviate the problem in the maximum-likelihood sequential decoding algorithm (MLSDA), we propose to directly eliminate the top path whose end node is $\\Delta$-trellis-level prior to the farthest one among all nodes that have been expanded thus far by the sequential search. Following random coding argument, we analyze the early-elimination window $\\Delta$ that results in negligible performance degradation for the MLSDA. Our analytical results indicate that the required early elimination window for negligible performance degradation is just twice of the constraint length for rate one-half convolutional codes. For rate one-third convolutional codes, the required early-elimination window even reduces to the constraint length. The suggestive theore...
BV-capacities on Wiener Spaces and Regularity of the Maximum of the Wiener Process
Trevisan, Dario
2012-01-01
We define a capacity C on abstract Wiener spaces and prove that, for any u with bounded variation, the total variation measure |Du| is absolutely continuous with respect to C: this enables us to extend the usual rules of calculus in many cases dealing with BV functions. As an application, we show that, on the classical Wiener space, the random variable sup_{0\\leqt\\leqT} W_t admits a measure as second derivative, whose total variation measure is singular w.r.t. the Wiener measure.
Assessment of Maximum Aerobic Capacity and Anaerobic Threshold of Elite Ballet Dancers.
Wyon, Matthew A; Allen, Nick; Cloak, Ross; Beck, Sarah; Davies, Paul; Clarke, Frances
2016-09-01
An athlete's cardiorespiratory profile, maximal aerobic capacity, and anaerobic threshold is affected by training regimen and competition demands. The present study aimed to ascertain whether there are company rank differences in maximal aerobic capacity and anaerobic threshold in elite classical ballet dancers. Seventy-four volunteers (M 34, F 40) were recruited from two full-time professional classical ballet companies. All participants completed a continuous incremental treadmill protocol with a 1-km/hr speed increase at the end of each 1-min stage until termination criteria had been achieved (e.g., voluntary cessation, respiratory exchange ratio <1.15, HR ±5 bpm of estimated HRmax). Peak VO2 (5-breathe smooth) was recorded and anaerobic threshold calculated using ventilatory curve and ventilatory equivalents methods. Statistical analysis reported between-subject effects for gender (F1,67=35.18, p<0.001) and rank (F1,67=8.67, p<0.001); post hoc tests reported soloists (39.5±5.15 mL/kg/min) as having significantly lower VO2 peak than artists (45.9±5.75 mL/kg/min, p<0.001) and principal dancers (48.07±3.24 mL/kg/min, p<0.001). Significant differences in anaerobic threshold were reported for age (F1,67=7.68, p=0.008) and rank (F1,67=3.56, p=0.034); post hoc tests reported artists (75.8±5.45%) having significantly lower anaerobic threshold than soloists (80.9±5.71, p<0.01) and principals (84.1±4.84%, p<0.001). The observed differences in VO2 peak and anaerobic threshold between the ranks in ballet companies are probably due to the different rehearsal and performance demands.
Ghani, Kay Dora Abd.; Tukiar, Mohd Azuan; Hamid, Nor Hayati Abdul
2017-08-01
Malaysia is surrounded by the tectonic feature of the Sumatera area which consists of two seismically active inter-plate boundaries, namely the Indo-Australian and the Eurasian Plates on the west and the Philippine Plates on the east. Hence, Malaysia experiences tremors from far distant earthquake occurring in Banda Aceh, Nias Island, Padang and other parts of Sumatera Indonesia. In order to predict the safety of precast buildings in Malaysia under near field ground motion the response spectrum analysis could be used for dealing with future earthquake whose specific nature is unknown. This paper aimed to develop of capacity demand response spectrum subject to Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) and Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) in order to assess the performance of precast beam column joint. From the capacity-demand response spectrum analysis, it can be concluded that the precast beam-column joints would not survive when subjected to earthquake excitation with surface-wave magnitude, Mw, of more than 5.5 Scale Richter (Type 1 spectra). This means that the beam-column joint which was designed using the current code of practice (BS8110) would be severely damaged when subjected to high earthquake excitation. The capacity-demand response spectrum analysis also shows that the precast beam-column joints in the prototype studied would be severely damaged when subjected to Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) with PGA=0.22g having a surface-wave magnitude of more than 5.5 Scale Richter, or Type 1 spectra.
Brileya, Kristen A; Camilleri, Laura B; Zane, Grant M; Wall, Judy D; Fields, Matthew W
2014-01-01
Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can interact syntrophically with other community members in the absence of sulfate, and interactions with hydrogen-consuming methanogens are beneficial when these archaea consume potentially inhibitory H2 produced by the SRB. A dual continuous culture approach was used to characterize population structure within a syntrophic biofilm formed by the SRB Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and the methanogenic archaeum Methanococcus maripaludis. Under the tested conditions, monocultures of D. vulgaris formed thin, stable biofilms, but monoculture M. maripaludis did not. Microscopy of intact syntrophic biofilm confirmed that D. vulgaris formed a scaffold for the biofilm, while intermediate and steady-state images revealed that M. maripaludis joined the biofilm later, likely in response to H2 produced by the SRB. Close interactions in structured biofilm allowed efficient transfer of H2 to M. maripaludis, and H2 was only detected in cocultures with a mutant SRB that was deficient in biofilm formation (ΔpilA). M. maripaludis produced more carbohydrate (uronic acid, hexose, and pentose) as a monoculture compared to total coculture biofilm, and this suggested an altered carbon flux during syntrophy. The syntrophic biofilm was structured into ridges (∼300 × 50 μm) and models predicted lactate limitation at ∼50 μm biofilm depth. The biofilm had structure that likely facilitated mass transfer of H2 and lactate, yet maximized biomass with a more even population composition (number of each organism) when compared to the bulk-phase community. Total biomass protein was equivalent in lactate-limited and lactate-excess conditions when a biofilm was present, but in the absence of biofilm, total biomass protein was significantly reduced. The results suggest that multispecies biofilms create an environment conducive to resource sharing, resulting in increased biomass retention, or carrying capacity, for cooperative populations.
Kristen Annis Brileya
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB can interact syntrophically with other community members in the absence of sulfate, and interactions with hydrogen-consuming methanogens are beneficial when these archaea consume potentially inhibitory H2 produced by the SRB. A dual continuous culture approach was used to characterize population structure within a syntrophic biofilm formed by the SRB Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and the methanogenic archaeum Methanococcus maripaludis. Under the tested conditions, monocultures of D. vulgaris formed thin, stable biofilms, but monoculture M. maripaludis did not. Microscopy of intact syntrophic biofilm confirmed that D. vulgaris formed a scaffold for the biofilm, while intermediate and steady-state images revealed that M. maripaludis joined the biofilm later, likely in response to H2 produced by the SRB. Close interactions in structured biofilm allowed efficient transfer of H2 to M. maripaludis, and H2 was only detected in cocultures with a mutant SRB that was deficient in biofilm formation ( delta pilA. M. maripaludis produced more carbohydrate (uronic acid, hexose, and pentose as a monoculture compared to total coculture biofilm, and this suggested an altered carbon flux during syntrophy. The syntrophic biofilm was structured into ridges (~300 x 50 um and models predicted lactate limitation at approximately 50 um biofilm depth. The biofilm had structure that likely facilitated mass transfer of H2 and lactate, yet maximized biomass with a more even population composition (number of each organism when compared to the bulk-phase community. Total biomass protein was equivalent in lactate-limited and lactate-excess conditions when a biofilm was present, but in the absence of biofilm, total biomass protein was significantly reduced. The results suggest that multispecies biofilms create an environment conducive to resource sharing, resulting in increased biomass retention, or carrying capacity, for cooperative
Inoue, T.; Yurimoto, H.
2012-12-01
Water is the most important volatile component in the Earth, and affects the physicochemical properties of mantle minerals, e.g. density, elastic property, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, rheological property, melting temperature, melt composition, element partitioning, etc. So many high pressure experiments have been conducted so far to determine the effect of water on mantle minerals. To clarify the maximum water storage capacity in nominally anhydrous mantle minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle is an important issue to discuss the possibility of the existence of water reservoir in the Earth mantle. So we have been clarifying the maximum water storage capacity in mantle minerals using MA-8 type (KAWAI-type) high pressure apparatus and SIMS (secondary ion mass spectroscopy). Upper mantle mineral, olivine can contain ~0.9 wt% H2O in the condition just above 410 km discontinuity in maximum (e.g. Chen et al., 2002; Smyth et al., 2006). On the other hand, mantle transition zone mineral, wadsleyite and ringwoodite can contain significant amount (about 2-3 wt.%) of H2O (e.g. Inoue et al., 1995, 1998, 2010; Kawamoto et al., 1996; Ohtani et al., 2000). But the lower mantle mineral, perovskite can not contain significant amount of H2O, less than ~0.1 wt% (e.g. Murakami et al., 2002; Inoue et al., 2010). In addition, garnet and stishovite also can not contain significant amount of H2O (e.g. Katayama et al., 2003; Mookherjee and Karato, 2010; Litasov et al., 2007). On the other hand, the water storage capacities of mantle minerals are supposed to be significantly coupled with Al by a substitution with Mg2+, Si4+ or Mg2+ + Si4+, because Al3+ is the trivalent cation, and H+ is the monovalent cation. To clarify the degree of the substitution, the water contents and the chemical compositions of Al-bearing minerals in the mantle transition zone and the lower mantle were also determined in the Al-bearing systems with H2O. We will introduce the
ZHANG Yang-zhu; HUANG Shun-hong; WAN Da-juan; HUANG Yun-xiang; ZHOU Wei-jun; ZOU Ying-bin
2007-01-01
In order to understand the status of fixed ammonium, fixed ammonium content, maximum capacity of ammonium fixation, and their influencing factors in major types of tillage soils of Hunan Province, China, were studied with sampling on fields, and laboratory incubation and determination. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) Content of fixed ammonium in the tested soils varies greatly with soil use pattern and the nature of parent material. For the paddy soils, it ranges from 135.4 ± 57.4 to 412.8±32.4 mg kg-1, with 304.7±96.7 mg kg-1 in average; while it ranges from 59.4 to 435.7 mg kg-1, with 230.1 ± 89.2 mg kg1 in average for the upland soils. The soils developed from limnic material and slate had higher fixed ammonium content than the soils developed from granite. The percentage of fixed ammonium to total N in the upland soils is always higher than that in the paddy soils. It ranges from 6.1 ± 3.6% to 16.6 ±4.6%, with 14.0% ± 5.1% in average for the paddy soils and it amounted to 5.8 ±2.0% to 40.1 ± 17.8%, with 23.5 ± 14.2% in average for upland soils. (2) The maximum capacity of ammonium fixation has the same trend with the fixed ammonium content in the tested soils. For all the tested soils, the percentage of recently fixed ammonium to maximum capacity of ammonium fixation is always bellow 20% and it may be due to the fact that the soils have high fertility and high saturation of ammonium-fixing site. (3) The clay content and clay composition in the tested soils are the two important factors influe ncing their fixed ammonium content and maximum capacity of ammonium fixation. The results showed that hydrous mica is the main 2:1 type clay mineral in ＜0.02 mm clay of the paddy soils, and its content in 0.02-0.002 mm clay is much higher than that in ＜ 0.002 mm clay of the soils. The statistical analysis showed that both the fixed ammonium content and the maximum capacity of ammonium fixation of the paddy soils were positively correlated with
Melnikov, A. A.; Kostishin, V. G.; Alenkov, V. V.
2016-09-01
Real operating conditions of a thermoelectric cooling device are in the presence of thermal resistances between thermoelectric material and a heat medium or cooling object. They limit performance of a device and should be considered when modeling. Here we propose a dimensionless mathematical steady state model, which takes them into account. Analytical equations for dimensionless cooling capacity, voltage, and coefficient of performance (COP) depending on dimensionless current are given. For improved accuracy a device can be modeled with use of numerical or combined analytical-numerical methods. The results of modeling are in acceptable accordance with experimental results. The case of zero temperature difference between hot and cold heat mediums at which the maximum cooling capacity mode appears is considered in detail. Optimal device parameters for maximal cooling capacity, such as fraction of thermal conductance on the cold side y, fraction of current relative to maximal j' are estimated in range of 0.38-0.44 and 0.48-0.95, respectively, for dimensionless conductance K' = 5-100. Also, a method for determination of thermal resistances of a thermoelectric cooling system is proposed.
Zhou, W.; Qiu, G. Y.; Oodo, S. O.; He, H.
2013-03-01
An increasing interest in wind energy and the advance of related technologies have increased the connection of wind power generation into electrical grids. This paper proposes an optimization model for determining the maximum capacity of wind farms in a power system. In this model, generator power output limits, voltage limits and thermal limits of branches in the grid system were considered in order to limit the steady-state security influence of wind generators on the power system. The optimization model was solved by a nonlinear primal-dual interior-point method. An IEEE-30 bus system with two wind farms was tested through simulation studies, plus an analysis conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed model. The results indicated that the model is efficient and reasonable.
Chappell, Mark; Odell, Jason
2004-01-01
We measured maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) and burst speed in populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from contrasting high- and low-predation habitats but reared in "common garden" conditions. We tested two hypothesis: first, that predation, which causes rapid life-history evolution in guppies, also impacts locomotor physiology, and second, that trade-offs would occur between burst and aerobic performance. VO(2max) was higher than predicted from allometry, and resting VO(2) was lower than predicted. There were small interdrainage differences in male VO(2max), but predation did not affect VO(2max) in either sex. Maximum burst speed was correlated with size; absolute burst speed was higher in females, but size-adjusted speed was greater in males. For both sexes, burst speed conformed to allometric predictions. There were differences in burst speed between drainages in females, but predation regime did not affect burst speed in either sex. We did not find a significant correlation between burst speed and VO(2max), suggesting no trade-off between these traits. These results indicate that predation-mediated evolution of guppy life history does not produce concomitant evolution in aerobic capacity and maximum burst speed. However, other aspects of swimming performance (response latencies or acceleration) might show adaptive divergence in contrasting predation regimes.
Matthew D. Beekley
2006-07-01
Full Text Available Sumo wrestling is unique in combat sport, and in all of sport. We examined the maximum aerobic capacity and body composition of sumo wrestlers and compared them to untrained controls. We also compared "aerobic muscle quality", meaning VO2max normalized to predicted skeletal muscle mass (SMM (VO2max /SMM, between sumo wrestlers and controls and among previously published data for male athletes from combat, aerobic, and power sports. Sumo wrestlers, compared to untrained controls, had greater (p < 0.05 body mass (mean ± SD; 117.0 ± 4.9 vs. 56.1 ± 9.8 kg, percent fat (24.0 ± 1.4 vs. 13.3 ± 4.5, fat-free mass (88.9 ± 4.2 vs. 48.4 �� 6.8 kg, predicted SMM (48.2 ± 2.9 vs. 20.6 ± 4.7 kg and absolute VO2max (3.6 ± 1.3 vs. 2.5 ± 0.7 L·min-1. Mean VO2max /SMM (ml·kg SMM-1·min-1 was significantly different (p < 0.05 among aerobic athletes (164.8 ± 18.3, combat athletes (which was not different from untrained controls; 131.4 ± 9.3 and 128.6 ± 13.6, respectively, power athletes (96.5 ± 5.3, and sumo wrestlers (71.4 ± 5.3. There was a strong negative correlation (r = - 0.75 between percent body fat and VO2max /SMM (p < 0.05. We conclude that sumo wrestlers have some of the largest percent body fat and fat-free mass and the lowest "aerobic muscle quality" (VO2max /SMM, both in combat sport and compared to aerobic and power sport athletes. Additionally, it appears from analysis of the relationship between SMM and absolute VO2max for all sports that there is a "ceiling" at which increases in SMM do not result in additional increases in absolute VO2max
Estevez-Canales, Marta; Kuzume, Akiyoshi; Borjas, Zulema; Füeg, Michael; Lovley, Derek; Wandlowski, Thomas; Esteve-Núñez, Abraham
2015-04-01
The ability of Geobacter species to transfer electrons outside the cell enables them to play an important role in a number of biogeochemical and bioenergy processes. Gene deletion studies have implicated periplasmic and outer-surface c-type cytochromes in this extracellular electron transfer. However, even when as many as five c-type cytochrome genes have been deleted, some capacity for extracellular electron transfer remains. In order to evaluate the role of c-type cytochromes in extracellular electron transfer, Geobacter sulfurreducens was grown in a low-iron medium that included the iron chelator (2,2'-bipyridine) to further sequester iron. Haem-staining revealed that the cytochrome content of cells grown in this manner was 15-fold lower than in cells exposed to a standard iron-containing medium. The low cytochrome abundance was confirmed by in situ nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (NERS). The cytochrome-depleted cells reduced fumarate to succinate as well as the cytochrome-replete cells do, but were unable to reduce Fe(III) citrate or to exchange electrons with a graphite electrode. These results demonstrate that c-type cytochromes are essential for extracellular electron transfer by G. sulfurreducens. The strategy for growing cytochrome-depleted G. sulfurreducens will also greatly aid future physiological studies of Geobacter species and other microorganisms capable of extracellular electron transfer.
Culley, S.; Noble, S.; Yates, A.; Timbs, M.; Westra, S.; Maier, H. R.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.
2016-09-01
Many water resource systems have been designed assuming that the statistical characteristics of future inflows are similar to those of the historical record. This assumption is no longer valid due to large-scale changes in the global climate, potentially causing declines in water resource system performance, or even complete system failure. Upgrading system infrastructure to cope with climate change can require substantial financial outlay, so it might be preferable to optimize existing system performance when possible. This paper builds on decision scaling theory by proposing a bottom-up approach to designing optimal feedback control policies for a water system exposed to a changing climate. This approach not only describes optimal operational policies for a range of potential climatic changes but also enables an assessment of a system's upper limit of its operational adaptive capacity, beyond which upgrades to infrastructure become unavoidable. The approach is illustrated using the Lake Como system in Northern Italy—a regulated system with a complex relationship between climate and system performance. By optimizing system operation under different hydrometeorological states, it is shown that the system can continue to meet its minimum performance requirements for more than three times as many states as it can under current operations. Importantly, a single management policy, no matter how robust, cannot fully utilize existing infrastructure as effectively as an ensemble of flexible management policies that are updated as the climate changes.
风电场最大注入容量的研究%RESEARCH ON CAPACITY OF WIND FARM MAXIMUM POWER INTEGRATION
王湘明; 高杨; 刘丽钧
2012-01-01
In recent years, with the increasing development and application of wind power technology, the proportion of the wind power in power system has grown up, consequently the connecting wind power had impacted much on power system. In this paper, it studies of variable speed constant frequency doubly fed wind turbine, separately join 3-kind-turbine wind farms to IEEE-14. A method combined of steady and transient state has been used to analyse the maximum capacity of power systems, and ensure the wind farm capacity maintained the system stability. Simulation results show that the number of the turbines connecting to the system will be proportional to the its power, thus determine the maximum capacity of the wind farm. The method is used to determine the largest wind farm connecting to power system capacity, thus can guarantee its own wind farm and the system stability.%以变速恒频双馈风电机组为研究对象,对IEEE-14系统分别加入3种不同功率的风力发电机组成的风电场,采用稳态和暂态相结合的方法对最大装机容量进行分析,确定能使系统保持稳定的风电场容量.仿真计算结果表明,不同功率的风机并入系统中的台数与其功率有一定的比例关系,从而确定了风电场的最大容量.利用该方法确定的风电场接入电力系统最大容量,可保证风电场自身及系统运行的稳定性.
Di Cagno, Massimiliano; Styskala, Jakub; Hlaváč, Jan
2011-01-01
Four new 3-hydroxy-quinolinone derivatives with promising anticancer activity could be solubilized using liposomes as vehicle to an extent that allows their in vitro and in vivo testing without use of toxic solvent(s). A screening method to identify the maximum incorporation capacity of hydrophobic...... drugs within liposomes was successfully applied. The compounds and lipid(s) were dissolved in methanol, and the solvent was removed by rotary evaporation. The film was resuspended with phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), and the dispersion was sonicated to reduce vesicle size. Ultracentrifugation was used...
Kuijer, P P F M; van Oostrom, S H; Duijzer, K; van Dieën, J H
2012-01-01
It is unclear whether the maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL), a common psychophysical method, reflects joint kinetics when different lifting techniques are employed. In a within-participants study (n = 12), participants performed three lifting techniques--free style, stoop and squat lifting from knee to waist level--using the same dynamic functional capacity evaluation lifting test to assess MAWL and to calculate low back and knee kinetics. We assessed which knee and back kinetic parameters increased with the load mass lifted, and whether the magnitudes of the kinetic parameters were consistent across techniques when lifting MAWL. MAWL was significantly different between techniques (p = 0.03). The peak lumbosacral extension moment met both criteria: it had the highest association with the load masses lifted (r > 0.9) and was most consistent between the three techniques when lifting MAWL (ICC = 0.87). In conclusion, MAWL reflects the lumbosacral extension moment across free style, stoop and squat lifting in healthy young males, but the relation between the load mass lifted and lumbosacral extension moment is different between techniques. Tests of maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) from knee to waist height are used to assess work capacity of individuals with low-back disorders. This article shows that the MAWL reflects the lumbosacral extension moment across free style, stoop and squat lifting in healthy young males, but the relation between the load mass lifted and lumbosacral extension moment is different between techniques. This suggests that standardisation of lifting technique used in tests of the MAWL would be indicated if the aim is to assess the capacity of the low back.
Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chiang, Pen-Chi; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chen, Chun-Da; Lin, Hsun-Yu; Chang, E-E
2013-01-01
Accelerated carbonation of basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) coupled with cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was performed in a rotating packed bed (RPB) as a promising process for both CO2 fixation and wastewater treatment. The maximum achievable capture capacity (MACC) via leaching and carbonation processes for BOFS in an RPB was systematically determined throughout this study. The leaching behavior of various metal ions from the BOFS into the CRW was investigated by a kinetic model. In addition, quantitative X-ray diffraction (QXRD) using the Rietveld method was carried out to determine the process chemistry of carbonation of BOFS with CRW in an RPB. According to the QXRD results, the major mineral phases reacting with CO2 in BOFS were Ca(OH)2, Ca2(HSiO4)(OH), CaSiO3, and Ca2Fe1.04Al0.986O5. Meanwhile, the carbonation product was identified as calcite according to the observations of SEM, XEDS, and mappings. Furthermore, the MACC of the lab-scale RPB process was determined by balancing the carbonation conversion and energy consumption. In that case, the overall energy consumption, including grinding, pumping, stirring, and rotating processes, was estimated to be 707 kWh/t-CO2. It was thus concluded that CO2 capture by accelerated carbonation of BOFS could be effectively and efficiently performed by coutilizing with CRW in an RPB.
影响内贸煤炭船最大载货能力的因素研究%Study on Influence Factors of Domestic Coal Ship Maximum Cargo Capacity
王威
2015-01-01
Under the influence of domestic coal ship navigation area, seasonal, oil-water reserves, con-stant, ship ballast water storage and other factors, the change of large cargo capacity, the paper gives the cal-culation method of domestic coal ship maximum cargo capacity, analysis of the factors affecting the domestic coal ship maximum cargo capacity and determination method, is of guiding significance in practical work.%内贸煤炭船受航区、季节、油水储备量、船舶常数、压载水存量等因素的影响，其载货能力变化较大。文章给出了计算内贸煤炭船最大载货能力的方法，分析了影响内贸煤炭船最大载货能力的各项因素及确定方法，对实际工作有指导意义。
北京电网风电发展与消纳能力%Development and Maximum Accommodating Capacity of Wind Power in Beijing Power Grid
余潇潇; 张璞; 刘兆燕; 左向红; 张凯; 田子婵
2015-01-01
结合北京地区风力资源分布情况及风力发电的并网现状，对北京地区风力发电的发展情况进行了预测。预测内容包括规划风力发电的输出特性，以及“十三五”期间北京地区风力发电的发展情况。提出了一种以电网的负荷特性、常规电源调峰能力、新能源处理特性及外受电力交换情况作为边界条件的风电消纳计算方法。运用该方法对北京电网“十二五”末及“十三五”末对风电的消纳能力进行了计算，并提出了促进北京电网风电发展的相关技术措施。%According to the distribution of wind energy resource and the present situation of wind power integration in Beijing, the forecast of wind power generation development in Beijing power grid was provided, which focused on the output characteristics of the planned wind power projects and the development of wind power generation in Beijing during the 13th national five￣year plan. A calculation method of the maximum proliferation ratio of wind power in Beijing power grid was proposed, whose boundary condition included the load characteristics of grid, the peak shift capability of local power generation plants, the new energy processing features and the power flow exchange limit with the outside grid. The method was used to calculate the maximum penetration ratio of wind power in Beijing power grid during the end of the 12th, 13th national five￣year plan. Finally, this paper suggested some related technical measures to promote the development of wind power in Beijing power grid.
Yuan, Jing; Li, Guo-xue; Zhang, Hong-yu; Luo, Yi-ming
2013-09-01
It is necessary to achieve the optimization for MSW logistics based on the new Xicheng (combining the former Xicheng and the former Xuanwu districts) and the new Dongcheng (combining the former Dongcheng and the former Chongwen districts) districts of Beijing. Based on the analysis of current MSW logistics system, transfer station's processing capacity and the terminal treatment facilities' conditions of the four former districts and other districts, a MSW logistics system was built by GIS methods considering transregional treatment. This article analyzes the MSW material balance of current and new logistics systems. Results show that the optimization scheme could reduce the MSW collection distance of the new Xicheng and the new Dongcheng by 9.3 x 10(5) km x a(-1), reduced by 10% compared with current logistics. Under the new logistics solution, considering transregional treatment, can reduce landfill treatment of untreated MSW about 28.3%. If the construction of three incineration plants finished based on the new logistics, the system's optimal ratio of incineration: biochemical treatment: landfill can reach 3.8 : 4.5 : 1.7 compared with 1 : 4.8 : 4.2, which is the ratio of current MSW logistics. The ratio of the amount of incineration: biochemical treatment: landfill approximately reach 4 : 3 : 3 which is the target for 2015. The research results are benefit in increasing MSW utilization and reduction rate of the new Dongcheng and Xicheng districts and nearby districts.
De Kauwe, Martin G; Lin, Yan-Shih; Wright, Ian J; Medlyn, Belinda E; Crous, Kristine Y; Ellsworth, David S; Maire, Vincent; Prentice, I Colin; Atkin, Owen K; Rogers, Alistair; Niinemets, Ülo; Serbin, Shawn P; Meir, Patrick; Uddling, Johan; Togashi, Henrique F; Tarvainen, Lasse; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Evans, Bradley J; Ishida, F Yoko; Domingues, Tomas F
2016-05-01
Simulations of photosynthesis by terrestrial biosphere models typically need a specification of the maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax ). Estimating this parameter using A-Ci curves (net photosynthesis, A, vs intercellular CO2 concentration, Ci ) is laborious, which limits availability of Vcmax data. However, many multispecies field datasets include net photosynthetic rate at saturating irradiance and at ambient atmospheric CO2 concentration (Asat ) measurements, from which Vcmax can be extracted using a 'one-point method'. We used a global dataset of A-Ci curves (564 species from 46 field sites, covering a range of plant functional types) to test the validity of an alternative approach to estimate Vcmax from Asat via this 'one-point method'. If leaf respiration during the day (Rday ) is known exactly, Vcmax can be estimated with an r(2) value of 0.98 and a root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 8.19 μmol m(-2) s(-1) . However, Rday typically must be estimated. Estimating Rday as 1.5% of Vcmax, we found that Vcmax could be estimated with an r(2) of 0.95 and an RMSE of 17.1 μmol m(-2) s(-1) . The one-point method provides a robust means to expand current databases of field-measured Vcmax , giving new potential to improve vegetation models and quantify the environmental drivers of Vcmax variation.
Brdareski Zorica
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Regular physical activity and exercise improves quality of life and possibly reduces risk of disease relapse and prolongs survival in breast cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a 3-week moderate intensity aerobic training, on aerobic capacity (VO2max in breast cancer survivors. Methods. A prospective, randomized clinical study included 18 female breast cancer survivors in stage I-IIIA, in which the primary treatment was accomplished at least 3 months before the study inclusion. In all the patients VO2max was estimated using the Astrand’s protocol on a bicycle-ergometer (before and after 3 weeks of training, while subjective assessment of exertion during training were estimated by the Category-Ratio RPE Scale. Each workout lasted 21 minutes: 3 minutes for warmup and cool-down each and 15 min of full training, 2 times a week. The workload in the group E1 was predefined at the level of 45% to 65% of individual VO2max, and in the group E2 it was based on subjective evaluation of exertion, at the level marked 4-6. Data on the subjective feeling of exertion were collected after each training course in both groups. Results. We recorded a statistically significant improvement in VO2max in both groups (E1 - 11.86%; E2 - 17.72%, with no significant differences between the groups. The workload level, determined by the percent of VO2max, was different between the groups E1 and E2 (50.47 ± 7.02% vs 55.58 ± 9.58%, as well as subjective perception of exertion (in the groups E1 and E2, 11.6% and 41.6% of training, respectively, was graded in the mark 6. Conclusion. In our group of breast cancer survivors, a 3-week moderate intensity aerobic training significantly improved the level of VO2max.
Tønnessen, Espen; Shalfawi, Shaher A I; Haugen, Thomas; Enoksen, Eystein
2011-09-01
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 10 weeks' 40-m repeated sprint training program that does not involve strength training on sprinting speed and repeated sprint speed on young elite soccer players. Twenty young well-trained elite male soccer players of age (±SD) 16.4 (±0.9) years, body mass 67.2 (±9.1) kg, and stature 176.3 (±7.4) cm volunteered to participate in this study. All participants were tested on 40-m running speed, 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed, 20-m acceleration speed, 20-m top speed, countermovement jump (CMJ), and aerobic endurance (beep test). Participants were divided into training group (TG) (n = 10) and control group (CG) (n = 10). The study was conducted in the precompetition phase of the training program for the participants and ended 13 weeks before the start of the season; the duration of the precompetition period was 26 weeks. The TG followed a Periodized repeated sprint training program once a week. The training program consisted of running 40 m with different intensities and duration from week to week. Within-group results indicate that TG had a statistically marked improvement in their performance from pre to posttest in 40-m maximum sprint (-0.06 seconds), 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed (-0.12 seconds), 20- to 40-m top speed (-0.05 seconds), and CMJ (2.7 cm). The CG showed only a statistically notable improvement from pre to posttest in 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed (-0.06 seconds). Between-group differences showed a statistically marked improvement for the TG over the CG in 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed (-0.07 seconds) and 20- to 40-m top speed (-0.05 seconds), but the effect of the improvement was moderate. The results further indicate that a weekly training with repeated sprint gave a moderate but not statistically marked improvement in 40-m sprinting, CMJ, and beep test. The results of this study indicate that the repeated sprint program had a positive effect on several of the parameters tested
动态约束下的风电场最大可接入容量研究%Research on maximum access capacity of wind farm based on dynamic constraints
张俊; 晁勤; 段晓田; 袁铁江
2011-01-01
基于DIgSILENT/Power Factory仿真平台建立了新疆某地区含风电场的电力系统仿真模型,以电压和频率两个电气量作为动态约束条件,通过对风电场的穿透功率极限的计算和仿真,确定了该地区电网的风电场最大可接入容量.研究结果表明:采用频率约束法计算和时域仿真分析相结合确定的风电场最大可接入容量,能保证风电系统的稳定运行;并且优化影响风电系统稳定运行的因素和不同约束条件,对确定系统的风电场最大可接入容量和风电场的设计、运行和规划都有重要意义.%In this paper, a simulation model of power system with wind farm in some area of Xinjiang is established based on the DIgSILENT/Power Factory simulation platform. The wind power penetration limit is calculated and simulated with voltage and frequency being considered as dynamic constraints, and then the maximum access capacity of wind power plant of Xinjiang is determined. Research results show that the maximum access capacity of wind farm that determined by the combination of the frequency restriction and the time simulation can ensure the stability of wind power system. Besides, the optimization of some factors and other security constraints play a significant role in determining the maximum access capacity of wind farm and its designing,operating and planning.This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 50667002).
Kinkhabwala, Ali
2013-01-01
The most fundamental problem in statistics is the inference of an unknown probability distribution from a finite number of samples. For a specific observed data set, answers to the following questions would be desirable: (1) Estimation: Which candidate distribution provides the best fit to the observed data?, (2) Goodness-of-fit: How concordant is this distribution with the observed data?, and (3) Uncertainty: How concordant are other candidate distributions with the observed data? A simple unified approach for univariate data that addresses these traditionally distinct statistical notions is presented called "maximum fidelity". Maximum fidelity is a strict frequentist approach that is fundamentally based on model concordance with the observed data. The fidelity statistic is a general information measure based on the coordinate-independent cumulative distribution and critical yet previously neglected symmetry considerations. An approximation for the null distribution of the fidelity allows its direct conversi...
黎冰; 高玉峰; 沙成明; 童小东
2012-01-01
To accurately determine the maximum pull-out loading capacity of suction caisson foundation in sand, the limit equilibrium method is applied. Based on the mechanical characteristics of suction caisson foundation with horizontal translation, a method for three-dimensional limit equilibrium analysis of maximum pull-out loading capacity of suction caisson foundation in sand is proposed. In the proposed method, the development process of earth pressure and shear resistance with displacement, and the characteristics of different earth pressure and side shear resistance over the caisson cross-section are considered. The earth pressure acting on the caisson is assumed to obey the Winkler model and is not in excess of the limiting earth pressure. The shear resistance between caisson and soil is assumed to be linearly proportional to the relative displacement between them before reaching its ultimate value. Fifteen model tests of suction caisson foundation under horizontal loading in sand are conducted to investigate its pull-out behaviors, and the load-displacement curves are obtained. The calculation results by the proposed method agree well with the experimental results, indicating that the proposed method is accurate and effective. Key w%为了准确确定砂土中吸力式沉箱基础的最大承载力,应用极限平衡法对其进行分析.基于吸力式沉箱基础平动时的受力特点,充分考虑土压力和摩擦力的发挥过程以及沉箱横截面上各点土压力大小的不同,提出了一种计算砂土中吸力式沉箱基础最大承载力的三维极限平衡方法.方法中假定沉箱侧壁土压力满足Winkler模型,但其值不超过水平极限土压力值;假定沉箱侧壁与地基土之间的摩擦力在达到最大值之前与两者之间的相对位移成线性正比关系.开展了15组水平荷载作用下吸力式沉箱基础的模型试验,得到了吸力式沉箱基础的荷载-位移曲线.利用所提方法得到的计
Mari Lucia Campos
2007-12-01
Full Text Available A alta toxicidade do As aos animais e humanos e a possibilidade de existência de grande número de áreas contaminadas tornam imprescindível o conhecimento do teor semitotal em solos ditos não-contaminados e dos processos de adsorção do As em solos de carga variável. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o teor e a capacidade máxima de adsorção de As (CMADS AS em Latossolos. O teor total foi determinado pelo método USEPA 3051A, e a CMADS As, com auxílio de isotermas de Langmuir com base nos valores de adsorção obtidos em dose de As (0, 90, 190, 380, 760 e 1.150 µmol L-1 (relação solo:solução final = 1:100, a pH 5,5 e força iônica de 15 mmol L-1. Os 17 Latossolos apresentaram teor médio total de As de 5,92 mg kg-1 e CMADS As média de 2.013 mg kg-1. O teor de argila e os óxidos de Fe e Al apresentaram influência positiva na CMADS As.In view of the toxicity of As for man and animals and the possibility of existence of a great number of contaminated areas it is imperative to know the total As content in soils considered uncontaminated and about As sorption processes in soils of variable charge. The objective of this work was to determine the total content and maximum capacity of As adsorption (CMADS As in Oxisols. The total content was determined by the USEPA 3051A method. The cmADS As was determined by the Langmuir Isotherms using six solution concentrations (0, 0.09, 0.19, 0.38, 0.76, 1.15 mmol L-1 (1:100 soil: solution ratio, pH values 5.5 and ionic strength 15 mmol L-1. In the 17 Oxisols the average total As content was 5.92 mg kg-1 and mean cmADS As was 2.013 mg kg-1. Clay, and Fe and Al oxides content influenced cmADSs positively.
Heule, Marijn; Biere, Armin
2010-01-01
Generalizing the novel clause elimination procedures developed in [M. Heule, M. J\\"arvisalo, and A. Biere. Clause elimination procedures for CNF formulas. In Proc. LPAR-17, volume 6397 of LNCS, pages 357-371. Springer, 2010.], we introduce explicit (CCE), hidden (HCCE), and asymmetric (ACCE) variants of a procedure that eliminates covered clauses from CNF formulas. We show that these procedures are more effective in reducing CNF formulas than the respective variants of blocked clause elimination, and may hence be interesting as new preprocessing/simplification techniques for SAT solving.
Department of Homeland Security — USCIS is streamlining the way immigration benefits are delivered. By working smarter and eliminating redundancies, USCIS is bringing a business model to government....
Carla Aparecida Cielo
2012-06-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar e correlacionar os tempos máximos de fonação (TMF de vogais, a capacidade vital (CV e os tipos de afecções laríngeas (AL de mulheres com disfonia organofuncional (DOF. MÉTODO: pesquisa retrospectiva, transversal, exploratória, não experimental, quantitativa, com banco de dados de medidas de TMF [a, i, u], de CV e de AL de mulheres com DOF; e os testes estatísticos Qui- quadrado e exato de Fisher, para verificar as diferenças entre as variáveis e suas relações e o teste binomial, a fim de verificar a significância de proporção ou percentual da análise descritiva, com pPURPOSE: to determine and to correlate the maximum phonation times (MPT of vowels, vital capacity (VC and laryngeal disorders (LD for women with benign organic lesions resulting from vocal misuse or abuse (BOL. METHOD: retrospective, transverse, exploratory, non-experimental, quantitative study, with measurement database of MPT [a, i, u], VC and LD of women with BOL, and Chi-Square statistic and exact tests of Fisher in order to investigate the differences between the variables and their relationships and a binomial test in order to check the significance of proportion or percentage of descriptive analysis, with p<0.05. RESULTS: the majority (22; 75.86% showed MPT significantly reduced (p = 0.0053 and seven (24.14% normal MPT. The normal VC was statistically significant (p = 0.0001 (26; 89.66%, but three women (10.34% showed it to be reduced. There was significant dominance of vocal nodules (p = 0.0016 (22; 75.86%, followed by Reinke's edema (6, 20.69% and vocal polyp (1; 3.45%. Among the 22 woman (75.86% which showed reduced MPT, there was a predominance with normal VC (19; 86.36%, although no statistical significance (p = 0,558. All the individuals with normal MPT showed VC normal (7; 100%. The majority with BOL showed normal VC, although not statistically significant (p=0,199. There was a predominance of vocal nodules and reduced MPT (16; 72
Fábio Broggi
2011-02-01
Full Text Available O Fator Capacidade de Fósforo (FCP é definido pela razão de equilíbrio entre o fator quantidade de P (Q e o fator intensidade (I e representa uma medida da capacidade do solo em manter um determinado nível de P em solução. As características e o teor dos constituintes minerais da fração argila são responsáveis por uma maior ou menor FCP, interferindo nas relações solo-planta. Por outro lado, o pH do solo tem, em alguns casos, mostrado-se com efeito na adsorção e, em outros, com pequena e não consistente alteração na Capacidade Máxima de Adsorção de P (CMAP. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, determinar o FCP de solos mineralogicamente diferentes em Pernambuco; correlacionar características físicas e químicas dos solos com o FCP; e avaliar o efeito do pH na CMAP. Amostras subsuperficiais de quatro solos, mineralogicamente diferentes, foram caracterizadas química e fisicamente e determinado o FCP. Essas amostras foram corrigidas com CaCO3 e MgCO3 na proporção 4:1 e incubadas por 30 dias, com exceção do Vertissolo. Determinou-se a CMAP antes e após a correção dos solos. O experimento consistiu de um fatorial 4 x 2 (quatro solos com e sem correção, distribuídos em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. As características dos solos que melhor refletiram o FCP foram o P remanescente (P-rem e a CMAP. Independentemente dos constituintes mineralógicos da fração argila, solos com elevados teores de alumínio apresentaram aumento da CMAP com a correção. A energia de adsorção (EA nos solos corrigidos foi, em média, significativamente menor, independentemente do solo.Phosphate Maximum Capacity (FCP is defined by the ratio of equilibrium between the amount of factor P (Q and factor intensity (I and represents a measure of the soil ability to maintain a certain level of P in solution. The characteristics and content of the constituents of clay minerals are responsible for a greater or lesser FCP, interfering in soil
Minding Rachlin's Eliminative Materialism
McDowell, J. J.
2012-01-01
Rachlin's teleological behaviorism eliminates the first-person ontology of conscious experience by identifying mental states with extended patterns of behavior, and thereby maintains the materialist ontology of science. An alternate view, informed by brain-based and externalist philosophies of mind, is shown also to maintain the materialist…
Minding Rachlin's Eliminative Materialism
McDowell, J. J.
2012-01-01
Rachlin's teleological behaviorism eliminates the first-person ontology of conscious experience by identifying mental states with extended patterns of behavior, and thereby maintains the materialist ontology of science. An alternate view, informed by brain-based and externalist philosophies of mind, is shown also to maintain the materialist…
Somerville, Kevin; Francombe, Paula
2005-01-01
The effect of the elimination of mortality from heart disease and cancer was modelled mathematically to allow for the effect of other competing causes of death. The model allows for potential dependence between heart disease or cancer and other causes of death by using cupola functions, which analyse the individual risk itself and the dependence structure between causes of death by using correlation coefficients. As the strength of these risk associations is unknown, the study investigated both full positive and negative dependence and compared this with no dependence. Depending upon the degree and type of correlation assumed, positive or negative, the life expectancy at birth is increased by between 3 months and 6.5 years if cancer mortality was eliminated, and between 5 months and 7.5 years in the case of heart disease. In addition, estimates of these effects on life insurance premia can be made with the greatest reduction for women with the elimination of cancer mortality. These figures provide a range of improvements in life expectancy and the consequent effect on life insurance risk premium rates which elimination of either of these important diseases would produce.
Maximum privacy without coherence, zero-error
Leung, Debbie; Yu, Nengkun
2016-09-01
We study the possible difference between the quantum and the private capacities of a quantum channel in the zero-error setting. For a family of channels introduced by Leung et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 030512 (2014)], we demonstrate an extreme difference: the zero-error quantum capacity is zero, whereas the zero-error private capacity is maximum given the quantum output dimension.
The inverse maximum dynamic flow problem
BAGHERIAN; Mehri
2010-01-01
We consider the inverse maximum dynamic flow (IMDF) problem.IMDF problem can be described as: how to change the capacity vector of a dynamic network as little as possible so that a given feasible dynamic flow becomes a maximum dynamic flow.After discussing some characteristics of this problem,it is converted to a constrained minimum dynamic cut problem.Then an efficient algorithm which uses two maximum dynamic flow algorithms is proposed to solve the problem.
Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission
2012-11-26
In this podcast, CDCâs Dr. Steve Nesheim discusses perinatal HIV transmission, including the importance of preventing HIV among women, preconception care, and timely HIV testing of the mother. Dr. Nesheim also introduces the revised curriculum Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission intended for faculty of OB/GYN and pediatric residents and nurse midwifery students. Created: 11/26/2012 by Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention. Date Released: 11/26/2012.
Targeting rubella for elimination
Davendra K Taneja
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Rubella is an acute, usually mild viral disease. However, when rubella infection occurs just before conception or during the first 8-10 weeks of gestation, it causes multiple fetal defects in up to 90% of cases, known as Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS. It may result in fetal wastage, stillbirths and sensorineural hearing deficit up to 20 weeks of gestation. Rubella vaccine (RA 27/3 is highly effective and has resulted in elimination of rubella and CRS from the western hemisphere and several European countries. Review of several studies documents the duration of protection over 10-21 years following one dose of RA27/3 vaccination, and persistent seropositivity in over 95% cases. Studies in India show seronegativity to rubella among adolescent girls to vary from 10% to 36%. Although due to early age of infection resulting in protection in the reproductive age group, incidence of rubella in India is not very high. However, due to severity of CRS coupled with introduction of RCV in private sector and in some of the states which is likely to lead to sub-optimal coverage and resulting higher risk of rubella during pregnancy in the coming decades, it is imperative to adopt the goal of rubella elimination. As in order to control measles, the country has adopted strategy of delivering second dose of measles through measles campaigns covering children 9 months to 10 years of age in 14 states, it is recommended to synergize efforts for elimination of rubella with these campaigns by replacing measles vaccine by MR or MMR vaccine. Other states which are to give second dose of measles through routine immunization will also have to adopt campaign mode in order to eliminate rubella from the country over 10-20 years. Subsequently, measles vaccine can be replaced by MR or MMR vaccine in the national schedule.
罗铭; 刚傲
2016-01-01
In the modernization process of social transformation and development ,one of the important factors which influ-ence and restrict the Beijing -Tianjin - Hebei(BTH)wing area one of reality for the sustainable development is water short-age .This research is quantitative research by the method of carrying population in BTH region water can carry the size of population and economic development .Model validation results show that in the short term ,water quantity of the BTH re-gion population carrying capacity of rich ,can alleviate the contradiction between supply and demand of water resources ;But since the 2025 years ,because the population of the region water resources carrying capacity is insufficient ,the BTH region again go into a period of scarcity .After the implementation of south - to - north water diversion project ,BTH region ob-tained a certain degree of increase ,the water resources carrying capacity in population growth ,however ,under the situation of water resources carrying population are almost limited .Based on this ,the problem of water shortages in exploring the BTH resolution strategy ,not just focus on water saving and water diversion engineering problems ,also need to include for the population growth factors ,avoid excessive increase in population .Otherwise ,the results obtained with water ,is likely to be excessive increase of the population consume ,not really solve the problem of water shortage .%应用“承载人口数”方法定量研究了京、津、冀地区总的水资源所能承载的人口数量与经济发展规模。模型验证结果表明：在短期内，京、津、冀地区的水资源量人口承载能力富足，能缓解水资源供需矛盾；但从2025年后，由于该地区水资源量人口承载能力不足，则京、津、冀地区又重新陷入水资源匮乏时期。南水北调实施以后，京、津、冀地区水资源承载力获得了一定程度的增加，然而在人口增长的态势下，水资
Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.
2000-01-01
This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from...
Efforts to Eliminate Illiteracy
无
2000-01-01
FOLLOWING the Chinese women's emancipation movement, the Chinese women's illiteracy elimination drive has also gone through a history of 50 years. Although this task is a huge and arduous one, due to various historical, economic and ideological reasons, the rate of illiteracy amongst Chinese women has declined from 90 percent immediately after the founding of New China in 1949 to the present level of 23 percent. The rate of girls going to school has risen from 20 percent to 96.8 percent. Among
Risks: diagnosing and eliminating
Yuriy A. Tikhomirov
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Objective to develop conceptual theoretical and legal provisions and scientific recommendations on the identification analysis and elimination of risk. Methods universal dialectic method of cognition as well as scientific and private research methods based on it. Results the system was researched of risks diagnostics in the legal sphere and mechanism of influencing the quotrisk situationsquot and their consequences damage to the environment and harm to society. The concept of risk in the legal sphere was formulated the author39s classification of risks in the legal sphere is presented. The rules of analysis evaluation and prevention of risks and the model risk management framework are elaborated. Scientific novelty the mechanism for the identification analysis and elimination of risk has been developed and introduced into scientific circulation the author has proposed the classification and types of risks the reasons and the conditions promoting the risk occurrence. Practical significance the provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in the scientific lawmaking and lawenforcement activity as well as in the educational process of higher educational establishments. nbsp
Landex, Alex
2011-01-01
Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station...
Landex, Alex
2011-01-01
Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...
Eliminating rabies in Estonia.
Florence Cliquet
Full Text Available The compulsory vaccination of pets, the recommended vaccination of farm animals in grazing areas and the extermination of stray animals did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in two main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs. These two species became a priority target therefore in order to control rabies. Supported by the European Community, successive oral vaccination (OV campaigns were conducted twice a year using Rabigen® SAG2 baits, beginning in autumn 2005 in North Estonia. They were then extended to the whole territory from spring 2006. Following the vaccination campaigns, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased, with 266 cases in 2005, 114 in 2006, four in 2007 and three in 2008. Since March 2008, no rabies cases have been detected in Estonia other than three cases reported in summer 2009 and one case in January 2011, all in areas close to the South-Eastern border with Russia. The bait uptake was satisfactory, with tetracycline positivity rates ranging from 85% to 93% in foxes and from 82% to 88% in raccoon dogs. Immunisation rates evaluated by ELISA ranged from 34% to 55% in foxes and from 38% to 55% in raccoon dogs. The rabies situation in Estonia was compared to that of the other two Baltic States, Latvia and Lithuania. Despite regular OV campaigns conducted throughout their territory since 2006, and an improvement in the epidemiological situation, rabies has still not been eradicated in these countries. An analysis of the number of baits distributed and the funding allocated by the European Commission showed that the strategy for rabies control is more cost-effective in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania.
Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.; Steenfelt, Agnete
2000-01-01
This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from an ordinary non-spatial factor analysis, and they are interpreted in a geological context. It is demonstrated that MAF analysis contrary to ordinary non-spatial factor analysis gives an objective discrimina...
Quantum State Detection Via Elimination
Ettinger, J M; Hoyer, Peter
1999-01-01
We present the view of quantum algorithms as a search-theoretic problem. We show that the Fourier transform, used to solve the Abelian hidden subgroup problem, is an example of an efficient elimination observable which eliminates a constant fraction of the candidate secret states with high probability. Finally, we show that elimination observables do not always exist by considering the geometry of the hidden subgroup states of the dihedral group D_N.
Elimination of Onchocerciasis from Mexico.
Mario A Rodríguez-Pérez
Full Text Available Mexico is one of the six countries formerly endemic for onchocerciasis in Latin America. Transmission has been interrupted in the three endemic foci of that country and mass drug distribution has ceased. Three years after mass drug distribution ended, post-treatment surveillance (PTS surveys were undertaken which employed entomological indicators to check for transmission recrudescence.In-depth entomologic assessments were performed in 18 communities in the three endemic foci of Mexico. None of the 108,212 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected from the three foci were found to contain parasite DNA when tested by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA, resulting in a maximum upper bound of the 95% confidence interval (95%-ULCI of the infective rate in the vectors of 0.035/2,000 flies examined. This is an order of magnitude below the threshold of a 95%-ULCI of less than one infective fly per 2,000 flies tested, the current entomological criterion for interruption of transmission developed by the international community. The point estimate of seasonal transmission potential (STP was zero, and the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval for the STP ranged from 1.2 to 1.7 L3/person/season in the different foci. This value is below all previous estimates for the minimum transmission potential required to maintain the parasite population.The results from the in-depth entomological post treatment surveillance surveys strongly suggest that transmission has not resumed in the three foci of Mexico during the three years since the last distribution of ivermectin occurred; it was concluded that transmission remains undetectable without intervention, and Onchocerca volvulus has been eliminated from Mexico.
33 CFR 183.53 - Horsepower capacity.
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horsepower capacity. 183.53...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Safe Powering § 183.53 Horsepower capacity. The maximum horsepower capacity marked on a boat must not exceed the horsepower capacity determined by the...
Maria Regina Machado Perrotti
2000-02-01
Full Text Available Objetivo: comparar a capacidade de diagnosticar oligoâmnio pela ultra-sonografia por meio de diferentes valores do maior bolsão de líquido amniótico, em comparação ao índice de líquido amniótico (ILA, em gestantes normais, de 36 a 42 semanas de gestação. Métodos: realizou-se um estudo descritivo de validação de método diagnóstico, incluindo 875 gestantes normais. Mediante um exame ultra-sonográfico obstétrico de rotina, foi feita a medida do maior bolsão de líquido amniótico para o diagnóstico de oligoâmnio, utilizando como padrão-ouro o índice de líquido amniótico. Os dados foram analisados por meio do cálculo da sensibilidade e da especificidade da medida do maior bolsão de líquido amniótico, utilizando os diferentes pontos de corte de 10, 20 e 30 mm, em comparação aos valores normais do índice de líquido amniótico determinados pelos percentis 2,5 e 10 nas respectivas idades gestacionais. Resultados: a medida do maior bolsão de líquido amniótico apresenta baixa sensibilidade para diagnosticar oligoâmnio quando se adotam os pontos de corte 10 e 20 mm, e boa sensibilidade e especificidade quando se adota 30 mm, quando comparadas às medidas do índice de líquido amniótico nos percentis 2,5 e 10 da curva normal. A sensibilidade e especificidade da medida do maior bolsão são melhores, quando se adota o ponto de corte de 30 mm para diagnosticar oligoâmnio em comparação ao percentil 2,5. Conclusões: a capacidade de diagnosticar oligoâmnio pela medida do maior bolsão é satisfatória apenas com o ponto de corte em 30 mm.Purpose: to compare the capacity of diagnosing oligohy-dramnios by ultrasound using different measures of the maximum pool depth of amniotic fluid in comparison to the amniotic fluid index among normal pregnant women from the 36th to the 42nd week of gestation. Methods: a descriptive study of diagnostic validity was perfomed, on 875 normal pregnant women who were studied through
Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente
2012-01-01
A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive...... carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative carrying capacity (ACC). The act mandates that the latter two aspects must be taken into consideration in the local spatial plans. The present study aimed at developing a background for a national guideline for carrying capacity in Indonesian provinces and districts...... standard or governmental political objective exists. In most cases it was possible to select a set of indicators, including thresholds that are workable in a carrying capacity planning at the local administrative levels. Not all relevant sectors at the decentralized level were included. Indicators of SCC...
Maximum likely scale estimation
Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo
2005-01-01
A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...
Maximum information photoelectron metrology
Hockett, P; Wollenhaupt, M; Baumert, T
2015-01-01
Photoelectron interferograms, manifested in photoelectron angular distributions (PADs), are a high-information, coherent observable. In order to obtain the maximum information from angle-resolved photoionization experiments it is desirable to record the full, 3D, photoelectron momentum distribution. Here we apply tomographic reconstruction techniques to obtain such 3D distributions from multiphoton ionization of potassium atoms, and fully analyse the energy and angular content of the 3D data. The PADs obtained as a function of energy indicate good agreement with previous 2D data and detailed analysis [Hockett et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 223001 (2014)] over the main spectral features, but also indicate unexpected symmetry-breaking in certain regions of momentum space, thus revealing additional continuum interferences which cannot otherwise be observed. These observations reflect the presence of additional ionization pathways and, most generally, illustrate the power of maximum information measurements of th...
Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente
2012-01-01
A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive...... and ACC may increase the political focus on resources and environmental issues and may help to move local authorities towards a more holistic spatial planning approach. A carrying capacity approach could be an inspiration for local spatial planning in developing countries. A spatial planning act...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...
Dual capacity reciprocating compressor
Wolfe, Robert W.
1984-01-01
A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.
Maximum Likelihood Associative Memories
Gripon, Vincent; Rabbat, Michael
2013-01-01
Associative memories are structures that store data in such a way that it can later be retrieved given only a part of its content -- a sort-of error/erasure-resilience property. They are used in applications ranging from caches and memory management in CPUs to database engines. In this work we study associative memories built on the maximum likelihood principle. We derive minimum residual error rates when the data stored comes from a uniform binary source. Second, we determine the minimum amo...
Maximum likely scale estimation
Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo
2005-01-01
A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and....../or having different derivative orders. Although the principle is applicable to a wide variety of image models, the main focus here is on the Brownian model and its use for scale selection in natural images. Furthermore, in the examples provided, the simplifying assumption is made that the behavior...... of the measurements is completely characterized by all moments up to second order....
Ogawa, Kazuma; Fukuda, Tadahisa; Han, Jaegab; Kitamura, Yoji; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Odani, Akira
2016-01-01
Background Release of radionuclides, such as 137Cs and 90Sr, into the atmosphere and the ocean presents an important problem because internal exposure to 137Cs and 90Sr could be very harmful to humans. Chlorella has been reported to be effective in enhancing the excretion of heavy metals; thus, we hypothesized that Chlorella could also enhance the elimination of 137Cs or 90Sr from the body. We evaluated the potential of Chlorella as a decorporation agent in vitro and in vivo, using 85Sr instead of 90Sr. Methods In vitro experiments of adsorption of 137Cs and 85Sr to Chlorella were performed under wide pH conditions. The maximum sorption capacity of Chlorella to strontium was estimated using the Langmuir model. A 85Sr solution was orally administrated to mice pretreated with Chlorella. At 48 h after 85Sr administration, the biodistribution of radioactivity was determined. Results In the in vitro experiments, although 85Sr barely adsorbed to Chlorella at low pH, the 85Sr adsorption ratio to Chlorella increased with increasing pH. The maximum sorption capacity of Chlorella to strontium was 9.06 mg / g. 137Cs barely adsorbed to Chlorella under any pH conditions. In the biodistribution experiments, bone accumulation of radioactivity after 85Sr administration was significantly decreased in the Chlorella pretreatment group compared with the non-treatment control group. Conclusions In conclusion, these results indicated that Chlorella could inhibit the absorption of 90Sr into the blood and enhance the elimination of 90Sr from the body through adsorption in intestine. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanism and the components of Chlorella needed for adsorption to strontium and could promote the development of more effective decorporation agents. PMID:26828430
Kazuma Ogawa
Full Text Available Release of radionuclides, such as 137Cs and 90Sr, into the atmosphere and the ocean presents an important problem because internal exposure to 137Cs and 90Sr could be very harmful to humans. Chlorella has been reported to be effective in enhancing the excretion of heavy metals; thus, we hypothesized that Chlorella could also enhance the elimination of 137Cs or 90Sr from the body. We evaluated the potential of Chlorella as a decorporation agent in vitro and in vivo, using 85Sr instead of 90Sr.In vitro experiments of adsorption of 137Cs and 85Sr to Chlorella were performed under wide pH conditions. The maximum sorption capacity of Chlorella to strontium was estimated using the Langmuir model. A 85Sr solution was orally administrated to mice pretreated with Chlorella. At 48 h after 85Sr administration, the biodistribution of radioactivity was determined.In the in vitro experiments, although 85Sr barely adsorbed to Chlorella at low pH, the 85Sr adsorption ratio to Chlorella increased with increasing pH. The maximum sorption capacity of Chlorella to strontium was 9.06 mg / g. 137Cs barely adsorbed to Chlorella under any pH conditions. In the biodistribution experiments, bone accumulation of radioactivity after 85Sr administration was significantly decreased in the Chlorella pretreatment group compared with the non-treatment control group.In conclusion, these results indicated that Chlorella could inhibit the absorption of 90Sr into the blood and enhance the elimination of 90Sr from the body through adsorption in intestine. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanism and the components of Chlorella needed for adsorption to strontium and could promote the development of more effective decorporation agents.
F. TopsÃƒÂ¸e
2001-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over
Regularized maximum correntropy machine
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2015-02-12
In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.
Microcystin elimination during sediment contact.
Grützmacher, Gesche; Wessel, Gabriele; Klitzke, Sondra; Chorus, Ingrid
2010-01-15
Microcystins (MCYSTs) are a group of structurally similar toxic peptides produced by cyanobacteria ("blue-green algae") which occur frequently in surface waters worldwide. Reliable elimination is necessary when using these waters as drinking water sources. Bank filtration and artificial groundwater recharge utilize adsorption and degradation processes in the subsurface, commonly through sand and gravel aquifers, for the elimination of a wide range of substances during drinking water (pre-) treatment. To obtain parameters for estimating whether MCYST breakthrough is likely in field settings, we tested MCYST elimination in laboratory experiments (batch experiments, column experiments) under a range of conditions. Adsorption coefficients (k(d)-values) obtained from batch studies ranged from 0.2 mL/g for filter sand to 11.6 mL/g for fine grained aquifer materials with 2% fine grains (<63 microm) and 0.8% organic matter. First order degradation rates in column studies reached 1.87 d(-1) under aerobic conditions and showed high variations under anoxic conditions (<0.01-1.35 d(-1)). These results show that, next to sediment texture, redox conditions play an important role for MCYST elimination during sediment passage. Biodegradation was identified as the dominating process for MCYST elimination in sandy aquifer material.
Maximum Profit Configurations of Commercial Engines
Yiran Chen
2011-01-01
An investigation of commercial engines with finite capacity low- and high-price economic subsystems and a generalized commodity transfer law [n ∝ Δ (P m)] in commodity flow processes, in which effects of the price elasticities of supply and demand are introduced, is presented in this paper. Optimal cycle configurations of commercial engines for maximum profit are obtained by applying optimal control theory. In some special cases, the eventual state—market equilibrium—is solely determined by t...
Equalized near maximum likelihood detector
2012-01-01
This paper presents new detector that is used to mitigate intersymbol interference introduced by bandlimited channels. This detector is named equalized near maximum likelihood detector which combines nonlinear equalizer and near maximum likelihood detector. Simulation results show that the performance of equalized near maximum likelihood detector is better than the performance of nonlinear equalizer but worse than near maximum likelihood detector.
Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John
2005-01-01
A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].
Popov, A K; George, T F; Shalaev, V M; Bayev, Alexander S.; George, Thomas F.; Shalaev, Vladimir M.
2000-01-01
New feasibity of coherent quantum control of four-wave mixing processes in a resonant Doppler-broadened medium are studied. We propose a technique which enables one to enhance the quantum efficiency of nonlinear optical conversion. At the same time, it allows one to decrease the required intensities of the fundamental beams compared to those necessary in the approach based on coherent population trapping. The major outcomes of the analysis are illustrated with numerical simulation addressed within a practical medium.
Prediction of Maximum Oxygen Consumption from Walking, Jogging, or Running.
Larsen, Gary E.; George, James D.; Alexander, Jeffrey L.; Fellingham, Gilbert W.; Aldana, Steve G.; Parcell, Allen C.
2002-01-01
Developed a cardiorespiratory endurance test that retained the inherent advantages of submaximal testing while eliminating reliance on heart rate measurement in predicting maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). College students completed three exercise tests. The 1.5-mile endurance test predicted VO2max from submaximal exercise without requiring heart…
Prediction of Maximum Oxygen Consumption from Walking, Jogging, or Running.
Larsen, Gary E.; George, James D.; Alexander, Jeffrey L.; Fellingham, Gilbert W.; Aldana, Steve G.; Parcell, Allen C.
2002-01-01
Developed a cardiorespiratory endurance test that retained the inherent advantages of submaximal testing while eliminating reliance on heart rate measurement in predicting maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). College students completed three exercise tests. The 1.5-mile endurance test predicted VO2max from submaximal exercise without requiring heart…
Methane elimination methods on landfills
Ponikvar, Martin
2008-01-01
Increase in substance and energy exploitation from waste which reduces the greenhouse gas emissions are one of the main goals of environmental protection. Slovenian legislation defines that in case captured landfill gas cannot be used for energy acquisition, incineration on the landfill itself or some other equivalent procedure must be used to prevent gas emissions into the air. The graduation thesis is based on existing municipal landfill Volče where suitable gas elimination is yet to be arr...
Capacity and Capacity Utilization in Fishing Industries
Kirkley, James E; Squires, Dale
1999-01-01
Excess capacity of fishing fleets is one of the most pressing problems facing the world's fisheries and the sustainable harvesting of resource stocks. Considerable confusion persists over the definition and measurement of capacity and capacity utilization in fishing. Fishing capacity and capacity utilization, rather than capital (or effort) utilization, provide the appropriate framework. This paper provides both technological-economic and economic definitions of capacity and excess capacity i...
Prabhu, Ninad V.; Sharp, Kim A.
2005-05-01
Heat capacity (Cp) is one of several major thermodynamic quantities commonly measured in proteins. With more than half a dozen definitions, it is the hardest of these quantities to understand in physical terms, but the richest in insight. There are many ramifications of observed Cp changes: The sign distinguishes apolar from polar solvation. It imparts a temperature (T) dependence to entropy and enthalpy that may change their signs and which of them dominate. Protein unfolding usually has a positive ΔCp, producing a maximum in stability and sometimes cold denaturation. There are two heat capacity contributions, from hydration and protein-protein interactions; which dominates in folding and binding is an open question. Theoretical work to date has dealt mostly with the hydration term and can account, at least semiquantitatively, for the major Cp-related features: the positive and negative Cp of hydration for apolar and polar groups, respectively; the convergence of apolar group hydration entropy at T ≈ 112°C; the decrease in apolar hydration Cp with increasing T; and the T-maximum in protein stability and cold denaturation.
Pirandola, Stefano; Lupo, Cosmo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L.
2011-11-01
The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory (Pirandola 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 090504). In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e. a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of ‘parallel’ channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of a large block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantifying the maximum number of readable bits per cell. This notion of capacity is nontrivial when we suitably constrain the physical resources of the decoder. For optical memories (encoding bosonic channels), such a constraint is energetic and corresponds to fixing the mean total number of photons per cell. In this case, we are able to prove a separation between the quantum reading capacity and the maximum information rate achievable by classical transmitters, i.e. arbitrary classical mixtures of coherent states. In fact, we can easily construct nonclassical transmitters that are able to outperform any classical transmitter, thus showing that the advantages of quantum reading persist in the optimal multi-cell scenario.
Capacity Analysis for Dynamic Space Networks
Yang Lu; Bo Li; Wenjing Kang; Gongliang Liu; Xueting Li
2015-01-01
To evaluate transmission rate of highly dynamic space networks, a new method for studying space network capacity is proposed in this paper. Using graph theory, network capacity is defined as the maximum amount of flows ground stations can receive per unit time. Combined with a hybrid constellation model, network capacity is calculated and further analyzed for practical cases. Simulation results show that network capacity will increase to different extents as link capacity, minimum ground elevation constraint and satellite onboard processing capability change. Considering the efficiency and reliability of communication networks, how to scientifically design satellite networks is also discussed.
Eliminate Sweetened Drinks, Cut Kids' Sugar Intake
... fullstory_161163.html Eliminate Sweetened Drinks, Cut Kids' Sugar Intake Average U.S. child consumes about 80 grams ... Looking for the quickest way to cut added sugar from your kid's diet? Eliminate sugar-sweetened drinks, ...
Quantifier Elimination by Dependency Sequents
Goldberg, Eugene
2012-01-01
We consider the problem of existential quantifier elimination for Boolean formulas in Conjunctive Normal Form (CNF). We present a new method for solving this problem called Derivation of Dependency-Sequents (DDS). A Dependency-sequent (D-sequent) is used to record that a set of quantified variables is redundant under a partial assignment. We show that D-sequents can be resolved to obtain new, non-trivial D-sequents. We also show that DDS is compositional, i.e. if our input formula is a conjunction of independent formulas, DDS automatically recognizes and exploits this information. We introduce an algorithm based on DDS and present experimental results demonstrating its potential.
Method for eliminating artifacts in CCD imagers
Turko, B. T.; Yates, G. J.
1990-06-01
An electronic method for eliminating artifacts in a video camera employing a charge coupled device (CCD) as an image sensor is presented. The method comprises the step of initializing the camera prior to normal readout. The method includes a first dump cycle period for transferring radiation generated charge into the horizontal register. This occurs while the decaying image on the phosphor being imaged is being integrated in the photosites, and a second dump cycle period, occurring after the phosphor image has decayed, for rapidly dumping unwanted smear charge which has been generated in the vertical registers. Image charge is then transferred from the photosites and to the vertical registers and readout in conventional fashion. The inventive method allows the video camera to be used in environments having high ionizing radiation content, and to capture images of events of very short duration and occurring either within or outside the normal visual wavelength spectrum. Resultant images are free from ghost, smear, and smear phenomena caused by insufficient opacity of the registers, and are also free from random damage caused by ionization charges which exceed the charge limit capacity of the photosites.
Elimination communication as colic therapy.
Jordan, Geraldine J
2014-09-01
Colic is generally defined as excessive crying in early infancy and can have negative consequences on the infant as well as on the infant's family life. Excessive crying can result in escalating parental stress levels, abusive caregiver response, increased risk of shaken baby syndrome and parental postpartum depression. In addition to excessive crying, symptoms and descriptors of infant colic include inconsolable crying, screaming, legs drawn up against the abdomen, furrowing of eyebrows, distended abdomen, arched back, passing gas, post-feeding crying and difficulty defecating. There are few well-designed, reproducible, randomized, large-scale studies which demonstrate efficacy of any therapeutic method for colic. An unexplored etiology is that colic is functionally related to a decrease in stooling frequency. Gut distention may periodically result in intensifying discomfort for the infant and in concomitant inconsolable crying. Elimination communication (EC; also known as Natural Infant Hygiene and sometimes referred to as infant potty training, baby-led potty training or assisted infant toilet training) involves the use of cues by which the infant signals to the caregiver that the infant needs to micturate or defecate. Such cues can include types of crying, squirming, straining, wriggling, grimacing, fussing, vocalizing, intent look at caregiver, red face, passing gas and grunting, many of which are the same initial symptoms related to the onset of colicky infant states. A caregiver's attentive and nurturant response to an infant's cues involve uncovering the infant's intergluteal cleft and cradling the infant gently and non-coercively in a supported, secure squatting position. This position will increase the infant's anorectal angle thus facilitating complete defecation. It is hypothesized that effective and timely elimination will cause increased physical comfort for the infant; colic symptoms will concomitantly decrease.
25 CFR 168.5 - Grazing capacity.
2010-04-01
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing capacity. 168.5 Section 168.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.5 Grazing capacity. (a) The Area Director shall prescribe the maximum number of...
Pedersen(Vægter), Christian Bjerggaard; Kyle, J; Jenkinson, AM
2000-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether consumption of 500 ml of blueberry juice or cranberry juice by healthy female subjects increased plasma phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. DESIGN: Latin square arrangement to eliminate ordering effects. After an overnight fast, nine volunteers consumed 500 ml...... of blueberry juice, cranberry juice or a sucrose solution (control); each volunteer participated on three occasions one week apart, consuming one of the beverages each time. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture at intervals up to four hours after consumption of the juices. Urine samples were also...... obtained four hours after consuming the juice. RESULTS: Consumption of cranberry juice resulted in a significant increase in the ability of plasma to reduce potassium nitrosodisulphonate and Fe(III)-2,4, 6-Tri(2-pyridyl)-s-triazine, these measures of antioxidant capacity attaining a maximum after 60...
Shanna Lara Miglioranzi
2011-12-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a relação entre capacidade vital (CV, tempos máximos de fonação de /e/ fechado emitido de forma áfona (TMF/ė/ e de /s/ (TMF/s/ e estatura em mulheres adultas. MÉTODO: 48 indivíduos do sexo feminino, entre 18 e 44 anos, com ausência de fatores intervenientes nas medidas de interesse (tabagistas, atletas, cantores, alterações pulmonares, articulatórias, tiveram suas medidas de CV, TMF/ė/ e TMF/s/ coletadas, três vezes cada, selecionando-se o maior valor obtido para cada variável, além da estatura auto-referida. Os valores das quatro variáveis do grupo foram comparados entre si por meio de análise estatística. Utilizou-se o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman para verificar sua relação; o teste de Wilcoxon para amostras relacionadas para comparar os TMF/s/ e TMF/ė/, além do cálculo do coeficiente de variação para comparar a homogeneidade dessas variáveis. RESULTADOS: correlação positiva significante entre: CV e TMF/s/ (r=0,326; P=0,024; CV e TMF/ė/ (r=0,379; P=0,008; TMF/s/ e TMF/ė/ (r=0,360; P=0,012; e CV e estatura (r=0,432; P=0,002. TMF/s/ significantemente maior do que TMF/ė/. TMF/ė/ da amostra (10,43s significantemente menor que os valores de referência (PPURPOSE: to check the relation among the values of vital capacity (CV, maximum phonation times (MPT of closed voiceless /e/ (/ė/ and of /s/ and height in adult normal women. METHOD: 48 females, between 18 and 44 years, with no intervening factors in measures of interest (smoking, sport practicing, singing, lung disorder, articulation disorder collected their measures of VC, MPT/ė/ and MPT/s/, three times each, and the highest produced values for each variable were selected for analysis, beyond the self-reported height. All four variables were compared. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to check the relationship; Wilcoxon test for related samples was used to compare MPT/s/ and MPT/ė/, such as the coefficient of variation
Cosmic Ray elimination using the Wavelet Transform
Orozco-Aguilera, M. T.; Cruz, J.; Altamirano, L.; Serrano, A.
2009-11-01
In this work, we present a method for the automatic cosmic ray elimination in a single CCD exposure using the Wavelet Transform. The proposed method can eliminate cosmic rays of any shape or size. With this method we can eliminate over 95% of cosmic rays in a spectral image.
COSMIC RAY ELIMINATION USING THE WAVELET TRANSFORM
M. T. Orozco-Aguilera
2009-01-01
Full Text Available In this work, we present a method for the automatic cosmic ray elimination in a single CCD exposure using the Wavelet Transform. The proposed method can eliminate cosmic rays of any shape or size. With this method we can eliminate over 95% of cosmic rays in a spectral image.
Random Access Transport Capacity
Andrews, Jeffrey G; Kountouris, Marios; Haenggi, Martin
2009-01-01
We develop a new metric for quantifying end-to-end throughput in multihop wireless networks, which we term random access transport capacity, since the interference model presumes uncoordinated transmissions. The metric quantifies the average maximum rate of successful end-to-end transmissions, multiplied by the communication distance, and normalized by the network area. We show that a simple upper bound on this quantity is computable in closed-form in terms of key network parameters when the number of retransmissions is not restricted and the hops are assumed to be equally spaced on a line between the source and destination. We also derive the optimum number of hops and optimal per hop success probability and show that our result follows the well-known square root scaling law while providing exact expressions for the preconstants as well. Numerical results demonstrate that the upper bound is accurate for the purpose of determining the optimal hop count and success (or outage) probability.
Melike Ersoy
2014-06-01
Full Text Available In this study, capacity estimations with the incorporation of Highway Capacity Manual (HCM 2010 method are evaluated. Parameter based sensitivity analysis on calculations with the new HCM formula and a comparative evaluation of the new methodology with two most common capacity analysis methods, i.e., the method of critical gap acceptance and the method of regression analysis, are performed. Maximum and minimum headway intervals of follow up time and critical gap parameters are alternated within the sensitivity analysis. The Transport Research Laboratory formula for regression and Australian formula for gap acceptance method are considered in comparison. Relative comparisons of predictions on capacity by HCM2010 method, regression analysis and gap acceptance method are presented considering field data obtained by observations at two roundabouts in Izmir, Turkey. The results of the study show that the HCM2010 formula led to lower capacity estimates than regression analysis and higher estimates than the gap acceptance method. Regarding the real capacity observations under high circulating flow-rates the HCM2010 method yielded to more appropriate results than the regression method. In addition to comparisons, studies on the sensitivity analysis show that entry capacity estimates possess sharper changes as smaller follow up headways are accepted.
OECD Maximum Residue Limit Calculator
With the goal of harmonizing the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the OECD has developed an MRL Calculator. View the calculator.
Modified maximum likelihood registration based on information fusion
Yongqing Qi; Zhongliang Jing; Shiqiang Hu
2007-01-01
The bias estimation of passive sensors is considered based on information fusion in multi-platform multisensor tracking system. The unobservable problem of bearing-only tracking in blind spot is analyzed. A modified maximum likelihood method, which uses the redundant information of multi-sensor system to calculate the target position, is investigated to estimate the biases. Monte Carlo simulation results show that the modified method eliminates the effect of unobservable problem in the blind spot and can estimate the biases more rapidly and accurately than maximum likelihood method. It is statistically efficient since the standard deviation of bias estimation errors meets the theoretical lower bounds.
Role of plant polyphenols in acrylamide formation and elimination.
Liu, Yanbing; Wang, Pengpu; Chen, Fang; Yuan, Yuan; Zhu, Yuchen; Yan, Haiyang; Hu, Xiaosong
2015-11-01
Acrylamide found in thermal-treated foods has led to an intensive and persistent research effort, since it is a neurotoxic, genotoxic and probable carcinogenic compound to humans. Plant polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants in human diet. Several researches indicated that the polyphenols affected the acrylamide formation during heating. However, the controversial effects of the polyphenols on acrylamide formation were related to their structure, concentrations, and antioxidant capacity, as well as reaction condition. Polyphenols can inhibit acrylamide formation through trapping of carbonyl compounds and preventing against lipid oxidation, while some special polyphenols can enhance the acrylamide content by providing carbonyl groups, accelerating the conversion from 3-aminopropionamide (3-APA) to acrylamide and inhibiting acrylamide elimination. This review concludes the effects of polyphenols in the Maillard reaction and food systems conducted so far, aimed to give an overview on the role of plant polyphenols in acrylamide formation and elimination.
Accessible Capacity of Secondary Users
Ma, Xiao; Lin, Lei; Bai, Baoming
2010-01-01
A new problem formulation is presented for the Gaussian interference channels (GIFC) with two pairs of users, which are distinguished as primary users and secondary users, respectively. The primary users employ a pair of encoder and decoder that were originally designed to satisfy a given error performance requirement under the assumption that no interference exists from other users. In the case when the secondary users attempt to access the same medium, we are interested in the maximum transmission rate (defined as {\\em accessible capacity}) at which secondary users can communicate reliably without affecting the error performance requirement by the primary users under the constraint that the primary encoder (not the decoder) is kept unchanged. By modeling the primary encoder as a generalized trellis code (GTC), we are then able to treat the secondary link as a finite state channel (FSC). The relation of the accessible capacity to the capacity region of the GIFC is revealed. Upper and lower bounds on the acce...
Eliminate indeterminacies of independent component analysis for chemometrics
2008-01-01
An improved method has been proposed to eliminate the indeterminacies of independent component analysis (ICA) for chemomet- rics. Following the arrangement of principal components analysis (PCA), the ICA mixing matrix is selected as signal content indexes, and ICA output are sorted and directed. After many times reputations, independent components (Ics) are paired according to the maximum correlation coefficient, and then the mean values of each IC substitutes the original Ics. This indicates that the ICA inde- terminacies are eliminated. A simulation example is tested to validate this improvement. Finally, a set of experimental LC-MS data is processed without any prior knowledge or specific limitation and the results show that the improved ICA can directly separate the mixed signals in chemometrics, and it is simpler and more reasonable than the simple to use interactive self-modeling mixture analysis (SIMPLISMA).
Maximum margin Bayesian network classifiers.
Pernkopf, Franz; Wohlmayr, Michael; Tschiatschek, Sebastian
2012-03-01
We present a maximum margin parameter learning algorithm for Bayesian network classifiers using a conjugate gradient (CG) method for optimization. In contrast to previous approaches, we maintain the normalization constraints on the parameters of the Bayesian network during optimization, i.e., the probabilistic interpretation of the model is not lost. This enables us to handle missing features in discriminatively optimized Bayesian networks. In experiments, we compare the classification performance of maximum margin parameter learning to conditional likelihood and maximum likelihood learning approaches. Discriminative parameter learning significantly outperforms generative maximum likelihood estimation for naive Bayes and tree augmented naive Bayes structures on all considered data sets. Furthermore, maximizing the margin dominates the conditional likelihood approach in terms of classification performance in most cases. We provide results for a recently proposed maximum margin optimization approach based on convex relaxation. While the classification results are highly similar, our CG-based optimization is computationally up to orders of magnitude faster. Margin-optimized Bayesian network classifiers achieve classification performance comparable to support vector machines (SVMs) using fewer parameters. Moreover, we show that unanticipated missing feature values during classification can be easily processed by discriminatively optimized Bayesian network classifiers, a case where discriminative classifiers usually require mechanisms to complete unknown feature values in the data first.
Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery
Chih-Yuan Tseng
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.
Mating ecology explains patterns of genome elimination.
Gardner, Andy; Ross, Laura
2014-12-01
Genome elimination - whereby an individual discards chromosomes inherited from one parent, and transmits only those inherited from the other parent - is found across thousands of animal species. It is more common in association with inbreeding, under male heterogamety, in males, and in the form of paternal genome elimination. However, the reasons for this broad pattern remain unclear. We develop a mathematical model to determine how degree of inbreeding, sex determination, genomic location, pattern of gene expression and parental origin of the eliminated genome interact to determine the fate of genome-elimination alleles. We find that: inbreeding promotes paternal genome elimination in the heterogametic sex; this may incur population extinction under female heterogamety, owing to eradication of males; and extinction is averted under male heterogamety, owing to countervailing sex-ratio selection. Thus, we explain the observed pattern of genome elimination. Our results highlight the interaction between mating system, sex-ratio selection and intragenomic conflict.
Research on Eliminate Micro-Shorted MH/Ni Batteries
Liang Wanlong; Zhang Zhong; Xu Shaoping; Ma Yijun
2004-01-01
There are two methods for selecting micro-shorted MH/Ni batteries out from all formationed.cells.One is to judge by the decrease of open circuit voltage which takes longer standing time to eliminate efficiently and does not work very well when the coverage of open circuit voltage is big.Another is to judge by discharge capacity of charged cells, this can not only meet the requirement of MH/Ni battery stored in charged state, but also has the advantages of being easier to read out, good accuracy and taking shorting standing time etc, is a proper way to be used on the production line.
Elimination of onchocerciasis from Africa: possible?
Mackenzie, Charles D; Homeida, Mamoun M; Hopkins, Adrian D; Lawrence, Joni C
2012-01-01
Human onchocerciasis, a parasitic disease found in 28 African countries, six Latin American countries and Yemen, causes blindness and severe dermatological problems. In 1987, efforts to control this infection shifted from vector approaches to include the mass distribution of ivermectin - a drug donated by Merck & Co. for disease control in Africa and for disease elimination in the Americas. Currently, almost 25 years later, with the Americas being highly successful and now approaching elimination, new evidence points towards the possibility of successful elimination in Africa. We suggest several major changes in the programmatic approach that through focused goal-directed effort could achieve global elimination of onchocerciasis by 2025.
Maximum Profit Configurations of Commercial Engines
Yiran Chen
2011-06-01
Full Text Available An investigation of commercial engines with finite capacity low- and high-price economic subsystems and a generalized commodity transfer law [n ∝ Δ (P m] in commodity flow processes, in which effects of the price elasticities of supply and demand are introduced, is presented in this paper. Optimal cycle configurations of commercial engines for maximum profit are obtained by applying optimal control theory. In some special cases, the eventual state—market equilibrium—is solely determined by the initial conditions and the inherent characteristics of two subsystems; while the different ways of transfer affect the model in respects of the specific forms of the paths of prices and the instantaneous commodity flow, i.e., the optimal configuration.
Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.
1985-01-01
Discusses a series of experiments performed by Thomas Hope in 1805 which show the temperature at which water has its maximum density. Early data cast into a modern form as well as guidelines and recent data collected from the author provide background for duplicating Hope's experiments in the classroom. (JN)
Abolishing the maximum tension principle
Dabrowski, Mariusz P
2015-01-01
We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension $F_{max} = c^2/4G$ represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.
Abolishing the maximum tension principle
Mariusz P. Da̧browski
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension Fmax=c4/4G represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.
Towards malaria elimination - a new thematic series
Tanner Marcel
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract The launch of a new thematic series of Malaria Journal -- "Towards malaria elimination" -- creates the forum that allows carrying scientific evidence on how to achieve malaria elimination in specific endemic settings and conditions into the circles of scientists, public health specialists, national and global programme managers, funders and decision makers.
A Brief Discussion of eliminating Grammatical Ambiguity
张俊
2014-01-01
As we all know that one kind of language structure has more than one meaning,to be called ambiguity.Generally thought,the grammatical ambiguity is quite complex in English,and this article pays attention to eliminating English grammatical ambiguity and making the shallow analysis on the three kinds of strategies of eliminating ambiguity.
A Brief Discussion of eliminating Grammatical Ambiguity
张俊
2014-01-01
As we all know that one kind of language structure has more than one meaning, to be called ambiguity.Generally thought, the grammatical ambiguity is quite complex in English ,and this article pays attention to eliminating English grammatical ambiguity and making the shallow analysis on the three kinds of strategies of eliminating ambiguity.
Parallelisation of surface-related multiple elimination
vanWaveren, GM; Godfrey, IM; Hertzberger, B; Serazzi, G
1995-01-01
This paper presents the first published parallelisation of the surface-related multiple elimination method from the Delphi (3) software release. This method is used in the seismic industry to eliminate multiple data from recorded seismic data. Both data-parallel and message-passing implementation sc
Improvement of the stone elimination roller mill
SunGuofeng
2005-01-01
Elimination roller mill as raw materials preparing equipments is universally used in brick making industry. Stone Elimination Roller Mill should have following characteristics: high machine strength and good wearresistant of roller shell, safety reliability, high machinery intensity (impact strength) and rigidity, reliable hermetically sealed construction.
49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...
46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity of pressure relief valves. 154.806 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.806 Capacity of pressure relief valves. Pressure relief valves for each... pressure above the set pressure of the relief valves: (a) The maximum capacity of an installed cargo...
Clause Elimination Procedures for CNF Formulas
Heule, Marijn; Järvisalo, Matti; Biere, Armin
We develop and analyze clause elimination procedures, a specific family of simplification techniques for conjunctive normal form (CNF) formulas. Extending known procedures such as tautology, subsumption, and blocked clause elimination, we introduce novel elimination procedures based on hidden and asymmetric variants of these techniques. We analyze the resulting nine (including five new) clause elimination procedures from various perspectives: size reduction, BCP-preservance, confluence, and logical equivalence. For the variants not preserving logical equivalence, we show how to reconstruct solutions to original CNFs from satisfying assignments to simplified CNFs. We also identify a clause elimination procedure that does a transitive reduction of the binary implication graph underlying any CNF formula purely on the CNF level.
Maximum Genus of Strong Embeddings
Er-ling Wei; Yan-pei Liu; Han Ren
2003-01-01
The strong embedding conjecture states that any 2-connected graph has a strong embedding on some surface. It implies the circuit double cover conjecture: Any 2-connected graph has a circuit double cover.Conversely, it is not true. But for a 3-regular graph, the two conjectures are equivalent. In this paper, a characterization of graphs having a strong embedding with exactly 3 faces, which is the strong embedding of maximum genus, is given. In addition, some graphs with the property are provided. More generally, an upper bound of the maximum genus of strong embeddings of a graph is presented too. Lastly, it is shown that the interpolation theorem is true to planar Halin graph.
Remizov, Ivan D
2009-01-01
In this note, we represent a subdifferential of a maximum functional defined on the space of all real-valued continuous functions on a given metric compact set. For a given argument, $f$ it coincides with the set of all probability measures on the set of points maximizing $f$ on the initial compact set. This complete characterization lies in the heart of several important identities in microeconomics, such as Roy's identity, Sheppard's lemma, as well as duality theory in production and linear programming.
The Testability of Maximum Magnitude
Clements, R.; Schorlemmer, D.; Gonzalez, A.; Zoeller, G.; Schneider, M.
2012-12-01
Recent disasters caused by earthquakes of unexpectedly large magnitude (such as Tohoku) illustrate the need for reliable assessments of the seismic hazard. Estimates of the maximum possible magnitude M at a given fault or in a particular zone are essential parameters in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), but their accuracy remains untested. In this study, we discuss the testability of long-term and short-term M estimates and the limitations that arise from testing such rare events. Of considerable importance is whether or not those limitations imply a lack of testability of a useful maximum magnitude estimate, and whether this should have any influence on current PSHA methodology. We use a simple extreme value theory approach to derive a probability distribution for the expected maximum magnitude in a future time interval, and we perform a sensitivity analysis on this distribution to determine if there is a reasonable avenue available for testing M estimates as they are commonly reported today: devoid of an appropriate probability distribution of their own and estimated only for infinite time (or relatively large untestable periods). Our results imply that any attempt at testing such estimates is futile, and that the distribution is highly sensitive to M estimates only under certain optimal conditions that are rarely observed in practice. In the future we suggest that PSHA modelers be brutally honest about the uncertainty of M estimates, or must find a way to decrease its influence on the estimated hazard.
Alternative Multiview Maximum Entropy Discrimination.
Chao, Guoqing; Sun, Shiliang
2016-07-01
Maximum entropy discrimination (MED) is a general framework for discriminative estimation based on maximum entropy and maximum margin principles, and can produce hard-margin support vector machines under some assumptions. Recently, the multiview version of MED multiview MED (MVMED) was proposed. In this paper, we try to explore a more natural MVMED framework by assuming two separate distributions p1( Θ1) over the first-view classifier parameter Θ1 and p2( Θ2) over the second-view classifier parameter Θ2 . We name the new MVMED framework as alternative MVMED (AMVMED), which enforces the posteriors of two view margins to be equal. The proposed AMVMED is more flexible than the existing MVMED, because compared with MVMED, which optimizes one relative entropy, AMVMED assigns one relative entropy term to each of the two views, thus incorporating a tradeoff between the two views. We give the detailed solving procedure, which can be divided into two steps. The first step is solving our optimization problem without considering the equal margin posteriors from two views, and then, in the second step, we consider the equal posteriors. Experimental results on multiple real-world data sets verify the effectiveness of the AMVMED, and comparisons with MVMED are also reported.
Vergara-Fernández, Alberto; Hernández, Sergio; Revah, Sergio
2011-04-01
Fungal biofilters have been recently studied as an alternative to the bacterial systems for the elimination of hydrophobic volatile organic compounds (VOC). Fungi foster reduced transport limitation of hydrophobic VOCs due to their hydrophobic surface and extended gas exchange area associated to the hyphal growth. Nevertheless, one of their principal drawbacks is their slow growth, which is critical in the start-up of fungal biofilters. This work compares the use of different carbon sources (glycerol, 1-hexanol, wheat bran, and n-hexane) to reduce the start-up period and sustain high n-hexane elimination capacities (EC) in biofilters inoculated with Fusarium solani. Four parallel experiments were performed with the different media and the EC, the n-hexane partition coefficient, the biomass production and the specific consumption rate were evaluated. Biofilters were operated with a residence time of 1.3 min and an inlet n-hexane load of 325 g m(-3) (reactor) h(-1). The time to attain maximum EC once gaseous n-hexane was fed was reduced in the three experiments with alternate substrates, as compared to the 36 days needed with the control where only n-hexane was added. The shortest adaptation period was 7 days when wheat bran was initially used obtaining a maximum EC of 160 g m(-3) (reactor) h(-1) and a critical load of 55 g m(-3) (reactor) h(-1). The results were also consistent with the pressure drop, the amount of biomass produced and its affinity for the gaseous n-hexane, as represented by its partition coefficient.
Capacity Statement for Railways
Landex, Alex
2007-01-01
The subject “Railway capacity” is a combination of the capacity consumption and how the capacity is utilized. The capacity utilization of railways can be divided into 4 core elements: The number of trains; the average speed; the heterogeneity of the operation; and the stability. This article...... describes how the capacity consumption for railways can be worked out and analytical measurements of how the capacity is utilized. Furthermore, the article describes how it is possible to state and visualize railway capacity. Having unused railway capacity is not always equal to be able to operate more...
Classical information capacity of superdense coding
Bowen, G H
2001-01-01
Classical communication through quantum channels may be enhanced by sharing entanglement. Superdense coding allows the encoding, and transmission, of up to two classical bits of information in a single qubit. In this paper, the maximum classical channel capacity for states that are not maximally entangled is derived. Particular schemes are then shown to attain this capacity, firstly for pairs of qubits, and secondly for pairs of qutrits.
Cut elimination in multifocused linear logic
Guenot, Nicolas; Brock-Nannestad, Taus
2015-01-01
We study cut elimination for a multifocused variant of full linear logic in the sequent calculus. The multifocused normal form of proofs yields problems that do not appear in a standard focused system, related to the constraints in grouping rule instances in focusing phases. We show that cut...... elimination can be performed in a sensible way even though the proof requires some specific lemmas to deal with multifocusing phases, and discuss the difficulties arising with cut elimination when considering normal forms of proofs in linear logic....
Cut elimination in multifocused linear logic
Guenot, Nicolas; Brock-Nannestad, Taus
2015-01-01
We study cut elimination for a multifocused variant of full linear logic in the sequent calculus. The multifocused normal form of proofs yields problems that do not appear in a standard focused system, related to the constraints in grouping rule instances in focusing phases. We show that cut elim...... elimination can be performed in a sensible way even though the proof requires some specific lemmas to deal with multifocusing phases, and discuss the difficulties arising with cut elimination when considering normal forms of proofs in linear logic....
Cacti with maximum Kirchhoff index
Wang, Wen-Rui; Pan, Xiang-Feng
2015-01-01
The concept of resistance distance was first proposed by Klein and Randi\\'c. The Kirchhoff index $Kf(G)$ of a graph $G$ is the sum of resistance distance between all pairs of vertices in $G$. A connected graph $G$ is called a cactus if each block of $G$ is either an edge or a cycle. Let $Cat(n;t)$ be the set of connected cacti possessing $n$ vertices and $t$ cycles, where $0\\leq t \\leq \\lfloor\\frac{n-1}{2}\\rfloor$. In this paper, the maximum kirchhoff index of cacti are characterized, as well...
Generic maximum likely scale selection
Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo
2007-01-01
The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...... on second order moments of multiple measurements outputs at a fixed location. These measurements, which reflect local image structure, consist in the cases considered here of Gaussian derivatives taken at several scales and/or having different derivative orders....
ELIMINATION AND IDENTITIES WITH THE INTEGRAL SIGN
Hongmei LIU; Tianming WANG
2006-01-01
In this paper, we aim at using the elimination in Weyl algebra to give an algorithm for proving the identities with integral sign. Then, we test several examples that have been proved by D Zeilberger.
TOWARDS THE ELIMINATION OF PREVENTABLE DISEASES
O. V. Shamsheva
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The article presents incidence rates of major vaccine-preventable diseases in the world and the Russian Federation and cites mitigation measures that, in the end, must lead to the elimination of the diseases.
Elimination of viruses, bacteria and protozoan oocysts by slow sand filtration
Hijnen, W.A.M.; Visser, Ate; Schijven, J.F.; Bonné, P.; Medema, Gerriet Jan
2004-01-01
The decimal elimination capacity (DEC) of slow sand filters (SSF) for viruses, bacteria and oocysts of Cryptosporidium has been assessed from full-scale data and pilot plant and laboratory experiments. DEC for viruses calculated from experimental data with MS2-bacteriophages in the pilot plant filte
Elimination of viruses, bacteria and protozoan oocysts by slow sand filtration
Hijnen, W.A.M.; Visser, Ate; Schijven, J.F.; Bonné, P.; Medema, Gerriet Jan
2004-01-01
The decimal elimination capacity (DEC) of slow sand filters (SSF) for viruses, bacteria and oocysts of Cryptosporidium has been assessed from full-scale data and pilot plant and laboratory experiments. DEC for viruses calculated from experimental data with MS2-bacteriophages in the pilot plant
Thiopentone elimination in newborn infants: exploring Michaelis-Menten kinetics.
Larsson, P; Anderson, B J; Norman, E; Westrin, P; Fellman, V
2011-04-01
Thiopentone elimination has been described using Michaelis-Menten pharmacokinetics in adults after prolonged infusion or overdose, but there are few reports of elimination in neonates. Time-concentration profiles for neonates (n=37) given single-dose thiopentone were examined using both first-order (constant clearance) and mixed-order (Michaelis-Menten) elimination processes using nonlinear mixed effects models. These profiles included a 33-week post-menstrual age (PMA) neonate given an overdose. A two-compartment mamillary model was used to fit data. Parameter estimates were standardized to a 70 kg person using allometric models. There were 197 observations available for analysis from neonates with a mean post-menstrual age of 35 (SD 4.5) weeks and a mean weight of 2.5 (SD 0.9) kg. They were given a mean thiopentone dose of 3 (SD 0.4) mg/kg as a rapid bolus. Clearance at 26 weeks PMA was 0.015 l/min/70 kg and increased to 0.119 l/min/70 kg by 42 weeks PMA. The maximum rate of elimination (V(max)) at 26 weeks PMA was 0.22 mg/min/70 kg and increased to 4.13 mg/min/70 kg by 42 weeks PMA. These parameter estimates are approximately 40% adult values at term gestation. The Michaelis constant (K(m)) was 28.3 [between subject variability (BSV) 46.4%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.49-99.2] mg/l; intercompartment clearance was 0.44 (BSV 97.5%, 95% CI 0.27-0.63) l/min/70 kg; central volume of distribution was 46.4 (BSV 29.2%, 95% CI 41.7-59.8) l/70 kg; peripheral volume of distribution was 95.7 (BSV 70.3%, 95% CI 61.3-128) l/70 kg. Both first-order and mixed-order processes satisfactorily described elimination. First-order elimination adequately described the time-concentration profile in the premature neonate given an overdose. Clearance is immature in the pre-term neonate although there is rapid maturation around 40 weeks PMA, irrespective of post-natal age. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica © 2011 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.
Economics and Maximum Entropy Production
Lorenz, R. D.
2003-04-01
Price differentials, sales volume and profit can be seen as analogues of temperature difference, heat flow and work or entropy production in the climate system. One aspect in which economic systems exhibit more clarity than the climate is that the empirical and/or statistical mechanical tendency for systems to seek a maximum in production is very evident in economics, in that the profit motive is very clear. Noting the common link between 1/f noise, power laws and Self-Organized Criticality with Maximum Entropy Production, the power law fluctuations in security and commodity prices is not inconsistent with the analogy. There is an additional thermodynamic analogy, in that scarcity is valued. A commodity concentrated among a few traders is valued highly by the many who do not have it. The market therefore encourages via prices the spreading of those goods among a wider group, just as heat tends to diffuse, increasing entropy. I explore some empirical price-volume relationships of metals and meteorites in this context.
Iden, Sascha C.; Peters, Andre; Durner, Wolfgang
2015-11-01
The prediction of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity from the soil water retention curve by pore-bundle models is a cost-effective and widely applied technique. One problem for conductivity predictions from retention functions with continuous derivatives, i.e. continuous water capacity functions, is that the hydraulic conductivity curve exhibits a sharp drop close to water saturation if the pore-size distribution is wide. So far this artifact has been ignored or removed by introducing an explicit air-entry value into the capillary saturation function. However, this correction leads to a retention function which is not continuously differentiable. We present a new parameterization of the hydraulic properties which uses the original saturation function (e.g. of van Genuchten) and introduces a maximum pore radius only in the pore-bundle model. In contrast to models using an explicit air entry, the resulting conductivity function is smooth and increases monotonically close to saturation. The model concept can easily be applied to any combination of retention curve and pore-bundle model. We derive closed-form expressions for the unimodal and multimodal van Genuchten-Mualem models and apply the model concept to curve fitting and inverse modeling of a transient outflow experiment. Since the new model retains the smoothness and continuous differentiability of the retention model and eliminates the sharp drop in conductivity close to saturation, the resulting hydraulic functions are physically more reasonable and ideal for numerical simulations with the Richards equation or multiphase flow models.
Algorithm of capacity expansion on networks optimization
无
2003-01-01
The paper points out the relationship between the bottleneck and the minimum cutset of the network, and presents a capacity expansion algorithm of network optimization to solve the network bottleneck problem. The complexity of the algorithm is also analyzed. As required by the algorithm, some virtual sources are imported through the whole positive direction subsection in the network, in which a certain capacity value is given. Simultaneously, a corresponding capacity-expanded network is constructed to search all minimum cutsets. For a given maximum flow value of the network, the authors found an adjustment value of each minimum cutset arc's group with gradually reverse calculation and marked out the feasible flow on the capacity-extended networks again with the adjustment value increasing. All this has been done repeatedly until the original topology structure is resumed. So the algorithm can increase the capacity of networks effectively and solve the bottleneck problem of networks.
Objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality
Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan
2015-01-01
We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. The upper bound is attained if and only if the object is transparent for fields of one handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e. helicity preservation upon scattering, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal scatterers to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal scatterers. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar scatterers or as material constitutive relations. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: A twofold resonantly enhanced and background free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle independent helicity filtering glasses.
Maximum mutual information regularized classification
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2014-09-07
In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.
Estimation of Aerobic Capacity (VO2-max and Physical Work Capacity in Laborers
Sedeghe Hosseinabadi
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Measurement of Maximum aerobic capacity (VO2-max is important in physiologically fitting the laborers to the job. This study was conducted to estimate the aerobic capacity and physical work capacity (PWC of workers of galvanize department of Semnan rolling pipe Company and also determine the relative frequency of workers whom their jobs were proportional to their physical work capacity . Methods: 50 male workers of Semnan rolling pipe company were selected randomly to participate in this cross-sectional study. Tuxworth & shahnavaz methods were applied to measure instances VO2-MAX. Independent-Sample t-test and correlation technique were used to analysis the data by SPSS software. Results: Average maximum aerobic capacity of workers was 2.88± .033 liters per minute and the average of physical work capacity was 4.76 ± 0.54 kilocalories per minute. There was a significant relationship between body mass index and aerobic capacity. The result showed that 36 percent of subjects expend more energy than their physical work capacity to perform their duties during the work time. Conclusion: According to the ILO classification, the average physical work capacity of the workers fall into a category of light energy;accordingly, on average, these workers had physical ability to performe less or lighter duties. More than one-third of these workers need to undergo job modification or to change their present job to a job with less energy consumption.
The strong maximum principle revisited
Pucci, Patrizia; Serrin, James
In this paper we first present the classical maximum principle due to E. Hopf, together with an extended commentary and discussion of Hopf's paper. We emphasize the comparison technique invented by Hopf to prove this principle, which has since become a main mathematical tool for the study of second order elliptic partial differential equations and has generated an enormous number of important applications. While Hopf's principle is generally understood to apply to linear equations, it is in fact also crucial in nonlinear theories, such as those under consideration here. In particular, we shall treat and discuss recent generalizations of the strong maximum principle, and also the compact support principle, for the case of singular quasilinear elliptic differential inequalities, under generally weak assumptions on the quasilinear operators and the nonlinearities involved. Our principal interest is in necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of both principles; in exposing and simplifying earlier proofs of corresponding results; and in extending the conclusions to wider classes of singular operators than previously considered. The results have unexpected ramifications for other problems, as will develop from the exposition, e.g. two point boundary value problems for singular quasilinear ordinary differential equations (Sections 3 and 4); the exterior Dirichlet boundary value problem (Section 5); the existence of dead cores and compact support solutions, i.e. dead cores at infinity (Section 7); Euler-Lagrange inequalities on a Riemannian manifold (Section 9); comparison and uniqueness theorems for solutions of singular quasilinear differential inequalities (Section 10). The case of p-regular elliptic inequalities is briefly considered in Section 11.
Discontinuous symplectic capacities
Zehmisch, K.; Ziltener, F.J.
2014-01-01
We show that the spherical capacity is discontinuous on a smooth family of ellipsoidal shells. Moreover, we prove that the shell capacity is discontinuous on a family of open sets with smooth connected boundaries.
Exploiting Maximum Parallelism in Loop Using Heterogeneous Computing
ZENG Guosun
2001-01-01
In this paper, we present the defini-tion of maximum loop speedup, which is the metricof parallelism hidden in loop body. We also studythe classes of Do-loop and their dependence as wellas the parallelism they contain. How to exploit suchparallelism under heterogeneous computing environ-ment? The paper proposes several approaches, whichare eliminating serial bottleneck by means of heteroge-neous computing, heterogeneous Do-all-loop schedul-ing, heterogeneous Do-a-cross scheduling. We findthat, not only on theoretical analysis but also on ex-perimental results, these schemes acquire better per-formance than in homogeneous computing.
Enhanced Intelligent Driver Model to Access the Impact of Driving Strategies on Traffic Capacity
Kesting, Arne; Helbing, Dirk
2009-01-01
With an increasing number of vehicles equipped with adaptive cruise control (ACC), the impact of such vehicles on the collective dynamics of traffic flow becomes relevant. By means of simulation, we investigate the influence of variable percentages of ACC vehicles on traffic flow characteristics. For simulating the ACC vehicles, we propose a new car-following model that also serves as basis of an ACC implementation in real cars. The model is based on the Intelligent Driver Model [Treiber et al., Physical Review E 62, 1805 (2000)] and inherits its intuitive behavioural parameters: desired velocity, acceleration, comfortable deceleration, and desired minimum time headway. It eliminates, however, the sometimes unrealistic behaviour of the Intelligent Driver Model in cut-in situations with ensuing small gaps that regularly are caused by lane changes of other vehicles in dense or congested traffic. We simulate the influence of different ACC strategies on the maximum capacity before breakdown, and the (dynamic) bot...
Ryberg, Jesper
2014-01-01
That responsible moral agency presupposes certain mental capacities, constitutes a widely accepted view among theorists. Moreover, it is often assumed that degrees in the development of the relevant capacities co-vary with degrees of responsibility. In this article it is argued that, the move from...... the view that responsibility requires certain mental capacities to the position that degrees of responsibility co-vary with degrees of the development of the mental capacities, is premature....
Information storage capacity of incompletely connected associative memories.
Bosch, Holger; Kurfess, Franz J.
1998-07-01
In this paper, the memory capacity of incompletely connected associative memories is investigated. First, the capacity is derived for memories with fixed parameters. Optimization of the parameters yields a maximum capacity between 0.53 and 0.69 for hetero-association and half of it for autoassociation improving previously reported results. The maximum capacity grows with increasing connectivity of the memory and requires sparse input and output patterns. Further, parameters can be chosen in such a way that the information content per pattern asymptotically approaches 1 with growing size of the memory.
CDMA systems capacity engineering
Kim, Kiseon
2004-01-01
This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.
Martian Atmospheric Pressure Static Charge Elimination Tool
Johansen, Michael R.
2014-01-01
A Martian pressure static charge elimination tool is currently in development in the Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory (ESPL) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. In standard Earth atmosphere conditions, static charge can be neutralized from an insulating surface using air ionizers. These air ionizers generate ions through corona breakdown. The Martian atmosphere is 7 Torr of mostly carbon dioxide, which makes it inherently difficult to use similar methods as those used for standard atmosphere static elimination tools. An initial prototype has been developed to show feasibility of static charge elimination at low pressure, using corona discharge. A needle point and thin wire loop are used as the corona generating electrodes. A photo of the test apparatus is shown below. Positive and negative high voltage pulses are sent to the needle point. This creates positive and negative ions that can be used for static charge neutralization. In a preliminary test, a floating metal plate was charged to approximately 600 volts under Martian atmospheric conditions. The static elimination tool was enabled and the voltage on the metal plate dropped rapidly to -100 volts. This test data is displayed below. Optimization is necessary to improve the electrostatic balance of the static elimination tool.
A CAPACITY EXPANSION PROBLEM WITHBUDGET CONSTRAINT AND BOTTLENECK LIMITATION
无
2001-01-01
This paper considers a capacity expansion problem with budget constraint.Suppose each edge in the network has two attributes: capacity and the degree of difficulty.The difficulty degree of a tree T is the maximum degree of difficulty of all edges in the tree and the cost for coping with the difficulty in a tree is a nondecreasing function about the difficulty degree of the tree. The authors need to increase capacities of some edges so that there is a spanning tree whose capacity can be increased to the maximum extent.meanwhile the total cost for increasing capacity as well as overcoming the difficulty in the spanning tree does not exceed a given budget D*. Suppose the cost for increasing capacity on each edge is a linear function about the increment of capacity, they transform this problem into solving some hybrid parametric spanning tree problems[1] and propose a strongly polynomial algorithm.
Maximum entropy production in daisyworld
Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.
2012-05-01
Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.
Maximum stellar iron core mass
F W Giacobbe
2003-03-01
An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is described in this paper. The method employed depends, in part, upon an estimate of the true relativistic mass increase experienced by electrons within a highly compressed iron core, just prior to core collapse, and is signiﬁcantly different from a more typical Chandrasekhar mass limit approach. This technique produced a maximum stellar iron core mass value of 2.69 × 1030 kg (1.35 solar masses). This mass value is very near to the typical mass values found for neutron stars in a recent survey of actual neutron star masses. Although slightly lower and higher neutron star masses may also be found, lower mass neutron stars are believed to be formed as a result of enhanced iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large stars. And, higher mass neutron stars are likely to be formed as a result of fallback or accretion of additional matter after an initial collapse event involving an iron core having a mass no greater than 2.69 × 1030 kg.
Maximum Matchings via Glauber Dynamics
Jindal, Anant; Pal, Manjish
2011-01-01
In this paper we study the classic problem of computing a maximum cardinality matching in general graphs $G = (V, E)$. The best known algorithm for this problem till date runs in $O(m \\sqrt{n})$ time due to Micali and Vazirani \\cite{MV80}. Even for general bipartite graphs this is the best known running time (the algorithm of Karp and Hopcroft \\cite{HK73} also achieves this bound). For regular bipartite graphs one can achieve an $O(m)$ time algorithm which, following a series of papers, has been recently improved to $O(n \\log n)$ by Goel, Kapralov and Khanna (STOC 2010) \\cite{GKK10}. In this paper we present a randomized algorithm based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo paradigm which runs in $O(m \\log^2 n)$ time, thereby obtaining a significant improvement over \\cite{MV80}. We use a Markov chain similar to the \\emph{hard-core model} for Glauber Dynamics with \\emph{fugacity} parameter $\\lambda$, which is used to sample independent sets in a graph from the Gibbs Distribution \\cite{V99}, to design a faster algori...
2011-01-10
...: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure Using Record Evidence, and... facilities of their responsibilities, under Federal integrity management (IM) regulations, to perform... system, especially when calculating Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) or Maximum Operating...
Maximum power point tracking for optimizing energy harvesting process
Akbari, S.; Thang, P. C.; Veselov, D. S.
2016-10-01
There has been a growing interest in using energy harvesting techniques for powering wireless sensor networks. The reason for utilizing this technology can be explained by the sensors limited amount of operation time which results from the finite capacity of batteries and the need for having a stable power supply in some applications. Energy can be harvested from the sun, wind, vibration, heat, etc. It is reasonable to develop multisource energy harvesting platforms for increasing the amount of harvesting energy and to mitigate the issue concerning the intermittent nature of ambient sources. In the context of solar energy harvesting, it is possible to develop algorithms for finding the optimal operation point of solar panels at which maximum power is generated. These algorithms are known as maximum power point tracking techniques. In this article, we review the concept of maximum power point tracking and provide an overview of the research conducted in this area for wireless sensor networks applications.
The maximum force in a column under constant speed compression
Kuzkin, Vitaly A
2015-01-01
Dynamic buckling of an elastic column under compression at constant speed is investigated assuming the first-mode buckling. Two cases are considered: (i) an imperfect column (Hoff's statement), and (ii) a perfect column having an initial lateral deflection. The range of parameters, where the maximum load supported by a column exceeds Euler static force is determined. In this range, the maximum load is represented as a function of the compression rate, slenderness ratio, and imperfection/initial deflection. Considering the results we answer the following question: "How slowly the column should be compressed in order to measure static load-bearing capacity?" This question is important for the proper setup of laboratory experiments and computer simulations of buckling. Additionally, it is shown that the behavior of a perfect column having an initial deflection differ significantlys form the behavior of an imperfect column. In particular, the dependence of the maximum force on the compression rate is non-monotoni...
Has Wild Poliovirus Been Eliminated from Nigeria?
Famulare, Michael
2015-01-01
Wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) has not been seen anywhere since the last case of WPV3-associated paralysis in Nigeria in November 2012. At the time of writing, the most recent case of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) in Nigeria occurred in July 2014, and WPV1 has not been seen in Africa since a case in Somalia in August 2014. No cases associated with circulating vaccine-derived type 2 poliovirus (cVDPV2) have been detected in Nigeria since November 2014. Has WPV1 been eliminated from Africa? Has WPV3 been eradicated globally? Has Nigeria interrupted cVDPV2 transmission? These questions are difficult because polio surveillance is based on paralysis and paralysis only occurs in a small fraction of infections. This report provides estimates for the probabilities of poliovirus elimination in Nigeria given available data as of March 31, 2015. It is based on a model of disease transmission that is built from historical polio incidence rates and is designed to represent the uncertainties in transmission dynamics and poliovirus detection that are fundamental to interpreting long time periods without cases. The model estimates that, as of March 31, 2015, the probability of WPV1 elimination in Nigeria is 84%, and that if WPV1 has not been eliminated, a new case will be detected with 99% probability by the end of 2015. The probability of WPV3 elimination (and thus global eradication) is > 99%. However, it is unlikely that the ongoing transmission of cVDPV2 has been interrupted; the probability of cVDPV2 elimination rises to 83% if no new cases are detected by April 2016.
Noise elimination algorithm for modal analysis
Bao, X. X., E-mail: baoxingxian@upc.edu.cn [Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Li, C. L. [Key Laboratory of Marine Geology and Environment, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Xiong, C. B. [The First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061 (China)
2015-07-27
Modal analysis is an ongoing interdisciplinary physical issue. Modal parameters estimation is applied to determine the dynamic characteristics of structures under vibration excitation. Modal analysis is more challenging for the measured vibration response signals are contaminated with noise. This study develops a mathematical algorithm of structured low rank approximation combined with the complex exponential method to estimate the modal parameters. Physical experiments using a steel cantilever beam with ten accelerometers mounted, excited by an impulse load, demonstrate that this method can significantly eliminate noise from measured signals and accurately identify the modal frequencies and damping ratios. This study provides a fundamental mechanism of noise elimination using structured low rank approximation in physical fields.
Recognizing, Confronting, and Eliminating Workplace Bullying.
Berry, Peggy Ann; Gillespie, Gordon L; Fisher, Bonnie S; Gormley, Denise K
2016-07-01
Workplace bullying (WPB) behaviors negatively affect nurse productivity, satisfaction, and retention, and hinder safe patient care. The purpose of this article is to define WPB, differentiate between incivility and WPB, and recommend actions to prevent WPB behaviors. Informed occupational and environmental health nurses and nurse leaders must recognize, confront, and eliminate WPB in their facilities and organizations. Recognizing, confronting, and eliminating WPB behaviors in health care is a crucial first step toward sustained improvements in patient care quality and the health and safety of health care employees. © 2016 The Author(s).
Elimination and recursions in the scattering equations
Carlos Cardona
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We use the elimination theory to explicitly construct the (n−3! order polynomial in one of the variables of the scattering equations. The answer can be given either in terms of a determinant of Sylvester type of dimension (n−3! or a determinant of Bézout type of dimension (n−4!. We present a recursive formula for the Sylvester determinant. Expansion of the determinants yields expressions in terms of Plücker coordinates. Elimination of the rest of the variables of the scattering equations is also presented.
Ten years left to eliminate blinding trachoma
Haddad D.
2010-09-01
Full Text Available n 1997, the World Health Organization formed the Global Alliance to Eliminate Blinding Trachoma by 2020 (GET 2020, a coalition of governmental, non-governmental, research, and pharmaceutical partners. In 1998, the World Health Assembly urged member states to map blinding trachoma in endemic areas, implement the SAFE strategy (which stands for surgery for trichiasis, antibiotics, facial-cleanliness and environmental change, such as clean water and latrines and collaborate with the global alliance in its work to eliminate blinding trachoma.
Dynamics of Hydrogen Elimination from Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
Cromwell, Evan Francis
State-of-the-art laser and molecular beam techniques are used to study the dynamics of H_2 elimination from 1,4-cyclohexadiene and ethylene. Information on the transition state configurations and the dynamics of the dissociation processes for these reactions is reported. A brief introduction to these studies is presented in Chapter I. An ultrahigh-brightness laser system, developed to study the spectroscopy and dynamics of molecules and clusters from the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) to the near infra-red spectral regions is described in Chapter II. The laser utilizes pulse amplification of a single-mode ring dye laser, frequency doubling, and four-wave mixing in a pulsed jet. Pulse energies of > 120mJ in the visible, >35mJ in the uv, >15mJ in the infra-red and > 10^{11} photons/pulse in the VUV-XUV have been obtained. The bandwidth of the laser has been measured to be 91MHz in the visible and 210MHz in the XUV. In Chapter III a comprehensive study of the dynamics of H_2 elimination from 1,4- and 1,3-cyclohexadiene is reported. Rotational and vibrational quantum state distributions as well as translation energy distributions for the H_2 product are measured. State specific detection of H_2 is accomplished with a transform limited vuv-xuv laser system via (1 + 1) REMPI. Rate constants for the H_2 elimination and 1,4 to 1,3 isomerization reactions are derived. A (v, J) correlation for H _2 with {bf v}| {bf J} primarily is observed from anisotropy in the Doppler profiles. A clear picture of the transition state configuration of 1,4-cyclohexadiene is provided from the information obtained. A study of the dynamics of H_2 elimination from ethylene is presented in the last Chapter. A complete H_2 product energy distribution is obtained. The distribution of energy in H_2 product from the dissociation of 1,1-d_2 ethylene is also presented. Two separate H_2 elimination channels are observed, a 1,1 elimination and a 1,2 elimination, in the
Yang, Yanqiu; Yu, Lin; Zhang, Yixin
2017-04-01
A model of the average capacity of optical wireless communication link with pointing errors for the ground-to-train of the curved track is established based on the non-Kolmogorov. By adopting the gamma-gamma distribution model, we derive the average capacity expression for this channel. The numerical analysis reveals that heavier fog reduces the average capacity of link. The strength of atmospheric turbulence, the variance of pointing errors, and the covered track length need to be reduced for the larger average capacity of link. The normalized beamwidth and the average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the turbulence-free link need to be increased. We can increase the transmit aperture to expand the beamwidth and enhance the signal intensity, thereby decreasing the impact of the beam wander accordingly. As the system adopting the automatic tracking of beam at the receiver positioned on the roof of the train, for eliminating the pointing errors caused by beam wander and train vibration, the equivalent average capacity of the channel will achieve a maximum value. The impact of the non-Kolmogorov spectral index's variation on the average capacity of link can be ignored.
The Sherpa Maximum Likelihood Estimator
Nguyen, D.; Doe, S.; Evans, I.; Hain, R.; Primini, F.
2011-07-01
A primary goal for the second release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is to include X-ray sources with as few as 5 photon counts detected in stacked observations of the same field, while maintaining acceptable detection efficiency and false source rates. Aggressive source detection methods will result in detection of many false positive source candidates. Candidate detections will then be sent to a new tool, the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE), to evaluate the likelihood that a detection is a real source. MLE uses the Sherpa modeling and fitting engine to fit a model of a background and source to multiple overlapping candidate source regions. A background model is calculated by simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in multiple background regions. This model is used to determine the quality of the fit statistic for a background-only hypothesis in the potential source region. The statistic for a background-plus-source hypothesis is calculated by adding a Gaussian source model convolved with the appropriate Chandra point spread function (PSF) and simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in each observation in the stack. Since a candidate source may be located anywhere in the field of view of each stacked observation, a different PSF must be used for each observation because of the strong spatial dependence of the Chandra PSF. The likelihood of a valid source being detected is a function of the two statistics (for background alone, and for background-plus-source). The MLE tool is an extensible Python module with potential for use by the general Chandra user.
Vestige: Maximum likelihood phylogenetic footprinting
Maxwell Peter
2005-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic footprinting is the identification of functional regions of DNA by their evolutionary conservation. This is achieved by comparing orthologous regions from multiple species and identifying the DNA regions that have diverged less than neutral DNA. Vestige is a phylogenetic footprinting package built on the PyEvolve toolkit that uses probabilistic molecular evolutionary modelling to represent aspects of sequence evolution, including the conventional divergence measure employed by other footprinting approaches. In addition to measuring the divergence, Vestige allows the expansion of the definition of a phylogenetic footprint to include variation in the distribution of any molecular evolutionary processes. This is achieved by displaying the distribution of model parameters that represent partitions of molecular evolutionary substitutions. Examination of the spatial incidence of these effects across regions of the genome can identify DNA segments that differ in the nature of the evolutionary process. Results Vestige was applied to a reference dataset of the SCL locus from four species and provided clear identification of the known conserved regions in this dataset. To demonstrate the flexibility to use diverse models of molecular evolution and dissect the nature of the evolutionary process Vestige was used to footprint the Ka/Ks ratio in primate BRCA1 with a codon model of evolution. Two regions of putative adaptive evolution were identified illustrating the ability of Vestige to represent the spatial distribution of distinct molecular evolutionary processes. Conclusion Vestige provides a flexible, open platform for phylogenetic footprinting. Underpinned by the PyEvolve toolkit, Vestige provides a framework for visualising the signatures of evolutionary processes across the genome of numerous organisms simultaneously. By exploiting the maximum-likelihood statistical framework, the complex interplay between mutational
Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network Support for Elimination Goals, 2010-2015.
Mulders, Mick N; Rota, Paul A; Icenogle, Joseph P; Brown, Kevin E; Takeda, Makoto; Rey, Gloria J; Ben Mamou, Myriam C; Dosseh, Annick R G A; Byabamazima, Charles R; Ahmed, Hinda J; Pattamadilok, Sirima; Zhang, Yan; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Strebel, Peter M; Goodson, James L
2016-05-06
In 2012, the World Health Assembly endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP)* with the objective to eliminate measles and rubella in five World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2020. In September 2013, countries in all six WHO regions had established measles elimination goals, and additional goals for elimination of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome were established in three regions (1). Capacity for surveillance, including laboratory confirmation, is fundamental to monitoring and verifying elimination. The 2012-2020 Global Measles and Rubella Strategic Plan of the Measles and Rubella Initiative(†) calls for effective case-based surveillance with laboratory testing for case confirmation (2). In 2000, the WHO Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network (GMRLN) was established to provide high quality laboratory support for surveillance (3). The GMRLN is the largest globally coordinated laboratory network, with 703 laboratories supporting surveillance in 191 countries. During 2010-2015, 742,187 serum specimens were tested, and 27,832 viral sequences were reported globally. Expansion of the capacity of the GMRLN will support measles and rubella elimination efforts as well as surveillance for other vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs), including rotavirus, and for emerging pathogens of public health concern.
STUDY ON MAXIMUM SPECIFIC SLUDGE ACIVITY OF DIFFERENT ANAEROBIC GRANULAR SLUDGE BY BATCH TESTS
无
2001-01-01
The maximum specific sludge activity of granular sludge from large-scale UASB, IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were investigated by batch tests. The limitation factors related to maximum specific sludge activity (diffusion, substrate sort, substrate concentration and granular size) were studied. The general principle and procedure for the precise measurement of maximum specific sludge activity were suggested. The potential capacity of loading rate of the IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were analyzed and compared by use of the batch tests results.
Financial instability in the region: assessment methods and elimination tools
Pavel Andreevich Ivanov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Financial instability is one of the most important factors in the level and sustainability of socio-economic development of territories. However, at present, from the viewpoint of methodology, this concept is developed insufficiently in relation to the elimination and forecasting of economic and financial crisis threats. This problem is especially acute at the regional level. For its solution the article proposes a methodology for assessing the risks of financial instability; it helps to determine the indicators of the current state and development of regional finances that are most liable to volatility in the context of the main institutional sectors (government, business, households; the methodology also helps to forecast the probable maximum change in the indicators in the future with the use of the VaR methodology The calculations carried out according to the proposed methodology on the example of the Republic of Bashkortostan show that regional finances are most vulnerable to fiscal risk. As a tool to eliminate budget risk the authors give several suggestions on improving the efficiency of interbudgetary transfers that make it possible to increase the degree of financial autonomy of the regions and to act as an effective incentive to their innovation development
102 Women Win Illiteracy Elimination Awards
1996-01-01
SHEN Kexin is one of the 102 women who won the Women’s Illiteracy Elimination Award (WIEA) in 1995. Through her unremitting efforts, 326 illiterate women learned to read and write and 44 girls went back to school. The award winners came from different ethnic groups and different walks of life. Thirty local governments and women’s organizations also won the award.
Teaching Projectile Motion to Eliminate Misconceptions
Prescott, Anne; Mitchelmore, Michael
2005-01-01
Student misconceptions of projectile motion are well documented, but their effect on the teaching and learning of the mathematics of motion under gravity has not been investigated. An experimental unit was designed that was intended to confront and eliminate misconceptions in senior secondary school students. The approach was found to be…
Eliminating transducer distortion in acoustic measurements
Agerkvist, Finn T.; Torras Rosell, Antoni; McWalter, Richard Ian
2014-01-01
This paper investigates the in uence of nonlinear components that contaminate the linear response of acoustic transducer, and presents a method for eliminating the in uence of nonlinearities in acoustic measurements. The method is evaluated on simulated as well as experimental data, and is shown...
Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalization by Gauss Elimination.
Pursell, Lyle; Trimble, S. Y.
1991-01-01
Described is the hand-calculation method for the orthogonalization of a given set of vectors through the integration of Gaussian elimination with existing algorithms. Although not numerically preferable, this method adds increased precision as well as organization to the solution process. (JJK)
Eliminating Problems Caused by Multicollinearity: A Warning.
Kennedy, Peter E.
1982-01-01
Explains why an econometric practice introduced by J.C. Soper cannot eliminate the problems caused by multicollinearity. The author suggests that it can be a useful technique in that it forces researchers to pay more attention to the specifications of their models. (AM)
Landex, Alex
2011-01-01
Stations do have other challenges regarding capacity than open lines as it is here the traffic is dispatched. The UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyse the capacity consumption can be exposed in different ways at stations which may lead to different results. Therefore, stations need...... special focus when conducting UIC 406 capacity analyses.This paper describes how the UIC 406 capacity method can be expounded for stations. Commonly for the analyses of the stations it is recommended to include the entire station including the switch zone(s) and all station tracks. By including the switch...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...
Evaluation of railway capacity
Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.; Schittenhelm, Bernd
2006-01-01
This paper describes the relatively new UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. The UIC 406 method is an easy and effective way of calculating the capacity consumption, but it is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different...... capacity consumptions. This paper describes the UIC 406 method and how it is expounded in Denmark. The paper describes the importance of choosing the right length of the line sections examined and how line sections with multiple track sections are examined. Furthermore, the possibility of using idle...... capacity to run more trains is examined. The paper presents a method to examine the expected capacity utilization of future timetables. The method is based on the plan of operation instead of the exact (known) timetable. At the end of the paper it is described how it is possible to make capacity statements...
Adam McCarty
2001-01-01
This report is the outcome of a study commissioned to examine the capacity building needs in Vietnam, and is a supplementary document to the Asian Development Bank's Country Operational Strategy for Vietnam. Vietnam's needs in terms of capacity building are particularly important given that is it a transitional economy and also one with little institutional experience in dealing with the international donor community. This paper examines the international awareness of capacity building and ca...
Metin, Ayşegül Ülkü; Alver, Erol
2016-07-01
Papain, which is an industrially important enzyme, has been immobilized on fibrous polymer-modified composite beads, namely poly(methacrylic acid)-grafted chitosan/clay. Characterization studies have been done using FTIR and SEM analysis. Operating parameters such as pH and initial concentration of papain have been varied to obtain the finest papain immobilized polymer-modified composite beads. The immobilization capacity of composite beads has been determined as 34.47 ± 1.18 (n = 3) mg/g. The proteolytic activity of immobilized papain was operated using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and maximum velocity (V max) and Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) values of the free and immobilized enzymes were determined using Lineweaver-Burk and Eadie-Hofstee equations. Usability of papain immobilized polymer-modified composite beads as adsorbents for the elimination of mercury was investigated. The maximum removal capacity of PIPMC beads has been found to be 4.88 ± 0.21 mg Hg/g when the initial metal concentration and weight of polymer-modified composite beads were 50 mg/L and 0.04 g at pH 7, respectively. Mercury removal performance of the papain immobilized polymer-modified composite beads was investigated in conjunction with Cu (II), Zn (II) and Cd (II) ions. The mercury adsorption capacity of papain immobilized polymer-modified composite beads was a slight reduction from 1.15 to 0.89 mg/g in presence of multiple metal salts.
Development of Leishmania vaccines in the era of visceral leishmaniasis elimination.
Engwerda, Christian R; Matlashewski, Greg
2015-07-01
A visceral leishmaniasis (VL) elimination target set for the Indian subcontinent in 2005 is being met in many endemic areas without a vaccine. This begs a question: is a VL vaccine needed if elimination targets can be met with current control programs? Here, we argue that a vaccine will be critical if the success of recent VL control efforts are to be sustained. However, not only do we require a safe and effective vaccine, but we also need to know how this should be used for maximum impact. In particular, identifying appropriate target populations to vaccinate will be crucial.
Light dependence of carboxylation capacity for C3 photosynthesis models
Photosynthesis at high light is often modelled by assuming limitation by the maximum capacity of Rubisco carboxylation at low carbon dioxide concentrations, by electron transport capacity at higher concentrations, and sometimes by triose-phosphate utilization rate at the highest concentrations. Pho...
Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.
2007-05-01
The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.
Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi
2009-01-01
to patient testing, and review existing TVA-based patient studies organized by lesion anatomy. Lesions in three anatomical regions affect visual capacity: The parietal lobes, frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and extrastriate cortex. Visual capacity thus depends on large, bilaterally distributed anatomical...
Sameni, Melody Khadem; Preston, John M.
2012-01-01
Growth in rail traffic has not been matched by increases in railway infrastructure. Given this capacity challenge and the current restrictions on public spending, the allocation and the utilization of existing railway capacity are more important than ever. Great Britain has had the greatest growth...... in rail passenger kilometers of European countries since 1996. However, costs are higher and efficiency is lower than European best practice. This paper provides an innovative methodology for assessing the efficiency of passenger operators in capacity utilization. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used...... to analyze the efficiency of operators in transforming inputs of allocated capacity of infrastructure and franchise payments into valuable passenger service outputs while avoiding delays. By addressing operational and economic aspects of capacity utilization simultaneously, the paper deviates from existing...
A Novel Algorithm of Surface Eliminating in Undersurface Optoacoustic Imaging
Zhulina Yulia V
2004-01-01
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the task of optoacoustic imaging of the objects located under the surface covering them. In this paper, we suggest the algorithm of the surface eliminating based on the fact that the intensity of the image as a function of the spatial point should change slowly inside the local objects, and will suffer a discontinuity of the spatial gradients on their boundaries. The algorithm forms the 2-dimensional curves along which the discontinuity of the signal derivatives is detected. Then, the algorithm divides the signal space into the areas along these curves. The signals inside the areas with the maximum level of the signal amplitudes and the maximal gradient absolute values on their edges are put equal to zero. The rest of the signals are used for the image restoration. This method permits to reconstruct the picture of the surface boundaries with a higher contrast than that of the surface detection technique based on the maximums of the received signals. This algorithm does not require any prior knowledge of the signals' statistics inside and outside the local objects. It may be used for reconstructing any images with the help of the signals representing the integral over the object's volume. Simulation and real data are also provided to validate the proposed method.
Renal elimination of organic anions in cholestasis
Adriana Mónica Tortes
2008-01-01
The disposition of most drugs is highly dependent on specialized transporters.OAT1 and OAT3 are two organic anion transporters expressed in the basolateral membrane of renal proximal tubule cells,identified as contributors to xenobiotic and endogenous organic anion secretion.It is well known that cholestasis may cause renal damage.Impairment of kidney function produces modifications in the renal elimination of drugs.Recent studies have demonstrated that the renal abundance of OAT1 and OAT3 plays an important role in the renal elimination of organic anions in the presence of extrahepatic cholestasis.Time elapsed after obstructive cholestasis has an important impact on the regulation of both types of organic anion transporters.The renal expression of OAT1 and OAT3 should be taken into account in order to improve pharmacotherapeutic efficacy and to prevent drug toxicity during the onset of this hepatic disease.
Eliminative behaviour of dairy cows at pasture
Whistance, Lindsay Kay; Sinclair, Liam A.; Arney, David Richard
2011-01-01
within 30 s of an eliminative event. Intentional, incidental or no avoidance of faeces was also recorded for each event. Activity, characterised as static (lying, grazing or loafing), or active (moving to a different area of field, going to drink and catching up with herd) was also recorded. Of the 437...... going to drink or catching up with the herd. Overall, standing to defaecate and moving forward......Despite a strong avoidance of grazing near dung patches, cattle have traditionally been considered not to avoid bodily contact with faeces, regardless of any risk of disease. Little is understood of the behaviour of pasture-kept dairy cows at the time of defaecation and therefore, the eliminative...
Morales, M.; Revah, S. [UAM-Iztapalapa, Distrito Federal (Mexico). Dept. de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica; Auria, R. [ORSTOM, Los Morales (Mexico)
1998-11-20
Biotechnological techniques, including biofilters and biotrickling filters are increasingly used to treat air polluted with VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds). In this work, the start-up, the effect of the gaseous ammonia addition on the toluene removal rate, and the problems of the heat accumulation on the performance of a laboratory scale biofilter were studied. The packing material was sterilized peat enriched with a mineral medium and inoculated with an adapted consortium (two yeast and five bacteria). Start-up showed a short adaptation period and an increased toluene elimination capacity (EC) up to a maximum of 190 g/m{sup 3}/h. This was related to increased CO{sub 2} outlet concentration and temperature gradients between the packed bed and the inlet (Tm-Tin). These events were associated with the growth of the microbial population. The biofilter EC decreased thereafter, to attain a steady state of 8 g/m{sup 3}/h. At this point, gaseous ammonia was added. EC increased up to 80 g/m{sup 3}/h, with simultaneous increases on the CO{sub 2} concentration and (Tm-Tin).
Twin-image elimination apparatus and method
1996-01-01
The twin-image elimination apparatus of the present invention comprises (a) a scanning light source for emitting a scanning light beam; (b) an interference device which converts the scanning light beam from the scanning light source into a spherical wave and a plane wave having temporal frequencies different from each other and combines the spherical and plane waves together; (c) a scanner for scanning an object with the combined light beam from the interference device; (d) a photodetector fo...
An Elimination of Resonance in Electric Drives
Michal Malek
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Flexible couplings together with resonance phenomenon are present mainly in the field of servodrives where high accuracy and dynamic requirements are crucial. When dynamics doesn’t correlate with mechanical system design, unwanted frequencies in the system are exited. Sometimes we haven’t conditions (whether material or space to design mechanical system with resonant frequencies too high to be exited. In that case we must choose compensating methods which can eliminate these phenomenons. This paper is dedicated to them.
Kim, K. M.; Smetana, P.
1990-03-01
Growth of large diameter Czochralski (CZ) silicon crystals require complete elimination of dislocations by means of Dash technique, where the seed diameter is reduced to a small size typically 3 mm in conjunction with increase in the pull rate. The maximum length of the large CZ silicon is estimated at the fracture stress limit of the seed neck diameter ( d). The maximum lengths for 200 and 300 mm CZ crystals amount to 197 and 87 cm, respectively, with d = 0.3 cm; the estimated maximum weight is 144 kg.
ON THE BOTTLENECK CAPACITY EXPANSION PROBLEMS ON NETWORKS
Yang Chao; Zhang Jianzhong
2006-01-01
This article considers a class of bottleneck capacity expansion problems. Such problems aim to enhance bottleneck capacity to a certain level with minimum cost. Given a network G(V, A,(-C)) consisting of a set of nodes V = {v1, v2,………, vn}, a set of arcs A(∪-){(vi, vj) | i = 1, 2,………, n; j = 1, 2,………, n} and a capacity vector (-C). The component (-C)ij of (-C) is the capacity of arc (vi, vj). Define the capacity of a subset A' of A as the minimum capacity of the arcs in A, the capacity of a family F of subsets of A is the maximum capacity of its members. There axe two types of expanding models. In the arc-expanding model, the unit cost to increase the capacity of arc (vi, vj) is wij. In the node-expanding model, it is assumed that the capacities of all arcs (vi, vi) which start at the same node vi should be increased by the same amount and that the unit cost to make such expansion is wi. This article considers three kinds of bottleneck capacity expansion problems (path,spanning arborescence and maximum flow) in both expanding models. For each kind of expansion problems, this article discusses the characteristics of the problems and presents several results on the complexity of the problems.
Hitting Hotspots: Spatial Targeting of Malaria for Control and Elimination
Bousema, T.; Griffin, J.T.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Smith, D.L.; Churcher, T.S.; Takken, W.; Ghani, A.; Drakeley, C.; Gosling, R.
2012-01-01
Current malaria elimination guidelines are based on the concept that malaria transmission becomes heterogeneous in the later phases of malaria elimination [1]. In the pre-elimination and elimination phases, interventions have to be targeted to entire villages or towns with higher malaria incidence
Hitting Hotspots: Spatial Targeting of Malaria for Control and Elimination
Bousema, T.; Griffin, J.T.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Smith, D.L.; Churcher, T.S.; Takken, W.; Ghani, A.; Drakeley, C.; Gosling, R.
2012-01-01
Current malaria elimination guidelines are based on the concept that malaria transmission becomes heterogeneous in the later phases of malaria elimination [1]. In the pre-elimination and elimination phases, interventions have to be targeted to entire villages or towns with higher malaria incidence u
Hitting Hotspots: Spatial Targeting of Malaria for Control and Elimination
Bousema, T.; Griffin, J.T.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Smith, D.L.; Churcher, T.S.; Takken, W.; Ghani, A.; Drakeley, C.; Gosling, R.
2012-01-01
Current malaria elimination guidelines are based on the concept that malaria transmission becomes heterogeneous in the later phases of malaria elimination [1]. In the pre-elimination and elimination phases, interventions have to be targeted to entire villages or towns with higher malaria incidence u
The near elimination of triplets in IVF.
Gerris, Jan
2007-01-01
In Antwerp, single embryo transfers (SET) have increased, and this change in policy has seen the incidence of singletons rise from 70 to 90%, twins drop from 25 to 10%, and triplets drop from 1-2% to none at all. At a national and regional level, changes have been much more dramatic as a result of a change in the law in 2003 mandating SET. Data show a huge increase in the number of treatment cycles and a dramatic rise in SET. Rates of twins and triplets have dropped considerably. European data indicate wide differences in the incidence of triplets between countries, varying between 0% (e.g.Slovenia, Iceland, Lithuania) and 4.4% (Hungary), but almost nothing is known about the true incidence of fetal reduction. US data indicate some decrease in triplets during recent years, but certainly nowhere near elimination. These data suggest that in some countries, IVF triplets have almost been eliminated, but the problem is masked by significant fetal reductions. Where SET is not widely used, triplets are still frequent. A correlation appears to exist between the percentage of SET cycles and the incidence of triplets. It is suggested that the solution to almost totally eliminate triplets after IVF is single embryo transfer.
Potential economic benefits of eliminating canine rabies.
Shwiff, Stephanie; Hampson, Katie; Anderson, Aaron
2013-05-01
Although canine rabies has been eliminated from industrialized countries, infected dogs remain the primary source of human and livestock exposures in Asia, Africa and much of South America. Human deaths are the most important direct economic impact of canine rabies, followed by livestock losses and the cost of PEP, while expenses associated with dog vaccination and control are major indirect impacts. The global burden of rabies disproportionately affects Asia, which experiences more than half of human rabies deaths and approximately 65% of livestock losses, and performs more than 90% of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). Africa is second to Asia in terms of human deaths and livestock losses, but administers the least number of PEPs of the three regions. Recent experience in Latin America shows that efforts to reduce human deaths from rabies through expanded dog vaccination and improved access to PEP result in significant monetary savings. The elimination of canine rabies would lead to major economic benefits in developing countries that are often the least capable of dealing with the disease. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on the elimination of canine rabies. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Role of genomics in eliminating health disparities
Meghana V Kashyap
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The Texas Center for Health Disparities, a National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Center of Excellence, presents an annual conference to discuss prevention, awareness education, and ongoing research about health disparities both in Texas and among the national population. The 2014 Annual Texas Conference on Health Disparities brought together experts in research, patient care, and community outreach on the "Role of Genomics in Eliminating Health Disparities." Rapid advances in genomics and pharmacogenomics are leading the field of medicine to use genetics and genetic risk to build personalized or individualized medicine strategies. We are at a critical juncture of ensuring such rapid advances benefit diverse populations. Relatively few forums have been organized around the theme of the role of genomics in eliminating health disparities. The conference consisted of three sessions addressing "Gene-Environment Interactions and Health Disparities," "Personalized Medicine and Elimination of Health Disparities," and "Ethics and Public Policy in the Genomic Era." This article summarizes the basic science, clinical correlates, and public health data presented by the speakers.
Planning of elimination of emergency consequences
S. Kovalenko
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Introduction. The volume of useful information in the planning of elimination of emergency consequences process is reasonable to assess with calculatory problems and mathematical models. Materials and methods. The expert survey method is used to calculate quantitative values of probability and to determine the optimal solution before the information in condition is received. Results. It is determined that the quality of the solution of elimination emergency consequences depends primarily on the number of factors that are taken into account in particular circumstances of the situation; on the level of information readiness of control bodies to take decision to eliminate emergency consequences as soon as possible and to consider several options for achieving reasonableness and concreteness of a particular decision. The ratio between volume of useful information collected and processed during operation planning which is required for identifying optimal solution is calculated. This ratio allows to construct a graph of probability of identifying a solution in existing environment and probability value of identifying optimal solution before information in P*condition is obtained. This graph also shows the ratio volume of useful information collected and processed during operation planning and necessary volume of information for identifying optimal solution. Conclusion. The results of this research can be used for improving control bodies decisions to ensure safe working conditions for employees of food industry.
Malaria elimination in India and regional implications.
Wangdi, Kinley; Gatton, Michelle L; Kelly, Gerard C; Banwell, Cathy; Dev, Vas; Clements, Archie C A
2016-10-01
The malaria situation in India is complex as a result of diverse socio-environmental conditions. India contributes a substantial burden of malaria outside sub-Saharan Africa, with the third highest Plasmodium vivax prevalence in the world. Successful malaria control in India is likely to enhance malaria elimination efforts in the region. Despite modest gains, there are many challenges for malaria elimination in India, including: varied patterns of malaria transmission in different parts of the country demanding area-specific control measures; intense malaria transmission fuelled by favourable climatic and environment factors; varying degrees of insecticide resistance of vectors; antimalarial drug resistance; a weak surveillance system; and poor national coordination of state programmes. Prevention and protection against malaria are low as a result of a weak health-care system, as well as financial and socioeconomic constraints. Additionally, the open borders of India provide a potential route of entry for artesunate-resistant parasites from southeast Asia. This situation calls for urgent dialogue around tackling malaria across borders-between India's states and neighbouring countries-through sharing of information and coordinated control and preventive measures, if we are to achieve the aim of malaria elimination in the region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution
吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生
2003-01-01
Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.
Capacity of Discrete Molecular Diffusion Channels
Einolghozati, Arash; Beirami, Ahmad; Fekri, Faramarz
2011-01-01
In diffusion-based molecular communications, messages can be conveyed via the variation in the concentration of molecules in the medium. In this paper, we intend to analyze the achievable capacity in transmission of information from one node to another in a diffusion channel. We observe that because of the molecular diffusion in the medium, the channel possesses memory. We then model the memory of the channel by a two-step Markov chain and obtain the equations describing the capacity of the diffusion channel. By performing a numerical analysis, we obtain the maximum achievable rate for different levels of the transmitter power, i.e., the molecule production rate.
Maximum Power from a Solar Panel
Michael Miller
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.
Towards malaria elimination in the MOSASWA (Mozambique, South Africa and Swaziland) region.
Moonasar, Devanand; Maharaj, Rajendra; Kunene, Simon; Candrinho, Baltazar; Saute, Francisco; Ntshalintshali, Nyasatu; Morris, Natashia
2016-08-18
The substantial impact of cross-border collaborative control efforts on the burden of malaria in southern Africa has previously been demonstrated through the successes of the Lubombo Spatial Development Initiative. Increases in malaria cases recorded in the three partner countries (Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland) since termination of that programme in 2011 have provided impetus for the resuscitation of cooperation in the form of the MOSASWA malaria initiative. MOSASWA, launched in 2015, seeks to renew regional efforts to accelerate progress towards malaria elimination goals already established in the region. National malaria programmes, together with developmental partners, academic institutions and the private sector seek to harmonize policy, strengthen capacity, share expertise, expand access to elimination interventions particularly amongst migrant and border population groups, mobilize resources and advocate for long-term funding to ultimately achieve and sustain malaria elimination in the MOSASWA region.
Graph-based local elimination algorithms in discrete optimization
Shcherbina, Oleg
2009-01-01
The aim of this paper is to provide a review of structural decomposition methods in discrete optimization and to give a unified framework in the form of local elimination algorithms (LEA). This paper is organized as follows. Local elimination algorithms for discrete optimization (DO) problems (DOPs) with constraints are considered; a classification of dynamic programming computational procedures is given. We introduce Elimination Game and Elimination tree. Application of bucket elimination algorithm from constraint satisfaction (CS) to solving DOPs is done. We consider different local elimination schemes and related notions. Clustering that merges several variables into single meta-variable defines a promising approach to solve DOPs. This allows to create a quotient (condensed) graph and apply a local block elimination algorithm. In order to describe a block elimination process, we introduce Block Elimination Game. We discuss the connection of aforementioned local elimination algorithmic schemes and a way of ...
Maximum likelihood method and Fisher's information in physics and econophysics
Syska, Jacek
2012-01-01
Three steps in the development of the maximum likelihood (ML) method are presented. At first, the application of the ML method and Fisher information notion in the model selection analysis is described (Chapter 1). The fundamentals of differential geometry in the construction of the statistical space are introduced, illustrated also by examples of the estimation of the exponential models. At second, the notions of the relative entropy and the information channel capacity are introduced (Chapter 2). The observed and expected structural information principle (IP) and the variational IP of the modified extremal physical information (EPI) method of Frieden and Soffer are presented and discussed (Chapter 3). The derivation of the structural IP based on the analyticity of the logarithm of the likelihood function and on the metricity of the statistical space of the system is given. At third, the use of the EPI method is developed (Chapters 4-5). The information channel capacity is used for the field theory models cl...
Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand.
Nazir, Ashraf; Nasr, Ahmed
2013-03-01
Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21-31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18-75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.
Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand
Ashraf Nazir
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21–31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18–75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.
Vedr.: Military capacity building
Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert
2013-01-01
Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...... Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...
Vedr.: Military capacity building
Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert
2013-01-01
Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from......Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...
Triadic conceptual structure of the maximum entropy approach to evolution.
Herrmann-Pillath, Carsten; Salthe, Stanley N
2011-03-01
Many problems in evolutionary theory are cast in dyadic terms, such as the polar oppositions of organism and environment. We argue that a triadic conceptual structure offers an alternative perspective under which the information generating role of evolution as a physical process can be analyzed, and propose a new diagrammatic approach. Peirce's natural philosophy was deeply influenced by his reception of both Darwin's theory and thermodynamics. Thus, we elaborate on a new synthesis which puts together his theory of signs and modern Maximum Entropy approaches to evolution in a process discourse. Following recent contributions to the naturalization of Peircean semiosis, pointing towards 'physiosemiosis' or 'pansemiosis', we show that triadic structures involve the conjunction of three different kinds of causality, efficient, formal and final. In this, we accommodate the state-centered thermodynamic framework to a process approach. We apply this on Ulanowicz's analysis of autocatalytic cycles as primordial patterns of life. This paves the way for a semiotic view of thermodynamics which is built on the idea that Peircean interpretants are systems of physical inference devices evolving under natural selection. In this view, the principles of Maximum Entropy, Maximum Power, and Maximum Entropy Production work together to drive the emergence of information carrying structures, which at the same time maximize information capacity as well as the gradients of energy flows, such that ultimately, contrary to Schrödinger's seminal contribution, the evolutionary process is seen to be a physical expression of the Second Law.
Maryam Pakzad Masouleh
2015-06-01
Full Text Available An adsorbent and carrier based on ethoxylated functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs were prepared with diethylene glycol (2EG followed by esterification process. Resultant dietylene glycolated MWCNTs (MWCNTs-2EG used for elimination of Imatinib mesylate (Ima from water. Maximum Ima adsorption per 3 mg of adsorbent and 9 mg of initial Ima was 8.76 mg. maximum recycling at two pH values 7.4 and 5.3 was determined about 6.15 mg (70% and 7.42 mg (85% respectively. Ima elimination and recycling process is greatly enhanced by the creation of functional groups on the MWCNTs-2EG in compare with carboxylated MWCNTs (MWCNTs-COOH.
Mielke, U.
1979-01-01
We measured in 287 persons the pulmonary CO diffusion capacity with the steady-state and the single breath methods, applying apnoeic periods of 4 and 10 seconds duration. The aspects methodical significance, polyclinical applicability and pathognostic relevance with respect to other approved pulmonary functional tests are discussed. Differing pulmonary diffusion capacity values found in normal persons or in patients suffering from silicosis, pulmonary fibrosis, Boeck's disease or rheumatoid arthritis, were investigated and critically evaluated.
Revisiting Absorptive Capacity
de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher
Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...
Revisiting Absorptive Capacity
de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher
Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...
The global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness
Kirsten L Armstrong
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Aims : To complete an initial estimate of the global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness, including the investment required to build ongoing primary and secondary health care systems, as well as to eliminate the ′backlog′ of avoidable blindness. This analysis also seeks to understand and articulate where key data limitations lie. Materials and Methods : Data were collected in line with a global estimation approach, including separate costing frameworks for the primary and secondary care sectors, and the treatment of backlog. Results : The global direct health cost to eliminate avoidable blindness over a 10-year period from 2011 to 2020 is estimated at $632 billion per year (2009 US$. As countries already spend $592 billion per annum on eye health, this represents additional investment of $397.8 billion over 10 years, which is $40 billion per year or $5.80 per person for each year between 2010 and 2020. This is concentrated in high-income nations, which require 68% of the investment but comprise 16% of the world′s inhabitants. For all other regions, the additional investment required is $127 billion. Conclusions : This costing estimate has identified that low- and middle-income countries require less than half the additional investment compared with high-income nations. Low- and middle-income countries comprise the greater investment proportion in secondary care whereas high-income countries require the majority of investment into the primary sector. However, there is a need to improve sector data. Investment in better data will have positive flow-on effects for the eye health sector.
Reducing allergic symptoms through eliminating subgingival plaque
Haryono Utomo
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Background: Elimination of subgingival plaque for prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases through scaling is a routine procedure. It is also well-known that periodontal disease is related to systemic diseases. Nevertheless, the idea how scaling procedures also able to reduce allergic symptoms i.e. eczema and asthma, is not easily accepted, because it is contradictory to the “hygiene hypothesis”. However, since allergic symptoms also depend on variable factors such as genetic, environmental and infection factors; every possible effort to eliminate or avoid from these factors had to be considered. Subgingival plaque is a source of infection, especially the Gram-negative bacteria that produced endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS, a potential stimulator of immunocompetent cells, which may also related to allergy, such as mast cells and basophils. In addition, it also triggers the “neurogenic switching” mechanism which may be initiated from chronic gingivitis. Objective: This case report may explain the possible connection between subgingival plaque and allergy based on evidence-based cases. Case: Two adult siblings who suffered from chronic gingivitis also showed different manifestations of allergy that were allergic dermatitis and asthma for years. They were also undergone unsuccessful medical treatment for years. Oral and topical corticosteroids were taken for dermatitis and inhalation for asthma. Case Management: Patients were conducted deep scaling procedures, allergic symptoms gradually diminished in days even though without usual medications. Conclusion: Concerning to the effectiveness of scaling procedures which concomitantly eliminate subgingival plaque in allergic patients, it concluded that this concept is logical. Nevertheless, further verification and collaborated study with allergic expert should be done.
Iden, Sascha; Peters, Andre; Durner, Wolfgang
2017-04-01
Soil hydraulic properties are required to solve the Richards equation, the most widely applied model for variably-saturated flow. While the experimental determination of the water retention curve does not pose significant challenges, the measurement of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is time consuming and costly. The prediction of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity curve from the soil water retention curve by pore-bundle models is a cost-effective and widely applied technique. A well-known problem of conductivity prediction for retention functions with wide pore-size distributions is the sharp drop in conductivity close to water saturation. This problematic behavior is well known for the van Genuchten model if the shape parameter n assumes values smaller than about 1.3. So far, the workaround for this artefact has been to introduce an explicit air-entry value into the capillary saturation function. However, this correction leads to a retention function which is not continuously differentiable and thus a discontinuous water capacity function. We present an improved parametrization of the hydraulic properties which uses the original capillary saturation function and introduces a maximum pore radius only in the pore-bundle model. Closed-form equations for the hydraulic conductivity function were derived for the unimodal and multimodal retention functions of van Genuchten and have been tested by sensitivity analysis and applied in curve fitting and inverse modeling of multistep outflow experiments. The resulting hydraulic conductivity function is smooth, increases monotonically close to saturation, and eliminates the sharp drop in conductivity close to saturation. Furthermore, the new model retains the smoothness and continuous differentiability of the water retention curve. We conclude that the resulting soil hydraulic functions are physically more reasonable than the ones predicted by previous approaches, and are thus ideally suited for numerical simulations
Elimination of Sexual Discrimination in English Study
蒋小文
2008-01-01
Gender discrimination is a social attitude that is re- flected in language. The representation of gender discrimination in the English language has a variety of forms, and can be eliminated by vari- ous means. English teachers are supposed to observe these phenomenon, avoiding using sexual prejudical words and helping students to learn to use neuter words so that they can communicate with English native speakers effortlessly without hurting the latter. This thesis is tending to talk about the ways of removing sexism in English study.
Redundancy Elimination in DTN via ACK Mechanism
Xiqing Zhang
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The traditional routing protocols for delay tolerant networks (DTN usually take the strategy of spreading multiple copies of one message to the networks. When one copy reaches destination, the transmission of other copies not only waste the bandwidth but also deprive other messages of the opportunities for transmission. This paper brings up a mechanism to eliminate the redundant copies. By adding an acknowledge field to the packet header to delete redundant copies, it can degrade the network overhead while improve the delivery ratio. Simulation results confirm that the proposed method can improve the performance of epidemic and Spray and Wait routing protocol.
Waveguide arrangements based on adiabatic elimination
Suchowski, Haim; Mrejen, Michael; Wu, Chihhui; Zhang, Xiang
2016-09-13
This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to nanophotonics. In one aspect, an arrangement of waveguides includes a substrate and three waveguides. Each of the three waveguides may be a linear waveguide. A second waveguide is positioned between a first waveguide and a third waveguide. The dimensions and positions of the first, the second, and the third waveguides are specified to substantially eliminate coupling between the first waveguide and the third waveguide over a distance of about 1 millimeter to 2 millimeters along lengths of the first waveguide, the second waveguide, and the third waveguide.
Alkaline solution neutralization capacity of soil.
Asakura, Hiroshi; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Matsuto, Toshihiko
2010-10-01
Alkaline eluate from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration residue deposited in landfill alkalizes waste and soil layers. From the viewpoint of accelerating stability and preventing heavy metal elution, pH of the landfill layer (waste and daily cover soil) should be controlled. On the other hand, pH of leachate from existing MSW landfill sites is usually approximately neutral. One of the reasons is that daily cover soil can neutralize alkaline solution containing Ca(2+) as cation. However, in landfill layer where various types of wastes and reactions should be taken into consideration, the ability to neutralize alkaline solutions other than Ca(OH)(2) by soil should be evaluated. In this study, the neutralization capacities of various types of soils were measured using Ca(OH)(2) and NaOH solutions. Each soil used in this study showed approximately the same capacity to neutralize both alkaline solutions of Ca(OH)(2) and NaOH. The cation exchange capacity was less than 30% of the maximum alkali neutralization capacity obtained by the titration test. The mechanism of neutralization by the pH-dependent charge can explain the same neutralization capacities of the soils. Although further investigation on the neutralization capacity of the soils for alkaline substances other than NaOH is required, daily cover soil could serve as a buffer zone for alkaline leachates containing Ca(OH)(2) or other alkaline substances.
Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors
Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)
2014-06-15
Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.
Elevated proteasome capacity extends replicative lifespan in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Undine Kruegel
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Aging is characterized by the accumulation of damaged cellular macromolecules caused by declining repair and elimination pathways. An integral component employed by cells to counter toxic protein aggregates is the conserved ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS. Previous studies have described an age-dependent decline of proteasomal function and increased longevity correlates with sustained proteasome capacity in centenarians and in naked mole rats, a long-lived rodent. Proof for a direct impact of enhanced proteasome function on longevity, however, is still lacking. To determine the importance of proteasome function in yeast aging, we established a method to modulate UPS capacity by manipulating levels of the UPS-related transcription factor Rpn4. While cells lacking RPN4 exhibit a decreased non-adaptable proteasome pool, loss of UBR2, an ubiquitin ligase that regulates Rpn4 turnover, results in elevated Rpn4 levels, which upregulates UPS components. Increased UPS capacity significantly enhances replicative lifespan (RLS and resistance to proteotoxic stress, while reduced UPS capacity has opposing consequences. Despite tight transcriptional co-regulation of the UPS and oxidative detoxification systems, the impact of proteasome capacity on lifespan is independent of the latter, since elimination of Yap1, a key regulator of the oxidative stress response, does not affect lifespan extension of cells with higher proteasome capacity. Moreover, since elevated proteasome capacity results in improved clearance of toxic huntingtin fragments in a yeast model for neurodegenerative diseases, we speculate that the observed lifespan extension originates from prolonged elimination of damaged proteins in old mother cells. Epistasis analyses indicate that proteasome-mediated modulation of lifespan is at least partially distinct from dietary restriction, Tor1, and Sir2. These findings demonstrate that UPS capacity determines yeast RLS by a mechanism that is distinct
MEASUREMENT OF SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE
Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V
2008-09-29
One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify (and quantify the impact of) the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. The heat capacity of the Saltstone waste form is one of the important properties of Saltstone mixes that was last measured at SRNL in 1997. It is therefore important to develop a core competency for rapid and accurate analysis of the specific heat capacity of the Saltstone mixes in order to quantify the impact of compositional and operational variations on this property as part of the variability study. The heat capacity, coupled with the heat of hydration data obtained from isothermal calorimetry for a given Saltstone mix, can be used to predict the maximum temperature increase in the cells within the vaults of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The temperature increase controls the processing rate and the pour schedule. The maximum temperature is also important to the performance properties of the Saltstone. For example, in mass pours of concrete or grout of which Saltstone is an example, the maximum temperature increase and the maximum temperature difference (between the surface and the hottest location) are controlled to ensure durability of the product and prevent or limit the cracking caused by the thermal gradients produced during curing. This report details the development and implementation of a method for the measurement of the heat capacities of Saltstone mixes as well as the heat capacities of the cementitious materials of the premix and the simulated salt solutions used to batch the mixes. The developed method utilizes the TAM Air isothermal calorimeter and takes advantage of the sophisticated heat flow measurement capabilities of the instrument. Standards and reference materials were identified and used to validate the procedure and ensure accuracy of testing. Heat capacities of Saltstone mixes were
Macrofilaricides and onchocerciasis control, mathematical modelling of the prospects for elimination
Lazdins Janis
2001-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In most endemic parts of the world, onchocerciasis (river blindness control relies, or will soon rely, exclusively on mass treatment with the microfilaricide ivermectin. Worldwide eradication of the parasite by means of this drug is unlikely. Macrofilaricidal drugs are currently being developed for human use. Methods We used ONCHOSIM, a microsimulation mathematical model of the dynamics of onchocerciasis transmission, to explore the potentials of a hypothetical macrofilaricidal drug for the elimination of onchocerciasis under different epidemiological conditions, as characterized by previous intervention strategies, vectorial capacity and levels of coverage. Results With a high vector biting rate and poor coverage, a very effective macrofilaricide would appear to have a substantially higher potential for achieving elimination of the parasite than does ivermectin. Conclusions Macrofilaricides have a substantially higher potential for achieving onchocerciasis elimination than ivermectin, but high coverage levels are still key. When these drugs become available, onchocerciasis elimination strategies should be reconsidered. In view of the impact of control efforts preceding the introduction of macrofilaricides on the success of elimination, it is important to sustain current control efforts.
Healthy adults maximum oxygen uptake prediction from a six minute walking test
Nury Nusdwinuringtyas
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Background: A parameter is needed in medical activities or services to determine functional capacity. This study is aimed to produce functional capacity parameter for Indonesian adult as maximum O2.Methods: This study used 123 Indonesian healthy adult subjects (58 males and 65 females with a sedentary lifestyle, using a cross-sectional method.Results: Designed by using the followings: distance, body height, body weight, sex, age, maximum heart rate of six minute walking test and lung capacity (FEV and FVC, the study revealed a good correlation (except body weight with maximum O2. Three new formulas were proposed, which consisted of eight, six, and five variable respectively. Test of the new formula gave result of maximum O2 that is relevant to the golden standard maximum O2 using Cosmed® C-Pex.Conclusion: The Nury formula is the appropriate predictor of maximum oxygen uptake for healthy Indonesians adult as it is designed using Indonesian subjects (Mongoloid compared to the Cahalin’s formula (Caucasian. The Nury formula which consists of five variables is more applicable because it does not require any measurement tools neither specific competency. (Med J Indones 2011;20:195-200Keywords: maximum O2, Nury’s formula, six minute walking test
Liu, Jenny X; Newby, Gretchen; Brackery, Aprielle; Smith Gueye, Cara; Candari, Christine J; Escubil, Luz R; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Baquilod, Mario
2013-01-01
...Even though eliminating malaria from the endemic margins is a part of the Global Malaria Action Plan, little guidance exists on what resources are needed to transition from controlling malaria to eliminating it. Using Philippines as an example, this study aimed to (1) estimate the financial resources used by sub-national malaria programs in different phases during elimination and (2) understand how different environmental and organizational factors may influence expenditure levels and spending proportions. The Philippines provides an opportunity to study variations in sub-national programs because its epidemiological and ecological diversity, devolved health system, and progressive elimination strategy all allow greater flexibility for lower-level governments to direct activities, but also create challenges for coordination and resource mobilization. Through key informant interviews and archival record retrieval in four selected provinces chosen based on eco-epidemiological variation, expenditures associated with provincial malaria programs were collected for selected years (mid-1990s to 2010). Results show that expenditures per person at risk per year decrease as programs progress from a state of controlled low-endemic malaria to elimination to prevention of reintroduction regardless of whether elimination was deliberately planned. However, wide variation across provinces were found: expenditures were generally higher if mainly financed with donor grants, but were moderated by the level of economic development, the level of malaria transmission and receptivity, and the capacity of program staff. Across all provinces, strong leadership appears to be a necessary condition for maintaining progress and is vital in controlling outbreaks. While sampled provinces and years may not be representative of other sub-national malaria programs, these findings suggest that the marginal yearly cost declines with each phase during elimination.
Jenny X Liu
Full Text Available ...Even though eliminating malaria from the endemic margins is a part of the Global Malaria Action Plan, little guidance exists on what resources are needed to transition from controlling malaria to eliminating it. Using Philippines as an example, this study aimed to (1 estimate the financial resources used by sub-national malaria programs in different phases during elimination and (2 understand how different environmental and organizational factors may influence expenditure levels and spending proportions. The Philippines provides an opportunity to study variations in sub-national programs because its epidemiological and ecological diversity, devolved health system, and progressive elimination strategy all allow greater flexibility for lower-level governments to direct activities, but also create challenges for coordination and resource mobilization. Through key informant interviews and archival record retrieval in four selected provinces chosen based on eco-epidemiological variation, expenditures associated with provincial malaria programs were collected for selected years (mid-1990s to 2010. Results show that expenditures per person at risk per year decrease as programs progress from a state of controlled low-endemic malaria to elimination to prevention of reintroduction regardless of whether elimination was deliberately planned. However, wide variation across provinces were found: expenditures were generally higher if mainly financed with donor grants, but were moderated by the level of economic development, the level of malaria transmission and receptivity, and the capacity of program staff. Across all provinces, strong leadership appears to be a necessary condition for maintaining progress and is vital in controlling outbreaks. While sampled provinces and years may not be representative of other sub-national malaria programs, these findings suggest that the marginal yearly cost declines with each phase during elimination.
Gas-liquid vortex separator-eliminator
Hull, R.; Lane, J.A.
1984-10-09
Closed liquid circulating systems, which have supply and return lines and a circulating pump, have a problem when gas present in the circulating liquid. A device for removing the gas by insertion in the system includes an upright main body which has an upper chamber and a lower chamber. The separating horizontal wall has a gas discharge port in the center thereof. The horizontal inlet has an integral diffuser positioned immediately inside of the lower chamber. The integral diffuser is affixed at horizontal and vertical angles to the horizontal axis of the inlet. The horizontal outlet has a vertical pipe leg positioned inside of the lower chamber so that the lower segment thereof is positioned in the lower portion of the lower chamber and that the vertical axis of the lower segment of the vertical pipe leg is aligned in the vertical axis of the upright main body. A gas vent-eliminator is positioned within the upper chamber. The liquid enters the inlet and is forced tangentially against the side of and downwardly in the lower chamber so as to form a water vortex in the lower chamber whereby the gas in the liquid is released in the form of bubbles. The lower end of the vertical pipe leg is below where the bubbles form. The gas bubbles rise into the upper chamber and are purged into the atmosphere by means of the gas vent-eliminator.
Eliminating ultrasonic interference from respiratory muscle EMG.
Platt, R S; Kieser, T M; Easton, P A
1998-05-01
Fine wire recordings of the respiratory muscle electromyogram are often employed to represent muscle activity, and recently ultrasound-sonomicrometry has become a common method of measuring length of respiratory muscles in both acute and chronic preparations. Although recording both EMG and sonomicrometry simultaneously has become standard practice, there has not been any consideration of the potential confounding influence of ultrasound noise upon the recorded EMG spectrum. Activation of the sonomicrometry-ultrasound tranducer introduces a high frequency, high amplitude voltage pulse plus harmonics, which can contaminate the EMG spectrum directly, as well as through aliasing when EMG is sampled directly digitally. We describe the use of a new, combined, wing stabilized sonomicrometry- and EMG measurement transducer to characterize exactly the influence of ultrasound upon the crural diaphragm EMG spectrum, and the development of digital filtering techniques which effectively eliminate the ultrasound interference. Two alternative methods of avoiding ultrasound-EMG interference are also considered. The isolation and elimination of ultrasound-sonomicrometry signal interference may be important in studies where EMG and length are measured together.
Bell inequalities from variable elimination methods
Budroni, Costantino
2011-01-01
Tight Bell inequalities are facets of Pitowsky's correlation polytope and are usually obtained from its extreme points by solving the hull problem. Recently, Avis, Imai, Ito and Sasaki have proposed an alternative method, based on variable elimination, which overcomes some of the computational difficulties of the hull problem. However, this method can only be applied to the bipartite case. Here we present an algebraic derivation of the half-space representation for a family of convex polytopes, from which every correlation polytope can be obtained as a projection. As a result, variable elimination methods, e.g. the Fourier-Motzkin method, can be applied to obtain tight Bell inequalities in an n-party scenario. Similar ideas are shown to be applicable to a different kind of algebraic conditions. In particular, this analysis provides an explanation for the fact that only a finite number of families of Bell inequalities arise in scenarios where one experimenter can choose between an arbitrary number of measureme...
Estimation of Maximum Allowable PV Connection to LV Residential Power Networks
Demirok, Erhan; Sera, Dezso; Teodorescu, Remus
2011-01-01
transformer or using solar inverters with new grid support features. This study presents a methodology for the estimation of maximum PV hosting capacity including IEC 60076-7 based thermal model of distribution transformer. Certain part of a real distribution network of Braedstrup suburban area in Denmark...... is used in simulation as a case study model. Furthermore, varying solutions (utilizing thermally upgraded insulation paper in transformers, reactive power services from solar inverters, etc.) are implemented on the network under investigation to examine PV penetration level and finally key results learnt......Maximum photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacity of low voltage (LV) power networks is mainly restricted by either thermal limits of network components or grid voltage quality resulted from high penetration of distributed PV systems. This maximum hosting capacity may be lower than the available solar...
Generalised maximum entropy and heterogeneous technologies
Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.
1999-01-01
Generalised maximum entropy methods are used to estimate a dual model of production on panel data of Dutch cash crop farms over the period 1970-1992. The generalised maximum entropy approach allows a coherent system of input demand and output supply equations to be estimated for each farm in the sam
20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.
2010-04-01
... month on one person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family maximum used to adjust the social security overall minimum rate is based on the employee's Overall..., when any of the persons entitled to benefits on the insured individual's compensation would, except...
The maximum rotation of a galactic disc
Bottema, R
1997-01-01
The observed stellar velocity dispersions of galactic discs show that the maximum rotation of a disc is on average 63% of the observed maximum rotation. This criterion can, however, not be applied to small or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies because such systems show, in general, a continuously
Duality of Maximum Entropy and Minimum Divergence
Shinto Eguchi
2014-06-01
Full Text Available We discuss a special class of generalized divergence measures by the use of generator functions. Any divergence measure in the class is separated into the difference between cross and diagonal entropy. The diagonal entropy measure in the class associates with a model of maximum entropy distributions; the divergence measure leads to statistical estimation via minimization, for arbitrarily giving a statistical model. The dualistic relationship between the maximum entropy model and the minimum divergence estimation is explored in the framework of information geometry. The model of maximum entropy distributions is characterized to be totally geodesic with respect to the linear connection associated with the divergence. A natural extension for the classical theory for the maximum likelihood method under the maximum entropy model in terms of the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy is given. We discuss the duality in detail for Tsallis entropy as a typical example.
Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors
Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood
2015-01-01
The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.
Capacity Maximizing Constellations
Barsoum, Maged; Jones, Christopher
2010-01-01
Some non-traditional signal constellations have been proposed for transmission of data over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel using such channel-capacity-approaching codes as low-density parity-check (LDPC) or turbo codes. Computational simulations have shown performance gains of more than 1 dB over traditional constellations. These gains could be translated to bandwidth- efficient communications, variously, over longer distances, using less power, or using smaller antennas. The proposed constellations have been used in a bit-interleaved coded modulation system employing state-ofthe-art LDPC codes. In computational simulations, these constellations were shown to afford performance gains over traditional constellations as predicted by the gap between the parallel decoding capacity of the constellations and the Gaussian capacity
Jensen, Thomas Christian
2014-01-01
The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore......, the capacity of the highway seems to be reduced in bad weather and there are indications that travel time variability is also increased, at least in free-flow conditions. Heavy precipitation reduces speed and capacity by around 5-8%, whereas snow primarily reduces capacity. Other weather variables......-parametrically against traffic density and in step 2 the residuals from step 1 are regressed linearly against the weather variables. The choice of a non-parametric method is made to avoid constricting ties from a parametric specification and because the focus here is not on the relationship between traffic flow...
Cow's milk protein elimination in autistic children: language ...
Cow's milk protein elimination in autistic children: language, cognitive and ... The parents of first group were instructed to eliminate cow milk (CM) from the diet of their ... Autistic patients underwent a Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) test.
STUDY ON ELIMINATING FLUORESCENCE IN COTTON PULP WITH PERACETIC ACID
LixinXu; BaoguoSun
2004-01-01
This paper has studied processing conditions and the influence of every variable to the pulp when the fluorescence in cotton linter pulp is eliminated with peracetic acid. The suitable variables of the elimination of fluorescence, are found.
STUDY ON ELIMINATING FLUORESCENCE IN COTTON PULP WITH PERACETIC ACID
Lixin Xu; Baoguo Sun
2004-01-01
This paper has studied processing conditions and the influence of every variable to the pulp when the fluorescence in cotton linter pulp is eliminated with peracetic acid. The suitable variables of the elimination of fluorescence. are found.
New Hepatitis C Drugs Might Eliminate the Disease
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164173.html New Hepatitis C Drugs Might Eliminate the Disease But not ... March 20, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Newer treatments for hepatitis C appear to eliminate the virus in the ...
Lean for Government: Eliminating the Seven Wastes
Shepherd, Christena C.
2012-01-01
With shrinking budgets and a slow economy, it is becoming increasingly important for all government agencies to become more efficient. Citizens expect and deserve efficient and effective services from federal, state and local government agencies. One of the best methods to improve efficiency and eliminate waste is to institute the business process improvement methodologies known collectively as Lean; however, with reduced budgets, it may not be possible to train everyone in Lean or to engage the services of a trained consultant. It is possible, however, to raise awareness of the "Seven Wastes" of Lean in each employee, and encourage them to identify areas for improvement. Management commitment is vital to the success of these initiatives, and it is also important to develop the right metrics that will track the success of these changes.
Absorption, distribution and elimination of drotaverine.
Magyar, K; Lengyel, M; Knoll, J
1978-01-01
14C-drotaverine [1(3',4'-diethoxybenzale)-6, 7-diethoxy-1, 2,3, 4-tetrahydroisoquinoline. HCl; No-SpaR] is well absorbed after subcutaneous and oral administration in mice. Its distribution is not specific. After intravenous administration the drug penetrates rapidly into every organ as indicated by whole body autoradiography. In the first hours the concentration of drotaverine was higher in the intestinal wall than in the other tissues. The concentrations of drotaverine in the organs decrease soon after administration and the drug is excreted mainly with the bile as beta-glucuronide; 60% of the dose was in the bile collected during 5 hours. During 96 hours of observation, 67% of the radioactivity administered was found in the stools while only 20% of it was eliminated with urine.
Bell inequalities from variable elimination methods
Budroni, Costantino [Dresden Univ. (Germany). Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultaet; Cabello, Adan [Sevilla Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Aplicada II
2013-07-01
Complete sets of tight Bell inequalities are necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of local hidden variable models describing a given measurement scenario. They are facets of Pitowsky's correlation polytope and are usually obtained from its extreme points by solving the hull problem. While there are algorithms that find all the facets of a given correlation polytope, the time required to compute them grows exponentially as the number of settings increases. This method has therefore been applied only to simple cases with a reduced number of settings. In this talk an alternative method based on a combination of algebraic results on extensions of measures and variable elimination methods, e.g., the Fourier-Motzkin method, is presented. Non-trivial cases where our method overcomes some of the computational difficulties associated with the hull problem are discussed.
RESULTS of the "ELIMINATING NOISE" campaign
SC Unit
2008-01-01
From 4 to 6 August, CERN’s nurses conducted a screening campaign entitled "Eliminating noise". This campaign was especially aimed at young people exposed to noise during their leisure hours (playing in a band, listening to MP3 players, attending concerts, etc.). In all, 166 people attended the infirmary, where they were able to receive personalised advice, documentation and, above all, a hearing test (audiogram). While the high attendance of people in the younger age category (18-30) was a success, their audiogram data were a cause for concern, with 24.5% showing abnormal results, hearing deficiencies which, we should remind you, are irreversible. It should be noted that such conditions are almost exclusively caused by noise exposure in a non-professional environment (leisure activities, music, etc.). This latest campaign confirms the harmful effects of noise on people’s hearing due to the absence or insufficiency of protective equipment during music-related activities; this further unde...
RESULTS of the "ELIMINATING NOISE" campaign
SC Unit
2008-01-01
From 4 to 6 August, CERN’s nurses conducted a screening campaign entitled "Eliminating noise". This campaign was especially aimed at young people exposed to noise during their leisure hours (playing in a band, listening to MP3 players, attending concerts, etc.). In all, 166 people attended the Infirmary, where they were able to receive personalised advice, documentation and, above all, a hearing test (audiogram). While the high attendance of people in the younger age category (18-30) was a success, their audiogram data were a cause for concern, with 24.5% showing abnormal results, hearing deficiencies which, we should remind you, are irreversible. It should be noted that such conditions are almost exclusively caused by noise exposure in a non-professional environment (leisure activities, music, etc.). This latest campaign confirms the harmful effects of noise on people’s hearing due to the absence or insufficiency of protective equipment during music-related activities; this further unde...
Implications of Plasmodium vivax Biology for Control, Elimination, and Research
Olliaro, Piero L.; Barnwell, John W.; Barry, Alyssa; Mendis, Kamini; Mueller, Ivo; Reeder, John C.; Shanks, G. Dennis; Snounou, Georges; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda
2016-01-01
This paper summarizes our current understanding of the biology of Plasmodium vivax, how it differs from Plasmodium falciparum, and how these differences explain the need for P. vivax-tailored interventions. The article further pinpoints knowledge gaps where investments in research are needed to help identify and develop such specific interventions. The principal obstacles to reduce and eventually eliminate P. vivax reside in 1) its higher vectorial capacity compared with P. falciparum due to its ability to develop at lower temperature and over a shorter sporogonic cycle in the vector, allowing transmission in temperate zones and making it less sensitive to vector control measures that are otherwise effective on P. falciparum; 2) the presence of dormant liver forms (hypnozoites), sustaining multiple relapsing episodes from a single infectious bite that cannot be diagnosed and are not susceptible to any available antimalarial except primaquine, with routine deployment restricted by toxicity; 3) low parasite densities, which are difficult to detect with current diagnostics leading to missed diagnoses and delayed treatments (and protracted transmission), coupled with 4) transmission stages (gametocytes) occurring early in acute infections, before infection is diagnosed. PMID:27799636
Eliminating paediatric infections and keeping mothers alive
Gray G
2012-11-01
Full Text Available The global plan of reducing the number of new child HIV infections and a reduction in the number of HIV-related maternal deaths by 2015 will require inordinate political commitment and strengthening of health systems in Sub-Saharan Africa where the burden of HIV infections in pregnant women is the highest. Preventing HIV infection in women of child-bearing age and unwanted pregnancies in HIV-positive women forms the cornerstone of long-term control of paediatric HIV infections. To achieve the goal of eliminating paediatric HIV infection by 2015, health systems strengthening to address prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission cascade attrition and focusing on the elimination of breastmilk transmission is critical. Understanding the pathogenesis of breastmilk transmission and the mechanisms by which antiretroviral therapy impacts on transmission through this compartment will drive future interventions. Identifying and retaining HIV-positive pregnant women in care and committed to long-term antiretroviral therapy will improve maternal outcomes and concomitant reductions in maternal mortality. Research assessing the natural history of HIV infection and long-term outcomes in women who interrupt antiretroviral therapy post-weaning is urgently required. Data on the outcome of women who opt to continue the long-term use of antiretroviral therapy after initiating therapy during pregnancy will determine future policy in countries considering option B+. The prevalence of antiretroviral resistance and impact on survival in infants who sero-convert whilst receiving neonatal prophylaxis, or are exposed to maternal HAART through breastmilk at a population level, are currently unknown. In addition to the provision of biomedical interventions, healthcare workers and policy makers must address the structural, cultural and community issues that impact on treatment uptake, adherence to medication and retention in care.
Toward the Elimination of Paper Orders
Ramirez, Ricardo; Webster, S. Luke
2016-01-01
Summary With the adoption of Computerized Patient Order Entry (CPOE), many physicians – particularly consultants and those who are affiliated with multiple hospital systems – are faced with the challenge of learning to navigate and commit to memory the details of multiple EHRs and CPOE software modules. These physicians may resist CPOE adoption, and their refusal to use CPOE presents a risk to patient safety when paper and electronic orders co-exist, as paper orders generated in an electronic ordering environment can be missed or acted upon after delay, are frequently illegible, and bypass the Clinical Decision Support (CDS) that is part of the evidence-based value of CPOE. We defined a category of CPOE Low Frequency Users (LFUs) – physicians issuing a total of less than 10 orders per month – and found that 50.4% of all physicians issuing orders in 3 urban/suburban hospitals were LFUs and actively issuing orders across all shifts and days of the week. Data are presented for 2013 on the number of LFUs by month, day of week, shift and facility, over 2.3 million orders issued. A menu of 6 options to assist LFUs in the use of CPOE, from which hospital leaders could select, was instituted so that paper orders could be increasingly eliminated. The options, along with their cost implications, are described, as is the initial option selected by hospital leaders. In practice, however, a mixed pattern involving several LFU support options emerged. We review data on how the option mix selected may have impacted CPOE adoption and physician use rates at the facilities. The challenge of engaging LFU physicians in CPOE adoption may be common in moderately sized hospitals, and these options can be deployed by other systems in advancing CPOE pervasiveness of use and the eventual elimination of paper orders. PMID:27081405
Hutchinson, Thomas H. [Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3DH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: thom1@pml.ac.uk; Boegi, Christian [BASF SE, Product Safety, GUP/PA, Z470, 67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany); Winter, Matthew J. [AstraZeneca Safety, Health and Environment, Brixham Environmental Laboratory, Devon TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Owens, J. Willie [The Procter and Gamble Company, Central Product Safety, 11810 East Miami River Road, Cincinnati, OH 45252 (United States)
2009-02-19
There is increasing recognition of the need to identify specific sublethal effects of chemicals, such as reproductive toxicity, and specific modes of actions of the chemicals, such as interference with the endocrine system. To achieve these aims requires criteria which provide a basis to interpret study findings so as to separate these specific toxicities and modes of action from not only acute lethality per se but also from severe inanition and malaise that non-specifically compromise reproductive capacity and the response of endocrine endpoints. Mammalian toxicologists have recognized that very high dose levels are sometimes required to elicit both specific adverse effects and present the potential of non-specific 'systemic toxicity'. Mammalian toxicologists have developed the concept of a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) beyond which a specific toxicity or action cannot be attributed to a test substance due to the compromised state of the organism. Ecotoxicologists are now confronted by a similar challenge and must develop an analogous concept of a MTD and the respective criteria. As examples of this conundrum, we note recent developments in efforts to validate protocols for fish reproductive toxicity and endocrine screens (e.g. some chemicals originally selected as 'negatives' elicited decreases in fecundity or changes in endpoints intended to be biomarkers for endocrine modes of action). Unless analogous criteria can be developed, the potentially confounding effects of systemic toxicity may then undermine the reliable assessment of specific reproductive effects or biomarkers such as vitellogenin or spiggin. The same issue confronts other areas of aquatic toxicology (e.g., genotoxicity) and the use of aquatic animals for preclinical assessments of drugs (e.g., use of zebrafish for drug safety assessment). We propose that there are benefits to adopting the concept of an MTD for toxicology and pharmacology studies using fish and other aquatic
Maximum flow-based resilience analysis: From component to system
Jin, Chong; Li, Ruiying; Kang, Rui
2017-01-01
Resilience, the ability to withstand disruptions and recover quickly, must be considered during system design because any disruption of the system may cause considerable loss, including economic and societal. This work develops analytic maximum flow-based resilience models for series and parallel systems using Zobel’s resilience measure. The two analytic models can be used to evaluate quantitatively and compare the resilience of the systems with the corresponding performance structures. For systems with identical components, the resilience of the parallel system increases with increasing number of components, while the resilience remains constant in the series system. A Monte Carlo-based simulation method is also provided to verify the correctness of our analytic resilience models and to analyze the resilience of networked systems based on that of components. A road network example is used to illustrate the analysis process, and the resilience comparison among networks with different topologies but the same components indicates that a system with redundant performance is usually more resilient than one without redundant performance. However, not all redundant capacities of components can improve the system resilience, the effectiveness of the capacity redundancy depends on where the redundant capacity is located. PMID:28545135
Non-iterative moment capacities of complex composite beams using Fourier series
Mohd Yassin, Airil Y.; Nethercot, David A.
2016-12-01
A generic procedure is formulated for the determination of the moment capacity of composite beams having a complex cross-section. The key feature is the use of Fourier series to convert the piecewise functions of the cross-sectional stress distribution into a single-rule function. This eliminates the need for several capacity expressions to cover different stress stages, since the procedure permits the use of the general moment capacity expression. It also eliminates any iteration process when determining the location of the neutral axis since equilibrium of the cross-section can be satisfied explicitly. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the validation and the applications of the formulation.
EXPERIMENTAL DEVICE OF THE HIGH HUMIDITY AIR ELECTROSTATIC ELIMINATOR
吴筱青; 何尉岚
1990-01-01
As for electrostatic elimination there are many means.But the high humidity air electrostatic eliminator has simple,efficient, lightproof and fireproof etc. advantages. Thus it is often used in some industrial enterprises. The aim of this paper is to introduce an experimental device of high humidity air electrostatic eliminator and its principle and experimental data.
Testamentary capacity and delirium.
Liptzin, Benjamin; Peisah, Carmelle; Shulman, Kenneth; Finkel, Sanford
2010-09-01
With the aging of the population there will be a substantial transfer of wealth in the next 25 years. The presence of delirium can complicate the evaluation of an older person's testamentary capacity and susceptibility to undue influence but has not been well examined in the existing literature. A subcommittee of the IPA Task Force on Testamentary Capacity and Undue Influence undertook to review how to assess prospectively and retrospectively testamentary capacity and susceptibility to undue influence in patients with delirium. The subcommittee identified questions that should be asked in cases where someone changes their will or estate plan towards the end of their life in the presence of delirium. These questions include: was there consistency in the patient's wishes over time? Were these wishes expressed during a "lucid interval" when the person was less confused? Were the patient's wishes clearly expressed in response to open-ended questions? Is there clear documentation of the patient's mental status at the time of the discussion? This review with some case examples provides guidance on how to consider the question of testamentary capacity or susceptibility to undue influence in someone undergoing an episode of delirium.
Flood Bypass Capacity Optimization
Siclari, A.; Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.
2015-12-01
Large river flows can damage adjacent flood-prone areas, by exceeding river channel and levee capacities. Particularly large floods are difficult to contain in leveed river banks alone. Flood bypasses often can efficiently reduce flood risks, where excess river flow is diverted over a weir to bypasses, that incur much less damage and cost. Additional benefits of bypasses include ecosystem protection, agriculture, groundwater recharge and recreation. Constructing or expanding an existing bypass costs in land purchase easements, and levee setbacks. Accounting for such benefits and costs, this study develops a simple mathematical model for optimizing flood bypass capacity using benefit-cost and risk analysis. Application to the Yolo Bypass, an existing bypass along the Sacramento River in California, estimates optimal capacity that economically reduces flood damage and increases various benefits, especially for agriculture. Land availability is likely to limit bypass expansion. Compensation for landowners could relax such limitations. Other economic values could affect the optimal results, which are shown by sensitivity analysis on major parameters. By including land geography into the model, location of promising capacity expansions can be identified.
Wallace, Ryan M; Undurraga, Eduardo A; Blanton, Jesse D; Cleaton, Julie; Franka, Richard
2017-01-01
Rabies imposes a substantial burden to about half of the world population. The World Health Organization (WHO), World Organization for Animal Health, and the Food and Agriculture Organization have set the goal of eliminating dog-mediated human rabies deaths by 2030. This could be achieved largely by massive administration of post-exposure prophylaxis-in perpetuity-, through elimination of dog rabies, or combining both. Here, we focused on the resources needed for the elimination of dog rabies virus by 2030. Drawing from multiple datasets, including national dog vaccination campaigns, rabies literature, and expert opinion, we developed a model considering country-specific current dog vaccination capacity to estimate the years and resources required to achieve dog rabies elimination by 2030. Resources were determined based on four factors: (a) country development status, (b) dog vaccination costs, (c) dog rabies vaccine availability, and (d) existing animal health workers. Our calculations were based on the WHO's estimate that vaccinating 70% of the dog population for seven consecutive years would eliminate rabies. If dog rabies vaccine production remains at 2015 levels, we estimate that there will be a cumulative shortage of about 7.5 billion doses to meet expected demand to achieve dog rabies elimination. We estimated a present cost of $6,300 million to eliminate dog rabies in all endemic countries, equivalent to a $3,900 million gap compared to current spending. To eliminate dog rabies, the vaccination workforce may suffice if all public health veterinarians in endemic countries were to dedicate 3 months each year to dog rabies vaccination. We discuss implications of potential technology improvements, including population management, vaccine price reduction, and increases in dog-vaccinating capacities. Our results highlight the resources needed to achieve elimination of dog-mediated human rabies deaths by 2030. As exemplified by multiple successful disease
A dual method for maximum entropy restoration
Smith, C. B.
1979-01-01
A simple iterative dual algorithm for maximum entropy image restoration is presented. The dual algorithm involves fewer parameters than conventional minimization in the image space. Minicomputer test results for Fourier synthesis with inadequate phantom data are given.
Maximum Throughput in Multiple-Antenna Systems
Zamani, Mahdi
2012-01-01
The point-to-point multiple-antenna channel is investigated in uncorrelated block fading environment with Rayleigh distribution. The maximum throughput and maximum expected-rate of this channel are derived under the assumption that the transmitter is oblivious to the channel state information (CSI), however, the receiver has perfect CSI. First, we prove that in multiple-input single-output (MISO) channels, the optimum transmission strategy maximizing the throughput is to use all available antennas and perform equal power allocation with uncorrelated signals. Furthermore, to increase the expected-rate, multi-layer coding is applied. Analogously, we establish that sending uncorrelated signals and performing equal power allocation across all available antennas at each layer is optimum. A closed form expression for the maximum continuous-layer expected-rate of MISO channels is also obtained. Moreover, we investigate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels, and formulate the maximum throughput in the asympt...
Photoemission spectromicroscopy with MAXIMUM at Wisconsin
Ng, W.; Ray-Chaudhuri, A.K.; Cole, R.K.; Wallace, J.; Crossley, S.; Crossley, D.; Chen, G.; Green, M.; Guo, J.; Hansen, R.W.C.; Cerrina, F.; Margaritondo, G. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Dept. of Physics and Synchrotron Radiation Center, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA)); Underwood, J.H.; Korthright, J.; Perera, R.C.C. (Center for X-ray Optics, Accelerator and Fusion Research Div., Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))
1990-06-01
We describe the development of the scanning photoemission spectromicroscope MAXIMUM at the Wisoncsin Synchrotron Radiation Center, which uses radiation from a 30-period undulator. The article includes a discussion of the first tests after the initial commissioning. (orig.).
Maximum-likelihood method in quantum estimation
Paris, M G A; Sacchi, M F
2001-01-01
The maximum-likelihood method for quantum estimation is reviewed and applied to the reconstruction of density matrix of spin and radiation as well as to the determination of several parameters of interest in quantum optics.
The maximum entropy technique. System's statistical description
Belashev, B Z
2002-01-01
The maximum entropy technique (MENT) is applied for searching the distribution functions of physical values. MENT takes into consideration the demand of maximum entropy, the characteristics of the system and the connection conditions, naturally. It is allowed to apply MENT for statistical description of closed and open systems. The examples in which MENT had been used for the description of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium states and the states far from the thermodynamical equilibrium are considered
19 CFR 114.23 - Maximum period.
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum period. 114.23 Section 114.23 Customs... CARNETS Processing of Carnets § 114.23 Maximum period. (a) A.T.A. carnet. No A.T.A. carnet with a period of validity exceeding 1 year from date of issue shall be accepted. This period of validity cannot be...
Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM
Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.
1993-01-01
Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.
A Method of Eliminating Information Disclosure in View Publishing
LIU Guohua; GAO Shihong
2006-01-01
Although it is convenient to exchange data by publishing view, but it may disclose sensitive information. The problem of how to eliminate information disclosure becomes a core problem in the view publishing process. In order to eliminate information disclosure, deciding view security algorithm and eliminating information disclosure algorithm are proposed, and the validity of the algorithms are proved by experiment. The experimental results showing, deciding view security algorithm can decide the safety of a set of views under prior knowledge, and eliminating information disclosure algorithm can eliminate disclosure efficiently.
OPEN-LOOP FOG SIGNAL TESTING AND WAVELET ELIMINATING NOISE
ZHUYun-zhao; WANGShun-ring; MIAOLing-juan; WANGBo
2005-01-01
An open-loop fiber optic gyro (FOG) testing system is designed. The noise characteristic of open-loop fiber optic gyro signals is analyzed. The wavelet eliminating noise method is discussed and compared with other methods, such as smoothing and low-pass filter methods. Results indicate that the wavelet eliminating noise method can satisfy the measuring demand of the FOG weak output signal with noise disturbing. The wavelet analysis method can efficiently eliminate the noise and reserve the information of the signal. The eliminating noise effect of using different wavelet base functions is compared. The effectiveness of multiresolution wavelet analyses of eliminating noise is proved by experimental results.
Young Eun Kim
Full Text Available Onchocerciasis (river blindness is a parasitic disease transmitted by blackflies. Symptoms include severe itching, skin lesions, and vision impairment including blindness. More than 99% of all cases are concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa. Fortunately, vector control and community-directed treatment with ivermectin have significantly decreased morbidity, and the treatment goal is shifting from control to elimination in Africa.We estimated financial resources and societal opportunity costs associated with scaling up community-directed treatment with ivermectin and implementing surveillance and response systems in endemic African regions for alternative treatment goals--control, elimination, and eradication. We used a micro-costing approach that allows adjustment for time-variant resource utilization and for the heterogeneity in the demographic, epidemiological, and political situation.The elimination and eradication scenarios, which include scaling up treatments to hypo-endemic and operationally challenging areas at the latest by 2021 and implementing intensive surveillance, would allow savings of $1.5 billion and $1.6 billion over 2013-2045 as compared to the control scenario. Although the elimination and eradication scenarios would require higher surveillance costs ($215 million and $242 million than the control scenario ($47 million, intensive surveillance would enable treatments to be safely stopped earlier, thereby saving unnecessary costs for prolonged treatments as in the control scenario lacking such surveillance and response systems.The elimination and eradication of onchocerciasis are predicted to allow substantial cost-savings in the long run. To realize cost-savings, policymakers should keep empowering community volunteers, and pharmaceutical companies would need to continue drug donation. To sustain high surveillance costs required for elimination and eradication, endemic countries would need to enhance their domestic funding capacity
SEXUAL DIMORPHISM OF MAXIMUM FEMORAL LENGTH
Pandya A M
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Sexual identification from the skeletal parts has medico legal and anthropological importance. Present study aims to obtain values of maximum femoral length and to evaluate its possible usefulness in determining correct sexual identification. Study sample consisted of 184 dry, normal, adult, human femora (136 male & 48 female from skeletal collections of Anatomy department, M. P. Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat. Maximum length of femur was considered as maximum vertical distance between upper end of head of femur and the lowest point on femoral condyle, measured with the osteometric board. Mean Values obtained were, 451.81 and 417.48 for right male and female, and 453.35 and 420.44 for left male and female respectively. Higher value in male was statistically highly significant (P< 0.001 on both sides. Demarking point (D.P. analysis of the data showed that right femora with maximum length more than 476.70 were definitely male and less than 379.99 were definitely female; while for left bones, femora with maximum length more than 484.49 were definitely male and less than 385.73 were definitely female. Maximum length identified 13.43% of right male femora, 4.35% of right female femora, 7.25% of left male femora and 8% of left female femora. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 67-70
Eliminating Tuberculosis One Neighborhood at a Time
Griffith, David E.; McGaha, Paul K.; Wolfgang, Melanie; Robinson, Celia B.; Clark, Patricia A.; Hassell, Willis L.; Robison, Valerie A.; Walker, Kerfoot P.; Wallace, Charles
2014-01-01
Objectives. We evaluated a strategy for preventing tuberculosis (TB) in communities most affected by it. Methods. In 1996, we mapped reported TB cases (1985–1995) and positive tuberculin skin test (TST) reactors (1993–1995) in Smith County, Texas. We delineated the 2 largest, densest clusters, identifying 2 highest-incidence neighborhoods (180 square blocks, 3153 residents). After extensive community preparation, trained health care workers went door-to-door offering TST to all residents unless contraindicated. TST-positive individuals were escorted to a mobile clinic for radiography, clinical evaluation, and isoniazid preventive treatment (IPT) as indicated. To assess long-term impact, we mapped all TB cases in Smith County during the equivalent time period after the project. Results. Of 2258 eligible individuals, 1291 (57.1%) were tested, 229 (17.7%) were TST positive, and 147 were treated. From 1996 to 2006, there were no TB cases in either project neighborhood, in contrast with the preintervention decade and the continued occurrence of TB in the rest of Smith County. Conclusions. Targeting high-incidence neighborhoods for active, community-based screening and IPT may hasten TB elimination in the United States. PMID:24899457
[Elimination of all trans fatty acids].
Katan, M B
2008-02-09
At the start of the 20th century, the production of trans fatty acids was originally largely driven by the increasing demand for margarine. The two Dutch margarine firms Van den Bergh and Jurgens played an important role in this early development. In the early 1990s it was shown that trans fatty acids increase the risk of heart disease. Unilever, the successor to Van den Bergh and Jurgens, then took the lead in eliminating trans fatty acids from retail foods worldwide. As a result, intake in The Netherlands fell from 15 g per day in 1980 to 3 g per day in 2003. Dairy products and meat are now the major source of trans fatty acids. The effects on health of these ruminant trans fatty acids are unclear. There are three lessons to be learned from the rise and fall of trans fatty acids. First, a history of safe use does not guarantee safety of food components, because routine surveillance will fail to detect adverse effects on common illnesses with long incubation periods. Second, it shows that it is more effective and easier to change the composition of foods than to change consumer behaviour. And third, governments can have a major impact on consumers' health by mandating the use of healthier food ingredients.
Using Elimination Theory to construct Rigid Matrices
Kumar, Abhinav; Patankar, Vijay M; N, Jayalal Sarma M
2009-01-01
The rigidity of a matrix A for target rank r is the minimum number of entries of A that must be changed to ensure that the rank of the altered matrix is at most r. Since its introduction by Valiant (1977), rigidity and similar rank-robustness functions of matrices have found numerous applications in circuit complexity, communication complexity, and learning complexity. Almost all nxn matrices over an infinite field have a rigidity of (n-r)^2. It is a long-standing open question to construct infinite families of explicit matrices even with superlinear rigidity when r=Omega(n). In this paper, we construct an infinite family of complex matrices with the largest possible, i.e., (n-r)^2, rigidity. The entries of an nxn matrix in this family are distinct primitive roots of unity of orders roughly exp(n^4 log n). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first family of concrete (but not entirely explicit) matrices having maximal rigidity and a succinct algebraic description. Our construction is based on elimination...
ON-LINE ELIMINATION OF OIL WHIP
Zheng Shuiying; Liu Shulian
2005-01-01
A new method to eliminate the oil whip online is put forward by use of passive electromagnetic damper. The damper works contactless and with DC current. Neither sensor nor closed loop control is needed. The dynamic equations of rotor-bearing system are built up by combining d'Alemdert principle with Rize way, and the nonlinear oil film forces based on unsteady short bearing model are coupled to system. Such nonlinear equations are numerically solved by Newmark integration method. The calculated results show that the bifurcation behavior of the system can be changed and the oil whip of the rotor may be well damped by external damping. The bifurcation diagrams also show that the subharmonic vibration amplitude decreases in motion and the speed at which the system losses its stability increases obviously by exerting external damping.Then experiments are carried out to demonstrate this phenomenon. It is observed that the complex trajectories of the journal motion are disappeared and the rotor-bearing system became stable when the power of passive electromagnetic damper is turned on. The experiments have good repeatability.
Eliminating poverty will help women most.
Short, C
1997-01-01
It is both possible and affordable to eliminate poverty. It is also necessary to promote peaceful existence in the next century and to reduce population pressure. A key to poverty reduction is to increase equality between men and women. Women must be given access to reproductive health services and care so that they can bear their children safely and protect themselves from infection. The maternal mortality risk in Africa far exceeds that in developed countries, and many more women suffer permanent disability from child birth. At least 120 million have an unmet need for contraception, and more than 90% of AIDS cases occur among the impoverished and marginalized population of developing countries. In addition to meeting the reproductive health needs of men and women, the needs of youth must be met through coherent and coordinated efforts that support the work of all partners in development according to an agreed upon agenda crafted by developing countries. The priorities must be to 1) increase access to reproductive health information, services, and commodities and 2) to minimize the need for abortion while recognizing that women should be able to make their own moral choices and to obtain a safe abortion. The goals of the international development community for 2015 are to halve the proportion of people living in extreme poverty, to ensure reproductive health for all, and to achieve a 75% reduction in maternal mortality.
Malaria vaccine: a step toward elimination.
Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika; Malik, Jagbir S; Sk, Shashikantha; Mehta, Bharti
2014-01-01
Malaria has long been recognized as a public health problem. At the community level, vector control, and antimalarial medicines are the main means for reducing incidence, morbidity, and mortality of malaria. A vaccine not only would bring streamlining in the prevention of morbidity and mortality from malaria but also would be more accessible if integrated with Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI). Globally, an estimated 3.4 billion people are at risk of malaria. Most cases (80%) and deaths (90%) occurred in Africa, and most deaths (77%) are in children under 5 years of age. An effective vaccine has long been envisaged as a valuable addition to the available tools for malaria control. Although research toward the development of malaria vaccines has been pursued since the 1960s, there are no licensed malaria vaccines. The RTS,S/AS01 vaccine, which targets P. falciparum, has reached phase 3 clinical trials and results are promising. Malaria Vaccine Technology Road Map 2013 has envisaged the world aiming for a licensed vaccine by 2030 that would reduce malaria cases by 75% and be capable of eliminating malaria. It will not only fill the gaps of today's interventions but also be a cost-effective method of decreasing morbidity and mortality from malaria.
2015-02-01
In a similar manner, globalization has also created new realities, such as in the case of food production where choice now affects demand as much as...quantity did in the past. “Two major factors drive food requirements [and market prices]: a growing global population and prosperity that expands...argued earlier, to expend effort in other nations without consideration of building capacity and resiliency risks strategic failure and wastage of
Markets and Institutional Capacity
Ingemann, Jan Holm
2010-01-01
Adequate explanations concerning the introduction of production and consumption of organic food in Denmark imply the necessity to engage a certain understanding of markets. Markets should subsequently not be seen as entities nor places but as complex relations between human actors. Further, the e......, the establishment, maintenance and development of markets are depending on the capacity of the actors to enter into continuous and enhancing interplay....
Getting ready for malaria elimination: a check list of critical issues to consider.
González-Silva, Matiana; Bassat, Quique; Alonso, Pedro L
2014-08-01
In recent years, a renewed interest in malaria elimination and eradication has emerged and seems to be rooting in the minds of the scientific community, public health specialists, funding bodies, policy makers and politicians. Malaria eradication will certainly benefit from improved and innovative tools; notwithstanding novel knowledge in fields ranging from basic science to mathematical modelling and health systems research. However, the elimination of malaria also encompasses a broad range of essential aspects that countries and other actors need to consider when thinking of embarking on such an adventure, including the implementation of innovative strategies, the ability to incorporate the most up-to-date evidence into policy, the integration of malaria into the broader health agenda, the strengthening of surveillance and health systems, capacity building, funding, advocacy and, very importantly, research. While in some cases this enthusiasm is clearly justified, some countries are still a long way from realistically advancing towards elimination. This paper attempts to provide guidance on all the necessary issues that should be considered when initiating a malaria elimination program.
Getting ready for malaria elimination: a check list of critical issues to consider
Matiana González-Silva
2014-08-01
Full Text Available In recent years, a renewed interest in malaria elimination and eradication has emerged and seems to be rooting in the minds of the scientific community, public health specialists, funding bodies, policy makers and politicians. Malaria eradication will certainly benefit from improved and innovative tools; notwithstanding novel knowledge in fields ranging from basic science to mathematical modelling and health systems research. However, the elimination of malaria also encompasses a broad range of essential aspects that countries and other actors need to consider when thinking of embarking on such an adventure, including the implementation of innovative strategies, the ability to incorporate the most up-to-date evidence into policy, the integration of malaria into the broader health agenda, the strengthening of surveillance and health systems, capacity building, funding, advocacy and, very importantly, research. While in some cases this enthusiasm is clearly justified, some countries are still a long way from realistically advancing towards elimination. This paper attempts to provide guidance on all the necessary issues that should be considered when initiating a malaria elimination program.
Capacity factors of a mixed speed railway network
Harrod, Steven
2009-01-01
Fifty-four combinations of track network and speed differential are evaluated within a linear, discrete time network model that maximizes an objective function of train volume, delays, and idle train time. The results contradict accepted dispatching practice by suggesting that when introducing...... a priority, high-speed train onto a network, maximum network now is attained when the priority train operates at maximum speed. in addition, increasing siding capacity at meeting points may offer a network capacity improvement comparable to partial double track. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....
Competence building capacity shortage
Doorman, Gerard; Wangensteen, Ivar; Bakken, Bjoern
2005-02-01
The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather
The maximum rotation of a galactic disc
Bottema, R
1997-01-01
The observed stellar velocity dispersions of galactic discs show that the maximum rotation of a disc is on average 63% of the observed maximum rotation. This criterion can, however, not be applied to small or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies because such systems show, in general, a continuously rising rotation curve until the outermost measured radial position. That is why a general relation has been derived, giving the maximum rotation for a disc depending on the luminosity, surface brightness, and colour of the disc. As a physical basis of this relation serves an adopted fixed mass-to-light ratio as a function of colour. That functionality is consistent with results from population synthesis models and its absolute value is determined from the observed stellar velocity dispersions. The derived maximum disc rotation is compared with a number of observed maximum rotations, clearly demonstrating the need for appreciable amounts of dark matter in the disc region and even more so for LSB galaxies. Matters h...
Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors
Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.; Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C.
2014-06-01
Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (Ic) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the Ic degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.
Computing Rooted and Unrooted Maximum Consistent Supertrees
van Iersel, Leo
2009-01-01
A chief problem in phylogenetics and database theory is the computation of a maximum consistent tree from a set of rooted or unrooted trees. A standard input are triplets, rooted binary trees on three leaves, or quartets, unrooted binary trees on four leaves. We give exact algorithms constructing rooted and unrooted maximum consistent supertrees in time O(2^n n^5 m^2 log(m)) for a set of m triplets (quartets), each one distinctly leaf-labeled by some subset of n labels. The algorithms extend to weighted triplets (quartets). We further present fast exact algorithms for constructing rooted and unrooted maximum consistent trees in polynomial space. Finally, for a set T of m rooted or unrooted trees with maximum degree D and distinctly leaf-labeled by some subset of a set L of n labels, we compute, in O(2^{mD} n^m m^5 n^6 log(m)) time, a tree distinctly leaf-labeled by a maximum-size subset X of L that all trees in T, when restricted to X, are consistent with.
Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection
McGarr, Arthur F.
2014-01-01
Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.
Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection
McGarr, A.
2014-02-01
Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.
Nicodem James Govella
2012-06-01
Full Text Available By definition, elimination of malaria means permanent reduction to zero of locally incidence of infections. Achieving this goal among other reasons, it requires fully understanding on where and when persons are most exposed to malaria vectors as these are fundamental for targeting interventions to achieve maximum impact. While elimination can be possible in some settings with low malaria transmission intensity and dominated with late and indoor biting of vectors using Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLIN and Indoor Residual Spraying (IRs, it’s difficult and even impossible in areas with high and where majority of human exposure to transmission occurs outside human dwellings. Recently in response to wide spread use of LLIN and IRS, human risk of exposure to transmission is increasingly spread across the entire night so that much of it occurs outdoors and before bed time. This modification of vector populations and behaviour has now been reported from across Africa, Asia and from the Solomon Islands. Historical evidence shows that even in areas with intervention coverage exceeding 90% of human population it was so hard to even push prevalence down below the pre elimination threshold of 1% being compromised mainly with the outdoor residual transmission. Malaria control experts must however continue to deliver interventions that tackle indoor transmission but considerable amount of resources that target mosquitoes outside of houses and outside of sleeping hours will therefore be required to sustain and go beyond existing levels of malaria control and achieve elimination.
Maximum Multiflow in Wireless Network Coding
Zhou, Jin-Yi; Jiang, Yong; Zheng, Hai-Tao
2012-01-01
In a multihop wireless network, wireless interference is crucial to the maximum multiflow (MMF) problem, which studies the maximum throughput between multiple pairs of sources and sinks. In this paper, we observe that network coding could help to decrease the impacts of wireless interference, and propose a framework to study the MMF problem for multihop wireless networks with network coding. Firstly, a network model is set up to describe the new conflict relations modified by network coding. Then, we formulate a linear programming problem to compute the maximum throughput and show its superiority over one in networks without coding. Finally, the MMF problem in wireless network coding is shown to be NP-hard and a polynomial approximation algorithm is proposed.
Rainfall Maximum Intensities for Urban Hydrological Design in Mexican Republic
Campos–Aranda D.F.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Firstly, through the urban hydrosystem concept and through urbanization, the difficulties and approach of the urban flood estimation are established, based in the Intensity–Duration–Frequency curves (IDF. Next, in 10 recording gages located in very different geographic zones, a procedure is contrasted for IDF estimation curves, which utilized the Chen formula and the available information in the Mexican Republic for isohyet intensities and annual daily maximum rainfall. Late, having verified their capacity and approximation to reproduce the IDF curves, the utilized procedure was applied in 45 important locations of the country, showing the results. Lastly, the conclusions are formulated, which point out the approximation and simplicity of the proposal procedure.
Santhosh Kumar
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Common treatment for buccal gingival recession caused by an aberrant frenal attachment includes elimination of the frenum and treatment of the gingival reces-sion by soft tissue graft to increase the width of the attached gingiva that in turn results in root coverage. Keratinised gingival, if present in adequate amount, maintains the gingival health by protecting the marginal gingiva. This not only considers the desires of the patient but also explores the potential regenerative capacity of the tissues. This report describes a novel single-stage procedure for increasing the width of the attached gingiva and eliminating the aberrant frenal attachment.
The Wiener maximum quadratic assignment problem
Cela, Eranda; Woeginger, Gerhard J
2011-01-01
We investigate a special case of the maximum quadratic assignment problem where one matrix is a product matrix and the other matrix is the distance matrix of a one-dimensional point set. We show that this special case, which we call the Wiener maximum quadratic assignment problem, is NP-hard in the ordinary sense and solvable in pseudo-polynomial time. Our approach also yields a polynomial time solution for the following problem from chemical graph theory: Find a tree that maximizes the Wiener index among all trees with a prescribed degree sequence. This settles an open problem from the literature.
Maximum confidence measurements via probabilistic quantum cloning
Zhang Wen-Hai; Yu Long-Bao; Cao Zhuo-Liang; Ye Liu
2013-01-01
Probabilistic quantum cloning (PQC) cannot copy a set of linearly dependent quantum states.In this paper,we show that if incorrect copies are allowed to be produced,linearly dependent quantum states may also be cloned by the PQC.By exploiting this kind of PQC to clone a special set of three linearly dependent quantum states,we derive the upper bound of the maximum confidence measure of a set.An explicit transformation of the maximum confidence measure is presented.
Maximum floodflows in the conterminous United States
Crippen, John R.; Bue, Conrad D.
1977-01-01
Peak floodflows from thousands of observation sites within the conterminous United States were studied to provide a guide for estimating potential maximum floodflows. Data were selected from 883 sites with drainage areas of less than 10,000 square miles (25,900 square kilometers) and were grouped into regional sets. Outstanding floods for each region were plotted on graphs, and envelope curves were computed that offer reasonable limits for estimates of maximum floods. The curves indicate that floods may occur that are two to three times greater than those known for most streams.
Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper
Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu
2009-01-01
The strength of polycrystalline materials increases with decreasing grain size. Below a critical size, smaller grains might lead to softening, as suggested by atomistic simulations. The strongest size should arise at a transition in deformation mechanism from lattice dislocation activities to grain...... boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...
The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem
Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.
2006-01-01
Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find...
Maximum entropy analysis of EGRET data
Pohl, M.; Strong, A.W.
1997-01-01
EGRET data are usually analysed on the basis of the Maximum-Likelihood method \\cite{ma96} in a search for point sources in excess to a model for the background radiation (e.g. \\cite{hu97}). This method depends strongly on the quality of the background model, and thus may have high systematic unce...... uncertainties in region of strong and uncertain background like the Galactic Center region. Here we show images of such regions obtained by the quantified Maximum-Entropy method. We also discuss a possible further use of MEM in the analysis of problematic regions of the sky....
Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper
Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu
2009-01-01
The strength of polycrystalline materials increases with decreasing grain size. Below a critical size, smaller grains might lead to softening, as suggested by atomistic simulations. The strongest size should arise at a transition in deformation mechanism from lattice dislocation activities to grain...... boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...
Maximum phytoplankton concentrations in the sea
Jackson, G.A.; Kiørboe, Thomas
2008-01-01
A simplification of plankton dynamics using coagulation theory provides predictions of the maximum algal concentration sustainable in aquatic systems. These predictions have previously been tested successfully against results from iron fertilization experiments. We extend the test to data collected...... in the North Atlantic as part of the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series program as well as data collected off Southern California as part of the Southern California Bight Study program. The observed maximum particulate organic carbon and volumetric particle concentrations are consistent with the predictions...
Capacity planning in operations producing heavy plate cut shapes
R. Lenort
2009-07-01
Full Text Available The present approach to capacity planning in operations producing heavy metal shapes causes problems in fulfilling the required financial and volume indexes in production, as well as in meeting the work order completion dates. The article represents the methodology for optimal production scheduling in operations producing heavy plate cut shapes, which significantly eliminates the above-mentioned problems. The methodology is based on the application Generalized Assignment Problem (GAP.
The capacity of the Hopfield associative memory
Mceliece, Robert J.; Posner, Edward C.; Rodemich, Eugene R.; Venkatesh, Santosh S.
1987-01-01
Techniques from coding theory are applied to study rigorously the capacity of the Hopfield associative memory. Such a memory stores n-tuple of + or - 1s. The components change depending on a hard-limited version of linear functions of all other components. With symmetric connections between components, a stable state is ultimately reached. By building up the connection matrix as a sum-of-outer products of m fundamental memories, it may be possible to recover a certain one of the m memories by using an initial n-tuple probe vector less than a Hamming distance n/2 away from the fundamental memory. If m fundamental memories are chosen at random, the maximum asymptotic value of m in order that most of the m original memories are exactly recoverable is n/(2 log n). With the added restriction that every one of the m fundamental memories be recoverable exactly, m can be no more than n/(4 log n) asymptotically as n approaches infinity. Extensions are also considered, in particular to capacity under quantization of the outer-product connection matrix. This quantized memory-capacity problem is closely related to the capacity of the quantized Gaussian channel.
Maximum Likelihood Blind Channel Estimation for Space-Time Coding Systems
Hakan A. Çırpan
2002-05-01
Full Text Available Sophisticated signal processing techniques have to be developed for capacity enhancement of future wireless communication systems. In recent years, space-time coding is proposed to provide significant capacity gains over the traditional communication systems in fading wireless channels. Space-time codes are obtained by combining channel coding, modulation, transmit diversity, and optional receive diversity in order to provide diversity at the receiver and coding gain without sacrificing the bandwidth. In this paper, we consider the problem of blind estimation of space-time coded signals along with the channel parameters. Both conditional and unconditional maximum likelihood approaches are developed and iterative solutions are proposed. The conditional maximum likelihood algorithm is based on iterative least squares with projection whereas the unconditional maximum likelihood approach is developed by means of finite state Markov process modelling. The performance analysis issues of the proposed methods are studied. Finally, some simulation results are presented.
[Plan for the Elimination of Measles and Rubella in Spain].
Limia Sánchez, Aurora
2015-01-01
The current Plan for the elimination of measles and rubella is made of the Plan for the elimination of measles in Spain, set up in 2001, and the Surveillance protocol of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome in the phase of elimination, established in 2007. The monitoring of the elimination of both diseases conducted from the European Region of World Health Organization (WHO) has been reinforced since 2010. An annual report with information on the situation of measles and rubella in The Member Estates is being requested since 2013. The Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality nominated a National Committee for Verification of Measles and Rubella Elimination in 2013, for the review and delivery of the requested information. The strategies and activities currently recommended from the WHO European Region, the verification process in Spain, and the steps to follow for the updating of the Plan for the elimination of measles and rubella in Spain are mentioned in this article.
Savulescu, Julian; Kahane, Guy
2011-01-01
Enhancing Human Capacities is the first to review the very latest scientific developments in human enhancement. It is unique in its examination of the ethical and policy implications of these technologies from a broad range of perspectives. Presents a rich range of perspectives on enhancement from world leading ethicists and scientists from Europe and North America The most comprehensive volume yet on the science and ethics of human enhancement Unique in providing a detailed overview of current and expected scientific advances in this area Discusses both general conceptual and ethical issues
Problems of elimination of low emission
Stepniowski, A. [Municipal Gas Distribution Enterprise, Cracow (Poland)
1995-12-31
The Cracow Municipal Gas Distribution Enterprises is subordinated to the Carpathian Regional Gas Engineering Plant in Tarnow, which - in turn - is a part of Polish Oil Mining and Gas Engineering with its seat in Warsaw. The required quick development of power engineering in Poland needs harmonized development of all branches of power engineering, including the gas production and distribution industry which constitutes an element of technical infrastructure of Poland influencing the direction of development. After World War II, the gas engineering industry was transformed from a typical communal service to a big industrial structure which covers the entire territory of the state and has considerable technical and material measures at its disposal. Programming of the gas industry development ranges from development of installation of gas-supply arrangements for communal purposes including modification of local gas generators - to the development of gas transportation, storage and purification system. At present gas is taken from following sources: import, own natural gas deposits (high-methane content gas and high-nitrogen content gas within Polish Lowland); cokeries, and local gas generators. Gas sorts obtained in these sources have differentiated physico-chemical properties and they are distributed by three independent transmission systems assigned for high-methane natural gas, high-nitrogen natural gas, and coke-oven gas. Taking into consideration the forecast demand and potential capacity of natural gas production in Poland, the required import of natural gas is estimated.
Analysis of Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Trackers
Veerachary, Mummadi
The photovoltaic generator exhibits a non-linear i-v characteristic and its maximum power point (MPP) varies with solar insolation. An intermediate switch-mode dc-dc converter is required to extract maximum power from the photovoltaic array. In this paper buck, boost and buck-boost topologies are considered and a detailed mathematical analysis, both for continuous and discontinuous inductor current operation, is given for MPP operation. The conditions on the connected load values and duty ratio are derived for achieving the satisfactory maximum power point operation. Further, it is shown that certain load values, falling out of the optimal range, will drive the operating point away from the true maximum power point. Detailed comparison of various topologies for MPPT is given. Selection of the converter topology for a given loading is discussed. Detailed discussion on circuit-oriented model development is given and then MPPT effectiveness of various converter systems is verified through simulations. Proposed theory and analysis is validated through experimental investigations.
On maximum cycle packings in polyhedral graphs
Peter Recht
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses upper and lower bounds for the cardinality of a maximum vertex-/edge-disjoint cycle packing in a polyhedral graph G. Bounds on the cardinality of such packings are provided, that depend on the size, the order or the number of faces of G, respectively. Polyhedral graphs are constructed, that attain these bounds.
Hard graphs for the maximum clique problem
Hoede, Cornelis
1988-01-01
The maximum clique problem is one of the NP-complete problems. There are graphs for which a reduction technique exists that transforms the problem for these graphs into one for graphs with specific properties in polynomial time. The resulting graphs do not grow exponentially in order and number. Gra
Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Search Costs
J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); M.R. Wildenbeest (Matthijs)
2006-01-01
textabstractIn a recent paper Hong and Shum (forthcoming) present a structural methodology to estimate search cost distributions. We extend their approach to the case of oligopoly and present a maximum likelihood estimate of the search cost distribution. We apply our method to a data set of online p
Weak Scale From the Maximum Entropy Principle
Hamada, Yuta; Kawana, Kiyoharu
2015-01-01
The theory of multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the $S^{3}$ universe at the final stage $S_{rad}$ becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the Standard Model, we can check whether $S_{rad}$ actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard $S_{rad}$ at the final stage as a function of the weak scale ( the Higgs expectation value ) $v_{h}$, and show that it becomes maximum around $v_{h}={\\cal{O}}(300\\text{GeV})$ when the dimensionless couplings in the Standard Model, that is, the Higgs self coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by \\begin{equation} v_{h}\\sim\\frac{T_{BBN}^{2}}{M_{pl}y_{e}^{5}},\
Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle
Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu
2015-03-01
The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.
Global characterization of the Holocene Thermal Maximum
Renssen, H.; Seppä, H.; Crosta, X.; Goosse, H.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.
2012-01-01
We analyze the global variations in the timing and magnitude of the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) and their dependence on various forcings in transient simulations covering the last 9000 years (9 ka), performed with a global atmosphere-ocean-vegetation model. In these experiments, we consider the i
Instance Optimality of the Adaptive Maximum Strategy
L. Diening; C. Kreuzer; R. Stevenson
2016-01-01
In this paper, we prove that the standard adaptive finite element method with a (modified) maximum marking strategy is instance optimal for the total error, being the square root of the squared energy error plus the squared oscillation. This result will be derived in the model setting of Poisson’s e
Maximum phonation time: variability and reliability.
Speyer, Renée; Bogaardt, Hans C A; Passos, Valéria Lima; Roodenburg, Nel P H D; Zumach, Anne; Heijnen, Mariëlle A M; Baijens, Laura W J; Fleskens, Stijn J H M; Brunings, Jan W
2010-05-01
The objective of the study was to determine maximum phonation time reliability as a function of the number of trials, days, and raters in dysphonic and control subjects. Two groups of adult subjects participated in this reliability study: a group of outpatients with functional or organic dysphonia versus a group of healthy control subjects matched by age and gender. Over a period of maximally 6 weeks, three video recordings were made of five subjects' maximum phonation time trials. A panel of five experts were responsible for all measurements, including a repeated measurement of the subjects' first recordings. Patients showed significantly shorter maximum phonation times compared with healthy controls (on average, 6.6 seconds shorter). The averaged interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) over all raters per trial for the first day was 0.998. The averaged reliability coefficient per rater and per trial for repeated measurements of the first day's data was 0.997, indicating high intrarater reliability. The mean reliability coefficient per day for one trial was 0.939. When using five trials, the reliability increased to 0.987. The reliability over five trials for a single day was 0.836; for 2 days, 0.911; and for 3 days, 0.935. To conclude, the maximum phonation time has proven to be a highly reliable measure in voice assessment. A single rater is sufficient to provide highly reliable measurements.
Maximum Phonation Time: Variability and Reliability
R. Speyer; H.C.A. Bogaardt; V.L. Passos; N.P.H.D. Roodenburg; A. Zumach; M.A.M. Heijnen; L.W.J. Baijens; S.J.H.M. Fleskens; J.W. Brunings
2010-01-01
The objective of the study was to determine maximum phonation time reliability as a function of the number of trials, days, and raters in dysphonic and control subjects. Two groups of adult subjects participated in this reliability study: a group of outpatients with functional or organic dysphonia v
Maximum likelihood estimation of fractionally cointegrated systems
Lasak, Katarzyna
In this paper we consider a fractionally cointegrated error correction model and investigate asymptotic properties of the maximum likelihood (ML) estimators of the matrix of the cointe- gration relations, the degree of fractional cointegration, the matrix of the speed of adjustment...
Maximum likelihood estimation for integrated diffusion processes
Baltazar-Larios, Fernando; Sørensen, Michael
EM-algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in the diffusion model. As part of the algorithm, we use a recent simple method for approximate simulation of diffusion bridges. In simulation studies for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the CIR process the proposed method works...
Maximum gain of Yagi-Uda arrays
Bojsen, J.H.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Nilsson, E.
1971-01-01
Numerical optimisation techniques have been used to find the maximum gain of some specific parasitic arrays. The gain of an array of infinitely thin, equispaced dipoles loaded with arbitrary reactances has been optimised. The results show that standard travelling-wave design methods are not optimum....... Yagi–Uda arrays with equal and unequal spacing have also been optimised with experimental verification....
Estimating station noise thresholds for seismic magnitude bias elimination
Peacock, Sheila
2014-05-01
To eliminate the upward bias of seismic magnitude caused by censoring of signal hidden by noise, noise level at each station in a network must be estimated. Where noise levels are not measured directly, the method of Kelly and Lacoss (1969) has been used to infer them from bulletin data (Lilwall and Douglas 1984). To verify this estimate of noise level, noise thresholds of International Monitoring System (IMS) stations inferred from the International Data Centre (IDC) Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) by the Kelly and Lacoss method for 2005-2013 are compared with direct measurements on (i) noise preceding first arrivals in filtered (0.8-4.5 Hz) IMS seismic data, and (ii) noise preceding the expected time of arrival of signals from events, where signal was not actually seen (values gathered by the IDC for maximum-likelihood magnitude calculation). For most stations the direct pre-signal noise measurements are ~0.25 units of log A/T lower than the Kelly&Lacoss thresholds; because the IDC automatic system declares a detection only when the short-term-average-to-long-term-average ratio threshold, which varies with station and frequency band between ~3-6, is exceeded. The noise values at expected times of non-observed signal arrival are ~0.15 units lower than the Kelly and Lacoss thresholds. Exceptions are caused by faulty channels being used for the direct noise or body-wave magnitude (mb) measurements or, for station ARCES and possibly FINES, SPITS and HFS, the wider filter used for signal amplitude than for signal detection admitting noise that swamped the signal. Abrupt changes in thresholds might show mis-documented sensor sensitivity changes at individual stations.
Region 9 National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Facilities
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates...
Deficiency of employability capacity
Pelse I.
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a nature of habit and are developed in a long-term work socialization process, which begins even before the formal education and will continue throughout the life cycle. However, when the socialization is lost, these habits are depreciated faster than they can be restored. Currently a new generation is entering the labour market, which is missing the succession of work socialization. Factors, such as rising unemployment and poverty in the background over the past twenty years in Latvia have created a very unfavourable employability background of “personal circumstances” and “external factors”, which seriously have impaired formation of the skills and attitudes in a real work environment. The study reveals another paradox – the paradox of poverty. Common sense would want to argue that poverty can be overcome by the job. However, the real state of affairs shows that unfavourable coincidence of the individual, personal circumstances and external factors leads to deficit of employability capacity and possibility of marked social and employment deprivation.
Intra-articular capacity of the elbow joint.
Van Den Broek, Mathias; Van Riet, Roger
2017-09-01
The intra-articular capacity of the elbow joint is reported to be 23 ± 4 ml on cadaveric elbows. During years, this value was the standard. The aim of this observational study was to reanalyze the volume of the elbow joint on live patients. Measurement of the intra-articular capacity and pressure of the elbow joint was performed on 30 patients (mean age: 43.8 years) undergoing elbow arthroscopy. Intra-articular capacity was recorded when the elbow moved to the maximum lose packed position and/or when there was a sudden drop in pressure, indicating a capsular rupture (maximum capacity). Indications for arthroscopy were loose bodies, osteoarthritis, synovitis, radial head resection, and lateral collateral ligament repair. Mean intra-articular capacity and pressure were 35.8 ml and 557.5 mm Hg, respectively. Mean maximal capacity was 40.5 ml. We conclude that the intra-articular capacity of the elbow joint is substantially greater than reported in previous studies. Clin. Anat. 30:795-798, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Violating the Shannon capacity of metric graphs with entanglement
Briët, Jop; Buhrman, Harry; Gijswijt, Dion
2013-01-01
The Shannon capacity of a graph G is the maximum asymptotic rate at which messages can be sent with zero probability of error through a noisy channel with confusability graph G. This extensively studied graph parameter disregards the fact that on atomic scales, nature behaves in line with quantum mechanics. Entanglement, arguably the most counterintuitive feature of the theory, turns out to be a useful resource for communication across noisy channels. Recently [Leung D, Mančinska L, Matthews W, Ozols M, Roy A (2012) Commun Math Phys 311:97–111], two examples of graphs were presented whose Shannon capacity is strictly less than the capacity attainable if the sender and receiver have entangled quantum systems. Here, we give natural, possibly infinite, families of graphs for which the entanglement-assisted capacity exceeds the Shannon capacity. PMID:23267109
THE TRANSMISSION CAPACITY OF MANET BASED ON CONFLICT GRAPH
无
2007-01-01
The transmission capacity of Mobile Ad Hoc Networking (MANET) is constrained by the mutual interference of concurrent transmissions between nodes. First, the transmission capacity of MANET is studied by the view of information flow between nodes. At the same time, the problem that the interference between nodes affects the transmission capacity of MANET is also studied by the tool of the event conflict graph. Secondly, the paper presents the method to compute the maximum expectant achievable capacity for the given conflict graph, and concludes and proves an sufficient condition that the information flow transmit successfully between nodes. At last, the results are simulated and a fitting equation of transmission capacity between nodes is given.
Effective capacity of multiple antenna channels: Correlation and keyhole
Zhong, Caijun
2012-01-01
In this study, the authors derive the effective capacity limits for multiple antenna channels which quantify the maximum achievable rate with consideration of link-layer delay-bound violation probability. Both correlated multiple-input single-output and multiple-input multiple-output keyhole channels are studied. Based on the closed-form exact expressions for the effective capacity of both channels, the authors look into the asymptotic high and low signal-to-noise ratio regimes, and derive simple expressions to gain more insights. The impact of spatial correlation on effective capacity is also characterised with the aid of a majorisation theory result. It is revealed that antenna correlation reduces the effective capacity of the channels and a stringent quality-of-service requirement causes a severe reduction in the effective capacity but can be alleviated by increasing the number of antennas. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.
Measurement and relevance of maximum metabolic rate in fishes.
Norin, T; Clark, T D
2016-01-01
Maximum (aerobic) metabolic rate (MMR) is defined here as the maximum rate of oxygen consumption (M˙O2max ) that a fish can achieve at a given temperature under any ecologically relevant circumstance. Different techniques exist for eliciting MMR of fishes, of which swim-flume respirometry (critical swimming speed tests and burst-swimming protocols) and exhaustive chases are the most common. Available data suggest that the most suitable method for eliciting MMR varies with species and ecotype, and depends on the propensity of the fish to sustain swimming for extended durations as well as its capacity to simultaneously exercise and digest food. MMR varies substantially (>10 fold) between species with different lifestyles (i.e. interspecific variation), and to a lesser extent (aerobic scope, interest in measuring this trait has spread across disciplines in attempts to predict effects of climate change on fish populations. Here, various techniques used to elicit and measure MMR in different fish species with contrasting lifestyles are outlined and the relevance of MMR to the ecology, fitness and climate change resilience of fishes is discussed.
Workshop on moisture buffer capacity
2003-01-01
Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003......Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003...
无
2007-01-01
@@ Paraformaldehyde (PF) production in China has grown to a considerable scale today. The total capacity was around 90 thousand t/a in 2006. Since 2007, the production capacity of PF has increased drastically.
Hu, Baiyang; Fugetsu, Bunshi; Yu, Hongwen; Abe, Yoshiteru
2012-05-30
We developed a spongiform adsorbent that contains Prussian blue, which showed a high capacity for eliminating cesium. An in situ synthesizing approach was used to synthesize Prussian blue inside diatomite cavities. Highly dispersed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used to form CNT networks that coated the diatomite to seal in the Prussian blue particles. These ternary (CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue) composites were mixed with polyurethane (PU) prepolymers to produce a quaternary (PU/CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue), spongiform adsorbent with an in situ foaming procedure. Prussian blue was permanently immobilized in the cell walls of the spongiform matrix and preferentially adsorbed cesium with a theoretical capacity of 167 mg/g cesium. Cesium was absorbed primarily by an ion-exchange mechanism, and the absorption was accomplished by self-uptake of radioactive water by the quaternary spongiform adsorbent.
Maltodextrin enhances biofilm elimination by electrochemical scaffold.
Sultana, Sujala T; Call, Douglas R; Beyenal, Haluk
2016-10-26
Electrochemical scaffolds (e-scaffolds) continuously generate low concentrations of H2O2 suitable for damaging wound biofilms without damaging host tissue. Nevertheless, retarded diffusion combined with H2O2 degradation can limit the efficacy of this potentially important clinical tool. H2O2 diffusion into biofilms and bacterial cells can be increased by damaging the biofilm structure or by activating membrane transportation channels by exposure to hyperosmotic agents. We hypothesized that e-scaffolds would be more effective against Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms in the presence of a hyperosmotic agent. E-scaffolds polarized at -600 mVAg/AgCl were overlaid onto preformed biofilms in media containing various maltodextrin concentrations. E-scaffold alone decreased A. baumannii and S. aureus biofilm cell densities by (3.92 ± 0.15) log and (2.31 ± 0.12) log, respectively. Compared to untreated biofilms, the efficacy of the e-scaffold increased to a maximum (8.27 ± 0.05) log reduction in A. baumannii and (4.71 ± 0.12) log reduction in S. aureus biofilm cell densities upon 10 mM and 30 mM maltodextrin addition, respectively. Overall ~55% decrease in relative biofilm surface coverage was achieved for both species. We conclude that combined treatment with electrochemically generated H2O2 from an e-scaffold and maltodextrin is more effective in decreasing viable biofilm cell density.
Maltodextrin enhances biofilm elimination by electrochemical scaffold
Sultana, Sujala T.; Call, Douglas R.; Beyenal, Haluk
2016-01-01
Electrochemical scaffolds (e-scaffolds) continuously generate low concentrations of H2O2 suitable for damaging wound biofilms without damaging host tissue. Nevertheless, retarded diffusion combined with H2O2 degradation can limit the efficacy of this potentially important clinical tool. H2O2 diffusion into biofilms and bacterial cells can be increased by damaging the biofilm structure or by activating membrane transportation channels by exposure to hyperosmotic agents. We hypothesized that e-scaffolds would be more effective against Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms in the presence of a hyperosmotic agent. E-scaffolds polarized at −600 mVAg/AgCl were overlaid onto preformed biofilms in media containing various maltodextrin concentrations. E-scaffold alone decreased A. baumannii and S. aureus biofilm cell densities by (3.92 ± 0.15) log and (2.31 ± 0.12) log, respectively. Compared to untreated biofilms, the efficacy of the e-scaffold increased to a maximum (8.27 ± 0.05) log reduction in A. baumannii and (4.71 ± 0.12) log reduction in S. aureus biofilm cell densities upon 10 mM and 30 mM maltodextrin addition, respectively. Overall ~55% decrease in relative biofilm surface coverage was achieved for both species. We conclude that combined treatment with electrochemically generated H2O2 from an e-scaffold and maltodextrin is more effective in decreasing viable biofilm cell density. PMID:27782161
Landfill Construction and Capacity Expansion
Andre, F.J.; Cerda, E.
2003-01-01
We study the optimal capacity and lifetime of landfills taking into account their sequential nature.Such an optimal capacity is characterized by the so-called Optimal Capacity Condition.Particular versions of this condition are obtained for two alternative settings: first, if all the landfills are t
Maximum likelihood estimation for semiparametric density ratio model.
Diao, Guoqing; Ning, Jing; Qin, Jing
2012-06-27
In the statistical literature, the conditional density model specification is commonly used to study regression effects. One attractive model is the semiparametric density ratio model, under which the conditional density function is the product of an unknown baseline density function and a known parametric function containing the covariate information. This model has a natural connection with generalized linear models and is closely related to biased sampling problems. Despite the attractive features and importance of this model, most existing methods are too restrictive since they are based on multi-sample data or conditional likelihood functions. The conditional likelihood approach can eliminate the unknown baseline density but cannot estimate it. We propose efficient estimation procedures based on the nonparametric likelihood. The nonparametric likelihood approach allows for general forms of covariates and estimates the regression parameters and the baseline density simultaneously. Therefore, the nonparametric likelihood approach is more versatile than the conditional likelihood approach especially when estimation of the conditional mean or other quantities of the outcome is of interest. We show that the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimators are consistent, asymptotically normal, and asymptotically efficient. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed methods perform well in practical settings. A real example is used for illustration.
Phosphorus retention capacity of sediments in Mandovi estuary (Goa)
Rajagopal, M.D.; Reddy, C.V.G.
Experiments carried out under controlled conditions to study P retention capacity of sediments indicate that the processes of adsorption and desorption of P are pH dependent. Adsorption of P is maximum (58-99%) at pH 4. Both the exchangeable P...
Violating the Shannon capacity of metric graphs with entanglement
J. Briët (Jop); H. Buhrman (Harry); D. Gijswijt (Dion)
2012-01-01
htmlabstractThe Shannon capacity of a graph G is the maximum asymptotic rate at which messages can be sent with zero probability of error through a noisy channel with confusability graph G. This extensively studied graph parameter disregards the fact that on atomic scales, nature behaves in line
Maximum holding endurance time: Effects of load and load's center of gravity height.
Lee, Tzu-Hsien
2015-01-01
Manual holding task is a potential risk to the development of musculoskeletal injuries since it is prone to induce localized muscle fatigue. Maximum holding endurance time is a significant parameter for the design of manual holding task. This study aimed to examine the effects of load and load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time. Fifteen young and healthy males were recruited as participants. A factorial design was used to examine the effects of load and load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time. Four levels of load (15% , 30% , 45% and 60% of the participant's maximum holding capacity) and two levels of load's COG height in box (0 cm and 40 cm high from the handle position) were examined. Maximum holding endurance time decreased with increasing load and/or increasing load's COG height. The effect of load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time decreased with increasing load. Load, load's COG height, and the interaction of load and load's COG height significantly affected maximum holding endurance time. Practitioners should realize the effects of load, load's COG height, and the interaction of load and load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time when setting the working conditions of holding tasks.
Model Selection Through Sparse Maximum Likelihood Estimation
Banerjee, Onureena; D'Aspremont, Alexandre
2007-01-01
We consider the problem of estimating the parameters of a Gaussian or binary distribution in such a way that the resulting undirected graphical model is sparse. Our approach is to solve a maximum likelihood problem with an added l_1-norm penalty term. The problem as formulated is convex but the memory requirements and complexity of existing interior point methods are prohibitive for problems with more than tens of nodes. We present two new algorithms for solving problems with at least a thousand nodes in the Gaussian case. Our first algorithm uses block coordinate descent, and can be interpreted as recursive l_1-norm penalized regression. Our second algorithm, based on Nesterov's first order method, yields a complexity estimate with a better dependence on problem size than existing interior point methods. Using a log determinant relaxation of the log partition function (Wainwright & Jordan (2006)), we show that these same algorithms can be used to solve an approximate sparse maximum likelihood problem for...
Maximum-entropy description of animal movement.
Fleming, Chris H; Subaşı, Yiğit; Calabrese, Justin M
2015-03-01
We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic.
Pareto versus lognormal: a maximum entropy test.
Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano
2011-08-01
It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.
Maximum Variance Hashing via Column Generation
Lei Luo
2013-01-01
item search. Recently, a number of data-dependent methods have been developed, reflecting the great potential of learning for hashing. Inspired by the classic nonlinear dimensionality reduction algorithm—maximum variance unfolding, we propose a novel unsupervised hashing method, named maximum variance hashing, in this work. The idea is to maximize the total variance of the hash codes while preserving the local structure of the training data. To solve the derived optimization problem, we propose a column generation algorithm, which directly learns the binary-valued hash functions. We then extend it using anchor graphs to reduce the computational cost. Experiments on large-scale image datasets demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art hashing methods in many cases.
The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem
Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.
2006-01-01
algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find......Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... the competitive ratio of various natural algorithms. We study the general versions of the problems as well as the parameterized versions where there is an upper bound of on the item sizes, for some integer k....
Nonparametric Maximum Entropy Estimation on Information Diagrams
Martin, Elliot A; Meinke, Alexander; Děchtěrenko, Filip; Davidsen, Jörn
2016-01-01
Maximum entropy estimation is of broad interest for inferring properties of systems across many different disciplines. In this work, we significantly extend a technique we previously introduced for estimating the maximum entropy of a set of random discrete variables when conditioning on bivariate mutual informations and univariate entropies. Specifically, we show how to apply the concept to continuous random variables and vastly expand the types of information-theoretic quantities one can condition on. This allows us to establish a number of significant advantages of our approach over existing ones. Not only does our method perform favorably in the undersampled regime, where existing methods fail, but it also can be dramatically less computationally expensive as the cardinality of the variables increases. In addition, we propose a nonparametric formulation of connected informations and give an illustrative example showing how this agrees with the existing parametric formulation in cases of interest. We furthe...
Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy
Visser, Matt
2013-04-01
Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.
Zipf's law, power laws, and maximum entropy
Visser, Matt
2012-01-01
Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines - from astronomy to demographics to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation [RGF] attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present article I argue that the cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.
Regions of constrained maximum likelihood parameter identifiability
Lee, C.-H.; Herget, C. J.
1975-01-01
This paper considers the parameter identification problem of general discrete-time, nonlinear, multiple-input/multiple-output dynamic systems with Gaussian-white distributed measurement errors. Knowledge of the system parameterization is assumed to be known. Regions of constrained maximum likelihood (CML) parameter identifiability are established. A computation procedure employing interval arithmetic is proposed for finding explicit regions of parameter identifiability for the case of linear systems. It is shown that if the vector of true parameters is locally CML identifiable, then with probability one, the vector of true parameters is a unique maximal point of the maximum likelihood function in the region of parameter identifiability and the CML estimation sequence will converge to the true parameters.
A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.
Alibert, Yann
2015-09-01
We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope.
Sklifas, A N; Zhalimov, V K; Temnov, A A; Kukushkin, N I
2012-01-01
The adsorption abilities of the perfluorocarbon emulsion stabilized by Proxanol 268 were investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the saturation point for the blood plasma proteins was nearly reached after five minutes of incubation of the emulsion with human/rabbit blood plasma and was stable for all incubation periods studied. The decrease in volume ratio (emulsion/plasma) was accompanied by the increase in the adsorptive capacity of the emulsion with maximal values at 1/10 (3.2 and 1.5 mg of proteins per 1 ml of the emulsion, for human and rabbit blood plasma, respectively) that was unchanged at lower ratios. In vivo, in rabbits, intravenously injected with the emulsion, the proteins with molecular masses of 12, 25, 32, 44, 55, 70, and 200 kDa were adsorbed by the emulsion (as in vitro) if it was used 6 hours or less before testing. More delayed testing (6 h) revealed elimination of proteins with molecular masses of 25 and 44 kDa and an additional pool of adsorpted new ones of 27, 50, and 150 kDa. Specific adsorptive capacity of the emulsion enhanced gradually after emulsion injection and reached its maximum (3.5-5 mg of proteins per 1 ml of the emulsion) after 24 hours.
Characteristics of storage related capacity loss in Ni/H2 cells
Vaidyanathan, Hari
1993-01-01
The changes in the capacity, voltage and pressure profile of flight configuration Ni/H2 cells when they are stored for extended periods is examined. The Ni/H2 cells exhibit capacity fade phenomenon regardless of their design when they are stored at room temperature. Capacity loss also occurs if old cells (5 years old) are stored in a very low rate trickle charge (C/200 rate) condition. A periodic recharge technique leads to pressure rise in the cells. Conventional trickle charge (C/100 rate) helps in minimizing or eliminating the second plateau which is one of the characteristics of the capacity fade phenomenon.
A stochastic maximum principle via Malliavin calculus
Øksendal, Bernt; Zhou, Xun Yu; Meyer-Brandis, Thilo
2008-01-01
This paper considers a controlled It\\^o-L\\'evy process where the information available to the controller is possibly less than the overall information. All the system coefficients and the objective performance functional are allowed to be random, possibly non-Markovian. Malliavin calculus is employed to derive a maximum principle for the optimal control of such a system where the adjoint process is explicitly expressed.
Tissue radiation response with maximum Tsallis entropy.
Sotolongo-Grau, O; Rodríguez-Pérez, D; Antoranz, J C; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar
2010-10-08
The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is currently based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation, and conditions. Here, we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature.
Maximum Estrada Index of Bicyclic Graphs
Wang, Long; Wang, Yi
2012-01-01
Let $G$ be a simple graph of order $n$, let $\\lambda_1(G),\\lambda_2(G),...,\\lambda_n(G)$ be the eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix of $G$. The Esrada index of $G$ is defined as $EE(G)=\\sum_{i=1}^{n}e^{\\lambda_i(G)}$. In this paper we determine the unique graph with maximum Estrada index among bicyclic graphs with fixed order.
Gains and Pitfalls of Quantifier Elimination as a Teaching Tool
Oldenburg, Reinhard
2015-01-01
Quantifier Elimination is a procedure that allows simplification of logical formulas that contain quantifiers. Many mathematical concepts are defined in terms of quantifiers and especially in calculus their use has been identified as an obstacle in the learning process. The automatic deduction provided by quantifier elimination thus allows…
Deferring Elimination of Design Alternatives in Object Oriented Methods
Aksit, Mehmet; Marcelloni, Francesco
2001-01-01
While developing systems, software engineers generally have to deal with a large number of design alternatives. Current object-oriented methods aim to eliminate design alternatives whenever they are generated. Alternatives, however, should be eliminated only when sufficient information to take such
Competition: Butterflies eliminate milkweed bugs from a Caribbean Island.
Blakley, Nigel R; Dingle, Hugh
1978-01-01
By eliminating the food plant, Asclepias curassavica, monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus, have virtually eliminated milkweed bugs, Oncopeltus spp., from the island of Barbados. The relatively open terrain of Barbados means the plants have no refuge; the butterflies survive on an alternate milkweed food plant, Calotropis procera, whose thick-walled pods make seeds unavailable to the bugs.
Research on Eliminating Set-marks by Image Processing
SUN Zhi-hong; ZENG Yong-qi; LI Wei; CHEN Ming
2005-01-01
The causes of set-marks on woven fabrics were analyzed and the commonly used methods to eliminate this kind of defect were introduced. A non-contact method based on image processing technique to detect the cloth-fell displacement and eliminate set-marks was described in detail in this paper.
On the Importance of Elimination Heuristics in Lazy Propagation
Madsen, Anders Læsø; Butz, Cory J.
2012-01-01
Belief update in a Bayesian network using Lazy Propagation (LP) proceeds by message passing over a junction tree (JT). In the process of computing a message, a set of variables is eliminated. As the JT provides only a partial order on the elimination of variables, it is necessary to identify elim...
77 FR 30871 - Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act
2012-05-23
... May 23, 2012 Part VI The President Memorandum of May 17, 2012--Implementing the Prison Rape... 3-- #0;The President ] Memorandum of May 17, 2012 Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act... assault on human dignity and an affront to American values. The Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003...
Eliminating Community Services--The Leisure Services Example.
Crompton, John L.; Lamb, Charles W.
1980-01-01
Illustrates the importance of adopting a formal strategy for eliminating programs. Outlines a three-step procedure for identifying candidates for elimination, evaluating these programs, and implementing the decision. The procedure provides community service agencies with guidelines for better serving the needs of their clientele. (SK)
Automatic maximum entropy spectral reconstruction in NMR.
Mobli, Mehdi; Maciejewski, Mark W; Gryk, Michael R; Hoch, Jeffrey C
2007-10-01
Developments in superconducting magnets, cryogenic probes, isotope labeling strategies, and sophisticated pulse sequences together have enabled the application, in principle, of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy to biomolecular systems approaching 1 megadalton. In practice, however, conventional approaches to NMR that utilize the fast Fourier transform, which require data collected at uniform time intervals, result in prohibitively lengthy data collection times in order to achieve the full resolution afforded by high field magnets. A variety of approaches that involve nonuniform sampling have been proposed, each utilizing a non-Fourier method of spectrum analysis. A very general non-Fourier method that is capable of utilizing data collected using any of the proposed nonuniform sampling strategies is maximum entropy reconstruction. A limiting factor in the adoption of maximum entropy reconstruction in NMR has been the need to specify non-intuitive parameters. Here we describe a fully automated system for maximum entropy reconstruction that requires no user-specified parameters. A web-accessible script generator provides the user interface to the system.
Maximum entropy analysis of cosmic ray composition
Nosek, Dalibor; Vícha, Jakub; Trávníček, Petr; Nosková, Jana
2016-01-01
We focus on the primary composition of cosmic rays with the highest energies that cause extensive air showers in the Earth's atmosphere. A way of examining the two lowest order moments of the sample distribution of the depth of shower maximum is presented. The aim is to show that useful information about the composition of the primary beam can be inferred with limited knowledge we have about processes underlying these observations. In order to describe how the moments of the depth of shower maximum depend on the type of primary particles and their energies, we utilize a superposition model. Using the principle of maximum entropy, we are able to determine what trends in the primary composition are consistent with the input data, while relying on a limited amount of information from shower physics. Some capabilities and limitations of the proposed method are discussed. In order to achieve a realistic description of the primary mass composition, we pay special attention to the choice of the parameters of the sup...
A Maximum Resonant Set of Polyomino Graphs
Zhang Heping
2016-05-01
Full Text Available A polyomino graph P is a connected finite subgraph of the infinite plane grid such that each finite face is surrounded by a regular square of side length one and each edge belongs to at least one square. A dimer covering of P corresponds to a perfect matching. Different dimer coverings can interact via an alternating cycle (or square with respect to them. A set of disjoint squares of P is a resonant set if P has a perfect matching M so that each one of those squares is M-alternating. In this paper, we show that if K is a maximum resonant set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching. We further prove that the maximum forcing number of a polyomino graph is equal to the cardinality of a maximum resonant set. This confirms a conjecture of Xu et al. [26]. We also show that if K is a maximal alternating set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching.
The maximum rate of mammal evolution
Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.
2012-03-01
How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.
Minimal Length, Friedmann Equations and Maximum Density
Awad, Adel
2014-01-01
Inspired by Jacobson's thermodynamic approach[gr-qc/9504004], Cai et al [hep-th/0501055,hep-th/0609128] have shown the emergence of Friedmann equations from the first law of thermodynamics. We extend Akbar--Cai derivation [hep-th/0609128] of Friedmann equations to accommodate a general entropy-area law. Studying the resulted Friedmann equations using a specific entropy-area law, which is motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), reveals the existence of a maximum energy density closed to Planck density. Allowing for a general continuous pressure $p(\\rho,a)$ leads to bounded curvature invariants and a general nonsingular evolution. In this case, the maximum energy density is reached in a finite time and there is no cosmological evolution beyond this point which leaves the big bang singularity inaccessible from a spacetime prospective. The existence of maximum energy density and a general nonsingular evolution is independent of the equation of state and the spacial curvature $k$. As an example w...
Maximum saliency bias in binocular fusion
Lu, Yuhao; Stafford, Tom; Fox, Charles
2016-07-01
Subjective experience at any instant consists of a single ("unitary"), coherent interpretation of sense data rather than a "Bayesian blur" of alternatives. However, computation of Bayes-optimal actions has no role for unitary perception, instead being required to integrate over every possible action-percept pair to maximise expected utility. So what is the role of unitary coherent percepts, and how are they computed? Recent work provided objective evidence for non-Bayes-optimal, unitary coherent, perception and action in humans; and further suggested that the percept selected is not the maximum a posteriori percept but is instead affected by utility. The present study uses a binocular fusion task first to reproduce the same effect in a new domain, and second, to test multiple hypotheses about exactly how utility may affect the percept. After accounting for high experimental noise, it finds that both Bayes optimality (maximise expected utility) and the previously proposed maximum-utility hypothesis are outperformed in fitting the data by a modified maximum-salience hypothesis, using unsigned utility magnitudes in place of signed utilities in the bias function.
The maximum rate of mammal evolution
Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.
2012-01-01
How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461
Maximum-biomass prediction of homofermentative Lactobacillus.
Cui, Shumao; Zhao, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaoming; Chen, Yong Q; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei
2016-07-01
Fed-batch and pH-controlled cultures have been widely used for industrial production of probiotics. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the relationship between the maximum biomass of different homofermentative Lactobacillus and lactate accumulation, and to develop a prediction equation for the maximum biomass concentration in such cultures. The accumulation of the end products and the depletion of nutrients by various strains were evaluated. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of acid anions for various strains at pH 7.0 were examined. The lactate concentration at the point of complete inhibition was not significantly different from the MIC of lactate for all of the strains, although the inhibition mechanism of lactate and acetate on Lactobacillus rhamnosus was different from the other strains which were inhibited by the osmotic pressure caused by acid anions at pH 7.0. When the lactate concentration accumulated to the MIC, the strains stopped growing. The maximum biomass was closely related to the biomass yield per unit of lactate produced (YX/P) and the MIC (C) of lactate for different homofermentative Lactobacillus. Based on the experimental data obtained using different homofermentative Lactobacillus, a prediction equation was established as follows: Xmax - X0 = (0.59 ± 0.02)·YX/P·C.
The maximum rate of mammal evolution.
Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D
2012-03-13
How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.
Capacity Utilization in European Railways
Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex
2013-01-01
At the strategic level, railways currently use different indices to estimate how ‘value’ is generated by using railway capacity. However, railway capacity is a multidisciplinary area, and attempts to develop various indices cannot provide a holistic measure of operational efficiency. European...... railways are facing a capacity challenge which is caused by passenger and freight demand exceeding the track capacity supply. In the absence of a comprehensive railway capacity manual, methodologies are needed to assess how well railways use their track capacity. This paper presents a novel...... and unprecedented approach for this aim. Relative operational efficiency of 24 European railways in capacity utilization is studied for the first time by data envelopment analysis (DEA). It deviates from previous applications of DEA in the railway industry that are conducted to analyze cost efficiency of railways...
Investment case concepts in leprosy elimination: A systematic review.
Tiwari, Anuj; Richardus, Jan Hendrik
2016-03-01
Leprosy continues to be a global public health problem, but draws less attention because 'prevalence based elimination' has been misinterpreted as eradication. The ongoing transmission of M. leprae has renewed interest in complete elimination. The aim of our study is to review systematically the literature regarding the elimination of leprosy, and to assess this information on its applicability for defining a Leprosy Elimination Investment Case (LEIC) based on Eradication Investment Case guidelines. A literature search was conducted using the MeSH subheadings and synonyms of leprosy. A total of 1007 articles were considered and 112 were included in the final selection. The search focused on the literature covering leprosy elimination and its public health aspects. The LEIC framework was adapted from an existing "Guide to Preparing an Eradication Investment Case". The LEIC framework provided 11 topics under which information was synthesized from the literature. The fields were categorised under sections: 1) Proposed investment; 2) Rationale for investing; 3) Issues to consider when moving from control to eradication; 4) Management and governance. Scanty quantitative data are available for developing a LEIC, particularly regarding disease burden, and new interventions that could contribute to elimination are not yet applied routinely. For monitoring global elimination, it is necessary to measure disease burden comprehensively, and contact centered preventive interventions should be part of a global elimination strategy. The biological and technical feasibility of elimination is not certain and advanced microbiological and operational research is necessary to understand transmission better. The current WHO road map for leprosy elimination is too vague and needs further structuring through a thoroughly prepared LEIC.
Artificial Neural Network In Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithm Of Photovoltaic Systems
Modestas Pikutis
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Scientists are looking for ways to improve the efficiency of solar cells all the time. The efficiency of solar cells which are available to the general public is up to 20%. Part of the solar energy is unused and a capacity of solar power plant is significantly reduced – if slow controller or controller which cannot stay at maximum power point of solar modules is used. Various algorithms of maximum power point tracking were created, but mostly algorithms are slow or make mistakes. In the literature more and more oftenartificial neural networks (ANN in maximum power point tracking process are mentioned, in order to improve performance of the controller. Self-learner artificial neural network and IncCond algorithm were used for maximum power point tracking in created solar power plant model. The algorithm for control was created. Solar power plant model is implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment.
Malaria vector control at a crossroads: public health entomology and the drive to elimination.
Mnzava, Abraham P; Macdonald, Michael B; Knox, Tessa B; Temu, Emmanuel A; Shiff, Clive J
2014-09-01
Vector control has been at the core of successful malaria control. However, a dearth of field-oriented vector biologists threatens to undermine global reductions in malaria burden. Skilled cadres are needed to manage insecticide resistance, to maintain coverage with current interventions, to develop new paradigms for tackling 'residual' transmission and to target interventions as transmission becomes increasingly heterogeneous. Recognising this human resource crisis, in September 2013, WHO Global Malaria Programme issued guidance for capacity building in entomology and vector control, including recommendations for countries and implementing partners. Ministries were urged to develop long-range strategic plans for building human resources for public health entomology and vector control (including skills in epidemiology, geographic information systems, operational research and programme management) and to set in place the requisite professional posts and career opportunities. Capacity building and national ownership in all partner projects and a clear exit strategy to sustain human and technical resources after project completion were emphasised. Implementing partners were urged to support global and regional efforts to enhance public health entomology capacity. While the challenges inherent in such capacity building are great, so too are the opportunities to establish the next generation of public health entomologists that will enable programmes to continue on the path to malaria elimination.
Sensitivity and Resolution Capacity of Electrode Configurations
Cyril Chibueze Okpoli
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper reviews the geological conditions, data density, and acquisition geometry that have direct influence on the sensitivity and resolution capacity of several electrode configurations. The parameters appreciate the effectiveness of automated multichannel system which has evolved several electrode arrays that are cost effective, reduction in survey time, high sensitivity, and resolution capacity in 2D and 3D resistivity tomographies. The arrays are pole-pole, pole-dipole, pole-bipole, dipole-dipole, Wenner, Wenner-, , gradient, midpoint-potential-referred, Schlumberger, square, and Lee-partition arrays. The gradient array and midpoint-potential-referred are well suited for multichannel surveying and gradient array images are comparable to dipole-dipole and pole-dipole. 2D electrical resistivity surveys can produce out-of-plane anomaly of the subsurface which could be misleading in the interpretation of subsurface features. Hence, a 3D interpretation model should give more accurate results, because of the increase in the reliability of inversion images and complete elimination of spurious features. Therefore, the reduction of anomaly effects and damping factor due to signal to noise ratio result in better spatial resolution image, thus enhancing its usage in environmental and engineering research.
2010-01-01
@@ It is reported that the relevant Chinese authority has said that they will follow the instruction of the central government and implement the policies and measures that have already been announced to strongly restrict the blind expansion and duplicated construction of industries with excess capacity and eliminate backward production capacity resolutely.
2015-01-01
Achieving the 2020 goals for Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) requires scale-up of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) which will require long-term commitment of national and global financing partners, strengthening national capacity and, at the community level, systems to monitor and evaluate activities and impact. For some settings and diseases, MDA is not appropriate and alternative interventions are required. Operational research is necessary to identify how existing MDA networks can deliver this more complex range of interventions equitably. The final stages of the different global programmes to eliminate NTDs require eliminating foci of transmission which are likely to persist in complex and remote rural settings. Operational research is required to identify how current tools and practices might be adapted to locate and eliminate these hard-to-reach foci. Chronic disabilities caused by NTDs will persist after transmission of pathogens ceases. Development and delivery of sustainable services to reduce the NTD-related disability is an urgent public health priority. LSTM and its partners are world leaders in developing and delivering interventions to control vector-borne NTDs and malaria, particularly in hard-to-reach settings in Africa. Our experience, partnerships and research capacity allows us to serve as a hub for developing, supporting, monitoring and evaluating global programmes to eliminate NTDs.
Gabriel Gulis PhD
2007-09-01
Full Text Available
Background: To integrate health impact assessment (HIA into existing decision-making processes requires not only methods and procedures but also well-trained experts, aware policy makers and appropriate institutions. Capacity building is the assistance which is provided to entities, which have a need to develop a certain skill or competence, or for general upgrading of performance ability. If a new technique is planned to be introduced there is a need for capacity building with no respect to levels (local, regional, national, international or sectors (health, environment, finance, social care, education, etc.. As such, HIA is a new technique for most of the new Member States and accession countries of the European Union.
Methods: To equip individuals with the understanding and skills needed to launch a HIA or be aware of the availability of this methodology and to access information, knowledge and training, we focused on the organization of workshops in participating countries. The workshops served also as pilot events to test a “curriculum” for HIA; a set of basic topics and presentations had been developed to be tested during workshops. In spite of classical in-class workshops we aimed to organize e-learning events as a way to over come the “busyness” problem of decision makers.
Results: Throughout March – October 2006 we organized and ran 7 workshops in Denmark, Turkey, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria, Slovak Republic and Hungary. Participants came from the public health sector (141, non-public health decision makers (113 and public health students (100. A concise curriculum was developed and tested during these workshops. Participants developed a basic understanding of HIA, skills to develop and use their own screening tools as well as scoping.Within the workshop in Denmark we tested an online, real-time Internet based training method; participants highly welcomed this
Hu, Baiyang [Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Fugetsu, Bunshi, E-mail: hu@ees.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Yu, Hongwen [Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Abe, Yoshiteru [Kyoei Engineering Corporation, Niigata 959-1961 (Japan)
2012-05-30
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prussian blue was sealed in cavities of diatomite using carbon nanotubes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The caged Prussian blue after being permanently immobilized in polyurethane spongy showed a 167 mg/g capability for absorbing cesium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cesium elimination was accomplished by simply adding the Prussian-blue based spongiform adsorbent to radioactive water. - Abstract: We developed a spongiform adsorbent that contains Prussian blue, which showed a high capacity for eliminating cesium. An in situ synthesizing approach was used to synthesize Prussian blue inside diatomite cavities. Highly dispersed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used to form CNT networks that coated the diatomite to seal in the Prussian blue particles. These ternary (CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue) composites were mixed with polyurethane (PU) prepolymers to produce a quaternary (PU/CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue), spongiform adsorbent with an in situ foaming procedure. Prussian blue was permanently immobilized in the cell walls of the spongiform matrix and preferentially adsorbed cesium with a theoretical capacity of 167 mg/g cesium. Cesium was absorbed primarily by an ion-exchange mechanism, and the absorption was accomplished by self-uptake of radioactive water by the quaternary spongiform adsorbent.
Pirandola, Stefano; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L
2011-01-01
The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory [S. Pirandola, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 090504 (2011)]. In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e., a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of "parallel" channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of an infinite block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantify...
Wireless Connectivity and Capacity
Halldorsson, Magnus M
2011-01-01
Given $n$ wireless transceivers located in a plane, a fundamental problem in wireless communications is to construct a strongly connected digraph on them such that the constituent links can be scheduled in fewest possible time slots, assuming the SINR model of interference. In this paper, we provide an algorithm that connects an arbitrary point set in $O(\\log n)$ slots, improving on the previous best bound of $O(\\log^2 n)$ due to Moscibroda. This is complemented with a super-constant lower bound on our approach to connectivity. An important feature is that the algorithms allow for bi-directional (half-duplex) communication. One implication of this result is an improved bound of $\\Omega(1/\\log n)$ on the worst-case capacity of wireless networks, matching the best bound known for the extensively studied average-case. We explore the utility of oblivious power assignments, and show that essentially all such assignments result in a worst case bound of $\\Omega(n)$ slots for connectivity. This rules out a recent cla...
Integrated flexible capacity and inventory management under flexible capacity uncertainty
Paç, Mehmet Fazıl
2006-01-01
Cataloged from PDF version of article. In a manufacturing environment with volatile demand, inventory management can be coupled with dynamic capacity adjustments for handling the fluctuations more effectively. In this study we consider the integrated management of inventory and flexible capacity management under seasonal stochastic demand and uncertain labor supply. The capacity planning problem is investigated from the workforce planning perspective. We consider a manufactu...
Maximum power operation of interacting molecular motors
Golubeva, Natalia; Imparato, Alberto
2013-01-01
We study the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of different traffic models for kinesin which are relevant in biological and experimental contexts. We find that motor-motor interactions play a fundamental role by enhancing the thermodynamic efficiency at maximum power of the motors......, as compared to the non-interacting system, in a wide range of biologically compatible scenarios. We furthermore consider the case where the motor-motor interaction directly affects the internal chemical cycle and investigate the effect on the system dynamics and thermodynamics....
Maximum a posteriori decoder for digital communications
Altes, Richard A. (Inventor)
1997-01-01
A system and method for decoding by identification of the most likely phase coded signal corresponding to received data. The present invention has particular application to communication with signals that experience spurious random phase perturbations. The generalized estimator-correlator uses a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator to generate phase estimates for correlation with incoming data samples and for correlation with mean phases indicative of unique hypothesized signals. The result is a MAP likelihood statistic for each hypothesized transmission, wherein the highest value statistic identifies the transmitted signal.
Kernel-based Maximum Entropy Clustering
JIANG Wei; QU Jiao; LI Benxi
2007-01-01
With the development of Support Vector Machine (SVM),the "kernel method" has been studied in a general way.In this paper,we present a novel Kernel-based Maximum Entropy Clustering algorithm (KMEC).By using mercer kernel functions,the proposed algorithm is firstly map the data from their original space to high dimensional space where the data are expected to be more separable,then perform MEC clustering in the feature space.The experimental results show that the proposed method has better performance in the non-hyperspherical and complex data structure.
The sun and heliosphere at solar maximum.
Smith, E J; Marsden, R G; Balogh, A; Gloeckler, G; Geiss, J; McComas, D J; McKibben, R B; MacDowall, R J; Lanzerotti, L J; Krupp, N; Krueger, H; Landgraf, M
2003-11-14
Recent Ulysses observations from the Sun's equator to the poles reveal fundamental properties of the three-dimensional heliosphere at the maximum in solar activity. The heliospheric magnetic field originates from a magnetic dipole oriented nearly perpendicular to, instead of nearly parallel to, the Sun's rotation axis. Magnetic fields, solar wind, and energetic charged particles from low-latitude sources reach all latitudes, including the polar caps. The very fast high-latitude wind and polar coronal holes disappear and reappear together. Solar wind speed continues to be inversely correlated with coronal temperature. The cosmic ray flux is reduced symmetrically at all latitudes.
Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension
Bastea, S
2009-01-27
Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.
Maximum entropy signal restoration with linear programming
Mastin, G.A.; Hanson, R.J.
1988-05-01
Dantzig's bounded-variable method is used to express the maximum entropy restoration problem as a linear programming problem. This is done by approximating the nonlinear objective function with piecewise linear segments, then bounding the variables as a function of the number of segments used. The use of a linear programming approach allows equality constraints found in the traditional Lagrange multiplier method to be relaxed. A robust revised simplex algorithm is used to implement the restoration. Experimental results from 128- and 512-point signal restorations are presented.
COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMULAS OF MAXIMUM SHIP SQUAT
PETRU SERGIU SERBAN
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Ship squat is a combined effect of ship’s draft and trim increase due to ship motion in limited navigation conditions. Over time, researchers conducted tests on models and ships to find a mathematical formula that can define squat. Various forms of calculating squat can be found in the literature. Among those most commonly used are of Barrass, Millward, Eryuzlu or ICORELS. This paper presents a comparison between the squat formulas to see the differences between them and which one provides the most satisfactory results. In this respect a cargo ship at different speeds was considered as a model for maximum squat calculations in canal navigation conditions.
Multi-Channel Maximum Likelihood Pitch Estimation
Christensen, Mads Græsbøll
2012-01-01
In this paper, a method for multi-channel pitch estimation is proposed. The method is a maximum likelihood estimator and is based on a parametric model where the signals in the various channels share the same fundamental frequency but can have different amplitudes, phases, and noise characteristics....... This essentially means that the model allows for different conditions in the various channels, like different signal-to-noise ratios, microphone characteristics and reverberation. Moreover, the method does not assume that a certain array structure is used but rather relies on a more general model and is hence...
Maximum entropy PDF projection: A review
Baggenstoss, Paul M.
2017-06-01
We review maximum entropy (MaxEnt) PDF projection, a method with wide potential applications in statistical inference. The method constructs a sampling distribution for a high-dimensional vector x based on knowing the sampling distribution p(z) of a lower-dimensional feature z = T (x). Under mild conditions, the distribution p(x) having highest possible entropy among all distributions consistent with p(z) may be readily found. Furthermore, the MaxEnt p(x) may be sampled, making the approach useful in Monte Carlo methods. We review the theorem and present a case study in model order selection and classification for handwritten character recognition.
CORA: Emission Line Fitting with Maximum Likelihood
Ness, Jan-Uwe; Wichmann, Rainer
2011-12-01
CORA analyzes emission line spectra with low count numbers and fits them to a line using the maximum likelihood technique. CORA uses a rigorous application of Poisson statistics. From the assumption of Poissonian noise, the software derives the probability for a model of the emission line spectrum to represent the measured spectrum. The likelihood function is used as a criterion for optimizing the parameters of the theoretical spectrum and a fixed point equation is derived allowing an efficient way to obtain line fluxes. CORA has been applied to an X-ray spectrum with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra observatory.
Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking
Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M.
2014-04-01
We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter.
Maximum Temperature Detection System for Integrated Circuits
Frankiewicz, Maciej; Kos, Andrzej
2015-03-01
The paper describes structure and measurement results of the system detecting present maximum temperature on the surface of an integrated circuit. The system consists of the set of proportional to absolute temperature sensors, temperature processing path and a digital part designed in VHDL. Analogue parts of the circuit where designed with full-custom technique. The system is a part of temperature-controlled oscillator circuit - a power management system based on dynamic frequency scaling method. The oscillator cooperates with microprocessor dedicated for thermal experiments. The whole system is implemented in UMC CMOS 0.18 μm (1.8 V) technology.
Zipf's law and maximum sustainable growth
Malevergne, Y; Sornette, D
2010-01-01
Zipf's law states that the number of firms with size greater than S is inversely proportional to S. Most explanations start with Gibrat's rule of proportional growth but require additional constraints. We show that Gibrat's rule, at all firm levels, yields Zipf's law under a balance condition between the effective growth rate of incumbent firms (which includes their possible demise) and the growth rate of investments in entrant firms. Remarkably, Zipf's law is the signature of the long-term optimal allocation of resources that ensures the maximum sustainable growth rate of an economy.
Koski-Karell, Victoria; Farmer, Paul E; Isaac, Benito; Campa, Elizabeth M; Viaud, Loune; Namphy, Paul C; Ternier, Ralph; Ivers, Louise C
2016-01-01
Since the beginning of the cholera epidemic in Haiti 5 years ago, the prevalence of this deadly water-borne disease has fallen far below the initial rates registered during its explosive outset. However, cholera continues to cause extensive suffering and needless deaths across the country, particularly among the poor. The urgent need to eliminate transmission of cholera persists: compared to the same period in 2014, the first 4 months of 2015 saw three times the number of cholera cases. Drawing upon epidemiology, clinical work (and clinical knowledge), policy, ecology, and political economy, and informed by ethnographic data collected in a rural area of Haiti called Bocozel, this paper evaluates the progress of the nation's 10-year Plan for the Elimination of Cholera. Bocozel is a rice-producing region where most people live in extreme poverty. The irrigation network is decrepit, the land is prone to environmental shocks, fertilizer is not affordable, and the government's capacity to assist farmers is undermined by resource constraints. When peasants do have rice to sell, the price of domestically grown rice is twice that of US-imported rice. Canal water is not only used to irrigate thousands of acres of rice paddies and sustain livestock, but also to bathe, wash, and play, while water from wells, hand pumps, and the river is used for drinking, cooking, and bathing. Only one out of the three government-sponsored water treatment stations in the research area is still functional and utilized by those who can afford it. Latrines are scarce and often shared by up to 30 people; open defecation remains common. Structural vulnerabilities cut across all sectors - not just water, sanitation, health care, and education, but agriculture, environment, (global and local) commerce, transportation, and governance as well. These are among the hidden sicknesses that impede Haiti and its partners' capacity to eliminate cholera.
Endotoxin Elimination in Patients with Septic Shock: An Observation Study.
Adamik, Barbara; Zielinski, Stanislaw; Smiechowicz, Jakub; Kübler, Andrzej
2015-12-01
To evaluate the effectiveness of endotoxin elimination with an adsorption column in patients with septic shock and endotoxemia. The elimination therapy was guided by a new bedside method of measuring endotoxin activity (EA). Intensive care unit (ICU) patients with septic shock and suspected Gram-negative infection were consecutively added to the study group within the first 24 h. Endotoxin elimination was performed using hemoperfusion with the Alteco LPS Adsorber. The primary endpoint was improvement in organ function within the first 24 h of treatment. A secondary objective was to assess the usefulness of a new method of measuring EA to help guide endotoxin elimination therapy. Out of 64 patients 18 had a high baseline EA [0.70 EA units (0.66-0.77)]. Those patients had endotoxin elimination treatment in addition to conventional medical therapy. At 24 h after endotoxin elimination, the EA had decreased to 0.56 EA units (0.43-0.77), (p = 0.005); MAP increased from 69 (62-80) to 80 mm Hg (68-88), (p = 0.002), and noradrenaline use decreased from 0.28 (0.15-0.80) to 0.1 μg/kg/min (0.00-0.70) at the same time (p = 0.04). The SOFA score had decreased from 11 (9-15) to 9 (7-14) points 24 h after endotoxin elimination (p = 0.01) with a median delta SOFA -2 points. Endotoxin elimination did not have a significant effect on the ICU length of stay or ICU mortality. Effective endotoxin elimination resulted in a significant improvement in hemodynamic parameters and of organ function. The application of the EA assay was useful for the bedside monitoring of endotoxemia in critically ill ICU patients.
Determination of Maximum Follow-up Speed of Electrode System of Resistance Projection Welders
Wu, Pei; Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels
2004-01-01
the weld process settings for the stable production and high quality of products. In this paper, the maximum follow-up speed of electrode system was tested by using a special designed device which can be mounted to all types of machine and easily to be applied in industry, the corresponding mathematical......The maximum follow-up speed of electrode system represents the dynamic mechanical response capacity of resistance projection welding machines, which is important to make the diffrernce from one machine to the other and to consider the individual behavior of machines in designing or optimizing...
Accurate structural correlations from maximum likelihood superpositions.
Douglas L Theobald
2008-02-01
Full Text Available The cores of globular proteins are densely packed, resulting in complicated networks of structural interactions. These interactions in turn give rise to dynamic structural correlations over a wide range of time scales. Accurate analysis of these complex correlations is crucial for understanding biomolecular mechanisms and for relating structure to function. Here we report a highly accurate technique for inferring the major modes of structural correlation in macromolecules using likelihood-based statistical analysis of sets of structures. This method is generally applicable to any ensemble of related molecules, including families of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR models, different crystal forms of a protein, and structural alignments of homologous proteins, as well as molecular dynamics trajectories. Dominant modes of structural correlation are determined using principal components analysis (PCA of the maximum likelihood estimate of the correlation matrix. The correlations we identify are inherently independent of the statistical uncertainty and dynamic heterogeneity associated with the structural coordinates. We additionally present an easily interpretable method ("PCA plots" for displaying these positional correlations by color-coding them onto a macromolecular structure. Maximum likelihood PCA of structural superpositions, and the structural PCA plots that illustrate the results, will facilitate the accurate determination of dynamic structural correlations analyzed in diverse fields of structural biology.
Maximum entropy production and the fluctuation theorem
Dewar, R C [Unite EPHYSE, INRA Centre de Bordeaux-Aquitaine, BP 81, 33883 Villenave d' Ornon Cedex (France)
2005-05-27
Recently the author used an information theoretical formulation of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics (MaxEnt) to derive the fluctuation theorem (FT) concerning the probability of second law violating phase-space paths. A less rigorous argument leading to the variational principle of maximum entropy production (MEP) was also given. Here a more rigorous and general mathematical derivation of MEP from MaxEnt is presented, and the relationship between MEP and the FT is thereby clarified. Specifically, it is shown that the FT allows a general orthogonality property of maximum information entropy to be extended to entropy production itself, from which MEP then follows. The new derivation highlights MEP and the FT as generic properties of MaxEnt probability distributions involving anti-symmetric constraints, independently of any physical interpretation. Physically, MEP applies to the entropy production of those macroscopic fluxes that are free to vary under the imposed constraints, and corresponds to selection of the most probable macroscopic flux configuration. In special cases MaxEnt also leads to various upper bound transport principles. The relationship between MaxEnt and previous theories of irreversible processes due to Onsager, Prigogine and Ziegler is also clarified in the light of these results. (letter to the editor)
Thermodynamic hardness and the maximum hardness principle
Franco-Pérez, Marco; Gázquez, José L.; Ayers, Paul W.; Vela, Alberto
2017-08-01
An alternative definition of hardness (called the thermodynamic hardness) within the grand canonical ensemble formalism is proposed in terms of the partial derivative of the electronic chemical potential with respect to the thermodynamic chemical potential of the reservoir, keeping the temperature and the external potential constant. This temperature dependent definition may be interpreted as a measure of the propensity of a system to go through a charge transfer process when it interacts with other species, and thus it keeps the philosophy of the original definition. When the derivative is expressed in terms of the three-state ensemble model, in the regime of low temperatures and up to temperatures of chemical interest, one finds that for zero fractional charge, the thermodynamic hardness is proportional to T-1(I -A ) , where I is the first ionization potential, A is the electron affinity, and T is the temperature. However, the thermodynamic hardness is nearly zero when the fractional charge is different from zero. Thus, through the present definition, one avoids the presence of the Dirac delta function. We show that the chemical hardness defined in this way provides meaningful and discernible information about the hardness properties of a chemical species exhibiting integer or a fractional average number of electrons, and this analysis allowed us to establish a link between the maximum possible value of the hardness here defined, with the minimum softness principle, showing that both principles are related to minimum fractional charge and maximum stability conditions.
Maximum Likelihood Analysis in the PEN Experiment
Lehman, Martin
2013-10-01
The experimental determination of the π+ -->e+ ν (γ) decay branching ratio currently provides the most accurate test of lepton universality. The PEN experiment at PSI, Switzerland, aims to improve the present world average experimental precision of 3 . 3 ×10-3 to 5 ×10-4 using a stopped beam approach. During runs in 2008-10, PEN has acquired over 2 ×107 πe 2 events. The experiment includes active beam detectors (degrader, mini TPC, target), central MWPC tracking with plastic scintillator hodoscopes, and a spherical pure CsI electromagnetic shower calorimeter. The final branching ratio will be calculated using a maximum likelihood analysis. This analysis assigns each event a probability for 5 processes (π+ -->e+ ν , π+ -->μ+ ν , decay-in-flight, pile-up, and hadronic events) using Monte Carlo verified probability distribution functions of our observables (energies, times, etc). A progress report on the PEN maximum likelihood analysis will be presented. Work supported by NSF grant PHY-0970013.
Available transmission capacity assessment
Škokljev Ivan
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Effective power system operation requires the analysis of vast amounts of information. Power market activities expose power transmission networks to high-level power transactions that threaten normal, secure operation of the power system. When there are service requests for a specific sink/source pair in a transmission system, the transmission system operator (TSO must allocate the available transfer capacity (ATC. It is common that ATC has a single numerical value. Additionally, the ATC must be calculated for the base case configuration of the system, while generation dispatch and topology remain unchanged during the calculation. Posting ATC on the internet should benefit prospective users by aiding them in formulating their requests. However, a single numerical value of ATC offers little for prospect for analysis, planning, what-if combinations, etc. A symbolic approach to the power flow problem (DC power flow and ATC offers a numerical computation at the very end, whilst the calculation beforehand is performed by using symbols for the general topology of the electrical network. Qualitative analysis of the ATC using only qualitative values, such as increase, decrease or no change, offers some new insights into ATC evaluation, multiple transactions evaluation, value of counter-flows and their impact etc. Symbolic analysis in this paper is performed after the execution of the linear, symbolic DC power flow. As control variables, the mathematical model comprises linear security constraints, ATC, PTDFs and transactions. The aim is to perform an ATC sensitivity study on a five nodes/seven lines transmission network, used for zonal market activities tests. A relatively complicated environment with twenty possible bilateral transactions is observed.
Peak capacity in unidimensional chromatography.
Neue, Uwe Dieter
2008-03-14
The currently existing knowledge about peak capacity in unidimensional separations is reviewed. The majority of the paper is dedicated to reversed-phase gradient chromatography, covering specific techniques as well as the subject of peak compression. Other sections deal with peak capacity in isocratic chromatography, size-exclusion chromatography and ion-exchange chromatography. An important topic is the limitation of the separation power and the meaning of the concept of peak capacity for real applications.
Gerardin, Jaline; Bever, Caitlin A; Bridenbecker, Daniel; Hamainza, Busiku; Silumbe, Kafula; Miller, John M; Eisele, Thomas P; Eckhoff, Philip A; Wenger, Edward A
2017-06-12
Reactive case detection could be a powerful tool in malaria elimination, as it selectively targets transmission pockets. However, field operations have yet to demonstrate under which conditions, if any, reactive case detection is best poised to push a region to elimination. This study uses mathematical modelling to assess how baseline transmission intensity and local interconnectedness affect the impact of reactive activities in the context of other possible intervention packages. Communities in Southern Province, Zambia, where elimination operations are currently underway, were used as representatives of three archetypes of malaria transmission: low-transmission, high household density; high-transmission, low household density; and high-transmission, high household density. Transmission at the spatially-connected household level was simulated with a dynamical model of malaria transmission, and local variation in vectorial capacity and intervention coverage were parameterized according to data collected from the area. Various potential intervention packages were imposed on each of the archetypical settings and the resulting likelihoods of elimination by the end of 2020 were compared. Simulations predict that success of elimination campaigns in both low- and high-transmission areas is strongly dependent on stemming the flow of imported infections, underscoring the need for regional-scale strategies capable of reducing transmission concurrently across many connected areas. In historically low-transmission areas, treatment of clinical malaria should form the cornerstone of elimination operations, as most malaria infections in these areas are symptomatic and onward transmission would be mitigated through health system strengthening; reactive case detection has minimal impact in these settings. In historically high-transmission areas, vector control and case management are crucial for limiting outbreak size, and the asymptomatic reservoir must be addressed through
Lake Basin Fetch and Maximum Length/Width
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear features representing the Fetch, Maximum Length and Maximum Width of a lake basin. Fetch, maximum length and average width are calcuated from the lake polygon...
On Cellular MIMO Channel Capacity
Adachi, Koichi; Adachi, Fumiyuki; Nakagawa, Masao
To increase the transmission rate without bandwidth expansion, the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique has recently been attracting much attention. The MIMO channel capacity in a cellular system is affected by the interference from neighboring co-channel cells. In this paper, we introduce the cellular channel capacity and evaluate its outage capacity, taking into account the frequency-reuse factor, path loss exponent, standard deviation of shadowing loss, and transmission power of a base station (BS). Furthermore, we compare the cellular MIMO downlink channel capacity with those of other multi-antenna transmission techniques such as single-input multiple-output (SIMO) and space-time block coded multiple-input single-output (STBC-MISO). We show that the optimum frequency-reuse factor F that maximizes 10%-outage capacity is 3 and both 50%- and 90%-outage capacities is 1 irrespective of the type of multi-antenna transmission technique, where q%-outage capacity is defined as the channel capacity that gives an outage probability of q%. We also show that the cellular MIMO channel capacity is always higher than those of SIMO and STBC-MISO.
Capacity Building in Land Management
Enemark, Stig; Ahene, Rexford
2003-01-01
There is a significant need for capacity building in the interdisciplinary area of land management especially in developing countries and countries in transition, to deal with the complex issues of building efficient land information systems and sustainable institutional infrastructures. Capacity...... development in this area. Furthermore, capacity building should ensure that the focus is on building sound institutions and governance rather than just high-level IT-infrastructures. This overall approach to capacity building in land management is used for implementing a new land policy reform in Malawi...
Low-SNR Capacity of MIMO Optical Intensity Channels
Chaaban, Anas
2017-09-18
The capacity of the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) optical intensity channel is studied, under both average and peak intensity constraints. We focus on low SNR, which can be modeled as the scenario where both constraints proportionally vanish, or where the peak constraint is held constant while the average constraint vanishes. A capacity upper bound is derived, and is shown to be tight at low SNR under both scenarios. The capacity achieving input distribution at low SNR is shown to be a maximally-correlated vector-binary input distribution. Consequently, the low-SNR capacity of the channel is characterized. As a byproduct, it is shown that for a channel with peak intensity constraints only, or with peak intensity constraints and individual (per aperture) average intensity constraints, a simple scheme composed of coded on-off keying, spatial repetition, and maximum-ratio combining is optimal at low SNR.
Capacity Measurement with the UIC 406 Capacity Method
Landex, Alex; Schittenhelm, Bernd; Kaas, Anders H.
2008-01-01
This article describes the fast and effective UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. It is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different capacity consumptions. Therefore, this article describes how the methodology is expounded...
NPDES (National Pollution Discharge & Elimination System) Minor Dischargers
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As authorized by the Clean Water Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program controls water pollution by regulating point sources...
International population movements and regional Plasmodium falciparum malaria elimination strategies
Andrew J. Tatem; David L. Smith; Susan Hanson
2010-01-01
... to areas targeted for elimination. Here, census-based migration data were analyzed with network analysis tools, Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission maps, and global population databases to map globally communities of countries...
Ask Your Dental Hygienist about Understanding and Eliminating Bad Breath
... eliminate oral malodor. Tongue de- plaquing with tongue scrap¬ers—tools exclusively designed for use on the tongue—is • Rinsing your mouth with water after eating if you aren’t able to ...
Eliminating the empty bus syndrome by understanding dynamic travel behaviour
Mokonyama, Mathetha T
2012-11-01
Full Text Available -1 The Sustainable Transport and Mobility Handbook South Africa, Vol. 3: the Essential Guide Eliminating the empty bus syndrome by understanding dynamic travel behaviour Mokonyama Mathetha CSIR. Built Environment. PO Box 395, Pretoria, South Africa, 0001...
Innovative first order elimination kinetics working model for easy learning
Navin Budania
2016-06-01
Conclusions: First order elimination kinetics is easily understood with the help of above working model. More and more working models could be developed for teaching difficult topics. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 862-864
Research on configuration of railway self-equipped tanker based on minimum cost maximum flow model
Yang, Yuefang; Gan, Chunhui; Shen, Tingting
2017-05-01
In the study of the configuration of the tanker of chemical logistics park, the minimum cost maximum flow model is adopted. Firstly, the transport capacity of the park loading and unloading area and the transportation demand of the dangerous goods are taken as the constraint condition of the model; then the transport arc capacity, the transport arc flow and the transport arc edge weight are determined in the transportation network diagram; finally, the software calculations. The calculation results show that the configuration issue of the tankers can be effectively solved by the minimum cost maximum flow model, which has theoretical and practical application value for tanker management of railway transportation of dangerous goods in the chemical logistics park.
A thermoelectric generator using loop heat pipe and design match for maximum-power generation
Huang, Bin-Juine
2015-09-05
The present study focuses on the thermoelectric generator (TEG) using loop heat pipe (LHP) and design match for maximum-power generation. The TEG uses loop heat pipe, a passive cooling device, to dissipate heat without consuming power and free of noise. The experiments for a TEG with 4W rated power show that the LHP performs very well with overall thermal resistance 0.35 K W-1, from the cold side of TEG module to the ambient. The LHP is able to dissipate heat up to 110W and is maintenance free. The TEG design match for maximum-power generation, called “near maximum-power point operation (nMPPO)”, is studied to eliminate the MPPT (maximum-power point tracking controller). nMPPO is simply a system design which properly matches the output voltage of TEG with the battery. It is experimentally shown that TEG using design match for maximum-power generation (nMPPO) performs better than TEG with MPPT.
SAFETY-BASED CAPACITY ANALYSIS FOR CHINESE HIGHWAYS
Ping YI, Ph.D.
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Many years of research have led to the development of theories and methodologies in roadway capacity analysis in the developed countries. However, those resources coexist with roadway design and traffic control practices in the local country, and cannot be simply transferred to China for applications. For example, the Highway Capacity Manual in the United State describes roadway capacity under ideal conditions and estimates practical capacities under prevailing conditions in the field. This capacity and the conditions for change are expected to be different on Chinese roadways as the local roadway design (lane width, curves and grades, vehicle size, and traffic mix are different. This research looks into an approach to the capacity issue different from the Highway Capacity Manual. According to the car-following principle, this paper first describes the safety criteria that affect traffic operations. Several speed schemes are subsequently discussed as they are affected by the maximum speed achievable under the local conditions. The study has shown that the effect of geometric and traffic conditions can be effectually reflected in the maximum speed adopted by the drivers. For most Chinese highways without a posted speed limit, the choice of speed by the drivers from the safety prospective is believed to have incorporated considerations of the practical driving conditions. Based on this, a condition for capacity calculation is obtained by comparing the desired vs. safety-based distance headways. The formulations of the model are mathematically sound and physically meaningful, and preliminary testing of the model is encouraging. Future research includes field data acquisition for calibration and adjustment, and model testing on Chinese highways.
Lacunarity Elimination in the Translation of Nonequivalent Juridical Terms
Vladimir A. Lazarev
2017-06-01
Full Text Available In the article the authors refer to the problem of lacunarity elimination in legal texts reflecting national specific features in the legal sphere. Various ways of filling gaps when translating from English into Russian are suggested using legal-dogmatic theoretical texts as an example. Different variants of the lacunae elimination are proposed, which take into account the peculiarities of this type of text and can assist in the work of a legal translator.
Targeting Quiescent Cancer Cells to Eliminate Tumor Recurrence After Therapy
2015-10-01
AD_________________ (Leave blank) Award Number: W81XWH-14-1-0350 TITLE: Targeting Quiescent Cancer Cells to Eliminate Tumor Recurrence After...30 Sep 2014 - 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTILE Targeting Quiescent Cancer Cells to Eliminate Tumor Recurrence After Therapy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...Innovative reporter gene systems are designed to mark quiescent or proliferating lung cancer cells (Aim 1) and then used to track and trace the dynamics of
Targeting Quiescent Cancer Cells to Eliminate Tumor Recurrence After Therapy
2016-12-01
AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-14-1-0350 TITLE: Targeting Quiescent Cancer Cells to Eliminate Tumor Recurrence After Therapy PRINCIPAL...30 Sep 2014 - 29 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTILE Targeting Quiescent Cancer Cells to Eliminate Tumor Recurrence After Therapy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... cancer . To eradicate chemoresistant tumor cells, it is important to identify the subset of tumor cells that can survive from chemotherapy and
Salivary paracetamol elimination kinetics during the menstrual cycle.
Somaja, L; Thangam, J
1987-01-01
Studies were done to examine the influence of the menstrual cycle on the elimination kinetics of paracetamol. Salivary concentrations of paracetamol were determined after oral administration of 1 g of paracetamol on day 3, 10, 14, 20 and 25 of the menstrual cycle in normal healthy women volunteers with regular menstrual cycles. There was no significant difference in elimination half-life (t 1/2) or metabolic clearance rate (CL) between the various days of the menstrual cycle. The result sugge...
Maximum entropy principle and texture formation
Arminjon, M; Arminjon, Mayeul; Imbault, Didier
2006-01-01
The macro-to-micro transition in a heterogeneous material is envisaged as the selection of a probability distribution by the Principle of Maximum Entropy (MAXENT). The material is made of constituents, e.g. given crystal orientations. Each constituent is itself made of a large number of elementary constituents. The relevant probability is the volume fraction of the elementary constituents that belong to a given constituent and undergo a given stimulus. Assuming only obvious constraints in MAXENT means describing a maximally disordered material. This is proved to have the same average stimulus in each constituent. By adding a constraint in MAXENT, a new model, potentially interesting e.g. for texture prediction, is obtained.
MLDS: Maximum Likelihood Difference Scaling in R
Kenneth Knoblauch
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The MLDS package in the R programming language can be used to estimate perceptual scales based on the results of psychophysical experiments using the method of difference scaling. In a difference scaling experiment, observers compare two supra-threshold differences (a,b and (c,d on each trial. The approach is based on a stochastic model of how the observer decides which perceptual difference (or interval (a,b or (c,d is greater, and the parameters of the model are estimated using a maximum likelihood criterion. We also propose a method to test the model by evaluating the self-consistency of the estimated scale. The package includes an example in which an observer judges the differences in correlation between scatterplots. The example may be readily adapted to estimate perceptual scales for arbitrary physical continua.
Maximum Segment Sum, Monadically (distilled tutorial
Jeremy Gibbons
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The maximum segment sum problem is to compute, given a list of integers, the largest of the sums of the contiguous segments of that list. This problem specification maps directly onto a cubic-time algorithm; however, there is a very elegant linear-time solution too. The problem is a classic exercise in the mathematics of program construction, illustrating important principles such as calculational development, pointfree reasoning, algebraic structure, and datatype-genericity. Here, we take a sideways look at the datatype-generic version of the problem in terms of monadic functional programming, instead of the traditional relational approach; the presentation is tutorial in style, and leavened with exercises for the reader.
Maximum Information and Quantum Prediction Algorithms
McElwaine, J N
1997-01-01
This paper describes an algorithm for selecting a consistent set within the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics and investigates its properties. The algorithm uses a maximum information principle to select from among the consistent sets formed by projections defined by the Schmidt decomposition. The algorithm unconditionally predicts the possible events in closed quantum systems and ascribes probabilities to these events. A simple spin model is described and a complete classification of all exactly consistent sets of histories formed from Schmidt projections in the model is proved. This result is used to show that for this example the algorithm selects a physically realistic set. Other tentative suggestions in the literature for set selection algorithms using ideas from information theory are discussed.
Maximum process problems in optimal control theory
Goran Peskir
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Given a standard Brownian motion (Btt≥0 and the equation of motion dXt=vtdt+2dBt, we set St=max0≤s≤tXs and consider the optimal control problem supvE(Sτ−Cτ, where c>0 and the supremum is taken over all admissible controls v satisfying vt∈[μ0,μ1] for all t up to τ=inf{t>0|Xt∉(ℓ0,ℓ1} with μ0g∗(St, where s↦g∗(s is a switching curve that is determined explicitly (as the unique solution to a nonlinear differential equation. The solution found demonstrates that the problem formulations based on a maximum functional can be successfully included in optimal control theory (calculus of variations in addition to the classic problem formulations due to Lagrange, Mayer, and Bolza.
Maximum Spectral Luminous Efficacy of White Light
Murphy, T W
2013-01-01
As lighting efficiency improves, it is useful to understand the theoretical limits to luminous efficacy for light that we perceive as white. Independent of the efficiency with which photons are generated, there exists a spectrally-imposed limit to the luminous efficacy of any source of photons. We find that, depending on the acceptable bandpass and---to a lesser extent---the color temperature of the light, the ideal white light source achieves a spectral luminous efficacy of 250--370 lm/W. This is consistent with previous calculations, but here we explore the maximum luminous efficacy as a function of photopic sensitivity threshold, color temperature, and color rendering index; deriving peak performance as a function of all three parameters. We also present example experimental spectra from a variety of light sources, quantifying the intrinsic efficacy of their spectral distributions.
Maximum entropy model for business cycle synchronization
Xi, Ning; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Azaele, Sandro; Wang, Yougui
2014-11-01
The global economy is a complex dynamical system, whose cyclical fluctuations can mainly be characterized by simultaneous recessions or expansions of major economies. Thus, the researches on the synchronization phenomenon are key to understanding and controlling the dynamics of the global economy. Based on a pairwise maximum entropy model, we analyze the business cycle synchronization of the G7 economic system. We obtain a pairwise-interaction network, which exhibits certain clustering structure and accounts for 45% of the entire structure of the interactions within the G7 system. We also find that the pairwise interactions become increasingly inadequate in capturing the synchronization as the size of economic system grows. Thus, higher-order interactions must be taken into account when investigating behaviors of large economic systems.
Quantum gravity momentum representation and maximum energy
Moffat, J. W.
2016-11-01
We use the idea of the symmetry between the spacetime coordinates xμ and the energy-momentum pμ in quantum theory to construct a momentum space quantum gravity geometry with a metric sμν and a curvature tensor Pλ μνρ. For a closed maximally symmetric momentum space with a constant 3-curvature, the volume of the p-space admits a cutoff with an invariant maximum momentum a. A Wheeler-DeWitt-type wave equation is obtained in the momentum space representation. The vacuum energy density and the self-energy of a charged particle are shown to be finite, and modifications of the electromagnetic radiation density and the entropy density of a system of particles occur for high frequencies.
Video segmentation using Maximum Entropy Model
QIN Li-juan; ZHUANG Yue-ting; PAN Yun-he; WU Fei
2005-01-01
Detecting objects of interest from a video sequence is a fundamental and critical task in automated visual surveillance.Most current approaches only focus on discriminating moving objects by background subtraction whether or not the objects of interest can be moving or stationary. In this paper, we propose layers segmentation to detect both moving and stationary target objects from surveillance video. We extend the Maximum Entropy (ME) statistical model to segment layers with features, which are collected by constructing a codebook with a set of codewords for each pixel. We also indicate how the training models are used for the discrimination of target objects in surveillance video. Our experimental results are presented in terms of the success rate and the segmenting precision.
Evaluation model for safety capacity of chemical industrial park based on acceptable regional risk
Guohua Chen; Shukun Wang; Xiaoqun Tan
2015-01-01
The paper defines the Safety Capacity of Chemical Industrial Park (SCCIP) from the perspective of acceptable regional risk. For the purpose of exploring the evaluation model for the SCCIP, a method based on quantitative risk assessment was adopted for evaluating transport risk and to confirm reasonable safety transport capacity of chemical industrial park, and then by combining with the safety storage capacity, a SCCIP evaluation model was put forward. The SCCIP was decided by the smaller one between the largest safety storage capacity and the maximum safety transport capacity, or else, the regional risk of the park will exceed the acceptable level. The developed method was applied to a chemical industrial park in Guangdong province to obtain the maximum safety transport capacity and the SCCIP. The results can be realized in the regional risk control of the park effectively.
Reach capacity in older women submitted to flexibility training
Elciana de Paiva Lima Vieira
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of flexibility training on the maximum range of motion levels and reach capacity of older women practitioners of aquatic exercises of the Prev-Quedas project. Participants were divided into two groups: intervention (IG, n = 25, which were submitted to flexibility training program and control (CG, n = 21, in which older women participated only in aquatic exercises. Flexibility training lasted three months with weekly frequency of two days, consisting of stretching exercises involving trunk and lower limbs performed after aquatic exercises. The stretching method used was passive static. Assessment consisted of the functional reach, lateral and goniometric tests. Statistical analysis was performed using the following tests: Shapiro-Wilk normality, ANCOVA, Pearson and Spearman correlations. Significant results for GI in gains of maximum range of motion for the right hip joint (p = 0.0025, however, the same result was not observed in other joints assessed, and there was no improvement in functional and lateral reach capacity for both groups. Significant correlations between reach capacity and range of motion in the trunk, hip and ankle were not observed. Therefore, flexibility training associated with the practice of aquatic exercises promoted increased maximum range of motion only for the hip joint; however, improvement in the reach capacity was not observed. The practice of aquatic exercises alone did not show significant results.
Validity of Selected Lab and Field Tests of Physical Working Capacity.
Burke, Edmund J.
The validity of selected lab and field tests of physical working capacity was investigated. Forty-four male college students were administered a series of lab and field tests of physical working capacity. Lab tests include a test of maximum oxygen uptake, the PWC 170 test, the Harvard Step Test, the Progressive Pulse Ratio Test, Margaria Test of…
Evaluation of pliers' grip spans in the maximum gripping task and sub-maximum cutting task.
Kim, Dae-Min; Kong, Yong-Ku
2016-12-01
A total of 25 males participated to investigate the effects of the grip spans of pliers on the total grip force, individual finger forces and muscle activities in the maximum gripping task and wire-cutting tasks. In the maximum gripping task, results showed that the 50-mm grip span had significantly higher total grip strength than the other grip spans. In the cutting task, the 50-mm grip span also showed significantly higher grip strength than the 65-mm and 80-mm grip spans, whereas the muscle activities showed a higher value at 80-mm grip span. The ratios of cutting force to maximum grip strength were also investigated. Ratios of 30.3%, 31.3% and 41.3% were obtained by grip spans of 50-mm, 65-mm, and 80-mm, respectively. Thus, the 50-mm grip span for pliers might be recommended to provide maximum exertion in gripping tasks, as well as lower maximum-cutting force ratios in the cutting tasks.
Cosmic shear measurement with maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori inference
Hall, Alex
2016-01-01
We investigate the problem of noise bias in maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori estimators for cosmic shear. We derive the leading and next-to-leading order biases and compute them in the context of galaxy ellipticity measurements, extending previous work on maximum likelihood inference for weak lensing. We show that a large part of the bias on these point estimators can be removed using information already contained in the likelihood when a galaxy model is specified, without the need for external calibration. We test these bias-corrected estimators on simulated galaxy images similar to those expected from planned space-based weak lensing surveys, with very promising results. We find that the introduction of an intrinsic shape prior mitigates noise bias, such that the maximum a posteriori estimate can be made less biased than the maximum likelihood estimate. Second-order terms offer a check on the convergence of the estimators, but are largely sub-dominant. We show how biases propagate to shear estima...
Genetic algorithm-based wide-band deterministic maximum likelihood direction finding algorithm
无
2005-01-01
The wide-band direction finding is one of hit and difficult task in array signal processing. This paper generalizes narrow-band deterministic maximum likelihood direction finding algorithm to the wideband case, and so constructions an object function, then utilizes genetic algorithm for nonlinear global optimization. Direction of arrival is estimated without preprocessing of array data and so the algorithm eliminates the effect of pre-estimate on the final estimation. The algorithm is applied on uniform linear array and extensive simulation results prove the efficacy of the algorithm. In the process of simulation, we obtain the relation between estimation error and parameters of genetic algorithm.
Fiscal Capacity Equalisation in Tanzania
Allers, Maarten A.; Ishemoi, Lewis J.
2010-01-01
Fiscal equalisation aims at enabling decentralised governments to supply similar services at similar tax rates. In order to equalise fiscal disparities, differences in both fiscal capacities and in fiscal needs have to be measured. This paper focuses on the measurement of fiscal capacity in a develo
Improving African health research capacity
Lazarus, Jeff; Wallace, Samantha A; Liljestrand, Jerker
2010-01-01
The issue of strengthening local research capacity in Africa is again high on the health and development agenda. The latest initiative comes from the Wellcome Trust. But when it comes to capacity development, one of the chief obstacles that health sectors in the region must confront is the migrat...
Fiscal Capacity Equalisation in Tanzania
Allers, Maarten A.; Ishemoi, Lewis J.
2010-01-01
Fiscal equalisation aims at enabling decentralised governments to supply similar services at similar tax rates. In order to equalise fiscal disparities, differences in both fiscal capacities and in fiscal needs have to be measured. This paper focuses on the measurement of fiscal capacity in a develo
Checking Capacity for MIMO Configurations
Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne
2007-01-01
Wireless system capacity can be added by increasing the number of antennas in a MIMO setup or by carefully optimizing the performance of a smaller number of antennas.......Wireless system capacity can be added by increasing the number of antennas in a MIMO setup or by carefully optimizing the performance of a smaller number of antennas....
Information capacity of quantum observable
Holevo, A S
2011-01-01
In this paper we consider the classical capacities of quantum-classical channels corresponding to measurement of observables. Special attention is paid to the case of continuous observables. We give the formulas for unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities $C,C_{ea}$ and consider some explicitly solvable cases which give new examples of entanglement-breaking channels with $C_{ea}>C.$
Capacity Building in Land Administration
Enemark, Stig; Williamson, I
2004-01-01
Capacity building increasingly seen as a key component of land administration projects in developing and countries in transition undertaken by the international development banks and individual country development assistance agencies. However, the capacity building concept is often used within...... infrastructures for implementing land policies in a sustainable way. Where a project is established to create land administration infrastructures in developing or transition countries, it is critical that capacity building is a mainstream component, not as an add-on, which is often the case. In fact such projects...... should be dealt with as capacity building projects in themselves. The article introduces a conceptual analytical framework that provides some guidance when dealing with capacity building for land administration in support of a broader land policy agenda....
Brazilian Cardiorespiratory Fitness Classification Based on Maximum Oxygen Consumption
Herdy, Artur Haddad; Caixeta, Ananda
2016-01-01
Background Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is the most complete tool available to assess functional aerobic capacity (FAC). Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max), an important biomarker, reflects the real FAC. Objective To develop a cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) classification based on VO2 max in a Brazilian sample of healthy and physically active individuals of both sexes. Methods We selected 2837 CEPT from 2837 individuals aged 15 to 74 years, distributed as follows: G1 (15 to 24); G2 (25 to 34); G3 (35 to 44); G4 (45 to 54); G5 (55 to 64) and G6 (65 to 74). Good CRF was the mean VO2 max obtained for each group, generating the following subclassification: Very Low (VL): VO2 105%. Results Men VL 105% G1 53.13 G2 49.77 G3 47.67 G4 42.52 G5 37.06 G6 31.50 Women G1 40.85 G2 40.01 G3 34.09 G4 32.66 G5 30.04 G6 26.36 Conclusions This chart stratifies VO2 max measured on a treadmill in a robust Brazilian sample and can be used as an alternative for the real functional evaluation of physically and healthy individuals stratified by age and sex. PMID:27305285
LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL
Don Augenstein
2001-02-01
The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.
Paddle River Dam : review of probable maximum flood
Clark, D. [UMA Engineering Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Neill, C.R. [Northwest Hydraulic Consultants Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)
2008-07-01
The Paddle River Dam was built in northern Alberta in the mid 1980s for flood control. According to the 1999 Canadian Dam Association (CDA) guidelines, this 35 metre high, zoned earthfill dam with a spillway capacity sized to accommodate a probable maximum flood (PMF) is rated as a very high hazard. At the time of design, it was estimated to have a peak flow rate of 858 centimetres. A review of the PMF in 2002 increased the peak flow rate to 1,890 centimetres. In light of a 2007 revision of the CDA safety guidelines, the PMF was reviewed and the inflow design flood (IDF) was re-evaluated. This paper discussed the levels of uncertainty inherent in PMF determinations and some difficulties encountered with the SSARR hydrologic model and the HEC-RAS hydraulic model in unsteady mode. The paper also presented and discussed the analysis used to determine incremental damages, upon which a new IDF of 840 m{sup 3}/s was recommended. The paper discussed the PMF review, modelling methodology, hydrograph inputs, and incremental damage of floods. It was concluded that the PMF review, involving hydraulic routing through the valley bottom together with reconsideration of the previous runoff modeling provides evidence that the peak reservoir inflow could reasonably be reduced by approximately 20 per cent. 8 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs.
Haiti's progress in achieving its 10-year plan to eliminate cholera: hidden sickness cannot be cured
Koski-Karell V
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Victoria Koski-Karell,1,2 Paul E Farmer,2–4 Benito Isaac,5 Elizabeth M Campa,5 Loune Viaud,5 Paul C Namphy,6 Ralph Ternier,5 Louise C Ivers2–4 1Department of Anthropology, University of Michigan, and University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, 2Partners In Health, 3Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 4Department of Medicine, Division of Global Health Equity, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 5Zanmi Lasante, Cange, 6Direction Nationale de l'Eau Potable et de l'Assainissement, Port-au-Prince, Haiti Abstract: Since the beginning of the cholera epidemic in Haiti 5 years ago, the prevalence of this deadly water-borne disease has fallen far below the initial rates registered during its explosive outset. However, cholera continues to cause extensive suffering and needless deaths across the country, particularly among the poor. The urgent need to eliminate transmission of cholera persists: compared to the same period in 2014, the first 4 months of 2015 saw three times the number of cholera cases. Drawing upon epidemiology, clinical work (and clinical knowledge, policy, ecology, and political economy, and informed by ethnographic data collected in a rural area of Haiti called Bocozel, this paper evaluates the progress of the nation's 10-year Plan for the Elimination of Cholera. Bocozel is a rice-producing region where most people live in extreme poverty. The irrigation network is decrepit, the land is prone to environmental shocks, fertilizer is not affordable, and the government's capacity to assist farmers is undermined by resource constraints. When peasants do have rice to sell, the price of domestically grown rice is twice that of US-imported rice. Canal water is not only used to irrigate thousands of acres of rice paddies and sustain livestock, but also to bathe, wash, and play, while water from wells, hand pumps, and the river is used for drinking, cooking, and bathing. Only one out of
20 CFR 211.14 - Maximum creditable compensation.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum creditable compensation. 211.14... CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.14 Maximum creditable compensation. Maximum creditable compensation... Employment Accounts shall notify each employer of the amount of maximum creditable compensation applicable...
49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the ultimate...
Theoretical Estimate of Maximum Possible Nuclear Explosion
Bethe, H. A.
1950-01-31
The maximum nuclear accident which could occur in a Na-cooled, Be moderated, Pu and power producing reactor is estimated theoretically. (T.R.H.) 2O82 Results of nuclear calculations for a variety of compositions of fast, heterogeneous, sodium-cooled, U-235-fueled, plutonium- and power-producing reactors are reported. Core compositions typical of plate-, pin-, or wire-type fuel elements and with uranium as metal, alloy, and oxide were considered. These compositions included atom ratios in the following range: U-23B to U-235 from 2 to 8; sodium to U-235 from 1.5 to 12; iron to U-235 from 5 to 18; and vanadium to U-235 from 11 to 33. Calculations were performed to determine the effect of lead and iron reflectors between the core and blanket. Both natural and depleted uranium were evaluated as the blanket fertile material. Reactors were compared on a basis of conversion ratio, specific power, and the product of both. The calculated results are in general agreement with the experimental results from fast reactor assemblies. An analysis of the effect of new cross-section values as they became available is included. (auth)
Proposed principles of maximum local entropy production.
Ross, John; Corlan, Alexandru D; Müller, Stefan C
2012-07-12
Articles have appeared that rely on the application of some form of "maximum local entropy production principle" (MEPP). This is usually an optimization principle that is supposed to compensate for the lack of structural information and measurements about complex systems, even systems as complex and as little characterized as the whole biosphere or the atmosphere of the Earth or even of less known bodies in the solar system. We select a number of claims from a few well-known papers that advocate this principle and we show that they are in error with the help of simple examples of well-known chemical and physical systems. These erroneous interpretations can be attributed to ignoring well-established and verified theoretical results such as (1) entropy does not necessarily increase in nonisolated systems, such as "local" subsystems; (2) macroscopic systems, as described by classical physics, are in general intrinsically deterministic-there are no "choices" in their evolution to be selected by using supplementary principles; (3) macroscopic deterministic systems are predictable to the extent to which their state and structure is sufficiently well-known; usually they are not sufficiently known, and probabilistic methods need to be employed for their prediction; and (4) there is no causal relationship between the thermodynamic constraints and the kinetics of reaction systems. In conclusion, any predictions based on MEPP-like principles should not be considered scientifically founded.
Maximum entropy production and plant optimization theories.
Dewar, Roderick C
2010-05-12
Plant ecologists have proposed a variety of optimization theories to explain the adaptive behaviour and evolution of plants from the perspective of natural selection ('survival of the fittest'). Optimization theories identify some objective function--such as shoot or canopy photosynthesis, or growth rate--which is maximized with respect to one or more plant functional traits. However, the link between these objective functions and individual plant fitness is seldom quantified and there remains some uncertainty about the most appropriate choice of objective function to use. Here, plants are viewed from an alternative thermodynamic perspective, as members of a wider class of non-equilibrium systems for which maximum entropy production (MEP) has been proposed as a common theoretical principle. I show how MEP unifies different plant optimization theories that have been proposed previously on the basis of ad hoc measures of individual fitness--the different objective functions of these theories emerge as examples of entropy production on different spatio-temporal scales. The proposed statistical explanation of MEP, that states of MEP are by far the most probable ones, suggests a new and extended paradigm for biological evolution--'survival of the likeliest'--which applies from biomacromolecules to ecosystems, not just to individuals.
Maximum likelihood continuity mapping for fraud detection
Hogden, J.
1997-05-01
The author describes a novel time-series analysis technique called maximum likelihood continuity mapping (MALCOM), and focuses on one application of MALCOM: detecting fraud in medical insurance claims. Given a training data set composed of typical sequences, MALCOM creates a stochastic model of sequence generation, called a continuity map (CM). A CM maximizes the probability of sequences in the training set given the model constraints, CMs can be used to estimate the likelihood of sequences not found in the training set, enabling anomaly detection and sequence prediction--important aspects of data mining. Since MALCOM can be used on sequences of categorical data (e.g., sequences of words) as well as real valued data, MALCOM is also a potential replacement for database search tools such as N-gram analysis. In a recent experiment, MALCOM was used to evaluate the likelihood of patient medical histories, where ``medical history`` is used to mean the sequence of medical procedures performed on a patient. Physicians whose patients had anomalous medical histories (according to MALCOM) were evaluated for fraud by an independent agency. Of the small sample (12 physicians) that has been evaluated, 92% have been determined fraudulent or abusive. Despite the small sample, these results are encouraging.
Maximum life spiral bevel reduction design
Savage, M.; Prasanna, M. G.; Coe, H. H.
1992-07-01
Optimization is applied to the design of a spiral bevel gear reduction for maximum life at a given size. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial values. Gear tooth bending strength and minimum contact ratio under load are included in the active constraints. The optimal design of the spiral bevel gear reduction includes the selection of bearing and shaft proportions in addition to gear mesh parameters. System life is maximized subject to a fixed back-cone distance of the spiral bevel gear set for a specified speed ratio, shaft angle, input torque, and power. Significant parameters in the design are: the spiral angle, the pressure angle, the numbers of teeth on the pinion and gear, and the location and size of the four support bearings. Interpolated polynomials expand the discrete bearing properties and proportions into continuous variables for gradient optimization. After finding the continuous optimum, a designer can analyze near optimal designs for comparison and selection. Design examples show the influence of the bearing lives on the gear parameters in the optimal configurations. For a fixed back-cone distance, optimal designs with larger shaft angles have larger service lives.
CORA - emission line fitting with Maximum Likelihood
Ness, J.-U.; Wichmann, R.
2002-07-01
The advent of pipeline-processed data both from space- and ground-based observatories often disposes of the need of full-fledged data reduction software with its associated steep learning curve. In many cases, a simple tool doing just one task, and doing it right, is all one wishes. In this spirit we introduce CORA, a line fitting tool based on the maximum likelihood technique, which has been developed for the analysis of emission line spectra with low count numbers and has successfully been used in several publications. CORA uses a rigorous application of Poisson statistics. From the assumption of Poissonian noise we derive the probability for a model of the emission line spectrum to represent the measured spectrum. The likelihood function is used as a criterion for optimizing the parameters of the theoretical spectrum and a fixed point equation is derived allowing an efficient way to obtain line fluxes. As an example we demonstrate the functionality of the program with an X-ray spectrum of Capella obtained with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra observatory and choose the analysis of the Ne IX triplet around 13.5 Å.
Finding maximum JPEG image block code size
Lakhani, Gopal
2012-07-01
We present a study of JPEG baseline coding. It aims to determine the minimum storage needed to buffer the JPEG Huffman code bits of 8-bit image blocks. Since DC is coded separately, and the encoder represents each AC coefficient by a pair of run-length/AC coefficient level, the net problem is to perform an efficient search for the optimal run-level pair sequence. We formulate it as a two-dimensional, nonlinear, integer programming problem and solve it using a branch-and-bound based search method. We derive two types of constraints to prune the search space. The first one is given as an upper-bound for the sum of squares of AC coefficients of a block, and it is used to discard sequences that cannot represent valid DCT blocks. The second type constraints are based on some interesting properties of the Huffman code table, and these are used to prune sequences that cannot be part of optimal solutions. Our main result is that if the default JPEG compression setting is used, space of minimum of 346 bits and maximum of 433 bits is sufficient to buffer the AC code bits of 8-bit image blocks. Our implementation also pruned the search space extremely well; the first constraint reduced the initial search space of 4 nodes down to less than 2 nodes, and the second set of constraints reduced it further by 97.8%.
Maximum likelihood estimates of pairwise rearrangement distances.
Serdoz, Stuart; Egri-Nagy, Attila; Sumner, Jeremy; Holland, Barbara R; Jarvis, Peter D; Tanaka, Mark M; Francis, Andrew R
2017-06-21
Accurate estimation of evolutionary distances between taxa is important for many phylogenetic reconstruction methods. Distances can be estimated using a range of different evolutionary models, from single nucleotide polymorphisms to large-scale genome rearrangements. Corresponding corrections for genome rearrangement distances fall into 3 categories: Empirical computational studies, Bayesian/MCMC approaches, and combinatorial approaches. Here, we introduce a maximum likelihood estimator for the inversion distance between a pair of genomes, using a group-theoretic approach to modelling inversions introduced recently. This MLE functions as a corrected distance: in particular, we show that because of the way sequences of inversions interact with each other, it is quite possible for minimal distance and MLE distance to differently order the distances of two genomes from a third. The second aspect tackles the problem of accounting for the symmetries of circular arrangements. While, generally, a frame of reference is locked, and all computation made accordingly, this work incorporates the action of the dihedral group so that distance estimates are free from any a priori frame of reference. The philosophy of accounting for symmetries can be applied to any existing correction method, for which examples are offered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Systrom, D M; Pappagianopoulos, P; Fishman, R S; Wain, J C; Ginns, L C
1998-12-01
Single lung transplantation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease relieves a ventilatory limit to incremental exercise, but maximum oxygen uptake remains abnormal. The purpose of this study was to define the relative contributions of Fick principle variables to abnormal aerobic capacity after lung transplantation. Twelve paired incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test results obtained before and 3 to 6 months after single lung transplantation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were compared. Maximum workload nearly doubled after operation (42.5+/-4.2 vs 25.5+/-4.7 watts, P < .05). Peak exercise minute ventilation increased (32.8+/-3.3 vs 21+/-2.4 L/min, n = 11, P < .05), but maximum oxygen uptake remained markedly abnormal after transplantation (46.6%+/-4.4% vs 32.1%+/-2.9% predicted, P < .05, n = 8). Peak exercise cardiac output was normal (11.0+/-1.4 L/min, 89% predicted), but arterial-mixed venous oxygen content difference at peak exercise was only half of normal (7.2+/-0.61 mL/dL), as a result in part of the failure of mixed venous oxygen saturation to fall normally (peak exercise SvO2 = 49.8%+/-2.8%). Lung transplantation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease relieves a ventilatory limit to exercise, but maximum aerobic capacity remains abnormal, in part because of abnormal systemic O2 extraction.
Overview of Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques for Photovoltaic Energy Production Systems
Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede
2015-01-01
of photovoltaic sources during stochastically varying solar irradiation and ambient temperature conditions. Thus, the overall efficiency of the photovoltaic energy production system is increased. Numerous techniques have been presented during the last decade for implementing the maximum power point tracking......A substantial growth of the installed photovoltaic systems capacity has occurred around the world during the last decade, thus enhancing the availability of electric energy in an environmentally friendly way. The maximum power point tracking technique enables maximization of the energy production...... process in a photovoltaic system. This article provides an overview of the operating principles of these techniques, which are suited for either uniform or non-uniform solar irradiation conditions. The operational characteristics and implementation requirements of these maximum power point tracking...
Boedeker, Peter
2017-01-01
Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) is a useful tool when analyzing data collected from groups. There are many decisions to be made when constructing and estimating a model in HLM including which estimation technique to use. Three of the estimation techniques available when analyzing data with HLM are maximum likelihood, restricted maximum…
Interference and memory capacity limitations.
Endress, Ansgar D; Szabó, Szilárd
2017-10-01
Working memory (WM) is thought to have a fixed and limited capacity. However, the origins of these capacity limitations are debated, and generally attributed to active, attentional processes. Here, we show that the existence of interference among items in memory mathematically guarantees fixed and limited capacity limits under very general conditions, irrespective of any processing assumptions. Assuming that interference (a) increases with the number of interfering items and (b) brings memory performance to chance levels for large numbers of interfering items, capacity limits are a simple function of the relative influence of memorization and interference. In contrast, we show that time-based memory limitations do not lead to fixed memory capacity limitations that are independent of the timing properties of an experiment. We show that interference can mimic both slot-like and continuous resource-like memory limitations, suggesting that these types of memory performance might not be as different as commonly believed. We speculate that slot-like WM limitations might arise from crowding-like phenomena in memory when participants have to retrieve items. Further, based on earlier research on parallel attention and enumeration, we suggest that crowding-like phenomena might be a common reason for the 3 major cognitive capacity limitations. As suggested by Miller (1956) and Cowan (2001), these capacity limitations might arise because of a common reason, even though they likely rely on distinct processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Progress Toward Regional Measles Elimination - Worldwide, 2000-2015.
Patel, Minal K; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Strebel, Peter M; Dabbagh, Alya; Mulders, Mick N; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie; Dumolard, Laure; Rota, Paul A; Kretsinger, Katrina; Goodson, James L
2016-11-11
Adopted in 2000, United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4 set a target to reduce child mortality by two thirds by 2015, with measles vaccination coverage as one of the progress indicators. In 2010, the World Health Assembly (WHA) set three milestones for measles control by 2015: 1) increase routine coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) for children aged 1 year to ≥90% nationally and ≥80% in every district; 2) reduce global annual measles incidence to WHA endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan(†) with the objective to eliminate measles in four World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2015. Countries in all six WHO regions have adopted measles elimination goals. Measles elimination is the absence of endemic measles transmission in a region or other defined geographical area for ≥12 months in the presence of a well performing surveillance system. This report updates a previous report (3) and describes progress toward global measles control milestones and regional measles elimination goals during 2000-2015. During this period, annual reported measles incidence decreased 75%, from 146 to 36 cases per 1 million persons, and annual estimated measles deaths decreased 79%, from 651,600 to 134,200. However, none of the 2015 milestones or elimination goals were met. Countries and their partners need to act urgently to secure political commitment, raise the visibility of measles, increase vaccination coverage, strengthen surveillance, and mitigate the threat of decreasing resources for immunization once polio eradication is achieved.
Increasing the potential for malaria elimination by targeting zoophilic vectors
Waite, Jessica L.; Swain, Sunita; Lynch, Penelope A.; Sharma, S. K.; Haque, Mohammed Asrarul; Montgomery, Jacqui; Thomas, Matthew B.
2017-01-01
Countries in the Asia Pacific region aim to eliminate malaria by 2030. A cornerstone of malaria elimination is the effective management of Anopheles mosquito vectors. Current control tools such as insecticide treated nets or indoor residual sprays target mosquitoes in human dwellings. We find in a high transmission region in India, malaria vector populations show a high propensity to feed on livestock (cattle) and rest in outdoor structures such as cattle shelters. We also find evidence for a shift in vector species complex towards increased zoophilic behavior in recent years. Using a malaria transmission model we demonstrate that in such regions dominated by zoophilic vectors, existing vector control tactics will be insufficient to achieve elimination, even if maximized. However, by increasing mortality in the zoophilic cycle, the elimination threshold can be reached. Current national vector control policy in India restricts use of residual insecticide sprays to domestic dwellings. Our study suggests substantial benefits of extending the approach to treatment of cattle sheds, or deploying other tactics that target zoophilic behavior. Optimizing use of existing tools will be essential to achieving the ambitious 2030 elimination target. PMID:28091570
Progress toward regional measles elimination--worldwide, 2000-2013.
Perry, Robert T; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Dabbagh, Alya; Mulders, Mick N; Strebel, Peter M; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie; Rota, Paul A; Goodson, James L
2014-11-14
In 2012, the World Health Assembly endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan with the objective to eliminate measles in four World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2015. Member states of all six WHO regions have adopted measles elimination goals. In 2010, the World Health Assembly established three milestones for 2015: 1) increase routine coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) for children aged 1 year to ≥90% nationally and ≥80% in every district; 2) reduce global annual measles incidence to measles mortality by 95% from the 2000 estimate. This report updates the 2000-2012 report and describes progress toward global control and regional measles elimination during 2000-2013. During this period, annual reported measles incidence declined 72% worldwide, from 146 to 40 per million population, and annual estimated measles deaths declined 75%, from 544,200 to 145,700. Four of six WHO regions have established regional verification commissions (RVCs); in the European (EUR) and Western Pacific regions (WPR), 19 member states successfully documented the absence of endemic measles. Resuming progress toward 2015 milestones and elimination goals will require countries and their partners to raise the visibility of measles elimination, address barriers to measles vaccination, and make substantial and sustained additional investments in strengthening health systems.
Rayleigh-maximum-likelihood bilateral filter for ultrasound image enhancement.
Li, Haiyan; Wu, Jun; Miao, Aimin; Yu, Pengfei; Chen, Jianhua; Zhang, Yufeng
2017-04-17
added with Gaussian distributed noise. Meanwhile clinical breast ultrasound images are used to visually evaluate the effectiveness of the method. To examine the performance, comparison tests between the proposed RSBF and six state-of-the-art methods for ultrasound speckle removal are performed on simulated ultrasound images with various noise and speckle levels. The results of the proposed RSBF are satisfying since the Gaussian noise and the Rayleigh speckle are greatly suppressed. The proposed method can improve the SNRs of the enhanced images to nearly 15 and 13 dB compared with images corrupted by speckle as well as images contaminated by speckle and noise under various SNR levels, respectively. The RSBF is effective in enhancing edge while smoothing the speckle and noise in clinical ultrasound images. In the comparison experiments, the proposed method demonstrates its superiority in accuracy and robustness for denoising and edge preserving under various levels of noise and speckle in terms of visual quality as well as numeric metrics, such as peak signal to noise ratio, SNR and root mean squared error. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective for removing the speckle and the background noise in ultrasound images. The main reason is that it performs a "detect and replace" two-step mechanism. The advantages of the proposed RBSF lie in two aspects. Firstly, each central pixel is classified as noise, speckle or noise-free texture according to the absolute difference between the target pixel and the reference median. Subsequently, the Rayleigh-maximum-likelihood filter and the bilateral filter are switched to eliminate speckle and noise, respectively, while the noise-free pixels are unaltered. Therefore, it is implemented with better accuracy and robustness than the traditional methods. Generally, these traits declare that the proposed RSBF would have significant clinical application.
Maximum likelihood molecular clock comb: analytic solutions.
Chor, Benny; Khetan, Amit; Snir, Sagi
2006-04-01
Maximum likelihood (ML) is increasingly used as an optimality criterion for selecting evolutionary trees, but finding the global optimum is a hard computational task. Because no general analytic solution is known, numeric techniques such as hill climbing or expectation maximization (EM), are used in order to find optimal parameters for a given tree. So far, analytic solutions were derived only for the simplest model--three taxa, two state characters, under a molecular clock. Four taxa rooted trees have two topologies--the fork (two subtrees with two leaves each) and the comb (one subtree with three leaves, the other with a single leaf). In a previous work, we devised a closed form analytic solution for the ML molecular clock fork. In this work, we extend the state of the art in the area of analytic solutions ML trees to the family of all four taxa trees under the molecular clock assumption. The change from the fork topology to the comb incurs a major increase in the complexity of the underlying algebraic system and requires novel techniques and approaches. We combine the ultrametric properties of molecular clock trees with the Hadamard conjugation to derive a number of topology dependent identities. Employing these identities, we substantially simplify the system of polynomial equations. We finally use tools from algebraic geometry (e.g., Gröbner bases, ideal saturation, resultants) and employ symbolic algebra software to obtain analytic solutions for the comb. We show that in contrast to the fork, the comb has no closed form solutions (expressed by radicals in the input data). In general, four taxa trees can have multiple ML points. In contrast, we can now prove that under the molecular clock assumption, the comb has a unique (local and global) ML point. (Such uniqueness was previously shown for the fork.).
Precision markedly attenuates repetitive lift capacity.
Collier, Brooke R; Holland, Laura; McGhee, Deirdre; Sampson, John A; Bell, Alison; Stapley, Paul J; Groeller, Herbert
2014-01-01
This study investigated the effect of precision on time to task failure in a repetitive whole-body manual handling task. Twelve participants were required to repetitively lift a box weighing 65% of their single repetition maximum to shoulder height using either precise or unconstrained box placement. Muscle activity, forces exerted at the ground, 2D body kinematics, box acceleration and psychophysical measures of performance were recorded until task failure was reached. With precision, time to task failure for repetitive lifting was reduced by 72%, whereas the duration taken to complete a single lift and anterior deltoid muscle activation increased by 39% and 25%, respectively. Yet, no significant difference was observed in ratings of perceived exertion or heart rate at task failure. In conclusion, our results suggest that when accuracy is a characteristic of a repetitive manual handling task, physical work capacity will decline markedly. The capacity to lift repetitively to shoulder height was reduced by 72% when increased accuracy was required to place a box upon a shelf. Lifting strategy and muscle activity were also modified, confirming practitioners should take into consideration movement precision when evaluating the demands of repetitive manual handling tasks.
The Embedding Capacity of Information Flows Under Renewal Traffic
Marano, Stefano; He, Ting; Tong, Lang
2011-01-01
Given two independent point processes and a certain rule for matching points between them, what is the fraction of matched points over infinitely long streams? In many application contexts, e.g., secure networking, a meaningful matching rule is that of a maximum causal delay, and the problem is related to embedding a flow of packets in cover traffic such that no traffic analysis can detect it. We study the best undetectable embedding policy and the corresponding maximum flow rate ---that we call the embedding capacity--- under the assumption that the cover traffic can be modeled as arbitrary renewal processes. We find that computing the embedding capacity requires the inversion of very structured linear systems that, for a broad range of renewal models encountered in practice, admits a fully analytical expression in terms of the renewal function of the processes. Our main theoretical contribution is a simple closed form of such relationship. This result enables us to explore properties of the embedding capaci...
Eliminating the Neglected Tropical Diseases: Translational Science and New Technologies.
Peter J Hotez
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Today, the World Health Organization recognizes 17 major parasitic and related infections as the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Despite recent gains in the understanding of the nature and prevalence of NTDs, as well as successes in recent scaled-up preventive chemotherapy strategies and other health interventions, the NTDs continue to rank among the world's greatest global health problems. For virtually all of the NTDs (including those slated for elimination under the auspices of a 2012 London Declaration for NTDs and a 2013 World Health Assembly resolution [WHA 66.12], additional control mechanisms and tools are needed, including new NTD drugs, vaccines, diagnostics, and vector control agents and strategies. Elimination will not be possible without these new tools. Here we summarize some of the key challenges in translational science to develop and introduce these new technologies in order to ensure success in global NTD elimination efforts.
Route Elimination Heuristic for Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows
Sándor Csiszár
2005-11-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with the design of a route elimination (RE algorithm for thevehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW. The problem has two objectives, oneof them is the minimal number of routes the other is the minimal cost. To cope with theseobjectives effectively two-phase solutions are often suggested in the relevant literature. Inthe first phase the main focus is the route elimination, in the second one it is the costreduction. The algorithm described here is a part of a complete VRPWT study. The methodwas developed by studying the graph behaviour during the route elimination. For thispurpose a model -called “Magic Bricks” was developed. The computation results on theSolomon problem set show that the developed algorithm is competitive with the best ones.
Fast control latency uncertainty elimination for the BESIII ETOF upgrade
Wang, Yun; Cao, Ping; Liu, Shu-bin; An, Qi
2016-09-01
A new fanning topology is proposed to precisely fan out fast control signals in the Beijing Spectrometer (BESIII) end-cap time-of-flight (ETOF) electronics. However, uncertainty in transfer latency is introduced by the new fanning channel, which will degrade the precision of fast control. In this paper, latency uncertainty elimination for the BESIII ETOF upgrade is introduced. The latency uncertainty is determined by a Time-Digital-Converter (TDC) embedded in a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and is eliminated by re-capturing at synchronous and determinate time. Compared with the existing method of Barrel-cap TOF (BTOF), it has advantages of flexible structure, easy calibration and good adaptability. Field tests on the BESIII ETOF system show that this method effectively eliminates transfer latency uncertainty. Supported by CAS Maintenance Project for Major Scientific and Technological Infrastructure (IHEP-SW-953/2013)
Removal of Quantifiers by Elimination of Boundary Points
Goldberg, Eugene
2012-01-01
We consider the problem of elimination of existential quantifiers from a Boolean CNF formula. Our approach is based on the following observation. One can get rid of dependency on a set of variables of a quantified CNF formula F by adding resolvent clauses of F eliminating boundary points. This approach is similar to the method of quantifier elimination described in [9]. The difference of the method described in the present paper is twofold: {\\bullet} branching is performed only on quantified variables, {\\bullet} an explicit search for boundary points is performed by calls to a SAT-solver Although we published the paper [9] before this one, chrono- logically the method of the present report was developed first. Preliminary presentations of this method were made in [10], [11]. We postponed a publication of this method due to preparation of a patent application [8].
Passive Elimination of Static Electricity in Oil Industry
Mićo Gaćanović
2015-04-01
Full Text Available This study explains the existing and real conditions of a possible passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives. We are considering the formation and survival of gas bubbles both in the volume of oil in its depth, but also at the surface of oil and oil derivatives of the partly filled reservoir, and formation of both volume and surface electric charge in oil and oil derivatives. The study presents the research of formation and survival of static electricity in both reservoirs and tank trucks of different geometric shapes partly filled with oil and oil derivatives. We are proposing a new original possibility of passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives in reservoirs and tank trucks. The proposed passive device for elimination of static electricity is protected at the international level in the domain of intellectual property (with a patent, model and distinctive mark.
Passive elimination of static electricity in oil industry
Gaćanović Mićo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This study explains the existing and real conditions of a possible passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives. We are considering the formation and survival of gas bubbles both in the volume of oil in its depth, but also at the surface of oil and oil derivatives of the partly filled reservoir, and formation of both volume and surface electric charge in oil and oil derivatives. The study presents the research of formation and survival of static electricity in both reservoirs and tank trucks of different geometric shapes partly filled with oil and oil derivatives. We are proposing a new original possibility of passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives in reservoirs and tank trucks. The proposed passive device for elimination of static electricity is protected at the international level in the domain of intellectual property (with a patent, model and distinctive mark.
Risk Management - Variance Minimization or Lower Tail Outcome Elimination
Aabo, Tom
2002-01-01
This paper illustrates the profound difference between a risk management strategy of variance minimization and a risk management strategy of lower tail outcome elimination. Risk managers concerned about the variability of cash flows will tend to center their hedge decisions on their best guess...... on future cash flows (the budget), while risk managers concerned about costly lower tail outcomes will hedge (considerably) less depending on the level of uncertainty. A risk management strategy of lower tail outcome elimination is in line with theoretical recommendations in a corporate value......-adding perspective. A cross-case study of blue-chip industrial companies partly supports the empirical use of a risk management strategy of lower tail outcome elimination but does not exclude other factors from (co-)driving the observations....
Research projects and capacity building
driniev
2004-10-04
Oct 4, 2004 ... plan and a commitment to capacity building in the previously marginalised sectors. .... rather than active process, and diffusion, adoption and innovation .... personal results and business results are related, and how delays.
Capacity Building in Land Management
Enemark, Stig; Ahene, Rexford
2003-01-01
There is a significant need for capacity building in the interdisciplinary area of land management especially in developing countries and countries in transition, to deal with the complex issues of building efficient land information systems and sustainable institutional infrastructures. Capacity...... building in land management is not only a question of establishing a sufficient technological level or sufficient economic resources. It is mainly a question of understanding the interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral nature of land administration systems, and understanding the need for human resource...... development in this area. Furthermore, capacity building should ensure that the focus is on building sound institutions and governance rather than just high-level IT-infrastructures. This overall approach to capacity building in land management is used for implementing a new land policy reform in Malawi...
Quantum channel capacities - multiparty communication
Demianowicz, M; Demianowicz, Maciej; Horodecki, Pawel
2006-01-01
We analyze different aspects of multiparty communication over quantum memoryless channels and generalize some of key results known from bipartite channels to that of multiparty scenario. In particular, we introduce multiparty versions of minimal subspace transmission fidelity and entanglement transmission fidelity. We also provide alternative, local, versions of fidelities and show their equivalence to the global ones in context of capacity regions defined. The equivalence of two different capacity notions with respect to two types of the fidelities is proven. In analogy to bipartite case it is shown, via sufficiency of isometric encoding theorem, that additional classical forward side channel does not increase capacity region of any quantum channel with $k$ senders and $m$ receivers which represents a compact unit of general quantum networks theory. The result proves that recently provided capacity region of multiple access channel ([M. Horodecki et al, Nature {\\bf 436} 673 (2005)], [J.Yard et al, quant-ph/0...
LABORATORY FERMENTERS OF CAPACITY TYPE
Yu I Sidorov
2012-01-01
...) of a capacity type with mixing devices that are intended for the cultivation of prokaryotes and also vegetable, animal, and insect cells, which the following firms such as Sartorius BBI Systems, New...
Capacity-achieving CPM schemes
Perotti, Alberto; Benedetto, Sergio; Montorsi, Guido
2008-01-01
The pragmatic approach to coded continuous-phase modulation (CPM) is proposed as a capacity-achieving low-complexity alternative to the serially-concatenated CPM (SC-CPM) coding scheme. In this paper, we first perform a selection of the best spectrally-efficient CPM modulations to be embedded into SC-CPM schemes. Then, we consider the pragmatic capacity (a.k.a. BICM capacity) of CPM modulations and optimize it through a careful design of the mapping between input bits and CPM waveforms. The so obtained schemes are cascaded with an outer serially-concatenated convolutional code to form a pragmatic coded-modulation system. The resulting schemes exhibit performance very close to the CPM capacity without requiring iterations between the outer decoder and the CPM demodulator. As a result, the receiver exhibits reduced complexity and increased flexibility due to the separation of the demodulation and decoding functions.
Maximum measurement range and accuracy of SAW reflective delay line sensors.
Zheng, Zehua; Han, Tao; Qin, Peng
2015-10-20
In a surface acoustic wave (SAW) wireless sensor with a reflective delay line structure, three reflectors are often used to eliminate 2π ambiguity of phase measurement. The maximum range of the measured parameter and the maximum accuracy have recently been attracting much research attention. In this paper, an analytical formula for all the factors influencing the measurement range and accuracy of the delay line SAW sensor are deduced for the first time. The factors include: the sensor sensitivity, the topology of the delay line, the available wireless bandwidth and the allowed maximum phase measuring error of the reading system, which is easier to retrieve and more fully describes the possible noises than SNR. Additionally, many designers believe that increasing the reflector could improve accuracy continuously or realize multi-resolution measurement. However, they ignore some certain criteria that the reflector location must satisfy. The reachable maximum accuracy by every increase of a reflector is also presented. A SAW temperature sensor system using 128° YX-LiNbO3 is designed to verify the above theoretical analysis.
Maximum Measurement Range and Accuracy of SAW Reflective Delay Line Sensors
Zehua Zheng
2015-10-01
Full Text Available In a surface acoustic wave (SAW wireless sensor with a reflective delay line structure, three reflectors are often used to eliminate 2π ambiguity of phase measurement. The maximum range of the measured parameter and the maximum accuracy have recently been attracting much research attention. In this paper, an analytical formula for all the factors influencing the measurement range and accuracy of the delay line SAW sensor are deduced for the first time. The factors include: the sensor sensitivity, the topology of the delay line, the available wireless bandwidth and the allowed maximum phase measuring error of the reading system, which is easier to retrieve and more fully describes the possible noises than SNR. Additionally, many designers believe that increasing the reflector could improve accuracy continuously or realize multi-resolution measurement. However, they ignore some certain criteria that the reflector location must satisfy. The reachable maximum accuracy by every increase of a reflector is also presented. A SAW temperature sensor system using 128° YX-LiNbO3 is designed to verify the above theoretical analysis.
Determinants of Human African Trypanosomiasis Elimination via Paratransgenesis.
Jennifer A Gilbert
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, transmitted by tsetse flies, has historically infected hundreds of thousands of individuals annually in sub-Saharan Africa. Over the last decade, concerted control efforts have reduced reported cases to below 10,000 annually, bringing complete elimination within reach. A potential technology to eliminate HAT involves rendering the flies resistant to trypanosome infection. This approach can be achieved through the introduction of transgenic Sodalis symbiotic bacteria that have been modified to produce a trypanocide, and propagated via Wolbachia symbionts, which confer a reproductive advantage to the paratransgenic tsetse. However, the population dynamics of these symbionts within tsetse flies have not yet been evaluated. Specifically, the key factors that determine the effectiveness of paratransgenesis have yet to be quantified. To identify the impact of these determinants on T.b. gambiense and T.b. rhodesiense transmission, we developed a mathematical model of trypanosome transmission that incorporates tsetse and symbiont population dynamics. We found that fecundity and mortality penalties associated with Wolbachia or recombinant Sodalis colonization, probabilities of vertical transmission, and tsetse migration rates are fundamental to the feasibility of HAT elimination. For example, we determined that HAT elimination could be sustained over 25 years when Wolbachia colonization minimally impacted fecundity or mortality, and when the probability of recombinant Sodalis vertical transmission exceeded 99.9%. We also found that for a narrow range of recombinant Sodalis vertical transmission probability (99.9-90.6% for T.b. gambiense and 99.9-85.8% for T.b. rhodesiense, cumulative HAT incidence was reduced between 30% and 1% for T.b. gambiense and between 21% and 3% for T.b. rhodesiense, although elimination was not predicted. Our findings indicate that fitness and mortality penalties associated with paratransgenic