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Sample records for maximum drying stresses

  1. correlation between maximum dry density and cohesion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    represents maximum dry density, signifies plastic limit and is liquid limit. Researchers [6, 7] estimate compaction parameters. Aside from the correlation existing between compaction parameters and other physical quantities there are some other correlations that have been investigated by other researchers. The well-known.

  2. correlation between maximum dry density and cohesion of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    investigation on sandy soils to determine the correlation between relative density and compaction test parameter. Using twenty soil samples, they were able to develop correlations between relative density, coefficient of uniformity and maximum dry density. Khafaji [5] using standard proctor compaction method carried out an ...

  3. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the ultimate...

  4. The maximum possible stress intensity factor for a crack in an unknown residual stress field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coules, H.E.; Smith, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Residual and thermal stress fields in engineering components can act on cracks and structural flaws, promoting or inhibiting fracture. However, these stresses are limited in magnitude by the ability of materials to sustain them elastically. As a consequence, the stress intensity factor which can be applied to a given defect by a self-equilibrating stress field is also limited. We propose a simple weight function method for determining the maximum stress intensity factor which can occur for a given crack or defect in a one-dimensional self-equilibrating stress field, i.e. an upper bound for the residual stress contribution to K I . This can be used for analysing structures containing defects and subject to residual stress without any information about the actual stress field which exists in the structure being analysed. A number of examples are given, including long radial cracks and fully-circumferential cracks in thick-walled hollow cylinders containing self-equilibrating stresses. - Highlights: • An upper limit to the contribution of residual stress to stress intensity factor. • The maximum K I for self-equilibrating stresses in several geometries is calculated. • A weight function method can determine this maximum for 1-dimensional stress fields. • Simple MATLAB scripts for calculating maximum K I provided as supplementary material.

  5. Relationship between stress wave velocities of green and dry veneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian K. Brashaw; Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; Roy F. Pellerin

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates the relationship between the stress wave velocities of green and dry southern pine and Douglas-fir veneers. A commercial stress wave timer and a laboratory signal analysis system were used to measure the transit time required for an induced stress wave to travel the longitudinal length of each veneer. Stress wave transit times were measured in the...

  6. Climatology and forest decay - stresses caused by dry periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havlik, D.

    1991-01-01

    In the discussion of forest decline in the Eighties, stresses due to dry weather is often named as a secondary cause. The concept of 'climatological dry periods' is introduced in this article and applied to records for the Basel and Aachen regions. The time distribution of dry periods of different length and different water deficiency (40 mm, 60 mm, 100 mm) is analyzed. In the case of the Basel data, the dry periods are related to the 'forest damage caused by draught' recorded for the Basel region since 1930. The results support the theory that increasingly larger and more frequent dry periods with water shortage have contributed significantly to forest damage in the last 15 years. Apart from the 'dry stress' itself, also the enhanced production of photooxidants is a damaging mechanism. (orig.) [de

  7. EFFECT OF CAFFEINE ON OXIDATIVE STRESS DURING MAXIMUM INCREMENTAL EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo J. Olcina

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine is an habitual substance present in a wide variety of beverages and in chocolate-based foods and it is also used as adjuvant in some drugs. The antioxidant ability of caffeine has been reported in contrast with its pro- oxidant effects derived from its action mechanism such as the systemic release of catecholamines. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of caffeine on exercise oxidative stress, measuring plasma vitamins A, E, C and malonaldehyde (MDA as markers of non enzymatic antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation respectively. Twenty young males participated in a double blind (caffeine 5mg·kg- 1 body weight or placebo cycling test until exhaustion. In the exercise test, where caffeine was ingested prior to the test, exercise time to exhaustion, maximum heart rate, and oxygen uptake significantly increased, whereas respiratory exchange ratio (RER decreased. Vitamins A and E decreased with exercise and vitamin C and MDA increased after both the caffeine and placebo tests but, regarding these particular variables, there were no significant differences between the two test conditions. The results obtained support the conclusion that this dose of caffeine enhances the ergospirometric response to cycling and has no effect on lipid peroxidation or on the antioxidant vitamins A, E and C

  8. The maximum allowable temperature of zircaloy-2 fuel cladding under dry storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayuzumi, M.; Yoshiki, S.; Yasuda, T.; Nakatsuka, M.

    1990-09-01

    Japan plans to reprocess and reutilise the spent nuclear fuel from nuclear power generation. However, the temporary storage of spent fuel is assuming increasing importance as a means of ensuring flexibility in the nuclear fuel cycle. Our investigations of various methods of storage have shown that casks are the most suitable means of storing small quantities of spent fuel of around 500 t, and research and development are in progress to establish dry storage technology for such casks. The soundness of fuel cladding is being investigated. The most important factor in evaluating soundness in storage under inert gas as currently envisaged is creep deformation and rupture, and a number of investigations have been made of the creep behaviour of cladding. The present study was conducted on the basis of existing in-house results in collaboration with Nippon Kakunenryo Kaihatsu KK (Nippon Nuclear Fuel Department Co.), which has hot lab facilities. Tests were run on the creep deformation behaviour of irradiated cladding, and the maximum allowable temperature during dry storage was investigated. (author)

  9. Shrinkage stress in concrete under dry-wet cycles: an example with concrete column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Jun; Luosun, Yiming

    2014-02-01

    This paper focuses on the simulation of shrinkage stress in concrete structures under dry-wet environments. In the modeling, an integrative model for autogenous and drying shrinkage predictions of concrete under dry-wet cycles is introduced first. Second, a model taking both cement hydration and moisture diffusion into account synchronously is used to calculate the distribution of interior humidity in concrete. Using the above two models, the distributions of shrinkage strain and stress in concrete columns made by normal and high strength concrete respectively under dry-wet cycles are calculated. The model results show that shrinkage gradient along the radial direction of the column from the center to outer surface increases with age as the outer circumference suffers to dry. The maximum and minimum shrinkage occur at the outer surface and the center of the column, respectively, under drying condition. As wetting starts, the shrinkage strain decreases with increase of interior humidity. The closer to the wetting face, the higher the humidity and the lower the shrinkage strain, as well as the lower the shrinkage stress. As results of the dry-wet cycles acting on the outer circumference of the column, cyclic stress status is developed within the area close to the outer surface of the column. The depth of the influencing zone of dry-wet cyclic action is influenced by concrete strength and dry-wet regime. For low strength concrete, relatively deeper influencing zone is expected compared with that of high strength concrete. The models are verified by concrete-steel composite ring tests and a good agreement between model and test results is found.

  10. Influence of Thread Root Radius on Maximum Local Stresses at Large Diameter Bolts under Axial Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cojocaru Vasile

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the thread root area of the threaded bolts submitted to axial loading occur local stresses, higher that nominal stresses calculated for the bolts. These local stresses can generate failure and can reduce the fatigue life of the parts. The paper is focused on the study of the influence of the thread root radius on the maximum local stresses. A large diameter trapezoidal bolt was subjected to a static analysis (axial loading using finite element simulation.

  11. Experimental program to determine maximum temperatures for dry storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, C.A.; Gilbert, E.R.; White, G.D.

    1985-02-01

    Although air is used as a cover gas in some dry storage facilities, other facilities use inert cover gases which must be monitored to assure inertness of the atmosphere. Thus qualifying air as a cover gas is attractive for the dry storage of spent fuels. At sufficiently high temperatures, air can react with spent fuel (UO 2 ) at the site of cladding breaches that formed during reactor irradiation or during dry storage. The reaction rate is temperature dependent; hence the rates can be maintained at acceptable levels if temperatures are low. Tests with spent fuel are being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine the allowable temperatures for storage of spent fuel in air. Tests performed with nonirradiated UO 2 pellets indicated that moisture, surface condition, gamma radiation, gadolinia content of the fuel pellet, and temperature are important variables. Tests were then initiated on spent fuel to develop design data under simulated dry storage conditions. Tests have been conducted at 200 and 230 0 C on spent fuel in air and 275 0 C in moist nitrogen. The results for nonirradiated UO 2 and published data for irradiated fuel indicate that above 230 0 C, oxidation rates are unacceptably high for extended storage in air. The tests with spent fuel will be continued for approximately three years to enable reliable extrapolations to be made for extended storage in air and inert gases with oxidizing constituents. 6 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Dry Matter Yield And Competitiveness Of Alang-alang (Imperata Cylindrica) And Guinea Grass (Panicum Maximum) In Intercropping

    OpenAIRE

    Rusdy, M

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine dry matter yield and competitiveness of alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica) and Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) in intercropping. The experiment was arranged in factorial combinations of four planting proportions, two levels of nitrogen fertilization and three harvesting intervals with three replications. Planting proportions were 0, 33.3, 66.7, and 100% of alang-alang (planting densities of 0, 1, 2 and 3 plants/pot) combined with 100, 66.7, 33...

  13. Thermal/moisture-related stresses and fracture behaviour in solid wood members during forced drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn

    , in particular the stress and cracking that takeplace during kiln-drying. Both experimental and numerical work was carried out so as to obtain knowledge regarding stress, strain, mechano-sorption and crackbehaviours in wood during drying.The investigations aimed also at revealing how drying damagecan best...... of wood without injury to the timber itself. When solid wood products are dried from a green condition down to an average moisture content level close to the service life conditions of the final product, significant moisture-induced stresses and related fracturing can occur. The drying stresses arise...... with a drying history that was generated, to verify a model that was used to simulate disc samples of the same type. The stresses were analyzed so as to clarify whether and when critical stress stateswere encountered during the drying process. The reversibility of the mechano-sorptive strains, i...

  14. Monodimensional estimation of maximum Reynolds shear stress in the downstream flow field of bileaflet valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigioni, Mauro; Daniele, Carla; D'Avenio, Giuseppe; Barbaro, Vincenzo

    2002-05-01

    Turbulent flow generated by prosthetic devices at the bloodstream level may cause mechanical stress on blood particles. Measurement of the Reynolds stress tensor and/or some of its components is a mandatory step to evaluate the mechanical load on blood components exerted by fluid stresses, as well as possible consequent blood damage (hemolysis or platelet activation). Because of the three-dimensional nature of turbulence, in general, a three-component anemometer should be used to measure all components of the Reynolds stress tensor, but this is difficult, especially in vivo. The present study aimed to derive the maximum Reynolds shear stress (RSS) in three commercially available prosthetic heart valves (PHVs) of wide diffusion, starting with monodimensional data provided in vivo by echo Doppler. Accurate measurement of PHV flow field was made using laser Doppler anemometry; this provided the principal turbulence quantities (mean velocity, root-mean-square value of velocity fluctuations, average value of cross-product of velocity fluctuations in orthogonal directions) needed to quantify the maximum turbulence-related shear stress. The recorded data enabled determination of the relationship, the Reynolds stresses ratio (RSR) between maximum RSS and Reynolds normal stress in the main flow direction. The RSR was found to be dependent upon the local structure of the flow field. The reported RSR profiles, which permit a simple calculation of maximum RSS, may prove valuable during the post-implantation phase, when an assessment of valve function is made echocardiographically. Hence, the risk of damage to blood constituents associated with bileaflet valve implantation may be accurately quantified in vivo.

  15. In-shoe plantar tri-axial stress profiles during maximum-effort cutting maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Yan; Lam, Wing Kai; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man; Zhang, Ming

    2014-12-18

    Soft tissue injuries, such as anterior cruciate ligament rupture, ankle sprain and foot skin problems, frequently occur during cutting maneuvers. These injuries are often regarded as associated with abnormal joint torque and interfacial friction caused by excessive external and in-shoe shear forces. This study simultaneously investigated the dynamic in-shoe localized plantar pressure and shear stress during lateral shuffling and 45° sidestep cutting maneuvers. Tri-axial force transducers were affixed at the first and second metatarsal heads, lateral forefoot, and heel regions in the midsole of a basketball shoe. Seventeen basketball players executed both cutting maneuvers with maximum efforts. Lateral shuffling cutting had a larger mediolateral braking force than 45° sidestep cutting. This large braking force was concentrated at the first metatarsal head, as indicated by its maximum medial shear stress (312.2 ± 157.0 kPa). During propulsion phase, peak shear stress occurred at the second metatarsal head (271.3 ± 124.3 kPa). Compared with lateral shuffling cutting, 45° sidestep cutting produced larger peak propulsion shear stress (463.0 ± 272.6 kPa) but smaller peak braking shear stress (184.8 ± 181.7 kPa), of which both were found at the first metatarsal head. During both cutting maneuvers, maximum medial and posterior shear stress occurred at the first metatarsal head, whereas maximum pressure occurred at the second metatarsal head. The first and second metatarsal heads sustained relatively high pressure and shear stress and were expected to be susceptible to plantar tissue discomfort or injury. Due to different stress distribution, distinct pressure and shear cushioning mechanisms in basketball footwear might be considered over different foot regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Phenome data - Air-drying stress - DGBY | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us DGBY Phenome data - Air-drying stress Data detail Data name Phenome data - Air-drying stress... DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00953-007 Description of data contents Yeasts used in bread making are exposed to air-dryin...g stress during dried yeast production processes. To clarify the genes required for air-drying tolera...tion of diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae . The screening identified 278 gene deletions responsible for air-dryin...heir gene products. The results showed that the genes required for air-drying tol

  17. Pressurizer /Auxiliary Spray Piping Stress Analysis For Determination Of Lead Shielding Maximum Allow Able Load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setjo, Renaningsih

    2000-01-01

    Piping stress analysis for PZR/Auxiliary Spray Lines Nuclear Power Plant AV Unit I(PWR Type) has been carried out. The purpose of this analysis is to establish a maximum allowable load that is permitted at the time of need by placing lead shielding on the piping system on class 1 pipe, Pressurizer/Auxiliary Spray Lines (PZR/Aux.) Reactor Coolant Loop 1 and 4 for NPP AV Unit one in the mode 5 and 6 during outage. This analysis is intended to reduce the maximum amount of radiation dose for the operator during ISI ( In service Inspection) period.The result shown that the maximum allowable loads for 4 inches lines for PZR/Auxiliary Spray Lines is 123 lbs/feet

  18. Optimal design of the gerotor (2-ellipses) for reducing maximum contact stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Hyo Seo; Li, Sheng Huan [Dept. of Mechanical Convergence Technology, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chul [School of Mechanical Design and Manufacturing, Busan Institute of Science and Technology, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The oil pump, which is used as lubricator of engines and auto transmission, supplies working oil to the rotating elements to prevent wear. The gerotor pump is used widely in the automobile industry. When wear occurs due to contact between an inner rotor and an outer rotor, the efficiency of the gerotor pump decreases rapidly, and elastic deformation from the contacts also causes vibration and noise. This paper reports the optimal design of a gerotor with a 2-ellipses combined lobe shape that reduces the maximum contact stress. An automatic program was developed to calculate Hertzian contact stress of the gerotor using the Matlab and the effect of the design parameter on the maximum contact stress was analyzed. In addition, the method of theoretical analysis for obtaining the contact stress was verified by performing the fluid-structural coupled analysis using the commercial software, Ansys, considering both the driving force of the inner rotor and the fluid pressure, which is generated by working oil.

  19. Studying Maximum Plantar Stress per Insole Design Using Foot CT-Scan Images of Hyperelastic Soft Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sarikhani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The insole shape and the resulting plantar stress distribution have a pivotal impact on overall health. In this paper, by Finite Element Method, maximum stress value and stress distribution of plantar were studied for different insoles designs, which are the flat surface and the custom-molded (conformal surface. Moreover, insole thickness, heel’s height, and different materials were used to minimize the maximum stress and achieve the most uniform stress distribution. The foot shape and its details used in this paper were imported from online CT-Scan images. Results show that the custom-molded insole reduced maximum stress 40% more than the flat surface insole. Upon increase of thickness in both insole types, stress distribution becomes more uniform and maximum stress value decreases up to 10%; however, increase of thickness becomes ineffective above a threshold of 1 cm. By increasing heel height (degree of insole, maximum stress moves from heel to toes and becomes more uniform. Therefore, this scenario is very helpful for control of stress in 0.2° to 0.4° degrees for custom-molded insole and over 1° for flat insole. By changing the material of the insole, the value of maximum stress remains nearly constant. The custom-molded (conformal insole which has 0.5 to 1 cm thickness and 0.2° to 0.4° degrees is found to be the most compatible form for foot.

  20. Soluble organic additive effects on stress development during drying of calcium carbonate suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedin, Pär; Lewis, Jennifer A; Bergström, Lennart

    2005-10-01

    The effect of polymer, plasticizer, and surfactant additives on stress development during drying of calcium carbonate particulate coatings was studied using a controlled-environment apparatus that simultaneously monitors drying stress, weight loss, and relative humidity. We found that the calcium carbonate coatings display a drying stress evolution typical of granular films, which is characterized by a sharp capillary-induced stress rise followed by a rapid stress relaxation. The addition of a soluble polymer to the CaCO3 suspension resulted in a two-stage stress evolution process. The initial stress rise stems from capillary-pressure-induced stresses within the film, while the second, larger stress rise occurs due to solidification and shrinkage of the polymeric species. Measurements on the corresponding pure polymer solutions established a clear correlation between the magnitude of residual stress in both the polymer and CaCO3-polymer films to the physical properties of the polymer phase, i.e. its glass transition temperature, T(g), and Young's modulus. The addition of small organic molecules can reduce the residual stress observed in the CaCO3-polymer films; e.g., glycerol, which acts as a plasticizer, reduces the drying stress by lowering T(g), while surfactant additions reduce the surface tension of the liquid phase, and, hence, the magnitude of the capillary pressure within the film.

  1. Influence of moisture stress on growth, dry matter yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of moisture stress were evaluated in four Indigofera species (I. amorphoides, I. arrecta, I. coerulea and I. vicioides) using a pot experiment under glasshouse conditions. The aim was to examine the influence of moisture-deficit stress on physiological attributes and performance of the four Indigofera species.

  2. Fatigue life prediction method for contact wire using maximum local stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Seok; Haochuang, Li; Seok, Chang Sung; Koo, Jae Mean [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki Won; Kwon, Sam Young; Cho, Yong Hyeon [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Railway contact wires supplying electricity to trains are exposed to repeated mechanical strain and stress caused by their own weight and discontinuous contact with a pantograph during train operation. Since the speed of railway transportation has increased continuously, railway industries have recently reported a number of contact wire failures caused by mechanical fatigue fractures instead of normal wear, which has been a more common failure mechanism. To secure the safety and durability of contact wires in environments with increased train speeds, a bending fatigue test on contact wire has been performed. The test equipment is too complicated to evaluate the fatigue characteristics of contact wire. Thus, the axial tension fatigue test was performed for a standard specimen, and the bending fatigue life for the contact wire structure was then predicted using the maximum local stress occurring at the top of the contact wire. Lastly, the tested bending fatigue life of the structure was compared with the fatigue life predicted by the axial tension fatigue test for verification.

  3. Fatigue life prediction method for contact wire using maximum local stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Seok; Haochuang, Li; Seok, Chang Sung; Koo, Jae Mean; Lee, Ki Won; Kwon, Sam Young; Cho, Yong Hyeon

    2015-01-01

    Railway contact wires supplying electricity to trains are exposed to repeated mechanical strain and stress caused by their own weight and discontinuous contact with a pantograph during train operation. Since the speed of railway transportation has increased continuously, railway industries have recently reported a number of contact wire failures caused by mechanical fatigue fractures instead of normal wear, which has been a more common failure mechanism. To secure the safety and durability of contact wires in environments with increased train speeds, a bending fatigue test on contact wire has been performed. The test equipment is too complicated to evaluate the fatigue characteristics of contact wire. Thus, the axial tension fatigue test was performed for a standard specimen, and the bending fatigue life for the contact wire structure was then predicted using the maximum local stress occurring at the top of the contact wire. Lastly, the tested bending fatigue life of the structure was compared with the fatigue life predicted by the axial tension fatigue test for verification.

  4. Dry Priming of Maize Seeds Reduces Aluminum Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcântara, Berenice Kussumoto; Machemer-Noonan, Katja; Silva Júnior, Francides Gomes; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is directly related to acidic soils and substantially limits maize yield. Earlier studies using hormones and other substances to treat the seeds of various crops have been carried out with the aim of inducing tolerance to abiotic stress, especially chilling, drought and salinity. However, more studies regarding the effects of seed treatments on the induction of Al tolerance are necessary. In this study, two independent experiments were performed to determine the effect of ascorbic acid (AsA) seed treatment on the tolerance response of maize to acidic soil and Al stress. In the first experiment (greenhouse), the AsA seed treatment was tested in B73 (Al-sensitive genotype). This study demonstrates the potential of AsA for use as a pre-sowing seed treatment (seed priming) because this metabolite increased root and shoot growth under acidic and Al stress conditions. In the second test, the evidence from field experiments using an Al-sensitive genotype (Mo17) and an Al-tolerant genotype (DA) suggested that prior AsA seed treatment increased the growth of both genotypes. Enhanced productivity was observed for DA under Al stress after priming the seeds. Furthermore, the AsA treatment decreased the activity of oxidative stress-related enzymes in the DA genotype. In this study, remarkable effects using AsA seed treatment in maize were observed, demonstrating the potential future use of AsA in seed priming. PMID:26714286

  5. A numerical and experimental study of stress and crack development in kiln-dried wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur

    2012-01-01

    Numerical and experimental investigations were carried out on well defined log-disc samples of Norway spruce consisting of both heartwood and sapwood, with the aim of gaining more adequate knowledge of stress and fracture generation during the drying process. Use of thin discs enabled a well-controlled...... and simplified drying history of the samples to be obtained. Experiments supported by the numerical model showed the heartwood to dry below the fibre saturation point, much earlier than the sapwood, and thus to start shrinking at a much earlier stage....

  6. Evaluation of heat stress in dry cleaner units:A case study in Qom, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Malakouti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Nowadays, heat stress is one of the most harmful physical agents in workplaces. According to the consequences of heat stress and have no information about it in Qom dry cleaner units, Iran, this study have been designed to evaluate the heat stress among workers of dry cleaner units in Qom province of Iran, in Jul-Aug 2011. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 113 units of active dry cleaner units. WBGT (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index was selected for heat stress evaluation. In order to measure the requisite parameters, WBGT meter made of Casella Company had been used according to ISO 7243. Data had been analyzed according to Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs with SPSS V.16, using analysis of variance, independent T and LSD tests. Results: The average of WBGT index in Qom dry cleaner units of Iran were 28.98±1.64 °C. The average of WBGT index in 66.4% of units was up to 28°C. The average of relative humidity was 42.86%, the average of wet bulb temperature and globe temperature were 25.56°C and 36.72°C, respectively. The findings showed a significant correlation between the average of WBGT index and the standard recommendation level (p<0.0001. In dry cleaner units with less than 10 m2 area, heat stress was higher than other units  significantly (p<0.05. Conclusions: Heat stress in many dry cleaner units in Qom, Iran, was more than recommended OELs. Because of wet bulb and globe temperature in units were high value, the most important measures to heat controls, are technical engineering controls such as  radiation shield, insulation on boilers and modify the cooling systems.

  7. Maximum stress estimation model for multi-span waler beams with deflections at the supports using average strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Woo; Oh, Byung Kwan; Park, Hyo Seon

    2015-03-30

    The safety of a multi-span waler beam subjected simultaneously to a distributed load and deflections at its supports can be secured by limiting the maximum stress of the beam to a specific value to prevent the beam from reaching a limit state for failure or collapse. Despite the fact that the vast majority of accidents on construction sites occur at waler beams in retaining wall systems, no safety monitoring model that can consider deflections at the supports of the beam is available. In this paper, a maximum stress estimation model for a waler beam based on average strains measured from vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs), the most frequently used sensors in construction field, is presented. The model is derived by defining the relationship between the maximum stress and the average strains measured from VWSGs. In addition to the maximum stress, support reactions, deflections at supports, and the magnitudes of distributed loads for the beam structure can be identified by the estimation model using the average strains. Using simulation tests on two multi-span beams, the performance of the model is evaluated by estimating maximum stress, deflections at supports, support reactions, and the magnitudes of distributed loads.

  8. Maximum Stress Estimation Model for Multi-Span Waler Beams with Deflections at the Supports Using Average Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Woo Park

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The safety of a multi-span waler beam subjected simultaneously to a distributed load and deflections at its supports can be secured by limiting the maximum stress of the beam to a specific value to prevent the beam from reaching a limit state for failure or collapse. Despite the fact that the vast majority of accidents on construction sites occur at waler beams in retaining wall systems, no safety monitoring model that can consider deflections at the supports of the beam is available. In this paper, a maximum stress estimation model for a waler beam based on average strains measured from vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs, the most frequently used sensors in construction field, is presented. The model is derived by defining the relationship between the maximum stress and the average strains measured from VWSGs. In addition to the maximum stress, support reactions, deflections at supports, and the magnitudes of distributed loads for the beam structure can be identified by the estimation model using the average strains. Using simulation tests on two multi-span beams, the performance of the model is evaluated by estimating maximum stress, deflections at supports, support reactions, and the magnitudes of distributed loads.

  9. Effect of nutritional immunomodulation and heat stress during the dry period on subsequent performance of cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabris, Thiago F; Laporta, Jimena; Corra, Fabiana N; Torres, Yazielis M; Kirk, David J; McLean, Derek J; Chapman, J D; Dahl, Geoffrey E

    2017-08-01

    Heat stress in dairy cows during the dry period impairs milk yield in the next lactation. Feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Phibro Animal Health Corp., Teaneck, NJ) to lactating cows during heat stress may increase dry matter intake (DMI) and lowers respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT), but the effects in dry cows are not known. We hypothesized that OG supplementation before, during, and after the dry period (approximately 160 d total) would overcome the effects of heat stress and improve cow performance in the next lactation. Cows were randomly assigned to OG or control (placebo) treatments for the last 60 d in milk (DIM), based on mature-equivalent milk yield in the previous lactation. Cows were dried off 45 d before expected calving and randomly assigned to heat stress (HT) or cooling (CL) treatments. Thus, cows received dietary supplementation during late lactation before they were exposed to either CL or HT. After dry-off, treatment groups included heat stress with placebo (HT, only shade, 56 g/d of placebo, n = 17), HT with OG supplementation (HTOG, 56 g/d of OG, n = 19), cooling with placebo (CL, shade, fans, and soakers, 56 g/d of placebo, n = 16), and CL with OG supplementation (CLOG, 56 g/d of OG, n = 11). After parturition, all cows were kept under the same CL system and management, and all cows continued to receive OG or control treatment until 60 DIM. Cooling cows during the dry period reduced afternoon RT (CL vs. HT; 38.9 ± 0.05 vs. 39.3 ± 0.05°C) and RR (CL vs. HT; 45 ± 1.6 vs. 77 ± 1.6 breaths/min). Respiration rate was also decreased by OG supplementation under HT conditions (HTOG vs. HT; 69.7 ± 1.6 vs. 77.2 ± 1.6 breaths/min). An interaction was observed between OG supplementation and HT; HTOG cows tended to have lower morning RT compared with HT cows. During the dry period, OG reduced DMI relative to control cows. Birth weight was greater in calves from CL cows (CL vs. HT; 40.6 ± 1.09 vs. 38.7 ± 1.09 kg). No differences were detected

  10. Validating the Heat Stress Indices for Using In Heavy Work Activities in Hot and Dry Climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Roohalah; Golbabaei, Farideh; Farhang Dehghan, Somayeh; Beheshti, Mohammad Hossein; Jafari, Sayed Mohammad; Taheri, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Necessity of evaluating heat stress in the workplace, require validation of indices and selection optimal index. The present study aimed to assess the precision and validity of some heat stress indices and select the optimum index for using in heavy work activities in hot and dry climates. It carried out on 184 workers from 40 brick kilns workshops in the city of Qom, central Iran (as representative hot and dry climates). After reviewing the working process and evaluation the activity of workers and the type of work, environmental and physiological parameters according to standards recommended by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) including ISO 7243 and ISO 9886 were measured and indices were calculated. Workers engaged in indoor kiln experienced the highest values of natural wet temperature, dry temperature, globe temperature and relative humidity among studied sections (Pstress index (HSI) indices had the highest correlation with other physiological parameters among the other heat stress indices. Relationship between WBGT index and carotid artery temperature (r=0.49), skin temperature (r=0.319), and oral temperature (r=0.203) was statistically significant (P=0.006). Since WBGT index, as the most applicable index for evaluating heat stress in workplaces is approved by ISO, and due to the positive features of WBGT such as ease of measurement and calculation, and with respect to some limitation in application of HSI; WBGT can be introduced as the most valid empirical index of heat stress in the brick workshops.

  11. Repeatability, number of harvests, and phenotypic stability of dry matter yield and quality traits of Panicum maximum jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Duarte Fernandes

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Selection of superior forage genotypes is based on agronomic traits assayed in repeated measures. The questions are how repeatable the performance of individual genotypes is and how many harvests are needed to select the best genotypes. The objectives were to estimate repeatability coefficients of dry matter yield (DMY and forage quality, their phenotypic stability and the number of harvests needed for an accurate selection. Two randomized complete block design experiments data with 24 genotypes each, undergoing 12 and 16 harvests, over a period of 2 and 3 years, respectively, were used. The DMY repeatability estimates ranged from 0.42 to 0.55, suggesting a low heritability. The mean numbers of repeated measures were 5 and 7 harvests for 0.80 and 0.85 accuracy, respectively. The inclusion of the first two harvests negatively affects the estimates. Repeatability for quality traits ranged from 0.30 to 0.69, indicating low to moderate heritability.

  12. The Influence of Pressure Distribution on the Maximum Values of Stress in FEM Analysis of Plain Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Cojocaru

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Several methods can be used in the FEM studies to apply the loads on a plain bearing. The paper presents a comparative analysis of maximum stress obtained for three loading scenarios: resultant force applied on the shaft – bearing assembly, variable pressure with sinusoidal distribution applied on the bearing surface, variable pressure with parabolic distribution applied on the bearing surface.

  13. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor to Monitor Stress Kinetics in Drying Process of Commercial Latex Paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo de Lourenço

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report a study about the application of packaged fiber Bragg gratings used as strain sensors to monitor the stress kinetics during the drying process of commercial latex paints. Three stages of drying with distinct mechanical deformation and temporal behaviors were identified for the samples, with mechanical deformation from 15 μm to 21 μm in the longitudinal film dimension on time intervals from 370 to 600 minutes. Drying time tests based on human sense technique described by the Brazilian Technical Standards NBR 9558 were also done. The results obtained shows that human sense technique has a limited perception of the drying process and that the optical measurement system proposed can be used to characterize correctly the dry-through stage of paint. The influence of solvent (water addition in the drying process was also investigated. The paint was diluted with four parts paint and one part water (80% paint, and one part paint and one part water (50% paint. It was observed that the increase of the water ratio mixed into the paint decreases both the mechanical deformation magnitude and the paint dry-through time. Contraction of 5.2 μm and 10.4 μm were measured for concentrations of 50% and 80% of paint in the mixture, respectively. For both diluted paints the dry-through time was approximately 170 minutes less than undiluted paint. The optical technique proposed in this work can contribute to the development of new standards to specify the drying time of paint coatings.

  14. How Dry was too Dry? Evaluating the Impact of Climatic Stress on Prehistoric Human Populations in southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, V. E.; Asrat, A.; Cohen, A. S.; Junginger, A.; Lamb, H. F.; Schaebitz, F.; Trauth, M. H.; Vogelsang, R.

    2016-12-01

    What role did abrupt climate shifts play in human evolution and the dispersal of Homo sapiens within and beyond the African continent? How did gradual climatic transitions on the other hand affect cultural and technological innovations in the source region of modern humans? In order to evaluate the effect of environmental instability on human evolution, with their cultural and technological innovations, and with their expansion out of Africa, it is essential to understand how the east African climate switches from dry to wet and back to dry. Determining the timespan of both long-term transitions and climate flickers eventually provides the much needed environmental information how much time early humans had to react (evolution, migration, adaption) to the profound changes in their living environment. As a contribution to providing an environmental context to these central questions on human-climate interaction, the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) has successfully completed coring five fluvio-lacustrine archives of climate change during the last 3.5 Ma in East Africa. The five high-priority areas in Ethiopia and Kenya are located in close proximity to key paleoanthropological sites covering various steps in evolution. Here we present a comparison between the youngest part of our continuous climate reconstruction (temporal resolution of up to 3 years) from the Chew Bahir site in southern Ethiopia and the available archaeological record of human presence in the source region of modern humans for the past 20 ka. The results contribute to test hypotheses on the impact of climatic stress on migration, the role of human decision-making and environmental thresholds (Foerster et al., 2015, 2016). Furthermore, we match key technological innovations in the area with the profound environmental changes during the highly debated mid-Holocene wet-dry transition. Finally, we give a first overview over possible phases of climatic stress during the last >500 ka

  15. Dry fracture method for simultaneous measurement of in-situ stress state and material properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serata, S.; Oka, S.; Kikuchi, S.

    1996-01-01

    Based on the dry fracture principle, a computerized borehole probe has been developed to measure stress state and material properties, simultaneously. The probe is designed to obtain a series of measurements in a continuing sequence along a borehole length, without any interruptive measures, such as resetting packers, taking indentation of borehole wall, overcoming, etc. The new dry fracture probe for the single fracture method is designed to overcome the difficulties posed by its ancestor which was based on the double fracture method. The accuracy of the single fracture method is confirmed by a close agreement with the theory, FE modeling and laboratory testing

  16. Dispersal timing and drought history influence the response of bacterioplankton to drying-rewetting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, Anna J; Langenheder, Silke

    2017-08-01

    The extent and frequency of drought episodes is expected to increase in the following decades making it a crucial stress factor for smaller water bodies. However, very little is known about how bacterioplankton is affected by increased evaporation and how these communities reassemble after rewetting. Here, we present results from a microcosm experiment that assessed the effect of drying-rewetting stress on bacterioplankton in the light of the stress history and the rate and timing of dispersal after the rewetting. We found that the drying phase resulted mainly in a change of function, whereas the complete desiccation and rewetting processes strongly affected both composition and function, which were, however, influenced by the initial conditions and stress history of the communities. Effects of dispersal were generally stronger when it occurred at an early stage after the rewetting. At this stage, selective establishment of dispersed bacteria coupled with enhanced compositional and functional recovery was found, whereas effects of dispersal were neutral, that is, predictable by dispersal rates, at later stages. Our studies therefore show that both the stress history and the timing of dispersal are important factors that influence the response of bacterial communities to environmental change and stress events.

  17. Towards the prediction of pre-mining stresses in the European continent. [Estimates of vertical and probable maximum lateral stress in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwood, R. L.

    1980-05-15

    There are now available sufficient data from in-situ, pre-mining stress measurements to allow a first attempt at predicting the maximum stress magnitudes likely to occur in a given mining context. The sub-horizontal (lateral) stress generally dominates the stress field, becoming critical to stope stability in many cases. For cut-and-fill mining in particular, where developed fill pressures are influenced by lateral displacement of pillars or stope backs, extraction maximization planning by mathematical modelling techniques demands the best available estimate of pre-mining stresses. While field measurements are still essential for this purpose, in the present paper it is suggested that the worst stress case can be predicted for preliminary design or feasibility study purposes. In the Eurpoean continent the vertical component of pre-mining stress may be estimated by adding 2 MPa to the pressure due to overburden weight. The maximum lateral stress likely to be encountered is about 57 MPa at depths of some 800m to 1000m below the surface.

  18. Expression of SIRT1 and oxidative stress in diabetic dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Sheng, Minjie; Liu, Yu; Wang, Peng; Chen, Yihui; Chen, Li; Wang, Weifang; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    To explore the expression of SIRT1 with oxidative stress and observe physiological and pathological changes in the corneas as well as the association between SIRT1 and oxidative stress of diabetic dry eyes in mice. Forty-eight C57BL/6Jdb/db mice at eight weeks of age were divided randomly into two groups: the diabetic dry eye group and the diabetic group. An additional forty-eight C57BL/6J mice at eight weeks of age were divided randomly into two groups: the dry eye group and the control group. Every mouse in the dry eye groups (diabetic and normal) was injected with scopolamine hydrobromide three times daily, combined with low humidity to establish a dry eye model. After the intervention, phenol red cotton string tests and corneal fluorescein staining were performed. In addition, HE staining and immunofluorescence were done. Expression of SIRT1 in the cornea was examined by real-time PCR and Western Blot and expression of FOXO3 and MnSOD proteins was detected by Western Blot. At one, four, and eight weeks post intervention, all of the groups except the controls showed significant decreases in tear production and increases in the corneal fluorescein stain (Pdry eye group had the least tear production and the highest corneal fluorescein stain score (Pdry eye group. In the 1(st) and 4(th) week, the expression of SIRT1, FOXO3, and MnSOD were significantly higher in the diabetic DE and DM groups but lower in the DE group compared to the controls (Pdry eye, tear production declined markedly coupled with seriously wounded corneal epithelium. Oxidative stress in the cornea was enhanced significantly and the expression of SIRT1 was decreased.

  19. Influence of effective stress and dry density on the permeability of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenying; Wang, Yingfeng; Xu, Hui; Fang, Yuehua; Wu, Dazhi

    2018-05-01

    A landfill is one of the main sites for disposal of municipal solid waste and the current landfill disposal system faces several problems. For instance, excessive leachate water is an important factor leading to landfill instability. Understanding the permeability characteristics of municipal solid waste is a relevant topic in the field of environmental geotechnical engineering. In this paper, the current research progress on permeability characteristics of municipal solid waste is discussed. A review of recent studies indicates that the research in this field is divided into two categories based on the experimental method employed: field tests and laboratory tests. This paper summarizes test methods, landfill locations, waste ages, dry densities and permeability coefficients across different studies that focus on permeability characteristics. Additionally, an experimental study on compressibility and permeability characteristics of fresh municipal solid waste under different effective stresses and compression times was carried out. Moreover, the relationships between the permeability coefficient and effective stress as well as dry density were obtained and a permeability prediction model was established. Finally, the experimental results from the existing literature and this paper were compared and the effects of effective stress and dry density on the permeability characteristics of municipal solid waste were summarized. This study provides the basis for analysis of leachate production in a landfill.

  20. NaCl stress impact on the key enzymes in glycolysis from Lactobacillus bulgaricus during freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun; Sun, Jinwei; Qi, Xiaoxi; Liu, Libo

    2015-01-01

    The viability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus in freeze-drying is of significant commercial interest to dairy industries. In the study, L.bulgaricus demonstrated a significantly improved (p enzymes in glycolysis during 2% NaCl stress were studied. NaCl stress significantly enhanced (p enzymes (phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase) decreased during freeze-drying, and NaCl stress were found to improve activities of these enzymes before and after freeze-drying. However, a transcriptional analysis of the corresponding genes suggested that the effect of NaCl stress on the expression of the pfk2 gene was not obvious. The increased survival of freeze-dried cells of L. bulgaricus under NaCl stress might be due to changes in only the activity or translation level of these enzymes in different environmental conditions but have no relation to their mRNA transcription level.

  1. Effect of cooling heat-stressed dairy cows during the dry period on insulin response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, S; Thompson, I M; Monteiro, A P A; Hayen, M J; Young, L J; Dahl, G E

    2012-09-01

    Heat stress (HT) during the dry period affects hepatic gene expression and adipose tissue mobilization during the transition period. In addition, it is postulated that HT may alter insulin action on peripheral tissues. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of cooling heat-stressed cows during the dry period on insulin effects on peripheral tissues during the transition period. Cows were dried off 46 d before expected calving and assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: HT (n = 16) or cooling (CL, n = 16). During the dry period, the average temperature-humidity index was 78, but CL cows were cooled with sprinklers and fans, whereas HT cows were not. After calving, all cows were housed and managed under the same conditions. Rectal temperatures were measured twice daily (0730 and 1430 h) and respiration rate recorded 3 times weekly during the dry period. Dry matter intake was recorded daily from dry-off to 42 d relative to calving (DRC). Body weight and body condition score were measured weekly from dry-off to 42 DRC. Milk yield and composition were recorded daily to 42 wk postpartum. Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) and insulin challenges (IC) were performed at dry-off, -14, 7, and 28 DRC in a subset of cows (HT, n = 8; CL, n = 8). Relative to HT, CL cows had lower rectal temperatures (39.3 vs. 39.0°C) in the afternoon and respiration rate (69 vs. 48 breath/min). Cows from the cooling treatment tended to consume more feed than HT cows prepartum and postpartum. Compared with HT, CL cows gained more weight before calving but lost more weight and body condition in early lactation. Cows from the cooling treatment produced more milk than HT cows (34.0 vs. 27.7 kg/d), but treatments did not affect milk composition. Treatments did not affect circulating insulin and metabolites prepartum, but CL cows had decreased glucose, increased nonesterified fatty acid, and tended to have lower insulin concentrations in plasma postpartum compared with HT cows. Cooling prepartum HT cows did not

  2. The Effect of Peak Temperatures and Hoop Stresses on Hydride Reorientations of Zirconium Alloy Cladding Tubes under Interim Dry Storage Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Hyun Jin; Jang, Ki Nam; Kim, Kyu Tae

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of peak temperatures and hoop tensile stresses on hydride reorientation in cladding was investigated. It was shown that the 250ppm-H specimens generated larger radial hydride fractions and longer radial hydrides than the 500ppm-H ones. The precipitated hydride in radial direction severely degrades mechanical properties of spent fuel rod. Hydride reorientation is related to cladding material, cladding temperature, hydrogen contents, thermal cycling, hoop stress and cooling rate. US NRC established the regulation on cladding temperature during the dry storage, which is the maximum fuel cladding temperature should not exceed 400 .deg. C for all fuel burnups under normal conditions of storage. However, if it is proved that the best estimate cladding hoop stress is equal to or less than 90MPa for the temperature limit proposed, a higher short-term temperature limit is allowed for low burnup fuel. In this study, 250ppm and 500ppm hydrogen-charged Zr-Nb alloy cladding tubes were selected to evaluate the effect of peak temperatures and hoop tensile stresses on the hydride reorientation during the dry storage. In order to evaluate threshold stresses in relation to various peak temperatures, four peak temperatures of 250, 300, 350, and 400 .deg. C and three tensile hoop stresses of 80, 100, 120MPa were selected.

  3. Optimization of hip joint replacement location to decrease maximum von Mi ses Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourjamali, H.; Najarian, S.; Katoozian, H. R.

    2001-01-01

    Hip replacement is used for inoperable femur head injuries and femur fractures where internal fixation can not be used. This operation is one of the most common orthopedic operations that many research have been done about it. Among these we can mention implant and cement materials and composites optimization and also implant shape optimization. This study was designed to optimize artificial hip joint position (placement) to decrease maximal von mi sees stress. First, a model of femur and implant were made and then a computer program was written with the ability to change the position of implant through an acceptable range in the femur. In each of these positions, the program simulated femur and implant according to finite element method and made, applied forces were weight and muscle traction. Our findings show that a small deviation of the implant from femur bone center causes a considerable decrease in von mi sees stress that consequently results in longer maintenance of the implant

  4. Estimation of Stresses in a Dry Sand Layer Tested on Shaking Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Andrzej; Kulczykowski, Marek; Jankowski, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Theoretical analysis of shaking table experiments, simulating earthquake response of a dry sand layer, is presented. The aim of such experiments is to study seismic-induced compaction of soil and resulting settlements. In order to determine the soil compaction, the cyclic stresses and strains should be calculated first. These stresses are caused by the cyclic horizontal acceleration at the base of soil layer, so it is important to determine the stress field as function of the base acceleration. It is particularly important for a proper interpretation of shaking table tests, where the base acceleration is controlled but the stresses are hard to measure, and they can only be deduced. Preliminary experiments have shown that small accelerations do not lead to essential settlements, whilst large accelerations cause some phenomena typical for limit states, including a visible appearance of slip lines. All these problems should be well understood for rational planning of experiments. The analysis of these problems is presented in this paper. First, some heuristic considerations about the dynamics of experimental system are presented. Then, the analysis of boundary conditions, expressed as resultants of respective stresses is shown. A particular form of boundary conditions has been chosen, which satisfies the macroscopic boundary conditions and the equilibrium equations. Then, some considerations are presented in order to obtain statically admissible stress field, which does not exceed the Coulomb-Mohr yield conditions. Such an approach leads to determination of the limit base accelerations, which do not cause the plastic state in soil. It was shown that larger accelerations lead to increase of the lateral stresses, and the respective method, which may replace complex plasticity analyses, is proposed. It is shown that it is the lateral stress coefficient K0 that controls the statically admissible stress field during the shaking table experiments.

  5. Effect of Adding Sugarcane Bagasse and Filter Cake and Wetting and Drying Cycles on Pre-Compaction Stress of Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Nemati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The compaction of soil by agricultural equipment has become a matter of increasing concern because compaction of arable lands may reduce crop growth and yield, and it also has environmental impacts. In nature, soils could be compacted due to its own weights, external loads and internal forces as a result of wetting and drying processes. Soil compaction in sugarcane fields usually occurs due to mechanized harvesting operations by using heavy machinery in wet soils. Adding plant residues to the soil can improve soil structure. To improve soil physical quality of sugarcane fields, it might be suggested to add the bagasse and filter cake, which are the by-products of the sugar industry, to the soils. When a soil has been compacted by field traffic or has settled owing to natural forces, a threshold stress is believed to exist such that loadings inducing lower than the threshold cause little additional compaction, whilst loadings inducing greater stresses than the threshold cause much additional compaction. This threshold is called pre-compaction stress (σpc. The σpc is considered as an index of soil compactibility, the maximum pressure a soil has experienced in the past (i.e. soil management history, and the maximum major principal stress a soil can resist without major plastic deformation and compaction. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of wetting and drying cycles, soil water content, residues type and percent on stress at compaction threshold (σpc. Materials and Methods In this research, the effect of adding sugarcane residues (i.e., bagasse and filter cake with two different rates (1 and 2% on pre-compaction stress (σpc in a silty clay loam soil which was prepared at two relative water contents of 0.9PL (PL= plastic limit, moist and 1.1PL (wet with or without wetting and drying cycles. This study was conducted using a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three

  6. Invited review: heat stress effects during late gestation on dry cows and their calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, S; Dahl, G E

    2013-07-01

    In dairy cattle, late gestation is a critical period for fetal growth and physiological transition into the next lactation. Environmental factors, such as temperature and light, exert dramatic effects on the production, health, and well-being of animals during this period and after parturition. The aim of this review was to introduce effects of heat stress during late gestation on dairy cattle, and discuss the biological mechanisms that underlie the observed production and health responses in the dam and her fetus. Relative to cooled cows, cows that are heat stressed during late gestation have impaired mammary growth before parturition and decreased milk production in the subsequent lactation. In response to higher milk yield, cows cooled prepartum undergo a series of homeorhetic adaptations in early lactation to meet higher demand for milk synthesis compared with heat-stressed cows, but no direct effect of environmental heat stress on metabolism exists during the dry period. Prepartum cooling improves immune status of transition cows and evidence suggests that altered prolactin signaling in immune cells mediates the effects of heat stress on immune function. Late-gestation heat stress compromises placental development, which results in fetal hypoxia, malnutrition, and eventually fetal growth retardation. Maternal heat stress may also have carryover effects on the postnatal growth of offspring, but direct evidence is still lacking. Emerging evidence suggests that offspring from prepartum heat-stressed cows have compromised passive immunity and impaired cell-mediated immune function compared with those from cooled cows. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Some tools to combat dry season nutritional stress in ruminants under African conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.

    2002-01-01

    Dry season nutritional stress is a major constraint to ruminant livestock production in semi-arid areas. After the rains finish, quantity and quality of grazing fall rapidly, leaving cereal crop residues as the major feed resource. These residues are low in N and high in crude fibre, characteristics which restrict intake and digestibility, so that underfeeding results. Improved handling and storage procedures as well as chemical and physical treatments can all improve their quality. Other strategies include: rate of offer of stover; compensatory growth; conservation of fodder. Farmer-selection should also consider multiple use of the options available. (author)

  8. Estimation of fracture conditions of ceramics by thermal shock with laser beams based on the maximum compressive stress criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Shigeru; Amada, Shigeyasu.

    1992-01-01

    Structural ceramics are attracting attention in the development of space planes, aircraft and nuclear fusion reactors because they have excellent wear-resistant and heat-resistant characteristics. However, in some applications it is anticipated that they will be exposed to very-high-temperature environments of the order of thousands of degrees. Therefore, it is very important to investigate their thermal shock characteristics. In this report, the distributions of temperatures and thermal stresses of cylindrically shaped ceramics under irradiation by laser beams are discussed using the finite-element computer code (MARC) with arbitrary quadrilateral axisymmetric ring elements. The relationships between spot diameters of laser beams and maximum values of compressive thermal stresses are derived for various power densities. From these relationships, a critical fracture curve is obtained, and it is compared with the experimental results. (author)

  9. Beneficial effect of daidzin in dry eye rat model through the suppression of inflammation and oxidative stress in the cornea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xiao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Present investigation evaluates the effect of daidzin in dry eye rat model through the suppression of inflammation and oxidative stress in the cornea. Briefly, electron spine resonance was used for the estimation of radical scavenging activity of daidzin and COX Fluorescent Activity Assay Kit was used for the estimation of PGS activity. Dry eye rat model was developed by removing the lacrimal gland and effect of daidzin was evaluated in dry eye rat model by estimating the fluorescein score, tear volume and expressions of heme oxigenase (HO-1, TNF α, Interlukin 6 (IL-6, matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9 and PGS-2. Result of the present study suggested that daidzin possess tyrosyl radical scavenging activity and thereby decreases the oxidative stress. Activity of PGS significantly increases in dry eye which was inhibited by daidzin treatment due to competitive inhibition of PGS. It also recovers the tear volume in dry eye rat model in which lacrimal gland was removed. Thus corneal erosion was improved by daidzin in dry eye rat model. Thus present study concludes that treatment with daidzin protects the cornea in dry eye rat model by suppression inflammation and oxidative stress. Keywords: Daidzin, Dry eye, Radical scavenging activity, Inflammation

  10. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayasari, N.; Chen, J.; Ferrari, A.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Kemp, B.; Parmentier, H.K.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Trevisi, E.

    2017-01-01

    Negative energy balance in dairy cows in early lactation has been associated with increased inflammation and oxidative stress in these cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry period (DP) length and dietary energy source on inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress

  11. Possible roles of vacuolar H+-ATPase and mitochondrial function in tolerance to air-drying stress revealed by genome-wide screening of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Jun; Ando, Akira; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    Yeasts used in bread making are exposed to air-drying stress during dried yeast production processes. To clarify the genes required for air-drying tolerance, we performed genome-wide screening using the complete deletion strain collection of diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The screening identified 278 gene deletions responsible for air-drying sensitivity. These genes were classified based on their cellular function and on the localization of their gene products. The results showed that the genes required for air-drying tolerance were frequently involved in mitochondrial functions and in connection with vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, which plays a role in vacuolar acidification. To determine the role of vacuolar acidification in air-drying stress tolerance, we monitored intracellular pH. The results showed that intracellular acidification was induced during air-drying and that this acidification was amplified in a deletion mutant of the VMA2 gene encoding a component of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, suggesting that vacuolar H(+)-ATPase helps maintain intracellular pH homeostasis, which is affected by air-drying stress. To determine the effects of air-drying stress on mitochondria, we analysed the mitochondrial membrane potential under air-drying stress conditions using MitoTracker. The results showed that mitochondria were extremely sensitive to air-drying stress, suggesting that a mitochondrial function is required for tolerance to air-drying stress. We also analysed the correlation between oxidative-stress sensitivity and air-drying-stress sensitivity. The results suggested that oxidative stress is a critical determinant of sensitivity to air-drying stress, although ROS-scavenging systems are not necessary for air-drying stress tolerance. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Biochemical components and dry matter of lemon and mandarin hybrids under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco V. da S. Sá

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective was to study the biochemical changes and dry matter content in lemon and mandarin hybrids under salt stress during rootstock formation. For this, a study was conducted in randomized complete block, using a 2 x 5 factorial scheme, with two salinity levels (0.3 and 4.0 dS m-1 applied in five citrus rootstock genotypes (1. TSKC x CTARG - 019; 2. LRF; 3. TSKC x (LCR x TR - 040; 4. LCRSTC and 5. LVK, with three replicates and four plants per plot. At 90 days after sowing, saline treatments started to be applied and continued until 120 days after sowing, the moment in which the plants were collected for evaluation of biochemical characteristics and phytomass accumulation. The increase in water salinity negatively affected the biochemical components and dry matter accumulation of citrus genotypes. The genotypes TSKC x (LCR x TR - 040, LCRSTC and LVK were the least affected by salt stress, standing out as the materials most tolerant to salinity.

  13. Beneficial effect of daidzin in dry eye rat model through the suppression of inflammation and oxidative stress in the cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fan; Cui, Hua; Zhong, Xiao

    2018-05-01

    Present investigation evaluates the effect of daidzin in dry eye rat model through the suppression of inflammation and oxidative stress in the cornea. Briefly, electron spine resonance was used for the estimation of radical scavenging activity of daidzin and COX Fluorescent Activity Assay Kit was used for the estimation of PGS activity. Dry eye rat model was developed by removing the lacrimal gland and effect of daidzin was evaluated in dry eye rat model by estimating the fluorescein score, tear volume and expressions of heme oxigenase (HO-1), TNF α, Interlukin 6 (IL-6), matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) and PGS-2. Result of the present study suggested that daidzin possess tyrosyl radical scavenging activity and thereby decreases the oxidative stress. Activity of PGS significantly increases in dry eye which was inhibited by daidzin treatment due to competitive inhibition of PGS. It also recovers the tear volume in dry eye rat model in which lacrimal gland was removed. Thus corneal erosion was improved by daidzin in dry eye rat model. Thus present study concludes that treatment with daidzin protects the cornea in dry eye rat model by suppression inflammation and oxidative stress.

  14. Melatonin treatment at dry-off improves reproductive performance postpartum in high-producing dairy cows under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ispierto, I; Abdelfatah, A; López-Gatius, F

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of melatonin treatment during the early dry-off period on subsequent reproductive performance and milk production in high-producing dairy cows under heat stress conditions. In experiment I, addressing the pharmacokinetics of melatonin treatment in lactating dairy cows, doses of untreated, 3, 6, 9 or 12 implants/animal (18-mg melatonin each implant) were given as subcutaneous implants on gestation day 120-20 multiparous lactating dairy cows (four cows/dose group). Experiment II was performed during the warm season on 25 heifers and 114 high milk-producing Holstein-Friesian cows. Animals were randomly assigned to a control (C) or melatonin group (M). Animals in the M group received nine implants (heifers) or 12 (cows) of melatonin on day 220 of gestation. In experiment I, cows in the 12 implants group showed a higher maximum melatonin concentration (Cmax ) and area under the concentration curve from treatment day 0 to day 49 (AUC0-49d ) than those in the remaining groups, among which there were no significant differences in this variable. In experiment II, the likelihood of repeat breeding syndrome (pregnancy loss (first trimester) were 0.36 and 0.19 times lower in treated than control animals, respectively. Plasma prolactin levels decreased significantly (p = 0.01) after melatonin treatment and recovered during the postpartum compared to control cows. No significant effects on milk production were observed in the subsequent lactation. Significant differences in days open between groups (means 123 ± 71.9 and 103 ± 43, respectively, for C and M; p = 0.02) were registered. In conclusion, melatonin treatment in the early dry-off period improves the reproductive performance of dairy cattle, reducing the number of days open, repeat breeding syndrome and pregnancy loss. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. To reduce the maximum stress and the stress shielding effect around a dental implant-bone interface using radial functionally graded biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharzadeh Shirazi, H; Ayatollahi, M R; Asnafi, A

    2017-05-01

    In a dental implant system, the value of stress and its distribution plays a pivotal role on the strength, durability and life of the implant-bone system. A typical implant consists of a Titanium core and a thin layer of biocompatible material such as the hydroxyapatite. This coating has a wide range of clinical applications in orthopedics and dentistry due to its biocompatibility and bioactivity characteristics. Low bonding strength and sudden variation of mechanical properties between the coating and the metallic layers are the main disadvantages of such common implants. To overcome these problems, a radial distributed functionally graded biomaterial (FGBM) was proposed in this paper and the effect of material property on the stress distribution around the dental implant-bone interface was studied. A three-dimensional finite element simulation was used to illustrate how the use of radial FGBM dental implant can reduce the maximum von Mises stress and, also the stress shielding effect in both the cortical and cancellous bones. The results, of course, give anybody an idea about optimized behaviors that can be achieved using such materials. The finite element solver was validated by familiar methods and the results were compared to previous works in the literature.

  16. Assimilation and Translocation of Dry Matter and Phosphorus in Rice Genotypes Affected by Salt-Alkaline Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Tian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Salt-alkaline stress generally leads to soil compaction and fertility decline. It also restricts rice growth and phosphorus acquisition. In this pot experiment, two relatively salt-alkaline tolerant (Dongdao-4 and Changbai-9 and sensitive (Changbai-25 and Tongyu-315 rice genotypes were planted in sandy (control and salt-alkaline soil to evaluate the characteristics of dry matter and phosphorus assimilation and translocation in rice. The results showed that dry matter and phosphorus assimilation in rice greatly decreased under salt-alkaline stress as the plants grew. The translocation and contribution of dry matter and phosphorus to the grains also increased markedly; different performances were observed between genotypes under salt-alkaline stress. D4 and C9 showed higher dry matter translocation, translocation efficiency and contribution of dry matter assimilation to panicles than those of C25 and T315. These changes in D4 and C9 indexes occurred at low levels of salt-alkaline treatment. Higher phosphorus acquisition efficiency of D4 and C9 were also found under salt-alkaline conditions. Additionally, the phosphorus translocation significantly decreased in C25 and T315 in the stress treatment. In conclusion, the results indicated that salt-alkaline-tolerant rice genotypes may have stronger abilities to assimilate and transfer biomass and phosphorus than sensitive genotypes, especially in salt-alkaline conditions.

  17. 19 mm sized bileaflet valve prostheses' flow field investigated by bidimensional laser Doppler anemometry (part II: maximum turbulent shear stresses)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, V; Grigioni, M; Daniele, C; D'Avenio, G; Boccanera, G

    1997-11-01

    The investigation of the flow field generated by cardiac valve prostheses is a necessary task to gain knowledge on the possible relationship between turbulence-derived stresses and the hemolytic and thrombogenic complications in patients after valve replacement. The study of turbulence flows downstream of cardiac prostheses, in literature, especially concerns large-sized prostheses with a variable flow regime from very low up to 6 L/min. The Food and Drug Administration draft guidance requires the study of the minimum prosthetic size at a high cardiac output to reach the maximum Reynolds number conditions. Within the framework of a national research project regarding the characterization of cardiovascular endoprostheses, an in-depth study of turbulence generated downstream of bileaflet cardiac valves is currently under way at the Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering of the Istituto Superiore di Sanita. Four models of 19 mm bileaflet valve prostheses were used: St Jude Medical HP, Edwards Tekna, Sorin Bicarbon, and CarboMedics. The prostheses were selected for the nominal Tissue Annulus Diameter as reported by manufacturers without any assessment of valve sizing method, and were mounted in aortic position. The aortic geometry was scaled for 19 mm prostheses using angiographic data. The turbulence-derived shear stresses were investigated very close to the valve (0.35 D0), using a bidimensional Laser Doppler anemometry system and applying the Principal Stress Analysis. Results concern typical turbulence quantities during a 50 ms window at peak flow in the systolic phase. Conclusions are drawn regarding the turbulence associated to valve design features, as well as the possible damage to blood constituents.

  18. Modeling and Parameter Optimization for Surface Roughness and Residual Stress in Dry Turning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. El-Axir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of some turning variables and tool overhang on surface roughness parameters and residual stress induced due to machining 6061-T6 aluminum alloy is investigated in this paper. Four input parameters (cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool overhang are considered. Tests are carried out by precision turning operation on a lathe. Design of experiment techniques, i.e. response surface methodology (RSM and Taguchi's technique have been used to accomplish the objective of the experimental study. Surface roughness parameters are measured using a portable surface roughness device while residual stresses are measured employing deflection-etching technique using electrochemical analysis. The results obtained reveal that feed and rotational speed play significant role in determining the average surface roughness. Furthermore, the depth of cut and tool overhang are less significant parameters, whereas tool overhang interacts with feed rate. The best result of surface roughness was obtained using low or medium values of overhang with low speed and /or feed rate. Minimum maximum tensile residual stress can be obtained with a combination of tool overhang of 37 mm with very low depth of cut, low rotational speed and feed rate of 0.188 mm/rev.

  19. Short communication: Effect of heat stress on markers of autophagy in the mammary gland during the dry period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, S E; Ramirez-Lee, Y; Tao, S; Monteiro, A P A; Ahmed, B M; Dahl, G E

    2016-06-01

    Heat stress (HT) during the dry period compromises mammary gland (MG) growth, thus negatively affecting subsequent milk yield. Cooling during the late dry period, when mammary tissue proliferates, is a common management practice. However, it neglects MG involution during the early dry period, a process that is accomplished by both apoptosis and autophagy. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of HT on MG autophagy during the early dry period. Holstein cows were dried off ~45d before expected calving and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: HT or cooling (CL). All cows were housed in the same free stall barn during the dry period, but only the stall area for CL cows was equipped with soakers and fans. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were measured daily during the dry period. Mammary gland biopsies were collected from each cow 3d before dry-off and on d 3, 7, 14, and 22±2 after dry-off. Autophagy in the MG was determined by measuring protein expression of 2 autophagic markers, autophagy-related protein 7 and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3). The average temperature-humidity index during the dry period was 77.7, which indicated that HT and CL cows were exposed to significant heat stress. However, the cooling system effectively alleviated heat strain in CL cows by decreasing the rectal temperature (39.0 vs. 39.4°C) and respiration rate (47.3 vs. 71.2 breaths per minute) relative to HT cows. Protein expression of autophagy-related protein 7, a marker for early autophagosome formation, did not change within or between groups. In contrast, protein expression of LC3-II, a marker of autophagosomes, and its precursor LC3-I showed a dynamic expression pattern in MG from CL cows during the early dry period. Relative to HT cows, MG from CL cows displayed higher expression of LC3-I and LC3-II on d 7 and lower expression of LC3-II on d 14 and 22 after dry-off. Collectively, our data provide a possible mechanistic explanation for the impairment of

  20. Development of relative thermal stress index (RTSI) for Monitoring and Management of Dry Deciduous Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R. K.; Vijayan, D.

    Gir wildlife sanctuary located between 20 r 57 to 21 r 20 N and 70 r 28 to 71 r 13 E is the last home of Asiatic lions Its biodiversity comprises of 450 recorded flowering plant species 32 species of mammals 26 species of reptiles about 300 species of birds and more than 2000 species of insects As per 1995 census it has 304 lions and 268 leopards The movement of wildlife to thermally comfortable zones to reduce stress conditions forces the changes in management plan with reference to change in localized water demand This necessitates the use of space based thermal data available from AVHRR MODIS etc to monitor temperature of Gir-ecosystem for meso-scale level operational utility As the time scale of the variability of NDVI parameter is much higher than that for lower boundary temperature LBT the dense patch in riverine forest having highest NDVI value would not experience change in its vigour with the change in the season NDVI value of such patch would be near invariant over the year and temperature of this pixel could serve as reference temperature for developing the concept of relative thermal stress index RTSI which is defined as RTSI T p -T r T max -T r wherein T r T max and T p refer to LBT over the maximum NDVI reference point maximum LBT observed in the Gir ecosystem and the temperature of the pixel in the image respectively RTSI images were computed from AVHRR images for post-monsoon leaf-shedded and summer seasons Scatter plot between RTSI and NDVI for summer seasons

  1. Adaptive transgenerational plasticity in an annual plant: grandparental and parental drought stress enhance performance of seedlings in dry soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Jacob J; Sultan, Sonia E; Horgan-Kobelski, Tim; Riggs, Charlotte

    2012-07-01

    Stressful parental (usually maternal) environments can dramatically influence expression of traits in offspring, in some cases resulting in phenotypes that are adaptive to the inducing stress. The ecological and evolutionary impact of such transgenerational plasticity depends on both its persistence across generations and its adaptive value. Few studies have examined both aspects of transgenerational plasticity within a given system. Here we report the results of a growth-chamber study of adaptive transgenerational plasticity across two generations, using the widespread annual plant Polygonum persicaria as a naturally evolved model system. We grew five inbred Polygonum genetic lines in controlled dry vs. moist soil environments for two generations in a fully factorial design, producing replicate individuals of each genetic line with all permutations of grandparental and parental environment. We then measured the effects of these two-generational stress histories on traits critical for functioning in dry soil, in a third (grandchild) generation of seedling offspring raised in the dry treatment. Both grandparental and parental moisture environment significantly influenced seedling development: seedlings of drought-stressed grandparents or parents produced longer root systems that extended deeper and faster into dry soil compared with seedlings of the same genetic lines whose grandparents and/or parents had been amply watered. Offspring of stressed individuals also grew to a greater biomass than offspring of nonstressed parents and grandparents. Importantly, the effects of drought were cumulative over the course of two generations: when both grandparents and parents were drought-stressed, offspring had the greatest provisioning, germinated earliest, and developed into the largest seedlings with the most extensive root systems. Along with these functionally appropriate developmental effects, seedlings produced after two previous drought-stressed generations had

  2. Extreme warmth and heat-stressed plankton in the tropics during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieling, Joost; Gebhardt, Holger; Huber, Matthew; Adekeye, Olabisi A; Akande, Samuel O; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Middelburg, Jack J; Schouten, Stefan; Sluijs, Appy

    2017-03-01

    Global ocean temperatures rapidly warmed by ~5°C during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~56 million years ago). Extratropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) met or exceeded modern subtropical values. With these warm extratropical temperatures, climate models predict tropical SSTs >35°C-near upper physiological temperature limits for many organisms. However, few data are available to test these projected extreme tropical temperatures or their potential lethality. We identify the PETM in a shallow marine sedimentary section deposited in Nigeria. On the basis of planktonic foraminiferal Mg/Ca and oxygen isotope ratios and the molecular proxy [Formula: see text], latest Paleocene equatorial SSTs were ~33°C, and [Formula: see text] indicates that SSTs rose to >36°C during the PETM. This confirms model predictions on the magnitude of polar amplification and refutes the tropical thermostat theory. We attribute a massive drop in dinoflagellate abundance and diversity at peak warmth to thermal stress, showing that the base of tropical food webs is vulnerable to rapid warming.

  3. Rigid MATLAB drivetrain model of a 500 kW wind turbine for predicting maximum gear tooth stresses in a planetary gearbox using multibody gear constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Felix; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2014-01-01

    multiple planetary gears are not taken into account. Finite Element Method (FEM) calculations show that when the wind turbine runs close to the maximum wind speed, the maximum gear tooth stress is in the range of 500–700 MPa, which is considered to be realistic using a “worst-case” method. The presented...... for not only transferring torque but also for calculating the gear tooth and internal body reaction forces. The method is appropriate for predicting gear tooth stresses without considering all the complexity of gear tooth geometries. This means that, e.g. gear tooth load-sharing and load-distribution among...

  4. Use of Maximum Likelihood-Mixed Models to select stable reference genes: a case of heat stress response in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salces Judit

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reference genes with stable expression are required to normalize expression differences of target genes in qPCR experiments. Several procedures and companion software have been proposed to find the most stable genes. Model based procedures are attractive because they provide a solid statistical framework. NormFinder, a widely used software, uses a model based method. The pairwise comparison procedure implemented in GeNorm is a simpler procedure but one of the most extensively used. In the present work a statistical approach based in Maximum Likelihood estimation under mixed models was tested and compared with NormFinder and geNorm softwares. Sixteen candidate genes were tested in whole blood samples from control and heat stressed sheep. Results A model including gene and treatment as fixed effects, sample (animal, gene by treatment, gene by sample and treatment by sample interactions as random effects with heteroskedastic residual variance in gene by treatment levels was selected using goodness of fit and predictive ability criteria among a variety of models. Mean Square Error obtained under the selected model was used as indicator of gene expression stability. Genes top and bottom ranked by the three approaches were similar; however, notable differences for the best pair of genes selected for each method and the remaining genes of the rankings were shown. Differences among the expression values of normalized targets for each statistical approach were also found. Conclusions Optimal statistical properties of Maximum Likelihood estimation joined to mixed model flexibility allow for more accurate estimation of expression stability of genes under many different situations. Accurate selection of reference genes has a direct impact over the normalized expression values of a given target gene. This may be critical when the aim of the study is to compare expression rate differences among samples under different environmental

  5. Wheat cultivars selected for high Fv /Fm under heat stress maintain high photosynthesis, total chlorophyll, stomatal conductance, transpiration and dry matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Sven Bode; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2015-02-01

    The chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv /Fm reflects the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry and has been widely used for early stress detection in plants. Previously, we have used a three-tiered approach of phenotyping by Fv /Fm to identify naturally existing genetic variation for tolerance to severe heat stress (3 days at 40°C in controlled conditions) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Here we investigated the performance of the previously selected cultivars (high and low group based on Fv /Fm value) in terms of growth and photosynthetic traits under moderate heat stress (1 week at 36/30°C day/night temperature in greenhouse) closer to natural heat waves in North-Western Europe. Dry matter accumulation after 7 days of heat stress was positively correlated to Fv /Fm . The high Fv /Fm group maintained significantly higher total chlorophyll and net photosynthetic rate (PN ) than the low group, accompanied by higher stomatal conductance (gs ), transpiration rate (E) and evaporative cooling of the leaf (ΔT). The difference in PN between the groups was not caused by differences in PSII capacity or gs as the variation in Fv /Fm and intracellular CO2 (Ci ) was non-significant under the given heat stress. This study validated that our three-tiered approach of phenotyping by Fv /Fm performed under increasing severity of heat was successful in identifying wheat cultivars differing in photosynthesis under moderate and agronomically more relevant heat stress. The identified cultivars may serve as a valuable resource for further studies to understand the physiological mechanisms underlying the genetic variability in heat sensitivity of photosynthesis. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  6. Welding-induced local maximum residual stress in heat affected zone of low-carbon austenitic stainless steel with machined surface layer and its influential factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Shigetaka; Ihara, Ryohei; Kanamaru, Daisuke; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of work-hardening and pre-existing stress in the machined surface layer of low-carbon austenitic stainless steel on the welding-induced residual stress were experimentally investigated through the use of weld specimens with three different surface layers; as-cutout, mechanically-polished and electrolytically-polished. The high tensile and compressive stresses exist in the work-hardened surface layer of the as-cutout and mechanically-polished specimens, respectively. Meanwhile, no stress and work-hardened surface layer exist in the electrolytically-polished specimen. TIG bead-on-plate welding under the same welding heat input conditions was performed to introduce the residual stress into these specimens. Using these welded specimens, the distributions of welding-induced residual stress were measured by the X-ray diffraction method. Similarly, the distributions of hardness in welds were estimated by the Vickers hardness test. And then, these distributions were compared with one another. Based on the results, the residual stress in the weld metal (WM) is completely unaffected by the machined surface layer because the work-hardened surface layer disappears through the processes of melting and solidification during welding. The local maximum longitudinal tensile residual stress in the heat affected zone (HAZ) depends on the work-hardening but not on the existing stress, regardless of whether tensile or compressive, in the machined surface layer before welding. At the base metal far from WM and HAZ, the residual stress is formed by the addition of the welding-induced residual stress to the pre-existing stress in the machined surface layer before welding. The features of the welding-induced residual stress in low-carbon austenitic stainless steel with the machined surface layer and their influential factors were thus clarified. (author)

  7. Diversity and production of Ethiopian dry woodlands explained by climate- and soil- stress gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshete, A.; Sterck, F.J.; Bongers, F.

    2011-01-01

    Dry woodlands cover about 14% of the total African land surface and represent about 25% of the natural vegetation. They are characterized by a seasonal climate, with a dry season of 4–7 months. Large parts of these ecosystems are degrading due to grazing, fire or exploitation by people. We studied

  8. Numerical estimates of the maximum sustainable pore pressure in anticline formations using the tensor based concept of pore pressure-stress coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Eckert

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The advanced tensor based concept of pore pressure-stress coupling is used to provide pre-injection analytical estimates of the maximum sustainable pore pressure change, ΔPc, for fluid injection scenarios into generic anticline geometries. The heterogeneous stress distribution for different prevailing stress regimes in combination with the Young's modulus (E contrast between the injection layer and the cap rock and the interbedding friction coefficient, μ, may result in large spatial and directional differences of ΔPc. A single value characterizing the cap rock as for horizontal layered injection scenarios is not obtained. It is observed that a higher Young's modulus in the cap rock and/or a weak mechanical coupling between layers amplifies the maximum and minimum ΔPc values in the valley and limb, respectively. These differences in ΔPc imposed by E and μ are further amplified by different stress regimes. The more compressional the stress regime is, the larger the differences between the maximum and minimum ΔPc values become. The results of this study show that, in general compressional stress regimes yield the largest magnitudes of ΔPc and extensional stress regimes provide the lowest values of ΔPc for anticline formations. Yet this conclusion has to be considered with care when folded anticline layers are characterized by flexural slip and the friction coefficient between layers is low, i.e. μ = 0.1. For such cases of weak mechanical coupling, ΔPc magnitudes may range from 0 MPa to 27 MPa, indicating imminent risk of fault reactivation in the cap rock.

  9. The interplay of stress and mowing disturbance for the intensity and importance of plant interactions in dry calcareous grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Jean-Paul; Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Yoann; Marchand, Lilian; Touzard, Blaise; Michalet, Richard

    2012-09-01

    There is still debate regarding the direction and strength of plant interactions under intermediate to high levels of stress. Furthermore, little is known on how disturbance may interact with physical stress in unproductive environments, although recent theory and models have shown that this interplay may induce a collapse of plant interactions and diversity. The few studies assessing such questions have considered the intensity of biotic interactions but not their importance, although this latter concept has been shown to be very useful for understanding the role of interactions in plant communities. The objective of this study was to assess the interplay between stress and disturbance for plant interactions in dry calcareous grasslands. A field experiment was set up in the Dordogne, southern France, where the importance and intensity of biotic interactions undergone by four species were measured along a water stress gradient, and with and without mowing disturbance. The importance and intensity of interactions varied in a very similar way along treatments. Under undisturbed conditions, plant interactions switched from competition to neutral with increasing water stress for three of the four species, whereas the fourth species was not subject to any significant biotic interaction along the gradient. Responses to disturbance were more species-specific; for two species, competition disappeared with mowing in the wettest conditions, whereas for the two other species, competition switched to facilitation with mowing. Finally, there were no significant interactions for any species in the disturbed and driest conditions. At very high levels of stress, plant performances become too weak to allow either competition or facilitation and disturbance may accelerate the collapse of interactions in dry conditions. The results suggest that the importance and direction of interactions are more likely to be positively related in stressful environments.

  10. Dry Matter Accumulation and Remobilization in Grain Sorghum Genotypes (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (underNormal and Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Beheshti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Production, remobilization and accumulation of assimilates in crops especially under water stress are essential factors for determination and studying the yield differences of species and cultivars. Field experiment was conducted using a split plot design based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replication s during 2007 growing season in agricultural research station (Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Center, Mashhad-Iran. Main plots were consisted of 2 levels of water, water deficit after anthesis and normal condition (with out water stress and factorial arrangement of photosynthesis status (non desiccation and chemical desiccation with potassium iodide and 3 grain sorghum genotypes (Sepide, M5 and M2 promising lines were assigned to sub plots. Results of variance analysis showed, that the effects of water stress on dry matter accumulation, efficiency of remobilization (REE, percent of remobilization (REP, biologic yield were significant in (p≤0.01 (and grain yield (economic yield was significant in p≤0.05, respectively. Water deficit caused an increase of 10.08%, 24.45 % and 12.43% in dry matter accumulation, percent of remobilization and efficiency of remobilization, respectively as compared to normal conditions. This in turn was led to decrease in seed yield, biological yield and harvest index by 36.38%, 5.43% and 31.60%, respectively. The effect of disturbance in current photosynthesis was significant in all of traits and caused the increase of 15.58%, 17.5% and 36.62% in dry matter accumulation, efficiency of remobilization and percent of remobilization, respectively. The role of remobilization was crucial in sorghum genotypes. Interaction between factors showed that highest dry matter accumulation, percentage of remobilization and efficiency of remobilization was in drought stress and disturbance in current photosynthesis and was 16.62%, 62.54 and 24.60%, respectively and was significantly

  11. Antioxidant N-acetyltransferase Mpr1/2 of industrial baker's yeast enhances fermentation ability after air-drying stress in bread dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasano, Yu; Takahashi, Shunsuke; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2010-03-31

    During bread-making processes, yeast cells are exposed to multiple stresses. Air-drying stress is one of the most harmful stresses by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previously, we discovered that the novel N-acetyltransferase Mpr1/2 confers oxidative stress tolerance by reducing intracellular ROS level in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sigma1278b strain. In this study, we revealed that Japanese industrial baker's yeast possesses one MPR gene. The nucleotide sequence of the MPR gene in industrial baker's yeast was identical to the MPR2 gene in Sigma1278b strain. Gene disruption analysis showed that the MPR2 gene in industrial baker's yeast is involved in air-drying stress tolerance by reducing the intracellular oxidation levels. We also found that expression of the Lys63Arg and Phe65Leu variants with enhanced enzymatic activity and stability, respectively, increased the fermentation ability of bread dough after exposure to air-drying stress compared with the wild-type Mpr1. In addition, our recent study showed that industrial baker's yeast cells accumulating proline exhibited enhanced freeze tolerance in bread dough. Proline accumulation also enhanced the fermentation ability after air-drying stress treatment in industrial baker's yeast. Hence, the antioxidant enzyme Mpr1/2 could be promising for breeding novel yeast strains that are tolerant to air-drying stress. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Chinese traditional medicine anti-fatigue prescription on the concentration of the serum testosterone and cortisol in male rats under stress of maximum intensive training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Ling; Si Xulan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of chinese traditional medicine anti-fatigue prescription on the concentration of the serum testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) in male rats under the stress of maximum intensive training. Methods: Wistar male rat models of stress under maximum intensity training were established (n=40) and half of them were treated with Chinese traditional medicine anti-fatigue prescription twenty undisturbed rats served as controls. Testosterone and cortisol serum levels were determined with RIA at the end of the seven weeks' experiment. Results: Maximum intensive training would cause the level of the serum testosterone lowered, the concentration of the cortisol elevated and the ratio of T/C reduced. The serum T levels and T/C ratio were significantly lower and cortisol levels significantly higher in the untreated models than those in the treated models and controls (P<0.01). The levels of the two hormones were markedly corrected in the treated models with no significantly differences from those in the controls. However, the T/C ratio was still significantly lower than that in the controls (P <0.05) due to a relatively slightly greater degree of reduction of T levels. Conclusion: Anti-fatigue prescription can not only promote the recovery of fatigue after the maximum intensive training but also strengthen the anabolism of the rats. (authors)

  13. Aging Impairs Whole-Body Heat Loss in Women under Both Dry and Humid Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notley, Sean R; Poirier, Martin P; Hardcastle, Stephen G; Flouris, Andreas D; Boulay, Pierre; Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-11-01

    This study was designed to determine whether age-related impairments in whole-body heat loss, which are known to exist in dry heat, also occur in humid heat in women. To evaluate this possibility, 10 young (25 ± 4 yr) and 10 older (51 ± 7 yr) women matched for body surface area (young, 1.69 ± 0.11; older, 1.76 ± 0.14 m, P = 0.21) and peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak) (young, 38.6 ± 4.6; older, 34.8 ± 6.6 mL·kg·min, P = 0.15) performed four 15-min bouts of cycling at a fixed metabolic heat production rate (300 W; equivalent to ~45% V˙O2peak), each separated by a 15-min recovery, in dry (35°C, 20% relative humidity) and humid heat (35°C, 60% relative humidity). Total heat loss (evaporative ± dry heat exchange) and metabolic heat production were measured using direct and indirect calorimetry, respectively. Body heat storage was measured as the temporal summation of heat production and loss. Total heat loss was lower in humid conditions compared with dry conditions during all exercise bouts in both groups (all P body heat storage in young and older women, respectively (both P body heat storage was 29% and 16% greater in older women compared with young women in dry and humid conditions, respectively (both P < 0.05). Increasing ambient humidity reduces heat loss capacity in young and older women. However, older women display impaired heat loss relative to young women in both dry and humid heat, and may therefore be at greater risk of heat-related injury during light-to-moderate activity.

  14. Effect of water stress on seedling growth in two species with different abundances: the importance of Stress Resistance Syndrome in seasonally dry tropical forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa Nepomuceno Ferreira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn seasonally dry tropical forests, species carrying attributes of Stress Resistance Syndrome (SRS may have ecological advantages over species demanding high quantities of resources. In such forests, Poincianella bracteosa is abundant, while Libidibia ferrea has low abundance; therefore, we hypothesized that P. bracteosa has characteristics of low-resource species, while L. ferrea has characteristics of high-resource species. To test this hypothesis, we assessed morphological and physiological traits of seedlings of these species under different water regimes (100%, 70%, 40%, and 10% field capacity over 85 days. For most of the studied variables we observed significant decreases with increasing water stress, and these reductions were greater in L. ferrea. As expected, L. ferreamaximized their growth with increased water supply, while P. bracteosa maintained slower growth and had minor adjustments in biomass allocation, characteristics representative of low-resource species that are less sensitive to stress. We observed that specific leaf area, biomass allocation to roots, and root/shoot ratio were higher in L. ferrea, while biomass allocation to leaves and photosynthesis were higher in P. bracteosa. Results suggest that the attributes of SRS can facilitate high abundance of P. bracteosa in dry forest.

  15. Modeling heat stress effect on Holstein cows under hot and dry conditions: selection tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabaño, M J; Bachagha, K; Ramón, M; Díaz, C

    2014-12-01

    Data from milk recording of Holstein-Friesian cows together with weather information from 2 regions in Southern Spain were used to define the models that can better describe heat stress response for production traits and somatic cell score (SCS). Two sets of analyses were performed, one aimed at defining the population phenotypic response and the other at studying the genetic components. The first involved 2,514,762 test-day records from up to 5 lactations of 128,112 cows. Two models, one fitting a comfort threshold for temperature and a slope of decay after the threshold, and the other a cubic Legendre polynomial (LP) model were tested. Average (TAVE) and maximum daily temperatures were alternatively considered as covariates. The LP model using TAVE as covariate showed the best goodness of fit for all traits. Estimated rates of decay from this model for production at 25 and 34°C were 36 and 170, 3.8 and 3.0, and 3.9 and 8.2g/d per degree Celsius for milk, fat, and protein yield, respectively. In the second set of analyses, a sample of 280,958 test-day records from first lactations of 29,114 cows was used. Random regression models including quadratic or cubic LP regressions (TEM_) on TAVE or a fixed threshold and an unknown slope (DUMMY), including or not cubic regressions on days in milk (DIM3_), were tested. For milk and SCS, the best models were the DIM3_ models. In contrast, for fat and protein yield, the best model was TEM3. The DIM3DUMMY models showed similar performance to DIM3TEM3. The estimated genetic correlations between the same trait under cold and hot temperatures (ρ) indicated the existence of a large genotype by environment interaction for fat (ρ=0.53 for model TEM3) and protein yield (ρ around 0.6 for DIM3TEM3) and for SCS (ρ=0.64 for model DIM3TEM3), and a small genotype by environment interaction for milk (ρ over 0.8). The eigendecomposition of the additive genetic covariance matrix from model TEM3 showed the existence of a dominant

  16. Crack onset assessment near the sharp material inclusion tip by means of modified maximum tangential stress criterion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krepl, Ondřej; Klusák, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 42 (2017), s. 66-73 ISSN 1971-8993 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-18702S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Generalized fracture mechanics * Sharp material inclusion * Singular and non-singular stress terms Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics OBOR OECD: Audio engineering, reliability analysis

  17. Reduced heat stress in offices in the tropics using solar powered drying of the supply air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars; Santos, A M B

    2002-01-01

    air may facilitate personal cooling by increased evaporation of sweat. Heat acclimatized people with efficient sweating may in particular benefit from this cooling. A prototype solar powered supply system for dried-only air was made. Air from the system was mixed with room air, heated to six different...... content of room air, temperature of supply air and moisture content of supply air was developed based on the experiments. Reduction of moisture content in the supply air by 1.6 g/kg had the same effect as lowering the operative temperature by 1 degree C. The solar-powered system for supplying dry air...... is a low-cost alternative to traditional air conditioning in hot and humid regions....

  18. Stress tolerance and ecophysiological ability of an invader and a native species in a seasonally dry tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marciel Teixeira; Matzek, Virginia; Dias Medeiros, Camila; Rivas, Rebeca; Falcão, Hiram Marinho; Santos, Mauro Guida

    2014-01-01

    Ecophysiological traits of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. and a phylogenetically and ecologically similar native species, Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan, were studied to understand the invasive species' success in caatinga, a seasonally dry tropical forest ecosystem of the Brazilian Northeast. To determine if the invader exhibited a superior resource-capture or a resource-conservative strategy, we measured biophysical and biochemical parameters in both species during dry and wet months over the course of two years. The results show that P. juliflora benefits from a flexible strategy in which it frequently outperforms the native species in resource capture traits under favorable conditions (e.g., photosynthesis), while also showing better stress tolerance (e.g., antioxidant activity) and water-use efficiency in unfavorable conditions. In addition, across both seasons the invasive has the advantage over the native with higher chlorophyll/carotenoids and chlorophyll a/b ratios, percent N, and leaf protein. We conclude that Prosopis juliflora utilizes light, water and nutrients more efficiently than Anadenanthera colubrina, and suffers lower intensity oxidative stress in environments with reduced water availability and high light radiation.

  19. Improvement of Outcome Measures of Dry Eye by a Novel Integrin Antagonist in the Murine Desiccating Stress Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Achim H; Corrales, Rosa M; Pelegrino, Flavia S A; Tukler-Henriksson, Johanna; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; de Paiva, Cintia S

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the effects of GW559090, a novel, competitive, and high-affinity α4 integrin antagonist, in a murine model of dry eye. Through interaction with vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and fibronectin α4β1 integrin is involved in leukocyte trafficking and activation. Female C57BL/6 mice, aged 6 to 8 weeks, were subjected to desiccating stress (DS). Bilateral topical twice daily treatment with GW559090 was compared to vehicle-treated controls. Treatment was initiated at the time of DS induction. Treatment effects were assessed on corneal staining with Oregon Green Dextran (OGD) and expression of inflammatory markers in ocular surface tissues by real time PCR. Dendritic cell activation was measured in draining cervical lymph nodes (CLN) by flow cytometry. Separate groups of mice received GW559090 subcutaneously to evaluate the effects of systemic administration on corneal staining and cells in CLN. Topical GW559090 significantly reduced corneal uptake of OGD compared to vehicle-treated disease controls in a dose-dependent manner (1, 3, 10, and 30 mg/mL) with 30 mg/mL showing the greatest reduction in OGD staining. When administered topically, corneal expression of IL-1α, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, chemokine ligand 9 (CXCL9), and TGF-β1 was reduced in GW559090-treated eyes. Topical treatment with GW559090 decreased dendritic cell activation in lymph nodes. The effects on corneal staining and cellular composition in CLN were not reproduced by systemic administration of GW559090, suggestive of a local role for integrin antagonism in the treatment of dry eye. The novel α4 integrin antagonist, GW559090, improved outcome measures of corneal staining and ocular surface inflammation in this murine model of dry eye. These results indicate the potential of this novel agent for the treatment of dry eye disease.

  20. Clinical and Molecular Inflammatory Response in Sjögren Syndrome-Associated Dry Eye Patients Under Desiccating Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Miguel, Alberto; Tesón, Marisa; Martín-Montañez, Vicente; Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Amalia; Stern, Michael E; González-García, María J; Calonge, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the response of the lacrimal function unit in Sjögren syndrome (SS)-associated dry eye patients exposed to 2 simulated daily life environmental conditions. Prospective crossover pilot study. Fourteen female SS dry eye patients were exposed for 2 hours to a controlled normal condition (23 C, 45% relative humidity, and air flow 0.10 m/s) and a controlled adverse condition that simulates desiccating stress (23 C, 5% relative humidity, and air flow 0.10 m/s). The following dry eye tests were performed before and after the exposure: tear osmolarity, phenol red thread test, conjunctival hyperemia, fluorescein tear break-up time, corneal fluorescein staining, conjunctival lissamine green staining, and Schirmer test. Levels of 16 molecules were analyzed in tears by multiplex immunobead analysis. Clinical evaluation showed lacrimal functional unit impairment after the desiccating stress: significantly increased tear osmolarity (315.7 ± 3.0 vs 327.7 ± 5.1 mOsm/L, P = .03), conjunctival hyperemia (1.3 ± 0.1 vs 1.6 ± 0.1, P = .05), and corneal staining in temporal (3.5 ± 0.5 vs 4.7 ± 0.4, P = .01) and nasal (3.6 ± 0.5 vs 4.5 ± 0.5, P = .04) areas. Tear concentrations increased for interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (16 557.1 ± 4047.8 vs 31 895.3 ± 5916.5 pg/mL, P = .01), interleukin-6 (63.8 ± 20.2 vs 111.5 ± 29.6 pg/mL, P = .02), interleukin-8 (2196.1 ± 737.9 vs 3753.2 ± 1106.0 pg/mL, P = .03), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (101 515.6 ± 37 088.4 vs 145 867.1 ± 41 651.5 pg/mL, P = .03). After the simulated normal condition, only a significant increase in nasal corneal staining (2.9 ± 0.5 vs 3.6 ± 0.5, P = .03) was observed. Even a short exposure to a desiccating environment can produce a significant deterioration of the lacrimal function unit in female SS dry eye patients. The often unnoticed exposure to these conditions during daily life may increase inflammatory activity rapidly, triggering an ocular surface deterioration. Copyright © 2016

  1. Dried apple enriched with mandarin juice counteracts tamoxifen induced oxidative stress in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    CODOÑER FRANCH, PILAR; Betoret Valls, María Ester; López Jaén, Ana Belén; Betoret Valls, Noelia; Fito Maupoey, Pedro; Valls Bellés, Maria Victoria

    2013-01-01

    [EN] The effect of a product made of dehydrated apples enriched with mandarin juice by vacuum impregnation on markers of oxidative stress (plasma antioxidant capacity, carbonyl groups (CGs), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8OHdG) and alpha-tocopherol) was tested in rats. Six groups of animals were studied: one group was fed a standard diet; two groups were supplemented with dehydrated apple either impregnated or not with mandarin juice throughout 28 days; and three groups (one unsupplemented and two...

  2. Changes in biochemical proxy indicators for nutritional stress resilience from Boran and Nguni cows reared in dry arid rangeland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapfumo, Lizwell; Muchenje, Voster; Mupangwa, John F; Scholtz, Michiel M

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the changes in biochemical indicators for nutritional stress from a herd of Boran and Nguni cows. A total of 40 cows (20 from each herd) were randomly selected for the study. The animals were identified according to their parities as follows: parity 1 (n = 8), parity 2 (n = 16), parity 3 (n = 8) and parity 4 (n = 8). Serum chemistry levels of glucose, total cholesterol, urea, creatinine, albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutylaminotransferase (GGT), leukocytes, erythrocytes, haemoglobin, packed cell volume (PCV) and platelet counts were determined for 12 consecutive months spanning across the wet and dry seasons. The Boran cows had different creatinine concentration levels at different parities. The Boran cows in parity 1 had the highest (P cows in different parities within the herd. There were significant differences in enzymes such as AST, ALP and ALT among the herd and parities. Boran cows in parity 3 had the lowest (P cows in parity 4 had the highest concentration of ALP of 161.3 ± 8.10 U/L while Nguni cows in parity 1 had the highest concentration level of ALT 55.1 ± 1.56 U/L than all the cows within the same herd. The Nguni herd had significantly higher (P Cows from the Nguni herd maintained significantly higher amount of urea, creatinine, albumin and total protein in both the wet and dry seasons as compared with cows from the Boran herd. Cows from the Nguni herd maintained significantly higher amount of urea, creatinine, albumin and total protein in both the wet and dry seasons as compared with those from the Boran herd.

  3. Dry matter yield and nitrogen-15 uptake by tomatoes under sodium chloride stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessarakli, M.; Tucker, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    An absorption study was conducted in nutrient solution with seedlings of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill; cv. Columbia) to observe the effects of NaCl on ( 15 N) uptake and distribution in plant roots and shoots. The 14-d-old seedlings were grown for 16 d in complete Hoagland solution no. 1, then salinized (except the controls, -0.03 MPa) to -0.3, -0.6, and -0.9 MPa osmotic potentials with NaCl. Nutrient solutions were sampled daily for N loss after addition of 15 NH 4 15 NO 3 to the pots. The cumulative 15 N loss was considered to be absorbed by plants. Lowering the osmotic potential of the culture solution decreased total N uptake at all salinity levels, and 15 N uptake of the plants at medium and high salinity levels. A low level of salinity did not affect 15 N uptake compared with the control. Water uptake and dry matter yield were affected to a greater extent than 15 N absorption. Nitrogen-15 concentration was slightly higher in roots than in shoots

  4. Examining Adaptations to Water Stress Among Farming Households in Sri Lanka's Dry Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, N. E.; Carrico, A.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is increasing water scarcity in Sri Lanka's primary rice-farming zone. Whether these changes will undermine the national-level food security that Sri Lanka has worked to develop since their independence depends upon the ability of the small-scale farmers that dominate rice production and the institutions that support them to overcome the challenges presented by changing water availability. Using household survey data collected in 13 rice farming communities throughout Sri Lanka, this research explores how water stressed farmers are working to adapt to changing conditions and how the strategies they employ impact rice yields. Our analyses reveal that farmers' abilities to access irrigation infrastructure is the most important factor shaping the rice yields of water stressed Sri Lanka farmers. Notably, however, our research also identified farmers' use of hybrid, 'short duration' seed varietals to be the only climate adaptation strategy being promoted by agricultural extension services to have a significant positive impact on farmers' yields. These findings provide encouraging evidence for policies that promote plant breeding and distribution in Sri Lanka as a means to buffer the food system to climate change.

  5. Effect Of Dried Whey Milk Supplement On Some Blood Biochemical And Immunological Indices In Relation To Growth Performance Of Heat Stressed Bovine baladi Calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDALLA, E.B.; EL-MASRY, K.A.; TEAMA, F.E.; EMARA, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    This experiment was carried out under hot environmental conditions, where temperature-humidity index was equivalent to 86 - 90 and 78 - 80 during day and night, respectively. Twelve bovine Baladi calves of 8 - 10 months old and 112 kg average initial live body weight were used in this study. The calves were divided into two groups of 6 animals each to study the effect of supplementation of dried whey milk on some blood biochemical and immunological indices and growth performance of calves under hot weather conditions of Egypt. The results showed that supplementation of dried whey milk to the diet of heat-stressed calves at the level of 150 g / calf / day reduced significantly each of respiration rate and rectal temperature as well as serum lipid concentrations and their fractions e.g. total cholesterol and phospholipids. Also, dried whey milk supplement caused a significant decline in both AST and ALT activities and reduced significantly alpha globulin concentration, while non-significant changes were observed in each of beta globulin, gamma globulin and immunoglobulin G. However, supplementing dried whey milk to growing calves increased significantly serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, calcium, phosphorous, T 3 and T 4 . Moreover, dried whey milk improved significantly both feed efficiency and daily gain of growing calves. It could be concluded that addition of dried whey milk to the diet reduced rectal temperature and respiration rate and induced an improvement in most blood biochemical parameters and growth performance of heat-stressed bovine Baladi calves.

  6. Vitamin K3 increased BMD at 1 and 2 months post-surgery and the maximum stress of the middle femur in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, You-jia; Liu, Sheng; Jiang, Ning-yi; Jiang, Sen; Liang, Jiu-gen

    2015-02-01

    The therapeutic effects of vitamin K3 (VK3) on osteoporosis are still unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that VK3 possesses therapeutic effects on osteoporosis; to verify this hypothesis, the ovariectomized rat was used as an osteoporosis model. Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley female rats aged 8 to 9 months were randomly assigned to 4 groups: sham surgery, ovariectomy with saline, ovariectomy with low-dose VK3, and ovariectomy with high-dose VK3. Intramuscular injection of VK3 was performed every other day beginning 1 month postoperatively. The therapeutic effects of VK3 on osteoporosis were evaluated by measurement of bone mineral density (BMD), bone biochemical markers, biomechanical properties, and bone morphometric parameters. The overall average BMD in VK3-treated groups increased to a level between those of the ovariectomy group and the sham surgery group. The procollagen I N-terminal peptide level peaked at 2 months after surgery in all groups except in the group that had undergone ovariectomy with low-dose VK3. The tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b level increased more slowly at 4 months after surgery than at 2 months after surgery in the VK3-treated groups. The ovariectomy with high-dose VK3 group had the highest maximum stress of the middle femur of all groups. With VK3 treatment, the trabecular bone area percentage increased. All morphometric indicators for the middle tibia in the VK3-treated groups reached the levels found in the sham surgery group. In summary, VK3 therapy increased BMD at 1 and 2 months postsurgery and the maximum stress of the middle femur. In addition, VK3 therapy slowed the increase in bone turnover in ovariectomized rats. Furthermore, VK3 can improve morphometric indicators for the middle tibia. Our preliminary study indicates that VK3 has a potential therapeutic effect on osteoporosis and is worthy of further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cracking in Drying Colloidal Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Karnail B.; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.

    2007-05-01

    It has long been known that thick films of colloidal dispersions such as wet clays, paints, and coatings crack under drying. Although capillary stresses generated during drying have been recently identified as the cause for cracking, the existence of a maximum crack-free film thickness that depends on particle size, rigidity, and packing has not been understood. Here, we identify two distinct regimes for crack-free films based on the magnitude of compressive strain at the maximum attainable capillary pressure and show remarkable agreement of measurements with our theory. We anticipate our results to not only form the basis for design of coating formulations for the paints, coatings, and ceramics industry but also assist in the production of crack-free photonic band gap crystals.

  8. Characteristics of Timbers Dried Using Kiln Drying and Radio Frequency-Vacuum Drying Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rabidin Zairul Amin; Seng Gan Kee; Wahab Mohd Jamil Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Heavy hardwoods are difficult-to-dry timbers as they are prone to checking and internal stresses when dried using a conventional kiln drying system. These timbers are usually dried naturally to reach 15% to 19% moisture content with an acceptable defects. Besides long drying time, timbers at these moisture contents are not suitable for indoor applications since they will further dry and causing, for example, jointing and lamination failures. Drying to a lower moisture content could only be ac...

  9. Utility of remote sensing-based surface energy balance models to track water stress in rain-fed switchgrass under dry and wet conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Nishan; Wagle, Pradeep; Gowda, Prasanna H.; Kakani, Vijaya G.

    2017-11-01

    The ability of remote sensing-based surface energy balance (SEB) models to track water stress in rain-fed switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has not been explored yet. In this paper, the theoretical framework of crop water stress index (CWSI; 0 = extremely wet or no water stress condition and 1 = extremely dry or no transpiration) was utilized to estimate CWSI in rain-fed switchgrass using Landsat-derived evapotranspiration (ET) from five remote sensing based single-source SEB models, namely Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL), Mapping ET with Internalized Calibration (METRIC), Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS), Simplified Surface Energy Balance Index (S-SEBI), and Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop). CWSI estimates from the five SEB models and a simple regression model that used normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), near-surface temperature difference, and measured soil moisture (SM) as covariates were compared with those derived from eddy covariance measured ET (CWSIEC) for the 32 Landsat image acquisition dates during the 2011 (dry) and 2013 (wet) growing seasons. Results indicate that most SEB models can predict CWSI reasonably well. For example, the root mean square error (RMSE) ranged from 0.14 (SEBAL) to 0.29 (SSEBop) and the coefficient of determination (R2) ranged from 0.25 (SSEBop) to 0.72 (SEBAL), justifying the added complexity in CWSI modeling as compared to results from the simple regression model (R2 = 0.55, RMSE = 0.16). All SEB models underestimated CWSI in the dry year but the estimates from SEBAL and S-SEBI were within 7% of the mean CWSIEC and explained over 60% of variations in CWSIEC. In the wet year, S-SEBI mostly overestimated CWSI (around 28%), while estimates from METRIC, SEBAL, SEBS, and SSEBop were within 8% of the mean CWSIEC. Overall, SEBAL was the most robust model under all conditions followed by METRIC, whose performance was slightly worse and better than SEBAL in dry and wet years

  10. Impact of mild heat stress on dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows in a temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorniak, Tobias; Meyer, Ulrich; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of summer temperatures in a temperate climate on mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows. Therefore, a data set was examined comprising five trials with dairy cows conducted at the experimental station of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute in Braunschweig, Germany. The temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated using temperature and humidity data from the barns recorded between January 2010 and July 2012. By using a generalised additive mixed model, the impact of increasing THI on dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition was evaluated. Dry matter intake and milk yield decreased when THI rose above 60, whilst water intake increased in a linear manner beyond THI 30. Furthermore, milk protein and milk fat content decreased continuously with increasing THI. The present results revealed that heat stress exists in Lower Saxony, Germany. However, further research is necessary to describe the mode of action of heat stress. Especially, mild heat stress has to be investigated in more detail and appropriate heat stress thresholds for temperate climates have to be developed.

  11. Effect of Drought Stress on Water Use Efficiency and Root Dry Weight of Wheat (Triticum aesativum L. and Rye (Secale cereale L. in Competition Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Golestani Far

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Deficiency of water during the plant growth is one of the main factors which reduce the crops production around the world. Drought stress is one of the most important tensions that may occur around the low rainfall, high temperature and wind blowing environments. Plant response to this stress depends on the stage of plant growth and drought intensity. Weeds are unwanted and harmful plants with disturbance in agricultural practices which make increase the cost of crop production and reduce the crop yields. Rye (Secale cereal L. is one of the most important weeds at wheat fields in Iran (Baghestani and Atri, 2003. Low expectations, allelopathic effects and similarity of life cycle and morphology, caused increasing of rye density in winter wheat fields. Water use efficiency (WUE as an important physiological characteristic indicates the ability of plants to water stress. WUE may be affected by climatic and soil or plant factors. In plant communities, competition is one of most important physiological topics (Evans et al, 2003. At Inter-specific competition, weeds interfere to absorbing of light, water and nutrients through the adjacency with crop and so affect the growth and yield of crops. Weeds often compete with crops for soil water and reduce the accessibility of water. Competition between weeds and crops decrease the soil moisture and cause water stress which might decrease the weeds and crops growth. When the supply of water is limited, water drainage overlap areas in soil profile could be occurred relatively fast at early of in the crop life cycle. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of drought stress on water use efficiency and root dry weight of wheat (Triticum aesativum L. and rye (Secale cereale L. in competition conditions, a pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of Agriculture Faculty , University of Birjand in 2012. The experiment was arranged as factorial based on completely randomized design

  12. The antioxidant effects of dry apricot in the various tissues of rats with induced cold restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uguralp, S; Ozturk, F; Aktay, G; Cetin, A; Gursoy, S

    2012-01-01

    α-Tocopherol and β-carotene are the best known and most widely used natural antioxidant substances. Apricot contains β-carotene, tocopherols and flavonoids. This experimental study was designed to investigate the protective effect of Malatya kabashi apricot in stress-induced injury in various tissues of rats. In total, 32 male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: control, apricot, stress and apricot-stress groups. Apricot was administrated to rats by gavage for 10 days in the apricot and apricot-stress groups. Then rats were kept at 4°C for 4 h in stress and apricot-stress groups. The rats were killed at the end of the experiment for biochemical and histological examinations. This study shows apricot supplementation decreased oxidative stress injury in both the stomach and intestine.

  13. Avaliação de três cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. sob pastejo: composição da dieta, consumo de matéria seca e ganho de peso animal Evaluation of three varieties of Panicum maximum Jacq. under grazing: diet composition, dry matter intake and animal weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Amarante Brâncio

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Três cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. submetidos a pastejo rotativo foram avaliados ao longo do ano, antes e após o período de pastejo, quanto à composição botânica e química da dieta, consumo de matéria seca e ganho de peso animal. Os tratamentos constituíram em: 1 cv. Tanzânia + 50 kg/ha de N, 2 cv. Tanzânia + 100 kg/ha de N, 3 cv. Mombaça + 50 kg/ha de N, e 4 cv. Massai + 50 kg/ha de N. As dietas selecionadas pelos animais na cv. Massai tenderam a apresentar os menores valores de digestibilidade e proteína bruta e os maiores de fibra em detergente neutro, enquanto na cv. Mombaça as dietas continham, em geral, maiores teores de sílica. Os animais selecionaram, em média, 92,4% de folhas verdes, independentemente do tratamento e da época de amostragem. Os animais consumiram semelhantes quantidades de forragem nos diversos tratamentos, apresentando, em média, consumos de 1,9; 2,8; 3,4; e 2,3 kgMS/100kgPV, respectivamente, em junho, setembro e novembro de 1998 e março de 1999. Os piores resultados quanto ao ganho de peso por animal foram verificados na cv. Massai, mas, devido a sua alta capacidade de suporte na época chuvosa, superou a cv. Mombaça e cv. Tanzânia + 50 kg/ha de N, em termos de ganho de peso por área. A participação de folhas, a altura do pasto, o teor de proteína bruta da dieta selecionada pelos animais e o tamanho de bocado foram os fatores que mais influenciaram positivamente o ganho de peso animal.Three varieties of Panicum maximum Jacq. were evaluated by measuring the botanical and chemical composition of the diet, and the dry matter intake and weight gain of the animal under rotational grazing, before and after a period of grazing. The treatments were: 1 v. Tanzânia + 50 kg N/ha, 2 v. Tanzânia + 100 kg N/ha, 3 v. Mombaça + 50 kg N/ha, and 4 v. Massai + 50 kg N/ha. Of the diets selected by the animals, v. Massai tended to show lower values for digestibility and crude protein, and higher values

  14. [Improvement of Stress Resistance and Quality of Life of Adults with Nervous Restlessness after Treatment with a Passion Flower Dry Extract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbert, Judith; Kreimendahl, Fabian; Lebert, Jennifer; Rychlik, Reinhard; Trompetter, Inga

    The passion flower dried ethanolic extract investigated in this non-interventional study has well-documented calmative effects and good tolerability. We investigated the effects of this extract on the stress resistance (resilience) and quality of life (QoL) of patients suffering from nervous restlessness. The addiction potential of the drug and the course of symptoms were also evaluated. Adult patients aged ≤ 95 years with the diagnosis 'nervous restlessness' were treated for 12 weeks with a dried ethanolic extract of passion flower (Passiflora incarnata L.). Standardized questionnaires were used to evaluate the resilience (RS-13), QoL (EQ-5D including EQ-VAS), and the addiction potential (BDEPQ). After 12 weeks of treatment, significant (p passion flower extract investigated in the present study appears to be effective in improving resilience and QoL in patients suffering from nervous restlessness and is well tolerated. © 2017 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  15. Effect of Drought Stress at Pre and Post-anthesis on Dry Matter Accumulation of Grains in Irrigated Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Elyasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigating assimilate contribution and grain filling pattern in winter wheat is importance under drought stress condition. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between drought stress on grain filling and yield of 4 cultivars including MV17 (dwarf, Alvand, Shahryar (semi-dwarf and Toos (tall. Experimental design was randomized complete block with three replications. Drought stress assigned to main plots and cultivars to sub plots. Growth curve sampling started at 7 days after anthesis with 4 days interval. In pre-anthesis drought stress Alvand produced highest yield, while it was 29.14% less than control treatment. The yield of Toos cultivar was lowest at pre-anthesis drought stress. Rate of grain filling of Toos cultivar did not change at pre-anthesis drought stress. Drought stress treatment at post-anthesis decreased rate of grain filling in all cultivars as compared to control, but it was significant only Toos c.v. In pre-anthesis drought stress grain filling duration increased in Alvand but decreased in Toos. Alvand with higher rate of grain filling produced highest grain yield (3850 kg/ha. It can be concluded that, drought stress decreases grain filling duration and rate of grain filling.

  16. Characteristics of Timbers Dried Using Kiln Drying and Radio Frequency-Vacuum Drying Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabidin Zairul Amin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy hardwoods are difficult-to-dry timbers as they are prone to checking and internal stresses when dried using a conventional kiln drying system. These timbers are usually dried naturally to reach 15% to 19% moisture content with an acceptable defects. Besides long drying time, timbers at these moisture contents are not suitable for indoor applications since they will further dry and causing, for example, jointing and lamination failures. Drying to a lower moisture content could only be achieved in artificial drying kilns such as conventional kiln, dehumidification kiln, solar kiln, radio frequency-vacuum, etc. The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of 30 mm and 50 mm thick kekatong (Cynometra spp. timber dried using kiln drying (KD and radio frequency-vacuum drying (RFV system. The investigation involved drying time, moisture content (MC variations between and within boards, drying defects, shrinkage, and drying stress. Drying defects include checks (surface, end, and internal checks and warping (bowing, cuping, spring, and twisting. The results showed that RFV drying time was reduced to 50% compared to the KD. RFV dried boards demonstrated a more uniform MC between and within boards. Shrinkage in width and thickness, as well as tangential/radial and volumetric shrinkages were substantially less in RFV boards. The amount of cupping, bowing and spring were very low and negligible in all drying runs. There was no twisting observed in all drying methods. The number of stress-free RFV board was higher than KD. With proper procedure, the RFV technology could be used for drying heavy hardwoods which are difficult to dry in conventional kilns due to excessive drying times and degradation.

  17. Effects of L-glutamine on rectal temperature and some markers of oxidative stress in Red Sokoto goats during the hot-dry season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocheja, Ohiemi Benjamin; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun; Aluwong, Tagang; Minka, Ndazo Salka

    2017-08-01

    The experiment investigated the ameliorative effects of L-glutamine administration on rectal temperature (RT), erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF), serum antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in Red Sokoto goats during the hot-dry season. Twenty eight healthy Red Sokoto goats, comprising 14 experimental (administered 0.2 g/kg of L-glutamine dissolved in 10 mL of distilled water, once daily for 21 days) and 14 control (administered equivalent of distilled water) goats served as subjects. Rectal temperature (measured at 6:00, 13:00 and 18:00 h) and blood samples (taken at 8:00 h) were obtained from all subjects weekly, before, during and after L-glutamine administration. Data obtained were compared using one-way repeated-measures ANOVA, followed by Tukey's post-hoc test. The dry-bulb temperature, relative humidity and temperature-humidity index for the study period ranged between 24.0 and 37.5 °C, 26.0 and 84.0% and 73.0 and 86.3, respectively. L-glutamine administration decreased (P heat-stressed goats during the hot-dry season.

  18. Stress development in particulate, nano-composite and polymeric coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Karan

    2009-12-01

    The main goal of this research is to study the stress, structural and mechanical property development during the drying of particulate coatings, nano-composite coatings and VOC compliant refinish clearcoats. The results obtained during this research establish the mechanism for the stress development during drying in various coating systems. Coating stress was measured using a controlled environment stress apparatus based on cantilever deflection principle. The stress evolution in alumina coatings made of 0.4 mum size alumina particles was studied and the effect of a lateral drying was investigated. The stress does not develop until the later stages of drying. A peak stress was observed during drying and the peak stress originates due to the formation of pendular rings between the particles. Silica nanocomposite coatings were fabricated from suspension of nano sized silicon dioxide particles (20 nm) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer. The stress in silica nano-composite goes through maximum as the amount of polymer in the coating increases. The highest final stress was found to be ˜ 110MPa at a PVA content of 60 wt%. Observations from SEM, nitrogen gas adsorption, camera imaging, and nano-indentation were also studied to correlate the coatings properties during drying to measured stress. A model VOC compliant two component (2K) acrylic-polyol refinish clearcoat was prepared to study the effects of a new additive on drying, curing, rheology and stress development at room temperature. Most of the drying of the low VOC coatings occurred before appreciable (20%) crosslinking. Tensile stress developed in the same timeframe as drying and then relaxed over a longer time scale. Model low VOC coatings prepared with the additive had higher peak stresses than those without the additive. In addition, rheological data showed that the additive resulted in greater viscosity buildup during drying.

  19. Relationship between accumulated heat stress during the dry period, body condition score, and reproduction parameters of Holstein cows in tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Fuquay, John W; Moore, Reuben B; Liu, Zhanglin; Clark, Bruce L; Vierhout, C

    2010-02-01

    To estimate the relationship between heat stress during the last 60 days prepartum, body condition score and certain reproductive traits in the subsequent lactation of Holstein cows, 564 multiparous cows and 290 primiparous cows from four dairy herds were used in a hot, humid region. Maximum prepartum degree days were estimated to quantify the degree of heat stress. Multiple regressions analyses and logistic regression analysis were performed to determine the effect of prepartum heat stress and body condition change on reproductive parameters, which were obtained from DHIA forms at the end of the lactation. Multiparous and primiparous cows which gained body condition score from calving to 60 d postpartum exhibited 28 and 27 fewer days open (P 0.05) of heat stress measurement on days open or services per conception in either multiparous or primiparous cows. During hotter months of calving, multiparous cows showed higher services per conception and primiparous cows showed higher days open and services per conception (P score. Multiparous cows with high body condition score at calving were 1.47 times more likely to present a very difficult calving than cows that calved in October (P reproductive performance was not affected by cumulative prepartum heat stress although it was associated with very difficult calving score.

  20. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye » Facts About Dry Eye Listen Facts About Dry Eye Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) ... and their families search for general information about dry eye. An eye care professional who has examined the ...

  1. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  2. Indices of heart rate variability as potential early markers of metabolic stress and compromised regulatory capacity in dried-off high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, S; Mohr, E; Derno, M; Tuchscherer, A; Schäff, C; Börner, S; Kautzsch, U; Kuhla, B; Hammon, H M; Röntgen, M

    2017-10-25

    High performing dairy cows experience distinct metabolic stress during periods of negative energy balance. Subclinical disorders of the cow's energy metabolism facilitate failure of adaptational responses resulting in health problems and reduced performance. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) with its sympathetic and parasympathetic branches plays a predominant role in adaption to inadequate energy and/or fuel availability and mediation of the stress response. Therefore, we hypothesize that indices of heart rate variability (HRV) that reflect ANS activity and sympatho-vagal balance could be early markers of metabolic stress, and possibly useful to predict cows with compromised regulatory capacity. In this study we analysed the autonomic regulation and stress level of 10 pregnant dried-off German Holstein cows before, during and after a 10-h fasting period by using a wide range of HRV parameters. In addition heat production (HP), energy balance, feed intake, rumen fermentative activity, physical activity, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyric acid, cortisol and total ghrelin plasma concentrations, and body temperature (BT) were measured. In all cows fasting induced immediate regulatory adjustments including increased lipolysis (84%) and total ghrelin levels (179%), reduction of HP (-16%), standing time (-38%) and heart rate (-15%). However, by analysing frequency domain parameters of HRV (high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) components, ratio LF/HF) cows could be retrospectively assigned to groups reacting to food removal with increased or decreased activity of the parasympathetic branch of the ANS. Regression analysis reveals that under control conditions (feeding ad libitum) group differences were best predicted by the nonlinear domain HRV component Maxline (L MAX, R 2=0.76, threshold; TS=258). Compared with cows having L MAX values above TS (>L MAX: 348±17), those with L MAX values below TS (fasting with a shift of their sympatho-vagal balance

  3. Protective Effect of γ-Irradiated Dried Powder of Artichoke Leaves against CCl4 Oxidative Stress Induced in Rat Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, R.G.; El shahat, A.N.; Mekawey, H.M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Liver injuries are one of the most degenerative worldwide diseases and can lead to different complications. Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is full of natural antioxidants and has hepato protective effect against liver toxicity. Gamma irradiation has been widely used as a first choice sterilization method of raw medicinal plants to be used in the phytotherapic industry worldwide .This study was designed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with γ- irradiated artichoke against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity. The results of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of artichoke leaves indicated that the value of some of the main phenolic constituents was elevated under the effect of γ-irradiation (10 KGy). CCl 4 administration resulted in significant increase in the activity of serum alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase and transaminase in addition to an increase in the level of total bilirubine, malondialdehyde (MDA), glucose and the concentration of some lipid contents. Furthermore, CCl 4 administration reduced glutathione content, superoxides dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity as well as a remarkable decrease in the level of insulin and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol was observed. In CCl 4 -treated rats dietary supplemented with either raw or γ-irradiated artichoke, a significant amelioration was observed on the adverse effects of the above mentioned parameters induced by CCl 4 administration. The present findings concluded that artichoke may be useful, as dietary supplement and possess phenolic compounds, for the prevention of oxidative stress-induced hepatotoxicity

  4. Dry matter yield, carbon isotope discrimination and nitrogen uptake in silicon and/ or potassium fed chickpea and barley plants grown under water and non-water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurd Ali, F.; Al-Chammaa, M.; Mouasess, A.

    2012-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of silicon (Si) and/or potassium (K) on dry matter yield, nitrogen uptake and carbon isotope discrimination Δ 13 C in water stressed (FC1) and well watered (FC2) chickpea plants using 15 N and 13 C isotopes. Three fertilizer rates of Si (Si 5 0, Si 1 00 and Si 2 00) and one fertilizer rate of K were used. The results showed that: In chickpeas, it was found, for most of the growth parameters, that Si either alone or in combination with K was more effective to alleviate water stress than K alone. Increasing soil water level from FC1 to FC2 often had a positive impact on values of most studied parameters. The Si 1 00K + (FC1) and Si 5 0K + (FC2) treatments gave high enough amounts of N 2 -fixation, higher dry matter production and greater nitrogen yield. The percent increments of total N 2 -fixed in the above mentioned treatments were 51 and 47% over their controls, respectively. On the other hand, increasing leaves dry matter in response to the solely added Si (Si 5 0K - and Si 1 00K - ) is associated with lower Δ 13 C under both watering regimes. This may indicate that Si fertilization had a beneficial effect on water use efficiency (WUE). Hence, Δ 13 C could be an adequate indicator of WUE in response to the exogenous supply of silicon to chickpea plants. Our results highlight that Si is not only involved in amelioration of growth and in maintaining of water status but it can be considered as an important element for the symbiotic performance of chickpea plants. It can be concluded that synergistic effect of silicon and potassium fertilization with adequate irrigation improves growth and nitrogen fixation in chickpea plants.In barley plants, solely added K or in combination with adequate rate of Si (Si 1 00) were more effective in alleviating water stress and producing higher yield in barley plants than solely added Si. However, the latter nutrient was found to be more effective than the former in producing

  5. Dry socket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveolar osteitis; Alveolitis; Septic socket ... You may be more at risk for dry socket if you: Have poor oral health Have a ... after having a tooth pulled Have had dry socket in the past Drink from a straw after ...

  6. Approximate maximum parsimony and ancestral maximum likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Noga; Chor, Benny; Pardi, Fabio; Rapoport, Anat

    2010-01-01

    We explore the maximum parsimony (MP) and ancestral maximum likelihood (AML) criteria in phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Both problems are NP-hard, so we seek approximate solutions. We formulate the two problems as Steiner tree problems under appropriate distances. The gist of our approach is the succinct characterization of Steiner trees for a small number of leaves for the two distances. This enables the use of known Steiner tree approximation algorithms. The approach leads to a 16/9 approximation ratio for AML and asymptotically to a 1.55 approximation ratio for MP.

  7. Maximum permissible dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This chapter presents a historic overview of the establishment of radiation guidelines by various national and international agencies. The use of maximum permissible dose and maximum permissible body burden limits to derive working standards is discussed

  8. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...

  9. Dry Etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Yeom, Geun Young

    2016-01-01

    generation) to 2,200 × 2,500 mm (eighth generation), and the substrate size is expected to increase further within a few years. This chapter aims to present relevant details on dry etching including the phenomenology, materials to be etched with the different recipes, plasma sources fulfilling the dry...

  10. PREDICTION OF MAXIMUM DRY DENSITY OF LOCAL GRANULAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proctor test, solid unit weight, optimum moisture content .... that' the average value of deviation between the computed and the measured .... difference between the estimate made from the sample and the .... the total population is broken into a number of strata or ... classified under one of the three stratified groups that are ...

  11. Maximum Acceleration Recording Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Coarsely digitized maximum levels recorded in blown fuses. Circuit feeds power to accelerometer and makes nonvolatile record of maximum level to which output of accelerometer rises during measurement interval. In comparison with inertia-type single-preset-trip-point mechanical maximum-acceleration-recording devices, circuit weighs less, occupies less space, and records accelerations within narrower bands of uncertainty. In comparison with prior electronic data-acquisition systems designed for same purpose, circuit simpler, less bulky, consumes less power, costs and analysis of data recorded in magnetic or electronic memory devices. Circuit used, for example, to record accelerations to which commodities subjected during transportation on trucks.

  12. Drying kinetics and characteristics of dried gambir leaves using solar heating and silica gel dessicant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasibuan, R.; Hidayati, J.; Sundari, R.; Wicaksono, A. S.

    2018-02-01

    A drying combination of solar heating and silica gel dessicant has been applied to dry gambir leaves. The solar energy is captured by a collector to heat the air and the hot air is used to dry gambir leaves in a drying chamber. An exhaust fan in drying chamber assists to draw water molecules from gambir leaves accelerated by silica gel dessicant. This study has investigated the drying kinetics and drying characteristics of gambir leaves drying. In drying operation the air velocity is tuned by a PWM (pulse width modulation) controller to adjust minimum and maximum level, which is based on the rotation speed of the exhaust fan. The results show that the air velocity influenced the drying kinetics and drying characteristics of gambir leaves using solar-dessicant drying at 40 cm distance between exhaust fan and silica gel dessicant.

  13. Optimal operating conditions for maximum biogas production in anaerobic bioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmant, W.; Oliveira, B.H.; Mitchell, D.A.; Vargas, J.V.C.; Ordonez, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the existence of optimal residence time and substrate inlet mass flow rate for maximum methane production through numerical simulations performed with a general transient mathematical model of an anaerobic biodigester introduced in this study. It is herein suggested a simplified model with only the most important reaction steps which are carried out by a single type of microorganisms following Monod kinetics. The mathematical model was developed for a well mixed reactor (CSTR – Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor), considering three main reaction steps: acidogenesis, with a μ max of 8.64 day −1 and a K S of 250 mg/L, acetogenesis, with a μ max of 2.64 day −1 and a K S of 32 mg/L, and methanogenesis, with a μ max of 1.392 day −1 and a K S of 100 mg/L. The yield coefficients were 0.1-g-dry-cells/g-pollymeric compound for acidogenesis, 0.1-g-dry-cells/g-propionic acid and 0.1-g-dry-cells/g-butyric acid for acetogenesis and 0.1 g-dry-cells/g-acetic acid for methanogenesis. The model describes both the transient and the steady-state regime for several different biodigester design and operating conditions. After model experimental validation, a parametric analysis was performed. It was found that biogas production is strongly dependent on the input polymeric substrate and fermentable monomer concentrations, but fairly independent of the input propionic, acetic and butyric acid concentrations. An optimisation study was then conducted and optimal residence time and substrate inlet mass flow rate were found for maximum methane production. The optima found were very sharp, showing a sudden drop of methane mass flow rate variation from the observed maximum to zero, within a 20% range around the optimal operating parameters, which stresses the importance of their identification, no matter how complex the actual bioreactor design may be. The model is therefore expected to be a useful tool for simulation, design, control and

  14. Maximum Quantum Entropy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Jae-Hoon; Han, Myung Joon

    2018-01-01

    Maximum entropy method for analytic continuation is extended by introducing quantum relative entropy. This new method is formulated in terms of matrix-valued functions and therefore invariant under arbitrary unitary transformation of input matrix. As a result, the continuation of off-diagonal elements becomes straightforward. Without introducing any further ambiguity, the Bayesian probabilistic interpretation is maintained just as in the conventional maximum entropy method. The applications o...

  15. Maximum power demand cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.

    1998-01-01

    The charging for a service is a supplier's remuneration for the expenses incurred in providing it. There are currently two charges for electricity: consumption and maximum demand. While no problem arises about the former, the issue is more complicated for the latter and the analysis in this article tends to show that the annual charge for maximum demand arbitrarily discriminates among consumer groups, to the disadvantage of some [it

  16. Extreme Maximum Land Surface Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1992-09-01

    There are numerous reports in the literature of observations of land surface temperatures. Some of these, almost all made in situ, reveal maximum values in the 50°-70°C range, with a few, made in desert regions, near 80°C. Consideration of a simplified form of the surface energy balance equation, utilizing likely upper values of absorbed shortwave flux (1000 W m2) and screen air temperature (55°C), that surface temperatures in the vicinity of 90°-100°C may occur for dry, darkish soils of low thermal conductivity (0.1-0.2 W m1 K1). Numerical simulations confirm this and suggest that temperature gradients in the first few centimeters of soil may reach 0.5°-1°C mm1 under these extreme conditions. The study bears upon the intrinsic interest of identifying extreme maximum temperatures and yields interesting information regarding the comfort zone of animals (including man).

  17. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  18. Viability of dried filaments, survivability and reproduction under water stress, and survivability following heat and UV exposure in Lyngbya martensiana, Oscillatoria agardhii, Nostoc calcicola, Hormidium fluitans, Spirogyra sp. and Vaucheria geminata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, S.C.; Singh, V.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine how long and to what extent Lyngbya martensiana, Oscillatoria agardhii, Nostoc calcicola, Hormidium fluitans and Vaucheria geminata tolerate dry storage at different temperatures, UV-light radiation and water stress imposed by growing them on media with a high agar content and/or in NaCl-containing liquid media. Dried vegetative filaments of Spirogyra sp., Vaucheria geminata and Nostoc calcicola died within 0,5, 1 and 4 h, respectively; those of Hormidium fluitans, Oscillatoria agardhii and Lyngbya martensiana retained viability for 3, 5 and 10 d, respectively. L. martensiana and O. agardhii tolerated 0.8 mol/L NaCl. The resistance to desiccation in L. martensiana and O. agardhii exhibited similar dependence as that to frost, to heat and UV light. The water stress imposed on growing algae either on high-agar solid media or in NaCl-containing liquid media reduced hormogonium formation in L. martensiana and O. agardhii; hetero-cyst and akinete formation in N. calcicola and fragmentation in H. fluitans. In all studied algae the stress reduced at various levels the survival of vegetative parts. Generally, algal body form and composition rather than habitats seem to decide primarily the level of resistance against various stress conditions

  19. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  20. Stress !!!

    OpenAIRE

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.

  1. Maximum likely scale estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...

  2. Robust Maximum Association Estimators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Alfons (Andreas); C. Croux (Christophe); P. Filzmoser (Peter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe maximum association between two multivariate variables X and Y is defined as the maximal value that a bivariate association measure between one-dimensional projections αX and αY can attain. Taking the Pearson correlation as projection index results in the first canonical correlation

  3. Dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, Don.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental movement has consistently argued against disposal of nuclear waste. Reasons include its irretrievability in the event of leakage, the implication that reprocessing will continue and the legitimacy attached to an expanding nuclear programme. But there is an alternative. The author here sets out the background and a possible future direction of a campaign based on a call for dry storage. (author)

  4. A novel method for estimating soil precompression stress from uniaxial confined compression tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    . Stress-strain curves were obtained by performing uniaxial, confined compression tests on undisturbed soil cores for three soil types at three soil water potentials. The new method performed better than the Gompertz fitting method in estimating precompression stress. The values of precompression stress...... obtained from the new method were linearly related to the maximum stress experienced by the soil samples prior to the uniaxial, confined compression test at each soil condition with a slope close to 1. Precompression stress determined with the new method was not related to soil type or dry bulk density......The concept of precompression stress is used for estimating soil strength of relevance to fieldtraffic. It represents the maximum stress experienced by the soil. The most recently developed fitting method to estimate precompression stress (Gompertz) is based on the assumption of an S-shape stress...

  5. Effects of a hops (Humulus lupulus L.) dry extract supplement on self-reported depression, anxiety and stress levels in apparently healthy young adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrou, Ioannis; Christou, Aimilia; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Stefanaki, Charikleia; Skenderi, Katerina; Katsana, Konstantina; Tsigos, Constantine

    2017-04-01

    The Humulus lupulus L. plant (hops) is used as a herbal medicinal product for anxiety/mood disorders. Our aim was to study the effects of a hops dry extract on self-reported depression, anxiety and stress levels in young adults. Apparently healthy young adults from our university completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) and those reporting at least mild depression, anxiety and stress were invited to complete the study intervention. This followed a randomized (1:1), placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover design with two 4-week intervention periods (Melcalin hops or placebo; two 0.2 gr capsules once daily) separated by a 2-week wash-out. Anthropometric measurements, DASS-21 assessments and measurements of morning cortisol plasma levels were performed at the beginning and the end of the 4-week treatment periods. 36 participants (Females/Males: 31/5; age: 24.7±0.5 years) completed the study intervention (attrition: 6/42). No significant changes in body weight and composition or morning circulating cortisol were noted with the hops or placebo. Significantly decreased DASS-21 anxiety, depression and stress scores were documented with hops (9.2±7.3 vs. 5.1±5.9, 11.9±7.9 vs. 9.2±7.4, and 19.1±8.1 vs. 11.6±8.1; all p values depression, anxietyand stress symptoms, daily supplementation with a hops dry extract can significantly improve all these symptoms over a 4-week period. These beneficial effects agree with the indication of hops for anxiety/mood disorders and restlessness, as approved by the German Commission E.

  6. Maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enslin, J.H.R.

    1990-01-01

    A well engineered renewable remote energy system, utilizing the principal of Maximum Power Point Tracking can be m ore cost effective, has a higher reliability and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. This paper reports that a high-efficient power electronic converter, for converting the output voltage of a solar panel, or wind generator, to the required DC battery bus voltage has been realized. The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the input source under varying input and output parameters. Maximum power point tracking for relative small systems is achieved by maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor based algorithm. Through practical field measurements it is shown that a minimum input source saving of 15% on 3-5 kWh/day systems can easily be achieved. A total cost saving of at least 10-15% on the capital cost of these systems are achievable for relative small rating Remote Area Power Supply systems. The advantages at larger temperature variations and larger power rated systems are much higher. Other advantages include optimal sizing and system monitor and control

  7. Stress !!!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten.

  8. Utility of remote sensing-based surface energy balance models to track water stress in rain-fed switchgrass under dry and wet conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of remote sensing-based surface energy balance (SEB) models to track water stress in rain-fed switchgrass has not been explored yet. In this paper, the theoretical framework of crop water stress index (CWSI) was utilized to estimate CWSI in rain-fed switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) usin...

  9. Maximum entropy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponman, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    For some years now two different expressions have been in use for maximum entropy image restoration and there has been some controversy over which one is appropriate for a given problem. Here two further entropies are presented and it is argued that there is no single correct algorithm. The properties of the four different methods are compared using simple 1D simulations with a view to showing how they can be used together to gain as much information as possible about the original object. (orig.)

  10. The last glacial maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P.U.; Dyke, A.S.; Shakun, J.D.; Carlson, A.E.; Clark, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; McCabe, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level ???14.5 ka.

  11. High burnup fuel onset conditions in dry storage. Prediction of EOL rod internal pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feria, F.; Herranz, L.E.

    2015-07-01

    During dry storage, cladding resistance to failure can be affected by several degrading mechanisms like creep or hydrides radial reorientation. The driving force of these effects is the stress at which the cladding is submitted. The maximum stress in the cladding is determined by the end-of-reactor-life (EOL) rod internal pressure, PEOL, at the maximum temperature attained during dry storage. Thus, PEOL sets the initial conditions of storage for potential time-dependent changes in the cladding. Based on FRAPCON-3.5 calculations, the aim of this work is to analyse the PEOL of a PWR fuel rod irradiated to burnups greater than 60 GWd/tU, where limited information is available. In order to be conservative, demanding irradiation histories have been used with a peak linear power of 44 kW/m. FRAPCON-3.5 results show an increasing exponential trend of PEOL with burnup, from which a simple correlation has been derived. The comparison with experimental data found in the literature confirms the enveloping nature of the predicted curve. Based on that, a conservative prediction of cladding stress in dry storage has been obtained. The comparison with a critical stress threshold related to hydrides embrittlement seems to point out that this issue should not be a concern at burnups below 65 GWd/tU. (Author)

  12. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Topsøe

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over

  13. Probable maximum flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L.

    1991-11-01

    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility

  14. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. We review the need for such methods in data analysis and show, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. We conclude with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  15. Solar maximum observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    The successful retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite by Shuttle astronauts in April 1984 permitted continuance of solar flare observations that began in 1980. The SMM carries a soft X ray polychromator, gamma ray, UV and hard X ray imaging spectrometers, a coronagraph/polarimeter and particle counters. The data gathered thus far indicated that electrical potentials of 25 MeV develop in flares within 2 sec of onset. X ray data show that flares are composed of compressed magnetic loops that have come too close together. Other data have been taken on mass ejection, impacts of electron beams and conduction fronts with the chromosphere and changes in the solar radiant flux due to sunspots. 13 references

  16. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. The author reviews the need for such methods in data analysis and shows, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. He concludes with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  17. Functional Maximum Autocorrelation Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2005-01-01

    MAF outperforms the functional PCA in concentrating the interesting' spectra/shape variation in one end of the eigenvalue spectrum and allows for easier interpretation of effects. Conclusions. Functional MAF analysis is a useful methods for extracting low dimensional models of temporally or spatially......Purpose. We aim at data where samples of an underlying function are observed in a spatial or temporal layout. Examples of underlying functions are reflectance spectra and biological shapes. We apply functional models based on smoothing splines and generalize the functional PCA in......\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{ramsay97} to functional maximum autocorrelation factors (MAF)\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{switzer85,larsen2001d}. We apply the method to biological shapes as well as reflectance spectra. {\\$\\backslash\\$bf Methods}. MAF seeks linear combination of the original variables that maximize autocorrelation between...

  18. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yunji; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  19. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2015-02-12

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  20. Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself.

  1. Solar maximum mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.

    1981-01-01

    By understanding the sun, astrophysicists hope to expand this knowledge to understanding other stars. To study the sun, NASA launched a satellite on February 14, 1980. The project is named the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). The satellite conducted detailed observations of the sun in collaboration with other satellites and ground-based optical and radio observations until its failure 10 months into the mission. The main objective of the SMM was to investigate one aspect of solar activity: solar flares. A brief description of the flare mechanism is given. The SMM satellite was valuable in providing information on where and how a solar flare occurs. A sequence of photographs of a solar flare taken from SMM satellite shows how a solar flare develops in a particular layer of the solar atmosphere. Two flares especially suitable for detailed observations by a joint effort occurred on April 30 and May 21 of 1980. These flares and observations of the flares are discussed. Also discussed are significant discoveries made by individual experiments

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviate abiotic stresses in potato plants caused by low phosphorus and deficit irrigation/partial root-zone drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Caixia; Ravnskov, Sabine; Lui, Fulai

    2018-01-01

    Deficit irrigation (DI) improves water use efficiency (WUE), but the reduced water input often limits plant growth and nutrient uptake. The current study examined whether arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could alleviate abiotic stress caused by low phosphorus (P) fertilization and DI...... or improved plant growth and P/nitrogen (N) uptake when subjected to DI/PRD and P0. However, the positive responses to AMF varied with P level and irrigation regime. Functional differences were found in ability of AMF species alleviating plant stress. The largest positive plant biomass response to M1+ and M2......+ was found under FI, both at P1 and P0 (25% increase), while plant biomass response to M1+ and M2+ under DI/PRD (14% increase) was significantly smaller. The large growth response to AMF inoculation, particularly under FI, may relate to greater photosynthetic capacity and leaf area, probably caused...

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  7. Investment opportunity : the FPL low-cost solar dry kiln

    Science.gov (United States)

    George B. Harpole

    1988-01-01

    Two equations are presented that may be used to estimate a maximum investment limit and working capital requirements for the FPL low-cost solar dry kiln systems. The equations require data for drying cycle time, green lumber cost, and kiln-dried lumber costs. Results are intended to provide a preliminary estimate.

  8. Dry adhesives with sensing features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krahn, J; Menon, C

    2013-01-01

    Geckos are capable of detecting detachment of their feet. Inspired by this basic observation, a novel functional dry adhesive is proposed, which can be used to measure the instantaneous forces and torques acting on an adhesive pad. Such a novel sensing dry adhesive could potentially be used by climbing robots to quickly realize and respond appropriately to catastrophic detachment conditions. The proposed torque and force sensing dry adhesive was fabricated by mixing Carbon Black (CB) and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to form a functionalized adhesive with mushroom caps. The addition of CB to PDMS resulted in conductive PDMS which, when under compression, tension or torque, resulted in a change in the resistance across the adhesive patch terminals. The proposed design of the functionalized dry adhesive enables distinguishing an applied torque from a compressive force in a single adhesive pad. A model based on beam theory was used to predict the change in resistance across the terminals as either a torque or compressive force was applied to the adhesive patch. Under a compressive force, the sensing dry adhesive was capable of measuring compression stresses from 0.11 Pa to 20.9 kPa. The torque measured by the adhesive patch ranged from 2.6 to 10 mN m, at which point the dry adhesives became detached. The adhesive strength was 1.75 kPa under an applied preload of 1.65 kPa for an adhesive patch with an adhesive contact area of 7.07 cm 2 . (paper)

  9. Dry adhesives with sensing features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, J.; Menon, C.

    2013-08-01

    Geckos are capable of detecting detachment of their feet. Inspired by this basic observation, a novel functional dry adhesive is proposed, which can be used to measure the instantaneous forces and torques acting on an adhesive pad. Such a novel sensing dry adhesive could potentially be used by climbing robots to quickly realize and respond appropriately to catastrophic detachment conditions. The proposed torque and force sensing dry adhesive was fabricated by mixing Carbon Black (CB) and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to form a functionalized adhesive with mushroom caps. The addition of CB to PDMS resulted in conductive PDMS which, when under compression, tension or torque, resulted in a change in the resistance across the adhesive patch terminals. The proposed design of the functionalized dry adhesive enables distinguishing an applied torque from a compressive force in a single adhesive pad. A model based on beam theory was used to predict the change in resistance across the terminals as either a torque or compressive force was applied to the adhesive patch. Under a compressive force, the sensing dry adhesive was capable of measuring compression stresses from 0.11 Pa to 20.9 kPa. The torque measured by the adhesive patch ranged from 2.6 to 10 mN m, at which point the dry adhesives became detached. The adhesive strength was 1.75 kPa under an applied preload of 1.65 kPa for an adhesive patch with an adhesive contact area of 7.07 cm2.

  10. The Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi on Dry Matter and Concentrations of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium in Berseem Clover, by Cadmium stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hashem aram

    2016-02-01

    Zanjan, after the complete analysis of soil and obtaining the chemical and physical properties in the laboratory. 6 kg of soil was weighed for each pot and then the soil was contaminated. Cadmium sulfate was used in this experiment. The mycorrhizal fungi weighed 150 grams and was mixed with the soil. After mixing the soil with mycorrhizal fungi, the soil was put in pots and then it was cultivated with clover. In this study, clover seeds weighed 0/5 grams and were disinfected with 10% hydrogen peroxide solution and were added to each pot. Distilled water was used for irrigation. After the completion of growth of plants (about 70 day, plant aerial parts and roots were harvested and before measuring, they were washed with distilled water and then were dried in the oven for 72 hours. Plant aerial parts were harvested. Data were analyzed by SAS (version 9 and MSTATC (version 2.10 software, and obtained variance analysis tables. Mean comparison of different treatments was conducted by Duncan test. Charts were obtained by excel software. Results and Discussion: The results showed that the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were significant on all traits measured (P< 0.01. With increasing cadmium concentration in soil, dry matter of 37% and 39%, nitrogen concentration of 35% and 28%, Potassium 9/27% and 37%, and phosphorus concentration of 37% and 39%, reduced in root and aerial, respectively. Also the results showed that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increased dry matter amount by 42% and 26%, nitrogen concentration by 40.3% and 30%, phosphorus concentration by 6% and 15.4%, potassium concentrations by 54% and 91.2% in root and aerial, respectively. Interaction between cadmium levels and mycorrhizal fungi in statistics was significant on dry matter aerial, nitrogen concentration in aerial and root, and potassium concentrations in plant root (P< 0.01. Conclusion: The results showed that mycorrhizal fungi were significant on all traits measured in one percent level. Cadmium

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On ... Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of ...

  12. Forward Osmosis Brine Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali; Hyde, Deirdre; Beeler, David; Parodi, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD) system is based on a technique called forward osmosis (FO). FO is a membrane-based process where the osmotic potential between brine and a salt solution is equalized by the movement of water from the brine to the salt solution. The FOBD system is composed of two main elements, the FO bag and the salt regeneration system. This paper discusses the results of testing of the FO bag to determine the maximum water recovery ratio that can be attained using this technology. Testing demonstrated that the FO bag is capable of achieving a maximum brine water recovery ratio of the brine of 95%. The equivalent system mass was calculated to be 95 kg for a feed similar to the concentrated brine generated on the International Space Station and 86 kg for an Exploration brine. The results have indicated that the FOBD can process all the brine for a one year mission for between 11% to 10% mass required to bring the water needed to make up for water lost in the brine if not recycled. The FOBD saves 685 kg and when treating the International Space Station brine and it saves 829 kg when treating the Exploration brine. It was also demonstrated that saturated salt solutions achieve a higher water recovery ratios than solids salts do and that lithium chloride achieved a higher water recovery ratio than sodium chloride.

  13. COMPARISON BETWEEN WOOD DRYING DEFECT SCORES: SPECIMEN TESTING X ANALYSIS OF KILN-DRIED BOARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeison Cesar Batista

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is important to develop drying technologies for Eucalyptus grandis lumber, which is one of the most planted species of this genus in Brazil and plays an important role as raw material for the wood industry. The general aim of this work was to assess the conventional kiln drying of juvenile wood of three clones of Eucalyptus grandis. The specific aims were to compare the behavior between: i drying defects indicated by tests with wood specimens and conventional kiln-dried boards; and ii physical properties and the drying quality. Five 11-year-old trees of each clone were felled, and only flatsawn boards of the first log were used. Basic density and total shrinkage were determined, and the drying test with wood specimens at 100 °C was carried out. Kiln drying of boards was performed, and initial and final moisture content, moisture gradient in thickness, drying stresses and drying defects were assessed. The defect scoring method was used to verify the behavior between the defects detected by specimen testing and the defects detected in kiln-dried boards. As main results, the drying schedule was too severe for the wood, resulting in a high level of boards with defects. The behavior between the defects in the drying test with specimens and the defects of kiln-dried boards was different, there was no correspondence, according to the defect scoring method.

  14. Tropical savannas and dry forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, R Toby; Lehmann, Caroline E R; Rowland, Lucy M

    2018-05-07

    In the tropics, research, conservation and public attention focus on rain forests, but this neglects that half of the global tropics have a seasonally dry climate. These regions are home to dry forests and savannas (Figures 1 and 2), and are the focus of this Primer. The attention given to rain forests is understandable. Their high species diversity, sheer stature and luxuriance thrill biologists today as much as they did the first explorers in the Age of Discovery. Although dry forest and savanna may make less of a first impression, they support a fascinating diversity of plant strategies to cope with stress and disturbance including fire, drought and herbivory. Savannas played a fundamental role in human evolution, and across Africa and India they support iconic megafauna. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Credal Networks under Maximum Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasiewicz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We apply the principle of maximum entropy to select a unique joint probability distribution from the set of all joint probability distributions specified by a credal network. In detail, we start by showing that the unique joint distribution of a Bayesian tree coincides with the maximum entropy model of its conditional distributions. This result, however, does not hold anymore for general Bayesian networks. We thus present a new kind of maximum entropy models, which are computed sequentially. ...

  16. The choice of rational parameters of beet pulp drying process in a pulsed low-pressure vibro-boiling layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Drannikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Beet pulp is the main sugar industry by-product obtained with traditional production technology. It has high nutritional qualities, but in its raw form it turns sour quickly so it must be preserved. One of the most common methods is drying. Drying of the beet pulp with superheated vapor of reduced pressure in the pulsating vibro-boiling layer allows to improve the quality of the finished product by lowering of the drying agent temperature, thereby retaining a significant amount of nutrients in the initial product. To study the kinetic and hydrodynamic dependencies of the drying process, an experimental apparatus was developed that makes it possible to obtain the most accurate and reproducible results. In the course of the work, a lot of experiments were carried out. Drying curves, drying rate curves and heating curves were made based on these experiments results. According to the nature of the changes the corresponding conclusions were drawn. To study the interaction of various factors affecting the beet pulp drying process, the mathematical methods of experiment planning are applied. A mathematical description of this process can be obtained empirically. At the same time, its mathematical model has the form of a regression equation, determined by statistical methods on the basis of experiments. As a result of statistical processing of experimental data, regression equations were obtained that adequately describe the beet pulp drying process in a pulsed low-pressure vibro-boiling layer in the experimental apparatus. With reference to this drying apparatus, such technological modes of its operation were determined that ensure a minimum specific energy consumption of the drying process per kilogram of evaporated moisture and the maximum drying chamber moisture stress.

  17. Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cows Grazing in Dry-summer Subtropical Climatic Conditions: Effect of Heat Stress and Heat Shock on Meiotic Competence and In vitro Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavani, Krishna; Carvalhais, Isabel; Faheem, Marwa; Chaveiro, Antonio; Reis, Francisco Vieira; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2015-03-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate how environmental factors in a dry-summer subtropical climate in Terceira-Azores (situated in the North Atlantic Ocean: 38° 43' N 27° 12' W) can affect dairy cow (Holstein) fertility, as well as seasonal influence on in vitro oocytes maturation and embryos development. Impact of heat shock (HS) effects on in vitro oocyte's maturation and further embryo development after in vitro fertilization (IVF) was also evaluated. For such purpose the result of the first artificial insemination (AI) performed 60 to 90 days after calving of 6,300 cows were recorded for one year. In parallel, climatic data was obtained at different elevation points (n = 5) from 0 to 1,000 m and grazing points from 0 to 500 m, in Terceira island, and the temperature humidity index (THI) was calculated. For in vitro experiments, oocytes (n = 706) were collected weekly during all year, for meiotic maturation and IVF. Further, to evaluate HS effect, 891 oocytes were collected in the cold moths (December, January, February and March) and divided in three groups treated to HS for 24 h during in vitro maturation at: C (Control = 38.5°C), HS1 (39.5°C) and HS2 (40.5°C). Oocytes from each group were used for meiotic assessment and IVF. Cleavage, morula and blastocyst development were evaluated respectively on day 2, 6, and 9 after IVF. A negative correlation between cow's conception rate (CR) and THI in grazing points (-91.3%; p<0.001) was observed. Mean THI in warmer months (June, July, August and September) was 71.7±0.7 and the CR (40.2±1.5%) while in cold months THI was 62.8±0.2 and CR was 63.8±0.4%. A similar impact was obtained with in vitro results in which nuclear maturation rate (NMR) ranged from 78.4% (±8.0) to 44.3% (±8.1), while embryos development ranged from 53.8% (±5.8) to 36.3% (±3.3) in cold and warmer months respectively. In vitro HS results showed a significant decline (p<0.05) on NMR of oocytes for every 1°C rising temperature (78

  18. Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cows Grazing in Dry-summer Subtropical Climatic Conditions: Effect of Heat Stress and Heat Shock on Meiotic Competence and Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Pavani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate how environmental factors in a dry-summer subtropical climate in Terceira-Azores (situated in the North Atlantic Ocean: 38° 43′ N 27° 12′ W can affect dairy cow (Holstein fertility, as well as seasonal influence on in vitro oocytes maturation and embryos development. Impact of heat shock (HS effects on in vitro oocyte’s maturation and further embryo development after in vitro fertilization (IVF was also evaluated. For such purpose the result of the first artificial insemination (AI performed 60 to 90 days after calving of 6,300 cows were recorded for one year. In parallel, climatic data was obtained at different elevation points (n = 5 from 0 to 1,000 m and grazing points from 0 to 500 m, in Terceira island, and the temperature humidity index (THI was calculated. For in vitro experiments, oocytes (n = 706 were collected weekly during all year, for meiotic maturation and IVF. Further, to evaluate HS effect, 891 oocytes were collected in the cold moths (December, January, February and March and divided in three groups treated to HS for 24 h during in vitro maturation at: C (Control = 38.5°C, HS1 (39.5°C and HS2 (40.5°C. Oocytes from each group were used for meiotic assessment and IVF. Cleavage, morula and blastocyst development were evaluated respectively on day 2, 6, and 9 after IVF. A negative correlation between cow’s conception rate (CR and THI in grazing points (−91.3%; p<0.001 was observed. Mean THI in warmer months (June, July, August and September was 71.7±0.7 and the CR (40.2±1.5% while in cold months THI was 62.8±0.2 and CR was 63.8±0.4%. A similar impact was obtained with in vitro results in which nuclear maturation rate (NMR ranged from 78.4% (±8.0 to 44.3% (±8.1, while embryos development ranged from 53.8% (±5.8 to 36.3% (±3.3 in cold and warmer months respectively. In vitro HS results showed a significant decline (p<0.05 on NMR of oocytes for every 1°C rising

  19. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  20. Drying of building lumber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washimi, Hiroshi

    1988-08-20

    Dried lumber is classified into air dried and kiln-dried lumber. The water content of kiln-dried lumber is specified by the Japan Agricultural Standards. However, since building lumber varies in such factors as the location where it was growing, species and shape, the standards, though relaxed, are not being observed. In fact, lumbered products which are not ''Kiln-dried'' frequently bear ''kiln-dried lumber'' marks. In an attempt to correct the situation, the Forestry Agency has set up voluntary standards, but problems still remain. The conventional drying method consists of first subjecting the lumber to optimum drying, then letting bending and deformations to freely and fully appear, and follow this with corrective sawing to produce planks straight from end to end. Compared with air dried lumber in terms of moisture content, kiln-dried lumber remains much with same with minimal shrinkage and expansion. For oil-containing resin, such normal treatments as drying by heating, steaming and boiling seem to be quite effective. Kiln drying, which is becoming more and more important with changes in the circulation system, consists of the steaming-drying-heating method and the dehumidizing type drying method. The major factor which determines the drying cost is the number of days required for drying, which depends largely on the kind of lumber and moisture content. The Forestry Angency is promoting production of defoiled lumber. (2 figs, 2 tables)

  1. Forage yield and nutritive value of Panicum maximum genotypes in the Brazilian savannah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Duarte Fernandes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The narrow genetic variability of grasslands and the incidence of new biotic and abiotic stresses have motivated the selection of new Panicum maximum genotypes for use as forage for beef cattle in the Brazilian savannah. This study aimed to evaluate forage yield and nutritive value of P. maximum genotypes including 14 accessions (PM30 to PM43, four intraspecific hybrids (PM44 to PM47 and six cultivars (Aruana, Massai, Milênio, Mombaça, Tanzania and Vencedor, examining 24 genotypes over two years (2003 and 2004. Milênio cultivar was the genotype with the highest dry matter yield (DMY in both years (18.4 t ha-1 and 20.9 t ha-1, respectively although it presented a high proportion of stems (~ 30%. Genotypes that showed higher Leaf DMY in both years were the accession PM34 (14.7 t ha-1 and the hybrid PM46 (14.0 t ha-1, while Mombaça and Tanzania yielded 12.5 and 11.0 t ha-1, respectively. Leaf organic matter digestibility and leaf DMY for PM40 and PM46 genotypes exceeded the mean (> 656 g kg-1 and > 11.7 t ha-1, respectively. For this reason, PM40 and PM46 can be considered promising P. maximum genotypes for use as forage for grazing systems in the Brazilian savannah.

  2. Vacuum drying plant for evaporator concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavides, E.

    2001-01-01

    Volume reduction systems applied to evaporator concentrates in PWR and BWR save a significant amount of drums. The concentration to dry product is a technique that reaches the maximum volume reduction, compared to conventional techniques (cementation, polymerisation). Four Spanish N.P.P. (3 PWR and 1 BWR) have selected ENSA's process by means of fixed ''in drum vacuum drying system''. A 130-litre steel drum is used for drying without any additional requirement except vacuum resistance. This steel drum is introduced into a standard 200-litre drum. Five centimeters concrete shielding cylinder exists between both drums. Final package is classified as 19 GO according to ENRESA's acceptance code (dry waste with 5 cm concrete between 130-l and 200-l drum). The generation of cemented waste in five N.P.P. versus dried waste will be reduced 83%. This reduction will save a considerable amount in disposal costs. (authors)

  3. Overall bolt stress optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2013-01-01

    The state of stress in bolts and nuts with International Organization for Standardization metric thread design is examined and optimized. The assumed failure mode is fatigue, so the applied preload and the load amplitude together with the stress concentrations define the connection strength....... Maximum stress in the bolt is found at the fillet under the head, at the thread start, or at the thread root. To minimize the stress concentration, shape optimization is applied. Nut shape optimization also has a positive effect on the maximum stress. The optimization results show that designing a nut......, which results in a more evenly distribution of load along the engaged thread, has a limited influence on the maximum stress due to the stress concentration at the first thread root. To further reduce the maximum stress, the transition from bolt shank to the thread must be optimized. Stress reduction...

  4. Structural design concept and static analysis of CANDU spent fuel compact dry storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, K. S.; Yang, K. H.; Paek, C. R.; Jung, J. S.; Lee, H. Y.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, an structural design concept on CANDU spent fuel compact dry storage system MACSTOR/KN-400 module has been established with a view to optimally design the structural members of the system. Design loads, loading combination and structural safety criteria of the module were reviewed assuming W olsung Site. The static analysis of the module showed that compressive stress concentration due to dead load and live load occurred around the center of roof slab. Maximum stress resulted from dead load is about twice as much as the stress from live load, and structural behavior of module caused by wind load was not significant. The static analysis results will have influence on the reinforcement bar design of structural members with other structural analyses

  5. Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by the fractal ... rate scaling is that exercise-induced maximum aerobic metabolic rate (MMR) is ... muscle stress limitation, and maximized oxygen delivery and metabolic rates.

  6. EVALUATION OF DRY EYES IN DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Sharma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND According to the National Eye Institute, dry eye is a condition in which the eye does not produce tears properly. It can also involve tears not having the right consistency or evaporating too quickly. Tears are necessary to help maintain moisture on the surface of the eye and for clear vision. Diabetes is often associated with several significant ocular conditions such as retinopathy, refractive changes, cataracts, glaucoma and macular oedema. However, one of the most common ocular complications associated with diabetes is dry eye. The aim of the study is to study the prevalence of dry eyes in diabetes mellitus and to evaluate ocular and other risk factors relevant to diabetic dry eyes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A hospital-based cross-sectional clinical study of 100 diabetic patients who presented to the Department of Ophthalmology, Santosh Medical College and Hospital, Ghaziabad, between January 2016 to June 2017 was conducted. Detailed diabetic history was recorded. Assessment of anterior segment via slit-lamp biomicroscopy was done. The examinations for dry eyes included Schirmer's test, tear breakup time, fluorescein and rose Bengal staining. RESULTS Sixty two (62% diabetic patients had dry eye. The prevalence in type I was 3% and prevalence in type II was 59%. Dry eye prevalence was maximum in those above 40 years of age. Symptoms like reduced corneal sensation (44% and meibomitis (20% were major attributable risk factors. Ocular surface damage was predominantly superficial punctate keratitis. Retinopathy was not statistically associated with the prevalence of dry eyes. CONCLUSION Diabetes and dry eye appears to be a common association. Reduction in the modifiable risk factors of dry eye is essential to reduce its prevalence. No significant statistical correlation was found between retinopathy and dry eyes. However, examination for dry eyes should be an integral part of the assessment of diabetic eye disease.

  7. Evaluation of beetroot changes during drying with hot air by digital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foods drying are an important operation in processing and increasing foodstuffs shelf life and many factors effected on products efficiency and quality during drying. Deterioration of texture structure and products color changes depends on drying method and air temperature and air rate. Drying or removing maximum water ...

  8. Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yuan Tseng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.

  9. Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Finding Dental Care Home Health Info Health Topics Dry Mouth Saliva, or spit, is made by the salivary ... help keep teeth strong and fight tooth decay. Dry mouth, also called xerostomia (ZEER-oh-STOH-mee-ah), ...

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dry Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers Can a six-month dissolvable punctal plug be removed ... my eyes dry after LASIK? Jun 19, 2016 Can I be tested whether I close my eyes ...

  11. Drying of Vitis vinifera L. cv “Sultanina” in tunnel solar drier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İs̨çi Burçak

    2015-01-01

    The main factor in the drying process is to obtain minimum energy consumption of the product with the desired quality and reach a maximum speed of drying. The results obtained from this research are used in practice compliance.

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ...

  13. Dry and Semi-Dry Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T.; Chavas, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of dynamics in our real moist atmosphere is strongly informed by idealized dry models. It is widely believed that tropical cyclones (TCs) are an intrinsically moist phenomenon - relying fundamentally on evaporation and latent heat release - yet recent numerical modeling work has found formation of dry axisymmetric tropical cyclones from a state of dry radiative-convective equilibrium. What can such "dry hurricanes" teach us about intensity, structure, and size of real moist tropical cyclones in nature? Are dry TCs even stable in 3D? What about surfaces that are nearly dry but have some latent heat flux - can they also support TCs? To address these questions, we use the SAM cloud-system resolving model to simulate radiative-convective equilibrium on a rapidly rotating f-plane, subject to constant tropospheric radiative cooling. We use a homogeneous surface with fixed temperature and with surface saturation vapor pressure scaled by a factor 0-1 relative to that over pure water - allowing for continuous variation between moist and dry limits. We also explore cases with surface enthalpy fluxes that are uniform in space and time, where partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes is specified directly. We find that a completely moist surface yields a TC-world where multiple vortices form spontaneously and persist for tens of days. A completely dry surface can also yield a parallel dry TC-world with many vortices that are even more stable and persistent. Spontaneous cyclogenesis, however, is impeded for a range of low to intermediate surface wetness values, and by the combination of large rotation rates and a dry surface. We discuss whether these constraints on spontaneous cyclogenesis might arise from: 1) rain evaporation in the subcloud layer limiting the range of viable surface wetness values, and 2) a natural convective Rossby number limiting the range of viable rotation rates. Finally, we discuss simulations with uniform surface enthalpy

  14. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    60, No. 3. — journal of. March 2003 physics pp. 415–422. Maximum stellar iron core mass. F W GIACOBBE. Chicago Research Center/American Air Liquide ... iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large .... thermal equilibrium velocities will tend to be non-relativistic.

  15. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs

  16. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore

  17. A portable storage maximum thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayart, Gerard.

    1976-01-01

    A clinical thermometer storing the voltage corresponding to the maximum temperature in an analog memory is described. End of the measurement is shown by a lamp switch out. The measurement time is shortened by means of a low thermal inertia platinum probe. This portable thermometer is fitted with cell test and calibration system [fr

  18. Neutron spectra unfolding with maximum entropy and maximum likelihood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shikoh; Tsunoda, Toshiharu

    1989-01-01

    A new unfolding theory has been established on the basis of the maximum entropy principle and the maximum likelihood method. This theory correctly embodies the Poisson statistics of neutron detection, and always brings a positive solution over the whole energy range. Moreover, the theory unifies both problems of overdetermined and of underdetermined. For the latter, the ambiguity in assigning a prior probability, i.e. the initial guess in the Bayesian sense, has become extinct by virtue of the principle. An approximate expression of the covariance matrix for the resultant spectra is also presented. An efficient algorithm to solve the nonlinear system, which appears in the present study, has been established. Results of computer simulation showed the effectiveness of the present theory. (author)

  19. Evaluation of treatment for dry eye with 2-hydroxyestradiol using a dry eye rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Akihiro; Oonishi, Erina; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    2-hydroxy estradiol (2-OHE2) is a catechol derivative of 17β -Estradiol (E2) and it is synthesized from E2 catalyzed by cytochrome P4501A1. Previous studies reported that 2-OHE2 is a physiologic antioxidant in lipoproteins, liver microsomes, and the brain. Catechol derivatives show an anti-inflammatory effect through the inhibition of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (PGS) activity. Corneal erosion caused by dry eye is related to an increase in oxidative stress and inflammation in ocular surface cells. We investigated the therapeutic effects of 2-OHE2 on corneal damage caused by dry eye. Steroidal radical scavenging activity was confirmed through the electron spin resonance (ESR) method. PGS activity was measured using the COX Fluorescent Activity Assay Kit. To evaluate the effect of 2-OHE2 on the treatment for dry eye, 2-OHE2 was applied as an eye drop experiment using dry eye model rats. 2-OHE2 scavenged tyrosyl radical and possibly suppressed oxidative stress in corneal epithelial cells. In addition, 2-OHE2 inhibited PGS activity, and 2-OHE2 is probably a competitive inhibitor of PGS. Corneal PGS activity was upregulated in the dry eye group. Therefore, 2-OHE2 eye drops improved corneal erosion in dry eye model rats. 2-OHE2 is a candidate for the treatment of dry eye through the suppression of inflammation and oxidative stress in the cornea.

  20. Transmission of vertical stress in a real soil profile. Part III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per

    2011-01-01

    The transmission of stress in soils is extremely sensitive to changes in water content. According to the elasticity theory, for a given load applied to a given soil, an increase in soil water content yields a higher concentration of stresses under the centre of the load and a deeper propagation...... of stresses. We quantified the effect of soil water content of topsoil/subsoil layers (wet/wet, wet/dry, and dry/dry) on stress transmission. 3D measurements of vertical stresses under a towed wheel (800/50R34) were performed in situ in a Stagnic Luvisol. The tyre was loaded with 60 kN, and we used...... were measured in separate tests. Increase of water content in the topsoil by 114% increased the contact area by 149%, decreased the vertical stresses at the tyre–soil interface by 50%, and decreased the maximum vertical stress at 0.3 and 0.6 m depth by 46 and 63%, respectively. Stress attenuation...

  1. Dry vacuum pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibuet, R

    2008-01-01

    For decades and for ultimate pressure below 1 mbar, oil-sealed Rotary Vane Pumps have been the most popular solution for a wide range of vacuum applications. In the late 80ies, Semiconductor Industry has initiated the development of the first dry roughing pumps. Today SC applications are only using dry pumps and dry pumping packages. Since that time, pumps manufacturers have developed dry vacuum pumps technologies in order to make them attractive for other applications. The trend to replace lubricated pumps by dry pumps is now spreading over many other market segments. For the Semiconductor Industry, it has been quite easy to understand the benefits of dry pumps, in terms of Cost of Ownership, process contamination and up-time. In this paper, Technology of Dry pumps, its application in R and D/industries, merits over conventional pumps and future growth scope will be discussed

  2. Solar drying of uruguayan red gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ono

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available he use of solar energy as an alternative to non-renewable energy sources has been widely researched in the last decades. Compared to air drying, solar drying kilns can better control the drying process, resulting in a higher quality of the dry wood and lower final wood moisture content values. Investment and running costs for a solar drying kiln are lower than those of a conventional kiln. Moreover, the solar drying process can be advantageous for drying hardwoods which are traditionally considered difficult to dry such as eucalyptus wood of medium and high density (Red gums, known in Spanish as “Eucaliptos colorados”. The solar drying kiln naturally incorporates a daily high relative humidity period that can be similar to a conditioning or steaming step, although at a lower temperature.This results in fewer defects due to the drying process.A pilot scale 2.5 m3 semi-greenhouse type solar wood drying kiln was constructed at LATU (Uruguay Technological Laboratory in Montevideo, Uruguay. The operating conditions and the results from two drying runs are presented. Two species of red gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm., ADD 870 kg/m3, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., ADD 800 kg/m3 were dried from initial average moisture contents (WMC of around 60% down to 10.0% and 12.7% in 108 days and 76 days, respectively. Boards were provided by the Grupo Forestal San Gregorio from trees harvested at Tacuarembo and Paysandu Departments from cattle shelter forests 60 and 70 years old.Mean volume shrinkage was 18% for E. tereticornis, and 16% for E. camaldulensis, and the level of defects was moderate. Residual stresses and moisture content gradients were observed for both species. Final moisture content values were similar compared to those obtained in conventional drying kilns but with longer drying periods and lower operating costs. This would make the solar drying process attractive to small and medium sized forest products industries in a small country

  3. On Maximum Entropy and Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gresele

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Maximum entropy is a powerful concept that entails a sharp separation between relevant and irrelevant variables. It is typically invoked in inference, once an assumption is made on what the relevant variables are, in order to estimate a model from data, that affords predictions on all other (dependent variables. Conversely, maximum entropy can be invoked to retrieve the relevant variables (sufficient statistics directly from the data, once a model is identified by Bayesian model selection. We explore this approach in the case of spin models with interactions of arbitrary order, and we discuss how relevant interactions can be inferred. In this perspective, the dimensionality of the inference problem is not set by the number of parameters in the model, but by the frequency distribution of the data. We illustrate the method showing its ability to recover the correct model in a few prototype cases and discuss its application on a real dataset.

  4. Maximum Water Hammer Sensitivity Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jalil Emadi; Abbas Solemani

    2011-01-01

    Pressure waves and Water Hammer occur in a pumping system when valves are closed or opened suddenly or in the case of sudden failure of pumps. Determination of maximum water hammer is considered one of the most important technical and economical items of which engineers and designers of pumping stations and conveyance pipelines should take care. Hammer Software is a recent application used to simulate water hammer. The present study focuses on determining significance of ...

  5. Maximum Gene-Support Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Shan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomes and genes diversify during evolution; however, it is unclear to what extent genes still retain the relationship among species. Model species for molecular phylogenetic studies include yeasts and viruses whose genomes were sequenced as well as plants that have the fossil-supported true phylogenetic trees available. In this study, we generated single gene trees of seven yeast species as well as single gene trees of nine baculovirus species using all the orthologous genes among the species compared. Homologous genes among seven known plants were used for validation of the finding. Four algorithms—maximum parsimony (MP, minimum evolution (ME, maximum likelihood (ML, and neighbor-joining (NJ—were used. Trees were reconstructed before and after weighting the DNA and protein sequence lengths among genes. Rarely a gene can always generate the “true tree” by all the four algorithms. However, the most frequent gene tree, termed “maximum gene-support tree” (MGS tree, or WMGS tree for the weighted one, in yeasts, baculoviruses, or plants was consistently found to be the “true tree” among the species. The results provide insights into the overall degree of divergence of orthologous genes of the genomes analyzed and suggest the following: 1 The true tree relationship among the species studied is still maintained by the largest group of orthologous genes; 2 There are usually more orthologous genes with higher similarities between genetically closer species than between genetically more distant ones; and 3 The maximum gene-support tree reflects the phylogenetic relationship among species in comparison.

  6. LCLS Maximum Credible Beam Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.

    2005-01-01

    The maximum credible beam power is defined as the highest credible average beam power that the accelerator can deliver to the point in question, given the laws of physics, the beam line design, and assuming all protection devices have failed. For a new accelerator project, the official maximum credible beam power is determined by project staff in consultation with the Radiation Physics Department, after examining the arguments and evidence presented by the appropriate accelerator physicist(s) and beam line engineers. The definitive parameter becomes part of the project's safety envelope. This technical note will first review the studies that were done for the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SSRL, where a photoinjector similar to the one proposed for the LCLS is being tested. In Section 3 the maximum charge out of the gun for a single rf pulse is calculated. In Section 4, PARMELA simulations are used to track the beam from the gun to the end of the photoinjector. Finally in Section 5 the beam through the matching section and injected into Linac-1 is discussed

  7. Herbs drying using a heat pump dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatouh, M.; Metwally, M.N.; Helali, A.B.; Shedid, M.H. [Department of Mechanical Power Engineering, Faculty of Engineering at El Mattaria, Helwan University, P.O. Box 11718, Masaken El-Helmia, Cairo (Egypt)

    2006-09-15

    In the present work, a heat pump assisted dryer is designed and constructed to investigate the drying characteristics of various herbs experimentally. R134a is used as a working fluid in the heat pump circuit during the experimental work. Experiments have been conducted on Jew's mallow, spearmint and parsley. The effects of herb size, stem presence, surface load, drying air temperature and air velocity on the drying characteristics of Jew's mallow have been predicted. Experimental results show that a high surface load of 28kg/m{sup 2} yields the smallest drying rate, while the drying air with temperature of 55{sup o}C and velocity of 2.7m/s achieves the largest drying rate. A maximum dryer productivity of about 5.4kg/m{sup 2}h is obtained at the air temperature of 55{sup o}C, air velocity of 2.7m/s and dryer surface load of 28kg/m{sup 2}. It was found that small size herbs without stem need low specific energy consumption and low drying time. Comparison of the drying characteristics of different herbs revealed that parsley requires the lowest specific energy consumption (3684kJ/kg{sub H{sub 2}O}) followed by spearmint (3982kJ/kg{sub H{sub 2}O}) and Jew's mallow (4029kJ/kg{sub H{sub 2}O}). Finally, dryer productivity has been correlated in terms of surface load, drying air velocity and drying air temperature. (author)

  8. Frictional strength of wet and dry montmorillonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, C. A.; Moore, D. E.; Lockner, D. A.

    2017-05-01

    Montmorillonite is a common mineral in fault zones, and its low strength relative to other common gouge minerals is important in many models of fault rheology. However, the coefficient of friction, μ, varies with degree of saturation and is not well constrained in the literature due to the difficulty of establishing fully drained or fully dried states in the laboratory. We measured μ of both saturated and oven-dried montmorillonite at normal stresses up to 700 MPa. Care was taken to shear saturated samples slowly enough to avoid pore fluid overpressure. For saturated samples, μ increased from 0.10 to 0.28 with applied effective normal stress, while for dry samples μ decreased from 0.78 to 0.45. The steady state rate dependence of friction, (a - b), was positive, promoting stable sliding. The wide disparity in reported frictional strengths can be attributed to experimental procedures that promote differing degrees of partial saturation or overpressured pore fluid conditions.

  9. Crust formation in drying colloidal suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Style, R. W.

    2010-06-30

    During the drying of colloidal suspensions, the desiccation process causes the suspension near the air interface to consolidate into a connected porous matrix or crust. Fluid transport in the porous medium is governed by Darcy\\'s law and the equations of poroelasticity, while the equations of colloid physics govern processes in the suspension. We derive new equations describing this process, including unique boundary conditions coupling the two regions, yielding a moving-boundary model of the concentration and stress profiles during drying. A solution is found for the steady-state growth of a nedimensional crust during constant evaporation rate from the surface. The solution is used to demonstrate the importance of the system boundary conditions on stress profiles and diffusivity in a drying crust. © 2011 The Royal Society.

  10. Drying and energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, A

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of essential topics related to conventional and advanced drying and energy technologies, especially motivated by increased industry and academic interest. The main topics discussed are: theory and applications of drying, emerging topics in drying technology, innovations and trends in drying, thermo-hydro-chemical-mechanical behaviors of porous materials in drying, and drying equipment and energy. Since the topics covered are inter- and multi-disciplinary, the book offers an excellent source of information for engineers, energy specialists, scientists, researchers, graduate students, and leaders of industrial companies. This book is divided into several chapters focusing on the engineering, science and technology applied in essential industrial processes used for raw materials and products.

  11. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  12. Dry etching for microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, RA

    1984-01-01

    This volume collects together for the first time a series of in-depth, critical reviews of important topics in dry etching, such as dry processing of III-V compound semiconductors, dry etching of refractory metal silicides and dry etching aluminium and aluminium alloys. This topical format provides the reader with more specialised information and references than found in a general review article. In addition, it presents a broad perspective which would otherwise have to be gained by reading a large number of individual research papers. An additional important and unique feature of this book

  13. Inflammation in dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Michael E; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2004-04-01

    Dry eye is a condition of altered tear composition that results from a diseased or dysfunctional lacrimal functional unit. Evidence suggests that inflammation causes structural alterations and/or functional paralysis of the tear-secreting glands. Changes in tear composition resulting from lacrimal dysfunction, increased evaporation and/or poor clearance have pro-inflammatory effects on the ocular surface. This inflammation is responsible in part for the irritation symptoms, ocular surface epithelial disease, and altered corneal epithelial barrier function in dry eye. Anti-inflammatory therapies for dry eye target one or more of the inflammatory mediators/pathways that have been identified in dry eye.

  14. Drying hardwood lumber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, A T

    1988-11-14

    Dried lumber is a high-value-added product, especially when it is of high quality. Lumber damaged during the drying operation can represent substantial lost revenue. It has been demonstrated that dehumidification kilns can improve lumber quality, and reduce energy consumption over conventional drying methods. A summary of the literature on drying hardwood lumber, particularly using heat pump dehumidification, has been prepared to allow the information to be readily accessible to Ontario Hydro personnel who work with customers in the lumber industry. For that purpose, this summary has been prepared from the perspective of the customer, a dry kiln operator. Included are brief descriptions of drying schedules, precautions needed to minimize drying defects in the lumber, and rules-of-thumb for selecting and estimating the capital cost of the drying equipment. A selection of drying schedules and moisture contents of green lumber, a glossary of lumber defects and brief descriptions of the possible preventive measures are also included. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Generic maximum likely scale selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    in this work is on applying this selection principle under a Brownian image model. This image model provides a simple scale invariant prior for natural images and we provide illustrative examples of the behavior of our scale estimation on such images. In these illustrative examples, estimation is based......The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  17. Dry eye syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000426.htm Dry eye syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, ... second-hand smoke exposure Cold or allergy medicines Dry eye can also be caused by: Heat or ... Symptoms may include: Blurred vision Burning, itching, ...

  18. Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mouth Trouble chewing, swallowing, tasting, or speaking A burning feeling in the mouth A dry feeling in the throat Cracked lips ... Food and Drug Administration provides information on dry mouth and offers advice for ... Syndrome Clinic NIDCR Sjogren’s Syndrome Clinic develops new therapies ...

  19. Mesoscopic analysis of drying shrinkage damage in a cementitious material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moonen, P.; Pedersen, R.R.; Simone, A.

    2008-01-01

    Concrete and cement-based materials exhibit shrinkage when exposed to drying. Structural effects and inhomogeneity of material properties adverse free shrinkage, hereby inducing stress concentrations and possibly damage. In this contribution, the magnitude of shrinkage- induced damage during...... temperatures are considered: 35 °C and 50 °C. Significantly more micro-damage and higher internal stresses are found for the latter, revealing the importance of drying shrinkage damage, even at laboratory scale....

  20. System for memorizing maximum values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1992-08-01

    The invention discloses a system capable of memorizing maximum sensed values. The system includes conditioning circuitry which receives the analog output signal from a sensor transducer. The conditioning circuitry rectifies and filters the analog signal and provides an input signal to a digital driver, which may be either linear or logarithmic. The driver converts the analog signal to discrete digital values, which in turn triggers an output signal on one of a plurality of driver output lines n. The particular output lines selected is dependent on the converted digital value. A microfuse memory device connects across the driver output lines, with n segments. Each segment is associated with one driver output line, and includes a microfuse that is blown when a signal appears on the associated driver output line.

  1. Remarks on the maximum luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Ikeda, Taishi; Moore, Christopher J.; Yoo, Chul-Moon

    2018-04-01

    The quest for fundamental limitations on physical processes is old and venerable. Here, we investigate the maximum possible power, or luminosity, that any event can produce. We show, via full nonlinear simulations of Einstein's equations, that there exist initial conditions which give rise to arbitrarily large luminosities. However, the requirement that there is no past horizon in the spacetime seems to limit the luminosity to below the Planck value, LP=c5/G . Numerical relativity simulations of critical collapse yield the largest luminosities observed to date, ≈ 0.2 LP . We also present an analytic solution to the Einstein equations which seems to give an unboundedly large luminosity; this will guide future numerical efforts to investigate super-Planckian luminosities.

  2. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  3. Scintillation counter, maximum gamma aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumim, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  4. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Shiguang; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  5. Encapsulation of black carrot juice using spray and freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, S; Kar, Abhijit; Mohapatra, Debabandya; Kalia, Pritam

    2015-12-01

    Black carrot juice extracted using pectinase enzyme was encapsulated in three different carrier materials (maltodextrin 20DE, gum arabic and tapioca starch) using spray drying at four inlet temperatures (150, 175, 200 and 225 ℃) and freeze drying at a constant temperature of - 53 ℃ and vacuum of 0.22-0.11 mbar with the constant feed mixture. The products were analyzed for total anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility index, encapsulation efficiency and total colour change. For both the drying methods followed in this study, maltodextrin 20DE as the carrier material has proven to be better in retaining maximum anthocyanin and antioxidant activity compared to gum arabic and tapioca starch. The best spray dried product, was obtained at 150 ℃. The most acceptable was the freeze dried product with maximum anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility index, encapsulation efficiency and colour change. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Development and Experimental Benchmark of Simulations to Predict Used Nuclear Fuel Cladding Temperatures during Drying and Transfer Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, Miles [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2017-03-31

    Radial hydride formation in high-burnup used fuel cladding has the potential to radically reduce its ductility and suitability for long-term storage and eventual transport. To avoid this formation, the maximum post-reactor temperature must remain sufficiently low to limit the cladding hoop stress, and so that hydrogen from the existing circumferential hydrides will not dissolve and become available to re-precipitate into radial hydrides under the slow cooling conditions during drying, transfer and early dry-cask storage. The objective of this research is to develop and experimentallybenchmark computational fluid dynamics simulations of heat transfer in post-pool-storage drying operations, when high-burnup fuel cladding is likely to experience its highest temperature. These benchmarked tools can play a key role in evaluating dry cask storage systems for extended storage of high-burnup fuels and post-storage transportation, including fuel retrievability. The benchmarked tools will be used to aid the design of efficient drying processes, as well as estimate variations of surface temperatures as a means of inferring helium integrity inside the canister or cask. This work will be conducted effectively because the principal investigator has experience developing these types of simulations, and has constructed a test facility that can be used to benchmark them.

  7. Human climbing with efficiently scaled gecko-inspired dry adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Elliot W; Eason, Eric V; Christensen, David L; Cutkosky, Mark R

    2015-01-06

    Since the discovery of the mechanism of adhesion in geckos, many synthetic dry adhesives have been developed with desirable gecko-like properties such as reusability, directionality, self-cleaning ability, rough surface adhesion and high adhesive stress. However, fully exploiting these adhesives in practical applications at different length scales requires efficient scaling (i.e. with little loss in adhesion as area grows). Just as natural gecko adhesives have been used as a benchmark for synthetic materials, so can gecko adhesion systems provide a baseline for scaling efficiency. In the tokay gecko (Gekko gecko), a scaling power law has been reported relating the maximum shear stress σmax to the area A: σmax ∝ A(-1/4). We present a mechanical concept which improves upon the gecko's non-uniform load-sharing and results in a nearly even load distribution over multiple patches of gecko-inspired adhesive. We created a synthetic adhesion system incorporating this concept which shows efficient scaling across four orders of magnitude of area, yielding an improved scaling power law: σmax ∝ A(-1/50). Furthermore, we found that the synthetic adhesion system does not fail catastrophically when a simulated failure is induced on a portion of the adhesive. In a practical demonstration, the synthetic adhesion system enabled a 70 kg human to climb vertical glass with 140 cm(2) of adhesive per hand. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Dry well cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki.

    1997-01-01

    A plurality of blowing ports with introduction units are disposed to a plurality of ducts in a dry well, and a cooling unit comprising a cooler, a blower and an isolating valve is disposed outside of the dry well. Cooling air and the atmosphere in the dry well are mixed to form a cooling gas and blown into the dry well to control the temperature. Since the cooling unit is disposed outside of the dry well, the maintenance of the cooling unit can be performed even during the plant operation. In addition, since dampers opened/closed depending on the temperature of the atmosphere are disposed to the introduction units for controlling the temperature of the cooling gas, the temperature of the atmosphere in the dry well can be set to a predetermined level rapidly. Since an axial flow blower is used as the blower of the cooling unit, it can be contained in a ventilation cylinder. Then, the atmosphere in the dry well flowing in the ventilation cylinder can be prevented from leaking to the outside. (N.H.)

  9. Maximum entropy and Bayesian methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.R.; Erickson, G.J.; Neudorfer, P.O.

    1992-01-01

    Bayesian probability theory and Maximum Entropy methods are at the core of a new view of scientific inference. These 'new' ideas, along with the revolution in computational methods afforded by modern computers allow astronomers, electrical engineers, image processors of any type, NMR chemists and physicists, and anyone at all who has to deal with incomplete and noisy data, to take advantage of methods that, in the past, have been applied only in some areas of theoretical physics. The title workshops have been the focus of a group of researchers from many different fields, and this diversity is evident in this book. There are tutorial and theoretical papers, and applications in a very wide variety of fields. Almost any instance of dealing with incomplete and noisy data can be usefully treated by these methods, and many areas of theoretical research are being enhanced by the thoughtful application of Bayes' theorem. Contributions contained in this volume present a state-of-the-art overview that will be influential and useful for many years to come

  10. Evaluation of energy consumption in different drying methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motevali, Ali; Minaei, Saeid; Khoshtagaza, Mohammad Hadi [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Agricultural Faculty, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran 14115-111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate energy consumption in various drying systems including hot-air convection, use of microwave pretreatment with convection dryer, microwave drying, vacuum drying and infrared drying. Tests were conducted using pomegranate arils under various experimental conditions as follows. In convection dryer at six temperature levels (45, 50, 55, 60, 65 and 70 C) and three air velocity levels (0.5, 1 and 1.5 m/s) at three pretreatments of control, 100 W microwave pretreatment for 20 min and 200 W microwave pretreatment for 10 min. Experiments in the microwave dryer were done at three power levels of 100, 200 and 300 W and in vacuum dryer at five temperature levels (50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 C) under 250 kPa pressure. For infrared drying, there were four air velocity levels (0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 m/s) and three illumination levels (0.22, 0.31 and 0.49 W/cm{sup 2}). Experimental results showed that minimum and maximum energy consumption in pomegranate drying were associated with microwave and vacuum dryers, respectively. The use of microwave pretreatment in drying pomegranate arils in hot air dryer decreased drying time and energy consumption in comparison with pure convection drying. In infrared drying, it was found that drying time increased with air velocity which resulted in increased energy consumption. (author)

  11. Evaluation of energy consumption in different drying methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motevali, Ali; Minaei, Saeid; Khoshtagaza, Mohammad Hadi

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate energy consumption in various drying systems including hot-air convection, use of microwave pretreatment with convection dryer, microwave drying, vacuum drying and infrared drying. Tests were conducted using pomegranate arils under various experimental conditions as follows. In convection dryer at six temperature levels (45, 50, 55, 60, 65 and 70 o C) and three air velocity levels (0.5, 1 and 1.5 m/s) at three pretreatments of control, 100 W microwave pretreatment for 20 min and 200 W microwave pretreatment for 10 min. Experiments in the microwave dryer were done at three power levels of 100, 200 and 300 W and in vacuum dryer at five temperature levels (50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 o C) under 250 kPa pressure. For infrared drying, there were four air velocity levels (0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 m/s) and three illumination levels (0.22, 0.31 and 0.49 W/cm 2 ). Experimental results showed that minimum and maximum energy consumption in pomegranate drying were associated with microwave and vacuum dryers, respectively. The use of microwave pretreatment in drying pomegranate arils in hot air dryer decreased drying time and energy consumption in comparison with pure convection drying. In infrared drying, it was found that drying time increased with air velocity which resulted in increased energy consumption.

  12. Severe dry winter affects plant phenology and carbon balance of a cork oak woodland understorey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, A. C.; Costa-e-Silva, F.; Dubbert, M.; Piayda, A.; Pereira, J. S.

    2016-10-01

    Mediterranean climates are prone to a great variation in yearly precipitation. The effects on ecosystem will depend on the severity and timing of droughts. In this study we questioned how an extreme dry winter affects the carbon flux in the understorey of a cork oak woodland? What is the seasonal contribution of understorey vegetation to ecosystem productivity? We used closed-system portable chambers to measure CO2 exchange of the dominant shrub species (Cistus salviifolius, Cistus crispus and Ulex airensis), of the herbaceous layer and on bare soil in a cork oak woodland in central Portugal during the dry winter year of 2012. Shoot growth, leaf shedding, flower and fruit setting, above and belowground plant biomass were measured as well as seasonal leaf water potential. Eddy-covariance and micrometeorological data together with CO2 exchange measurements were used to access the understorey species contribution to ecosystem gross primary productivity (GPP). The herbaceous layer productivity was severely affected by the dry winter, with half of the yearly maximum aboveground biomass in comparison with the 6 years site average. The semi-deciduous and evergreen shrubs showed desynchronized phenophases and lagged carbon uptake maxima. Whereas shallow-root shrubs exhibited opportunistic characteristics in exploiting the understorey light and water resources, deep rooted shrubs showed better water status but considerably lower assimilation rates. The contribution of understorey vegetation to ecosystem GPP was lower during summer with 14% and maximum during late spring, concomitantly with the lowest tree productivity due to tree canopy renewal. The herbaceous vegetation contribution to ecosystem GPP never exceeded 6% during this dry year stressing its sensitivity to winter and spring precipitation. Although shrubs are more resilient to precipitation variability when compared with the herbaceous vegetation, the contribution of the understorey vegetation to ecosystem GPP can

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, 2015 Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care, Part ... Name: Member ID: * Phone Number: * Email: * Enter code: * Message: Thank you Your feedback has been sent.

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... month dissolvable punctal plug be removed or pushed down the tear duct to insert a permanent punctal ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  15. Dry Skin Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on a budget Skin care products Skin care secrets Skin lighteners Skin of color Summer skin problems ... condition, such as eczema. Additional related information Dermatologists' top tips for relieving dry skin FIND A DERMATOLOGIST ...

  16. Dry process potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faugeras, P.

    1997-01-01

    Various dry processes have been studied and more or less developed in order particularly to reduce the waste quantities but none of them had replaced the PUREX process, for reasons departing to policy errors, un-appropriate demonstration examples or too late development, although realistic and efficient dry processes such as a fluoride selective volatility based processes have been demonstrated in France (CLOVIS, ATILA) and would be ten times cheaper than the PUREX process. Dry processes could regain interest in case of a nuclear revival (following global warming fears) or thermal wastes over-production. In the near future, dry processes could be introduced in complement to the PUREX process, especially at the end of the process cycle, for a more efficient recycling and safer storage (inactivation)

  17. Freeze drying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppa, N.V.; Stewart, P.; Renzi, E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... removed or pushed down the tear duct to insert a permanent punctal plug? Sep 12, 2017 Why ... Eye from Jennifer Aniston Sep 02, 2016 The link between seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, ...

  19. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the K-Basins (see K-Basins link) in Hanford's 100 Area is a facility called the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF).Between 2000 and 2004, workers at the...

  20. Maximum entropy principal for transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilich, F.; Da Silva, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  1. Effect of microwave freeze drying on quality and energy supply in drying of barley grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaohuang; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S; Zhong, Qifeng; Wang, Zhushang

    2018-03-01

    Young barley grass leaves are well-known for containing the antioxidant substances flavonoid and chlorophyll. However, low product quality and energy efficiency exist with respect to the dehydration of barley grass leaves. To improve energy supply and the quality of barley grass, microwave heating instead of contact heat was applied for the freeze drying of barley grass at a pilot scale at 1, 1.5 and 2 W g -1 , respectively; After drying, energy supply and quality parameters of color, moisture content, chlorophyll, flavonoids, odors of dried barley grass were determined to evaluate the feasibility of the study. Microwave freeze drying (MFD) allowed a low energy supply and high contents of chlorophyll and flavonoids. A lightness value of 60.0, a green value of -11.5 and an energy supply of 0.61 kW h -1  g -1 were observed in 1.5 W g -1 MFD; whereas drying time (7 h) decreased by 42% compared to contact heating. Maximum content of flavonoid and chlorophyll was 11.7 and 12.8 g kg -1 barley grass. Microwave heating leads to an odor change larger than that for contact heating observed for the freeze drying of barley grass. MFD retains chlorophyll and flavonoids, as well as colors and odors of samples, and also decreases energy consumption in the freeze drying of barley grass. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Last Glacial Maximum Salinity Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, K.; Spivack, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that salinity can be reconstructed from sediment porewater. The goal of our study is to reconstruct high precision salinity during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Salinity is usually determined at high precision via conductivity, which requires a larger volume of water than can be extracted from a sediment core, or via chloride titration, which yields lower than ideal precision. It has been demonstrated for water column samples that high precision density measurements can be used to determine salinity at the precision of a conductivity measurement using the equation of state of seawater. However, water column seawater has a relatively constant composition, in contrast to porewater, where variations from standard seawater composition occur. These deviations, which affect the equation of state, must be corrected for through precise measurements of each ion's concentration and knowledge of apparent partial molar density in seawater. We have developed a density-based method for determining porewater salinity that requires only 5 mL of sample, achieving density precisions of 10-6 g/mL. We have applied this method to porewater samples extracted from long cores collected along a N-S transect across the western North Atlantic (R/V Knorr cruise KN223). Density was determined to a precision of 2.3x10-6 g/mL, which translates to salinity uncertainty of 0.002 gms/kg if the effect of differences in composition is well constrained. Concentrations of anions (Cl-, and SO4-2) and cations (Na+, Mg+, Ca+2, and K+) were measured. To correct salinities at the precision required to unravel LGM Meridional Overturning Circulation, our ion precisions must be better than 0.1% for SO4-/Cl- and Mg+/Na+, and 0.4% for Ca+/Na+, and K+/Na+. Alkalinity, pH and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon of the porewater were determined to precisions better than 4% when ratioed to Cl-, and used to calculate HCO3-, and CO3-2. Apparent partial molar densities in seawater were

  3. Maximum Parsimony on Phylogenetic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic networks are generalizations of phylogenetic trees, that are used to model evolutionary events in various contexts. Several different methods and criteria have been introduced for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Maximum Parsimony is a character-based approach that infers a phylogenetic tree by minimizing the total number of evolutionary steps required to explain a given set of data assigned on the leaves. Exact solutions for optimizing parsimony scores on phylogenetic trees have been introduced in the past. Results In this paper, we define the parsimony score on networks as the sum of the substitution costs along all the edges of the network; and show that certain well-known algorithms that calculate the optimum parsimony score on trees, such as Sankoff and Fitch algorithms extend naturally for networks, barring conflicting assignments at the reticulate vertices. We provide heuristics for finding the optimum parsimony scores on networks. Our algorithms can be applied for any cost matrix that may contain unequal substitution costs of transforming between different characters along different edges of the network. We analyzed this for experimental data on 10 leaves or fewer with at most 2 reticulations and found that for almost all networks, the bounds returned by the heuristics matched with the exhaustively determined optimum parsimony scores. Conclusion The parsimony score we define here does not directly reflect the cost of the best tree in the network that displays the evolution of the character. However, when searching for the most parsimonious network that describes a collection of characters, it becomes necessary to add additional cost considerations to prefer simpler structures, such as trees over networks. The parsimony score on a network that we describe here takes into account the substitution costs along the additional edges incident on each reticulate vertex, in addition to the substitution costs along the other edges which are

  4. Approximation for maximum pressure calculation in containment of PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, A.L. de

    1989-01-01

    A correlation was developed to estimate the maximum pressure of dry containment of PWR following a Loss-of-Coolant Accident - LOCA. The expression proposed is a function of the total energy released to the containment by the primary circuit, of the free volume of the containment building and of the total surface are of the heat-conducting structures. The results show good agreement with those present in Final Safety Analysis Report - FSAR of several PWR's plants. The errors are in the order of ± 12%. (author) [pt

  5. The Benefits of Leisure Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jr., Richard G.

    1982-01-01

    Leisure bereft of all stress is action without purpose. Maximum motivation and gratification are achieved when a balance is achieved between abilities and responsibilities. Stress is an essential leisure ingredient that provides meaning and clarity to social experience. (CJ)

  6. Gene Expression, Bacteria Viability and Survivability Following Spray Drying of Mycobacterium smegmatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hunter Lauten

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We find that Mycobacterium smegmatis survives spray drying and retains cell viability in accelerated temperature stress (40 °C conditions with a success rate that increases with increasing thermal, osmotic, and nutrient-restriction stresses applied to the mycobacterium prior to spray drying. M.smegmatis that are spray dried during log growth phase, where they suffer little or no nutrient-reduction stress, survive for less than 7 days in the dry powder state at accelerated temperature stress conditions, whereas M. smegmatis that are spray dried during stationary phase, where cells do suffer nutrient reduction, survive for up to 14 days. M. smegmatis that are spray dried from stationary phase, subjected to accelerated temperature stress conditions, regrown to stationary phase, spray dried again, and resubmitted to this same process four consecutive times, display, on the fourth spray drying iteration, an approximate ten-fold increase in stability during accelerated temperature stress testing, surviving up to 105 days. Microarray tests revealed significant differences in genetic expression of M. smegmatis between log phase and stationary phase conditions, between naïve (non spray-dried and multiply cycled dried M. smegmatis (in log and stationary phase, and between M. smegmatis in the dry powder state following a single spray drying operation and after four consecutive spray drying operations. These differences, and other phenotypical differences, point to the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway as a probable pathway contributing to bacteria survival in the spray-dried state and suggests strategies for spray drying that may lead to significantly greater room-temperature stability of mycobacteria, including mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG, the current TB vaccine.

  7. Optimization of Bolt Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2013-01-01

    The state of stress in bolts and nuts with ISO metric thread design is examined and optimized. The assumed failure mode is fatigue so the applied preload and the load amplitude together with the stress concentrations define the connection strength. Maximum stress in the bolt is found at, the fillet...... under the head, at the thread start or at the thread root. To minimize the stress concentration shape optimization is applied....

  8. QTLs for seedling traits under salinity stress in hexaploid wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhe Ren

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Soil salinity limits agricultural production and is a major obstacle for increasing crop yield. Common wheat is one of the most important crops with allohexaploid characteristic and a highly complex genome. QTL mapping is a useful way to identify genes for quantitative traits such as salinity tolerance in hexaploid wheat. In the present study, a hydroponic trial was carried out to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs associated with salinity tolerance of wheat under 150mM NaCl concentration using a recombinant inbred line population (Xiaoyan 54×Jing 411. Values of wheat seedling traits including maximum root length (MRL, root dry weight (RDW, shoot dry weight (SDW, total dry weight (TDW and the ratio of TDW of wheat plants between salt stress and control (TDWR were evaluated or calculated. A total of 19QTLs for five traits were detected through composite interval mapping method by using QTL Cartographer version 2.5 under normal and salt stress conditions. These QTLs distributed on 12 chromosomes explained the percentage of phenotypic variation by individual QTL varying from 7.9% to 19.0%. Among them, 11 and six QTLs were detected under normal and salt stress conditions, respectively and two QTLs were detected for TDWR. Some salt tolerance related loci may be pleiotropic. Chromosome 1A, 3A and 7A may harbor crucial candidate genes associated with wheat salt tolerance. Our results would be helpful for the marker assisted selection to breed wheat varieties with improved salt tolerance.

  9. Two-dimensional maximum entropy image restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brolley, J.E.; Lazarus, R.B.; Suydam, B.R.; Trussell, H.J.

    1977-07-01

    An optical check problem was constructed to test P LOG P maximum entropy restoration of an extremely distorted image. Useful recovery of the original image was obtained. Comparison with maximum a posteriori restoration is made. 7 figures

  10. Drying of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Geiker, Mette Rica; Nygaard, Peter Vagn

    2002-01-01

    Estimated and measured relative humidity (RH) change during drying are compared for two concretes, 1: w/c=0.46 and 2: w/(c+0.5fa+2sf)=0.50. The estimations were undertaken by means of the Swedish program TorkaS 1.0. Measurements were performed by RH-sensors type Humi-Guard. Drying of 150 mm thick...... samples from sides at 60% RH and 22 °C took place from 4 to 56 days after casting. At the end of the drying period the measured RH was about 4% lower than the estimated RH at 1/5th depth from the exposed surface for both concretes. In the middle of the samples, the measured RH of concretes 1 and 2 were 2...

  11. Accelerated conventional temperature drying of 30mm thick rubberwood lumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthon Srivaro1,

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Lumber drying is the most energy and time consuming process within the rubberwood lumber industry. The aim ofthis study was to develop an effective drying schedule for rubberwood lumber by accelerating the moisture movement out oflumber without degrading the lumber during drying. The study explored the effect of dry bulb temperature (60oC, 75oC and90oC, steaming at the beginning of drying, predrying of lumber prior to drying, and top loading of lumber on the dryingcharacteristics and lumber quality (bow, crook, twist, end splitting and color of 30mm thick rubberwood lumber under thetarget EMC at 4% and air velocity of 4m/s. Accelerated conventional temperature drying of lumber at 90oC reduced thedrying time by ~50% from 117 hours to 54 hours but increased the energy consumption by 22% with respect to the conventionaltemperature drying at 60oC. The average activation energy for drying was 26 kJ/mol. Drying temperature had verylittle effect on quality of lumber after drying (bow, crook, twist, end splitting and color. Steaming at the beginning of dryingand predrying of lumber prior to drying reduced and increased the percentage of end splitting, respectively. A top load ofabout 300 kg/m2 slightly decreased twist. Drying at higher temperatures produced more casehardening within the lumber butconditioning at higher temperatures was more effective in releasing the residual stress generated by drying. After conditioningat high temperatures prong of less than 0.5° casehardening was obtained.

  12. What controls the maximum magnitude of injection-induced earthquakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, D. W. S.

    2017-12-01

    Three different approaches for estimation of maximum magnitude are considered here, along with their implications for managing risk. The first approach is based on a deterministic limit for seismic moment proposed by McGarr (1976), which was originally designed for application to mining-induced seismicity. This approach has since been reformulated for earthquakes induced by fluid injection (McGarr, 2014). In essence, this method assumes that the upper limit for seismic moment release is constrained by the pressure-induced stress change. A deterministic limit is given by the product of shear modulus and the net injected fluid volume. This method is based on the assumptions that the medium is fully saturated and in a state of incipient failure. An alternative geometrical approach was proposed by Shapiro et al. (2011), who postulated that the rupture area for an induced earthquake falls entirely within the stimulated volume. This assumption reduces the maximum-magnitude problem to one of estimating the largest potential slip surface area within a given stimulated volume. Finally, van der Elst et al. (2016) proposed that the maximum observed magnitude, statistically speaking, is the expected maximum value for a finite sample drawn from an unbounded Gutenberg-Richter distribution. These three models imply different approaches for risk management. The deterministic method proposed by McGarr (2014) implies that a ceiling on the maximum magnitude can be imposed by limiting the net injected volume, whereas the approach developed by Shapiro et al. (2011) implies that the time-dependent maximum magnitude is governed by the spatial size of the microseismic event cloud. Finally, the sample-size hypothesis of Van der Elst et al. (2016) implies that the best available estimate of the maximum magnitude is based upon observed seismicity rate. The latter two approaches suggest that real-time monitoring is essential for effective management of risk. A reliable estimate of maximum

  13. Aging: A Predisposition to Dry Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anushree Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry eye syndrome is a disease of the ocular surface and tear film that is prevalent in older adults. Even though the degree of visual acuity loss in dry eye patients is commonly mild-to-moderate, in the aging population, this minimal change in visual status can lead to a significant decrease in visual function and quality of life. A healthy ocular surface is maintained by appropriate tear production and tear drainage, and deficiencies in this delicate balance can lead to dryness. In the aging eye, risk factors such as polypharmacy, androgen deficiency, decreased blink rates, and oxidative stress can predispose the patient to developing dry eye that is frequently more severe, has higher economic costs, and leads to worse consequences to the well-being of the patient. Understanding why elderly patients are at higher risk for developing dry eyes can provide insights into the diagnosis and management of the growing number of older adults struggling with dry eye and minimize the burden of disease on our aging population.

  14. Pecan drying with silica gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, S.R.; Chhinnan, M.S.

    1983-07-01

    High moisture in-shell pecans were dried by keeping them in direct and indirect contact with silica gel to investigate their drying characteristics. In-shell pecans were also dried with ambient air from a controlled environment chamber and with air dehumidified by silica gel. Direct contact and dehumidified air drying seemed feasible approaches.

  15. Comparative numerical study of kaolin clay with three drying methods: Convective, convective–microwave and convective infrared modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammouda, I.; Mihoubi, D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Modelling of drying of deformable media. • Theoretical study of kaolin clay with three drying methods: convective, convective–microwave and convective infrared mode. • The stresses generated during convective, microwave/convective drying and infrared/convective drying. • The combined drying decrease the intensity of stresses developed during drying. - Abstract: A mathematical model is developed to simulate the response of a kaolin clay sample when subjected to convective, convective–microwave and convective–infrared mode. This model is proposed to describe heat, mass, and momentum transfers applied to a viscoelastic medium described by a Maxwell model with two branches. The combined drying methods were investigated to examine whether these types of drying may minimize cracking that can be generated in the product and to know whether the best enhancement is developed by the use of infra-red or microwave radiation. The numerical code allowed us to determine, and thus, compare the effect of the drying mode on drying rate, temperature, moisture content and mechanical stress evolutions during drying. The numerical results show that the combined drying decrease the intensity of stresses developed during drying and that convective–microwave drying is the best method that gives a good quality of dried product

  16. [Psychosomatic aspects of dry eye syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepp, J

    2016-02-01

    Patients with dry eye syndrome are known to suffer from anxiety and depression. Analysis of psychological disorders in therapy-resistant dry eye syndrome. A retrospective analysis of the training for interactive psychiatric screening (TRIPS) questionnaire from 110 patients with therapy-resistant dry eye syndrome was carried out. The results of the questionnaire allow the diagnosis of psychological disorders and vegetative disorders. Patients were divided into groups with anxiety, depression, mixed diagnoses, vegetative disorders and no diagnosis. A sicca score was used for assessment of dryness comprising the Schirmer test, measurement of tear meniscus, break up time, lipid layer thickness, the use of fluorescein and rose bengal staining tests and the subjective visual analogue scale. The diagnosis of dry eye syndrome was compared with the psychological disorders of anxiety and depression. Of the patients 52.7 % had psychological disorders with anxiety in 21.8 %, depression in 15.3 %, mixed diagnoses in 14.5 %, dystonia in 25.4 % and in 22.7 % no psychological disorders were diagnosed. General anxiety was frequent and panic disorders were often associated with other kinds of anxiety. Severe depression, such as bipolar disorder was rare. Dry eye scores were highest in the mixed group (0.59), and lowest in the group with mild anxiety (0.38). No single sicca phase disorder could be correlated with any of the psychological diagnoses. Patients with therapy-resistant dry eye syndrome often suffer from anxiety and depression. The psychological stress acts on the nervous system to suppress lacrimal gland function. Further investigation of the correlation between the lacrimal tear film phase and psychological disorders is recommended. Knowledge of personality disorders may allow psychological support that would improve the treatment options for dry eye syndrome.

  17. Large Scale Anthropogenic Reduction of Forest Cover in Last Glacial Maximum Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jed O Kaplan

    Full Text Available Reconstructions of the vegetation of Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM are an enigma. Pollen-based analyses have suggested that Europe was largely covered by steppe and tundra, and forests persisted only in small refugia. Climate-vegetation model simulations on the other hand have consistently suggested that broad areas of Europe would have been suitable for forest, even in the depths of the last glaciation. Here we reconcile models with data by demonstrating that the highly mobile groups of hunter-gatherers that inhabited Europe at the LGM could have substantially reduced forest cover through the ignition of wildfires. Similar to hunter-gatherers of the more recent past, Upper Paleolithic humans were masters of the use of fire, and preferred inhabiting semi-open landscapes to facilitate foraging, hunting and travel. Incorporating human agency into a dynamic vegetation-fire model and simulating forest cover shows that even small increases in wildfire frequency over natural background levels resulted in large changes in the forested area of Europe, in part because trees were already stressed by low atmospheric CO2 concentrations and the cold, dry, and highly variable climate. Our results suggest that the impact of humans on the glacial landscape of Europe may be one of the earliest large-scale anthropogenic modifications of the earth system.

  18. Large Scale Anthropogenic Reduction of Forest Cover in Last Glacial Maximum Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Jed O; Pfeiffer, Mirjam; Kolen, Jan C A; Davis, Basil A S

    2016-01-01

    Reconstructions of the vegetation of Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are an enigma. Pollen-based analyses have suggested that Europe was largely covered by steppe and tundra, and forests persisted only in small refugia. Climate-vegetation model simulations on the other hand have consistently suggested that broad areas of Europe would have been suitable for forest, even in the depths of the last glaciation. Here we reconcile models with data by demonstrating that the highly mobile groups of hunter-gatherers that inhabited Europe at the LGM could have substantially reduced forest cover through the ignition of wildfires. Similar to hunter-gatherers of the more recent past, Upper Paleolithic humans were masters of the use of fire, and preferred inhabiting semi-open landscapes to facilitate foraging, hunting and travel. Incorporating human agency into a dynamic vegetation-fire model and simulating forest cover shows that even small increases in wildfire frequency over natural background levels resulted in large changes in the forested area of Europe, in part because trees were already stressed by low atmospheric CO2 concentrations and the cold, dry, and highly variable climate. Our results suggest that the impact of humans on the glacial landscape of Europe may be one of the earliest large-scale anthropogenic modifications of the earth system.

  19. Enhanced proline synthesis may determine resistance to salt stress in tomato cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Khan, N.U.

    2011-01-01

    The physiological and biochemical responses of tomato cultivars were studied at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan during 2005-2006 for salt tolerance. Tomato cultivars were Roma Rio Super, Roma V.F., Chinese 87-5, Rio Grand and Super Blocky and subjected to salt stress (75 mM NaCl). Fresh weight, dry weight, and ions sodium and potassium accumulation, Na/sup +/K sup +/ ratio and proline content were determined after imposing the tomato cultivars to NaCl salt for 80 days. Salt stress significantly decreased the fresh and dry weight in Roma Rio Super, Roma V.F, Chinese 87-5 and Rio Grand, however, in Super Blocky the fresh and dry weight were enhanced under stress conditions. Salinity stress increased sodium uptake from 191.828 to 436.170 mu mg/sup -1/ D wt while potassium accumulation decreased from 1033.12 to 926.80 mu mg/sup -1/ D wt resulting in higher Na/sup +/ ratio in stressed (0.48 g) as compared to unstressed control (0.19). The mean proline contents also increased from 28.95 to 40.96 mu M Proline g/sup -1/ F. wt with the maximum increase (57.378%) in Super Blocky followed by Rio Grand (49.325%). (author)

  20. Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生

    2003-01-01

    Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.

  1. OPTIMIZATION OF MICROWAVE AND AIR DRYING CONDITIONS OF QUINCE (CYDONIA OBLONGA, MILLER USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Baltacioglu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Effects of slice thickness of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller , microwave incident power and air drying temperature on antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of quince were investigated during drying in microwave and air drying. Optimum conditions were found to be: i for microwave drying, 285 W and 4.14 mm thick (maximum antioxidant activity and 285 W and 6.85 mm thick (maximum total phenolic content, and ii for air drying, 75 ºC and 1.2 mm thick (both maximum antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. Drying conditions were optimized by using the response surface methodology. 13 experiments were carried out considering incident microwave powers from 285 to 795 W, air temperature from 46 to 74 ºC and slice thickness from 1.2 to 6.8 mm.

  2. FREEZE DRYING PROCESS: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Soham Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Among the various methods of drying, this article has mentioned only one most important method, “Freeze drying”. This method is mainly used for the drying of thermo labile materials. This method works on the principle of sublimation. This method is divided into 3 steps for its better understanding; these are Freezing, Primary drying, and secondary drying. There are many advantages and disadvantages of this method, but still this is the most useful drying method nowadays.

  3. Effects of steam-microwave blanching and different drying processes on drying characteristics and quality attributes of Thunbergia laurifolia Linn. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phahom, Traiphop; Phoungchandang, Singhanat; Kerr, William L

    2017-08-01

    Dried Thunbergia laurifolia leaves are usually prepared using tray drying, resulting in products that have lost substantial amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. The maturity of the raw material, blanching techniques and drying methods were investigated in order to select the best condition to produce high qualities of dried T. laurifolia leaves. The 1st stage of maturity was selected and steam-microwave blanching (SMB) for 4 min was adequate for blanching leading to the maximum recovery of bioactive compounds. The modified Halsey model was the best desorption isotherm model. A new drying model proposed in this study was the best to fit the drying curves as compared to five common drying models. Moisture diffusivities were increased with the increase of drying temperature when combining SMB and heat pump-dehumidified drying. Microwave heat pump-dehumidified drying (MHPD) provided the shortest drying time, high specific moisture extraction rate (SMER) and could reduce drying time by 67.5% and increase caffeic acid and quercetin by 51.24% and 60.89%, respectively. MHPD was found to be the best drying method and provided the highest antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds content, high SMER and short drying time. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Maximum Power from a Solar Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Miller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.

  5. Dry piston coal feeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Thomas J.; Bell, Jr., Harold S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention provides a solids feeder for feeding dry coal to a pressurized gasifier at elevated temperatures substantially without losing gas from the gasifier by providing a lock having a double-acting piston that feeds the coals into the gasifier, traps the gas from escaping, and expels the trapped gas back into the gasifier.

  6. Dry Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a combination of heredity and environmental factors, including smoking and diet. The condition develops as the eye ages. Dry ... nonsmokers. Ask your doctor for help to stop smoking. Maintain a ... controlling your diet. Choose a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. ...

  7. Essays on Dry Ports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.G. Chandrakant (Gujar)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDue to several reasons, currently the global supply chains are getting stretched further away into the hinterlands from the gateway seaports. This single fact enhances the importance of dry ports. It would not be against logic, to state that in coming times, as a result of ever-growing

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bloodshot when I wake up? Jun 26, 2016 Why are my eyes dry after LASIK? Jun 19, 2016 Can I be tested whether I close my eyes when I sleep? Feb 10, 2016 Can light sensitivity from Parkinson’s ...

  9. Infrared Drying Parameter Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew R.

    In recent years, much research has been done to explore direct printing methods, such as screen and inkjet printing, as alternatives to the traditional lithographic process. The primary motivation is reduction of the material costs associated with producing common electronic devices. Much of this research has focused on developing inkjet or screen paste formulations that can be printed on a variety of substrates, and which have similar conductivity performance to the materials currently used in the manufacturing of circuit boards and other electronic devices. Very little research has been done to develop a process that would use direct printing methods to manufacture electronic devices in high volumes. This study focuses on developing and optimizing a drying process for conductive copper ink in a high volume manufacturing setting. Using an infrared (IR) dryer, it was determined that conductive copper prints could be dried in seconds or minutes as opposed to tens of minutes or hours that it would take with other drying devices, such as a vacuum oven. In addition, this study also identifies significant parameters that can affect the conductivity of IR dried prints. Using designed experiments and statistical analysis; the dryer parameters were optimized to produce the best conductivity performance for a specific ink formulation and substrate combination. It was determined that for an ethylene glycol, butanol, 1-methoxy 2- propanol ink formulation printed on Kapton, the optimal drying parameters consisted of a dryer height of 4 inches, a temperature setting between 190 - 200°C, and a dry time of 50-65 seconds depending on the printed film thickness as determined by the number of print passes. It is important to note that these parameters are optimized specifically for the ink formulation and substrate used in this study. There is still much research that needs to be done into optimizing the IR dryer for different ink substrate combinations, as well as developing a

  10. Effect of various drying bed on thermodynamic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Motevali

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study thermodynamic parameter and energy consumption in drying of two plant dill and mint in three bed drying including fix, semi fix and fluid with using a hot air drying was investigated. Experimental was conducted in three bed drying including fix, semi fix and fluid and four levels temperature (30, 40, 50 and 60 °C. Maximum energy consumption in dill drying at 40 °C and fluid bed to be 16.41 MJ and minimum energy consumption at 30 °C and fix bed to be 2.77 MJ. Also minimum energy consumption in mint drying at 60 °C and fix bed to be 3.64 MJ and maximum energy consumption at 40 °C and fluid bed to be 28.65 MJ. The highest energy, drying and thermal efficiency for both mint and dill was achieved at 60 °C on the fixed bed, whereas the lowest efficiency was at 40 °C and on the fluidized bed. Also the highest power and specific heat consumption for both mint and dill was achieved at 40 °C on the fluid bed, whereas the lowest efficiency was at 30 °C and on the fluidized bed.

  11. Influence of drying conditions on the effective moisture diffusivity and energy requirements during the drying of pretreated and untreated pumpkin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunde-Akintunde, Toyosi Y.; Ogunlakin, Grace O.

    2011-01-01

    Pumpkin as a fruit is consumed by both animals and humans. Its high moisture content makes it perishable and thus there is a need for drying as a means of preservation. Thin-layer drying characteristics for the samples dried using a hot-air dryer were obtained from the experiment data. The drying was observed to take place in the falling rate drying period. Ficks law was used to determine the moisture diffusivity which varied from a minimum of 1.19 x 10 -9 m 2 /s for untreated pumpkin samples dried at 40 o C to a maximum value of 4.27 x 10 -9 m 2 /s for steam blanched samples dried at 80 o C. The value of the energy of activation varied from 21.44 to 28.67 kJ/mol. The input energy values and specific energy requirement for thin-drying of pumpkin samples were found to be in the range of 317.8-458.1 kW h and 1588.8-2290.3 kW h/kg from 40 o C to 80 o C with a drying air velocity of 1.5 m/s respectively.

  12. Influence of drying conditions on the effective moisture diffusivity and energy requirements during the drying of pretreated and untreated pumpkin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunde-Akintunde, Toyosi Y.; Ogunlakin, Grace O. [Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, PMB 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State (Nigeria)

    2011-02-15

    Pumpkin as a fruit is consumed by both animals and humans. Its high moisture content makes it perishable and thus there is a need for drying as a means of preservation. Thin-layer drying characteristics for the samples dried using a hot-air dryer were obtained from the experiment data. The drying was observed to take place in the falling rate drying period. Ficks law was used to determine the moisture diffusivity which varied from a minimum of 1.19 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s for untreated pumpkin samples dried at 40 C to a maximum value of 4.27 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s for steam blanched samples dried at 80 C. The value of the energy of activation varied from 21.44 to 28.67 kJ/mol. The input energy values and specific energy requirement for thin-drying of pumpkin samples were found to be in the range of 317.8-458.1 kW h and 1588.8-2290.3 kW h/kg from 40 C to 80 C with a drying air velocity of 1.5 m/s respectively. (author)

  13. CROSS-TOLERANCE MECHANISM INDUCTION IN MELON SEEDS BY PRIMING PRIOR DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Marcel Sousa Lira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The loss of benefits after re-drying is one of the drawbacks of the seed priming technique. Different types of stresses have been used before re-drying to preserve the priming benefits. This process may be seen as promoting cross tolerance to increase the defense mechanisms that prevent loss of viability in seeds primed after drying. We tested the effect of some stresses to induce cross-tolerance and different drying conditions with the aim of maintaining priming benefits in melon seeds. The seeds were primed in an aerated KNO3 solution (0.35M, -1.7MPa, 25 °C, in the dark for six days. The primed seeds were then submitted to slow drying, fast drying, cold shock + slow drying, cold shock + fast drying, heat shock + slow drying, heat shock + fast drying, PEG + slow drying, PEG + fast drying, ABA + slow drying, ABA + fast drying and no drying (planted directly after priming. We evaluated antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT and APX, germinability, mean time of germination (MTG and mean rate of germination (MRG. A completely randomized design was used with three repetitions of 50 seeds in each treatment. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and means were compared by the Scott-Knott test (p ≤ 0.05. ABA increased SOD activity after drying and CAT activity was reduced by priming. APX activity was not observed. The stress submission prior to re-drying improved the MRG and reduced MTG. Therefore, the induction of the cross-tolerance mechanism could be effective to maintain priming benefits in melon seeds.

  14. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. genotypes for drought stress adaptation in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwabena Darkwa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress linked with climate change is one of the major constraints faced by common bean farmers in Africa and elsewhere. Mitigating this constraint requires the selection of resilient varieties that withstand drought threats to common bean production. This study assessed the drought response of 64 small red-seeded genotypes of common bean grown in a lattice design replicated twice under contrasting moisture regimes, terminal drought stress and non-stress, in Ethiopia during the dry season from November 2014 to March 2015. Multiple plant traits associated with drought were assessed for their contribution to drought adaptation of the genotypes. Drought stress determined by a drought intensity index was moderate (0.3. All the assessed traits showed significantly different genotypic responses under drought stress and non-stress conditions. Eleven genotypes significantly (P ≤ 0.05 outperformed the drought check cultivar under both drought stress and non-stress conditions in seed yielding potential. Seed yield showed positive and significant correlations with chlorophyll meter reading, vertical root pulling resistance force, number of pods per plant, and seeds per pod under both soil moisture regimes, indicating their potential use in selection of genotypes yielding well under drought stress and non-stress conditions. Clustering analysis using Mahalanobis distance grouped the genotypes into four groups showing high and significant inter-cluster distance, suggesting that hybridization between drought-adapted parents from the groups will provide the maximum genetic recombination for drought tolerance in subsequent generations.

  15. Spray Drying Processing: granules production and drying kinetics of droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondragon, R.; Julia, J. E.; Barba, A.; Jarque, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Spray drying is a unit operation very common in many industrial processes. For each particular application, the resulting granulated material must possess determined properties that depend on the conditions in which the spray drying processing has been carried out, and whose dependence must be known in order to optimize the quality of the material obtained. The large number of variables that influence on the processes of matter and energy transfer and on the formation of granular material has required a detailed analysis of the drying process. Over the years there have been many studies on the spray drying processing of all kind of materials and the influence of process variables on the drying kinetics of the granulated material properties obtained. This article lists the most important works published for both the spray drying processing and the drying of individual droplets, as well as studies aimed at modeling the drying kinetics of drops. (Author)

  16. Cassava Sun Drying Performance on Various Surfaces and Drying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional processing methods that include ... The traditional sun drying method is very inefficient as the product can take 2-. 3 days to dry. .... using a digital balance (Ohaus Corporation type). The same applied .... preservation and marketing.

  17. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  18. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  19. Stabilization of Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines by Freeze Drying, Spray Drying, and Foam Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovalenti, Phillip M; Anderl, Jeff; Yee, Luisa; Nguyen, Van; Ghavami, Behnaz; Ohtake, Satoshi; Saxena, Atul; Voss, Thomas; Truong-Le, Vu

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this research is to develop stable formulations for live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) by employing the drying methods freeze drying, spray drying, and foam drying. Formulated live attenuated Type-A H1N1 and B-strain influenza vaccines with a variety of excipient combinations were dried using one of the three drying methods. Process and storage stability at 4, 25 and 37°C of the LAIV in these formulations was monitored using a TCID50 potency assay. Their immunogenicity was also evaluated in a ferret model. The thermal stability of H1N1 vaccine was significantly enhanced through application of unique formulation combinations and drying processes. Foam dried formulations were as much as an order of magnitude more stable than either spray dried or freeze dried formulations, while exhibiting low process loss and full retention of immunogenicity. Based on long-term stability data, foam dried formulations exhibited a shelf life at 4, 25 and 37°C of >2, 1.5 years and 4.5 months, respectively. Foam dried LAIV Type-B manufactured using the same formulation and process parameters as H1N1 were imparted with a similar level of stability. Foam drying processing methods with appropriate selection of formulation components can produce an order of magnitude improvement in LAIV stability over other drying methods.

  20. Dry mouth during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000032.htm Dry mouth during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some cancer treatments and medicines can cause dry mouth. Symptoms you ...

  1. Nitramine Drying & Fine Grinding Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nitramine Drying and Fine Grinding Facility provides TACOM-ARDEC with a state-of-the-art facility capable of drying and grinding high explosives (e.g., RDX and...

  2. Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2009-01-01

    boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...

  3. Modelling maximum canopy conductance and transpiration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is much current interest in predicting the maximum amount of water that can be transpired by Eucalyptus trees. It is possible that industrial waste water may be applied as irrigation water to eucalypts and it is important to predict the maximum transpiration rates of these plantations in an attempt to dispose of this ...

  4. Analysis of Drying Process Quality in Conventional Dry-Kilns

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlar Tomislav; Pervan Stjepan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents testing results of drying quality in a conventional dry kiln. Testing is based on a new methodology that will show the level of success of the drying process management by analyzing the quality of drying process in a conventional dry kiln, using a scientifi cally improved version of the check list in everyday practical applications. A company that specializes in lamel and classic parquet production was chosen so as to verify the new testing methodology. A total of 56 m3 of...

  5. Analysis of Dry Spells in Southern Italy (Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Caloiero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A deficit in precipitation may impact greatly on soil moisture, snowpack, stream flow, groundwater, and reservoir storage. Among the several approaches available to analyze this phenomenon, one of the most applied is the analysis of dry spells. In this paper, an investigation of the spatial and temporal patterns of dry spells, in a region of southern Italy, has been carried out on a daily precipitation dataset. First, the frequency distributions of the sequences of dry days have been analyzed. Then, the regional areas most affected by dry events have been evaluated at annual and seasonal scale. Finally, the long-term trend of the dry spells has been estimated at annual and seasonal scale. Results show that the lower probabilities of long dry spells occur in the main reliefs of the region, while the highest values have been detected in the Ionian side. The spatial distribution of the mean and maximum length values of the dry spells evidenced a west–east gradient. The trend analysis mainly revealed a negative behavior in the duration of the dry spells at annual scale and a positive trend in the winter period.

  6. Fluid flow in drying drops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderblom, Hanneke

    2013-01-01

    When a suspension drop evaporates, it leaves behind a drying stain. Examples of these drying stains encountered in daily life are coffee or tea stains on a table top, mineral rings on glassware that comes out of the dishwasher, or the salt deposits on the streets in winter. Drying stains are also

  7. Computed tomographic analysis of vegetable during far infrared radiation drying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maneechot, P.; Tojo, S.; Watanabe, K.

    2006-01-01

    Far Infrared Radiation (FIR) technology is widely used in the automotive industry to cure painted finishes during manufacturing. FIR drying is used not only in manufacturing but also in agricultural processing such as rice drying. At the present time, FIR drying technology has rarely been used for fruits and vegetables except in research laboratories. In this study, FIR drying and hot air convection drying were compared with respect to energy consumption and time requirement. The internal changes of the agricultural product were also observed during the FIR drying process. A Computed Tomographic (CT) scanner was employed for the observation of the tested material, carrot, and was used to analyze the structural deformation and the internal moisture distribution of the test material. CT data and the hardness of the sample were recorded at regular intervals during the drying experiment. For 200, 400 and 600W FIR drying, the maximum drying rates were 173, 459 and 724%d.b./hr respectively, and the required drying times were 26, 12 and 4.5 hours, respectively. The structure of the carrot sample shrank in accordance with the reduction of moisture content in 200W FIR drying as well as in hot air drying, whereas in 400W and 600W FIR drying the sample was dried without so much deformation

  8. Landfill covers for dry environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    A large-scale landfill cover field test is currently underway at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It is intended to compare and document the performance of alternative landfill cover technologies of various costs and complexities for interim stabilization and/or final closure of landfills in arid and semi-arid environments. Test plots of traditional designs recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency for both RCRA Subtitle open-quote C close-quote and open-quote D close-quote regulated facilities have been constructed side-by-side with the alternative covers and will serve as baselines for comparison to these alternative covers. The alternative covers were designed specifically for dry environments. The covers will be tested under both ambient and stressed conditions. All covers have been instrumented to measure water balance variables and soil temperature. An on-site weather station records all pertinent climatological data. A key to acceptance of an alternative environmental technology is seeking regulatory acceptance and eventual permitting. The lack of acceptance by regulatory agencies is a significant barrier to development and implementation of innovative cover technologies. Much of the effort on this demonstration has been toward gaining regulatory and public acceptance

  9. Effect of water stress and harvesting stages on quantitative and qualitative yields of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmadian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of drought stress and harvesting stages on quantitative and qualitative yields of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. this experiment was conducted on split plot based on a randomized completely block design with 3 replications in Torbat-e Heydariyeh University, Iran, during growing season of 2010-2011. Treatments were drought stress (in three levels no stress: control and irrigation in 60 and 30 percentage of FC as main plots and harvesting times (in 3 levels consist of: before flowering, flowering and after flowering as sub plots. Results showed that drought stress and harvesting stages had significant affected on leaf number, height, number of stem, wet and dry weight of plant, SPAD, proline content, carbohydrate content, essential oil yield and percentage and components of essential oil of coriander. Increasing water stress decreased yield and its components while enhanced proline and carbohydrate contents. Maximum of essential oil and its main components (linalool, alpha pentene, gamma terpinene, geranial acetate and camphor were in low stress that had significant difference with other stress treatments. Delaying in harvest enhanced yield and its components and essential oil percentage. Proline content had no significant difference between flowering and after flowering stages. Therefore, we can suggest low stress of water and harvest at after flowering stage to get maximum of yield.

  10. A review of dry ports

    OpenAIRE

    Violeta Roso; Kent Lumsden

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present the previous research on the dry port concept and to review the world's existing dry ports, that is freight terminals that use the term ‘dry port’ in their name. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to clarify the concept by showing potential discrepancies or agreements between theory and practice. Starting from a literature review on the dry port concept, this article presents a review of existing dry ports in the world. A number of qualitativ...

  11. MXLKID: a maximum likelihood parameter identifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavel, D.T.

    1980-07-01

    MXLKID (MaXimum LiKelihood IDentifier) is a computer program designed to identify unknown parameters in a nonlinear dynamic system. Using noisy measurement data from the system, the maximum likelihood identifier computes a likelihood function (LF). Identification of system parameters is accomplished by maximizing the LF with respect to the parameters. The main body of this report briefly summarizes the maximum likelihood technique and gives instructions and examples for running the MXLKID program. MXLKID is implemented LRLTRAN on the CDC7600 computer at LLNL. A detailed mathematical description of the algorithm is given in the appendices. 24 figures, 6 tables

  12. Drying and decontamination of pistachios with sequential infrared drying, tempering and hot air drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pistachio industry is in need of improved drying technology as the current hot air drying has low energy efficiency and drying rate and high labor cost and also does not produce safe products against microbial contamination. In the current study, dehulled and water- sorted pistachios with a mois...

  13. Effect of paddy drying depth using open-sun drying on drying time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The smallholder rice farmers in the Uganda dry their paddy using open-sun drying method. In most cases the paddy is badly dried and has very high fissure levels. Such paddy on milling contributes to low levels of mill recovery and whole grain in the milled rice. This study was therefore done to find a recommendable ...

  14. Developments in the formulation and delivery of spray dried vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanojia, Gaurav; Have, Rimko Ten; Soema, Peter C; Frijlink, Henderik; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Kersten, Gideon

    2017-10-03

    Spray drying is a promising method for the stabilization of vaccines, which are usually formulated as liquids. Usually, vaccine stability is improved by spray drying in the presence of a range of excipients. Unlike freeze drying, there is no freezing step involved, thus the damage related to this step is avoided. The edge of spray drying resides in its ability for particles to be engineered to desired requirements, which can be used in various vaccine delivery methods and routes. Although several spray dried vaccines have shown encouraging preclinical results, the number of vaccines that have been tested in clinical trials is limited, indicating a relatively new area of vaccine stabilization and delivery. This article reviews the current status of spray dried vaccine formulations and delivery methods. In particular it discusses the impact of process stresses on vaccine integrity, the application of excipients in spray drying of vaccines, process and formulation optimization strategies based on Design of Experiment approaches as well as opportunities for future application of spray dried vaccine powders for vaccine delivery.

  15. Developments in the formulation and delivery of spray dried vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanojia, Gaurav; Have, Rimko ten; Soema, Peter C.; Frijlink, Henderik; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Kersten, Gideon

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spray drying is a promising method for the stabilization of vaccines, which are usually formulated as liquids. Usually, vaccine stability is improved by spray drying in the presence of a range of excipients. Unlike freeze drying, there is no freezing step involved, thus the damage related to this step is avoided. The edge of spray drying resides in its ability for particles to be engineered to desired requirements, which can be used in various vaccine delivery methods and routes. Although several spray dried vaccines have shown encouraging preclinical results, the number of vaccines that have been tested in clinical trials is limited, indicating a relatively new area of vaccine stabilization and delivery. This article reviews the current status of spray dried vaccine formulations and delivery methods. In particular it discusses the impact of process stresses on vaccine integrity, the application of excipients in spray drying of vaccines, process and formulation optimization strategies based on Design of Experiment approaches as well as opportunities for future application of spray dried vaccine powders for vaccine delivery. PMID:28925794

  16. Impact of soil moisture on extreme maximum temperatures in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirien Whan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Land-atmosphere interactions play an important role for hot temperature extremes in Europe. Dry soils may amplify such extremes through feedbacks with evapotranspiration. While previous observational studies generally focused on the relationship between precipitation deficits and the number of hot days, we investigate here the influence of soil moisture (SM on summer monthly maximum temperatures (TXx using water balance model-based SM estimates (driven with observations and temperature observations. Generalized extreme value distributions are fitted to TXx using SM as a covariate. We identify a negative relationship between SM and TXx, whereby a 100 mm decrease in model-based SM is associated with a 1.6 °C increase in TXx in Southern-Central and Southeastern Europe. Dry SM conditions result in a 2–4 °C increase in the 20-year return value of TXx compared to wet conditions in these two regions. In contrast with SM impacts on the number of hot days (NHD, where low and high surface-moisture conditions lead to different variability, we find a mostly linear dependency of the 20-year return value on surface-moisture conditions. We attribute this difference to the non-linear relationship between TXx and NHD that stems from the threshold-based calculation of NHD. Furthermore the employed SM data and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI are only weakly correlated in the investigated regions, highlighting the importance of evapotranspiration and runoff for resulting SM. Finally, in a case study for the hot 2003 summer we illustrate that if 2003 spring conditions in Southern-Central Europe had been as dry as in the more recent 2011 event, temperature extremes in summer would have been higher by about 1 °C, further enhancing the already extreme conditions which prevailed in that year.

  17. The Effect of Temperature and Drying Method on Drying Time and Color Quality of Mint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bahmanpour

    2017-10-01

    applied to register and monitoring product weight real time. For imaging of dried samples, a semi-professional digital cameras Fujifilm Fine Pix HS55model Barzvlvshn 921000 pixel was applied. Dry samples were used to determine the RGB color model that consists of three whole red (Red, green (Green and blue (blue light intensity 0 to 255 (in this case, zero for black and 255 for white pixels Finally, the average of RGB changes color index were calculated as the mean change color of samples during the drying. Results and Discussion The results showed that drying time of solar dryer is more than vacuum-infrared (averaged: 201 versus 153 minutes. For two methods of drying, increasing temperature, made reduction in drying time. The maximum drying time registered 237 minutes for solar method which was set to 30°C and minimum drying time was registered 112 minutes relating to vacuum –infrared which was set to 50°C. Color evaluation showed that the effect of drying method on the changes of colour index (before and after drying is reasonable. Vacuumed-infrared dryer case with 8.75% color change was showed to be much efficient than solar dryer with 11.96% change. Analysis of variance was performed due to the drying temperature index mint color changes and results showed the reasonable difference. The highest and lowest color change related to the temperature of 50°C (11.767% and 30°C (9.197% respectively. Conclusions Drying method as well as applying temperature showed rescannable effects on daring time and color quality of mint. The vacuum-infrared method reduces drying time for all temperature treatments considered in this study. Beside this, using vacuum-infrared showed minimum changes on color characteristic and can be say more efficient in aspect of color quality especially at its lowest applicable temperature (30°C. Increasing temperature causes the samples to be more darken for both drying methods. This phenomena may be related to replacement of magnesium by hydrogen

  18. Maximum neutron flux in thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugar, P.V.

    1968-12-01

    Direct approach to the problem is to calculate spatial distribution of fuel concentration if the reactor core directly using the condition of maximum neutron flux and comply with thermal limitations. This paper proved that the problem can be solved by applying the variational calculus, i.e. by using the maximum principle of Pontryagin. Mathematical model of reactor core is based on the two-group neutron diffusion theory with some simplifications which make it appropriate from maximum principle point of view. Here applied theory of maximum principle are suitable for application. The solution of optimum distribution of fuel concentration in the reactor core is obtained in explicit analytical form. The reactor critical dimensions are roots of a system of nonlinear equations and verification of optimum conditions can be done only for specific examples

  19. Maximum allowable load on wheeled mobile manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibnejad Korayem, M.; Ghariblu, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a computational technique for finding the maximum allowable load of mobile manipulator during a given trajectory. The maximum allowable loads which can be achieved by a mobile manipulator during a given trajectory are limited by the number of factors; probably the dynamic properties of mobile base and mounted manipulator, their actuator limitations and additional constraints applied to resolving the redundancy are the most important factors. To resolve extra D.O.F introduced by the base mobility, additional constraint functions are proposed directly in the task space of mobile manipulator. Finally, in two numerical examples involving a two-link planar manipulator mounted on a differentially driven mobile base, application of the method to determining maximum allowable load is verified. The simulation results demonstrates the maximum allowable load on a desired trajectory has not a unique value and directly depends on the additional constraint functions which applies to resolve the motion redundancy

  20. Maximum phytoplankton concentrations in the sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, G.A.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A simplification of plankton dynamics using coagulation theory provides predictions of the maximum algal concentration sustainable in aquatic systems. These predictions have previously been tested successfully against results from iron fertilization experiments. We extend the test to data collect...

  1. Consumo, produção de leite e estresse térmico em vacas da raça Pardo-Suíça alimentadas com castanha de caju Dry mater intake, milk yield, and heat stress indicators of dairy cows fed diets with cashew nut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G. Pimentel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo de matéria seca, a produção de leite e os indicadores de estresse térmico de vacas Pardo-Suíça alimentadas com castanha de caju no semi-árido do Nordeste do Brasil. Doze animais foram distribuídos em um ensaio de reversão, com quatro tratamentos: 0, 8, 16 e 24% de castanha no concentrado. As vacas receberam cana-de-açúcar à vontade e sete quilos de concentrado por dia. Maior consumo de matéria seca de cana-de-açúcar foi observado no tratamento com concentrado sem castanha (7,70kgMS/dia em relação aos tratamentos com 16% e 24% de castanha (7,35 e 7,05kgMS/dia, respectivamente. O consumo no tratamento com concentrado sem castanha não diferiu do consumo no tratamento com 8% (7,59kgMS/dia. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre a produção de leite e sobre as variáveis indicativas de estresse térmico (P>0,05.A study was carried out to evaluate dry matter intake, milk yield, and heat stress parameters in Brown Swiss cows fed diets with cashew nut. Animals were raised in the semi-arid region of the Brazilian Northeast. Twelve cows were subjected to a switch back experimental design, with four treatments: 0, 8, 16, and 24% of cashew nut in the concentrate. Each cow received 7kg of concentrate per day and had free access to sugar cane. Dry matter (DM intake and milk yield were daily taken as well as measurements of rectal and milk temperature; and cardiac and respiratory rates. The highest intake of forage (sugar cane was obtained when the concentrate had no cashew nut (7.7kgDM/day. This value was not different when the concentrate contained 8% of cashew nut (7.59kgDM/day but greater than dry matter intake of cows receiving diets with 16% of cashew nut (7.35kgDM/day; P0.05. Such low variability in daily milk yield could be associated with the higher energy density of diets containing more cashew nut. Finally, indicators of heat stress were not influenced by changes in the diets, given the air temperatures and

  2. Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

    1993-01-01

    Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.

  3. Effects of weather and tailings properties on tailings drying times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gantzer, C.; Fasking, T.; Costello, M.; Greenwood, J. [Barr Engineering, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation presented the results of a study conducted to determine the effects of weather and tailings properties on tailings drying times. Weather conditions have a significant impact the potential evaporation (PE) and actual evaporation (AE) of oil sands tailings. A 2-stage drying of slurry at a constant PE was conducted to determine the shrinkage limit of untreated mature fine tailings (MFT). An evaporation and seepage model was used to determine maximum first-stage drying rates. Measurements were also taken in a wind tunnel. Potential evaporation rates were calculated and evaporative water losses from the MFT were determined. Estimated drying times were presented. Results of the approach were compared with field measurements conducted in a previous study. Results of the study showed that evaporative water loss rates for May through August were limited by the properties of the tailings. Water loss rates were limited by weather for other months in the year-long study. tabs., figs.

  4. Vacuum-assisted microwave drying characteristics of green bell pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chopped green bell pepper pieces were blanched (95 °C, 5 min and chemically pretreated (1% potassium metabisulphite solution, 25 min at room temperature before drying in hot air dryer (HAD at various temperature ranges (60 – 80 °C. Three vacuum levels (200, 400, 600 mm Hg and microwave power levels (100, 200, 300 W were also used to dry green bell pepper samples in a vacuum assisted microwave (VAM (2.45 GHz, 0.8 kW dryer. VAM drying methods offered a maximum reduction by four to five times in drying time as compared to that in HAD. The logarithmic model was found to have the best fit based on high R2 and small values of reduced χ2 and RMSE.  VAM method has higher values for effective moisture diffusivity (Deff and lower values for activation energy (Ea, in comparison to the HAD method. 

  5. Hydraulic failure defines the recovery and point of death in water-stressed conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodribb, Tim J; Cochard, Hervé

    2009-01-01

    This study combines existing hydraulic principles with recently developed methods for probing leaf hydraulic function to determine whether xylem physiology can explain the dynamic response of gas exchange both during drought and in the recovery phase after rewatering. Four conifer species from wet and dry forests were exposed to a range of water stresses by withholding water and then rewatering to observe the recovery process. During both phases midday transpiration and leaf water potential (Psileaf) were monitored. Stomatal responses to Psileaf were established for each species and these relationships used to evaluate whether the recovery of gas exchange after drought was limited by postembolism hydraulic repair in leaves. Furthermore, the timing of gas-exchange recovery was used to determine the maximum survivable water stress for each species and this index compared with data for both leaf and stem vulnerability to water-stress-induced dysfunction measured for each species. Recovery of gas exchange after water stress took between 1 and >100 d and during this period all species showed strong 1:1 conformity to a combined hydraulic-stomatal limitation model (r2 = 0.70 across all plants). Gas-exchange recovery time showed two distinct phases, a rapid overnight recovery in plants stressed to 50% loss of Kleaf. Maximum recoverable water stress (Psimin) corresponded to a 95% loss of Kleaf. Thus, we conclude that xylem hydraulics represents a direct limit to the drought tolerance of these conifer species.

  6. Effect of Drought Stress on Growth and Morphological Characteristics of Two Garlic (Allium sativum L. Ecotypes in Different Planting Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shiva akbari

    2017-10-01

    underground organs and leaf area from measured samples of treatments were used. Results and Discussion The results showed that the highest value of maximum leaf area index (LAI, maximum total dry matter accumulation (TDM, maximum crop growth rate (CGR and maximum of net assimilation rate (NAR were observed at 100% ETc with the value of 5.537, 387.53 gr.m-2, 10.47 gr m-2day-1 and 4.92 gr.m-2leaf.day-1 respectively; and by applying the irrigation treatment of 80% ETc these values decreased to 3.745, 262.60 gr.m-2, 6.31 gr.m-2day-1 and 3.71 gr.m-2leaf.day-1 respectively. Drought stress can decrease cell development and division and plant photosynthesis, and thus, it can decrease leaf area index and consequently decrease light absorption, photosynthetic area, dry matter and crop growth rate. Difference between ecotypes in terms of number of leaves, maximum total dry matter accumulation and maximum crop growth rate was significant. Maximum crop growth rate (CGR in Toroud ecotype was higher than Tabas ecotype but number of leaves and maximum concentration of total dry matter (TDM in Tabas ecotype were higher than corresponding values in Toruod ecotype. The effect of planting density on maximum leaf area index (LAI, maximum total dry matter (TDM and maximum net assimilation rate (NAR was significant. The highest value of maximum leaf area index (5.017 and maximum total dry matter (358.57 g.m-2 concentration were obtained from 50 plant.m-2 density. The highest value of maximum net assimilation rate (4.61 was obtained from 30 plant.m-2 density. It could be because of having leaves exposed to more light and less shading. Conclusion Applying drought stress at the irrigation treatment of 80% ETc decreased studied growth characteristics of garlic. Therefore, it is recommended that garlic should be avoided from facing drought stress and its water requirement must be met as much as possible. In general, under drought stress, two studied ecotypes did not have any preference related to the

  7. Assessment of corneal epithelial thickness in dry eye patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xinhan; Hong, Jiaxu; Wang, Fei; Deng, Sophie X; Yang, Yujing; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Wu, Dan; Zhao, Yujin; Xu, Jianjiang

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the features of corneal epithelial thickness topography with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in dry eye patients. In this cross-sectional study, 100 symptomatic dry eye patients and 35 normal subjects were enrolled. All participants answered the ocular surface disease index questionnaire and were subjected to OCT, corneal fluorescein staining, tear breakup time, Schirmer 1 test without anesthetic (S1t), and meibomian morphology. Several epithelium statistics for each eye, including central, superior, inferior, minimum, maximum, minimum - maximum, and map standard deviation, were averaged. Correlations of epithelial thickness with the symptoms of dry eye were calculated. The mean (±SD) central, superior, and inferior corneal epithelial thickness was 53.57 (±3.31) μm, 52.00 (±3.39) μm, and 53.03 (±3.67) μm in normal eyes and 52.71 (±2.83) μm, 50.58 (±3.44) μm, and 52.53 (±3.36) μm in dry eyes, respectively. The superior corneal epithelium was thinner in dry eye patients compared with normal subjects (p = 0.037), whereas central and inferior epithelium were not statistically different. In the dry eye group, patients with higher severity grades had thinner superior (p = 0.017) and minimum (p dry eye corneal epithelium was thinner than normal eyes in the superior region. In more severe dry eye disease patients, the superior and minimum epithelium was much thinner, with a greater range of map standard deviation.

  8. Design of solar drying-plant for bulk material drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Horbaj

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A generally well-known high energy requirement for technological processes of drying and the fact that the world’s supplyof the conventional energy sources has considerably decreased are the decisive factors forcing us to look for some new, if possible,renewable energy sources for this process by emphasising their environmental reliability. One of the possibilities how to replace, atleast partly, the conventional energy sources – heat in a drying process is solar energy.Air-drying of bulk materials usually has a series of disadvantages such as time expenditure, drying defects in the bulk materialand inadequate final moisture content. A method that obviates or reduces the disadvantages of air-drying and, at the same time, reducesthe costs of kiln drying, is drying with solar heat. Solar energy can replace a large part of this depletable energy since solar energy cansupply heat at the temperatures most often used to dry bulk material. Solar drying-plant offer an attractive solution.

  9. Induced Seismicity at the UK "Hot Dry Rock" Test Site for Geothermal Energy Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xun; Main, Ian; Jupe, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    In enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), fluid is injected at high pressure in order to stimulate fracturing and/or fluid flow through otherwise relatively impermeable underlying hot rocks to generate power and/or heat. The stimulation induces micro-earthquakes whose precise triggering mechanism and relationship to new and pre-existing fracture networks are still the subject of some debate. Here we analyse the dataset for induced micro-earthquakes at the UK "hot dry rock" experimental geothermal site (Rosemanowes, Cornwall). We quantify the evolution of several metrics used to characterise induced seismicity, including the seismic strain partition factor and the "seismogenic index". The results show a low strain partition factor of 0.01% and a low seismogenenic index indicating that aseismic processes dominate. We also analyse the spatio-temporal distribution of hypocentres, using simple models for the evolution of hydraulic diffusivity by (a) isotropic and (b) anisotropic pore-pressure relaxation. The principal axes of the diffusivity or permeability tensor inferred from the spatial distribution of earthquake foci are aligned parallel to the present-day stress field, although the maximum permeability is vertical, whereas the maximum principal stress is horizontal. Our results are consistent with a triggering mechanism that involves (a) seismic shear slip along optimally-oriented pre-existing fractures, (b) a large component of aseismic slip with creep (c) activation of tensile fractures as hydraulic conduits created by both the present-day stress field and by the induced shear slip, both exploiting pre-existing joint sets exposed in borehole data.

  10. Understanding the Risk of Chloride Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking of Interim Storage Containers for the Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel: Evolution of Brine Chemistry on the Container Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enos, David; Bryan, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Although the susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking is well known, uncertainties exist in terms of the environmental conditions that exist on the surface of the storage containers. While a diversity of salts is present in atmospheric aerosols, many of these are not stable when placed onto a heated surface. Given that the surface temperature of any container storing spent nuclear fuel will be well above ambient, it is likely that salts deposited on its surface may decompose or degas. To characterize this effect, relevant single and multi-salt mixtures are being evaluated as a function of temperature and relative humidity to establish the rates of degassing, as well as the likely final salt and brine chemistries that will remain on the canister surface.

  11. Understanding the Risk of Chloride Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking of Interim Storage Containers for the Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel: Evolution of Brine Chemistry on the Container Surface.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enos, David; Bryan, Charles R.

    2015-10-01

    Although the susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking is well known, uncertainties exist in terms of the environmental conditions that exist on the surface of the storage containers. While a diversity of salts is present in atmospheric aerosols, many of these are not stable when placed onto a heated surface. Given that the surface temperature of any container storing spent nuclear fuel will be well above ambient, it is likely that salts deposited on its surface may decompose or degas. To characterize this effect, relevant single and multi-salt mixtures are being evaluated as a function of temperature and relative humidity to establish the rates of degassing, as well as the likely final salt and brine chemistries that will remain on the canister surface.

  12. Changes of micronutrients, dry weight and plant development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... This study was carried out to determine the effects of salt stress on the growth, dry weights and micronutrient contents of canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars grown in greenhouse ... crop productivity in the arid and semiarid regions of the ... fertilizer equivalent to 150 kg ha-1 and triple-superphosphate (80 kg.

  13. Comparison of drying characteristic and uniformity of banana cubes dried by pulse-spouted microwave vacuum drying, freeze drying and microwave freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S; Lim, Rui-Xin

    2014-07-01

    To overcome the flaws of high energy consumption of freeze drying (FD) and the non-uniform drying of microwave freeze drying (MFD), pulse-spouted microwave vacuum drying (PSMVD) was developed. The results showed that the drying time can be dramatically shortened if microwave was used as the heating source. In this experiment, both MFD and PSMVD could shorten drying time by 50% as compared to the FD process. Depending on the heating method, MFD and PSMVD dried banana cubes showed trends of expansion while FD dried samples demonstrated trends of shrinkage. Shrinkage also brought intensive structure and highest fracturability of all three samples dried by different methods. The residual ascorbic acid content of PSMVD dried samples can be as high as in FD dried samples, which were superior to MFD dried samples. The tests confirmed that PSMVD could bring about better drying uniformity than MFD. Besides, compared with traditional MFD, PSMVD can provide better extrinsic feature, and can bring about improved nutritional features because of the higher residual ascorbic acid content. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Neuropathic pain and dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Anat; Moein, Hamid-Reza; Lee, Charity; Rodriguez, Adriana; Felix, Elizabeth R; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D; Levitt, Roy C

    2018-01-01

    Dry eye is a common, multifactorial disease currently diagnosed by a combination of symptoms and signs. Its epidemiology and clinical presentation have many similarities with neuropathic pain outside the eye. This review highlights the similarities between dry eye and neuropathic pain, focusing on clinical features, somatosensory function, and underlying pathophysiology. Implications of these similarities on the diagnosis and treatment of dry eye are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Post-LASIK dry eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Roni M

    2011-01-01

    Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is a frequently performed corneal refractive surgery with excellent refractive outcomes. The most common complication of LASIK is dry eyes, with virtually all patients developing some degree of dryness in the immediate postoperative period. Identifying preoperative dry eyes, and conscientious attention and treatment in the perioperative time period, can lead to enhanced patient satisfaction and more accurate visual outcomes. Improved understanding of the development of dry eyes after LASIK will advance our understanding of the complex pathophysiology of dry eye disease. PMID:22174730

  16. Quality of dry chemistry testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, H; Tatsumi, N

    1999-01-01

    Since the development of the qualitative test paper for urine in 1950s, several kinds of dry-state-reagents and their automated analyzers have been developed. "Dry chemistry" has become to be called since the report on the development of quantitative test paper for serum bilirubin with reflectometer in the end of 1960s and dry chemistry has been world widely known since the presentation on the development of multilayer film reagent for serum biochemical analytes by Eastman Kodak Co at the 10th IFCC Meeting in the end of 1970s. We have reported test menu, results in external quality assessment, merits and demerits, and the future possibilities of dry chemistry.

  17. Maximum gravitational redshift of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.L.; Teukolsky, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    The stability of uniformly rotating, cold white dwarfs is examined in the framework of the Parametrized Post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism of Will and Nordtvedt. The maximum central density and gravitational redshift of a white dwarf are determined as functions of five of the nine PPN parameters (γ, β, zeta 2 , zeta 3 , and zeta 4 ), the total angular momentum J, and the composition of the star. General relativity predicts that the maximum redshifts is 571 km s -1 for nonrotating carbon and helium dwarfs, but is lower for stars composed of heavier nuclei. Uniform rotation can increase the maximum redshift to 647 km s -1 for carbon stars (the neutronization limit) and to 893 km s -1 for helium stars (the uniform rotation limit). The redshift distribution of a larger sample of white dwarfs may help determine the composition of their cores

  18. a comparative study of the drying rate constant, drying efficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The drying rate constants for the solar dryer and open- air sun dried bitter leaf were 0.8 and ... of cost benefit but the poorest when other considerations ... J. I. Eze, National Centre for Energy Research and Development (NCERD), University of ...

  19. Drying Spirulina with Foam Mat Drying at Medium Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Prasetyaningrum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a single cell blue green microalgae (Cyanobacteria containing many Phytonutrients (Beta-carotene, Chlorophyl, Xanthophyl, Phyocianin using as anti-carcinogen in food. Producing dry spirulina by quick drying process at medium temperature is very important to retain the Phytonutrient quality. Currently, the work is still challenging due to the gel formation that block the water diffusion from inside to the surface.  This research studies the performance of foam-mat drying on production of dry spirulina. In this method the spirulina was mixed with foaming agent (glair/egg albumen, popular as white egg at 2.5% by weight at air velocity 2.2 m/sec. Here, the effect of spirulina thickness and operational temperature on drying time and quality (Beta-carotene and color were observed. The drying time was estimated based on the measurement of water content in spirulina versus time. Result showed that the thicker spirulina, the longer drying time. Conversely, the higher operational temperature, faster drying time. At thickness ranging 1-3 mm and operational temperature below 70oC, the quality of spirulina can fit the market requirement

  20. Carrageenan drying with dehumidified air: drying characteristics and product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djaeni, M.; Sasongko, S.B.; Prasetyaningrum, Aji A A.A.; Jin, X.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Applying dehumidified air is considered as an option to retain quality in carrageenan drying. This work concerns the effects of operational temperature, air velocity, and carrageenan thickness on the progress of drying and product quality when using dehumidified air. Final product quality and

  1. The antisickling effects of dried fish (tilapia) And dried prawn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antisickling effect of dried fish (Tilapia) and dried prawn (Astacus red) were investigated to ascertain the ability of the extracts of these samples to inhibit polymerisation of sickle cell haemoglobin (HbS), improve the Fe 2+/Fe 3+ ratio and lower the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in blood plasma. The samples ...

  2. Maximum entropy analysis of EGRET data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohl, M.; Strong, A.W.

    1997-01-01

    EGRET data are usually analysed on the basis of the Maximum-Likelihood method \\cite{ma96} in a search for point sources in excess to a model for the background radiation (e.g. \\cite{hu97}). This method depends strongly on the quality of the background model, and thus may have high systematic unce...... uncertainties in region of strong and uncertain background like the Galactic Center region. Here we show images of such regions obtained by the quantified Maximum-Entropy method. We also discuss a possible further use of MEM in the analysis of problematic regions of the sky....

  3. The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find...

  4. Shower maximum detector for SDC calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernwein, J.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype for the SDC end-cap (EM) calorimeter complete with a pre-shower and a shower maximum detector was tested in beams of electrons and Π's at CERN by an SDC subsystem group. The prototype was manufactured from scintillator tiles and strips read out with 1 mm diameter wave-length shifting fibers. The design and construction of the shower maximum detector is described, and results of laboratory tests on light yield and performance of the scintillator-fiber system are given. Preliminary results on energy and position measurements with the shower max detector in the test beam are shown. (authors). 4 refs., 5 figs

  5. Topics in Bayesian statistics and maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Cicuttin, A.; Cerdeira, A.; Stanciulescu, C.

    1998-12-01

    Notions of Bayesian decision theory and maximum entropy methods are reviewed with particular emphasis on probabilistic inference and Bayesian modeling. The axiomatic approach is considered as the best justification of Bayesian analysis and maximum entropy principle applied in natural sciences. Particular emphasis is put on solving the inverse problem in digital image restoration and Bayesian modeling of neural networks. Further topics addressed briefly include language modeling, neutron scattering, multiuser detection and channel equalization in digital communications, genetic information, and Bayesian court decision-making. (author)

  6. Density estimation by maximum quantum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, R.N.; Wallstrom, T.; Martz, H.F.

    1993-01-01

    A new Bayesian method for non-parametric density estimation is proposed, based on a mathematical analogy to quantum statistical physics. The mathematical procedure is related to maximum entropy methods for inverse problems and image reconstruction. The information divergence enforces global smoothing toward default models, convexity, positivity, extensivity and normalization. The novel feature is the replacement of classical entropy by quantum entropy, so that local smoothing is enforced by constraints on differential operators. The linear response of the estimate is proportional to the covariance. The hyperparameters are estimated by type-II maximum likelihood (evidence). The method is demonstrated on textbook data sets

  7. Generalized drying curves in conductive/convective paper drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.C. Motta Lima

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study related to conductive/convective drying of paper (cellulose sheets over heated surfaces, under natural and forced air conditions. The experimental apparatus consists in a metallic box heated by a thermostatic bath containing an upper surface on which the paper samples (about 1 mm thick are placed. The system is submitted to ambient air under two different conditions: natural convection and forced convection provide by an adjustable blower. The influence of initial paper moisture content, drying (heated surface temperature and air velocity on drying curves behavior is observed under different drying conditions. Hence, these influence is studied through the proposal of generalized drying curves. Those curves are analyzed individually for each air condition exposed above and for both together. A set of equations to fit them is proposed and discussed.

  8. Market opportunities for solar drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskens, R.G.J.H.; Out, P.G.; Schulte, B.

    2000-01-01

    One of the most promising applications for solar heating is the drying of agricultural products. The drying of agricultural products requires large quantities of low temperature air, in many cases, on a year-round basis. Low cost air-based collectors can provide heated air at solar collection efficiencies of 30 to 70%. In 1998/1999 a study was commissioned to better understand the technical and economic potential for solar drying of agricultural products in the world. The practical potential for solar drying was then determined for 59 crops and 22 regions. The world market for solar drying can be divided into three market segments: 1) mechanical drying T 50 deg. C; 3) sun drying. The most promising market for solar drying is generally market segment 1. For this segment the potential amount of energy displaced by solar is in between 216 770 PJ (World-wide). For Western Europe this potential is estimated between 23 88 PJ and for Eastern Europe between 7 and 13 PJ. A different market introduction strategy is required for each market segment. A total of 13 combinations of crops and regions are selected that appear to have the highest practical potential for solar drying. In the Netherlands a programme of activities was carried out by Ecofys and other organisations, to identify and develop the market potential for solar (assisted) drying of agricultural products. A promotional campaign for the use of renewable energy in the (promising) flower bulb sector is planned on a short-term basis to speed up market developments. It can be concluded that there is a large market for solar drying in the World as well as in Europe. (au)

  9. High-temperature drying of 7/4 yellow-poplar flitches for S-D-R studs

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sidney Boone; Robert R. Maeglin

    1980-01-01

    Yellow-poplar was dried as 7/4 flitches at high temperatures and subsequently ripped into studs to meet National Grading Rule Standards for STUD grade. The effects of growth stresses in these flitches from smaller logs appear to be minimized by this process. Dry bulb temperatures from 235° to 295° F were explored in five drying trials. Best results were by drying for...

  10. Photoprotection related to xanthophyll cycle pigments in epiphytic orchids acclimated at different light microenvironments in two tropical dry forests of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa-Manzano, Edilia; Andrade, José Luis; García-Mendoza, Ernesto; Zotz, Gerhard; Reyes-García, Casandra

    2015-12-01

    Epiphytic orchids from dry forests of Yucatán show considerable photoprotective plasticity during the dry season, which depends on leaf morphology and host tree deciduousness. Nocturnal retention of antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin was detected for the first time in epiphytic orchids. In tropical dry forests, epiphytes experience dramatic changes in light intensity: photosynthetic photon flux density may be up to an order of magnitude higher in the dry season compared to the wet season. To address the seasonal changes of xanthophyll cycle (XC) pigments and photosynthesis that occur throughout the year, leaves of five epiphytic orchid species were studied during the early dry, dry and wet seasons in a deciduous and a semi-deciduous tropical forests at two vertical strata on the host trees (3.5 and 1.5 m height). Differences in XC pigment concentrations and photosynthesis (maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II; F v/F m) were larger among seasons than between vertical strata in both forests. Antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin retention reflected the stressful conditions of the epiphytic microhabitat, and it is described here in epiphytes for the first time. During the dry season, both XC pigment concentrations and photosystem II heat dissipation of absorbed energy increased in orchids in the deciduous forest, while F v/F m and nocturnal acidification (ΔH(+)) decreased, clearly as a response to excessive light and drought. Concentrations of XC pigments were higher than those in orchids with similar leaf shape in semi-deciduous forest. There, only Encyclia nematocaulon and Lophiaris oerstedii showed somewhat reduced F v/F m. No changes in ΔH(+) and F v/F m were detected in Cohniella ascendens throughout the year. This species, which commonly grows in forests with less open canopies, showed leaf tilting that diminished light interception. Light conditions in the uppermost parts of the canopy probably limit the distribution of epiphytic orchids and the retention of

  11. Dry wall Kras 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domen Zupančič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the modesty of hiska, they show a simple understanding of corbelling technique. One could say they are all examples of human landscape cultivation. Although there is no evident common line when comparing all types of hiska, the cunning eye may observe one shared feature: the positioning of the entrance. More or less all the documented shelters have south or south-western facing entrances. The burja is a cold northerly wind; from the south (Adriatic Sea the winds are warmer. When resting, the setting sun is taken as a sign of the ending of the working day and a reward for the whole day’s efforts. Entrances are the only openings to these structures, and they should serve as well as possible - to watch over the crops, to wait when hunting, to enjoy the calm of evening light, to breathe the sea wind.The syntax of the architectural language of layering stone and shaping the pattern of the landscape remain an inventive realisation of spatial ideas from the past until today. Not only ideas of shaping space - these ideas are basic interventions in the natural habitat which contribute to survival. Culture and an awareness of its values are the origins of local development and reasonable heritage preservation. The next step are tutorial days with workshops on how to build dry stone structures, walls and other stone architecture, as the DSWA organisation in the UK is doing.

  12. Wet Mars, Dry Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Brain, D. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K. W.; Thrall, L.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This poster highlights the third in a series of presentations that target school-age audiences with the overall goal of helping the audience visualize planetary magnetic field and understand how they can impact the climatic evolution of a planet. Our first presentation, "Goldilocks and the Three Planets," targeted to elementary school age audiences, focuses on the differences in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars and the causes of the differences. The second presentation, "Lost on Mars (and Venus)," geared toward a middle school age audience, highlights the differences in the magnetic fields of these planets and what we can learn from these differences. Finally, in the third presentation, "Wet Mars, Dry Mars," targeted to high school age audiences and the focus of this poster, the emphasis is on the long term climatic affects of the presence or absence of a magnetic field using the contrasts between Earth and Mars. These presentations are given using visually engaging spherical displays in conjunction with hands-on activities and scientifically accurate 3D models of planetary magnetic fields. We will summarize the content of our presentations, discuss our lessons learned from evaluations, and show (pictures of) our hands-on activities and 3D models.

  13. Nonsymmetric entropy and maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengshi

    2009-01-01

    Under the frame of a statistical model, the concept of nonsymmetric entropy which generalizes the concepts of Boltzmann's entropy and Shannon's entropy, is defined. Maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle is proved. Some important distribution laws such as power law, can be derived from this principle naturally. Especially, nonsymmetric entropy is more convenient than other entropy such as Tsallis's entropy in deriving power laws.

  14. Maximum speed of dewetting on a fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Tak Shing; Gueudre, Thomas; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus

    2011-01-01

    A solid object can be coated by a nonwetting liquid since a receding contact line cannot exceed a critical speed. We theoretically investigate this forced wetting transition for axisymmetric menisci on fibers of varying radii. First, we use a matched asymptotic expansion and derive the maximum speed

  15. Maximum potential preventive effect of hip protectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schoor, N.M.; Smit, J.H.; Bouter, L.M.; Veenings, B.; Asma, G.B.; Lips, P.T.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the maximum potential preventive effect of hip protectors in older persons living in the community or homes for the elderly. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Emergency departments in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Hip fracture patients aged 70 and older who

  16. Maximum gain of Yagi-Uda arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, J.H.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Nilsson, E.

    1971-01-01

    Numerical optimisation techniques have been used to find the maximum gain of some specific parasitic arrays. The gain of an array of infinitely thin, equispaced dipoles loaded with arbitrary reactances has been optimised. The results show that standard travelling-wave design methods are not optimum....... Yagi–Uda arrays with equal and unequal spacing have also been optimised with experimental verification....

  17. Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2015-03-01

    The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.

  18. The maximum-entropy method in superspace

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Smaalen, S.; Palatinus, Lukáš; Schneider, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 59, - (2003), s. 459-469 ISSN 0108-7673 Grant - others:DFG(DE) XX Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : maximum-entropy method, * aperiodic crystals * electron density Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.558, year: 2003

  19. Achieving maximum sustainable yield in mixed fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulrich, Clara; Vermard, Youen; Dolder, Paul J.; Brunel, Thomas; Jardim, Ernesto; Holmes, Steven J.; Kempf, Alexander; Mortensen, Lars O.; Poos, Jan Jaap; Rindorf, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Achieving single species maximum sustainable yield (MSY) in complex and dynamic fisheries targeting multiple species (mixed fisheries) is challenging because achieving the objective for one species may mean missing the objective for another. The North Sea mixed fisheries are a representative example

  20. 5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... maximum stipend established under this section. (e) A trainee at a non-Federal hospital, clinic, or medical or dental laboratory who is assigned to a Federal hospital, clinic, or medical or dental... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Student...

  1. Minimal length, Friedmann equations and maximum density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awad, Adel [Center for Theoretical Physics, British University of Egypt,Sherouk City 11837, P.O. Box 43 (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University,Cairo, 11566 (Egypt); Ali, Ahmed Farag [Centre for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,Sheikh Zayed, 12588, Giza (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University,Benha, 13518 (Egypt)

    2014-06-16

    Inspired by Jacobson’s thermodynamic approach, Cai et al. have shown the emergence of Friedmann equations from the first law of thermodynamics. We extend Akbar-Cai derivation http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.75.084003 of Friedmann equations to accommodate a general entropy-area law. Studying the resulted Friedmann equations using a specific entropy-area law, which is motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), reveals the existence of a maximum energy density closed to Planck density. Allowing for a general continuous pressure p(ρ,a) leads to bounded curvature invariants and a general nonsingular evolution. In this case, the maximum energy density is reached in a finite time and there is no cosmological evolution beyond this point which leaves the big bang singularity inaccessible from a spacetime prospective. The existence of maximum energy density and a general nonsingular evolution is independent of the equation of state and the spacial curvature k. As an example we study the evolution of the equation of state p=ωρ through its phase-space diagram to show the existence of a maximum energy which is reachable in a finite time.

  2. New Perspectives on Dry Eye Definition and Diagnosis: A Consensus Report by the Asia Dry Eye Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubota, Kazuo; Yokoi, Norihiko; Shimazaki, Jun; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Dogru, Murat; Yamada, Masakazu; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Kim, Hyo-Myung; Tchah, Hung-Won; Hyon, Joon Young; Yoon, Kyung-Chul; Seo, Kyoung Yul; Sun, Xuguang; Chen, Wei; Liang, Lingyi; Li, Mingwu; Liu, Zuguo

    2017-01-01

    For the last 20 years, a great amount of evidence has accumulated through epidemiological studies that most of the dry eye disease encountered in daily life, especially in video display terminal (VDT) workers, involves short tear film breakup time (TFBUT) type dry eye, a category characterized by severe symptoms but minimal clinical signs other than short TFBUT. An unstable tear film also affects the visual function, possibly due to the increase of higher order aberrations. Based on the change in the understanding of the types, symptoms, and signs of dry eye disease, the Asia Dry Eye Society agreed to the following definition of dry eye: "Dry eye is a multifactorial disease characterized by unstable tear film causing a variety of symptoms and/or visual impairment, potentially accompanied by ocular surface damage." The definition stresses instability of the tear film as well as the importance of visual impairment, highlighting an essential role for TFBUT assessment. This paper discusses the concept of Tear Film Oriented Therapy (TFOT), which evolved from the definition of dry eye, emphasizing the importance of a stable tear film. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of a rapid screening protocol for selection of strains resistant to spray drying and storage in dry powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, S; Grattepanche, F; Baggenstos, C; Rezzonico, E; Berger, B; Arigoni, F; Lacroix, C

    2010-06-01

    An efficient screening method for selection of Bifidobacterium longum strains resistant to spray drying and storage was developed based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) for identification of the best survivors in mixed strains bacterial preparations. Three different primers were used to generate RAPD profiles of 22 B. longum strains. All strains were distinguished according to their RAPD profiles except for the strain NCC2705 and its H(2)O(2) resistant derivative variant. The 22 strains were grouped in 3 batches of 7, 7 and 8 strains and subjected to spray drying and storage at 30 and 37 °C under anaerobic conditions. Batch survival rates after spray drying reached 17.1±4.4%. Strains showing the highest prevalence and/or resistance to storage at 37 °C were selected from individual batches for subsequent spray drying and storage testing. After 67 days of storage, NCC572 was identified as the dominant strain in powder. The stability of strain NCC572 was confirmed by performing single spray drying and storage tests. Out of 22 B. longum strains, a robust strain was identified by combining RAPD with a simultaneous screening test for survival under spray drying and storage. The method allowed a fast screening of B. longum strains in mixture for resistance to spray drying and storage compared to traditional screening procedures carried out with individual strains, in the same conditions. This approach could be applied to other stress conditions.

  4. MaquiBright™ standardized maqui berry extract significantly increases tear fluid production and ameliorates dry eye-related symptoms in a clinical pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitoe, S; Tanaka, J; Shimoda, H

    2014-09-01

    Dry eye symptoms, resulting from insufficient tear fluid generation, represent a considerable burden for a largely underestimated number of people. We concluded from earlier pre-clinical investigations that the etiology of dry eyes encompasses oxidative stress burden to lachrymal glands and that antioxidant MaquiBright™ Aristotelia chilensis berry extract helps restore glandular activity. In this pilot trial we investigated 13 healthy volunteers with moderately dry eyes using Schirmer test, as well as a questionnaire which allows for estimating the impact of dry eyes on daily routines. Study participants were assigned to one of two groups, receiving MaquiBright™ at daily dosage of either 30 mg (N.=7) or 60 mg (N.=6) over a period of 60 days. Both groups presented with significantly (Peye dryness on daily routines was evaluated employing the "Dry Eye-related Quality of life Score" (DEQS), with values spanning from zero (impact) to a maximum score of 60. Participants had comparable baseline values of 41.0±7.7 (30 mg) and 40.2±6.3 (60 mg). With 30 mg treatment the score significantly decreased to 21.8±3.9 and 18.9±3.9, after 30 and 60 days, respectively. With 60 mg treatment the DEQS significantly decreased to 26.9±5.3 and 11.1±2.7, after 30 and 60 days, respectively. Blood was drawn for safety analyses (complete blood rheology and -chemistry) at all three investigative time points without negative findings. In conclusion, while daily supplementation with 30 mg MaquiBright™ is effective, the dosage of 60 significantly increased tear fluid volume at all investigative time points and decreased dry eye symptoms to almost a quarter from initial values after two months treatment.

  5. Stress Management: Job Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Job stress can be all-consuming — but it doesn't have to be. Address your triggers, keep perspective and ... stress triggers, it's often helpful to improve time management skills — especially if you tend to feel overwhelmed ...

  6. Energy cost of seed drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerachet Jittanit

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the energy costs of drying corn, rice and wheat seeds between 3 drying options were compared. They consisted of 1 two-stage drying by using fluidised bed dryer (FBD in the 1st stage and in-store dryer (ISD in the 2nd stage, 2 single-stage drying by fixed bed dryer (FXD and 3 two-stage drying by using FXD in the 1st  stage and ISD in the 2nd  stage. The drying conditions selected for comparison were proved to be safe for seed viability by the previous studies. The results showed that the drying options 2 and 3 consumed less energy than option 1. However, the benefits from lower energy cost must be weighed against some advantages of using FBD. Furthermore, it appeared that running the burners of FXD and ISD for warming up the ambient air during humid weather condition could shorten drying time significantly with a little higher energy cost.

  7. Development of Hybrid Kiln Drying System with Radio Frequency Heating for the Sugi Heart Timber

    OpenAIRE

    Piao, Jinji; Fujimoto, Noboru; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Nagata, Soji

    2007-01-01

    In this study, proper applied stage of the radio-frequency (RF) heating during kiln drying based on the quality concerning the surface checks of the boxed heart timbers was examined. At the stage of the RF heating the moisture contents decreased clearly at the internal parts of timbers. The surface stress of the sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) boxed heart timber changed into the compression stress by the RF heating in any drying stage. The surface checks increased according to the decrease...

  8. Dry eyes: etiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latkany, Robert

    2008-07-01

    Until recently, the cause of dry eye syndrome was uncertain and the treatment was palliative. Since discovering that dry eyes are caused by inflammation, there has been an abundance of research focusing on anti-inflammatory therapies, other contributing causes, and better diagnostic testing. This review summarizes some of the interesting published research on ocular surface disease over the past year. The definition of dry eye now highlights the omnipresent symptom of blurry vision. The re-evaluation of ocular surface staining, tear meniscus height, and visual change will allow for a better diagnosis and understanding of dry eyes. Punctal plugs, and oral and topical anti-inflammatory use will strengthen our arsenal against ocular surface disease. Major progress has occurred in the past few years in gaining a better understanding of the etiology of dry eye syndrome, which will inevitably lead to more effective therapeutic options.

  9. Drying kinetics of atemoya pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plúvia O. Galdino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted in order to obtain drying curves of whole atemoya pulp through the foam-mat drying method. The suspension was prepared with whole atemoya pulp mixed with 2% of Emustab® and 2% of Super Liga Neutra® with mixing time of 20 min, and dried in a forced-air oven at different temperatures (60; 70 and 80 °C and thicknesses of the foam layer (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 cm. The drying rate curves were plotted against the water content ratio and the semi-theoretical models of Henderson & Pabis, Page and Midilli were used. All tested models showed coefficient of determination (R2 above 0.993, and the Midilli model showed the best fit for all conditions. Drying curves were affected by temperature and layer thickness.

  10. Childhood Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Childhood Stress KidsHealth / For Parents / Childhood Stress What's in this ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  11. Performance studies of solar tunnel dryer for drying aonla (Embilica Officinalis) pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seveda, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    A solar tunnel dryer was constructed and evaluated the performance for drying aonla pulp. The dryer consists of a transparent UV stabilized plastic covered solar collector cum drying unit. Evaluation parameters are air temperature, solar insolation, moisture content, relative humidity and airflow rate. A minimum of 111.18 m 2 solar collector area is required to dry a batch 1000 kg aonla pulp in 16 hours (two days drying period). The initial and final moisture content considered were 424.93 and 10.08% dry basis, respectively. It was observed that on an average 43 per cent of higher temperature was obtained in solar tunnel dryer over the ambient temperature. The results obtained during the test period denoted that the maximum gained energy occurred at 13 o'clock hour and then gradually declined since the maximum solar radiation occurred at this time. (author)

  12. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  13. Stress transmission in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per

    We urgently need increased quantitative knowledge on stress transmission in real soils loaded with agricultural machinery. 3D measurements of vertical stresses under tracked wheels were performed in situ in a Stagnic Luvisol (clay content 20 %) continuously cropped with small grain cereals......). Seven load cells were inserted horizontally from a pit with minimal disturbance of soil in each of three depths (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m), covering the width of the wheeled area. The position of the wheel relative to the transducers was recorded using a laser sensor. Finally, the vertical stresses near...... the soil-tyre interface were measured in separate tests by 17 stress transducers across the width of the tyres. The results showed that the inflation pressure controlled the level of maximum stresses at 0.3 m depth, while the wheel load was correlated to the measured stresses at 0.9 m depth. This supports...

  14. Drying of α-amylase by spray drying and freeze-drying - a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. de Jesus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at comparing two traditional methods of drying of enzymes and at verifying the efficiency of each one and their advantages and disadvantages. The experiments were performed with a laboratory spray dryer and freeze-dryer using α-amylase as the model enzyme. An experimental design in star revealed that spray drying is mainly influenced by the inlet air temperature and feed flow rate, which were considered to be the main factors influencing the enzymatic activity and water activity; the long period of material exposure to high temperatures causes a partial activity loss. In the experiments of freeze drying, three methods of freezing were used (freezer, acetone and dry ice, and liquid nitrogen and samples subsequently freeze-dried for times ranging between 0-24 hours. The product obtained from the two techniques showed high enzymatic activity and low water activity. For the drying of heat-resistant enzymes, in which the product to be obtained does not have high added value, spray drying may be more economically viable because, in the freeze drying process, the process time can be considered as a limiting factor when choosing a technique.

  15. Maximum concentrations at work and maximum biologically tolerable concentration for working materials 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The meaning of the term 'maximum concentration at work' in regard of various pollutants is discussed. Specifically, a number of dusts and smokes are dealt with. The valuation criteria for maximum biologically tolerable concentrations for working materials are indicated. The working materials in question are corcinogeneous substances or substances liable to cause allergies or mutate the genome. (VT) [de

  16. 75 FR 43840 - Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalties for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ...-17530; Notice No. 2] RIN 2130-ZA03 Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum... remains at $250. These adjustments are required by the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990...

  17. The effects of drying following heat shock exposure of the desert moss Syntrichia caninervis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shu-Jun; Liu, Chun-Jiang; Jiang, Ping-An; Cai, Wei-Min; Wang, Yan

    2009-03-15

    Desert mosses are components of biological soil crusts (BSCs) and their ecological functions make assessment and protection of these mosses a high-ranking management priority in desert regions. Drying is thought to be useful for desert mosses surviving heat shock. In this study, we investigated the role of drying by monitoring the responses of physiological characters and asexual reproduction in the typical desert moss Syntrichia caninervis. Heat significantly decreased chlorophyll content and weakened rapid recovery of photochemical activity, and increased carotenoid content and membrane permeability. Lethal temperatures significantly destroyed shoot regeneration potential. In comparison with heat alone, drying significantly increased protonema emergence time and depressed protonema emergence area. Drying combined with heat accelerated water loss, followed by a decrease of photosynthetic activity. Drying had different influences on membrane permeability at different temperatures. When moss leaves were subjected to a combined stress of drying and heat shock, photosynthesis was maintained mainly due to the effects of drying on physiological activity although the cellular morphological integrity was affected. Drying caused opposing effects on moss physiological and reproductive characteristics. On the one hand, drying caused a positive synergistic effect with heat shock when the temperature was below 40 degrees C. On the other hand, drying showed antagonism with heat shock when the moss was subjected to temperatures higher than 40 degrees C. These findings may help in understanding the survival mechanism of dessert mosses under heat shock stress which will be helpful for the artificial reconstruction of BSCs.

  18. The effects of drying following heat shock exposure of the desert moss Syntrichia caninervis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shujun; Liu Chunjiang; Jiang Pingan; Cai Weimin; Wang Yan

    2009-01-01

    Desert mosses are components of biological soil crusts (BSCs) and their ecological functions make assessment and protection of these mosses a high-ranking management priority in desert regions. Drying is thought to be useful for desert mosses surviving heat shock. In this study, we investigated the role of drying by monitoring the responses of physiological characters and asexual reproduction in the typical desert moss Syntrichia caninervis. Heat significantly decreased chlorophyll content and weakened rapid recovery of photochemical activity, and increased carotenoid content and membrane permeability. Lethal temperatures significantly destroyed shoot regeneration potential. In comparison with heat alone, drying significantly increased protonema emergence time and depressed protonema emergence area. Drying combined with heat accelerated water loss, followed by a decrease of photosynthetic activity. Drying had different influences on membrane permeability at different temperatures. When moss leaves were subjected to a combined stress of drying and heat shock, photosynthesis was maintained mainly due to the effects of drying on physiological activity although the cellular morphological integrity was affected. Drying caused opposing effects on moss physiological and reproductive characteristics. On the one hand, drying caused a positive synergistic effect with heat shock when the temperature was below 40 deg. C. On the other hand, drying showed antagonism with heat shock when the moss was subjected to temperatures higher than 40 deg. C. These findings may help in understanding the survival mechanism of dessert mosses under heat shock stress which will be helpful for the artificial reconstruction of BSCs

  19. Clusterin Seals the Ocular Surface Barrier in Mouse Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauskar, Aditi; Mack, Wendy J; Mauris, Jerome; Argüeso, Pablo; Heur, Martin; Nagel, Barbara A; Kolar, Grant R; Gleave, Martin E; Nakamura, Takahiro; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Moradian-Oldak, Janet; Panjwani, Noorjahan; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Wilson, Mark R; Fini, M Elizabeth; Jeong, Shinwu

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye is a common disorder caused by inadequate hydration of the ocular surface that results in disruption of barrier function. The homeostatic protein clusterin (CLU) is prominent at fluid-tissue interfaces throughout the body. CLU levels are reduced at the ocular surface in human inflammatory disorders that manifest as severe dry eye, as well as in a preclinical mouse model for desiccating stress that mimics dry eye. Using this mouse model, we show here that CLU prevents and ameliorates ocular surface barrier disruption by a remarkable sealing mechanism dependent on attainment of a critical all-or-none concentration. When the CLU level drops below the critical all-or-none threshold, the barrier becomes vulnerable to desiccating stress. CLU binds selectively to the ocular surface subjected to desiccating stress in vivo, and in vitro to the galectin LGALS3, a key barrier component. Positioned in this way, CLU not only physically seals the ocular surface barrier, but it also protects the barrier cells and prevents further damage to barrier structure. These findings define a fundamentally new mechanism for ocular surface protection and suggest CLU as a biotherapeutic for dry eye.

  20. Clusterin Seals the Ocular Surface Barrier in Mouse Dry Eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Bauskar

    Full Text Available Dry eye is a common disorder caused by inadequate hydration of the ocular surface that results in disruption of barrier function. The homeostatic protein clusterin (CLU is prominent at fluid-tissue interfaces throughout the body. CLU levels are reduced at the ocular surface in human inflammatory disorders that manifest as severe dry eye, as well as in a preclinical mouse model for desiccating stress that mimics dry eye. Using this mouse model, we show here that CLU prevents and ameliorates ocular surface barrier disruption by a remarkable sealing mechanism dependent on attainment of a critical all-or-none concentration. When the CLU level drops below the critical all-or-none threshold, the barrier becomes vulnerable to desiccating stress. CLU binds selectively to the ocular surface subjected to desiccating stress in vivo, and in vitro to the galectin LGALS3, a key barrier component. Positioned in this way, CLU not only physically seals the ocular surface barrier, but it also protects the barrier cells and prevents further damage to barrier structure. These findings define a fundamentally new mechanism for ocular surface protection and suggest CLU as a biotherapeutic for dry eye.

  1. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified. (paper)

  2. Maximum-entropy description of animal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Chris H; Subaşı, Yiğit; Calabrese, Justin M

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic.

  3. Pareto versus lognormal: a maximum entropy test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

    2011-08-01

    It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

  4. Maximum likelihood estimation for integrated diffusion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltazar-Larios, Fernando; Sørensen, Michael

    We propose a method for obtaining maximum likelihood estimates of parameters in diffusion models when the data is a discrete time sample of the integral of the process, while no direct observations of the process itself are available. The data are, moreover, assumed to be contaminated...... EM-algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in the diffusion model. As part of the algorithm, we use a recent simple method for approximate simulation of diffusion bridges. In simulation studies for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the CIR process the proposed method works...... by measurement errors. Integrated volatility is an example of this type of observations. Another example is ice-core data on oxygen isotopes used to investigate paleo-temperatures. The data can be viewed as incomplete observations of a model with a tractable likelihood function. Therefore we propose a simulated...

  5. A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibert, Yann

    2015-09-01

    We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope.

  6. Maximum parsimony on subsets of taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Mareike; Thatte, Bhalchandra D

    2009-09-21

    In this paper we investigate mathematical questions concerning the reliability (reconstruction accuracy) of Fitch's maximum parsimony algorithm for reconstructing the ancestral state given a phylogenetic tree and a character. In particular, we consider the question whether the maximum parsimony method applied to a subset of taxa can reconstruct the ancestral state of the root more accurately than when applied to all taxa, and we give an example showing that this indeed is possible. A surprising feature of our example is that ignoring a taxon closer to the root improves the reliability of the method. On the other hand, in the case of the two-state symmetric substitution model, we answer affirmatively a conjecture of Li, Steel and Zhang which states that under a molecular clock the probability that the state at a single taxon is a correct guess of the ancestral state is a lower bound on the reconstruction accuracy of Fitch's method applied to all taxa.

  7. Maximum entropy analysis of liquid diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root, J.H.; Egelstaff, P.A.; Nickel, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    A maximum entropy method for reducing truncation effects in the inverse Fourier transform of structure factor, S(q), to pair correlation function, g(r), is described. The advantages and limitations of the method are explored with the PY hard sphere structure factor as model input data. An example using real data on liquid chlorine, is then presented. It is seen that spurious structure is greatly reduced in comparison to traditional Fourier transform methods. (author)

  8. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Charles [ZoomEssence, Inc., Hebron, KY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    No Heat Spray Drying Technology. ZoomEssence has developed our Zooming™ spray drying technology that atomizes liquids to powders at ambient temperature. The process of drying a liquid into a powder form has been traditionally achieved by mixing a heated gas with an atomized (sprayed) fluid within a vessel (drying chamber) causing the solvent to evaporate. The predominant spray drying process in use today employs air heated up to 400° Fahrenheit to dry an atomized liquid into a powder. Exposing sensitive, volatile liquid ingredients to high temperature causes molecular degradation that negatively impacts solubility, stability and profile of the powder. In short, heat is detrimental to many liquid ingredients. The completed award focused on several areas in order to advance the prototype dryer to a commercial scale integrated pilot system. Prior to the award, ZoomEssence had developed a prototype ‘no-heat’ dryer that firmly established the feasibility of the Zooming™ process. The award focused on three primary areas to improve the technology: (1) improved ability to formulate emulsions for specific flavor groups and improved understanding of the relationship of emulsion properties to final dry particle properties, (2) a new production atomizer, and (3) a dryer controls system.

  9. A Maximum Resonant Set of Polyomino Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Heping

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A polyomino graph P is a connected finite subgraph of the infinite plane grid such that each finite face is surrounded by a regular square of side length one and each edge belongs to at least one square. A dimer covering of P corresponds to a perfect matching. Different dimer coverings can interact via an alternating cycle (or square with respect to them. A set of disjoint squares of P is a resonant set if P has a perfect matching M so that each one of those squares is M-alternating. In this paper, we show that if K is a maximum resonant set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching. We further prove that the maximum forcing number of a polyomino graph is equal to the cardinality of a maximum resonant set. This confirms a conjecture of Xu et al. [26]. We also show that if K is a maximal alternating set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching.

  10. Automatic maximum entropy spectral reconstruction in NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobli, Mehdi; Maciejewski, Mark W.; Gryk, Michael R.; Hoch, Jeffrey C.

    2007-01-01

    Developments in superconducting magnets, cryogenic probes, isotope labeling strategies, and sophisticated pulse sequences together have enabled the application, in principle, of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy to biomolecular systems approaching 1 megadalton. In practice, however, conventional approaches to NMR that utilize the fast Fourier transform, which require data collected at uniform time intervals, result in prohibitively lengthy data collection times in order to achieve the full resolution afforded by high field magnets. A variety of approaches that involve nonuniform sampling have been proposed, each utilizing a non-Fourier method of spectrum analysis. A very general non-Fourier method that is capable of utilizing data collected using any of the proposed nonuniform sampling strategies is maximum entropy reconstruction. A limiting factor in the adoption of maximum entropy reconstruction in NMR has been the need to specify non-intuitive parameters. Here we describe a fully automated system for maximum entropy reconstruction that requires no user-specified parameters. A web-accessible script generator provides the user interface to the system

  11. maximum neutron flux at thermal nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugar, P.

    1968-10-01

    Since actual research reactors are technically complicated and expensive facilities it is important to achieve savings by appropriate reactor lattice configurations. There is a number of papers, and practical examples of reactors with central reflector, dealing with spatial distribution of fuel elements which would result in higher neutron flux. Common disadvantage of all the solutions is that the choice of best solution is done starting from the anticipated spatial distributions of fuel elements. The weakness of these approaches is lack of defined optimization criteria. Direct approach is defined as follows: determine the spatial distribution of fuel concentration starting from the condition of maximum neutron flux by fulfilling the thermal constraints. Thus the problem of determining the maximum neutron flux is solving a variational problem which is beyond the possibilities of classical variational calculation. This variational problem has been successfully solved by applying the maximum principle of Pontrjagin. Optimum distribution of fuel concentration was obtained in explicit analytical form. Thus, spatial distribution of the neutron flux and critical dimensions of quite complex reactor system are calculated in a relatively simple way. In addition to the fact that the results are innovative this approach is interesting because of the optimization procedure itself [sr

  12. Investigation into solar drying of potato: effect of sample geometry on drying kinetics and CO2 emissions mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, P P

    2015-03-01

    Drying experiments have been performed with potato cylinders and slices using a laboratory scale designed natural convection mixed-mode solar dryer. The drying data were fitted to eight different mathematical models to predict the drying kinetics, and the validity of these models were evaluated statistically through coefficient of determination (R(2)), root mean square error (RMSE) and reduced chi-square (χ (2)). The present investigation showed that amongst all the mathematical models studied, the Modified Page model was in good agreement with the experimental drying data for both potato cylinders and slices. A mathematical framework has been proposed to estimate the performance of the food dryer in terms of net CO2 emissions mitigation potential along with unit cost of CO2 mitigation arising because of replacement of different fossil fuels by renewable solar energy. For each fossil fuel replaced, the gross annual amount of CO2 as well as net amount of annual CO2 emissions mitigation potential considering CO2 emissions embodied in the manufacture of mixed-mode solar dryer has been estimated. The CO2 mitigation potential and amount of fossil fuels saved while drying potato samples were found to be the maximum for coal followed by light diesel oil and natural gas. It was inferred from the present study that by the year 2020, 23 % of CO2 emissions can be mitigated by the use of mixed-mode solar dryer for drying of agricultural products.

  13. Dry Mouth Treatment: Tips for Controlling Dry Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mouthwashes that contain alcohol because they can be drying. Stop all tobacco use if you smoke or ... also help your condition: Avoid sugary or acidic foods and drinks because they increase your risk of ...

  14. Seasonal patterns of leaf gas exchange and water relations in dry rain forest trees of contrasting leaf phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choat, Brendan; Ball, Marilyn C; Luly, Jon G; Donnelly, Christine F; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2006-05-01

    Diurnal and seasonal patterns of leaf gas exchange and water relations were examined in tree species of contrasting leaf phenology growing in a seasonally dry tropical rain forest in north-eastern Australia. Two drought-deciduous species, Brachychiton australis (Schott and Endl.) A. Terracc. and Cochlospermum gillivraei Benth., and two evergreen species, Alphitonia excelsa (Fenzal) Benth. and Austromyrtus bidwillii (Benth.) Burret. were studied. The deciduous species had higher specific leaf areas and maximum photosynthetic rates per leaf dry mass in the wet season than the evergreens. During the transition from wet season to dry season, total canopy area was reduced by 70-90% in the deciduous species and stomatal conductance (g(s)) and assimilation rate (A) were markedly lower in the remaining leaves. Deciduous species maintained daytime leaf water potentials (Psi(L)) at close to or above wet season values by a combination of stomatal regulation and reduction in leaf area. Thus, the timing of leaf drop in deciduous species was not associated with large negative values of daytime Psi(L) (greater than -1.6 MPa) or predawn Psi(L) (greater than -1.0 MPa). The deciduous species appeared sensitive to small perturbations in soil and leaf water status that signalled the onset of drought. The evergreen species were less sensitive to the onset of drought and g(s) values were not significantly lower during the transitional period. In the dry season, the evergreen species maintained their canopies despite increasing water-stress; however, unlike Eucalyptus species from northern Australian savannas, A and g(s) were significantly lower than wet season values.

  15. Is dry cleaning all wet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical solvents from dry cleaning, particularly perchloroethylene (perc), have contributed to groundwater contamination, significant levels of air pollution in and around cleaners, and chemical accumulation in food. Questions are being raised about the process of cleaning clothes with chemical, and other less toxic cleaning methods are being explored. The EPA has focused attention on the 50 year old Friedburg method of cleaning, Ecoclean, which uses no dangerous chemicals and achieves comparable results. Unfortunately, the cleaning industry is resistant to change, so cutting back on amount of clothes that need dry cleaning and making sure labels aren't exaggerating when they say dry clean only, is frequently the only consumer option now

  16. Spent fuel drying system test results (second dry-run)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks have been detected in the basins and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site (WHC 1995). Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the second dry-run test, which was conducted without a fuel element. With the concurrence of project management, the test protocol for this run, and subsequent drying test runs, was modified. These modifications were made to allow for improved data correlation with drying procedures proposed under the IPS. Details of these modifications are discussed in Section 3.0

  17. Distribuição da matéria seca e composição química das raízes, caule e folhas de goiabeira submetida a estresse salino Dry matter partitioning and mineral composition of roots, stems and leaves of guava grown under salt stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Gonçalves Ferreira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento em casa de vegetação foi conduzido com o objetivo de estudar a resposta de plantas de goiabeira (Psidium guajavaL. a diferentes concentrações de NaCl. As plantas foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva, com 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 e 150 mM de NaCl, e colhidas com 30 e 50 dias após estresse, num delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Foram determinadas: matéria seca das raízes e parte aérea; e porcentagens de Na, Cl, K, Ca e Mg nas raízes, caule e folhas. O estresse salino reduziu a matéria seca total, e a relação parte aérea/raiz foi reduzida. O estresse causou um aumento nos níveis dos íons Na+ e Cl-, com maior acúmulo nas folhas, seguido das raízes. Os teores de Ca foram estáveis nas raízes, mas decresceram no caule e folhas. Os teores de K foram reduzidos, particularmente nas folhas. Ao contrário, os teores de Mg não foram afetados pela salinidade no caule e nas raízes, havendo, entretanto, redução nas folhas. O teor de Na apresentou relação direta com o de Cl e inversa com o de K nas raízes e folhas. O teor de Ca não variou com o de Na nas folhas, mas apresentou uma relação inversa nas raízes. O teor de Mg não variou com o de Na nas raízes e folhas.A greenhouse experiment was conducted with the objective of studying the response of guava plants (Psidium guajavaL. to increasing levels of NaCl concentrations. Plants were grown in nutrient solutions, with 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150mM of NaCl, and harvested 30 and 50 days after saline stress in a complete randomized design. The following traits were studied: shoot, root and total plant dry matter and the percentage of Na, Cl, K, Ca and Mg in plant dry matter. Dry matter yield decreased when salinity increased. The root/shoot ratio decreased with the saline treatment. Salinity stress caused an increase in the levels of Na+ and Cl-. The highest ion accumulation was found in the leaves followed by the roots. The Ca levels were stable in the roots

  18. Are glacials "dry" - and in what sense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheff, J.; Seager, R.; Coats, S.; Liu, H.

    2016-12-01

    Glacial maxima during the Pleistocene are generally thought to be arid on land, with a few regional exceptions. Recent work on future climate change, however, has found that different wetness-related variables have opposite-signed responses over large portions of the continents, belying simple ideas of local "drying" or "wetting" with global temperature change in models. Here, we show that this behavior extends to simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum as well: the continents are modeled to have generally wetter topsoils and higher values of standard climate-wetness metrics in the LGM than in the preindustrial, as well as generally lower precipitation and ubiquitously lower photosynthesis (likely driven by the low CO2), with the streamflow response falling in between. Is this model-derived view of the LGM an accurate one? Using a large community pollen and plant-fossil compilation, we confirm that LGM grasslands and open woodlands grew at many sites of present potential forest, seasonal or dry forests at many sites of present potential rain- or seasonal forests, and so forth, while changes in the opposite sense were extremely few and spatially confined. We show that this strongly resembles the simulated photosynthesis changes, but not the simulated streamflow or soil moisture changes. Meanwhile, published LGM lake-level estimates resemble the simulated streamflow changes, but not the photosynthesis changes. Thus, the last glacial does not appear to be systematically "dry" outside the high latitudes, but merely carbon-starved. Similarly, local findings of reduced or more open vegetation at the LGM (e.g. from pollen, carbon isotopes, or dustiness) do not indicate local "aridity" unless corroborating hydrological proxies are also found. Finally, this work suggests that glacial-era evidence of open vegetation with high lake levels (as in the eastern Mediterranean) is not odd or paradoxical, but entirely consistent with climate model output.

  19. Experimental investigation of drying characteristics of cornelian cherry fruits ( Cornus mas L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgen, Filiz

    2015-03-01

    Major target of present paper is to investigate the drying kinetics of cornelian cherry fruits ( Cornus mas L.) in a convective dryer, by varying the temperature and the velocity of drying air. Freshly harvested fruits are dried at drying air temperature of 35, 45 and 55 °C. The considered drying air velocities are V air = 1 and 1.5 m/s for each temperature. The required drying time is determined by taking into consideration the moisture ratio measurements. When the moisture ratio reaches up to 10 % at the selected drying air temperature, then the time is determined ( t = 40-67 h). The moisture ratio, fruit temperature and energy requirement are presented as the functions of drying time. The lowest drying time (40 h) is obtained when the air temperature is 55 °C and air velocity is 1.5 m/s. The highest drying time (67 h) is found under the conditions of 35 °C temperature and 1 m/s velocity. Both the drying air temperature and the air velocity significantly affect the required energy for drying system. The minimum amount of required energy is found as 51.12 kWh, at 55 °C and 1 m/s, whilst the maximum energy requirement is 106.7 kWh, at 35 °C and 1.5 m/s. It is also found that, air temperature significantly influences the total drying time. Moreover, the energy consumption is decreasing with increasing air temperature. The effects of three parameters (air temperature, air velocity and drying time) on drying characteristics have also been analysed by means of analysis of variance method to show the effecting levels. The experimental results have a good agreement with the predicted ones.

  20. Air dehumidification and drying processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, R.

    1988-07-01

    Details are given on the physical principles of air dehumidification and drying as well as on appropriate systems available on the market. Reference is made to dehumidification through condensation (intermittent compressor or electric auxiliary heater defrosting, reversible-circuit hot gas bypass defrosting), air drying through sorption (sorbents, regeneration through heat inputs), the operation of absorptive dryers (schematic sketches), and the change of state of air (Mollier h,x-diagramm). Practical examples refer to the dehumidification of storage rooms, archives, and waterworks as well as to air drying in the pharmaceutical industry, the pastry and candy industry, the food industry, and the drying (preservation) of turbines and generators during long standstill periods. A diagramm shows that while adsorption processes are efficient at temperatures below 80/sup 0/C, low-temperature dehumidification is efficient at temperatures above. (HWJ).

  1. Simple Solutions for Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patient Education Sheet Simple Solutions for Dry Eye The SSF thanks J. Daniel Nelson, MD, Associate Medical Director, Specialty Care HealthPartners Medical Group & Clinics, and Professor of Ophthalmology, University of ...

  2. Sustaining dry surfaces under water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Paul R.; Hao, Xiuqing; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo R.

    2015-01-01

    Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional...... mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have...... not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water.In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale, below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys – thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical...

  3. Dry skin - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pat skin dry then apply your moisturizer. Avoid skin care products and soaps that contain alcohol, fragrances, dyes, or other chemicals. Take short, warm baths or showers. Limit your ... gentle skin cleansers or soap with added moisturizers. Only use ...

  4. Emulsion type dry cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohanawa, Osamu; Matsumoto, Hiroyo.

    1988-01-01

    Protective clothing against radioactive contamination used in the radiation controlled areas of nuclear plants has been washed by the same wet washing as used for underwear washing, but recently dry cleaning is getting used in place of wet washing, which generates a large quantity of laundry drain. However, it was required to use wet washing once every five to ten dry cleanings for washing protective clothing, because conventional dry cleaning is less effective in removing water-soluble soils. Therefore, in order to eliminate wet washing, and to decrease the quantity of laundry drains, the emulsion type dry cleaning system capable of removing both oil-soluble and water-soluble soils at a time has been developed. The results of developmental experiments and actual application are presented in this paper. (author)

  5. Anthology of dry storage solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allimann, Nathalie; Otton, Camille [AREVA, Paris (France)

    2012-03-15

    Around 35,000 PWR, BWR or Veer used fuel elements with various enrichment value up to 5%, various cooling time down to 2 years and various burn-ups up to 60,000 Mwd/tU are currently stored in AREVA dry storage solutions. These solutions are delivered in the United States, in Japan and in many European countries like Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, Armenia and Germany. With more than 1000 dry storage solutions delivered all over the world AREVA is the leader on this market. Dealing with dry storage is not an easy task. Products have to be flexible, to be adapted to customer needs and to the national regulations which may stipulate very strict tests such as airplane crash or simulation of earthquake. To develop a dry storage solution for a foreign country means to deal with its national competent authorities. All the national competent authorities do not have the same requirements. Storage conditions may also be different.

  6. Anthology of dry storage solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allimann, Nathalie; Otton, Camille

    2012-01-01

    Around 35,000 PWR, BWR or Veer used fuel elements with various enrichment value up to 5%, various cooling time down to 2 years and various burn-ups up to 60,000 Mwd/tU are currently stored in AREVA dry storage solutions. These solutions are delivered in the United States, in Japan and in many European countries like Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, Armenia and Germany. With more than 1000 dry storage solutions delivered all over the world AREVA is the leader on this market. Dealing with dry storage is not an easy task. Products have to be flexible, to be adapted to customer needs and to the national regulations which may stipulate very strict tests such as airplane crash or simulation of earthquake. To develop a dry storage solution for a foreign country means to deal with its national competent authorities. All the national competent authorities do not have the same requirements. Storage conditions may also be different

  7. Post-LASIK dry eye

    OpenAIRE

    Shtein, Roni M

    2011-01-01

    Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is a frequently performed corneal refractive surgery with excellent refractive outcomes. The most common complication of LASIK is dry eyes, with virtually all patients developing some degree of dryness in the immediate postoperative period. Identifying preoperative dry eyes, and conscientious attention and treatment in the perioperative time period, can lead to enhanced patient satisfaction and more accurate visual outcomes. Improved understanding...

  8. Dry and coating of powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, M.; Alguacil, F. J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a review on the mixing and coating of powders by dry processes. The reviews surveys fundamental works on mixture characterization (mixing index definitions and sampling techniques), mixing mechanisms and models, segregation with especial emphasis on free-surface segregation, mixing of cohesive powders and interparticle forces, ordered mixing (dry coating) including mechanism, model and applications and mixing equipment selection. (Author) 180 refs

  9. Photovoltaic assisted solar drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruslan, M.H.; Othman, M.Y.; Baharuddin Yatim; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Ali, M.I.; Ibarahim, Z.

    2006-01-01

    A photovoltaic assisted solar drying system has been constructed at the Solar Energy Research Park, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. This drying system uses a custom designed parallel flow V-groove type collector. A fan powered by photovoltaic source assists the air flow through the drying system. A funnel with increasing diameter towards the top with ventilator turbine is incorporated into the system to facilitate the air flow during the absence of photovoltaic energy source. This drying system is designed with high efficiency and portability in mind so that it can readily be used at plantation sites where the crops are harvested or produced. A daily mean efficiency about 44% with mean air flow rate 0.16 kgs -1 has been achieved at mean daily radiation intensity of 800 Wm -2 . daily mean temperature of air drying chamber under the above conditions is 46 o C. Study has shown that the air flow and air temperature increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. On a bright sunny day with instantaneous solar intensity about 600 Wm -2 , the temperature of air entering the drying chamber of 45 o C has been measured. In the absence of photovoltaic or in natural convection flow, the instantaneous efficiency decreased when solar radiation increased. The instantaneous efficiency recorded are 35% and 27% respectively at 570 Wm -2 and 745 Wm -2 of solar radiation. The temperature of drying chamber for the same amount of solar radiation are 42 o C and 48 o C respectively. Thus, the solar dryer shows a great potential for application in drying process of agricultural produce

  10. Prediction of paddy drying kinetics: A comparative study between mathematical and artificial neural network modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beigi Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at investigation of deep bed drying of rough rice kernels at various thin layers at different drying air temperatures and flow rates. A comparative study was performed between mathematical thin layer models and artificial neural networks to estimate the drying curves of rough rice. The suitability of nine mathematical models in simulating the drying kinetics was examined and the Midilli model was determined as the best approach for describing drying curves. Different feed forward-back propagation artificial neural networks were examined to predict the moisture content variations of the grains. The ANN with 4-18-18-1 topology, transfer function of hyperbolic tangent sigmoid and a Levenberg-Marquardt back propagation training algorithm provided the best results with the maximum correlation coefficient and the minimum mean square error values. Furthermore, it was revealed that ANN modeling had better performance in prediction of drying curves with lower root mean square error values.

  11. Estimated Bioaccessibility to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from Frequently Consumed Dried Fruits in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Rahimzadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We sought to determine levels of oral bioaccessibility of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF from frequently consumed dried fruits in Iran. Fifty samples from frequently consumed types of dried fruits were analyzed for moisture, acidity and HMF content before and after in vitro digestion. Besides, bioaccessibility of HMF in dried fruits using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestive model and HMF intake from dried fruits based on consumption of each dried fruit groups wasdetermined. The mean estimated intake of HMF was 72.90 mg/kg and the maximum intake was 240.23 mg/kg for fruit bread. The mean bioaccessibility was 60.26%. There was a correlation between HMF and acid content of fruit bread (r= 0.98, P<0.05. In conclusion, the HMF levels in dried fruits remains high even after the in vitro digestion.

  12. Sequential path analysis for determining interrelationships between yield and related traits in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. under normal and abiotic stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayat Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the relationships between yield and its related traits were investigated in tobacco genotypes under normal and abiotic stress conditions (Orobanche aegyptiaca weed at Urmia Tobacco Research Centre, Iran, during 2006-2009 cropping seasons. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications in each condition every year. Analysis of variance revealed extent genetic variability among the genotypes for most of the traits studied. In comparison with normal condition, the mean value of studied traits decreased in stress condition. LAI and FD showed the maximum and minimum diminution in the mean values under stress condition compared to normal one so known as more sensitive and more tolerant traits, respectively. Based on CV values, the traits FD and DLYP showed the minimum and maximum variation among traits in both normal and stress conditions. Correlation analysis revealed significant and positive correlations between DLYP with all studied traits in both normal and stress conditions. Path analysis detected the traits including biomass, APDW and DWR as the first-order variables at normal condition and biomass, APDW, DWR and harvest index as the first-order variables under abiotic stress condition. Based on results, the traits such as biomass, APDW, DWR detected as more important factors in both conditions can be used in tobacco breeding programs for increasing yield. Abbreviation: aerial part fresh weight without leaves weight (APFW, aerial part dry weight without leaves weight (APDW, biomass (BIO, coefficient of variation (CV, dry weight of root (DWR, flowering date (FD, fresh weight of leaf (FWL, fresh weight of root (FWR, harvest index (HI, leaf area index (LAI, dry leaf yield per plant (DLYP, number of leaf (NL, plant height (PH, randomized complete block design (RCBD, standard deviation (Std.

  13. Maximum entropy decomposition of quadrupole mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, U. von; Dose, V.; Golan, A.

    2004-01-01

    We present an information-theoretic method called generalized maximum entropy (GME) for decomposing mass spectra of gas mixtures from noisy measurements. In this GME approach to the noisy, underdetermined inverse problem, the joint entropies of concentration, cracking, and noise probabilities are maximized subject to the measured data. This provides a robust estimation for the unknown cracking patterns and the concentrations of the contributing molecules. The method is applied to mass spectroscopic data of hydrocarbons, and the estimates are compared with those received from a Bayesian approach. We show that the GME method is efficient and is computationally fast

  14. Maximum power operation of interacting molecular motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golubeva, Natalia; Imparato, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    , as compared to the non-interacting system, in a wide range of biologically compatible scenarios. We furthermore consider the case where the motor-motor interaction directly affects the internal chemical cycle and investigate the effect on the system dynamics and thermodynamics.......We study the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of different traffic models for kinesin which are relevant in biological and experimental contexts. We find that motor-motor interactions play a fundamental role by enhancing the thermodynamic efficiency at maximum power of the motors...

  15. Maximum entropy method in momentum density reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzynski, L.; Holas, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) is applied to the reconstruction of the 3-dimensional electron momentum density distributions observed through the set of Compton profiles measured along various crystallographic directions. It is shown that the reconstruction of electron momentum density may be reliably carried out with the aid of simple iterative algorithm suggested originally by Collins. A number of distributions has been simulated in order to check the performance of MEM. It is shown that MEM can be recommended as a model-free approach. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig

  16. On the maximum drawdown during speculative bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotundo, Giulia; Navarra, Mauro

    2007-08-01

    A taxonomy of large financial crashes proposed in the literature locates the burst of speculative bubbles due to endogenous causes in the framework of extreme stock market crashes, defined as falls of market prices that are outlier with respect to the bulk of drawdown price movement distribution. This paper goes on deeper in the analysis providing a further characterization of the rising part of such selected bubbles through the examination of drawdown and maximum drawdown movement of indices prices. The analysis of drawdown duration is also performed and it is the core of the risk measure estimated here.

  17. Multi-Channel Maximum Likelihood Pitch Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a method for multi-channel pitch estimation is proposed. The method is a maximum likelihood estimator and is based on a parametric model where the signals in the various channels share the same fundamental frequency but can have different amplitudes, phases, and noise characteristics....... This essentially means that the model allows for different conditions in the various channels, like different signal-to-noise ratios, microphone characteristics and reverberation. Moreover, the method does not assume that a certain array structure is used but rather relies on a more general model and is hence...

  18. Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastea, S

    2009-01-27

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

  19. Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M

    2014-04-01

    We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter.

  20. Maximum Temperature Detection System for Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankiewicz, Maciej; Kos, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    The paper describes structure and measurement results of the system detecting present maximum temperature on the surface of an integrated circuit. The system consists of the set of proportional to absolute temperature sensors, temperature processing path and a digital part designed in VHDL. Analogue parts of the circuit where designed with full-custom technique. The system is a part of temperature-controlled oscillator circuit - a power management system based on dynamic frequency scaling method. The oscillator cooperates with microprocessor dedicated for thermal experiments. The whole system is implemented in UMC CMOS 0.18 μm (1.8 V) technology.

  1. Maximum entropy PDF projection: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggenstoss, Paul M.

    2017-06-01

    We review maximum entropy (MaxEnt) PDF projection, a method with wide potential applications in statistical inference. The method constructs a sampling distribution for a high-dimensional vector x based on knowing the sampling distribution p(z) of a lower-dimensional feature z = T (x). Under mild conditions, the distribution p(x) having highest possible entropy among all distributions consistent with p(z) may be readily found. Furthermore, the MaxEnt p(x) may be sampled, making the approach useful in Monte Carlo methods. We review the theorem and present a case study in model order selection and classification for handwritten character recognition.

  2. Multiperiod Maximum Loss is time unit invariant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Raimund M; Breuer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Time unit invariance is introduced as an additional requirement for multiperiod risk measures: for a constant portfolio under an i.i.d. risk factor process, the multiperiod risk should equal the one period risk of the aggregated loss, for an appropriate choice of parameters and independent of the portfolio and its distribution. Multiperiod Maximum Loss over a sequence of Kullback-Leibler balls is time unit invariant. This is also the case for the entropic risk measure. On the other hand, multiperiod Value at Risk and multiperiod Expected Shortfall are not time unit invariant.

  3. Maximum a posteriori decoder for digital communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altes, Richard A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A system and method for decoding by identification of the most likely phase coded signal corresponding to received data. The present invention has particular application to communication with signals that experience spurious random phase perturbations. The generalized estimator-correlator uses a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator to generate phase estimates for correlation with incoming data samples and for correlation with mean phases indicative of unique hypothesized signals. The result is a MAP likelihood statistic for each hypothesized transmission, wherein the highest value statistic identifies the transmitted signal.

  4. Improved Maximum Parsimony Models for Phylogenetic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Iersel, Leo; Jones, Mark; Scornavacca, Celine

    2018-05-01

    Phylogenetic networks are well suited to represent evolutionary histories comprising reticulate evolution. Several methods aiming at reconstructing explicit phylogenetic networks have been developed in the last two decades. In this article, we propose a new definition of maximum parsimony for phylogenetic networks that permits to model biological scenarios that cannot be modeled by the definitions currently present in the literature (namely, the "hardwired" and "softwired" parsimony). Building on this new definition, we provide several algorithmic results that lay the foundations for new parsimony-based methods for phylogenetic network reconstruction.

  5. Ancestral sequence reconstruction with Maximum Parsimony

    OpenAIRE

    Herbst, Lina; Fischer, Mareike

    2017-01-01

    One of the main aims in phylogenetics is the estimation of ancestral sequences based on present-day data like, for instance, DNA alignments. One way to estimate the data of the last common ancestor of a given set of species is to first reconstruct a phylogenetic tree with some tree inference method and then to use some method of ancestral state inference based on that tree. One of the best-known methods both for tree inference as well as for ancestral sequence inference is Maximum Parsimony (...

  6. Dry Orgasm (Orgasm without Discharge of Semen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Dry orgasm By Mayo Clinic Staff Dry orgasm occurs when a man reaches sexual climax but doesn't release (ejaculate) ... the thick, white fluid that carries sperm. Dry orgasm usually isn't harmful, but it can interfere ...

  7. Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble email Send this article ... eye disease bothers the patient more. What Causes Dry Eye Syndrome? Dry eye can be caused by many ...

  8. Dry mouth and older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, W M

    2015-03-01

    Dry mouth is more common among older people than in any other age group. Appropriate definition and accurate measurement of dry mouth is critical for better understanding, monitoring and treatment of the condition. Xerostomia is the symptom(s) of dry mouth; it can be measured using methods ranging from single questions to multi-item summated rating scales. Low salivary flow (known as salivary gland hypofunction, or SGH) must be determined by measuring that flow. The relationship between SGH and xerostomia is not straightforward, but both conditions are common among older people, and they affect sufferers' day-to-day lives in important ways. The major risk factor for dry mouth is the taking of particular medications, and older people take more of those than any other age group, not only for symptomatic relief of various age-associated chronic diseases, but also in order to reduce the likelihood of complications which may arise from those conditions. The greater the number taken, the greater the associated anticholinergic burden, and the more likely it is that the individual will suffer from dry mouth. Since treating dry mouth is such a challenge for clinicians, there is a need for dentists, doctors and pharmacists to work together to prevent it occurring. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  9. Dry dock gate stability modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktoberty; Widiyanto; Sasono, E. J.; Pramono, S.; Wandono, A. T.

    2018-03-01

    The development of marine transportation needs in Indonesia increasingly opens national shipyard business opportunities to provide shipbuilding services to the shipbuilding vessels. That emphasizes the stability of prime. The ship's decking door becomes an integral part of the efficient place and the specification of the use of the asset of its operational ease. This study aims to test the stability of Dry Dock gate with the length of 35.4 meters using Maxsurf and Hydromax in analyzing the calculation were in its assessment using interval per 500 mm length so that it can get detail data toward longitudinal and transverse such as studying Ship planning in general. The test result shows dry dock gate meets IMO standard with ballast construction containing 54% and 68% and using fix ballast can produce GMt 1,924 m, tide height 11,357m. The GMt value indicates dry dick gate can be stable and firmly erect at the base of the mouth dry dock. When empty ballast produces GMt 0.996 which means dry dock date is stable, but can easily be torn down. The condition can be used during dry dock gate treatment.

  10. Effects of superheated steam on the drying of rubberwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokwan Buaphud

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Rubberwood drying is the most time and energy consuming step in the processing of wood product. This research studied the effect of superheated steam drying on the drying time required and the physical and mechanical properties of rubberwood after drying. In this study, a cylindrical drying chamber with a length of 1.2 m and a diameter of 0.5 m was constructed and injected with superheated steam. The dimensions of the wood lumber were 1 m × 7.62 cm × 2.54 cm. The wood samples were impinged with alternating cycles of superheated steam and hot air at ratios of 6:1, 4:1 and 1:6 hours until the moisture content was less than 15% dry basis. The conditions inside the chamber were 110ºC and ambient pressure. Continuous superheated steam and continuous hot air were also used for comparisons. The drying rate and the temperature profile for each process were determined.Initial acceptability of the dried wood was conducted using the prong test and visual inspection. Results showed that if the drying rate was too fast, the dried wood did not pass the prong test due to stress buildup. Therefore, an optimum drying condition was developed based on minimizing defects and reducing the drying time. For the optimum condition, the following schedule was carried out: (1 saturated steam at 100ºC was used during the first 4 hours of drying to prevent the wood surface from drying too quickly which would minimize the moisture gradient between the center and wood surface, (2 superheated steam at 105ºC and 110ºC was used in alternating cycle with hot air (80ºC during the main drying stages to rapidly remove the free water and majority of the bound water inside the wood, and (3 hot air was used continuously during the final stages of drying to reduce the relative humidity inside the chamber making it possible for the removal of the residual bound water. This process successfully reduced the drying time to less than 2 days without causing any defects which compared

  11. Effect of Drying Temperature on Rosmarinic Acid and Sinensetin Concentration in Orthosiphon stamineus Herbal Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Sriyana; Razak Shaari, Abdul; Hajar Rukunudin, Ibni; Syarhabil Ahmad, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of drying temperature on the concentration of O rthosiphon stamineus biomarker compounds which were rosmarinic acid (RA) and sinensetin (SEN). The thin layer drying approach was used to dry O. stamineus leaves at various temperatures of 30, 40 and 50°C using a laboratory scale hot air dryer. The dried leaves were then extracted using 60% aqueous methanol prior to quantification. The RA and SEN concentrations in the dried leaves extracts were quantified by the high performance liquid chromatography. The concentration of RA for the dried leaves at 30 and 40°C were higher as compared to that of the fresh leaves. This may due to the response of the plant cells to abiotic stress. The concentration of RA also showed a significant reduction when the temperature was increased to 50°C. In contrast, the SEN concentration in O. stamineus dried leaf extract was lower than that of the fresh samples. The concentrations of SEN depicted insignificant effects by drying at 30 and 50°C, and the highest value was obtained in the samples dried at 40°C. Results showed that the drying process was found to affect the concentration of both compounds; therefore suitable drying conditions should be adopted to enhance the medicinal values of the plant species.

  12. Water Productivity of Irrigated Rice under Transplanting, Wet Seeding and Dry Seeding Methods of Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali, NS.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Water productivity (WP of irrigated lowland rice was determined during the 1994 dry (January to May and wet (August to December seasons on a heavy clay acid sulphate soil. Treatments consisted of three cultivation methods : transplanted rice, pregerminated seeds broadcasted on puddled soil (wet seeding and dry seeds broadcasted on unpuddled soil (dry seeding. In wet and dry seeded plots, continuous standing water condition was initiated 17 days after sowing. Total water requirement for rice production was highest in transplanted plots (755 mm in wet season and 1154 mm in dry season and was lowest in dry seeded plots (505 mm in wet season and 1040 mm in dry season. Dry seeding required no water for land preparation but transplanting and wet seeding methods required 18 - 20 % of total water requirement in dry season and 27 - 29 % in wet season. Total percolation was maximum (99 mm in wet season and 215 mm in dry season in dry seeding method and was minimum (62 mm in wet season and 94 mm in dry season in transplanting method. In dry and wet seeding methods, daily percolation gradually decreased with the age of the crop. Total seepage loss did not show any significant difference between the cultivation methods in the two seasons. Grain yield was not affected by the three cultivation methods in both seasons. Water productivity (the ratio between grain yield and total amount of water used in production was 3.5 - 4.1 kg ha-1 mm-1, 3.8 - 4.4 kg ha-1 mm-1 and 4.1 - 5.5 kg ha-1 mm-1 in transplanted, wet seeded and dry seeded rice, respectively. Labour requirement for land preparation and sowing was maximum in transplanted (219 - 226 man-hours ha-1 followed by wet (104 -112 man-hours ha-1 and dry seeded (94 - 99 man-hours ha-1 methods. However, in wet season extra labour (77 man-hours ha-1 was required for weeding after crop establishment in dry and wet seeding methods. Crop maturity was 20 days earlier in wet and dry seeding methods compared to

  13. Objective Bayesianism and the Maximum Entropy Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Williamson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Bayesian epistemology invokes three norms: the strengths of our beliefs should be probabilities; they should be calibrated to our evidence of physical probabilities; and they should otherwise equivocate sufficiently between the basic propositions that we can express. The three norms are sometimes explicated by appealing to the maximum entropy principle, which says that a belief function should be a probability function, from all those that are calibrated to evidence, that has maximum entropy. However, the three norms of objective Bayesianism are usually justified in different ways. In this paper, we show that the three norms can all be subsumed under a single justification in terms of minimising worst-case expected loss. This, in turn, is equivalent to maximising a generalised notion of entropy. We suggest that requiring language invariance, in addition to minimising worst-case expected loss, motivates maximisation of standard entropy as opposed to maximisation of other instances of generalised entropy. Our argument also provides a qualified justification for updating degrees of belief by Bayesian conditionalisation. However, conditional probabilities play a less central part in the objective Bayesian account than they do under the subjective view of Bayesianism, leading to a reduced role for Bayes’ Theorem.

  14. Efficient heuristics for maximum common substructure search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Péter; Kovács, Péter

    2015-05-26

    Maximum common substructure search is a computationally hard optimization problem with diverse applications in the field of cheminformatics, including similarity search, lead optimization, molecule alignment, and clustering. Most of these applications have strict constraints on running time, so heuristic methods are often preferred. However, the development of an algorithm that is both fast enough and accurate enough for most practical purposes is still a challenge. Moreover, in some applications, the quality of a common substructure depends not only on its size but also on various topological features of the one-to-one atom correspondence it defines. Two state-of-the-art heuristic algorithms for finding maximum common substructures have been implemented at ChemAxon Ltd., and effective heuristics have been developed to improve both their efficiency and the relevance of the atom mappings they provide. The implementations have been thoroughly evaluated and compared with existing solutions (KCOMBU and Indigo). The heuristics have been found to greatly improve the performance and applicability of the algorithms. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the applied methods and present the experimental results.

  15. Stress Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management By Mayo Clinic Staff Stress basics Stress is a normal psychological and physical reaction to the demands of life. ... some people's alarm systems rarely shut off. Stress management gives you a range of tools to reset ...

  16. Manage Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Manage Stress Print This Topic En español Manage Stress Browse Sections The Basics Overview Signs and Health ... and Health Effects What are the signs of stress? When people are under stress, they may feel: ...

  17. Stress Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress incontinence Overview Urinary incontinence is the unintentional loss of urine. Stress incontinence happens when physical movement or activity — such ... coughing, sneezing, running or heavy lifting — puts pressure (stress) on your bladder. Stress incontinence is not related ...

  18. Heat stress during the Black Saturday event in Melbourne, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Stephanie J.; Vihma, Timo; Pezza, Alexandre B.

    2015-06-01

    The Black Saturday bushfire event of February 7, 2009, devastated the state of Victoria, Australia, resulting in 173 deaths. On this day, the maximum temperature in Melbourne (state capital of Victoria, population 4 million people) exceeded 46 °C, there were wind gusts of over 80 km h-1 and the relative humidity dropped below 5 %. We investigated the severe meteorological conditions of Black Saturday and the risk of heat stress and dehydration for the residents of Melbourne. This was through the analysis of weather station data, air pollution data, the apparent temperature (AT) and the COMfort FormulA human energy budget model. A very strong pressure gradient caused hot and dry air to be advected to Melbourne from the desert interior of Australia creating the extreme weather conditions. The AT showed that on Black Saturday, heat stress conditions were present, though underrepresented due to assumptions in the AT formula. Further investigation into the human energy budget revealed that the conditions required a sweating rate of 1.4 kg h-1 to prevent heat accumulation into the body. If sweating stopped, hyperthermia could occur in 15 min. Sensitivity tests indicated that the dry air and strong winds on Black Saturday helped to release latent heat, but the required sweating rate was virtually unattainable for an average person and would result in intense dehydration. Air particulates were at dangerous concentrations in Melbourne on Black Saturday, further intensifying the stresses to the human body. In the future, we recommend that the AT is not used as a thermal comfort measure as it underestimates the physical stress people experience.

  19. Influence of stationary and non-stationary conditions on drying time and mechanical properties of a porcelain slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouda, Imen; Mihoubi, Daoued

    2017-12-01

    This work deals with a numerical study of the response of a porcelain slab when subjected to convective drying in stationary and non-stationary conditions. The used model describes heat, mass, and momentum transfers is applied to an unsaturated viscoelastic medium described by a Maxwell model. The numerical code allows us to determine the effect of the surrounding air temperature on drying kinetics and on mechanical stress intensities. Von Mises stresses are analysed in order to foresee an eventual damage that may occur during drying. Simulation results for several temperatures in the range of [30 °C, 90 °C] shows that for the temperature from 30 °C to 60 °C, Von Mises stresses are always lower than the yield strength. But above 70 °C, Von Mises stresses are higher than the ultimate strength, and consequently there is a risk of crack at the end of the constant drying rate period. The idea proposed in this work is to integrate a reducing temperature phase when the predicted Von Mises stress intensity exceeds the admissible stress. Simulation results shows that a non-stationary convective drying (90-60 °C) allows us to optimize costs and quality by reducing the drying time and maintaining Von Mises stress values under the admissible stress.

  20. An empirical model to predict infield thin layer drying rate of cut switchgrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanchi, A.; Jones, C.L.; Sharma, B.; Huhnke, R.L.; Weckler, P.; Maness, N.O.

    2013-01-01

    A series of 62 thin layer drying experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of solar radiation, vapor pressure deficit and wind speed on drying rate of switchgrass. An environmental chamber was fabricated that can simulate field drying conditions. An empirical drying model based on maturity stage of switchgrass was also developed during the study. It was observed that solar radiation was the most significant factor in improving the drying rate of switchgrass at seed shattering and seed shattered maturity stage. Therefore, drying switchgrass in wide swath to intercept the maximum amount of radiation at these stages of maturity is recommended. Moreover, it was observed that under low radiation intensity conditions, wind speed helps to improve the drying rate of switchgrass. Field operations such as raking or turning of the windrows are recommended to improve air circulation within a swath on cloudy days. Additionally, it was found that the effect of individual weather parameters on the drying rate of switchgrass was dependent on maturity stage. Vapor pressure deficit was strongly correlated with the drying rate during seed development stage whereas, vapor pressure deficit was weakly correlated during seed shattering and seed shattered stage. These findings suggest the importance of using separate drying rate models for each maturity stage of switchgrass. The empirical models developed in this study can predict the drying time of switchgrass based on the forecasted weather conditions so that the appropriate decisions can be made. -- Highlights: • An environmental chamber was developed in the present study to simulate field drying conditions. • An empirical model was developed that can estimate drying rate of switchgrass based on forecasted weather conditions. • Separate equations were developed based on maturity stage of switchgrass. • Designed environmental chamber can be used to evaluate the effect of other parameters that affect drying of crops

  1. Hydraulic Limits on Maximum Plant Transpiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, S.; Vico, G.; Katul, G. G.; Palmroth, S.; Jackson, R. B.; Porporato, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Photosynthesis occurs at the expense of water losses through transpiration. As a consequence of this basic carbon-water interaction at the leaf level, plant growth and ecosystem carbon exchanges are tightly coupled to transpiration. In this contribution, the hydraulic constraints that limit transpiration rates under well-watered conditions are examined across plant functional types and climates. The potential water flow through plants is proportional to both xylem hydraulic conductivity (which depends on plant carbon economy) and the difference in water potential between the soil and the atmosphere (the driving force that pulls water from the soil). Differently from previous works, we study how this potential flux changes with the amplitude of the driving force (i.e., we focus on xylem properties and not on stomatal regulation). Xylem hydraulic conductivity decreases as the driving force increases due to cavitation of the tissues. As a result of this negative feedback, more negative leaf (and xylem) water potentials would provide a stronger driving force for water transport, while at the same time limiting xylem hydraulic conductivity due to cavitation. Here, the leaf water potential value that allows an optimum balance between driving force and xylem conductivity is quantified, thus defining the maximum transpiration rate that can be sustained by the soil-to-leaf hydraulic system. To apply the proposed framework at the global scale, a novel database of xylem conductivity and cavitation vulnerability across plant types and biomes is developed. Conductivity and water potential at 50% cavitation are shown to be complementary (in particular between angiosperms and conifers), suggesting a tradeoff between transport efficiency and hydraulic safety. Plants from warmer and drier biomes tend to achieve larger maximum transpiration than plants growing in environments with lower atmospheric water demand. The predicted maximum transpiration and the corresponding leaf water

  2. Analogue of Pontryagin's maximum principle for multiple integrals minimization problems

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail, Zelikin

    2016-01-01

    The theorem like Pontryagin's maximum principle for multiple integrals is proved. Unlike the usual maximum principle, the maximum should be taken not over all matrices, but only on matrices of rank one. Examples are given.

  3. Lake Basin Fetch and Maximum Length/Width

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear features representing the Fetch, Maximum Length and Maximum Width of a lake basin. Fetch, maximum length and average width are calcuated from the lake polygon...

  4. Impact of applied ultrasonic power on the low temperature drying of apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacatalina, J V; Contreras, M; Simal, S; Cárcel, J A; Garcia-Perez, J V

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature drying (LTD) allows high-quality dried products to be obtained, preserving the nutritional properties of fresh foods better than conventional drying, but it is a time-consuming operation. Power ultrasound (US) could be used to intensify LTD, but it should be taken into account that process variables, such as the level of applied power, have an influence on the magnitude and extension of the ultrasonic effects. Therefore, the aim of this work was to assess the influence of the level of applied ultrasonic power on the LTD of apple, analyzing the drying kinetics and the quality of the dried product. For that purpose, apple (Malus domestica cv. Granny Smith) cubes (8.8mm side) were dried (2m/s) at two different temperatures (10 and -10°C), without and with (25, 50 and 75 W) US application. In the dried apple, the rehydration kinetics, hardness, total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and microstructure were analyzed to evaluate the impact of the level of applied ultrasonic power. At both temperatures, 10 and -10°C, the higher the ultrasonic power level, the shorter the drying time; the maximum shortening of the drying time achieved was 80.3% (at -10°C and 75 W). The ultrasonic power level did not significantly (pfruits, like apple, with only a mild impact on the quality of the dried product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. What We Have Learned from Animal Models of Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Michael E.; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.

    2017-01-01

    Animal models have proved valuable to investigate the pathogenesis of dry eye disease, identify therapeutic targets and the efficacy of candidate therapeutics for dry eye. Pharmacological inhibition of the lacrimal functional unit and exposure of the mouse eye to desiccating stress was found to activate innate immune pathways, promote dendritic cell maturation and initiate an adaptive T cell response to ocular surface antigens. Disease relevant mediators and pathways have been identified through use of genetically altered mice, specific inhibitors and adoptive transfer of desiccating stress primed CD4+ T cells to naïve recipients. Findings from mouse models have elucidated the mechanism of action of cyclosporine A and the rationale for developing lifitegrast, the two currently approved therapeutics in the US. PMID:28282318

  6. Maximum Likelihood Reconstruction for Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Setsompop, Kawin; Ye, Huihui; Cauley, Stephen F; Wald, Lawrence L

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a statistical estimation framework for magnetic resonance (MR) fingerprinting, a recently proposed quantitative imaging paradigm. Within this framework, we present a maximum likelihood (ML) formalism to estimate multiple MR tissue parameter maps directly from highly undersampled, noisy k-space data. A novel algorithm, based on variable splitting, the alternating direction method of multipliers, and the variable projection method, is developed to solve the resulting optimization problem. Representative results from both simulations and in vivo experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach yields significantly improved accuracy in parameter estimation, compared to the conventional MR fingerprinting reconstruction. Moreover, the proposed framework provides new theoretical insights into the conventional approach. We show analytically that the conventional approach is an approximation to the ML reconstruction; more precisely, it is exactly equivalent to the first iteration of the proposed algorithm for the ML reconstruction, provided that a gridding reconstruction is used as an initialization.

  7. Maximum Profit Configurations of Commercial Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of commercial engines with finite capacity low- and high-price economic subsystems and a generalized commodity transfer law [n ∝ Δ (P m] in commodity flow processes, in which effects of the price elasticities of supply and demand are introduced, is presented in this paper. Optimal cycle configurations of commercial engines for maximum profit are obtained by applying optimal control theory. In some special cases, the eventual state—market equilibrium—is solely determined by the initial conditions and the inherent characteristics of two subsystems; while the different ways of transfer affect the model in respects of the specific forms of the paths of prices and the instantaneous commodity flow, i.e., the optimal configuration.

  8. The worst case complexity of maximum parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Amir; Musa-Lempel, Noa; Tsur, Dekel; Ziv-Ukelson, Michal

    2014-11-01

    One of the core classical problems in computational biology is that of constructing the most parsimonious phylogenetic tree interpreting an input set of sequences from the genomes of evolutionarily related organisms. We reexamine the classical maximum parsimony (MP) optimization problem for the general (asymmetric) scoring matrix case, where rooted phylogenies are implied, and analyze the worst case bounds of three approaches to MP: The approach of Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards, the approach of Hendy and Penny, and a new agglomerative, "bottom-up" approach we present in this article. We show that the second and third approaches are faster than the first one by a factor of Θ(√n) and Θ(n), respectively, where n is the number of species.

  9. Spent fuel drying system test results (first dry-run)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks in the basin have been detected and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site. Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the first dry-run test, which was conducted without a fuel element. The empty test apparatus was subjected to a combination of low- and high-temperature vacuum drying treatments that were intended to mimic, wherever possible, the fuel treatment strategies of the IPS. The data from this dry-run test can serve as a baseline for the first two fuel element tests, 1990 (Run 1) and 3128W (Run 2). The purpose of this dry-run was to establish the background levels of hydrogen in the system, and the hydrogen generation and release characteristics attributable to the test system without a fuel element present. This test also serves to establish the background levels of water in the system and the water release characteristics. The system used for the drying test series was the Whole Element Furnace Testing System, described in Section 2.0, which is located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL, 327 Building). The test conditions and methodology are given in section 3.0, and the experimental

  10. Modelling maximum likelihood estimation of availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, R.A.; Tietjen, G.L.; Rock, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    Suppose the performance of a nuclear powered electrical generating power plant is continuously monitored to record the sequence of failure and repairs during sustained operation. The purpose of this study is to assess one method of estimating the performance of the power plant when the measure of performance is availability. That is, we determine the probability that the plant is operational at time t. To study the availability of a power plant, we first assume statistical models for the variables, X and Y, which denote the time-to-failure and the time-to-repair variables, respectively. Once those statistical models are specified, the availability, A(t), can be expressed as a function of some or all of their parameters. Usually those parameters are unknown in practice and so A(t) is unknown. This paper discusses the maximum likelihood estimator of A(t) when the time-to-failure model for X is an exponential density with parameter, lambda, and the time-to-repair model for Y is an exponential density with parameter, theta. Under the assumption of exponential models for X and Y, it follows that the instantaneous availability at time t is A(t)=lambda/(lambda+theta)+theta/(lambda+theta)exp[-[(1/lambda)+(1/theta)]t] with t>0. Also, the steady-state availability is A(infinity)=lambda/(lambda+theta). We use the observations from n failure-repair cycles of the power plant, say X 1 , X 2 , ..., Xsub(n), Y 1 , Y 2 , ..., Ysub(n) to present the maximum likelihood estimators of A(t) and A(infinity). The exact sampling distributions for those estimators and some statistical properties are discussed before a simulation model is used to determine 95% simulation intervals for A(t). The methodology is applied to two examples which approximate the operating history of two nuclear power plants. (author)

  11. The influence of shrinkage-cracking on the drying behaviour of White Portland cement using Single-Point Imaging (SPI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyea, S D; Balcom, B J; Bremner, T W; Prado, P J; Cross, A R; Armstrong, R L; Grattan-Bellew, P E

    1998-11-01

    The removal of water from pores in hardened cement paste smaller than 50 nm results in cracking of the cement matrix due to the tensile stresses induced by drying shrinkage. Cracks in the matrix fundamentally alter the permeability of the material, and therefore directly affect the drying behaviour. Using Single-Point Imaging (SPI), we obtain one-dimensional moisture profiles of hydrated White Portland cement cylinders as a function of drying time. The drying behaviour of White Portland cement, is distinctly different from the drying behaviour of related concrete materials containing aggregates.

  12. Treatment of Dry Eye Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Leisa L; Roach, J Michael

    2016-02-01

    Review of the etiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of dry eye disease (DED). Articles indexed in PubMed (National Library of Medicine), Iowa Drug Information Service (IDIS), and the Cochrane Reviews and Trials in the last 10 years using the key words "dry eye disease," "dry eye syndrome," "dry eye and treatment." Primary sources were used to locate additional resources. Sixty-eight publications were reviewed, and criteria supporting the primary objective were used to identify useful resources. The literature included practice guidelines, book chapters, review articles, original research articles, and product prescribing information for the etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of DED. DED is one of the most common ophthalmic disorders. Signs and symptoms of DED vary by patient, but may include ocular irritation, redness, itching, photosensitivity, visual blurring, mucous discharge, and decreased tear meniscus or break-up time. Symptoms improve with treatment, but the condition is not completely curable. Treatment includes reducing environmental causes, discontinuing medications that cause or worsen dry eye, and managing contributing ocular or systemic conditions. Most patients use nonprescription tear substitutes, and if these are not sufficient, other treatment is prescribed. These treatments include the ophthalmic anti-inflammatory agent cyclosporine, punctal occlusion, eye side shields, systemic cholinergic agents, and autologous serum tears. This article reviews the etiology, symptoms, and current therapy for DED.

  13. Human climbing with efficiently scaled gecko-inspired dry adhesives

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkes, Elliot W.; Eason, Eric V.; Christensen, David L.; Cutkosky, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of the mechanism of adhesion in geckos, many synthetic dry adhesives have been developed with desirable gecko-like properties such as reusability, directionality, self-cleaning ability, rough surface adhesion and high adhesive stress. However, fully exploiting these adhesives in practical applications at different length scales requires efficient scaling (i.e. with little loss in adhesion as area grows). Just as natural gecko adhesives have been used as a benchmark for syn...

  14. The mechanical properties of dry, electrospun fibrinogen fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Stephen; Sigley, Justin; Helms, Christine C. [Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27109 (United States); Stitzel, Joel [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC, 27157 (United States); Berry, Joel; Bonin, Keith [Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27109 (United States); Guthold, Martin, E-mail: gutholdm@wfu.edu [Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27109 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Due to their low immunogenicity, biodegradability and native cell-binding domains, fibrinogen fibers may be good candidates for tissue engineering scaffolds, drug delivery vehicles and other medical devices. We used a combined atomic force microscope (AFM)/optical microscope technique to study the mechanical properties of individual, electrospun fibrinogen fibers in dry, ambient conditions. The AFM was used to stretch individual fibers suspended over 13.5 {mu}m wide grooves in a transparent substrate. The optical microscope, located below the sample, was used to monitor the stretching process. Electrospun fibrinogen fibers (diameter, 30-200 nm) can stretch to 74% beyond their original length before rupturing at a stress of 2.1 GPa. They can stretch elastically up to 15% beyond their original length. Using incremental stress-strain curves the viscoelastic behavior of these fibers was determined. The total stretch modulus was 4.2 GPa while the relaxed elastic modulus was 3.7 GPa. When held at constant strain, fibrinogen fibers display stress relaxation with a fast and slow relaxation time of 1.2 s and 11 s. In comparison to native and electrospun collagen fibers, dry electrospun fibrinogen fibers are significantly more extensible and elastic. In comparison to wet electrospun fibrinogen fibers, dry fibers are about 1000 times stiffer. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fabricated dry, electrospun, fibrinogen fibers; average diameter, D{sub avg.} = 95 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determined mechanical properties with combined atomic force/optical microscope. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fibers are very extensible ({epsilon}{sub max} = 74%) and elastic ({epsilon}{sub elastic} = 15%). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fiber total modulus, E{sub tot.} = 4.2 GPa; elastic modulus, E{sub el.} = 3.7 GPa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fiber stress relaxation times: {tau}{sub 1} = 1.2 s and {tau}{sub 2} = 11 s.

  15. Slip resistance of winter footwear on snow and ice measured using maximum achievable incline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jennifer; Shaw, Robert; Novak, Alison; Li, Yue; Ormerod, Marcus; Newton, Rita; Dutta, Tilak; Fernie, Geoff

    2016-05-01

    Protective footwear is necessary for preventing injurious slips and falls in winter conditions. Valid methods for assessing footwear slip resistance on winter surfaces are needed in order to evaluate footwear and outsole designs. The purpose of this study was to utilise a method of testing winter footwear that was ecologically valid in terms of involving actual human testers walking on realistic winter surfaces to produce objective measures of slip resistance. During the experiment, eight participants tested six styles of footwear on wet ice, on dry ice, and on dry ice after walking over soft snow. Slip resistance was measured by determining the maximum incline angles participants were able to walk up and down in each footwear-surface combination. The results indicated that testing on a variety of surfaces is necessary for establishing winter footwear performance and that standard mechanical bench tests for footwear slip resistance do not adequately reflect actual performance. Practitioner Summary: Existing standardised methods for measuring footwear slip resistance lack validation on winter surfaces. By determining the maximum inclines participants could walk up and down slopes of wet ice, dry ice, and ice with snow, in a range of footwear, an ecologically valid test for measuring winter footwear performance was established.

  16. Dry Fruits and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Sohaib A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Dry fruits are some of the essential foods a human body requires staying healthy. They are made after extracting water from them. These fruits are full of essential nutrients including minerals, vitamins, enzymes, fibers and protect the body from a number of different adversities. These fruits are also a source of healthy nutrition among diabetic people who are very concerned about what to eat and what not to eat. But besides their countless benefits, these dry fruits can cause a number of harms to the body and therefore, must be used in a balanced way. This article is based on healthy and unhealthy effects of dry fruits and their use in diabetes mellitus.

  17. A maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic-SPE system using a maximum current controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhida, Riza [Osaka Univ., Dept. of Physical Science, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan); Osaka Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Park, Minwon; Dakkak, Mohammed; Matsuura, Kenji [Osaka Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Tsuyoshi, Akira; Michira, Masakazu [Kobe City College of Technology, Nishi-ku, Kobe (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Processes to produce hydrogen from solar photovoltaic (PV)-powered water electrolysis using solid polymer electrolysis (SPE) are reported. An alternative control of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in the PV-SPE system based on the maximum current searching methods has been designed and implemented. Based on the characteristics of voltage-current and theoretical analysis of SPE, it can be shown that the tracking of the maximum current output of DC-DC converter in SPE side will track the MPPT of photovoltaic panel simultaneously. This method uses a proportional integrator controller to control the duty factor of DC-DC converter with pulse-width modulator (PWM). The MPPT performance and hydrogen production performance of this method have been evaluated and discussed based on the results of the experiment. (Author)

  18. Freeze-dried microarterial allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, J.; Hargrave, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Rehydrated freeze-dried microarterial allografts were implanted to bridge arterial defects using New Zealand White rabbits as the experimental model. Segments of artery from the rabbit ear and thigh were harvested and preserved for a minimum of 2 weeks after freeze-drying. These allografts, approximately 1 mm in diameter and ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 cm in length, were rehydrated and then implanted in low-pressure and high-pressure arterial systems. Poor patency was noted in low-pressure systems in both allografts and autografts, tested in 12 rabbits. In the high-pressure arterial systems, allografts that were freeze-dried and reconstituted failed in a group of 10 rabbits with an 8-week patency rate of 30 percent. Gamma irradiation in an effort to reduce infection and antigenicity of grafts after freeze-drying was associated with a patency rate of 10 percent at 8 weeks in this system in another group of 10 rabbits. Postoperative cyclosporin A therapy was associated with a patency rate of 22.2 percent in the high-pressure arterial system in a 9-rabbit group. Control autografts in this system in a group of 10 rabbits showed a 100 percent patency at 8 weeks. Microarterial grafts depend on perfusion pressure of the vascular bed for long-term patency. Rehydrated freeze-dried microarterial allografts do not seem to function well in lengths of 1 to 2.5 cm when implanted in a high-pressure arterial system. Freeze-dried arterial allografts are probably not antigenic

  19. Performance of a Big Scale Green House Type Dryer for Coffee Drying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dying is one of important steps in coffee processing to produce good quality. Greenhouse is one of artificial drying alternatives that potential for coffee drying method cause of cleans environmental friendly, renewable energy sources and chippers. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has developed and testing a big scale greenhouse type dryer for fresh coffee cherries and wet parchment coffee drying process. Greenhouse has 24 m length, 18 m width, also 3 m high of the front side and 2 m high of the rear side. The maximum capacity of greenhouse is 40 tons fresh coffee cherries. Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP used as greenhouse roof that combined with I and C profile of steel. Fresh coffee cherries and wet parchment coffee from Robusta variety use as main materials in this research. The treatment of this research was 30 kg/m2, 60 kg/m2 and 90 kg/m2 for coffee density. String process has done by manual, two times a day in the morning and in the afternoon. As control, fresh coffee cherries and wet parchment coffee has dried by fully sun drying method. The result showed that a big scale greenhouse has heat drying efficiency between 29.9-58.2% depend on type and density of coffee treatments. On the full sunny day, greenhouse has produced maximum drying air temperature up to 52oC. In radiation cumulative level 4-5 kW-jam/m2 per day, 12.9-38.8 tons fresh coffee cherries or wet parchment coffee with 58-64% moisture content can be dried to 12% moisture content for 6 up to 14 days drying process. Slowly drying mechanism can be avoided negative effect to degradation of quality precursor compound. Capacity of the dryer can be raise and fungi can be reduce with application of controllable mechanical stirring in the greenhouse. Keywords: greenhouse, coffee, drying, quality

  20. Foam-mat drying technology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Z; Jideani, V A

    2017-08-13

    This article reviews various aspects of foam-mat drying such as foam-mat drying processing technique, main additives used for foam-mat drying, foam-mat drying of liquid and solid foods, quality characteristics of foam-mat dried foods, and economic and technical benefits for employing foam-mat drying. Foam-mat drying process is an alternative method that allows the removal of water from liquid materials and pureed materials. In this drying process, a liquid material is converted into foam that is stable by being whipped after adding an edible foaming agent. The stable foam is then spread out in sheet or mat and dried by using hot air (40-90°C) at atmospheric pressure. Methyl cellulose (0.25-2%), egg white (3-20%), maltodextrin (0.5-05%), and gum Arabic (2-9%) are the commonly utilized additives for the foam-mat drying process at the given range, either combined together for their effectiveness or individual effect. The foam-mat drying process is suitable for heat sensitive, viscous, and sticky products that cannot be dried using other forms of drying methods such as spray drying because of the state of product. More interest has developed for foam-mat drying because of the simplicity, cost effectiveness, high speed drying, and improved product quality it provides.

  1. 7 CFR 58.813 - Dry whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry whey. 58.813 Section 58.813 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.813 Dry whey. The quality requirements for dry whey shall be in accordance with the U.S. Standards for Dry Whey. Supplemental Specifications for Plants...

  2. Economics of dry storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.R.; Winders, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper postulates a dry storage application suitable as a regional away-from-reactor storage (AFR), develops an economical system design concept and estimates system costs. The system discussed uses the experience gained in the dry storage research activities and attempts to present a best foot forward system concept. The major element of the system is the Receiving and Packaging Building. In this building fuel assemblies are removed from transportation casks and encapsulated for storage. This facility could be equally applicable to silo, vault, or caisson storage. However the caisson storage concept has been chosen for discussion purposes

  3. Factors affecting viability of Bifidobacterium bifidum during spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Zahra; Fazeli, Mohammad Reza; Ardjmand, Mehdi; Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad; Gilani, Kambiz

    2015-01-25

    There is substantial clinical data supporting the role of Bifidobacterium bifidum in human health particularly in benefiting the immune system and suppressing intestinal infections. Compared to the traditional lyophilization, spray-drying is an economical process for preparing large quantities of viable microorganisms. The technique offers high production rates and low operating costs but is not usually used for drying of substances prone to high temperature. The aim of this study was to establish the optimized environmental factors in spray drying of cultured bifidobacteria to obtain a viable and stable powder. The experiments were designed to test variables such as inlet air temperature, air pressure and also maltodextrin content. The combined effect of these variables on survival rateand moisture content of bacterial powder was studied using a central composite design (CCD). Sub-lethal heat-adaptation of a B. bifidum strain which was previously adapted to acid-bile-NaCl led to much more resistance to high outlet temperature during spray drying. The resistant B. bifidum was supplemented with cost friendly permeate, sucrose, yeast extract and different amount of maltodextrin before it was fed into a Buchi B-191 mini spray-dryer. Second-order polynomials were established to identify the relationship between the responses andthe three variables. Results of verification experiments and predicted values from fitted correlations were in close agreement at 95% confidence interval. The optimal values of the variables for maximum survival and minimum moisture content of B. bifidum powder were as follows: inlet air temperature of 111.15°C, air pressure of 4.5 bar and maltodextrin concentration of 6%. Under optimum conditions, the maximum survival of 28.38% was achieved while moisture was maintained at 4.05%. Viable and cost effective spray drying of Bifidobacterium bifidum could be achieved by cultivating heat and acid adapted strain into the culture media containing

  4. Drying properties and quality parameters of dill dried with intermittent and continuous microwave

    OpenAIRE

    Eştürk, Okan

    2012-01-01

    In this study, influence of various microwave-convective air drying applications on drying kinetics, color and sensory quality of dill leaves (Anethum graveolens L.) were investigated. In general, increasing the drying air temperature decreased the drying time, and increased the drying rate. Increasing microwave pulse ratio increased the drying time. Page, Logarithmic, Midilli et al, Wang & Singh and Logistic models were fitted to drying data and the Page model was found to satisfactorily...

  5. The potential role of neuropathic mechanisms in dry eye syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmonnies, Charles W

    Dry eye syndromes can involve both nociceptive and neuropathic symptoms. Nociceptive symptoms are the normal physiological responses to noxious stimuli. Neuropathic symptoms are caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system and can be the result of hypersensitisation of peripheral or central corneal and conjunctival somatosensory nerves. For example, inflammation could induce neuroplastic peripheral sensitisation of the ocular surface or lid wiper and exacerbate nociceptive symptoms. Neuropathic symptoms may explain the incommensurate relation between signs and symptoms in some dry eye syndromes although absence of signs of a dry eye syndrome may also be a consequence of inappropriate methods used when examining for them. Involvement of neuropathic mechanisms may also help explain dry eye symptoms which occur in association with reduced corneal sensitivity. This review includes a discussion of the potential for ocular symptoms involving neuropathic mechanisms to contribute to psychosocial problems such as depression, stress, anxiety and sleep disorders as well as for these types of psychosocial problems to contribute to neuropathic mechanisms and dry eye syndromes. Failure to consider the possibility that neuropathic mechanisms can contribute to dry eye syndromes may reduce accuracy of diagnosis and the suitability of treatment provided. Dry eye symptoms in the absence of commensurate evidence of tear dysfunction, and unsatisfactory response to tear dysfunction therapies should prompt consideration of neuropathic mechanisms being involved. Symptoms which persist after local anaesthetic instillation are more likely to be neuropathic in origin. Reducing inflammation may help limit any associated neuroplastic hypersensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. A combined wet/dry sipping cell for investigating failed triga fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Gallhammer, H.; Hammer, J.; Israr, M.

    1987-08-01

    A sipping cell to detect failed triga fuel has been designed and constructed at the Atominstitut. The cell allows both wet- and dry sipping of one single standard triga fuel element. In the dry sipping method the fuel element may be electrically heated up to a maximum temperature of about 300 0 C to allow the detection of temperature dependent fission product release from the fuel element. 20 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  7. Maximum mass of magnetic white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paret, Daryel Manreza; Horvath, Jorge Ernesto; Martínez, Aurora Perez

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the problem of the maximum masses of magnetized white dwarfs (WDs). The impact of a strong magnetic field on the structure equations is addressed. The pressures become anisotropic due to the presence of the magnetic field and split into parallel and perpendicular components. We first construct stable solutions of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations for parallel pressures and find that physical solutions vanish for the perpendicular pressure when B ≳ 10 13 G. This fact establishes an upper bound for a magnetic field and the stability of the configurations in the (quasi) spherical approximation. Our findings also indicate that it is not possible to obtain stable magnetized WDs with super-Chandrasekhar masses because the values of the magnetic field needed for them are higher than this bound. To proceed into the anisotropic regime, we can apply results for structure equations appropriate for a cylindrical metric with anisotropic pressures that were derived in our previous work. From the solutions of the structure equations in cylindrical symmetry we have confirmed the same bound for B ∼ 10 13 G, since beyond this value no physical solutions are possible. Our tentative conclusion is that massive WDs with masses well beyond the Chandrasekhar limit do not constitute stable solutions and should not exist. (paper)

  8. TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M

    2007-11-12

    Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.

  9. Mammographic image restoration using maximum entropy deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannetta, A; Jackson, J C; Kotre, C J; Birch, I P; Robson, K J; Padgett, R

    2004-01-01

    An image restoration approach based on a Bayesian maximum entropy method (MEM) has been applied to a radiological image deconvolution problem, that of reduction of geometric blurring in magnification mammography. The aim of the work is to demonstrate an improvement in image spatial resolution in realistic noisy radiological images with no associated penalty in terms of reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio perceived by the observer. Images of the TORMAM mammographic image quality phantom were recorded using the standard magnification settings of 1.8 magnification/fine focus and also at 1.8 magnification/broad focus and 3.0 magnification/fine focus; the latter two arrangements would normally give rise to unacceptable geometric blurring. Measured point-spread functions were used in conjunction with the MEM image processing to de-blur these images. The results are presented as comparative images of phantom test features and as observer scores for the raw and processed images. Visualization of high resolution features and the total image scores for the test phantom were improved by the application of the MEM processing. It is argued that this successful demonstration of image de-blurring in noisy radiological images offers the possibility of weakening the link between focal spot size and geometric blurring in radiology, thus opening up new approaches to system optimization

  10. Maximum Margin Clustering of Hyperspectral Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazmardi, S.; Safari, A.; Homayouni, S.

    2013-09-01

    In recent decades, large margin methods such as Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are supposed to be the state-of-the-art of supervised learning methods for classification of hyperspectral data. However, the results of these algorithms mainly depend on the quality and quantity of available training data. To tackle down the problems associated with the training data, the researcher put effort into extending the capability of large margin algorithms for unsupervised learning. One of the recent proposed algorithms is Maximum Margin Clustering (MMC). The MMC is an unsupervised SVMs algorithm that simultaneously estimates both the labels and the hyperplane parameters. Nevertheless, the optimization of the MMC algorithm is a non-convex problem. Most of the existing MMC methods rely on the reformulating and the relaxing of the non-convex optimization problem as semi-definite programs (SDP), which are computationally very expensive and only can handle small data sets. Moreover, most of these algorithms are two-class classification, which cannot be used for classification of remotely sensed data. In this paper, a new MMC algorithm is used that solve the original non-convex problem using Alternative Optimization method. This algorithm is also extended for multi-class classification and its performance is evaluated. The results of the proposed algorithm show that the algorithm has acceptable results for hyperspectral data clustering.

  11. Paving the road to maximum productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, C

    1998-01-01

    "Job security" is an oxymoron in today's environment of downsizing, mergers, and acquisitions. Workers find themselves living by new rules in the workplace that they may not understand. How do we cope? It is the leader's charge to take advantage of this chaos and create conditions under which his or her people can understand the need for change and come together with a shared purpose to effect that change. The clinical laboratory at Arkansas Children's Hospital has taken advantage of this chaos to down-size and to redesign how the work gets done to pave the road to maximum productivity. After initial hourly cutbacks, the workers accepted the cold, hard fact that they would never get their old world back. They set goals to proactively shape their new world through reorganizing, flexing staff with workload, creating a rapid response laboratory, exploiting information technology, and outsourcing. Today the laboratory is a lean, productive machine that accepts change as a way of life. We have learned to adapt, trust, and support each other as we have journeyed together over the rough roads. We are looking forward to paving a new fork in the road to the future.

  12. Maximum power flux of auroral kilometric radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, R.F.; Fainberg, J.

    1991-01-01

    The maximum auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) power flux observed by distant satellites has been increased by more than a factor of 10 from previously reported values. This increase has been achieved by a new data selection criterion and a new analysis of antenna spin modulated signals received by the radio astronomy instrument on ISEE 3. The method relies on selecting AKR events containing signals in the highest-frequency channel (1980, kHz), followed by a careful analysis that effectively increased the instrumental dynamic range by more than 20 dB by making use of the spacecraft antenna gain diagram during a spacecraft rotation. This analysis has allowed the separation of real signals from those created in the receiver by overloading. Many signals having the appearance of AKR harmonic signals were shown to be of spurious origin. During one event, however, real second harmonic AKR signals were detected even though the spacecraft was at a great distance (17 R E ) from Earth. During another event, when the spacecraft was at the orbital distance of the Moon and on the morning side of Earth, the power flux of fundamental AKR was greater than 3 x 10 -13 W m -2 Hz -1 at 360 kHz normalized to a radial distance r of 25 R E assuming the power falls off as r -2 . A comparison of these intense signal levels with the most intense source region values (obtained by ISIS 1 and Viking) suggests that multiple sources were observed by ISEE 3

  13. Maximum likelihood window for time delay estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Sup; Yoon, Dong Jin; Kim, Chi Yup

    2004-01-01

    Time delay estimation for the detection of leak location in underground pipelines is critically important. Because the exact leak location depends upon the precision of the time delay between sensor signals due to leak noise and the speed of elastic waves, the research on the estimation of time delay has been one of the key issues in leak lovating with the time arrival difference method. In this study, an optimal Maximum Likelihood window is considered to obtain a better estimation of the time delay. This method has been proved in experiments, which can provide much clearer and more precise peaks in cross-correlation functions of leak signals. The leak location error has been less than 1 % of the distance between sensors, for example the error was not greater than 3 m for 300 m long underground pipelines. Apart from the experiment, an intensive theoretical analysis in terms of signal processing has been described. The improved leak locating with the suggested method is due to the windowing effect in frequency domain, which offers a weighting in significant frequencies.

  14. Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction with Maximum Parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Lina; Fischer, Mareike

    2017-12-01

    One of the main aims in phylogenetics is the estimation of ancestral sequences based on present-day data like, for instance, DNA alignments. One way to estimate the data of the last common ancestor of a given set of species is to first reconstruct a phylogenetic tree with some tree inference method and then to use some method of ancestral state inference based on that tree. One of the best-known methods both for tree inference and for ancestral sequence inference is Maximum Parsimony (MP). In this manuscript, we focus on this method and on ancestral state inference for fully bifurcating trees. In particular, we investigate a conjecture published by Charleston and Steel in 1995 concerning the number of species which need to have a particular state, say a, at a particular site in order for MP to unambiguously return a as an estimate for the state of the last common ancestor. We prove the conjecture for all even numbers of character states, which is the most relevant case in biology. We also show that the conjecture does not hold in general for odd numbers of character states, but also present some positive results for this case.

  15. Understanding the Role of Reservoir Size on Probable Maximum Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldemichael, A. T.; Hossain, F.

    2011-12-01

    This study addresses the question 'Does surface area of an artificial reservoir matter in the estimation of probable maximum precipitation (PMP) for an impounded basin?' The motivation of the study was based on the notion that the stationarity assumption that is implicit in the PMP for dam design can be undermined in the post-dam era due to an enhancement of extreme precipitation patterns by an artificial reservoir. In addition, the study lays the foundation for use of regional atmospheric models as one way to perform life cycle assessment for planned or existing dams to formulate best management practices. The American River Watershed (ARW) with the Folsom dam at the confluence of the American River was selected as the study region and the Dec-Jan 1996-97 storm event was selected for the study period. The numerical atmospheric model used for the study was the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). First, the numerical modeling system, RAMS, was calibrated and validated with selected station and spatially interpolated precipitation data. Best combinations of parameterization schemes in RAMS were accordingly selected. Second, to mimic the standard method of PMP estimation by moisture maximization technique, relative humidity terms in the model were raised to 100% from ground up to the 500mb level. The obtained model-based maximum 72-hr precipitation values were named extreme precipitation (EP) as a distinction from the PMPs obtained by the standard methods. Third, six hypothetical reservoir size scenarios ranging from no-dam (all-dry) to the reservoir submerging half of basin were established to test the influence of reservoir size variation on EP. For the case of the ARW, our study clearly demonstrated that the assumption of stationarity that is implicit the traditional estimation of PMP can be rendered invalid to a large part due to the very presence of the artificial reservoir. Cloud tracking procedures performed on the basin also give indication of the

  16. EFFECTS OF A SAND RUNNING SURFACE ON THE KINEMATICS OF SPRINTING AT MAXIMUM VELOCITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P E Alcaraz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Performing sprints on a sand surface is a common training method for improving sprint-specific strength. For maximum specificity of training the athlete’s movement patterns during the training exercise should closely resemble those used when performing the sport. The aim of this study was to compare the kinematics of sprinting at maximum velocity on a dry sand surface to the kinematics of sprinting on an athletics track. Five men and five women participated in the study, and flying sprints over 30 m were recorded by video and digitized using biomechanical analysis software. We found that sprinting on a sand surface was substantially different to sprinting on an athletics track. When sprinting on sand the athletes tended to ‘sit’ during the ground contact phase of the stride. This action was characterized by a lower centre of mass, a greater forward lean in the trunk, and an incomplete extension of the hip joint at take-off. We conclude that sprinting on a dry sand surface may not be an appropriate method for training the maximum velocity phase in sprinting. Although this training method exerts a substantial overload on the athlete, as indicated by reductions in running velocity and stride length, it also induces detrimental changes to the athlete’s running technique which may transfer to competition sprinting.

  17. 20 CFR 226.52 - Total annuity subject to maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total annuity subject to maximum. 226.52... COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Railroad Retirement Family Maximum § 226.52 Total annuity subject to maximum. The total annuity amount which is compared to the maximum monthly amount to...

  18. Half-width at half-maximum, full-width at half-maximum analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    addition to the well-defined parameter full-width at half-maximum (FWHM). The distribution of ... optical side-lobes in the diffraction pattern resulting in steep central maxima [6], reduc- tion of effects of ... and broad central peak. The idea of.

  19. Nuclear stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  20. Functional ecology of an Antarctic Dry Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuki; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Pointing, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys are the largest ice-free region in Antarctica and are critically at risk from climate change. The terrestrial landscape is dominated by oligotrophic mineral soils and extensive exposed rocky surfaces where biota are largely restricted to microbial communities, although their ability to perform the majority of geobiological processes has remained largely uncharacterized. Here, we identified functional traits that drive microbial survival and community assembly, using a metagenomic approach with GeoChip-based functional gene arrays to establish metabolic capabilities in communities inhabiting soil and rock surface niches in McKelvey Valley. Major pathways in primary metabolism were identified, indicating significant plasticity in autotrophic, heterotrophic, and diazotrophic strategies supporting microbial communities. This represents a major advance beyond biodiversity surveys in that we have now identified how putative functional ecology drives microbial community assembly. Significant differences were apparent between open soil, hypolithic, chasmoendolithic, and cryptoendolithic communities. A suite of previously unappreciated Antarctic microbial stress response pathways, thermal, osmotic, and nutrient limitation responses were identified and related to environmental stressors, offering tangible clues to the mechanisms behind the enduring success of microorganisms in this seemingly inhospitable terrain. Rocky substrates exposed to larger fluctuations in environmental stress supported greater functional diversity in stress-response pathways than soils. Soils comprised a unique reservoir of genes involved in transformation of organic hydrocarbons and lignin-like degradative pathways. This has major implications for the evolutionary origin of the organisms, turnover of recalcitrant substrates in Antarctic soils, and predicting future responses to anthropogenic pollution. PMID:23671121

  1. Blades Couple Dry Friction Connection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půst, Ladislav; Pešek, Luděk; Radolfová, Alena

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2015), s. 31-40 ISSN 1802-680X Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : stick-slip dry friction * 3D friction characteristic * tangential contact stiffness * hysterezis loop * response curves Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  2. THE DIRT ON DRY MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Vandana; Soifer, B. T.; Dey, Arjun; Cohen, Emma; Le Floc'h, Emeric

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we analyze the mid-infrared (3-70 μm) spectral energy distributions of dry merger candidates in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. These candidates were selected by previous authors to be luminous, red, early-type galaxies with morphological evidence of recent tidal interactions. We find that a significant fraction of these candidates exhibit 8 and 24 μm excesses compared to expectations for old stellar populations. We estimate that a quarter of dry merger candidates have mid-infrared-derived star formation rates greater than ∼1 M sun yr -1 . This represents a 'frosting' on top of a large old stellar population, and has been seen in previous studies of elliptical galaxies. Further, the dry merger candidates include a higher fraction of star-forming galaxies relative to a control sample without tidal features. We therefore conclude that the star formation in these massive ellipticals is likely triggered by merger activity. Our data suggest that the mergers responsible for the observed tidal features were not completely dry, and may be minor mergers involving a gas-rich dwarf galaxy.

  3. DRY TRANSFER FACILITY SEISMIC ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EARNEST, S.; KO, H.; DOCKERY, W.; PERNISI, R.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to perform a dynamic and static analysis on the Dry Transfer Facility, and to determine the response spectra seismic forces for the design basis ground motions. The resulting seismic forces and accelerations will be used in a subsequent calculation to complete preliminary design of the concrete shear walls, diaphragms, and basemat

  4. Dry technologies and community bureaucracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation channels criss-cross the Andes, bringing water to the dry soils of the peasants' fields. To obtain water, people must deal not only with the amount of water and the physical terrain, but also with concerns of others and matters of the social terrain....

  5. Dry spent fuel storage licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturz, F.C.

    1995-01-01

    In the US, at-reactor-site dry spent fuel storage in independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSI) has become the principal option for utilities needing storage capacity outside of the reactor spent fuel pools. Delays in the geologic repository operational date at or beyond 2010, and the increasing uncertainty of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) being able to site and license a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility by 1998 make at-reactor-site dry storage of spent nuclear fuel increasingly desirable to utilities and DOE to meet the need for additional spent fuel storage capacity until disposal, in a repository, is available. The past year has been another busy year for dry spent fuel storage licensing. The licensing staff has been reviewing 7 applications and 12 amendment requests, as well as participating in inspection-related activities. The authors have licensed, on a site-specific basis, a variety of dry technologies (cask, module, and vault). By using certified designs, site-specific licensing is no longer required. Another new cask has been certified. They have received one new application for cask certification and two amendments to a certified cask design. As they stand on the brink of receiving multiple applications from DOE for the MPC, they are preparing to meet the needs of this national program. With the range of technical and licensing options available to utilities, the authors believe that utilities can meet their need for additional spent fuel storage capacity for essentially all reactor sites through the next decade

  6. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the

  7. Some Physics Inside Drying Droplets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 2. Some Physics Inside Drying Droplets. Dileep Mampallil. General Article Volume 19 Issue 2 February 2014 pp 123-134. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/02/0123-0134 ...

  8. Fluidization of Dried Wastewater Sludge.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Trnka, Otakar

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 178, 3 (2007) , s. 166-172 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fluidization characteristics * multiphase reactors * dried stabilized wastewater sludge Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.130, year: 2007

  9. Dry release of suspended nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsén, Esko Sebastian; Davis, Zachary James; Dong, M.

    2004-01-01

    , the technique enables long time storage and transportation of produced devices without the risk of stiction. By combining the dry release method with a plasma deposited anti-stiction coating both fabrication induced stiction, which is mainly caused by capillary forces originating from the dehydration...

  10. Flavour release from dried vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The research described in this thesis was focused on the development of an in vitro model system for isolation of volatile compounds from dried vegetables under mouth conditions, such as volume of the mouth, temperature, salivation and mastication. Instrumental analysis of these

  11. Cosmic shear measurement with maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alex; Taylor, Andy

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the problem of noise bias in maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori estimators for cosmic shear. We derive the leading and next-to-leading order biases and compute them in the context of galaxy ellipticity measurements, extending previous work on maximum likelihood inference for weak lensing. We show that a large part of the bias on these point estimators can be removed using information already contained in the likelihood when a galaxy model is specified, without the need for external calibration. We test these bias-corrected estimators on simulated galaxy images similar to those expected from planned space-based weak lensing surveys, with promising results. We find that the introduction of an intrinsic shape prior can help with mitigation of noise bias, such that the maximum a posteriori estimate can be made less biased than the maximum likelihood estimate. Second-order terms offer a check on the convergence of the estimators, but are largely subdominant. We show how biases propagate to shear estimates, demonstrating in our simple set-up that shear biases can be reduced by orders of magnitude and potentially to within the requirements of planned space-based surveys at mild signal-to-noise ratio. We find that second-order terms can exhibit significant cancellations at low signal-to-noise ratio when Gaussian noise is assumed, which has implications for inferring the performance of shear-measurement algorithms from simplified simulations. We discuss the viability of our point estimators as tools for lensing inference, arguing that they allow for the robust measurement of ellipticity and shear.

  12. Determination of drying characteristics and quality properties of eggplant in different drying conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Bayraktaroglu Urun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drying is the most traditional process used for preserving eggplant a long time. The aim of this study was to determining drying characteristics and quality properties of eggplant dried by sun drying, hot air convective drying and infrared assisted convective drying. Convective drying and infrared assisted convective were carried out in a convective dryer at three different temperatures(40°, 50°, 60°C and air velocity at 5 m/s.The increasing of temperatures during the drying of eggplant led to a significant reduction of the drying time. However loss of nutrition was observed in eggplant samples dried at higher temperature.The biggest change in colour parameters was observed in samples dried with sun drying.So it was thought that sun drying had a negative effect on quality properties of eggplant samples.

  13. Investigation of orography impact on extreme dry spells over Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, C.; Flocas, H.; Manola, I.; Hatzaki, M.; Asimakopoulos, D. N.

    2009-04-01

    Precipitation regime over Greece is controlled by the atmospheric circulation, orography sea surface temperature distribution and land/sea interaction. Previous studies have shown that the precipitation amounts are increased in Western Greece, which is located in the upstream side of the largest mountain range of the central mainland. Furthermore, the longest dry spells were identified in south eastern part of Greece during summer and in northern Greek area during winter. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of topography on prolonged dry periods over Greece, using the third generation hydrostatic Regional Climate Model RegCM3, which shows a noticeable improvement in the representation of the surface hydrological cycle in mountainous regions. More specifically, an attempt is made to study the distribution of prolonged dry spells during two seasons, summer of 1993 and winter of 1989, over the Greek area, under two different simulation scenarios: the first employs the real orography of the Greek area while in the second one the orography is eliminated, by transforming the models terrain code. Both simulation experiments were conducted with the high spatial resolution of 10 Km, while the MIT-Emanuel Convective Precipitation Scheme was selected for the computation of convective precipitation, as it offers more physical representation of convection compared to the other oldest schemes of RegCM. The model was firstly validated through comparisons of the model outputs with observed precipitation amount data, employing 20 stations over Greece for the two selected seasons. The validation demonstrated that the model can simulate precipitation amount quite well over the Greek area, except for the south Dodecanese Islands, where precipitation is underestimated, and the eastern continental Greece, where the daily precipitation is overestimated. For the identification of the extreme dry spells, the climatic index CDD (Maximum number of consecutive dry days

  14. A maximum likelihood framework for protein design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Hervé

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of protein design is to predict amino-acid sequences compatible with a given target structure. Traditionally envisioned as a purely thermodynamic question, this problem can also be understood in a wider context, where additional constraints are captured by learning the sequence patterns displayed by natural proteins of known conformation. In this latter perspective, however, we still need a theoretical formalization of the question, leading to general and efficient learning methods, and allowing for the selection of fast and accurate objective functions quantifying sequence/structure compatibility. Results We propose a formulation of the protein design problem in terms of model-based statistical inference. Our framework uses the maximum likelihood principle to optimize the unknown parameters of a statistical potential, which we call an inverse potential to contrast with classical potentials used for structure prediction. We propose an implementation based on Markov chain Monte Carlo, in which the likelihood is maximized by gradient descent and is numerically estimated by thermodynamic integration. The fit of the models is evaluated by cross-validation. We apply this to a simple pairwise contact potential, supplemented with a solvent-accessibility term, and show that the resulting models have a better predictive power than currently available pairwise potentials. Furthermore, the model comparison method presented here allows one to measure the relative contribution of each component of the potential, and to choose the optimal number of accessibility classes, which turns out to be much higher than classically considered. Conclusion Altogether, this reformulation makes it possible to test a wide diversity of models, using different forms of potentials, or accounting for other factors than just the constraint of thermodynamic stability. Ultimately, such model-based statistical analyses may help to understand the forces

  15. Evolution of mechanical properties and final textural properties of resorcinol-formaldehyde xerogels during ambient air drying

    OpenAIRE

    Léonard, Angélique; Blacher, Silvia; Crine, Michel; Jomaa, Wahbi

    2008-01-01

    Porous carbon xerogels can be obtained by convective drying of resorcinol (R)-formaldehyde (F) hydrogels, followed by pyrolysis. Drying conditions have to be carefully controlled when crack-free monoliths with well-defined shape and size are required. The knowledge of the mechanical properties of the RF xerogels and their evolution with water content is essential to model their thermo-hygro-mechanical behavior during convective drying and avoid mechanical stresses leading to deformation and c...

  16. Selenium-binding lactoferrin is taken into corneal epithelial cells by a receptor and prevents corneal damage in dry eye model animals

    OpenAIRE

    Akihiro Higuchi; Hiroyoshi Inoue; Yoshio Kaneko; Erina Oonishi; Kazuo Tsubota

    2016-01-01

    The ocular surface is strongly affected by oxidative stress, which causes many ocular diseases including dry eye. Previously, we showed that selenium compounds, e.g., selenoprotein P and Se-lactoferrin, were candidates for treatment of dry eye. This paper shows the efficacy of Se-lactoferrin for the treatment of dry eye compared with Diquas as a control drug using two dry eye models and incorporation of lactoferrin into corneal epithelial cells via lactoferrin receptors. We show the efficacy ...

  17. Empirical analysis of dry spells for agricultural applications in west Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumar, M.V.K.

    1992-01-01

    Recurring droughts and decreased agricultural productivity during the last two decades in West Africa point to the need for a clearer understanding of the length of dry spells, their frequencies, and their probabilities. The simplest calculations of dry spells for general applications involve computation of the probabilities of maximum and conditional dry spells exceeding a user-specified threshold value from a given calendar date. For more precise applications in agriculture, it is important to consider the different periods after sowing a crop, since sowing dates in the semiarid West African regions vary from year to year. Using the specific definition of onset of rains in each year as the sowing date, the length of dry spells was calculated from the historical rainfall data. Probability distribution of time to the next wet day and the percentage frequencies of dry spells were computed for successive days after sowing (DAS) a crop. Dry-spell analysis showed a pronounced drop in the drought risk for cereal crops from the panicle initiation phase (20 DAS) to the flowering phase (60 DAS). The relationships between mean annual rainfall and average frequency of dry spells for the selected locations in West Africa showed distinct patterns and permit the prediction of the frequency of dry spells from annual rainfall totals. Applications of the dry-spell analysis for the choice of a crop/variety, supplemental irrigation, and crop water requirements have been described with examples

  18. Study on effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage for drying cocoa beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Farah Dina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective is to assess effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage for drying cocoa beans. Two type of desiccants were tested, molecular sieve 13× (Na86 [(AlO286·(SiO2106]·264H2O as an adsorbent type and CaCl2 as an absorbent type. The results revealed that during sunshine hours, the maximum temperature within the drying chamber varied from 40 °C to 54 °C. In average, it was 9–12 °C higher than ambient temperature. These temperatures are very suitable for drying cocoa beans. During off-sunshine hours, humidity of air inside the drying chamber was lower than ambient because of the desiccant thermal storage. Drying times for intermittent directs sun drying, solar dryer integrated with adsorbent, and solar dryer integrated with absorbent were 55 h, 41 h, and 30 h, respectively. Specific energy consumptions for direct sun drying, solar dryer integrated with adsorbent, and solar dryer integrated with absorber were 60.4 MJ/kg moist, 18.94 MJ/kg moist, and 13.29 MJ/kg moist, respectively. The main conclusion can be drawn here is that a solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage makes drying using solar energy more effective in term of drying time and specific energy consumption.

  19. Modelling and experimental validation of thin layer indirect solar drying of mango slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dissa, A.O.; Bathiebo, J.; Kam, S.; Koulidiati, J. [Laboratoire de Physique et de Chimie de l' Environnement (LPCE), Unite de Formation et de Recherche en Sciences Exactes et Appliquee (UFR/SEA), Universite de Ouagadougou, Avenue Charles de Gaulle, BP 7021 Kadiogo (Burkina Faso); Savadogo, P.W. [Laboratoire Sol Eau Plante, Institut de l' Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles, 01 BP 476, Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso); Desmorieux, H. [Laboratoire d' Automatisme et de Genie des Procedes (LAGEP), UCBL1-CNRS UMR 5007-CPE Lyon, Bat.308G, 43 bd du 11 Nov. 1918 Villeurbanne, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon1, Lyon (France)

    2009-04-15

    The thin layer solar drying of mango slices of 8 mm thick was simulated and experimented using a solar dryer designed and constructed in laboratory. Under meteorological conditions of harvest period of mangoes, the results showed that 3 'typical days' of drying were necessary to reach the range of preservation water contents. During these 3 days of solar drying, 50%, 40% and 5% of unbound water were eliminated, respectively, at the first, second and the third day. The final water content obtained was about 16 {+-} 1.33% d.b. (13.79% w.b.). This final water content and the corresponding water activity (0.6 {+-} 0.02) were in accordance with previous work. The drying rates with correction for shrinkage and the critical water content were experimentally determined. The critical water content was close to 70% of the initial water content and the drying rates were reduced almost at 6% of their maximum value at night. The thin layer drying model made it possible to simulate suitably the solar drying kinetics of mango slices with a correlation coefficient of r{sup 2} = 0.990. This study thus contributed to the setting of solar drying time of mango and to the establishment of solar drying rates' curves of this fruit. (author)

  20. Impact of drying methods and extraction solvents on the steroidal saponians content of tibullus terresteris grown in the peshawar valley of khyberpakhtunkhwa, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, M.; Khattak, M.K.; Rehman, M.U.; Ramzan, M.; Ali, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    The experiments were conducted to see the impact of drying methods and extraction solvents on the yield of steroidal saponins of Tribulus terrestris. The plant was dried by three different drying methods namely, solar collector drying, open sun drying and shade drying. After drying different levels (25-100%) of extracting solvent in the form of ethanol, methanol and distilled water were used for extraction. Soxhlet apparatus was used for extraction, while the gas chromatography apparatus was used in the experiment for detecting steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris. After extraction, four saponins identified were Tigogenin, Gitogenin, Hecogenin and Neohecogenin. The maximum yield of 61.2% was recorded for flat plate solar drying with 75% ethanol solution, followed 49.5% in shade drying with the same extraction solvent level. The lowest value of 3.1% yield was recorded for distilled water with open sun drying method. It was concluded that Both the drying methods and extraction solvent have a direct effect on the yield of steroidal saponins extracted from Tribulus terrestris. A maximum yield of almost 60% saponins may be achieved, if Tribulus terrestris is dried using a flat plate solar collector and extorted with 75% ethanol solution using GC-MS technique. Open sun drying minimizes saponins in Tribulus terrestris, while distilled water is the worse extracting solvent for extraction of steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris. (author)

  1. A bioencapsulation and drying method increases shelf life and efficacy of Metarhizium brunneum conidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyklenk, Michael; Vemmer, Marina; Hanitzsch, Miriam; Patel, Anant

    2017-08-01

    This study reports the development of encapsulated and dried entomopathogenic fungus Metarhiuzm brunneum with reduced conidia content, increased conidiation, a high drying survival and enhanced shelf life. Dried beads prepared with the fillers corn starch, potato starch, carboxymethylcellulose or autoclaved baker's yeast, showed enhanced survival with increasing filler content. The maximum survival of 82% was found for beads with 20% corn starch at shelf life compared to non-formulated conidia. This "microfermenter" will pave the way for encapsulated fungi to be used as cost-effective biocontrol agents.

  2. Developing Soil Moisture Profiles Utilizing Remotely Sensed MW and TIR Based SM Estimates Through Principle of Maximum Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, V.; Cruise, J. F.; Mecikalski, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Developing accurate vertical soil moisture profiles with minimum input requirements is important to agricultural as well as land surface modeling. Earlier studies show that the principle of maximum entropy (POME) can be utilized to develop vertical soil moisture profiles with accuracy (MAE of about 1% for a monotonically dry profile; nearly 2% for monotonically wet profiles and 3.8% for mixed profiles) with minimum constraints (surface, mean and bottom soil moisture contents). In this study, the constraints for the vertical soil moisture profiles were obtained from remotely sensed data. Low resolution (25 km) MW soil moisture estimates (AMSR-E) were downscaled to 4 km using a soil evaporation efficiency index based disaggregation approach. The downscaled MW soil moisture estimates served as a surface boundary condition, while 4 km resolution TIR based Atmospheric Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) estimates provided the required mean root-zone soil moisture content. Bottom soil moisture content is assumed to be a soil dependent constant. Mulit-year (2002-2011) gridded profiles were developed for the southeastern United States using the POME method. The soil moisture profiles were compared to those generated in land surface models (Land Information System (LIS) and an agricultural model DSSAT) along with available NRCS SCAN sites in the study region. The end product, spatial soil moisture profiles, can be assimilated into agricultural and hydrologic models in lieu of precipitation for data scarce regions.Developing accurate vertical soil moisture profiles with minimum input requirements is important to agricultural as well as land surface modeling. Previous studies have shown that the principle of maximum entropy (POME) can be utilized with minimal constraints to develop vertical soil moisture profiles with accuracy (MAE = 1% for monotonically dry profiles; MAE = 2% for monotonically wet profiles and MAE = 3.8% for mixed profiles) when compared to laboratory and field

  3. Thermal stress and seismogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Huilan; Wei Dongping

    1989-05-01

    In this paper, the Fourier stress method was applied to deal with the problem of plane thermal stress, and a computing formula was given. As an example, we set up a variate temperature field to describe the uplifted upper mantle in Bozhong area of China, and the computing results shows that the maximum value of thermal plane shear stress is up to nearly 7x10 7 P α in two regions of this area. Since the Bohai earthquake (18 July, 1969, M s = 7.4) occurred at the edge of one of them and Tangshan earthquake (28 July, 1976, M s = 7.8) within another, their occurrences can be related reasonably to the thermal stress. (author). 15 refs, 7 figs

  4. Estimativas de repetibilidade para caracteres forrageiros em Panicum maximum Repeatability estimates for forage characters in Panicum maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José da Silva Lédo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetiva-se com este trabalho estimar a repetibilidade para caracteres forrageiros de Panicum, e determinar o número de cortes de avaliação necessários para a seleção de genótipos de Panicum, com confiabilidade. Utilizaram-se os dados de um ensaio conduzido no período de 21/11/2002 a 08/04/2005, no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Gado de Leite, localizado em Valença-RJ, onde foram realizados 15 cortes de avaliação. No ensaio, foram avaliados 23 genótipos de Panicum maximum, em parcelas experimentais, dispostas no delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Foram estimados os coeficientes de repetibilidade para as características produção de matéria verde de forragem (PMV; produção de matéria seca de forragem (PMS e de folhas (PMSF; porcentagem de folhas na PMS (%FOL e altura da planta (AP, utilizando os métodos da análise de variância, componentes principais e análise estrutural. Para todas as características avaliadas os efeitos de genótipos, cortes e interação genótipos x cortes foram significativos (PThe objective of this work was to estimate the repeatability for forage characters of Panicum and to determinate the necessary number of evaluation cuts to select Panicum genotypes with confidence. Data of a trial with 15 cuts, carried out between 21/11/2002 and 08/04/2005 in the experimental station of Embrapa Gado de Leite located in Valença, RJ, Brazil, were used. In this study. 23 genotypes of " Panicum maximum" were evaluated, in a complete randomized block, with three replications. The coefficient of repeatability for fresh forage production (PMV, total plant dry matter production (PMS and leaves dry matter production (PMSF were recorded along with leaves percentage in PMS (%FOL and plant hight (AP, using the variance analysis, main components and structural analysis methods. For all evaluated parameters the effects of genotype, cut and genotype x cut interaction were significant (P<0.01. When

  5. Spent fuel behaviour during dry storage - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivakumar, V.; Anantharaman, K.

    1997-09-01

    One of the strategies employed for management of spent fuel prior to their final disposal/reprocessing is their dry storage in casks, after they have been sufficiently cooled in spent fuel pools. In this interim storage, one of the main consideration is that the fuel should retain its integrity to ensure (a) radiological health hazard remains minimal and (b) the fuel is retrievable for down steam fuel management processes such as geological disposal or reprocessing. For dry storage of spent fuel in air, oxidation of the exposed UO 2 is the most severe of phenomena affecting the integrity of fuel. This is kept within acceptable limits for desired storage time by limiting the fuel temperature in the storage cask. The limit on the fuel temperature is met by having suitable limits on maximum burn-up of fuel, minimum cooling period in storage pool and optimum arrangement of fuel bundles in the storage cask from heat removal considerations. The oxidation of UO 2 by moist air has more deleterious effects on the integrity of fuel than that by dry air. The removal of moisture from the storage cask is therefore a very important aspect in dry storage practice. The kinetics of the oxidation phenomena at temperatures expected during dry storage in air is very slow and therefore the majority of the existing data is based on extrapolation of data obtained at higher fuel temperatures. This and the complex effects of factors like fission products in fuel, radiolysis of storage medium etc. has necessitated in having a conservative limiting criteria. The data generated by various experimental programmes and results from the on going programmes have shown that dry storage is a safe and economical practice. (author)

  6. Solar Drying in Hot and Dry Climate of Jaipur

    OpenAIRE

    Parikh, Darshit; Agrawal, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective of the present study was to design, develop and to carry out detail experimentation and then analyze solar cabinet dryer. For these various types of solar dryer, their principles and design methods, modeling, drying temperature, efficiency, utilization of dryer and payback period were reviewed. In the present study, solar cabinet dryer is constructed at Mechanical Engineering Department, M.N.I.T, Jaipur, latitude (26.01° N). The measurement of solar intensity, temperatures, relative...

  7. The mechanical properties of dry, electrospun fibrinogen fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Stephen; Sigley, Justin; Helms, Christine C.; Stitzel, Joel; Berry, Joel; Bonin, Keith; Guthold, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Due to their low immunogenicity, biodegradability and native cell-binding domains, fibrinogen fibers may be good candidates for tissue engineering scaffolds, drug delivery vehicles and other medical devices. We used a combined atomic force microscope (AFM)/optical microscope technique to study the mechanical properties of individual, electrospun fibrinogen fibers in dry, ambient conditions. The AFM was used to stretch individual fibers suspended over 13.5 μm wide grooves in a transparent substrate. The optical microscope, located below the sample, was used to monitor the stretching process. Electrospun fibrinogen fibers (diameter, 30–200 nm) can stretch to 74% beyond their original length before rupturing at a stress of 2.1 GPa. They can stretch elastically up to 15% beyond their original length. Using incremental stress–strain curves the viscoelastic behavior of these fibers was determined. The total stretch modulus was 4.2 GPa while the relaxed elastic modulus was 3.7 GPa. When held at constant strain, fibrinogen fibers display stress relaxation with a fast and slow relaxation time of 1.2 s and 11 s. In comparison to native and electrospun collagen fibers, dry electrospun fibrinogen fibers are significantly more extensible and elastic. In comparison to wet electrospun fibrinogen fibers, dry fibers are about 1000 times stiffer. - Highlights: ► Fabricated dry, electrospun, fibrinogen fibers; average diameter, D avg. = 95 nm. ► Determined mechanical properties with combined atomic force/optical microscope. ► Fibers are very extensible (ε max = 74%) and elastic (ε elastic = 15%). ► Fiber total modulus, E tot. = 4.2 GPa; elastic modulus, E el. = 3.7 GPa. ► Fiber stress relaxation times: τ 1 = 1.2 s and τ 2 = 11 s.

  8. Maximum entropy production rate in quantum thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beretta, Gian Paolo, E-mail: beretta@ing.unibs.i [Universita di Brescia, via Branze 38, 25123 Brescia (Italy)

    2010-06-01

    In the framework of the recent quest for well-behaved nonlinear extensions of the traditional Schroedinger-von Neumann unitary dynamics that could provide fundamental explanations of recent experimental evidence of loss of quantum coherence at the microscopic level, a recent paper [Gheorghiu-Svirschevski 2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 054102] reproposes the nonlinear equation of motion proposed by the present author [see Beretta G P 1987 Found. Phys. 17 365 and references therein] for quantum (thermo)dynamics of a single isolated indivisible constituent system, such as a single particle, qubit, qudit, spin or atomic system, or a Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac field. As already proved, such nonlinear dynamics entails a fundamental unifying microscopic proof and extension of Onsager's reciprocity and Callen's fluctuation-dissipation relations to all nonequilibrium states, close and far from thermodynamic equilibrium. In this paper we propose a brief but self-contained review of the main results already proved, including the explicit geometrical construction of the equation of motion from the steepest-entropy-ascent ansatz and its exact mathematical and conceptual equivalence with the maximal-entropy-generation variational-principle formulation presented in Gheorghiu-Svirschevski S 2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 022105. Moreover, we show how it can be extended to the case of a composite system to obtain the general form of the equation of motion, consistent with the demanding requirements of strong separability and of compatibility with general thermodynamics principles. The irreversible term in the equation of motion describes the spontaneous attraction of the state operator in the direction of steepest entropy ascent, thus implementing the maximum entropy production principle in quantum theory. The time rate at which the path of steepest entropy ascent is followed has so far been left unspecified. As a step towards the identification of such rate, here we propose a possible

  9. Investigating the Effect of Drought Stress on Growth and distribution of Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Karimi Arpanahi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drought is one of the most important and common environmental stresses in the country, which affect different stages of plant growth and development. Drought can affect plants growth in various ways, thereby reduces and delays germination, and decreases shoot growth and dry matter production. In the case of high water stress, it results showed great reductions in photosynthesis and disruption of the physiological processes, as well as growth stop and eventually plant death.Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L. has been listed as the world’s worst weed based onits worldwide distribution (92 countries and interference with over 50 crops. It causes high yield losses in fruiting vegetables and cucurbits in eastern and southeastern parts of Iran, where drought stress is a common phenomenon. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to understand the response of this noxious weed species to drought stress. Materials and Methods: In order to study the effect of drought stress on growth and distribution of purple nutsedge, two separate experiments were carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replications in the Research Greenhouse at Birjand University in 2013. The first experiment consisted of 6 irrigation interval levels (3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18- day irrigation intervals and the second one were 5 irrigation levels based on field capacity (12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % FC. Results and Discussion: ANOVA results of both experiments showed that all growth characteristics of purple nutsedge were affected by drought stress. The results of irrigation interval stress experiment showed that the maximum height (76 cm, leaf area (110.83 cm2, stem number (4.66 stemperpot, shoot dry weight (4.132 gr per plant, tuber number (7.66 tuber per pot and total underground organs dry weight (4.435 gr per plant were observed in 3- day irrigation interval. Also, the lowest amount of these characteristics was obtained in 18- day irrigation interval

  10. Nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells having maximum performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroon, M.; Bakker, N.J.; Smit, H.J.P. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Liska, P.; Thampi, K.R.; Wang, P.; Zakeeruddin, S.M.; Graetzel, M. [LPI-ISIC, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, Station 6, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Hinsch, A. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr.2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Hore, S.; Wuerfel, U.; Sastrawan, R. [Freiburg Materials Research Centre FMF, Stefan-Meier Str. 21, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Durrant, J.R.; Palomares, E. [Centre for Electronic Materials and Devices, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, Exhibition road SW7 2AY (United Kingdom); Pettersson, H.; Gruszecki, T. [IVF Industrial Research and Development Corporation, Argongatan 30, SE-431 53 Moelndal (Sweden); Walter, J.; Skupien, K. [Cracow University of Technology CUTECH, Jana Pawla II 37, 31-864 Cracow (Poland); Tulloch, G.E. [Greatcell Solar SA GSA, Ave Henry-Warnery 4, 1006 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-01-15

    This paper presents an overview of the research carried out by a European consortium with the aim to develop and test new and improved ways to realise dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) with enhanced efficiencies and stabilities. Several new areas have been explored in the field of new concepts and materials, fabrication protocols for TiO2 and scatterlayers, metal oxide blocking layers, strategies for co-sensitization and low temperature processes of platinum deposition. Fundamental understanding of the working principles has been gained by means of electrical and optical modelling and advanced characterization techniques. Cost analyses have been made to demonstrate the potential of DSC as a low cost thin film PV technology. The combined efforts have led to maximum non-certified power conversion efficiencies under full sunlight of 11% for areas <0c2 cm{sup 2} and 10c1% for a cell with an active area of 1c3 cm{sup 2}. Lifetime studies revealed negligible device degradation after 1000 hrs of accelerated tests under thermal stress at 80C in the dark and visible light soaking at 60C. An outlook summarizing future directions in the research and large-scale production of DSC is presented.

  11. Optimal control of algae growth by controlling CO 2 and nutrition flow using Pontryagin Maximum Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardlijah; Jamil, Ahmad; Hanafi, Lukman; Sanjaya, Suharmadi

    2017-09-01

    There are so many benefit of algae. One of them is using for renewable energy and sustainable in the future. The greater growth of algae will increasing biodiesel production and the increase of algae growth is influenced by glucose, nutrients and photosynthesis process. In this paper, the optimal control problem of the growth of algae is discussed. The objective function is to maximize the concentration of dry algae while the control is the flow of carbon dioxide and the nutrition. The solution is obtained by applying the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. and the result show that the concentration of algae increased more than 15 %.

  12. Determination of the maximum-depth to potential field sources by a maximum structural index method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedi, M.; Florio, G.

    2013-01-01

    A simple and fast determination of the limiting depth to the sources may represent a significant help to the data interpretation. To this end we explore the possibility of determining those source parameters shared by all the classes of models fitting the data. One approach is to determine the maximum depth-to-source compatible with the measured data, by using for example the well-known Bott-Smith rules. These rules involve only the knowledge of the field and its horizontal gradient maxima, and are independent from the density contrast. Thanks to the direct relationship between structural index and depth to sources we work out a simple and fast strategy to obtain the maximum depth by using the semi-automated methods, such as Euler deconvolution or depth-from-extreme-points method (DEXP). The proposed method consists in estimating the maximum depth as the one obtained for the highest allowable value of the structural index (Nmax). Nmax may be easily determined, since it depends only on the dimensionality of the problem (2D/3D) and on the nature of the analyzed field (e.g., gravity field or magnetic field). We tested our approach on synthetic models against the results obtained by the classical Bott-Smith formulas and the results are in fact very similar, confirming the validity of this method. However, while Bott-Smith formulas are restricted to the gravity field only, our method is applicable also to the magnetic field and to any derivative of the gravity and magnetic field. Our method yields a useful criterion to assess the source model based on the (∂f/∂x)max/fmax ratio. The usefulness of the method in real cases is demonstrated for a salt wall in the Mississippi basin, where the estimation of the maximum depth agrees with the seismic information.

  13. Ultraviolet-B and water stress effects on growth, gas exchange and oxidative stress in sunflower plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cechin, Inês; Corniani, Natália; de Fátima Fumis, Terezinha; Cataneo, Ana Catarina

    2008-07-01

    The effects and interaction of drought and UV-B radiation were studied in sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L. var. Catissol-01), growing in a greenhouse under natural photoperiod conditions. The plants received approximately 1.7 W m(-2) (controls) or 8.6 W m(-2) (+UV-B) of UV-B radiation for 7 h per day. The UV-B and water stress treatments started 18 days after sowing. After a period of 12 days of stress, half of the water-stressed plants (including both UV-B irradiated or non-irradiated) were rehydrated. Both drought and UV-B radiation treatments resulted in lower shoot dry matter per plant, but there was no significant interaction between the two treatments. Water stress and UV-B radiation reduced photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration. However, the amplitude of the effects of both stressors was dependent on the interactions. This resulted in alleviation of the negative effect of drought on photosynthesis and transpiration by UV-B radiation as the water stress intensified. Intercelluar CO(2) concentration was initially reduced in all treatments compared to control plants but it increased with time. Photosynthetic pigments were not affected by UV-B radiation. Water stress reduced photosynthetic pigments only under high UV-B radiation. The decrease was more accentuated for chlorophyll a than for chlorophyll b. As a measure for the maximum efficiency of photosystem II in darkness F (v)/F (m) was used, which was not affected by drought stress but initially reduced by UV-B radiation. Independent of water supply, UV-B radiation increased the activity of pirogalol peroxidase and did not increase the level of malondialdehyde. On the other hand, water stress did not alter the activity of pirogalol peroxidase and caused membrane damage as assessed by lipid peroxidation. The application of UV-B radiation together with drought seemed to have a protective effect by lowering the intensity of lipid peroxidation caused by water stress. The content of proline

  14. Weighted Maximum-Clique Transversal Sets of Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Chuan-Min Lee

    2011-01-01

    A maximum-clique transversal set of a graph G is a subset of vertices intersecting all maximum cliques of G. The maximum-clique transversal set problem is to find a maximum-clique transversal set of G of minimum cardinality. Motivated by the placement of transmitters for cellular telephones, Chang, Kloks, and Lee introduced the concept of maximum-clique transversal sets on graphs in 2001. In this paper, we study the weighted version of the maximum-clique transversal set problem for split grap...

  15. Pattern formation, logistics, and maximum path probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkaldy, J. S.

    1985-05-01

    The concept of pattern formation, which to current researchers is a synonym for self-organization, carries the connotation of deductive logic together with the process of spontaneous inference. Defining a pattern as an equivalence relation on a set of thermodynamic objects, we establish that a large class of irreversible pattern-forming systems, evolving along idealized quasisteady paths, approaches the stable steady state as a mapping upon the formal deductive imperatives of a propositional function calculus. In the preamble the classical reversible thermodynamics of composite systems is analyzed as an externally manipulated system of space partitioning and classification based on ideal enclosures and diaphragms. The diaphragms have discrete classification capabilities which are designated in relation to conserved quantities by descriptors such as impervious, diathermal, and adiabatic. Differentiability in the continuum thermodynamic calculus is invoked as equivalent to analyticity and consistency in the underlying class or sentential calculus. The seat of inference, however, rests with the thermodynamicist. In the transition to an irreversible pattern-forming system the defined nature of the composite reservoirs remains, but a given diaphragm is replaced by a pattern-forming system which by its nature is a spontaneously evolving volume partitioner and classifier of invariants. The seat of volition or inference for the classification system is thus transferred from the experimenter or theoretician to the diaphragm, and with it the full deductive facility. The equivalence relations or partitions associated with the emerging patterns may thus be associated with theorems of the natural pattern-forming calculus. The entropy function, together with its derivatives, is the vehicle which relates the logistics of reservoirs and diaphragms to the analog logistics of the continuum. Maximum path probability or second-order differentiability of the entropy in isolation are

  16. Dry storage of Magnox fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This work, commissioned by the CEGB, studies the feasibility of a combination of short-term pond storage and long-term dry storage of Magnox spent fuel as a cheaper alternative to reprocessing. Storage would be either at the reactor site or a central site. Two designs are considered, based on existing design work done by GEC-ESL and NNC; the capsule design developed by NNC and with storage in passive vaults for up to 100 yrs and the GEC-ESL tube design developed at Wylfa for the interim storage of LWR. For the long-term storage of Magnox spent fuel the GEC-ESL tubed vault all-dry storage method is recommended and specifications for this method are given. (U.K.)

  17. The effect of stress state on zirconium hydride reorientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinbiz, Mahmut Nedim

    correlating the finite element stress-state results with the spatial distribution of hydride microstructures observed within the optical micrographs for each sample. Experiments showed that the hydride reorientation was enhanced as the stress biaxiality increased. The threshold stress decreased from 150 MPa to 80 MPa when stress biaxiality ratio increased from uniaxial tension to near-equibiaxial tension. This behavior was also predicted by classical nucleation theory based on the Gibbs free energy of transformation being assisted by the far-field stress. An analysis of in situ X-ray diffraction data obtained during a thermo-mechanical cycle typical of vacuum drying showed a complex lattice-spacing behavior of the hydride phase during the dissolution and precipitation. The in-plane hydrides showed bilinear lattice expansion during heating with the intrinsic thermal expansion rate of the hydrides being observed only at elevated temperatures as they dissolve. For radial hydrides that precipitate during cooling under stress, the spacing of the close-packed {111} planes oriented normal to the maximum applied stress was permanently higher than the corresponding {111} plane spacing in the other directions. This behavior is believed to be a result of a complex stress state within the precipitating plate-like hydrides that induces a strain component within the hydrides normal to its "plate" face (i.e., the applied stress direction) that exceeds the lattice spacing strains in the other directions. During heat-up, the lattice spacing of these same "plate" planes actually contract due to the reversion of the stress state within the plate-like hydrides as they dissolve. The presence of radial hydrides and their connectivity with in-plane hydrides was shown to increase the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature during tensile testing. This behavior can be understood in terms of the role of radial hydrides in promoting the initiation of a long crack that subsequently propagates under

  18. Maximizing Lipid Yield in Neochloris oleoabundans Algae Extraction by Stressing and Using Multiple Extraction Stages with N-Ethylbutylamine as Switchable Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The extraction yield of lipids from nonbroken Neochloris oleoabundans was maximized by using multiple extraction stages and using stressed algae. Experimental parameters that affect the extraction were investigated. The study showed that with wet algae (at least) 18 h extraction time was required for maximum yield at room temperature and a solvent/feed ratio of 1:1 (w/w). For fresh water (FW), nonstressed, nonbroken Neochloris oleoabundans, 13.1 wt % of lipid extraction yield (based on dry algae mass) was achieved, which could be improved to 61.3 wt % for FW stressed algae after four extractions, illustrating that a combination of stressing the algae and applying the solvent N-ethylbutylamine in multiple stages of extraction results in almost 5 times higher yield and is very promising for further development of energy-efficient lipid extraction technology targeting nonbroken wet microalgae. PMID:28781427

  19. Accelerated dry curing of hams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, N G; Kelly, R F; Shaffer, C K; Graham, P P; Boling, J W

    1985-01-01

    Uncured pork legs from the right side of 18 carcasses were treated with a Ross Tenderizer and the left side were controls. All 36 samples were dry-cured for 40, 56 or 70 days and evaluated for appearance traits, cure penetration characteristics, microbial load, Kramer Shear force and taste attributes. The tenderization treatment had no effect (P > 0·05) on visual color or cure penetration rate, weight loss before curing, percentage moisture, nitrate level, nitrite level, total plate count, anaerobic counts, psychrotrophic counts, objective and subjective tenderness measurements or juiciness. However, the higher values of salt suggested a possible acceleration of the dry cure penetration process among the tenderized samples. Cure time had no effect (P > 0·05) on percentage moisture, percentage salt, nitrate content, nitrite content, shear force and juiciness. Results suggest a limited effect of the mechanical tenderization process on certain traits related to dry curing and that total process time should be at least 70 days if color stability during cooking is desired. Copyright © 1985. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Equipment selection for atmospheric drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, P D; Bhattacharyya, S [Nuclear Power Corporation, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Heavy water management is a major factor in deciding the economics of the PHWRs. Hence it is necessary to have an efficient recovery system, for the heavy water vapour escaping from various process systems and maintain a dry atmosphere in the recovery areas. While the basic objective of the atmospheric drying system is to maximize recovery and to minimize stack losses, it is equally important to optimally design the system with due consideration to operational and maintenance aspects. At present, heavy water vapour recovery in the existing Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) is carried out by dryers of dual fixed bed design. While moving bed design could have some advantages, this has not been adopted so far because of the cumbersome mechanical design involved and special requirements for nuclear application. Developmental work done in this direction has resulted in compact alternative designs. In one of the designs, the change over from adsorption to regeneration is achieved by rotating the bed slowly. This concept is further refined in another alternative using a dessicant wheel. This paper contains brief equipment description of different designs; enumerates the design requirements of an atmospheric drying system for reactor building; describes steps for designing fixed bed type D{sub 2}O vapour recovery system, and highlights advances in dryer technology. (author). 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 ill.

  1. Corrosion assessment of dry fuel storage containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, C.E.

    1994-09-01

    The structural stability as a function of expected corrosion degradation of 75 dry fuel storage containers located in the 200 Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds was evaluated. These containers include 22 concrete burial containers, 13 55-gal (208-l) drums, and 40 Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) transport/storage casks. All containers are buried beneath at least 48 in. of soil and a heavy plastic tarp with the exception of 35 of the EBR-II casks which are exposed to atmosphere. A literature review revealed that little general corrosion is expected and pitting corrosion of the carbon steel used as the exterior shell for all containers (with the exception of the concrete containers) will occur at a maximum rate of 3.5 mil/yr. Penetration from pitting of the exterior shell of the 208-l drums and EBR-II casks is calculated to occur after 18 and 71 years of burial, respectively. The internal construction beneath the shell would be expected to preclude containment breach, however, for the drums and casks. The estimates for structural failure of the external shells, large-scale shell deterioration due to corrosion, are considerably longer, 39 and 150 years respectively for the drums and casks. The concrete burial containers are expected to withstand a service life of 50 years.

  2. TSH IRMA of dried blood spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tojinda, N.; Pattanachak, C.; Chongchirasiri, S.; Pattanachak, S.; Putrasreni, N.; Pleehachinda, R.; Suwanik, R.

    1990-01-01

    TSH determination is most useful for screening of neonatal hypothyroid in the population in iodine deficient areas. The NETRIA IRMA method for serum TSH was applied for blood-spot TSH. Cord blood on SS No. 903 filter paper was left dry overnight. The spot of 6 mm diameter, one/tube, was mixed with an assay buffer, diluted labelled m-anti-TSH, and diluted anti-TSH-solid phase. The mixture was rotated for 22-24 hours. After washing twice with wash buffer, it was counted for 1 minute. The standard curve with 0, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 150 mIU/L whole blood was obtained with the maximum binding of 25%. The precision profile was satisfactory with %CV of 0 C) or 4 0 C or -20 0 C. The correlation between serum and blood-spot TSH values (n=120) showed r of 0.9541 and y=1.6123 (BS-TSH) +1.382. The mean of normal cord blood spot TSH (n=142) was 5.27 mIU/L. The technique was found to be precise, sensitive and easy to perform. Mass screening with this developed method is underway

  3. FRAPCON analysis of cladding performance during dry storage operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Richmond

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need in the United States and around the world to move used nuclear fuel from wet storage in fuel pools to dry storage in casks stored at independent spent fuel storage installations or interim storage sites. Under normal conditions, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission limits cladding temperature to 400°C for high-burnup (>45 GWd/mtU fuel, with higher temperatures allowed for low-burnup fuel. An analysis was conducted with FRAPCON-4.0 on three modern fuel designs with three representative used nuclear fuel storage temperature profiles that peaked at 400°C. Results were representative of the majority of US light water reactor fuel. They conservatively showed that hoop stress remains below 90 MPa at the licensing temperature limit. Results also show that the limiting case for hoop stress may not be at the highest rod internal pressure in all cases but will be related to the axial temperature and oxidation profiles of the rods at the end of life and in storage. Keywords: Dry Storage, FRAPCON, Fuel Performance, Radial Hydride Reorientation, Vacuum Drying

  4. Dehydrin expression in seeds and maturation drying: a paradigm change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, A; Hara, M; Kleinwächter, M; Selmar, D

    2014-09-01

    Dehydrins are well known for being expressed in leaves during the course of developmental processes as well as under drought stress, being part of the protective machinery. Moreover, in seed physiology, dehydrins are classified as late embryogenesis-related proteins (LEA protein), where they are thought to be responsible for persistence and longevity of seeds. Although both topics are a focus of modern plant biology, a direct linkage between these both areas is generally lacking. Based on an alignment of the chain of events, this paper will help to generate understanding that the occurrence of dehydrins in maturing seeds and leaves suffering drought stress is part of the same basic principle: basic principle: dehydrins are expressed in response to water shortage. Unfortunately, the related developmental process in seeds, i.e. maturation drying, has not been adequately considered as a part of this process. As a corresponding implication, the chain of events must be adjusted: the differences in dehydrin expression in orthodox, intermediate and recalcitrant seeds could be directly attributed to the occurrence or absence of maturation drying. The differences in dehydrin expression in orthodox, intermediate and recalcitrant seeds, and thus the differences in longevity, could be attributed to the occurrence or absence of a maturation drying. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. Accurate modeling and maximum power point detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accurate modeling and maximum power point detection of photovoltaic ... Determination of MPP enables the PV system to deliver maximum available power. ..... adaptive artificial neural network: Proposition for a new sizing procedure.

  6. Maximum power per VA control of vector controlled interior ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thakur Sumeet Singh

    2018-04-11

    Apr 11, 2018 ... Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New ... The MPVA operation allows maximum-utilization of the drive-system. ... Permanent magnet motor; unity power factor; maximum VA utilization; ...

  7. Electron density distribution in Si and Ge using multipole, maximum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Si and Ge has been studied using multipole, maximum entropy method (MEM) and ... and electron density distribution using the currently available versatile ..... data should be subjected to maximum possible utility for the characterization of.

  8. The subtle attractions of dry vault storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ealing, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    Utilities in the United States of America, Scotland and Hungary have all adopted dry vault technology in their plans for spent fuel storage. This article looks at what makes dry storage an attractive option. (author)

  9. Herbal dryer: drying of ginger (zingiber officinale) using tray dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, B.; Hasibuan, R.; Alexander; Ashari, M.; Ridha, M.

    2018-02-01

    Drying is widely used as a method to preserve food because of its convenience and affordability. Drying of ginger using tray dryer were carried out at various drying conditions, such as air-drying flow, air-drying temperature, and sample dimensions, to achieve the highest drying rate. Samples with various dimensions were placed in the tray dryer and dried using various air-drying flow and temperatures. The weights of samples were observed every 3 minutes interval. Drying was stopped after three times of constant weighing. Data of drying was collected to make the drying curves. Drying curves show that the highest drying rate is achieved using highest air flow and temperature.

  10. Testing a Mars science outpost in the Antarctic dry valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, D. T.; Mckay, C. P.; Wharton, R. A.; Rummel, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Field research conducted in the Antarctic has been providing insights about the nature of Mars in the science disciplines of exobiology and geology. Located in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of southern Victoria Land (160 deg and 164 deg E longitude and 76 deg 30 min and 78 deg 30 min S latitude), research outposts are inhabited by teams of 4-6 scientists. It is proposed that the design of these outposts be expanded to enable meaningful tests of many of the systems that will be needed for the successful conduct of exploration activities on Mars. Although there are some important differences between the environment in the Antarctic dry valleys and on Mars, the many similarities and particularly the field science activities, make the dry valleys a useful terrestrial analog to conditions on Mars. Three areas have been identified for testing at a small science outpost in the dry valleys: (1) studying human factors and physiology in an isolated environment; (2) testing emerging technologies (e.g. innovative power management systems, advanced life support facilities including partial bioregenerative life support systems for water recycling and food growth, telerobotics, etc.); and (3) conducting basic scientific research that will enhance understanding of Mars while contributing to the planning for human exploration. It is suggested that an important early result of a Mars habitat program will be the experience gained by interfacing humans and their supporting technology in a remote and stressful environment.

  11. Infrared Drying as a Quick Preparation Method for Dried Tangerine Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To establish the most convenient and effective method to dry tangerine peels, different methods (sun drying, hot-air drying, freeze drying, vacuum drying, and medium- and short-wave infrared drying were exploited. Our results indicated that medium- and short-wave infrared drying was the best method to preserve nutraceutical components; for example, vitamin C was raised to 6.77 mg/g (D.W. from 3.39 mg/g (sun drying. Moreover, the drying time can be shortened above 96% compared with sun drying. Importantly, the efficiency of DPPH radical scavenging was enhanced from 26.66% to 55.92%. These findings would provide a reliable and time-saving methodology to produce high-quality dried tangerine peels.

  12. Accelerating oak air drying by presurfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. T. Simpson; R. C. Baltes

    1972-01-01

    A comparison was made between the air-drying rates of rough and presurfaced northern red oak and white oak. In both species, the presurfaced material was about 1/8 inch thinner than the rough material and dried faster than the rough material. The reduction in drying time depends on the method of analyzing the drying curves, but is slightly less than 10 percent.

  13. Latest Apple Drying Technologies: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDEMİR, Yasin; SAYIN, Emir Olcay; KURULTAY, Şefik

    2009-01-01

    Drying is known as one of the oldest preservation methods and can be applicable to many fruits. Sun drying of apple has been known from ancient times. However, this technique is weather-dependent and has contamination problems such as dust, soil, sand particles and insects. Hot air drying of apples has low energy efficiency and requires longer drying period. The desire to eliminate these problems, prevent quality loss, and achieve fast and effective thermal processing has resulted in an incre...

  14. Effects of Aging in Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Cintia S.

    2017-01-01

    Dry eye affects millions of people worldwide and causes eye well recognized risk factors for dry eye. Anatomical and inflammation-induced age-related changes affect all components of the lacrimal gland functional unit, inclusive of lacrimal gland, conjunctiva, meibomian gland and compromise ocular surface health. There is increased evidence that inflammation plays a role in dry eye. This review will summarize the current knowledge about aging and dry eye, inclusive of lessons learned from animal models and promising therapies. PMID:28282314

  15. Selective dry cow treatment in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Scherpenzeel, C.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the dairy industry, udder health is associated with mastitis management, of which blanket dry cow treatment has been an important part for decades. To prevent the udder from new intramammary infections during the dry period, the use of blanket dry cow treatment has been advocated for more than 50 years as part of the five-point mastitis prevention program. The goal of dry cow treatment is to reduce the prevalence of intramammary infections by eliminating infections already present at dryin...

  16. Impact of dry eye on work productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Masakazu Yamada, Yoshinobu Mizuno, Chika ShigeyasuNational Institute of Sensory Organs, National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of dry eye on work productivity of office workers, especially in terms of presenteeism.Methods: A total of 396 individuals aged ≥20 years (258 men and 138 women, mean age 43.4 ± 13.0 years were recruited through an online survey. Data from 355 responders who did not have missing values were included in the analysis. They were classified into the following four groups according to the diagnostic status and subjective symptoms of dry eye: a definite dry eye group; a marginal dry eye group; a self-reported dry eye group; and a control group. The impact of dry eye on work productivity was evaluated using the Japanese version of the Work Limitations Questionnaire. The cost of work productivity loss associated with dry eye and the economic benefits of providing treatment for dry eye were also assessed.Results: The degree of work performance loss was 5.65% in the definite dry eye group, 4.37% in the marginal dry eye group, 6.06% in the self-reported dry eye group, and 4.27% in the control group. Productivity in the self-reported dry eye group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05. The annual cost of work productivity loss associated with dry eye was estimated to be USD 741 per person.Conclusion: Dry eye impairs work performance among office workers, which may lead to a substantial loss to industry. Management of symptoms of dry eye by providing treatment may contribute to improvement in work productivity.Keywords: burden of disease, dry eye, presenteeism, quality of life

  17. Recovering metal values hydrometallurgically from spent dry battery cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabah, M. A.; Barakat, M. A.; Mahrous, Y. Sh.

    1999-12-01

    A hydro-pyrometallurgical method was used to recover metal values from spent dry battery cells. Water-soluble ingredients were filtered, and solid residue was sorted by magnetic separation and water flotation. Parameters affecting the recovery efficiency were also studied. Results revealed that metallic parts, carbon rods, and paper were safely recovered; pure NH4Cl, MnO2, and ZnCl2 salts were obtained. Maximum recovery efficiencies reached 93 percent for manganese and 99.5 percent for zinc and NH4.

  18. 40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity are applicable to... part. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity in drinking water, measured at a representative...

  19. Maximum Power Training and Plyometrics for Cross-Country Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebben, William P.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a rationale for maximum power training and plyometrics as conditioning strategies for cross-country runners, examining: an evaluation of training methods (strength training and maximum power training and plyometrics); biomechanic and velocity specificity (role in preventing injury); and practical application of maximum power training and…

  20. 13 CFR 107.840 - Maximum term of Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum term of Financing. 107.840... COMPANIES Financing of Small Businesses by Licensees Structuring Licensee's Financing of An Eligible Small Business: Terms and Conditions of Financing § 107.840 Maximum term of Financing. The maximum term of any...