Shifts in the temperature of maximum density (TMD) of ionic liquid aqueous solutions.
Tariq, M; Esperança, J M S S; Soromenho, M R C; Rebelo, L P N; Lopes, J N Canongia
2013-07-14
This work investigates for the first time shifts in the temperature of maximum density (TMD) of water caused by ionic liquid solutes. A vast amount of high-precision volumetric data--more than 6000 equilibrated (static) high-precision density determination corresponding to ∼90 distinct ionic liquid aqueous solutions of 28 different types of ionic liquid--allowed us to analyze the TMD shifts for different homologous series or similar sets of ionic solutes and explain the overall effects in terms of hydrophobic, electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding contributions. The differences between the observed TMD shifts in the -2 temperatures are discussed taking into account the different types of possible solute-water interactions that can modify the structure of the aqueous phase. The results also reveal different insights concerning the nature of the ions that constitute typical ionic liquids and are consistent with previous results that established hydrophobic and hydrophilic scales for ionic liquid ions based on their specific interactions with water and other probe molecules.
LHC soft physics and TMD gluon density at low x
Lipatov, A V; Zotov, N P
2014-01-01
We study the unintegrated, or transverse momentum dependent (TMD) gluon distribution obtained from the best description of the LHC data on the inclusive spectra of hadrons produced in the mid-rapidity region and low transverse momenta at starting scale Q0^2 = 1 GeV^2. To extend this gluon density at higher Q^2 we apply the Catani-Ciafoloni-Fiorani-Marchesini (CCFM) evolution equation. The influence of the initial (starting) non-perturbative gluon distribution is studied. The application of the obtained gluon density to the analysis of the ep deep inelastic scattering allows us to get the results which describe reasonably well the H1 and ZEUS data on the longitudinal proton structure function FL(x,Q^2). So, the connection between the soft processes at LHC and small x physics at HERA has been confirmed and extended to a wide kinematical region.
Drell-Yan lepton pair production at LHC and TMD quark densities of the proton
Baranov, S P; Zotov, N P
2014-01-01
We use the TMD quark densities of the proton to investigate unpolarized Drell-Yan lepton pair production in proton-proton collisions at the LHC energies. We investigate the case where the gluon-to-quark splitting occurs at the last evolution step and calculate the TMD sea quark density as a convolution of the CCFM-evolved gluon distribution and the TMD gluon-to-quark splitting function which contains all single logarithmic small-x corrections to the sea quark evolution for any order of perturbation theory. Based on the O(alpha) production amplitude of quark-antiquark annihilation calculated according to the reggeized quark approach, we analyze the distributions on the dilepton invariant mass, transverse momentum and rapidity as well as the specific angular correlations between the produced leptons as measured by the CMS, ATLAS and LHCb collaborations. We argue that these measurements impose stringent constraints on the TMD quark distributions of the proton.
Significance of non-perturbative input to TMD gluon density for hard processes at LHC
Grinyuk, A A; Lykasov, G I; Zotov, N P
2015-01-01
We study the role of the non-perturbative input to the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) gluon density in hard processes at the LHC. We derive the input TMD gluon distribution at low scale mu0^2 ~ 1 GeV^2 from the fit of the inclusive hadron spectra measured at low transverse momenta in pp collisions at the LHC and demonstrate that the best description of these spectra for larger hadron transverse momenta can be achieved by matching the derived TMD gluon distribution with the exact solution of the Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) equation obtained at low x and small gluon transverse momenta outside the saturation region. Then, we extend the input TMD gluon density to higher mu^2 numerically using the Catani-Ciafoloni-Fiorani-Marchesini (CCFM) gluon evolution equation. A special attention is put to the phenomenological applications of obtained TMD gluon density to some LHC processes, which are sensitive to the gluon content of a proton.
Drell-Yan lepton pair production at LHC and TMD quark densities of the proton
Baranov, S.P. [P.N. Lebedev Institute of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lipatov, A.V. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Zotov, N.P. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics
2014-03-15
We use the TMD quark densities of the proton to investigate unpolarized Drell-Yan lepton pair production in proton-proton collisions at the LHC energies. We investigate the case where the gluon-to-quark splitting occurs at the last evolution step and calculate the TMD sea quark density as a convolution of the CCFM-evolved gluon distribution and the TMD gluon-to-quark splitting function which contains all single logarithmic small-x corrections to the sea quark evolution for any order of perturbation theory. Based on the O(α) production amplitude q{sup *} + anti q{sup *}→Z/γ{sup *}→l{sup +} + l{sup -} which calculated according to the reggeized quark approach, we analyze the distributions on the dilepton invariant mass, transverse momentum and rapidity as well as the specific angular correlations between the produced leptons as measured by the CMS, ATLAS and LHCb collaborations. We argue that these measurements impose stringent constraints on the TMD quark distributions of the proton.
TMD parton densities in associated real and virtual photon and jet production at LHC
Lipatov, A.V. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zotov, N.P. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics
2014-09-15
We study the associated production of real (isolated) or virtual photons (with their subsequent leptonic decay) and hadronic jets in proton-proton collisions at the LHC using the k{sub T}-factorization approach of QCD. The consideration is based on the off-shell quark-gluon QCD Compton scattering subprocesses. In the case of virtual photon production, the contributions from Z boson exchange as well as γ* -Z interference with the full spin correlations are included. The transverse momentum dependent (TMD) quark and gluon densities in a proton are determined from the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription or Catani-Ciafoloni-Fiorani-Marchesini (CCFM) equation. In the latter, we restricted to the case where the gluon-to-quark splitting occurs at the last evolution step and calculate the sea quark density as a convolution of the CCFM-evolved gluon distribution and the TMD gluon-to-quark splitting function. Our numerical predictions are compared with the recent experimental data taken by the ATLAS Collaboration. We discuss the theoretical uncertainties of our calculations and argue that further studies are capable of constraining the TMD parton densities in a proton.
Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.
1985-01-01
Discusses a series of experiments performed by Thomas Hope in 1805 which show the temperature at which water has its maximum density. Early data cast into a modern form as well as guidelines and recent data collected from the author provide background for duplicating Hope's experiments in the classroom. (JN)
Minimal Length, Friedmann Equations and Maximum Density
Awad, Adel
2014-01-01
Inspired by Jacobson's thermodynamic approach[gr-qc/9504004], Cai et al [hep-th/0501055,hep-th/0609128] have shown the emergence of Friedmann equations from the first law of thermodynamics. We extend Akbar--Cai derivation [hep-th/0609128] of Friedmann equations to accommodate a general entropy-area law. Studying the resulted Friedmann equations using a specific entropy-area law, which is motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), reveals the existence of a maximum energy density closed to Planck density. Allowing for a general continuous pressure $p(\\rho,a)$ leads to bounded curvature invariants and a general nonsingular evolution. In this case, the maximum energy density is reached in a finite time and there is no cosmological evolution beyond this point which leaves the big bang singularity inaccessible from a spacetime prospective. The existence of maximum energy density and a general nonsingular evolution is independent of the equation of state and the spacial curvature $k$. As an example w...
Probing Ionic Liquid Aqueous Solutions Using Temperature of Maximum Density Isotope Effects
Mohammad Tariq
2013-03-01
Full Text Available This work is a new development of an extensive research program that is investigating for the first time shifts in the temperature of maximum density (TMD of aqueous solutions caused by ionic liquid solutes. In the present case we have compared the shifts caused by three ionic liquid solutes with a common cation—1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium coupled with acetate, ethylsulfate and tetracyanoborate anions—in normal and deuterated water solutions. The observed differences are discussed in terms of the nature of the corresponding anion-water interactions.
TMD parton densities in associated real and virtual photon and jet production at LHC
Lipatov, A V
2014-01-01
We study the associated production of real (isolated) or virtual photons (with their subsequent leptonic decay) and hadronic jet in proton-proton collisions at the LHC using the kt-factorization approach of QCD. The consideration is based on the off-shell quark-gluon QCD Compton scattering subprocesses. In the case of virtual photon production, the contributions from Z boson exchange as well as gamma* - Z interference with full spin correlations are included. The transverse momentum dependent quark and gluon densities in a proton are determined from the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription or Catani-Ciafoloni-Fiorani-Marchesini (CCFM) evolution equation. In the latter, we restricted to the case where the gluon-to-quark splitting occurs at the last evolution step and calculate the sea quark density as a convolution of the CCFM-evolved gluon distribution and the transverse momentum dependent gluon-to-quark splitting function. Our numerical predictions are compared with the recent experimental data taken by the ATL...
Blandamer, MJ; Buurma, NJ; Engberts, JBFN; Reis, JCR; Buurma, Niklaas J.; Reis, João C.R.
2003-01-01
At temperatures above and below the temperature of maximum density, TMD, for water at ambient pressure, pairs of temperatures exist at which the molar volumes of water are equal. First-order rate constants for the pH-independent hydrolysis of 1-benzoyl-1,2,4-triazole in aqueous solution at pairs of
PREDICTION OF MAXIMUM DRY DENSITY OF LOCAL GRANULAR ...
methods. A test on a soil of relatively high solid density revealed that the developed relation looses ... where, Pd max is the laboratory maximum dry ... Addis-Jinima Road Rehabilitation. ..... data sets that differ considerably in the magnitude.
Maximum length scale in density based topology optimization
Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Wang, Fengwen
2017-01-01
The focus of this work is on two new techniques for imposing maximum length scale in topology optimization. Restrictions on the maximum length scale provide designers with full control over the optimized structure and open possibilities to tailor the optimized design for broader range...... of manufacturing processes by fulfilling the associated technological constraints. One of the proposed methods is based on combination of several filters and builds on top of the classical density filtering which can be viewed as a low pass filter applied to the design parametrization. The main idea...
Maximum likelihood estimation for semiparametric density ratio model.
Diao, Guoqing; Ning, Jing; Qin, Jing
2012-06-27
In the statistical literature, the conditional density model specification is commonly used to study regression effects. One attractive model is the semiparametric density ratio model, under which the conditional density function is the product of an unknown baseline density function and a known parametric function containing the covariate information. This model has a natural connection with generalized linear models and is closely related to biased sampling problems. Despite the attractive features and importance of this model, most existing methods are too restrictive since they are based on multi-sample data or conditional likelihood functions. The conditional likelihood approach can eliminate the unknown baseline density but cannot estimate it. We propose efficient estimation procedures based on the nonparametric likelihood. The nonparametric likelihood approach allows for general forms of covariates and estimates the regression parameters and the baseline density simultaneously. Therefore, the nonparametric likelihood approach is more versatile than the conditional likelihood approach especially when estimation of the conditional mean or other quantities of the outcome is of interest. We show that the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimators are consistent, asymptotically normal, and asymptotically efficient. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed methods perform well in practical settings. A real example is used for illustration.
Maximum entropy reconstruction of spin densities involving non uniform prior
Schweizer, J.; Ressouche, E. [DRFMC/SPSMS/MDN CEA-Grenoble (France); Papoular, R.J. [CEA-Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France). Lab. Leon Brillouin; Tasset, F. [Inst. Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France); Zheludev, A.I. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Physics Dept.
1997-09-01
Diffraction experiments give microscopic information on structures in crystals. A method which uses the concept of maximum of entropy (MaxEnt), appears to be a formidable improvement in the treatment of diffraction data. This method is based on a bayesian approach: among all the maps compatible with the experimental data, it selects that one which has the highest prior (intrinsic) probability. Considering that all the points of the map are equally probable, this probability (flat prior) is expressed via the Boltzman entropy of the distribution. This method has been used for the reconstruction of charge densities from X-ray data, for maps of nuclear densities from unpolarized neutron data as well as for distributions of spin density. The density maps obtained by this method, as compared to those resulting from the usual inverse Fourier transformation, are tremendously improved. In particular, any substantial deviation from the background is really contained in the data, as it costs entropy compared to a map that would ignore such features. However, in most of the cases, before the measurements are performed, some knowledge exists about the distribution which is investigated. It can range from the simple information of the type of scattering electrons to an elaborate theoretical model. In these cases, the uniform prior which considers all the different pixels as equally likely, is too weak a requirement and has to be replaced. In a rigorous bayesian analysis, Skilling has shown that prior knowledge can be encoded into the Maximum Entropy formalism through a model m({rvec r}), via a new definition for the entropy given in this paper. In the absence of any data, the maximum of the entropy functional is reached for {rho}({rvec r}) = m({rvec r}). Any substantial departure from the model, observed in the final map, is really contained in the data as, with the new definition, it costs entropy. This paper presents illustrations of model testing.
Exploring high-density baryonic matter: Maximum freeze-out density
Randrup, Joergen [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Cleymans, Jean [University of Cape Town, UCT-CERN Research Centre and Department of Physics, Rondebosch (South Africa)
2016-08-15
The hadronic freeze-out line is calculated in terms of the net baryon density and the energy density instead of the usual T and μ{sub B}. This analysis makes it apparent that the freeze-out density exhibits a maximum as the collision energy is varied. This maximum freeze-out density has μ{sub B} = 400 - 500 MeV, which is above the critical value, and it is reached for a fixed-target bombarding energy of 20-30 GeV/N well within the parameters of the proposed NICA collider facility. (orig.)
Thermospheric density model biases at the 23rd sunspot maximum
Pardini, C.; Moe, K.; Anselmo, L.
2012-07-01
Uncertainties in the neutral density estimation are the major source of aerodynamic drag errors and one of the main limiting factors in the accuracy of the orbit prediction and determination process at low altitudes. Massive efforts have been made over the years to constantly improve the existing operational density models, or to create even more precise and sophisticated tools. Special attention has also been paid to research more appropriate solar and geomagnetic indices. However, the operational models still suffer from weakness. Even if a number of studies have been carried out in the last few years to define the performance improvements, further critical assessments are necessary to evaluate and compare the models at different altitudes and solar activity conditions. Taking advantage of the results of a previous study, an investigation of thermospheric density model biases during the last sunspot maximum (October 1999 - December 2002) was carried out by analyzing the semi-major axis decay of four satellites: Cosmos 2265, Cosmos 2332, SNOE and Clementine. Six thermospheric density models, widely used in spacecraft operations, were analyzed: JR-71, MSISE-90, NRLMSISE-00, GOST-2004, JB2006 and JB2008. During the time span considered, for each satellite and atmospheric density model, a fitted drag coefficient was solved for and then compared with the calculated physical drag coefficient. It was therefore possible to derive the average density biases of the thermospheric models during the maximum of the 23rd solar cycle. Below 500 km, all the models overestimated the average atmospheric density by amounts varying between +7% and +20%. This was an inevitable consequence of constructing thermospheric models from density data obtained by assuming a fixed drag coefficient, independent of altitude. Because the uncertainty affecting the drag coefficient measurements was about 3% at both 200 km and 480 km of altitude, the calculated air density biases below 500 km were
Causality constraints on TMD PDF
Efremov, A V
2013-01-01
In this short note, we discuss constraints on the transverse momentum dependent factorization formulae coming from the causality properties for the hadronic tensor. We show that the range of definition of the TMD PDFs in the transverse coordinate plane is wider that it is allowed by the causality. It indicates the presents of the large compensating corrections for the TMD PDF factorization theorem and/or overestimation of the transverse component dependence of TMD PDF.
2010-07-01
... as specified in 40 CFR 1065.610. This is the maximum in-use engine speed used for calculating the NOX... procedures of 40 CFR part 1065, based on the manufacturer's design and production specifications for the..., power density, and maximum in-use engine speed. 1042.140 Section 1042.140 Protection of...
Energy Analysis for TMD-Structure Systems Subjected to Impact Loading
王树青; 李华军; 嵇春艳; 焦桂英
2002-01-01
This paper investigates the characteristics of reduction of the lateral vibration by use of a Tuned Mass Damper(TMD) for offshore jacket platforms under impact loading. Unlike traditional analysis, the present analysis focnses on theenergy concept of TMD/structure systems. In this study, a time domain is taken. The platform is modeled as a simplifiedsingle-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system by extraction of the first vibration mode of the structure and the excited force isassumed to be impact loading. The energy dissipation and energy transmission of the structure-TMD system are studied.Finally, an optimized TMD design for the modeled platform is demonstrated based on a new type of cost function - maxi-mum dissipated energy by TMD. Results indicate that TMD control is effective in reducing the standard deviation of thedeck motion but less effective in reducing the maximum response under impact loading.
Improving TMD classification using the Delphi technique.
John, M T
2010-10-01
The classification of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is still controversial. Consensus methods such as the Delphi technique, a method that polls experts' anonymous opinion in an iterative process with controlled feedback and statistical aggregation of group response, could be valuable to improve this challenging topic. The article illustrates the application of the Delphi technique for deciding whether the terms myalgia or myofascial pain should be used in a TMD classification system and discusses the technique's potential for TMD classification in general. In three Delphi rounds, 14 TMD experts from the Division of TMD and Orofacial Pain of the University of Minnesota reached a consensus about which TMD diagnoses should be included in a TMD classification system. They preferred the term myofascial pain over myalgia. The Delphi technique has the potential to provide answers to complex questions in TMD classification, e.g., TMD nomenclature and range as well as scope of conditions included in a future TMD classification system.
Unification of Field Theory and Maximum Entropy Methods for Learning Probability Densities
Kinney, Justin B
2014-01-01
Bayesian field theory and maximum entropy are two methods for learning smooth probability distributions (a.k.a. probability densities) from finite sampled data. Both methods were inspired by statistical physics, but the relationship between them has remained unclear. Here I show that Bayesian field theory subsumes maximum entropy density estimation. In particular, the most common maximum entropy methods are shown to be limiting cases of Bayesian inference using field theory priors that impose no boundary conditions on candidate densities. This unification provides a natural way to test the validity of the maximum entropy assumption on one's data. It also provides a better-fitting nonparametric density estimate when the maximum entropy assumption is rejected.
Phenomenological implementations of TMD evolution
Boglione, Mariaelena [University of Turin, Torino, Italy; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jose Osvaldo [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA; Melis, Stefano [European Centre for Theoretical Studies; Prokudin, Alexey [JLAB
2015-03-01
Although the theoretical set-up of TMD evolution appears to be well established, its phenomenological implementations still require special attention, particularly as far as the interplay between perturbative and non-perturbative contributions is concerned. These issues have been extensively studied in Drell-Yan processes, where they seem to be reasonably under control. Instead, applying the same prescriptions and methodologies to Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic (SIDIS) processes is, at present, far from obvious. Some of the controversies related to the applications of TMD Evolution to SIDIS processes will be discussed with practical examples, exploring different kinematical configurations of SIDIS experiments.
Phenomenological implementations of TMD evolution
Boglione, M; Melis, S; Prokudin, A
2014-01-01
Although the theoretical set-up of TMD evolution appears to be well established, its phenomenological implementations still require special attention, particularly as far as the interplay between perturbative and non-perturbative contributions is concerned. These issues have been extensively studied in Drell-Yan processes, where they seem to be reasonably under control. Instead, applying the same prescriptions and methodologies to Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic (SIDIS) processes is, at present, far from obvious. Some of the controversies related to the applications of TMD Evolution to SIDIS processes will be discussed with practical examples, exploring different kinematical configurations of SIDIS experiments.
Maximum flux density of the gyrosynchrotron spectrum in a nonuniform source
Ai-Hua Zhou; Rong-Chuan Wang; Cheng-Wen Shao
2009-01-01
The maximum flux density of a gyrosynchrotron radiation spectrum in a mag- netic dip|oe model with self absorption and gyroresonance is calculated. Our calculations show that the maximum flux density of the gyrosynchrotron spectrum increases with in- creasing low-energy cutoff, number density, input depth of energetic electrons, magnetic field strength and viewing angle, and with decreasing energy spectral index of energetic electrons, number density and temperature of thermal electrons. It is found that there are linear correlations between the logarithms of the maximum flux density and the above eight parameters with correlation coefficients higher than 0.91 and fit accuracies better than 10%. The maximum flux density could be a good indicator of the changes of these source parameters. In addition, we find that there are very good positive linear correla- tions between the logarithms of the maximum flux density and peak frequency when the above former five parameters vary respectively. Their linear correlation coefficients are higher than 0.90 and the fit accuracies are better than 0.5%.
TMD factorization and evolution at large $b_T$
Collins, John [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Rogers, Ted [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)
2015-07-20
In using transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) parton densities and fragmentation functions, important non-perturbative information is at large transverse position $b_T$. This concerns both the TMD functions and their evolution. Fits to high energy data tend to predict too rapid evolution when extrapolated to low energies where larger values of $b_T$ dominate. I summarize a new analysis of the issues. It results in a proposal for much weaker $b_T$ dependence at large $b_T$ for the evolution kernel, while preserving the accuracy of the existing fits. The results are particularly important for using transverse-spin-dependent functions like the Sivers function.
Singh, Harpreet; Arvind; Dorai, Kavita, E-mail: kavita@iisermohali.ac.in
2016-09-07
Estimation of quantum states is an important step in any quantum information processing experiment. A naive reconstruction of the density matrix from experimental measurements can often give density matrices which are not positive, and hence not physically acceptable. How do we ensure that at all stages of reconstruction, we keep the density matrix positive? Recently a method has been suggested based on maximum likelihood estimation, wherein the density matrix is guaranteed to be positive definite. We experimentally implement this protocol on an NMR quantum information processor. We discuss several examples and compare with the standard method of state estimation. - Highlights: • State estimation using maximum likelihood method was performed on an NMR quantum information processor. • Physically valid density matrices were obtained every time in contrast to standard quantum state tomography. • Density matrices of several different entangled and separable states were reconstructed for two and three qubits.
Botelho, André Luís; Silva, Bruno Caetano; Gentil, Flávio Henrique Umeda; Sforza, Chiarella; da Silva, Marco Antonio Moreira Rodrigues
2010-10-01
The aim of this study was to analyze the immediate effect of resilient splints through surface electromyography testing and to compare the findings with the electromyographic profiles of asymptomatic subjects. The participants were 30 subjects, 15 patients with TMD (TMD Group) and 15 healthy subjects (Control Group), classified according to Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC/TMD) Axis I. A resilient occlusal splint was made for each patient in the TMD Group from two mm thick silicon to cover all teeth. The EMG examination was performed before and immediately after installing the splint. Three tests were performed as follows: 1. Maximum Voluntary Contraction (MVC) using cotton rolls (standards test); 2. MVC in maximal intercuspation position; and 3. MVC with the splint in position. The EMG signal was recorded for five seconds. EMG indices were calculated to assess muscle symmetry, jaw torque, and impact. There was a statistically significant difference when comparing the results among the study groups. The symmetry index values in the Control Group were higher than the TMD Initial Group and similar to the TMD Group after the installation of the splint. The index values of torque were higher in TMD Initial Group when compared with the Controls. Impact values were lower than normal values in the TMD Initial Group and restored upon installation of the splint. The resilient occlusal splints may be used as complementary or adjunctive treatment of temporomandibular disorders.
Unification of field theory and maximum entropy methods for learning probability densities.
Kinney, Justin B
2015-09-01
The need to estimate smooth probability distributions (a.k.a. probability densities) from finite sampled data is ubiquitous in science. Many approaches to this problem have been described, but none is yet regarded as providing a definitive solution. Maximum entropy estimation and Bayesian field theory are two such approaches. Both have origins in statistical physics, but the relationship between them has remained unclear. Here I unify these two methods by showing that every maximum entropy density estimate can be recovered in the infinite smoothness limit of an appropriate Bayesian field theory. I also show that Bayesian field theory estimation can be performed without imposing any boundary conditions on candidate densities, and that the infinite smoothness limit of these theories recovers the most common types of maximum entropy estimates. Bayesian field theory thus provides a natural test of the maximum entropy null hypothesis and, furthermore, returns an alternative (lower entropy) density estimate when the maximum entropy hypothesis is falsified. The computations necessary for this approach can be performed rapidly for one-dimensional data, and software for doing this is provided.
Abhijit Sinha
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A comparative analysis on thermodynamic efficiency based on maximum power & power density conditions have been performed for a solar-driven Carnot heat engine with internal irreversibility. In this analysis, the heat transfer from the hot reservoir is to be in the radiation mode and the heat transfer to the cold reservoir is to be in the convection mode. The thermodynamic efficiency function, power & power density functions have been derived and maximization of the power functions have been performed for various design parameters. From the optimum conditions, the thermal efficiencies at maximum power and power densities have been obtained. The effects of internal irreversibility, extreme temperature ratios & specific engine size in area ratio between the hot & cold reservoirs as various design parameters on thermodynamic efficiencies have been investigated for both the conditions. The efficiencies have been compared with Curzon-Ahlborn & Carnot efficiencies respectively.The analysis showed that the efficiency at maximum power output is greater than the efficiency at maximum power density. And the efficiencies can be greater than the Curzon- Ahlborn`s efficiency only for low values of design parameters.
On the rate of convergence of the maximum likelihood estimator of a k-monotone density
WELLNER; Jon; A
2009-01-01
Bounds for the bracketing entropy of the classes of bounded k-monotone functions on [0,A] are obtained under both the Hellinger distance and the Lp(Q) distance,where 1 p < ∞ and Q is a probability measure on [0,A].The result is then applied to obtain the rate of convergence of the maximum likelihood estimator of a k-monotone density.
On the rate of convergence of the maximum likelihood estimator of a K-monotone density
GAO FuChang; WELLNER Jon A
2009-01-01
Bounds for the bracketing entropy of the classes of bounded K-monotone functions on [0, A] are obtained under both the Hellinger distance and the LP(Q) distance, where 1 ≤ p < ∞ and Q is a probability measure on [0, A]. The result is then applied to obtain the rate of convergence of the maximum likelihood estimator of a K-monotone density.
3D Global Coronal Density Structure and Associated Magnetic Field near Solar Maximum
Kramar, Maxim; Lin, Haosheng
2016-01-01
Measurement of the coronal magnetic field is a crucial ingredient in understanding the nature of solar coronal dynamic phenomena at all scales. We employ STEREO/COR1 data obtained near maximum of solar activity in December 2012 (Carrington rotation, CR 2131) to retrieve and analyze the three-dimensional (3D) coronal electron density in the range of heights from $1.5$ to $4\\ \\mathrm{R}_\\odot$ using a tomography method and qualitatively deduce structures of the coronal magnetic field. The 3D electron density analysis is complemented by the 3D STEREO/EUVI emissivity in 195 \\AA \\ band obtained by tomography for the same CR period. We find that the magnetic field configuration during CR 2131 has a tendency to become radially open at heliocentric distances below $\\sim 2.5 \\ \\mathrm{R}_\\odot$. We compared the reconstructed 3D coronal structures over the CR near the solar maximum to the one at deep solar minimum. Results of our 3D density reconstruction will help to constrain solar coronal field models and test the a...
3D Global Coronal Density Structure and Associated Magnetic Field near Solar Maximum
Maxim Kramar
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Measurement of the coronal magnetic field is a crucial ingredient in understanding the nature of solar coronal dynamic phenomena at all scales. We employ STEREO/COR1 data obtained near maximum of solar activity in December 2012 (Carrington rotation, CR 2131 to retrieve and analyze the three-dimensional (3D coronal electron density in the range of heights from $1.5$ to $4 R_odot$ using a tomography method and qualitatively deduce structures of the coronal magnetic field. The 3D electron density analysis is complemented by the 3D STEREO/EUVI emissivity in 195 AA band obtained by tomography for the same CR period. We find that the magnetic field configuration during CR 2131 has a tendency to become radially open at heliocentric distances below $sim 2.5 R_odot$. We compared the reconstructed 3D coronal structures over the CR near the solar maximum to the one at deep solar minimum. Results of our 3D density reconstruction will help to constrain solar coronal field models and test the accuracy of the magnetic field approximations for coronal modeling.
3D Global Coronal Density Structure and Associated Magnetic Field near Solar Maximum
Kramar, Maxim; Airapetian, Vladimir; Lin, Haosheng
2016-08-01
Measurement of the coronal magnetic field is a crucial ingredient in understanding the nature of solar coronal dynamic phenomena at all scales. We employ STEREO/COR1 data obtained near maximum of solar activity in December 2012 (Carrington rotation, CR 2131) to retrieve and analyze the three-dimensional (3D) coronal electron density in the range of heights from 1.5 to 4 R_⊙ using a tomography method and qualitatively deduce structures of the coronal magnetic field. The 3D electron density analysis is complemented by the 3D STEREO/EUVI emissivity in 195 Å band obtained by tomography for the same CR period. We find that the magnetic field configuration during CR 2131 has a tendency to become radially open at heliocentric distances below ˜ 2.5 R_⊙. We compared the reconstructed 3D coronal structures over the CR near the solar maximum to the one at deep solar minimum. Results of our 3D density reconstruction will help to constrain solar coronal field models and test the accuracy of the magnetic field approximations for coronal modeling.
Fiebig, H R
2002-01-01
We study various aspects of extracting spectral information from time correlation functions of lattice QCD by means of Bayesian inference with an entropic prior, the maximum entropy method (MEM). Correlator functions of a heavy-light meson-meson system serve as a repository for lattice data with diverse statistical quality. Attention is given to spectral mass density functions, inferred from the data, and their dependence on the parameters of the MEM. We propose to employ simulated annealing, or cooling, to solve the Bayesian inference problem, and discuss practical issues of the approach.
TMD Evolution at Moderate Hard Scales
Rogers, Ted [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Collins, John C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
2016-01-01
We summarize some of our recent work on non-perturbative transverse momentum dependent (TMD) evolution, emphasizing aspects that are necessary for dealing with moderately low scale processes like semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering.
Self-tuning tuned mass damper (TMD)
Griffin, Steven
2017-04-01
Tuned mass dampers (TMD) are heavily damped resonant devices which add damping to lightly damped, vibrational modes of a structure by dynamically coupling into the lightly damped modes. In practice, a TMD is a damped spring/mass resonator that is tuned so that its frequency is close to a lightly damped mode on the host structure. The TMD is attached to the host structure at a location of large amplitude motion for the mode to be dampened, and its motion is coupled into the host structure's motion. If the TMD is tuned correctly, two damped vibrational modes result, which take the place of the original lightly damped mode of the host structure and heavily damped mode of the TMD. Since aerospace structures tend to respond unfavorably at lightly damped modes in the presence of a dynamic disturbance environment, introduction of one or several TMDs can greatly reduce the dynamic response of a structure by damping problematic modes. A self-tuning TMD is described that can perform all the steps necessary to automatically tune itself and minimize the response of a structure with lightly damped modes and a dynamic excitation. The self-tuning TMD concept introduced here uses a voice coil / magnet combination as -an actuator which enables an innovative stiffness adjustment mechanism -a loss mechanism for the tuned mass damper -a means of excitation for identifying lightly damped modes of the host structure Along with an accelerometer and a tethered power supply/computer, the self-tuning TMD can automatically identify and damp lightly damped modes.
Limit Distribution Theory for Maximum Likelihood Estimation of a Log-Concave Density.
Balabdaoui, Fadoua; Rufibach, Kaspar; Wellner, Jon A
2009-06-01
We find limiting distributions of the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) of a log-concave density, i.e. a density of the form f(0) = exp varphi(0) where varphi(0) is a concave function on R. Existence, form, characterizations and uniform rates of convergence of the MLE are given by Rufibach (2006) and Dümbgen and Rufibach (2007). The characterization of the log-concave MLE in terms of distribution functions is the same (up to sign) as the characterization of the least squares estimator of a convex density on [0, infinity) as studied by Groeneboom, Jongbloed and Wellner (2001b). We use this connection to show that the limiting distributions of the MLE and its derivative are, under comparable smoothness assumptions, the same (up to sign) as in the convex density estimation problem. In particular, changing the smoothness assumptions of Groeneboom, Jongbloed and Wellner (2001b) slightly by allowing some higher derivatives to vanish at the point of interest, we find that the pointwise limiting distributions depend on the second and third derivatives at 0 of H(k), the "lower invelope" of an integrated Brownian motion process minus a drift term depending on the number of vanishing derivatives of varphi(0) = log f(0) at the point of interest. We also establish the limiting distribution of the resulting estimator of the mode M(f(0)) and establish a new local asymptotic minimax lower bound which shows the optimality of our mode estimator in terms of both rate of convergence and dependence of constants on population values.
Rotta, Davide; De Michielis, Marco; Ferraro, Elena; Fanciulli, Marco; Prati, Enrico
2016-06-01
Scalability from single-qubit operations to multi-qubit circuits for quantum information processing requires architecture-specific implementations. Semiconductor hybrid qubit architecture is a suitable candidate to realize large-scale quantum information processing, as it combines a universal set of logic gates with fast and all-electrical manipulation of qubits. We propose an implementation of hybrid qubits, based on Si metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) quantum dots, compatible with the CMOS industrial technological standards. We discuss the realization of multi-qubit circuits capable of fault-tolerant computation and quantum error correction, by evaluating the time and space resources needed for their implementation. As a result, the maximum density of quantum information is extracted from a circuit including eight logical qubits encoded by the [[7, 1, 3
Huang, Y X; Zhou, Q; Qiu, X; Shang, X D; Lu, Z M; Liu, and Y L
2014-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a new way to estimate the scaling parameter of a self-similar process by considering the maximum probability density function (pdf) of tis increments. We prove this for $H$-self-similar processes in general and experimentally investigate it for turbulent velocity and temperature increments. We consider turbulent velocity database from an experimental homogeneous and nearly isotropic turbulent channel flow, and temperature data set obtained near the sidewall of a Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection cell, where the turbulent flow is driven by buoyancy. For the former database, it is found that the maximum value of increment pdf $p_{\\max}(\\tau)$ is in a good agreement with lognormal distribution. We also obtain a scaling exponent $\\alpha\\simeq 0.37$, which is consistent with the scaling exponent for the first-order structure function reported in other studies. For the latter one, we obtain a scaling exponent $\\alpha_{\\theta}\\simeq0.33$. This index value is consistent with the Kolmogorov-Ob...
Lussana, C.
2013-04-01
The presented work focuses on the investigation of gridded daily minimum (TN) and maximum (TX) temperature probability density functions (PDFs) with the intent of both characterising a region and detecting extreme values. The empirical PDFs estimation procedure has been realised using the most recent years of gridded temperature analysis fields available at ARPA Lombardia, in Northern Italy. The spatial interpolation is based on an implementation of Optimal Interpolation using observations from a dense surface network of automated weather stations. An effort has been made to identify both the time period and the spatial areas with a stable data density otherwise the elaboration could be influenced by the unsettled station distribution. The PDF used in this study is based on the Gaussian distribution, nevertheless it is designed to have an asymmetrical (skewed) shape in order to enable distinction between warming and cooling events. Once properly defined the occurrence of extreme events, it is possible to straightforwardly deliver to the users the information on a local-scale in a concise way, such as: TX extremely cold/hot or TN extremely cold/hot.
Sacanna, S.; Rossi, L.; Wouterse, A.; Philipse, A.P.
2007-01-01
We have measured the random packing density of monodisperse colloidal silica ellipsoids with a well-defined shape, gradually deviating from a sphere shape up to prolates with aspect ratios of about 5, to find for a colloidal system the first experimental observation for the density maximum (at an as
TMD PDFs in Drell-Yan lepton pair production at LHC
Baranov, S.P. [Lebedev Institute of Physics, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lipatov, A.V. [SINP, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia Joint Institute of Nuclear Physics, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Zotov, N.P. [SINP, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2015-04-10
We consider the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) quark densities of the proton which are very important ingredients for unpolarized Drell-Yan (DY) lepton pair production. We calculate the TMD sea quark density as a convolution of the Catani-Ciafaloni-Fiorani-Marchesini (CCFM)-evolved gluon distribution and the TMD gluon-to-quark splitting function. Based on the O(α{sup 2}) production amplitude q{sup *}+(q-bar){sup *} →Z/γ{sup *}→l{sup +}+l{sup −}, calculated by taking into account the effective q{sup *}(q-bar){sup *}Z/γ{sup *} - vertex, we analyze the distributions on the dilepton invariant mass, transverse momentum and rapidity and specific angular correlations between the produced leptons as measured by the CMS, ATLAS and LHCb collaborations. We briefly duscuss also the process of assiciated lepton pair and jet production in pp collisions at the LHC.
TMD PDFs in Drell-Yan lepton pair production at LHC
Baranov, S P; Zotov, N P
2014-01-01
We consider the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) quark densities of the proton which are very important ingredients for unpolarized Drell-Yan (DY) lepton pair production. We calculate the TMD sea quark density as a convolution of the Catani-Ciafaloni-Fiorani-Marchesini (CCFM)-evolved gluon distribution and the TMD gluon-to-quark splitting function. Based on the ${\\cal O}(\\alpha^2)$ production amplitude $q^* + \\bar q^* \\to Z/\\gamma^* \\to l^+ + l^-$, calculated by taking into account the effective $q^*\\bar q^* Z/\\gamma^*$ - vertex, we analyze the distributions on the dilepton invariant mass, transverse momentum and rapidity and specific angular correlations between the produced leptons as measured by the CMS, ATLAS and LHCb collaborations. We briefly duscuss also the process of assiciated lepton pair and jet production in $pp$ collisions at the LHC.
TMD PDFs in Drell-Yan lepton pair production at LHC
Baranov, S. P.; Lipatov, A. V.; Zotov, N. P.
2015-04-01
We consider the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) quark densities of the proton which are very important ingredients for unpolarized Drell-Yan (DY) lepton pair production. We calculate the TMD sea quark density as a convolution of the Catani-Ciafaloni-Fiorani-Marchesini (CCFM)-evolved gluon distribution and the TMD gluon-to-quark splitting function. Based on the 𝒪(α2) production amplitude q*+q¯*→Z /γ*→l++l- calculated by taking into account the effective q*q¯*Z /γ* - vertex, we analyze the distributions on the dilepton invariant mass, transverse momentum and rapidity and specific angular correlations between the produced leptons as measured by the CMS, ATLAS and LHCb collaborations. We briefly duscuss also the process of assiciated lepton pair and jet production in pp collisions at the LHC.
Torsional Response of the Offshore Platform with TMD
江宜城; 唐家祥
2001-01-01
It is pointed out in this paper that the offshore platform could be controlled by means of the Tuned Mass Damper(TMD) if there is torsional vibration in the system. The effectiveness of the location of TMD is quantified with the helpof the response ratio between the peak responses of the system in the presence and in the absence of TMD. In addition,the parameters of frequency and damping ratio of TMD are optimized.
TMD evolution of the Sivers asymmetry
Boer, Daniel
2013-01-01
The energy scale dependence of the Sivers asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering is studied numerically within the framework of TMD factorization that was put forward in 2011. The comparison to previous results in the literature shows that the treatment of next-to-leading logarithmic
Prathapa, Siriyara Jagannatha; Mondal, Swastik; van Smaalen, Sander
2013-04-01
Dynamic model densities according to Mondal et al. [(2012), Acta Cryst. A68, 568-581] are presented for independent atom models (IAM), IAMs after high-order refinements (IAM-HO), invariom (INV) models and multipole (MP) models of α-glycine, DL-serine, L-alanine and Ala-Tyr-Ala at T ≃ 20 K. Each dynamic model density is used as prior in the calculation of electron density according to the maximum entropy method (MEM). We show that at the bond-critical points (BCPs) of covalent C-C and C-N bonds the IAM-HO and INV priors produce reliable MEM density maps, including reliable values for the density and its Laplacian. The agreement between these MEM density maps and dynamic MP density maps is less good for polar C-O bonds, which is explained by the large spread of values of topological descriptors of C-O bonds in static MP densities. The density and Laplacian at BCPs of hydrogen bonds have similar values in MEM density maps obtained with all four kinds of prior densities. This feature is related to the smaller spatial variation of the densities in these regions, as expressed by small magnitudes of the Laplacians and the densities. It is concluded that the use of the IAM-HO prior instead of the IAM prior leads to improved MEM density maps. This observation shows interesting parallels to MP refinements, where the use of the IAM-HO as an initial model is the accepted procedure for solving MP parameters. A deconvolution of thermal motion and static density that is better than the deconvolution of the IAM appears to be necessary in order to arrive at the best MP models as well as at the best MEM densities.
Rijgersberg, H.; Nierop Groot, M.N.; Tromp, S.O.; Franz, E.
2013-01-01
Within a microbial risk assessment framework, modeling the maximum population density (MPD) of a pathogenic microorganism is important but often not considered. This paper describes a model predicting the MPD of Salmonella on alfalfa as a function of the initial contamination level, the total count
Vries, de R.Y.; Briels, W.J.; Feil, D.; Velde, te G.; Baerends, E.J.
1996-01-01
1990 Sakata and Sato applied the maximum entropy method (MEM) to a set of structure factors measured earlier by Saka and Kato with the Pendellösung method. They found the presence of non-nuclear attractors, i.e., maxima in the density between two bonded atoms. We applied the MEM to a limited set of
Prevalence of whiplash trauma in TMD patients: a systematic review.
Häggman-Henrikson, B; Rezvani, M; List, T
2014-01-01
The purpose of this systematic review was to describe the prevalence of whiplash trauma in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and to describe clinical signs and symptoms in comorbid TMD/whiplash compared with TMD localised to the facial region. A systematic literature search of the PubMed, Cochrane Library and Bandolier databases was carried out for articles published from 1 January 1966 to 31 December 2012. The systematic search identified 129 articles. After the initial screening of abstracts, 32 articles were reviewed in full text applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Six studies on the prevalence of neck trauma in patients with TMD met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Two of the authors evaluated the methodological quality of the included studies. The reported prevalence of whiplash trauma ranged from 8·4% to 70% (median 35%) in TMD populations, compared with 1·7-13% in the non-TMD control groups. Compared with patients with TMD localised to the facial region, TMD patients with a history of whiplash trauma reported more TMD symptoms, such as limited jaw opening and more TMD pain, and also more headaches and stress symptoms. In conclusion, the prevalence of whiplash trauma is higher in patients with TMD compared with non-TMD controls. Furthermore, patients with comorbid TMD/whiplash present with more jaw pain and more severe jaw dysfunction compared with TMD patients without a history of head-neck trauma. These results suggest that whiplash trauma might be an initiating and/or aggravating factor as well as a comorbid condition for TMD.
Rius, Jordi
2006-09-01
The maximum-likelihood method is applied to direct methods to derive a more general probability density function of the triple-phase sums which is capable of predicting negative values. This study also proves that maximization of the origin-free modulus sum function S yields, within the limitations imposed by the assumed approximations, the maximum-likelihood estimates of the phases. It thus represents the formal theoretical justification of the S function that was initially derived from Patterson-function arguments [Rius (1993). Acta Cryst. A49, 406-409].
Cooling of Water in a Flask: Convection Currents in a Fluid with a Density Maximum
Velasco, S.; White, J. A.; Roman, F. L.
2010-01-01
The effect of density inversion on the convective flow of water in a spherical glass flask cooled with the help of an ice-water bath is shown. The experiment was carried out by temperature measurements (cooling curves) taken at three different heights along the vertical diameter of the flask. Flows inside the flask are visualized by seeding the…
Cooling of Water in a Flask: Convection Currents in a Fluid with a Density Maximum
Velasco, S.; White, J. A.; Roman, F. L.
2010-01-01
The effect of density inversion on the convective flow of water in a spherical glass flask cooled with the help of an ice-water bath is shown. The experiment was carried out by temperature measurements (cooling curves) taken at three different heights along the vertical diameter of the flask. Flows inside the flask are visualized by seeding the…
Kimble, Michael C.; White, Ralph E.
1991-01-01
A mathematical model of a hydrogen/oxygen alkaline fuel cell is presented that can be used to predict the polarization behavior under various power loads. The major limitations to achieving high power densities are indicated and methods to increase the maximum attainable power density are suggested. The alkaline fuel cell model describes the phenomena occurring in the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of the anode, separator, and cathode regions based on porous electrode theory applied to three phases. Fundamental equations of chemical engineering that describe conservation of mass and charge, species transport, and kinetic phenomena are used to develop the model by treating all phases as a homogeneous continuum.
Ru/Al Multilayers Integrate Maximum Energy Density and Ductility for Reactive Materials
K. Woll; Bergamaschi, A; Avchachov, K.; Djurabekova, F.; Gier, S.; Pauly, C.; Leibenguth, P.; Wagner, C; Nordlund, K.; Mücklich, F
2016-01-01
Established and already commercialized energetic materials, such as those based on Ni/Al for joining, lack the adequate combination of high energy density and ductile reaction products. To join components, this combination is required for mechanically reliable bonds. In addition to the improvement of existing technologies, expansion into new fields of application can also be anticipated which triggers the search for improved materials. Here, we present a comprehensive characterization of the ...
Ru/Al Multilayers Integrate Maximum Energy Density and Ductility for Reactive Materials.
Woll, K; Bergamaschi, A; Avchachov, K; Djurabekova, F; Gier, S; Pauly, C; Leibenguth, P; Wagner, C; Nordlund, K; Mücklich, F
2016-01-01
Established and already commercialized energetic materials, such as those based on Ni/Al for joining, lack the adequate combination of high energy density and ductile reaction products. To join components, this combination is required for mechanically reliable bonds. In addition to the improvement of existing technologies, expansion into new fields of application can also be anticipated which triggers the search for improved materials. Here, we present a comprehensive characterization of the key parameters that enables us to classify the Ru/Al system as new reactive material among other energetic systems. We finally found that Ru/Al exhibits the unusual integration of high energy density and ductility. For example, we measured reaction front velocities up to 10.9 (± 0.33) ms(-1) and peak reaction temperatures of about 2000 °C indicating the elevated energy density. To our knowledge, such high temperatures have never been reported in experiments for metallic multilayers. In situ experiments show the synthesis of a single-phase B2-RuAl microstructure ensuring improved ductility. Molecular dynamics simulations corroborate the transformation behavior to RuAl. This study fundamentally characterizes a Ru/Al system and demonstrates its enhanced properties fulfilling the identification requirements of a novel nanoscaled energetic material.
Maximum-Likelihood Sequence Detector for Dynamic Mode High Density Probe Storage
Kumar, Naveen; Ramamoorthy, Aditya; Salapaka, Murti
2009-01-01
There is an ever increasing need for storing data in smaller and smaller form factors driven by the ubiquitous use and increased demands of consumer electronics. A new approach of achieving a few Tb per in2 areal densities, utilizes a cantilever probe with a sharp tip that can be used to deform and assess the topography of the material. The information may be encoded by means of topographic profiles on a polymer medium. The prevalent mode of using the cantilever probe is the static mode that is known to be harsh on the probe and the media. In this paper, the high quality factor dynamic mode operation, which is known to be less harsh on the media and the probe, is analyzed for probe based high density data storage purposes. It is demonstrated that an appropriate level of abstraction is possible that obviates the need for an involved physical model. The read operation is modeled as a communication channel which incorporates the inherent system memory due to the intersymbol interference and the cantilever state ...
Sniegowski, Kristel; Bers, Karolien; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Jaeken, Peter; Spanoghe, Pieter; Springael, Dirk
2012-08-01
Addition of pesticide-primed soil containing adapted pesticide degrading bacteria to the biofilter matrix of on farm biopurification systems (BPS) which treat pesticide contaminated wastewater, has been recommended, in order to ensure rapid establishment of a pesticide degrading microbial community in BPS. However, uncertainties exist about the minimal soil inoculum density needed for successful bioaugmentation of BPS. Therefore, in this study, BPS microcosm experiments were initiated with different linuron primed soil inoculum densities ranging from 0.5 to 50 vol.% and the evolution of the linuron mineralization capacity in the microcosms was monitored during feeding with linuron. Successful establishment of a linuron mineralization community in the BPS microcosms was achieved with all inoculum densities including the 0.5 vol.% density with only minor differences in the time needed to acquire maximum degradation capacity. Moreover, once established, the robustness of the linuron degrading microbial community towards expected stress situations proved to be independent of the initial inoculum density. This study shows that pesticide-primed soil inoculum densities as low as 0.5 vol.% can be used for bioaugmentation of a BPS matrix and further supports the use of BPS for treatment of pesticide-contaminated wastewater at farmyards.
唐保东
2000-01-01
1993年5月，美国总统克林顿在白宫宣布，美国将发展和建立战区导弹防御(TMD)系统。在许多国家对此表示强烈反对和不满的同时，一些国家则纷纷效仿。日本已经正式开始与美国合作研制TMD系统；以色列加快了实施部署TMD的计划；北约成员国频频开会协调
Electron density distribution and bonding in ZnSe and PbSe using maximum entropy method (MEM)
K S Syed Ali; R Saravanan; S Israel; R K Rajaram
2006-04-01
The study of electronic structure of materials and bonding is an important part of material characterization. The maximum entropy method (MEM) is a powerful tool for deriving accurate electron density distribution in crystalline materials using experimental data. In this paper, the attention is focused on producing electron density distribution of ZnSe and PbSe using JCPDS X-ray powder diffraction data. The covalent/ionic nature of the bonding and the interaction between the atoms are clearly revealed by the MEM maps. The mid bond electron densities between atoms in these systems are found to be 0.544 e/Å3 and 0.261 e/Å3, respectively for ZnSe and PbSe. The bonding in these two systems has been studied using two-dimensional MEM electron density maps on the (100) and (110) planes, and the one-dimensional electron density profiles along [100], [110] and [111] directions. The thermal parameters of the individual atoms have also been reported in this work. The algorithm of the MEM procedure has been presented.
Variability of centric relation position in TMD patients.
Zonnenberg, A.J.J.; Mulder, J.
2006-01-01
Reproducibility of the centric relation position for patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is not documented in the current literature. It was the objective of this study to assess clinical variability of the centric relation position for TMD patients with a muscle-determined technique by
Masticatory function in subacute TMD patients before and after treatment.
Pereira, L.J.; Steenks, M.H.; Wijer, A. de; Speksnijder, C.M.; Bilt, A. van der
2009-01-01
Masticatory function can be impaired in temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) patients. We investigated whether treatment of subacute non-specific TMD patients may influence oral function and clinical outcome measures. Fifteen patients with subacute TMD participated in the study. We quantified masticat
TMD evolution and the Higgs transverse momentum distribution
Boer, Daniel; den Dunnen, Wilco J.
2014-01-01
The effect of the linear polarization of gluons on the transverse momentum distribution in Higgs production is studied within the framework of TMD factorization. For this purpose we consider the TMD evolution for general colorless scalar boson production, from the lower mass C-even scalar quarkonium
Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A; Kroupa, Pavel
2012-01-01
We analyze the relationship between maximum cluster mass, M_max, and surface densities of total gas (Sigma_gas), molecular gas (Sigma_H2) and star formation rate (Sigma_SFR) in the flocculent galaxy M33, using published gas data and a catalog of more than 600 young star clusters in its disk. By comparing the radial distributions of gas and most massive cluster masses, we find that M_max is proportional to Sigma_gas^4.7, M_max is proportional Sigma_H2^1.3, and M_max is proportional to Sigma_SFR^1.0. We rule out that these correlations result from the size of sample; hence, the change of the maximum cluster mass must be due to physical causes.
Hwang, J; Carbotte, J P
2014-04-23
We use maximum entropy techniques to extract an electron-phonon density from optical data for the normal state at T = 45 K of MgB2. Limiting the analysis to a range of phonon energies below 110 meV, which is sufficient for capturing all phonon structures, we find a spectral function that is in good agreement with that calculated for the quasi-two-dimensional σ-band. Extending the analysis to higher energies, up to 160 meV, we find no evidence for any additional contributions to the fluctuation spectrum, but find that the data can only be understood if the density of states is taken to decrease with increasing energy.
Velocity adjustable TMD and numerical simulation of seismic performance
Qin Li; Zhou Xiyuan; Yan Weiming
2007-01-01
A new type of velocity adjustable tuned mass damper (TMD) consisting of impulse generators and clutches is presented. The force impulse is generated by a joining operation of electromagnets and springs and MR dampers are used as clutches. Rules for velocity adjustment are established according to the working mechanism of TMD. The analysis program is developed on a VB platform. Seismic response of SDOF structures with both passive TMD and velocity adjustable TMD are analyzed. The results show that (1) the control effectiveness of passive TMDs is usually unstable; (2) the control effectiveness of the proposed semi-active TMDs is much better than passive TMDs under typical seismic ground motions; and (3) unlike the passive TMD system, the proposed velocity adjustable TMDs exhibit good control effectiveness even when the primary structure performance becomes inelastic during severe earthquakes.
TMD FRICTION - a company profile; TMD FRICTION - ein Unternehmen stellt sich vor
Bauer, E.
2000-07-01
TMD FRICTION came into existence in August 2000 by separation of the friction material sector from BBA PLC. This transaction was supported by HSBC PE, the private equity branch of HSBC, the third largest bank world-wide. This report shall give some market background, the current position of the company and information about the strategic orientation of the new group regarding R and D and production - especially against the background of our customers' global activities. (orig.) [German] TMD FRICTION entstand im August 2000 durch Ausgliederung des Reibbelag-Bereichs aus der BBA PLC. Diese Transaktion wurde unterstuetzt durch HSBC, PE, dem Private Equity-Zweig von HSBC, der drittgroessten Bank weltweit. Der Bericht erlaeutert Markthintergruende, die aktuelle Positionierung des Unternehmens und gibt Hinweise auf die strategische Ausrichtung der neuen Gruppierung im Bereich Entwicklung und Produktion - insbesondere vor dem Hintergrund der globalen Ausrichtung unserer Kunden. (orig.)
R Saravanan; K S Syed Ali; S Israel
2008-04-01
The local, average and electronic structure of the semiconducting materials Si and Ge has been studied using multipole, maximum entropy method (MEM) and pair distribution function (PDF) analyses, using X-ray powder data. The covalent nature of bonding and the interaction between the atoms are clearly revealed by the two-dimensional MEM maps plotted on (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) planes and one-dimensional density along [1 0 0], [1 1 0] and [1 1 1] directions. The mid-bond electron densities between the atoms are 0.554 e/Å3 and 0.187 e/Å3 for Si and Ge respectively. In this work, the local structural information has also been obtained by analyzing the atomic pair distribution function. An attempt has been made in the present work to utilize the X-ray powder data sets to refine the structure and electron density distribution using the currently available versatile methods, MEM, multipole analysis and determination of pair distribution function for these two systems.
Dopamine in plasma - a biomarker for myofascial TMD pain?
Dawson, Andreas; Stensson, Niclas; Ghafouri, Bijar; Gerdle, Björn; List, Thomas; Svensson, Peter; Ernberg, Malin
2016-12-01
Dopaminergic pathways could be involved in the pathophysiology of myofascial temporomandibular disorders (M-TMD). This study investigated plasma levels of dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) in patients with M-TMD and in healthy subjects. Fifteen patients with M-TMD and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects participated. The patients had received an M-TMD diagnosis according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD. Perceived mental stress, pain intensity (0-100-mm visual analogue scale), and pressure pain thresholds (PPT, kPa) over the masseter muscles were assessed; a venous blood sample was taken. Dopamine in plasma differed significantly between patients with M-TMD (4.98 ± 2.55 nM) and healthy controls (2.73 ± 1.24 nM; P dopamine in plasma correlated significantly with present pain intensity (r = 0.53, n = 14, P dopamine might be involved in modulating peripheral pain. This finding, in addition to reports in other studies, suggests that dopaminergic pathways could be implicated in the pathophysiology of M-TMD but also in other chronic pain conditions. More research is warranted to elucidate the role of peripheral dopamine in the pathophysiology of chronic pain.
Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A. [On sabbatical leave from the Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, UNAM, Campus Morelia, Michoacan, C.P. 58089, Mexico. (Mexico); Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan; Kroupa, Pavel, E-mail: r.gonzalez@crya.unam.mx [Argelander Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)
2013-06-20
We analyze the relationship between maximum cluster mass and surface densities of total gas ({Sigma}{sub gas}), molecular gas ({Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}}), neutral gas ({Sigma}{sub H{sub I}}), and star formation rate ({Sigma}{sub SFR}) in the grand-design galaxy M51, using published gas data and a catalog of masses, ages, and reddenings of more than 1800 star clusters in its disk, of which 223 are above the cluster mass distribution function completeness limit. By comparing the two-dimensional distribution of cluster masses and gas surface densities, we find for clusters older than 25 Myr that M{sub 3rd}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub H{sub I}{sup 0.4{+-}0.2}}, whereM{sub 3rd} is the median of the five most massive clusters. There is no correlation with{Sigma}{sub gas},{Sigma}{sub H2}, or{Sigma}{sub SFR}. For clusters younger than 10 Myr, M{sub 3rd}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub H{sub I}{sup 0.6{+-}0.1}} and M{sub 3rd}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub gas}{sup 0.5{+-}0.2}; there is no correlation with either {Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}} or{Sigma}{sub SFR}. The results could hardly be more different from those found for clusters younger than 25 Myr in M33. For the flocculent galaxy M33, there is no correlation between maximum cluster mass and neutral gas, but we have determined M{sub 3rd}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub gas}{sup 3.8{+-}0.3}, M{sub 3rd}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}{sup 1.2{+-}0.1}}, and M{sub 3rd}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub SFR}{sup 0.9{+-}0.1}. For the older sample in M51, the lack of tight correlations is probably due to the combination of strong azimuthal variations in the surface densities of gas and star formation rate, and the cluster ages. These two facts mean that neither the azimuthal average of the surface densities at a given radius nor the surface densities at the present-day location of a stellar cluster represent the true surface densities at the place and time of cluster formation. In the case of the younger sample, even if the clusters have not yet
Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A; Kroupa, Pavel
2013-01-01
We analyze the relationship between maximum cluster mass, and surface densities of total gas (Sigma_gas), molecular gas (Sigma_H_2), neutral gas (Sigma_HI) and star formation rate (Sigma_SFR) in the grand design galaxy M51, using published gas data and a catalog of masses, ages, and reddenings of more than 1800 star clusters in its disk, of which 223 are above the cluster mass distribution function completeness limit. We find for clusters older than 25 Myr that M_3rd, the median of the 5 most massive clusters, is proportional to Sigma_HI^0.4. There is no correlation with Sigma_gas, Sigma_H2, or Sigma_SFR. For clusters younger than 10 Myr, M_3rd is proportional to Sigma_HI^0.6, M_3rd is proportional to Sigma_gas^0.5; there is no correlation with either Sigma_H_2 or Sigma_SFR. The results could hardly be more different than those found for clusters younger than 25 Myr in M33. For the flocculent galaxy M33, there is no correlation between maximum cluster mass and neutral gas, but M_3rd is proportional to Sigma_g...
Ke, Xinyou; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Prahl, Joseph M.; Savinell, Robert F.
2014-12-01
Flow batteries show promise for very large-scale stationary energy storage such as needed for the grid and renewable energy implementation. In recent years, researchers and developers of redox flow batteries (RFBs) have found that electrode and flow field designs of PEM fuel cell (PEMFC) technology can increase the power density and consequently push down the cost of flow battery stacks. In this paper we present a macroscopic model of a typical PEMFC-like RFB electrode-flow field design. The model is a layered system comprised of a single passage of a serpentine flow channel and a parallel underlying porous electrode (or porous layer). The effects of the inlet volumetric flow rate, permeability of the porous layer, thickness of the porous layer and thickness of the flow channel on the flow penetration into the porous layer are investigated. The maximum current density corresponding to stoichiometry is estimated to be 377 mA cm-2 and 724 mA cm-2, which compares favorably with experiments of ∼400 mA cm-2 and ∼750 mA cm-2, for a single layer and three layers of the carbon fiber paper, respectively.
Dynamic Characteristics of TMD Based on DDMF and ADMF%基于DDMF和ADMF的TMD动力特性
李春祥
2002-01-01
The research is carried out on the sensitivity in the TMD dynamic characteristics to the structural modal par-ticipation factor in an attempt to design TMD for MDOF structure directly using the optimum parameters of TMD forSDOF structure. The displacement and acceleration dynamic magnification factors (i. e. DDMF and ADMF) of theSDOF structure with TMD are defined and their explicit formulas are derived in the case of considering the structuralmodal participation factor. The criteria for the optimum searching are then the minimization of the minimum values ofthe maximum displacement and acceleration dynamic magnification factors (i.e. Min. Min. Max. DDMF and Min. Min.Max. ADMF). In light of the criteria, numerical results for the optimum parameters and effectiveness of TMD with re-spect to the different structural modal participation factors are presented and evaluated. And, a designer can now easilydetermine the TMD parameters for an MDOF structure.%为试图利用适用于单自由度结构的TMD最优参数来设计用于多自由度结构振动控制的TMD,研究了TMD动力特性对结构振型参与系数的敏感性.考虑结构的振型参与系数,导出了设置TMD结构的位移和加速度动力放大系数(DDMF和ADMF)的解析表达式.于是TMD的优化准则定义为:结构的位移和加速度最大动力放大系数的最小值的最小化(Min.Min.Max.DDMF和Min.Min.Max.ADMF).根据选择的优化准则,得到了不同结构振型参与系数的TMD最优参数和控制效果,并给予评价.现在,设计者可以容易地设计用于多自由度结构振动控制的TMD.
Wieckiewicz, Mieszko; Grychowska, Natalia; Wojciechowski, Kamil; Pelc, Anna; Augustyniak, Michal; Sleboda, Aleksandra; Zietek, Marek
2014-01-01
The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and oral parafunctions, as well as their correlation with psychoemotional factors in Polish university students. The research was conducted in a group of 456 students (N = 456). The examination form comprised of two parts: survey and clinical examination. The research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD) was used in order to assess TMD. Symptoms of TMD were observed in 246 (54%) students after clinical examination. The largest group involved students with disc displacement (women: 132, 29%; men: 70, 15%). Women (164; 36%) suffered more frequently than men (82; 18%) from problems related to the stomatognathic system (P < 0.05), described themselves as easily excitable and emotionally burdened, and reported symptoms as tightness of the facial and neck muscles (P < 0.05). In 289 (64%) students intraoral symptoms concerning occlusal parafunctions were observed. In 404 (89%) examined students, nonocclusal parafunctions were recorded. A significant correlation between TMD and psychoemotional problems could be detected. TMD symptoms more often concern women. Emotional burden and excitability are factors predisposing muscular disorders.
Mieszko Wieckiewicz
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD and oral parafunctions, as well as their correlation with psychoemotional factors in Polish university students. The research was conducted in a group of 456 students (N=456. The examination form comprised of two parts: survey and clinical examination. The research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD was used in order to assess TMD. Symptoms of TMD were observed in 246 (54% students after clinical examination. The largest group involved students with disc displacement (women: 132, 29%; men: 70, 15%. Women (164; 36% suffered more frequently than men (82; 18% from problems related to the stomatognathic system (P<0.05, described themselves as easily excitable and emotionally burdened, and reported symptoms as tightness of the facial and neck muscles (P<0.05. In 289 (64% students intraoral symptoms concerning occlusal parafunctions were observed. In 404 (89% examined students, nonocclusal parafunctions were recorded. A significant correlation between TMD and psychoemotional problems could be detected. TMD symptoms more often concern women. Emotional burden and excitability are factors predisposing muscular disorders.
Osiewicz, M.A.; Lobbezoo, F.; Loster, B.W.; Wilkosz, M.; Naeije, M.; Ohrbach, R.
2013-01-01
Aim of the study. To describe steps taken to conduct a formal forward translation/back-translation from English to Polish, and to establish the cultural equivalence of the Polish version of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). This will be preceded by a brief h
Rapidity renormalized TMD soft and beam functions at two loops
Luebbert, Thomas [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Oredsson, Joel [DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics; Stahlhofen, Maximilian [DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Mainz Univ. (Germany). PRISMA Cluster of Excellence
2016-03-15
We compute the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) soft function for the production of a color-neutral final state at the LHC within the rapidity renormalization group (RRG) framework to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). We use this result to extract the universal renormalized TMD beam functions (aka TMDPDFs) in the same scheme and at the same order from known results in another scheme. We derive recurrence relations for the logarithmic structure of the soft and beam functions, which we use to cross check our calculation. We also explicitly confirm the non-Abelian exponentiation of the TMD soft function in the RRG framework at two loops. Our results provide the ingredients for resummed predictions of p {sub perpendicular} {sub to} -differential cross sections at NNLL' in the RRG formalism. The RRG provides a systematic framework to resum large (rapidity) logarithms through (R)RG evolution and assess the associated perturbative uncertainties.
Francisco Cervantes-Navarro
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The Minnesota family of density functionals (M05, M05-2X, M06, M06L, M06-2X, and M06-HF were evaluated for the calculation of the UV-Vis spectra of the indigo molecule in solvents of different polarities using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT and the polarized continuum model (PCM. The maximum absorption wavelengths predicted for each functional were compared with the known experimental results.
2015-01-01
Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are a collective term given to a number of clinical problems that involve the masticatory musculature, the temporomandibular joints and associated structures, or both. Although the aetiology of TMD has not been fully understood, in general it is considered to be multifactorial. The signs and symptoms of TMD which present in patients with natural teeth may also occur in edentulous patients. These symptoms may appear in various combinations and degrees. TMD has...
Correlation between TMD and Cervical Spine Pain and Mobility: Is the Whole Body Balance TMJ Related?
Karolina Walczyńska-Dragon; Stefan Baron; Aleksandra Nitecka-Buchta; Ewaryst Tkacz
2014-01-01
Temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) is considered to be associated with imbalance of the whole body. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of TMD therapy on cervical spine range of movement (ROM) and reduction of spinal pain. The study group consisted of 60 patients with TMD, cervical spine pain, and limited cervical spine range of movements. Subjects were interviewed by a questionnaire about symptoms of TMD and neck pain and had also masticatory motor system physically examined (accordi...
Myoelectric manifestations of jaw elevator muscle fatigue and recovery in healthy and TMD subjects.
Castroflorio, T; Falla, D; Tartaglia, G M; Sforza, C; Deregibus, A
2012-09-01
The effects of muscle pain and fatigue on the control of jaw elevator muscles are not well known. Furthermore, the myoelectric manifestations of fatigue and recovery from fatigue in the masticatory muscles are not reported in literature. The main aims of this study were (i) to evaluate the possible use of surface electromyography (sEMG) as an objective measure of fatigue of the jaw elevator muscles, (ii) to compare the myoelectric manifestations of fatigue in the temporalis anterior and masseter muscles bilaterally, (iii) to assess recovery of the investigated muscles after an endurance test and (iv) to compare fatigue and recovery of the jaw elevator muscles in healthy subjects and patients with muscle-related temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The study was performed on twenty healthy volunteers and eighteen patients with muscle-related TMD. An intra-oral compressive-force sensor was used to measure the voluntary contraction forces close to the intercuspal position and to provide visual feedback of submaximal forces to the subject. Surface EMG signals were recorded with linear electrode arrays during isometric contractions at 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of the maximum voluntary contraction force, during an endurance test and during the recovery phase. The results showed that (i) the slope of the mean power spectral frequency (MNF) and the initial average rectified value (ARV) could be used to monitor fatigue of the jaw elevators, (ii) the temporalis anterior and masseter muscle show the same myoelectric manifestations of fatigue and recovery and (iii) the initial values of MNF and ARV were lower in patients with muscle-related TMD. The assessment of myoelectric manifestations of fatigue in the masticatory muscles may assist in the clinical assessment of TMDs.
Signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and craniofacial form
Dibbets, JMH; vanderWeele, LT
1996-01-01
Signs and symptoms attributed to temporomandibular disorder (TMD) were registered in 170 persons at an average age of 12.5 years. One hundred and ten were reexamined at an average age of 26.4 years. Craniofacial form was defined on standardized lateral cephalograms, taken at the time points mentione
Signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and craniofacial form
Dibbets, JMH; vanderWeele, LT
Signs and symptoms attributed to temporomandibular disorder (TMD) were registered in 170 persons at an average age of 12.5 years. One hundred and ten were reexamined at an average age of 26.4 years. Craniofacial form was defined on standardized lateral cephalograms, taken at the time points
Krzysztof Woźniak
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the influence of unilateral posterior crossbite on the electrical activity of the temporal and masseter muscles in patients with subjective symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunctions (TMD. The sample consisted of 50 patients (22 female and 28 male aged 18.4 to 26.3 years (mean 20.84, SD 1.14 with subjective symptoms of TMD and unilateral posterior crossbite malocclusion and 100 patients without subjective symptoms of TMD and malocclusion (54 female and 46 male aged between 18.4 and 28.7 years (mean 21.42, SD 1.06. The anamnestic interviews were conducted according to a three-point anamnestic index of temporomandibular dysfunction (Ai. Electromyographical (EMG recordings were performed using a DAB-Bluetooth Instrument (Zebris Medical GmbH, Germany. Recordings were carried out in the mandibular rest position and during maximum voluntary contraction (MVC. Analysis of the results of the EMG recordings confirmed the influence of unilateral posterior crossbite on variations in spontaneous muscle activity in the mandibular rest position and maximum voluntary contraction. In addition, there was a significant increase in the Asymmetry Index (As and Torque Coefficient (Tc, responsible for a laterodeviating effect on the mandible caused by unbalanced right and left masseter and temporal muscles.
Perception of the relationship between TMD and orthodontic treatment among orthodontists
Thaís Gonzalez da Silveira Coêlho
2015-02-01
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The consensus about the relationship between TMD and orthodontic treatment has gone from a cause and effect association between TMD and orthodontic treatment to the idea that there is no reliable evidence supporting this statement. OBJECTIVE: To assess the beliefs, despite scientific evidence, of Brazilian orthodontists about the relationship between TMD and orthodontic treatment with regards to treatment, prevention and etiology of TMD. METHODS: A survey about the relationship between TMD and orthodontic treatment was prepared and sent to Brazilian orthodontists by e-mail and social networks. Answers were treated by means of descriptive statistics and strong associations between variables were assessed by qui-square test. RESULTS: The majority of orthodontists believe that orthodontic treatment not only is not the best treatment option for TMD, but also is not able to prevent TMD. Nevertheless, the majority of orthodontists believe that orthodontic treatment can cause TMD symptoms. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that orthodontists' beliefs about the relationship between orthodontic treatment and TMD are in accordance with scientific evidence only when referring to treatment and prevention of TMD. The majority of orthodontists believe that, despite scientific evidence, orthodontic treatment can cause TMD.
Johnston, James D. [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); University of British Columbia, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kontulainen, Saija A. [University of Saskatchewan, College of Kinesiology, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Masri, Bassam A.; Wilson, David R. [University of British Columbia, Department of Orthopaedics, Vancouver, BC (Canada)
2010-09-15
The objective was to identify subchondral bone density differences between normal and osteoarthritic (OA) proximal tibiae using computed tomography osteoabsorptiometry (CT-OAM) and computed tomography topographic mapping of subchondral density (CT-TOMASD). Sixteen intact cadaver knees from ten donors (8 male:2 female; mean age:77.8, SD:7.4 years) were categorized as normal (n = 10) or OA (n = 6) based upon CT reconstructions. CT-OAM assessed maximum subchondral bone mineral density (BMD). CT-TOMASD assessed average subchondral BMD across three layers (0-2.5, 2.5-5 and 5-10 mm) measured in relation to depth from the subchondral surface. Regional analyses of CT-OAM and CT-TOMASD included: medial BMD, lateral BMD, and average BMD of a 10-mm diameter area that searched each medial and lateral plateau for the highest ''focal'' density present within each knee. Compared with normal knees, both CT-OAM and CT-TOMASD demonstrated an average of 17% greater whole medial compartment density in OA knees (p < 0.016). CT-OAM did not distinguish focal density differences between OA and normal knees (p > 0.05). CT-TOMASD focal region analyses revealed an average of 24% greater density in the 0- to 2.5-mm layer (p = 0.003) and 36% greater density in the 2.5- to 5-mm layer (p = 0.034) in OA knees. Both CT-OAM and TOMASD identified higher medial compartment density in OA tibiae compared with normal tibiae. In addition, CT-TOMASD indicated greater focal density differences between normal and OA knees with increased depth from the subchondral surface. Depth-specific density analyses may help identify and quantify small changes in subchondral BMD associated with OA disease onset and progression. (orig.)
Recent Results of TMD Measurements from Jefferson Lab Hall A
Jiang, Xiaodong [LANL
2013-10-01
This slide-show presents results on transverse momentum distributions. The presentation covers: target single-spin asymmetry (SSA) (in parity conserving interactions); • Results of JLab Hall A polarized {sup 3}He target TMD measurement; • Semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering channels (E06-010); • Target single-spin asymmetry A{sub UT}, Collins and Sivers SSA on neutron; • Double-spin asymmetry A{sub LT}, extract TMD g{sub 1T} on neutron; • Inclusive channels SSA (E06-010, E05-015, E07-013) • Target SSA: inclusive {sup 3}He(e,e’) quasi-elastic scattering; • Target SSA: inclusive {sup 3}He(e,e’) deep inelastic-elastic scattering; • New SIDIS experiments planned in Hall-A for JLab-12 GeV.
Monaco, James Peter; Madabhushi, Anant
2011-07-01
The ability of classification systems to adjust their performance (sensitivity/specificity) is essential for tasks in which certain errors are more significant than others. For example, mislabeling cancerous lesions as benign is typically more detrimental than mislabeling benign lesions as cancerous. Unfortunately, methods for modifying the performance of Markov random field (MRF) based classifiers are noticeably absent from the literature, and thus most such systems restrict their performance to a single, static operating point (a paired sensitivity/specificity). To address this deficiency we present weighted maximum posterior marginals (WMPM) estimation, an extension of maximum posterior marginals (MPM) estimation. Whereas the MPM cost function penalizes each error equally, the WMPM cost function allows misclassifications associated with certain classes to be weighted more heavily than others. This creates a preference for specific classes, and consequently a means for adjusting classifier performance. Realizing WMPM estimation (like MPM estimation) requires estimates of the posterior marginal distributions. The most prevalent means for estimating these--proposed by Marroquin--utilizes a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. Though Marroquin's method (M-MCMC) yields estimates that are sufficiently accurate for MPM estimation, they are inadequate for WMPM. To more accurately estimate the posterior marginals we present an equally simple, but more effective extension of the MCMC method (E-MCMC). Assuming an identical number of iterations, E-MCMC as compared to M-MCMC yields estimates with higher fidelity, thereby 1) allowing a far greater number and diversity of operating points and 2) improving overall classifier performance. To illustrate the utility of WMPM and compare the efficacies of M-MCMC and E-MCMC, we integrate them into our MRF-based classification system for detecting cancerous glands in (whole-mount or quarter) histological sections of the prostate.
TMD evolution and the Higgs transverse momentum distribution
Daniël Boer
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The effect of the linear polarization of gluons on the transverse momentum distribution in Higgs production is studied within the framework of TMD factorization. For this purpose we consider the TMD evolution for general colorless scalar boson production, from the lower mass C-even scalar quarkonium states χc0 and χb0 to the Higgs mass scale. In the absence of an intrinsic nonperturbative linearly polarized gluon distribution the results correspond to the CSS formalism, indicating a rather rapid decrease with increasing energy scale. At the Higgs mass scale the contribution from linearly polarized gluons is in this case found to be on the percent level, somewhat larger than an earlier finding in the literature. At the lower mass scale of quarkonium states χc0 and χb0 we find contributions at the 15–70% level, albeit with considerable uncertainty. In the presence of an intrinsic linear gluon polarization, percent level effects are also found at the Higgs mass scale, but with a considerably slower evolution. Although these results were obtained using a model for the TMDs that are approximately Gaussian at small transverse momenta and have the correct perturbative power law fall-off at large transverse momenta, it illustrates well the differences that can exist between results obtained from a TMD formalism as compared to a CSS formalism. The behavior of the TMDs at small pT can affect the results for all transverse momenta of the produced boson, even for a particle as heavy as the Higgs. The TMD evolution from χc0 to χb0 may be used to constrain the nonperturbative contributions and improve on the prediction of the effect at the Higgs mass scale.
Orthodontics as a risk factor for temporomandibular disorders (TMD). II.
Kremenak, C R; Kinser, D D; Melcher, T J; Wright, G R; Harrison, S D; Ziaja, R R; Harman, H A; Ordahl, J N; Demro, J G; Menard, C C
1992-01-01
Debate about orthodontic treatment as a risk factor for temporomandibular disorders (TMD) led to this study. This report, the second in a series, concerns findings from a longitudinal study in which 30 new orthodontic patients have been enrolled annually since 1983. The method of Helkimo was used to collect TMD data before initiation of orthodontic treatment, and at annual intervals after debanding. Treatment was by fixed edgewise appliances. Data from a pretreatment and at least one posttreatment Helkimo examination were available for 109 patients. Follow-up data were available for 92 patients in the first year after debanding, with the corresponding sample sizes declining to 56, 33, 19, 11, and 7 for the second through the sixth posttreatment years, respectively. Primary analyses involved comparison of mean scores from the Helkimo 25-point dysfunction index scale. There were no significant differences between mean pretreatment and posttreatment Helkimo scores for any of the various groupings except for small, clinically unimportant improvements seen in the 12 to 24 month subgroup of 55 patients and in the 48 to 60 month subgroup of 11 patients. With average follow-up time of about 2 years for the 109 patients, 90% had Helkimo scores that stayed the same or improved, and 10% had scores that increased or worsened from 2 to 5 Helkimo points. We conclude that the orthodontic treatment experienced by our sample was not an important etiologic factor for TMD.
Schiffman, E.; Ohrbach, R.; Truelove, E.; Look, J.; Anderson, G.; Goulet, J.P.; List, T.; Svensson, P.; Gonzalez, Y.; Lobbezoo, F.; Michelotti, A.; Brooks, S.L.; Ceusters, W.; Drangsholt, M.; Ettlin, D.; Gaul, C.; Goldberg, L.J.; Haythornthwaite, J.A.; Hollender, L.; Jensen, R.; John, M.T.; De Laat, A.; de Leeuw, R.; Maixner, W.; van der Meulen, M.; Murray, G.M.; Nixdorf, D.R.; Palla, S.; Petersson, A.; Pionchon, P.; Smith, B.; Visscher, C.M.; Zakrzewska, J.; Dworkin, S.F.
2014-01-01
AIMS: The original Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) Axis I diagnostic algorithms have been demonstrated to be reliable. However, the Validation Project determined that the RDC/TMD Axis I validity was below the target sensitivity of ≥ 0.70 and specificity of ≥ 0.
Role of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in facial pain: occlusion, muscle and TMJ pain.
Rauhala, K; Oikarinen, K S; Raustia, A M
1999-10-01
Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) which comprise myogenic and arthralgic components have been reported to predispose subjects to headache and facial pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of these components in patients with facial pain and to investigate the influence of treatment of TMD on pain of these patients. The subject group consisted of 25 patients suffering from facial pain. The clinical stomatognathic examination was performed before conservative treatment of TMD, and one-two weeks, three months and one year after treatment. The severity of TMD was assessed using the anamnestic (AI) and clinical dysfunction (DI) indices of Helkimo. The intensity of pain was evaluated on a numerical rating scale (NRS). According to clinical findings the patients were classified to following diagnostic subgroups: TMD myo (mainly myogenic), TMD arthro (mainly arthrogenous) and TMD comb (both myogenic and arthrogenous components involved). Fifteen patients were classified in the TMD myo group, nine in the TMD comb group and one in the TMD arthro group. The DI index decreased significantly one-two weeks after treatment and remained at this level at three month and one year follow-up examinations. At the first examination the TMD myo group had the highest level of NRS index, which decreased significantly during the time of follow-up, while no significant changes were found in other groups. Bruxism reported by the patient had a positive correlation with the amount of painful muscles on the right side at first examination. The results show that facial pain combined with TMD may be mostly of myogenic origin, and myogenic pain seems to have most favorable response to conservative treatment of TMD.
Sørli, Ida Kathrine Birkelund; Torsdatter, Kristine
2011-01-01
Aims: The purpose of our study is to systematically review the literature concerning prevalence, risk factors and diagnostics of TMD in children and adolescents in order to find methods for early detection. Through our study we hope to direct dentists to an evidence-based approach concerning children and adolescents by making a screening guideline. Material and methods: Systematic search of the dental literature was performed via Pubmed and using Google search engine. Unsystematic search w...
Basic Requirements of Tuned Mass Damper for Bridges and the Eddy Current TMD%桥梁用TMD的基本要求与电涡流TMD
陈政清; 黄智文; 王建辉; 牛华伟
2013-01-01
The performances of traditional tuned mass damper (TMD) intended for suppressing the vortex-induced oscillation of bridges were invesitgated.In order to improve the robustness of traditional TMD,multiple tuned mass dampers (MTMD) theory was proposed to design TMDs.Furthermore,a new damper,namely the eddy current damper,was developed to repalce traditional oil damper as the damping producer of TMD,so the fatigue life-span of TMD was greatly extended.The parameter design of MTMD was realized by making use of genetic algorithm.And the results of comparison between TMD and MTMD have indicated that MTMD is superior to TMD,when their effectiveness and robustness are of equivalent importance in design.Both experiments and engineering practice of eddy current TMD were successfully conducted,showing a promising future of eddy current TMD in the field of bridge vibration control.%总结了传统调谐质量阻尼器(TMD)在涡激振动控制中的工作性能,提出运用多重调谐质量阻尼器(MTMD)理论进行TMD设计,提高振动控制的鲁棒性;开发了电涡流阻尼器取代传统油阻尼器作为TMD的阻尼发生装置,延长TMD的疲劳寿命.利用遗传算法实现了MTMD的参数优化设计,与TMD的比较表明,MTMD在控制效率和鲁棒性方面具有更优越的综合性能.电涡流TMD在试验和实际工程中的成功应用表明电涡流TMD在桥梁振动控制领域具有广阔的应用前景.
Mapelli, A; Machado, B C Z; Garcia, D M; Rodrigues Da Silva, M A M; Sforza, C; de Felício, C M
2016-11-01
The study investigated whether chronic TMD patients with disc displacement with reduction (DDR), performing non-assisted maximum jaw movements, presented any changes in their mandibular kinematics with respect to an age-matched control group. Moreover, it was examined whether jaw kinematics and a valid clinic measure of oro-facial functional status have significant associations. Maximum mouth opening, mandible protrusion and bilateral laterotrusions were performed by 20 patients (18 women, 2 men; age, 18-34 years) and 20 healthy controls (17 women, 3 men; age, 20-31 years). The three-dimensional coordinates of their mandibular interincisor and condylar reference points were recorded by means of an optoelectronic motion analyser and were used to quantitatively assess their range of motion, velocity, symmetry and synchrony. Three functional indices (opening-closing, mandibular rototranslation, laterotrusion - right and left - and protrusion) were devised to summarise subject's overall performance, and their correlation with the outcome of a clinical protocol, the oro-facial myofunctional evaluation with scores (OMES), was investigated. TMD patients were able to reach maximum excursions of jaw movements comparable to healthy subjects' performances. However, their opening and closing mandibular movements were characterised by remarkable asynchrony of condylar translation. They had also reduced jaw closing velocity and asymmetric laterotrusions. The functional indices proved to well summarise the global condition of jaw kinematics, highlighting the presence of alterations in TMD-DDR patients, and were linearly correlated with the oro-facial functional status. The jaw kinematic alterations seem to reflect both oro-facial motor behaviour adaptation and a DDR-related articular impairment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mello, Pier A.; Shi, Zhou; Genack, Azriel Z.
2016-08-01
We study the average energy - or particle - density of waves inside disordered 1D multiply-scattering media. We extend the transfer-matrix technique that was used in the past for the calculation of the intensity beyond the sample to study the intensity in the interior of the sample by considering the transfer matrices of the two segments that form the entire waveguide. The statistical properties of the two disordered segments are found using a maximum-entropy ansatz subject to appropriate constraints. The theoretical expressions are shown to be in excellent agreement with 1D transfer-matrix simulations.
Occlussion and Other Factors of Importance for Temporomandibular Disorders/TMD
Carlsson, G.E.
2002-01-01
The relationship between occlusal factors and the health of the masticatory system has been one of the most controversial areas in dentistry. For many years the dental profession believed that occlusal interferences would lead to TMD. However, this opinion has gradually weakened since there is a lack of convincing evidence supporting this relationship. Several treatments not related to dental occlusion have also proved to be effective in management of TMD. At present, most so-called TMD ex...
Schiffman, Eric; Ohrbach, Richard; Truelove, Edmond; Look, John; Anderson, Gary; Goulet, Jean-Paul; List, Thomas; Svensson, Peter; Gonzalez, Yoly; Lobbezoo, Frank; Michelotti, Ambra; Brooks, Sharon L.; Ceusters, Werner; Drangsholt, Mark; Ettlin, Dominik; Gaul, Charly; Goldberg, Louis J.; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.; Hollender, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor; John, Mike T.; De Laat, Antoon; de Leeuw, Reny; Maixner, William; van der Meulen, Marylee; Murray, Greg M.; Nixdorf, Donald R.; Palla, Sandro; Petersson, Arne; Pionchon, Paul; Smith, Barry; Visscher, Corine M.; Zakrzewska, Joanna; Dworkin, Samuel F.
2015-01-01
Aims The original Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) Axis I diagnostic algorithms have been demonstrated to be reliable. However, the Validation Project determined that the RDC/TMD Axis I validity was below the target sensitivity of ≥ 0.70 and specificity of ≥ 0.95. Consequently, these empirical results supported the development of revised RDC/TMD Axis I diagnostic algorithms that were subsequently demonstrated to be valid for the most common pain-related TMD and for one temporomandibular joint (TMJ) intra-articular disorder. The original RDC/TMD Axis II instruments were shown to be both reliable and valid. Working from these findings and revisions, two international consensus workshops were convened, from which recommendations were obtained for the finalization of new Axis I diagnostic algorithms and new Axis II instruments. Methods Through a series of workshops and symposia, a panel of clinical and basic science pain experts modified the revised RDC/TMD Axis I algorithms by using comprehensive searches of published TMD diagnostic literature followed by review and consensus via a formal structured process. The panel's recommendations for further revision of the Axis I diagnostic algorithms were assessed for validity by using the Validation Project's data set, and for reliability by using newly collected data from the ongoing TMJ Impact Project—the follow-up study to the Validation Project. New Axis II instruments were identified through a comprehensive search of the literature providing valid instruments that, relative to the RDC/TMD, are shorter in length, are available in the public domain, and currently are being used in medical settings. Results The newly recommended Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (DC/TMD) Axis I protocol includes both a valid screener for detecting any pain-related TMD as well as valid diagnostic criteria for differentiating the most common pain-related TMD (sensitivity ≥ 0.86, specificity ≥ 0
Application of friction in P-TMD%摩擦力在P-TMD中的应用
田志昌; 王俊臣; 马志忠
2001-01-01
替代P-TMD中的粘滞阻尼的摩擦力的取值问题属于非线性问题.用数值分析方法研究了TMD的摩擦力对结构和TMD自身响应的影响，以及最优取值问题.%The problem of the friction value replacing the bond damper in P-TMD is non-linear.The effect of the friction of TMD on the structure and TMD itself as well as the optimal coefficient of TMD are studied by applying the method of numerical analysis.
Livingston, Richard A.; Jin, Shuang
2005-05-01
Bridges and other civil structures can exhibit nonlinear and/or chaotic behavior under ambient traffic or wind loadings. The probability density function (pdf) of the observed structural responses thus plays an important role for long-term structural health monitoring, LRFR and fatigue life analysis. However, the actual pdf of such structural response data often has a very complicated shape due to its fractal nature. Various conventional methods to approximate it can often lead to biased estimates. This paper presents recent research progress at the Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center of the FHWA in applying a novel probabilistic scaling scheme for enhanced maximum entropy evaluation to find the most unbiased pdf. The maximum entropy method is applied with a fractal interpolation formulation based on contraction mappings through an iterated function system (IFS). Based on a fractal dimension determined from the entire response data set by an algorithm involving the information dimension, a characteristic uncertainty parameter, called the probabilistic scaling factor, can be introduced. This allows significantly enhanced maximum entropy evaluation through the added inferences about the fine scale fluctuations in the response data. Case studies using the dynamic response data sets collected from a real world bridge (Commodore Barry Bridge, PA) and from the simulation of a classical nonlinear chaotic system (the Lorenz system) are presented in this paper. The results illustrate the advantages of the probabilistic scaling method over conventional approaches for finding the unbiased pdf especially in the critical tail region that contains the larger structural responses.
Chiappe, G; Fantoni, F; Landi, N; Biondi, K; Bosco, M
2009-05-01
The purpose of this study is to quantify the clinical value of 12 occlusal variables for the prediction of disc displacement with reduction diagnosed according to research diagnostic criteria (RDC)/temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Twelve occlusal features were clinically assessed by the same three operators. The sample consisted of 165 TMD patients (65 males, 100 females; mean age: 32.55 +/-11.685 years) with only disc displacement with reduction (RDC/TMD Axis I group IIa) and a control sample of 145 healthy subjects (65 males, 80 females; mean age:31.24+/-12.436 years) diagnosed with RDC/TMD Axis I group 0. A stepwise multiple logistic regression model was used to identify the significant correlation between occlusal features and disease. The odds ratio for disc displacement was 2.84 for absence of canine guidance, 2.14 for mediotrusive interference and 1.75 for retruded contact position (RCP)/maximum intercuspation (MI) slide >or=2 mm. Other occlusal variables did not reveal to be statistically significant. The percentage of the total log likelihood for disc displacement explained by the significant occlusal factors was acceptable with a Nagelkerke's R(2) = 0.124. The final model including the significant occlusal features revealed an optimal discriminant capacity to predict patients with disc displacement with a sensitivity of 63.6% or with a specificity of 64.8% for healthy subjects and an accuracy of 64.2%. Occlusal features showed a low predictive value for detecting disc displacement. Multifactorial complex pathologies such as TMD should be investigated using a multivariate statistical analysis; moreover,the future of aetiopathogenic research in this matter requires a multifactorial approach.
Orthodontic risk factors for temporomandibular disorders (TMD). I: Premolar extractions.
Kremenak, C R; Kinser, D D; Harman, H A; Menard, C C; Jakobsen, J R
1992-01-01
Concern about claims that premolar extractions may put patients at risk for temporomandibular disorders (TMD) led to this study. We report first findings from a longitudinal study of orthodontic patients begun in 1983. By using the methods of Helkimo, we collected TMD data before initiation of orthodontic treatment, between 0 and 12 months after debanding, and 12 to 24 months after debanding. Analyses related Helkimo scores with premolar extractions in 65 patients for whom orthodontic treatment had been completed. Twenty-six patients were treated without premolar extractions, 25 had four premolars extracted, and 14 had two upper premolars extracted. Tests for significance of differences between mean Helkimo scores were conducted for the nonextraction group compared with the extraction groups, and between pretreatment and posttreatment Helkimo scores for each group. Results included: (1) no significant intergroup differences between mean pretreatment or posttreatment scores, and (2) small but statistically significant (p less than 0.05) differences (in the direction of improvement) between mean pretreatment and posttreatment scores for both the nonextraction group and for the four premolar extraction group.
Abdelnabi, Mohamed H; Swelem, Amal A
2015-09-01
The influence of complete denture occlusion on temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is controversial. Some studies found that defective occlusion contributes to the development of TMD, while others found no correlation. This prospective controlled study evaluated the relationship between renewal of old defective complete dentures and TMD as evidenced both by clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. The study included 25 complete denture patients with signs and symptoms of TMD and 21 asymptomatic controls. Clicking was a common finding in all symptomatic joints. All selected participants needed complete denture renewal. MRI and clinical assessment following research diagnostic criteria for TMD guidelines (RDC/TMD) were carried out at baseline and 2 years after new complete denture insertion. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain, muscle pain, clicking and movement limitation were the assessed signs and symptoms. MRIs were conducted to evaluate the TMJs for disc displacement, disc morphology and joint effusion. Complete denture renewal significantly improved the signs and symptoms of TMD in symptomatic group (p dentures did not affect disc morphology in both groups (p = 0.5 for both groups) but significantly reduced joint effusion in the symptomatic group (symptomatic p complete dentures had a positive impact on TMD signs and symptoms, disc position and joint effusion but not on disc morphology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
TMD PDFs. A Monte Carlo implementation for the sea quark distribution
Hautmann, F. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Theoretical Physics; Hentschinski, M. [Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC; Jung, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)
2012-05-15
This article gives an introduction to transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions and their use in shower Monte Carlo event generators for high-energy hadron collisions, and describes recent progress in the treatment of sea quark effects within a TMD parton-shower framework.
Pijn in de kaken tijdens kauwen: diagnostiek van temporomandibulaire disfunctie (TMD)
Visscher, C.; Lobbezoo, F.; Naeije, M.; Calders, P.; Geraets, J.J.X.R.; Nijs, J.; Veenhof, C.; van Wegen, E.E.H.; van Wilgen, C.P.
2012-01-01
De term temporomandibulaire disfunctie (TMD) is een verzamelnaam voor verschillende pijnaandoeningen en functiestoornissen van de kauwspieren en het kaakgewricht. De verschillende TMD-subdiagnoses worden gesteld op basis van gegevens uit een anamnese en een klinisch onderzoek van het kauwstelsel. In
TMD PDFs. A Monte Carlo implementation for the sea quark distribution
Hautmann, F. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Theoretical Physics; Hentschinski, M. [Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC; Jung, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)
2012-05-15
This article gives an introduction to transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions and their use in shower Monte Carlo event generators for high-energy hadron collisions, and describes recent progress in the treatment of sea quark effects within a TMD parton-shower framework.
TMD PDFs: a Monte Carlo implementation for the sea quark distribution
Hautmann, F; Jung, H
2012-01-01
This article gives an introduction to transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions and their use in shower Monte Carlo event generators for high-energy hadron collisions, and describes recent progress in the treatment of sea quark effects within a TMD parton-shower framework.
Luther, F
1998-08-01
In this second of two articles, the role of occlusion and malocclusion is assessed with respect to orthodontics and temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Some have suggested that malocclusion may cause TMD, or that by introducing a form of malocclusion, orthodontic treatment could be iatrogenic. Pertinent evidence relating to these issues will be assessed.
Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD) for Clinical and Research Applications
Schiffman, Eric; Ohrbach, Richard; Truelove, Edmond
2014-01-01
AIMS: The original Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) Axis I diagnostic algorithms have been demonstrated to be reliable. However, the Validation Project determined that the RDC/TMD Axis I validity was below the target sensitivity of ≥ 0.70 and specificity of ≥...
Long-Term Effect of TMD on Vibration Control of An MDOF Offshore Fixed Platform
SHI Xiang(石湘); Tetsuya MATSUI; WU Minger
2003-01-01
A three-dimensional fixed offshore platform in deep water modeled by the finite element method is studied in this paper. Analysis of the dynamic response of the MDOF structure is realized taking the non-linearity of the wave drag force and the wave-structure interaction into account. The structural response statistics, which have Gaussian distributions, are used to evaluate the vibration effect of the structure without TMD and with TMD. And an optimal method to design TMD controlling the first mode of the multi-mode structure is proposed. Moreover, the probabilities of occurrence of sea states at the platform site are considered for prediction of the long-term effect of a TMD. Simulation results demonstrate that the long-term effect of a well-designed TMD is good and the practical use is possible due to the good stability of its optimal parameters under different sea states.
Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD) for Clinical and Research Applications
Schiffman, Eric; Ohrbach, Richard; Truelove, Edmond
2014-01-01
AIMS: The original Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) Axis I diagnostic algorithms have been demonstrated to be reliable. However, the Validation Project determined that the RDC/TMD Axis I validity was below the target sensitivity of ≥ 0.70 and specificity of ≥ 0...... shown to be both reliable and valid. Working from these findings and revisions, two international consensus workshops were convened, from which recommendations were obtained for the finalization of new Axis I diagnostic algorithms and new Axis II instruments. METHODS: Through a series of workshops...... of the literature providing valid instruments that, relative to the RDC/TMD, are shorter in length, are available in the public domain, and currently are being used in medical settings. RESULTS: The newly recommended Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (DC/TMD) Axis I protocol includes both a valid screener for detecting...
The orthodontic treatment of TMD patients: EMG effects of a functional appliance.
Castroflorio, Tommaso; Titolo, Cristina; Deregibus, Andrea; Debernardi, Cesare; Bracco, Pietro
2007-07-01
The aim of this work was to test the effects of the Function Generator Bite (FGB) on the masticatory muscles of temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD) subjects. Two groups were selected for the study. A group of 20 TMD patients (group F) requiring orthodontic treatment and treated with FGB and a group of 10 healthy subjects (group H) were considered. Both groups were evaluated before the therapy began (TO) and then after 18 months of therapy (T1). An electromyographic analysis of the masseter and temporalis anterior muscles and a clinical evaluation according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) were performed. A statistical difference between the two groups was observed at TO with respect to the activity index. TMD subjects showed a lower value of the index. Further studies are necessary to fully understand the utility of this EMG index as a diagnostic indicator.
Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD) for Clinical and Research Applications
Schiffman, Eric; Ohrbach, Richard; Truelove, Edmond
2014-01-01
AIMS: The original Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) Axis I diagnostic algorithms have been demonstrated to be reliable. However, the Validation Project determined that the RDC/TMD Axis I validity was below the target sensitivity of ≥ 0.70 and specificity of ≥ 0...... shown to be both reliable and valid. Working from these findings and revisions, two international consensus workshops were convened, from which recommendations were obtained for the finalization of new Axis I diagnostic algorithms and new Axis II instruments. METHODS: Through a series of workshops...... of the literature providing valid instruments that, relative to the RDC/TMD, are shorter in length, are available in the public domain, and currently are being used in medical settings. RESULTS: The newly recommended Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (DC/TMD) Axis I protocol includes both a valid screener for detecting...
Wilson Lines off the Light-cone in TMD PDFs
Mulders, P J
2014-01-01
Transverse Momentum Dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions (PDFs) also take into account the transverse momentum ($p_T$) of the partons. The $p_T$-integrated analogues can be linked directly to quark and gluon matrix elements using the operator product expansion in QCD, involving operators of definite twist. TMDs also involve operators of higher twist, which are not suppressed by powers of the hard scale, however. Taking into account gauge links that no longer are along the light-cone, one finds that new distribution functions arise. They appear at leading order in the description of azimuthal asymmetries in high-energy scattering processes. In analogy to the collinear operator expansion, we define a universal set of TMDs of definite rank and point out the importance for phenomenology.
Adults seeking orthodontic treatment: expectations, periodontal and TMD issues.
Christensen, L; Luther, F
2015-02-16
The growth in adult orthodontics presents new challenges to both the general dental practitioner and the orthodontist. Although many of the main objectives of orthodontic treatment are similar for adults, young adults and children, adult patients frequently bring significant challenges in several areas not often seen in the younger patient group. In areas such as planning realistic treatment outcomes, it is paramount that the patient's expectations are identified, respected and managed where appropriate. The adult patient's dental health often dictates deviation from the ideal treatment plan and periodontal problems are a common example. Based on current evidence, this paper presents an overview of some of the difficulties in the management of these issues, as well as highlighting developments with regard to pain conditions and their relevance to orthodontic treatment and its effects on temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) management.
Novel exciton systems in 2D TMD monolayers and heterobilayers
Yu, Hongyi
In this talk, two exciton systems in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) monolayer and heterobilayer will be discussed. In TMD monolayers, the strong e-h Coulomb exchange interaction splits the exciton and trion dispersions into two branches with zero and finite gap, respectively. Each branch is a center-of-mass wave vector dependent coherent superposition of the two valleys, which leads to a valley-orbit coupling and possibly a trion valley Hall effect. The exchange interaction also eliminates the linear polarization of the negative trion PL emission. In TMD heterobilayers with a type-II band alignment, the low energy exciton has an interlayer configuration with the e and h localized in opposite layers. Because of the inevitable twist or/and lattice mismatch between the two layers, the bright interlayer excitons are located at finite center-of-mass velocities with a six-fold degeneracy. The corresponding photon emission is elliptically polarized, with the major axis locked to the direction of exciton velocity, and helicity determined by the valley indices of the e and h. Some experimental results on the interlayer excitons in the WSe2-MoSe2 heterobilayers will also be presented. The interlayer exciton exhibits a long lifetime as well as a long depolarization time, which facilitate the observation of a PL polarization ring pattern due to the valley dependent exciton-exciton interaction induced expansion. The works were supported by the Research Grant Council of Hong Kong (HKU17305914P, HKU705513P), the Croucher Foundation, and the HKU OYRA and ROP.
Anxiety/depression and orofacial myofacial disorders as factors associated with TMD in children
Raquel Aparecida Pizolato
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors associated with temporomandibular disorder (TMD in children. TMD clinical signs were evaluated using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD; axis I, and subjective symptoms were evaluated using a structured questionnaire. Eighty-two children were selected, 40 with TMD (19 boys and 21 girls, mean age 9.84 ± 1.53 and 9.71 ± 1.30 years, respectively and 42 without TMD (21 boys and 21 girls, mean age 10.27 ± 1.63 and 9.9 ± 1.37 years, respectively. Intra- and extra-oral examinations were carried out to determine the myofunctional characteristics of the masticatory system. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used to assess anxiety and depression. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis followed by multiple logistic regression (α = 0.05. In bivariate analysis, the variables of open lips, anxiety, and depression had a p value < 0.15 and were entered into the multivariate logistic regression model. The most significant predictor factors were the presence of open lips (odds ratio = 5.42, p = 0.034 and anxiety (odds ratio = 18.59, p < 0.001. Thus, anxiety levels and open lips were associated with TMD in children. Owing to the cross-sectional design of the present study, the associations observed may have a bidirectional relationship.
Correlation between facial types and muscle TMD in women: an anthropometric approach
Ronaldo Pacheco de ARAUJO
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Temporomandibular disorders (TMD affecting the articular disc and/or the facial muscles are common among the population, recording a higher incidence in women age 20-40 years. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between facial types and muscle TMD in women. This study comprised 56 women age 18 to 49 years, seeking treatment for TMD at the School of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo. All of the study individuals were diagnosed with muscle TMD, based on the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC. Facial type was determined using the Facial Brugsch Index and classified as euryprosopic (short and/or broad, mesoprosopic (average width and leptoprosopic (long and/or narrow. The data were submitted to the Chi-square test and ANOVA-Tukey’s test to conduct the statistical analysis. The faces of 27 individuals were classified as euryprosopic (48%, 18 as mesoprosopic (32%, and 11 as leptoprosopic (20%. A statistically significant difference (Chi-square, p = 0.032 was found among the facial types, in that leptoprosopic facial types showed the lowest values for muscle TMD. A greater number (p = 0.0007 of cases of muscle TMD were observed in the 20 to 39 year-old subjects than in the subjects of other age segments. In conclusion, women with euryprosopic facial types could be more susceptible to muscle TMD. Further studies are needed to investigate this hypothesis.
Abrahamsson, C; Henrikson, T; Nilner, M; Sunzel, B; Bondemark, L; Ekberg, E C
2013-06-01
The aims of the study were to investigate the alteration of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) after correction of dentofacial deformities by orthodontic treatment in conjunction with orthognathic surgery; and to compare the frequency of TMD in patients with dentofacial deformities with an age and gender matched control group. TMD were evaluated in 121 consecutive patients (treatment group), referred for orthognathic surgery, by a questionnaire and a clinical examination. 18 months after treatment, 81% of the patients completed a follow-up examination. The control group comprised 56 age and gender matched subjects, of whom 68% presented for follow-up examination. TMD were diagnosed according to research diagnostic criteria for TMD. At baseline examination, the treatment group had a higher frequency of myofascial pain (P=.035) and arthralgia (P=.040) than the control group. At follow-up, the frequencies of myofascial pain, arthralgia and disc displacement had decreased in the treatment group (P=.050, P=.004, P=.041, respectively). The frequency of TMD was comparable in the two groups at follow-up. Patients with dentofacial deformities, corrected by orthodontic treatment in conjunction with orthognathic surgery, seem to have a positive treatment outcome in respect of TMD pain.
In-field masticatory muscle activity in subjects with pain-related TMD diagnoses
Khawaja, S.N.; McCall, W.; Dunford, R.; Nickel, J.C.; Iwasaki, L.R.; Crow, H.C.; Gonzalez, Y.
2015-01-01
Objectives Pain-related Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are the most prevalent conditions among TMDs. There is contrasting evidence available for association of pain-related TMD and masticatory muscle activity (MMA). The present investigation assesses the associations between MMA levels of masseter and temporalis muscles during awake and sleep among pain-related TMD diagnostic groups. Setting and Sample Population The department of Oral Diagnostic Sciences, University at Buffalo. Twenty females and 6 males participated in this study. Material & Methods Using the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC-TMD), participants were diagnostically categorized. Subjects used a custom monitoring system, which recorded in–field muscle activities. A factorial model tested for association between independent variable (muscle, time period, MMA level, diagnostic group) effects and the logarithm of MMA. Greenhouse–Geisser test was used to determine any statistically significant associations (p ≤ 0.003). Results No statistically significant association was found among four-way, three-way, and two-way analyses. However, among the main effects, range of magnitudes was the only variable to be statistically significant. Although the data suggest a trend of increased masseter MMA in the pain-related TMD diagnoses group both during awake and sleep time periods, such observation is not maintained for the temporalis muscle. In addition, temporalis MMA was found to be higher in the pain-related TMD diagnoses group only at extreme activity levels (TMD conditions. PMID:25865542
Al-Khotani, Amal; Naimi-Akbar, Aron; Gjelset, Mattias; Albadawi, Emad; Bello, Lanre; Hedenberg-Magnusson, Britt; Christidis, Nikolaos
2016-01-01
Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in children and adolescents is prevalent with pain as a common component, and has a comorbidity with psychosocial problems such as stress, depression, anxiety as well as somatic complaints...
Jefferson Filippo Castro de ASSIS; SILVA,Pâmela Lopes Pedro da; LIMA,Jully Anne Soares de; FORTE,Franklin Delano Soares; Batista,André Ulisses Dantas
2015-01-01
AbstractIntroductionThe relationship between dental occlusion and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) remains a subject of disagreement. Many professionals erroneously base diagnosis and treatment strictly on the occlusal factor, despite the fact that current scientific evidence does not show such a relationship.ObjectiveTo evaluate the knowledge of dental surgeons (DSs) from João Pessoa (PB)-Brazil, regarding the relationship between occlusal factors and TMD.Materials and methodA sample of 100...
Relationship between psychological factors and symptoms of TMD in university undergraduate students.
Pesqueira, Aldiéris A; Zuim, Paulo R J; Monteiro, Douglas R; Ribeiro, Paula Do Prado; Garcia, Alicio R
2010-01-01
Temporomandibular disorders is a collective term used to describe a number of related disorders involving the temporomandibular joints, masticatory muscles and occlusion with common symptoms such as pain, restricted movement, muscle tenderness and intermittent joint sounds. The multifactorial TMD etiology is related to emotional tension, occlusal interferences, tooth loss, postural deviation, masticatory muscular dysfunction, internal and external changes in TMJ structure and the various associations of these factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the relationship between signs of psychological distress and temporomandibular disorder in university students. A total 150 volunteers participated in this study. They attended different courses in the field of human science at one public university and four private universities. TMD was assessed by the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) questionnaire. Anxiety was measured by means of a self-evaluative questionnaire, Spielberger's Trait-State anxiety inventory, to evaluate students'state and trait anxiety. The results of the two questionnaires were compared to determine the relationship between anxiety levels and severity degrees of chronic TMD pain by means of the chi-square test. The significance level was set at 5%. The statistical analysis showed that the TMD degree has a positive association with state-anxiety (p = 0.008; p TMD rate was observed among the students (40%). This study concluded that there is a positive association between TMD and anxiety.
Research on Practicability and Feasibility for a New-Type Tuned Mass Damper System-TMD
无
2001-01-01
Based on the principle of tuned mass damper (TMD), the method of using laminated rubber bearing (LRB) to connect TMD with structure is discussed in this paper. This is a new type of TMD systemsuspended structure. To test the function of quake-reduction and the possibility of application, this paper explores the suspended top floor through shaking table test. In the model test, an electro-hydraulic shaking table was used. The main structure model was a four-story steel frame structure. The block to combat the structural quake was a concrete block. LRB was used to connect the block to the main structure. In order to analyze the efficiency of TMD, the fundamental frequencies of the main structure and block of TMD were measured separately first. Then, the frequencies of the main structure with the block and without the block were compared respectively under sine and imitative quake waves. The test shows that this new-typeTMD system is effective in combating the structural quake often reducing the acceleration of the top floor by more than 25 %. Because of the easy availability of the method, it is endowed with practical feasibility.
Correlation between TMD and Cervical Spine Pain and Mobility: Is the Whole Body Balance TMJ Related?
Karolina Walczyńska-Dragon
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD is considered to be associated with imbalance of the whole body. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of TMD therapy on cervical spine range of movement (ROM and reduction of spinal pain. The study group consisted of 60 patients with TMD, cervical spine pain, and limited cervical spine range of movements. Subjects were interviewed by a questionnaire about symptoms of TMD and neck pain and had also masticatory motor system physically examined (according to RDC-TMD and analysed by JMA ultrasound device. The cervical spine motion was analysed using an MCS device. Subjects were randomly admitted to two groups, treated and control. Patients from the treated group were treated with an occlusal splint. Patients from control group were ordered to self-control parafunctional habits. Subsequent examinations were planned in both groups 3 weeks and 3 months after treatment was introduced. The results of tests performed 3 months after the beginning of occlusal splint therapy showed a significant improvement in TMJ function (P>0.05, cervical spine ROM, and a reduction of spinal pain. The conclusion is that there is a significant association between TMD treatment and reduction of cervical spine pain, as far as improvement of cervical spine mobility.
Evaluation of psychological factors in orthodontic patients with TMD as applied to the "TMJ Scale".
Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Motegi, Etsuko; Nomura, Mayumi; Narimiya, Yukie; Katsumura, Sakura; Miyazaki, Haruyo; Kaji, Hatsuhiko; Watanabe, Kazuya; Yamaguchi, Hideharu
2002-05-01
Physical and psychological evaluation have been required for TMD patients whose problems are multi dimensional. The questionnaire named the "TMJ Scale" was created to differentiate subjective TMD symptoms of patients. The purpose of this study was to clarify the reliability of the TMJ Scale for Japanese orthodontic patients with TMD and to differentiate the symptoms. Fifty orthodontic patients (average age 21y4m) with a chief complaint of TMD symptoms were compared with thirty patients (average age 21y1m) without TMD symptoms. The results were as follows: female patients in the symptom group in particular showed a higher degree of stress due to the chronic pain and abnormalities than those in the non-symptom group. Significant differences were observed in Pain Report, Joint Dysfunction and Global Scale at the 0.1% significant level, in Non-TM Disorder, Psychological Factor and Chronicity at the 1% level, and in Palpation Pain and Perceived Malocclusion at the 5% level in females. Few psychological problems were observed in male patients in the symptom group. Significant differences were observed in Range of Motion limitation at the 5% level in males. The differences in the psychological factors between male and female patients were clarified by using the TMJ Scale. These findings suggested that it was useful to differentiate the multiple symptoms, especially the psychological factors, by using the TMJ Scale for orthodontic patients with TMD.
Study on soil-pile-structure-TMD interaction system by shaking table model test
楼梦麟; 王文剑
2004-01-01
The success of the tuned mass damper (TMD) in reducing wind-induced structural vibrations has been well established. However, from most of the recent numerical studies, it appears that for a structure situated on very soft soil, soilstructure interaction (SSI) could render a damper on the structure totally ineffective. In order to experimentally verify the SSI effect on the seismic performance ofTMD, a series of shaking table model tests have been conducted and the results are presented in this paper. It has been shown that the TMD is not as effective in controlling the seismic responses of structures built on soft soil sites due to the SSI effect. Some test results also show that a TMD device might have a negative impact ifthe SSI effect is neglected and the structure is built on a soft soil site. For structures constructed on a soil foundation, this research verifies that the SSI effect must be carefully understood before a TMD control system is designed to determine if the control is necessary and ifthe SSI effect must be considered when choosing the optimal parameters of the TMD device.
Correlation between TMD and cervical spine pain and mobility: is the whole body balance TMJ related?
Walczyńska-Dragon, Karolina; Baron, Stefan; Nitecka-Buchta, Aleksandra; Tkacz, Ewaryst
2014-01-01
Temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) is considered to be associated with imbalance of the whole body. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of TMD therapy on cervical spine range of movement (ROM) and reduction of spinal pain. The study group consisted of 60 patients with TMD, cervical spine pain, and limited cervical spine range of movements. Subjects were interviewed by a questionnaire about symptoms of TMD and neck pain and had also masticatory motor system physically examined (according to RDC-TMD) and analysed by JMA ultrasound device. The cervical spine motion was analysed using an MCS device. Subjects were randomly admitted to two groups, treated and control. Patients from the treated group were treated with an occlusal splint. Patients from control group were ordered to self-control parafunctional habits. Subsequent examinations were planned in both groups 3 weeks and 3 months after treatment was introduced. The results of tests performed 3 months after the beginning of occlusal splint therapy showed a significant improvement in TMJ function (P > 0.05), cervical spine ROM, and a reduction of spinal pain. The conclusion is that there is a significant association between TMD treatment and reduction of cervical spine pain, as far as improvement of cervical spine mobility.
Grinyuk, A. A.; Lipatov, A. V.; Lykasov, G. I.; Zotov, N. P.
2016-01-01
We study the role of the nonperturbative input to the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) gluon density in hard processes at the LHC. We derive the input TMD gluon distribution at a low scale μ02˜1 GeV2 from a fit of inclusive hadron spectra measured at low transverse momenta in p p collisions at the LHC and demonstrate that the best description of these spectra for larger hadron transverse momenta can be achieved by matching the derived TMD gluon distribution with the exact solution of the Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov equation obtained at low x and small gluon transverse momenta outside the saturation region. Then, we extend the input TMD gluon density to higher μ2 numerically using the Catani-Ciafoloni-Fiorani-Marchesini gluon evolution equation. Special attention is paid to phenomenological applications of the obtained TMD gluon density to some LHC processes, which are sensitive to the gluon content of a proton.
地震作用下某钢框架的 TMD 控制研究%TMD Control Research of a Steel Frame Subjected to Seismic Excitation
陈哲; 施卫星
2013-01-01
采用SAP2000对某钢框架进行地震作用下的非线性时程分析．在钢框架顶部设置调谐质量阻尼器（ TMD），分析计算得出不同自振频率TMD对应框架顶部节点的位移和加速度，比较控制效果得到最优的TMD自振频率范围为原结构一阶频率（ω1）的1．2～1．5倍．本工程中实际采用的TMD自振频率为1．3倍ω1，计算表明地震控制效果明显．%In this paper , the nonlinear time -history seismic analysis of a steel frame was used in SAP2000.A turned mass damper(TMD) was set on the top of the frame .The displacements and accelerations of top joints under different TMD frequency were calculated .The optimal TMD natural -1 .2~1 .5 times of funda-mental frequency-was obtained by comparison on control effect .Calculation results show that the TMD with nat-ural frequency of 1 .3ω1 setting on the frame has obvious effect on seismic control .
Barclay, R. S.; Wing, S. L.
2013-12-01
The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was a geologically brief interval of intense global warming 56 million years ago. It is arguably the best geological analog for a worst-case scenario of anthropogenic carbon emissions. The PETM is marked by a ~4-6‰ negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) and extensive marine carbonate dissolution, which together are powerful evidence for a massive addition of carbon to the oceans and atmosphere. In spite of broad agreement that the PETM reflects a large carbon cycle perturbation, atmospheric concentrations of CO2 (pCO2) during the event are not well constrained. The goal of this study is to produce a high resolution reconstruction of pCO2 using stomatal frequency proxies (both stomatal index and stomatal density) before, during, and after the PETM. These proxies rely upon a genetically controlled mechanism whereby plants decrease the proportion of gas-exchange pores (stomata) in response to increased pCO2. Terrestrial sections in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, contain macrofossil plants with cuticle immediately bracketing the PETM, as well as dispersed plant cuticle from within the body of the CIE. These fossils allow for the first stomatal-based reconstruction of pCO2 near the Paleocene-Eocene boundary; we also use them to determine the relative timing of pCO2 change in relation to the CIE that defines the PETM. Preliminary results come from macrofossil specimens of Ginkgo adiantoides, collected from an ~200ka interval prior to the onset of the CIE (~230-30ka before), and just after the 'recovery interval' of the CIE. Stomatal index values decreased by 37% within an ~70ka time interval at least 100ka prior to the onset of the CIE. The decrease in stomatal index is interpreted as a significant increase in pCO2, and has a magnitude equivalent to the entire range of stomatal index adjustment observed in modern Ginkgo biloba during the anthropogenic CO2 rise during the last 150 years. The inferred CO2 increase prior to the
Jefferson Filippo Castro de ASSIS
Full Text Available AbstractIntroductionThe relationship between dental occlusion and temporomandibular disorders (TMD remains a subject of disagreement. Many professionals erroneously base diagnosis and treatment strictly on the occlusal factor, despite the fact that current scientific evidence does not show such a relationship.ObjectiveTo evaluate the knowledge of dental surgeons (DSs from João Pessoa (PB-Brazil, regarding the relationship between occlusal factors and TMD.Materials and methodA sample of 100 DSs who do not have expertise in TMD and orofacial pain (CG Group and seven DSs with this specialty (EG Group completed a questionnaire that addresses issues concerning knowledge of TMD and its relationship with occlusal factors. The questionnaire also contained information used to characterize the sample, such as age, gender, and length of experience. The current literature's degree of consensus was established as the "gold standard" response for each statement and was compared with the responses of the specialists and non-specialists. Data were tabulated using the SPSS software package and analyzed descriptively (by percentage and statistically using the chi-square and Fisher's exact tests (p < 0.05.ResultA wide divergence could be observed between the knowledge of DSs who do not specialize in TMD and orofacial pain and that of professionals who do.ConclusionThere was low agreement between specialists and non-specialists. The relationship between dental occlusion and TMD remains unclear for the vast majority of participating professionals, which may prove to be reflected in diagnostic behaviors and inappropriate occlusal treatment for the management of TMD.
Computerized axiography in TMD patients before and after therapy with 'function generating bites'.
Piancino, M G; Roberi, L; Frongia, G; Reverdito, M; Slavicek, R; Bracco, P
2008-02-01
The study evaluates the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) movements of patients with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) before and after therapy with the functional appliances of the 'function generating bite' (FGB) type. Thirty subjects suffering from TMD were selected and divided into two groups: group A (young patients: four males, nine females, mean age +/- standard deviation: 13.3+/-1.5 years); group B (adults: three males, 14 females, mean age +/- standard deviation: 23.2+/-4.4 years). A control group comprised 13 healthy subjects with perfect normal occlusion, TMD-free, was matched for age and sex with patient groups and was examined at T0 and after 12 months (T1). Computerized axiography was performed before and after therapy (average 13 months) with FGBs to evaluate any difference in condyle border movements. Results showed a statistically significant improvement after treatment, for groups A and B, in length, clicks, tracings with normal morphology, superimposition, deviations, regularity and return to starting position and speed (statistical analysis: chi-squared test) except for the symmetry of tracings which was significantly improved only for the young patient group. No statistically significant differences at time T0/T1 were found in the control group. In conclusion, the study shows that the TMJ tracings of TMD patients before and after therapy with 'FGB' significantly improve especially in young patients. FGB may be a useful appliance to improve TMJ function in young and adult TMD patients requiring orthodontic treatment.
Validation of the multimedia version of the RDC/TMD axis II questionnaire in Portuguese
Ricardo Figueiredo Cavalcanti
2010-06-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to validate the multimedia version of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD Axis II Questionnaire in Portuguese language. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample comprised 30 patients with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD, evaluated at the Orofacial Pain Control Center of the Dental School of the University of Pernambuco, Brazil, between April and June 2006. Data collection was performed using the following instruments: Simplifed Anamnestic Index (SAI and RDC/TMD Axis II written version and multimedia version. The validation process consisted of analyzing the internal consistency of the scales. Concurrent and convergent validity were evaluated by the Spearman's rank correlation. In addition, test and analysis of reproducibility by the Kappa weighted statistical test and Spearman's rank correlation test were performed. RESULTS: The multimedia version of the RDC/TMD Axis II questionnaire in Portuguese was considered consistent (Crombrach alpha = 0.94, reproducible (Spearman 0.670 to 0.913, p<0.01 and valid (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: The questionnaire showed valid and reproducible results, and represents an instrument of practical application in epidemiological studies of TMD in the Brazilian population.
Kinkhabwala, Ali
2013-01-01
The most fundamental problem in statistics is the inference of an unknown probability distribution from a finite number of samples. For a specific observed data set, answers to the following questions would be desirable: (1) Estimation: Which candidate distribution provides the best fit to the observed data?, (2) Goodness-of-fit: How concordant is this distribution with the observed data?, and (3) Uncertainty: How concordant are other candidate distributions with the observed data? A simple unified approach for univariate data that addresses these traditionally distinct statistical notions is presented called "maximum fidelity". Maximum fidelity is a strict frequentist approach that is fundamentally based on model concordance with the observed data. The fidelity statistic is a general information measure based on the coordinate-independent cumulative distribution and critical yet previously neglected symmetry considerations. An approximation for the null distribution of the fidelity allows its direct conversi...
CORRELATIONS BETWEEN FINDINGS OF OCCLUSAL AND MANUAL ANALYSIS IN TMD-PATIENTS
Mariana Dimova
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate and analyze the possible correlations between findings by manual functional analysis and clinical occlusal analysis in TMD-patients. Material and methods: Material of this study are 111 TMD-patients selected after visual diagnostics, functional brief review under Ahlers Jakstatt, intraoral examination and taking periodontal status. In the period September 2014 - March 2016 all patients were subjected to manual functional analysis and clinical occlusal analysis. 17 people (10 women and 7 men underwent imaging with cone-beam computed tomography. Results: There were found many statistically significant correlations between tests of the structural analysis that indicate the relationships between findings. Conclusion: The presence of statistically significant correlations between occlusal relationships, freedom in the centric and condition of the muscle complex of masticatory system and TMJ confirm the relationship between the state of occlusal components and TMD.
A strategy towards the extraction of the Sivers function with TMD evolution
Anselmino, M; Melis, S
2012-01-01
The QCD evolution of the unpolarized Transverse Momentum Dependent (TMD) distribution functions and of the Sivers functions have been discussed in recent papers. Following such results we reconsider previous extractions of the Sivers functions from semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering data and propose a simple strategy which allows to take into account the Q^2 dependence of the TMDs in comparison with experimental findings. A clear evidence of the phenomenological success of the TMD evolution equations is given, mostly, by the newest COMPASS data off a transversely polarized proton target.
What skeletal and dental characteristics do TMD patients have in common?
Phillips, James T
2007-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine if there are any common skeletal or dental characteristics among TMD patients that may be of diagnostic value. Thirty charts of orthodontic patients with pretreatmentTMD symptoms were selected at random.Gender, age, sex, ethnicity, SNA, SNB, ANB,Wits, interincisal angle, missing teeth, prior orthodontic treatment, crossbites, Angle's Class and maxillary and mandibular length were tabulated and analyzed for patterns. The results revealed a clear pattern of excessive mandibular length relative to maxillary length.
Drell-Yan measurement at COMPASS: a place to test the TMD PDFs universality
Andrieux, Vincent
2017-01-01
For the first time ever, the COMPASS experiment (CERN, SPS) collected in 2015 Drell-Yan (DY) data using a 190 GeV/ c pion beam on a transversely polarized NH3 target. The azimuthal modulations of the DY cross-section give access to the set of transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions (PDFs), which describe the spin structure of the nucleon. Those PDFs were already measured in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) by several experiments and especially COMPASS, which dedicated several campaigns between 2002 and 2010 to measure spin (in)dependent azimuthal asymmetries using a 160 GeV/ c polarized muon beam on a transversely polarized 6LiD or NH3 target. A key interest of extracting those TMD PDFs from different processes is to check the universality and the process-dependent features of TMD PDFs. In this aim, COMPASS is a unique place to test the predicted sign-change of the TMD PDFs using a similar experimental setup and comparable kinematic domain. The main focus of this talk will be set on the physics aspects of the COMPASS polarized Drell-Yan program and related SIDIS results. on behalf of the COMPASS collaboration.
The Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia for Temporomandibular Disorders (TSK-TMD)
Visscher, C.M.; Ohrbach, R.; van Wijk, A.J.; Wilkosz, M.; Naeije, M.
2010-01-01
For musculoskeletal disorders like low back pain and fibromyalgia, evidence is growing for fear of movement to play an important role in the development of chronic pain. In temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients, however, this construct has not received any attention yet. Therefore, in this paper
Chaves, Thaís Cristina; Grossi, Débora Bevilaqua; de Oliveira, Anamaria Siriani; Bertolli, Fabiana; Holtz, Amanda; Costa, Dirceu
2005-01-01
Neck accessory respiratory muscles and mouth breathing suggest a direct relationship among asthma, Temporomandibular (TMD) and Cervical Spine (CSD) Disorders. This study was performed to evaluate and correlate TMD, CSD in asthmatic and non-asthmatic. Thirty asthmatic children (7.1 +/- 2.6 years old), 30 non-asthmatic predominantly mouth breathing children (Mouth Breathing Group - MBG) (8.80 +/- 1.61 years) and 30 non-asthmatic predominantly nasal breathing children (Nasal breathing Group - NBG) (9.00 +/- 1.64 years) participated in this study and they were submitted to clinical index to evaluate stomatognathic and cervical systems. Spearman correlation test and Chi-square were used. The level of significance was set at p temporomandibular joint (TMJ), TMJ sounds, pain during cervical extension and rotation, palpatory tenderness of sternocleidomastoids and paravertabrae muscles and a severe reduction in cervical range of motion were observed in AG. Both AG and MBG groups demonstrated palpatory tenderness of posterior TMJ, medial and lateral pterygoid, and trapezius muscles when compared to NBG. Results showed a positive correlation between the severity of TMD and CSD signs in asthmatic children (r = 0.48). No child was considered normal to CSD and cervical mobility. The possible shortening of neck accessory muscles of respiration and mouth breathing could explain the relationship observed between TMD, CSD signs in asthmatic children and emphasize the importance of the assessment of temporomandibular and cervical spine regions in asthmatic children.
R Saravanan
2006-06-01
A study of the electronic structure of the three sulphides, SrS, BaS and PuS has been carried out in this work, using the powder X-ray intensity data from JCPDS powder diffraction data base. The statistical approach, MEM (maximum entropy method) is used for the analysis of the data for the electron density distribution in these materials and an attempt has been made to understand the bonding between the metal atom and the sulphur atom. The mid-bond electron density is found to be maximum for PuS among these three sulphides, being 0.584 e/Å3 at 2.397 Å. SrS is found to have the lowest electron density at the mid-bond (0.003 e/Å3) at 2.118 Å from the origin leaving it more ionic than the other two sulphides studied in this work. The two-dimensional electron density maps on (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) planes and the one-dimensional profiles along the bonding direction [1 1 1] are used for these analyses. The overall and individual Debye-Waller factors of atoms in these systems have also been studied and analyzed. The refinements of the observed X-ray data were carried out using standard softwares and also a routine written by the author.
Saravanan, R.
2006-06-01
A study of the electronic structure of the three sulphides, SrS, BaS and PuS has been carried out in this work, using the powder X-ray intensity data from JCPDS powder diffraction data base. The statistical approach, MEM (maximum entropy method) is used for the analysis of the data for the electron density distribution in these materials and an attempt has been made to understand the bonding between the metal atom and the sulphur atom. The mid-bond electron density is found to be maximum for PuS among these three sulphides, being 0.584 e/Å^3 at 2.397 Å. SrS is found to have the lowest electron density at the mid-bond (0.003 e/Å^3) at 2.118 Å from the origin leaving it more ionic than the other two sulphides studied in this work. The two-dimensional electron density maps on (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) planes and the one-dimensional profiles along the bonding direction [1 1 1] are used for these analyses. The overall and individual Debye-Waller factors of atoms in these systems have also been studied and analyzed. The refinements of the observed X-ray data were carried out using standard softwares and also a routine written by the author.
Masticatory Muscle Sleep Background EMG Activity is Elevated in Myofascial TMD Patients
Raphael, Karen G.; Janal, Malvin N.; Sirois, David A.; Dubrovsky, Boris; Wigren, Pia E.; Klausner, Jack J.; Krieger, Ana C.; Lavigne, Gilles J.
2013-01-01
Despite theoretical speculation and strong clinical belief, recent research using laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) recording has provided new evidence that frequency of sleep bruxism (SB) masseter muscle events, including grinding or clenching of the teeth during sleep, is not increased for women with chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The current case-control study compares a large sample of women suffering from chronic myofascial TMD (n=124) with a demographically matched control group without TMD (n=46) on sleep background electromyography (EMG) during a laboratory PSG study. Background EMG activity was measured as EMG root mean square (RMS) from the right masseter muscle after lights out. Sleep background EMG activity was defined as EMG RMS remaining after activity attributable to SB, other orofacial activity, other oromotor activity and movement artifacts were removed. Results indicated that median background EMG during these non SB-event periods was significantly higher (p<.01) for women with myofascial TMD (median=3.31 μV and mean=4.98 μV) than for control women (median=2.83 μV and mean=3.88 μV) with median activity in 72% of cases exceeding control activity. Moreover, for TMD cases, background EMG was positively associated and SB event-related EMG was negatively associated with pain intensity ratings (0–10 numerical scale) on post sleep waking. These data provide the foundation for a new focus on small, but persistent, elevations in sleep EMG activity over the course of the night as a mechanism of pain induction or maintenance. PMID:24237356
Phosphatidylserine-Dependent Catalysis of Stalk and Pore Formation by Synaptobrevin JMR-TMD Peptide.
Tarafdar, Pradip K; Chakraborty, Hirak; Bruno, Michael J; Lentz, Barry R
2015-11-03
Although the importance of a SNARE complex in neurotransmitter release is widely accepted, there exist different views on how the complex promotes fusion. One hypothesis is that the SNARE complex's ability to bring membranes into contact is sufficient for fusion, another points to possible roles of juxtamembrane regions (JMRs) and transmembrane domains (TMDs) in catalyzing lipid rearrangement, and another notes the complex's presumed ability to bend membranes near the point of contact. Here, we performed experiments with highly curved vesicles brought into contact using low concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to investigate the influence of the synaptobrevin (SB) TMD with an attached JMR (SB-JMR-TMD) on the rates of stalk and pore formation during vesicle fusion. SB-JMR-TMD enhanced the rates of stalk and fusion pore (FP) formation in a sharply sigmoidal fashion. We observed an optimal influence at an average of three peptides per vesicle, but only with phosphatidylserine (PS)-containing vesicles. Approximately three SB-JMR-TMDs per vesicle optimally ordered the bilayer interior and excluded water in a similar sigmoidal fashion. The catalytic influences of hexadecane and SB-JMR-TMD on fusion kinetics showed little in common, suggesting different mechanisms. Both kinetic and membrane structure measurements support the hypotheses that SB-JMR-TMD 1) catalyzes initial intermediate formation as a result of its basic JMR disrupting ordered interbilayer water and permitting closer interbilayer approach, and 2) catalyzes pore formation by forming a membrane-spanning complex that increases curvature stress at the circumference of the hemifused diaphragm of the prepore intermediate state. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yap, A U; Tan, K B; Hoe, J K; Yap, R H; Jaffar, J
2001-01-01
Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is a collective term embracing a number of clinical problems, which involve the masticatory musculature, the temporomandibular joint or both. Virtually all theories dealing with the aetiology and treatment of TMD have recognized the importance of psychological factors. This paper reports the development of a computerized on-line program (NUS TMD v1.1) for the diagnosis of pain-related disability and psychological status of TMD patients based on Axis II of the research diagnostic criteria (RDC)/TMD (Dworkin, S.F. & LeResche, L. 1992. Journal of Craniomandibular Disorders: Facial Oral Pain, 6, 301), which was developed to redress the lack of diagnostic criteria in TMD research. Methods adopted by RDC/TMD for use in assessing Axis II status include a seven-item questionnaire for grading chronic pain severity, the Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90-R) and a jaw disability checklist. A pilot study, based on 37 new TMD patient records, was conducted to study the pain-related disability and psychological status of TMD patients using this newly developed program. The mean age of the predominantly Chinese population (86.5%) was 32.19 years (range 20-72 years) with a sex distribution of 24 females and 13 males. Most patients (78%) had low disability, with 12 patients having low intensity and 17 patients having high intensity pain. Approximately 73% of the sample population were moderately or severely depressed. Patients that were moderately and severely depressed had significantly higher scores for limitation related to mandibular functioning than normal patients. The three most frequent jaw disabilities were: eating hard foods (84%), yawning (78%) and chewing (65%).
ANALYSIS FOR EFFECT OF FPS-TYPED TMD CONTROLLING SEISMIC RESPONSES%FPS型TMD控震效应分析
李大望; 关罡; 霍达
2001-01-01
Based on the differential vibration equations of the multi-layer shear-type st ructure controlled by FPS-TMD,the seismic response laws of the structure are ca lculated and analyzed;the results display that the earthquake responses of the b uilding structures can be improved with a reasonable designed FPS-TMD.%基于FPS(Friction Pendulum System)型TMD(Turned Mass Damper)控制的多层剪切型结构振动微分方程，通过时程计算分析了FPS型TMD控震响应规律。结果表明，合理设计的FPS型TMD 控振系统可以改善结构的振动响应。
Liu, Chuncheng; Wang, Chongyang; Mao, Long; Zha, Chuanming
2016-11-01
Substation high voltage electrical equipment such as mutual inductor, circuit interrupter, disconnecting switch, etc., has played a key role in maintaining the normal operation of the power system. When the earthquake disaster, the electrical equipment of the porcelain in the transformer substation is the most easily to damage, causing great economic losses. In this paper, using the method of numerical analysis, the establishment of a typical high voltage electrical equipment of three dimensional finite element model, to study the seismic response of a typical SF6 circuit breaker, at the same time, analysis and contrast the installation ring tuned mass damper (TMD damper for short), by changing the damper damping coefficient and the mass block, install annular TMD vibration control effect is studied. The results of the study for guiding the seismic design of high voltage electrical equipment to provide valuable reference.
Jurkemik J
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to present data from a large sample of patients with Temporo-Mandibular Disorders (TMD in order to clarify some aspects of the development of pathological conditions that affect large parts of the population. In the past years there was a rapid growth of the incidence of the temporomandibular dissorders. The ethiopathogenesis is in most cases unclear. Based on the latest information supposed are the biopsychosocial factors.
Counter-techniques for NMD/TMD%对抗NMD/TMD的技术
梁百川
2006-01-01
国家导弹防御系统(NMD)和战区导弹防御系统(TMD)一起构成了美国的弹道导弹防御系统.简要介绍了NMD/ TMD的构成,讨论了有效的对抗技术,研究了电子战系统对NMD/ TMD的信息攻击手段.
Cos(4 phi) azimuthal anisotropy in small-x DIS dijet production beyond the TMD limit
Dumitru, Adrian
2016-01-01
We determine the first correction to the quadrupole operator in high-energy QCD beyond the TMD limit of Weizsaecker-Williams and linearly polarized gluon distributions. These functions give rise to isotropic resp. ~ cos 2 phi angular distributions in DIS dijet production. On the other hand, the correction produces a ~ cos 4 phi angular dependence which is suppressed by one additional power of the dijet transverse momentum scale (squared) P^2.
Mohn, Hanne Christine
2008-01-01
Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) comprise a category of chronic complaints of pain and/or mobility dysfunction of the orofacial region. The main symptoms are pain from the temporomandibular joint and/or in the masticatory structures – sometimes radiating to the temples, head, and neck - clicking sounds from the temporomandibular joint, and restricted movement of the jaw. Psychological characteristics of TMD patients are mainly elevated levels of psychological distress, a relatively low corre...
Taşkaya-Yilmaz, N; Oğütcen-Toller, M; Saraç, Y S
2004-08-01
Confusion about the relationship between dental occlusion and the temporomandibular disorders (TMD) has been evident in the literature for many years. Previous studies have supported the concept of a multifactorial aetiology of TMD, the occlusal factor in general being of minor importance. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between condyle and disc positions and occlusal contacts on lateral excursions of the mandible in patients with TMD. A total of 122 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 61 patients with TMD were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and occlusal analyses were made clinically. Non-working-side contacts were found to be statistically significant in TMJ anterior disc displacement. No significant statistical correlation was found between the severity of anterior disc displacement and non-working-side contacts in both canine guidance and group function occlusions. There was no correlation between non-working-side contacts and condyle positions in both occlusion types in the present study. It was concluded that non-working-side contacts had some effect on disc position in TMD, however the presence of these contacts in both canine guidance and group function occlusions did not correlate with anterior disc displacement in TMD statistically. Therefore, non-working-side contacts are not to be regarded as the prime cause of anterior disc displacement.
Forward di-jet production in p+Pb collisions in the small-x improved TMD factorization framework
van Hameren, A; Kutak, K; Marquet, C; Petreska, E; Sapeta, S
2016-01-01
We study the production of forward di-jets in proton-lead and proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Such configurations, with both jets produced in the forward direction, impose a dilute-dense asymmetry which allows to probe the gluon density of the lead or proton target at small longitudinal momentum fractions. Even though the jet momenta are always much bigger than the saturation scale of the target, $Q_s$, the transverse momentum imbalance of the di-jet system may be either also much larger than $Q_s$, or of the order $Q_s$, implying that the small-$x$ QCD dynamics involved is either linear or non-linear, respectively. The small-$x$ improved TMD factorization framework deals with both situation in the same formalism. In the latter case, which corresponds to nearly back-to-back jets, we find that saturation effects induce a significant suppression of the forward di-jet azimuthal correlations in proton-lead versus proton-proton collisions.
Forward di-jet production in p+Pb collisions in the small-x improved TMD factorization framework
van Hameren, A.; Kutak, K.; Marquet, C.; Petreska, E.; Sapeta, S.
2016-01-01
We study the production of forward di-jets in proton-lead and proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Such configurations, with both jets produced in the forward direction, impose a dilute-dense asymmetry which allows to probe the gluon density of the lead or proton target at small longitudinal momentum fractions. Even though the jet momenta are always much bigger than the saturation scale of the target, $Q_s$, the transverse momentum imbalance of the di-jet system may be either also much larger than $Q_s$, or of the order $Q_s$, implying that the small-$x$ QCD dynamics involved is either linear or non-linear, respectively. The small-$x$ improved TMD factorization framework deals with both situation in the same formalism. In the latter case, which corresponds to nearly back-to-back jets, we find that saturation effects induce a significant suppression of the forward di-jet azimuthal correlations in proton-lead versus proton-proton collisions.
The Validity and Reliability of the Persian Version Test of Mobile Phone Dependency (TMD)
Mohammadi, Mohammadreza; Alavi, Seyyed Salman; Farokhzad, Pegah; Jannatifard, Fereshteh; Mohammadi Kalhori, Soroush; Sepahbodi, Ghazal; Baba Reisi, Mohammad; Sajedi, Sanaz; Farshchi, Mojtaba; Khoda Karami, Rasul; Hatami Kasvaee, Vahid; Sepasi, Neda; Alavi, Samaneh Sadat
2015-01-01
Objective: Despite the fact that the mobile phone has become a pervasive technology of our time, little research has been done on mobile dependency. A valid and reliable assessment instrument corresponding to the Persian culture is essential. This study aimed to describe the construction and validation of the Persian version of TMD (Test of Mobile phone Dependency) to assess the addictive use of mobile phone. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, for which data were collected from 350 students who were studying at Tehran universities. Sampling method was quota sampling. The participants anonymously completed the demographic questionnaire, and CPDQ as a valid questionnaire and gold standard. Finally, clinical interview [based on DSM-IV-TR] was performed. To analyze the data, concurrent validity, factor analysis, internal consistency (Cronbachα), split half; test-retest and ROC Curve by SPSS18 Software were used. Results: As a result of the reliability analysis and factor analysis by principal component and Varimax rotation, three factors (“salient”, “preoccupation” and “Spend a lot of time and money”) for both male and female participants were extracted. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of the TMD was .92 (Cronbach alpha of the factors is .88, .82, and .84, respectively). The test-retest correlation of the TMD was .56.The best cut off point for this questionnaire (TMD) is 38. Conclusion: The TMD proved to have an acceptable internal consistency with adequate factor models to assess the extent of problems caused by the "misuse" of the mobile phone in the Iranian society. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Persian version of the test was reliable and valid; however, further analysis is needed. PMID:27006671
Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John
2005-01-01
A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].
Marcelo Matida Hamata
2009-02-01
Full Text Available Fabrication of occlusal splints in centric relation for temporomandibular disorders (TMD patients is arguable, since this position has been defined for asymptomatic stomatognathic system. Thus, maximum intercuspation might be employed in patients with occlusal stability, eliminating the need for interocclusal records. This study compared occlusal splints fabricated in centric relation and maximum intercuspation in muscle pain reduction of TMD patients. Twenty patients with TMD of myogenous origin and bruxism were divided into 2 groups treated with splints in maximum intercuspation (I or centric relation (II. Clinical, electrognathographic and electromyographic examinations were performed before and 3 months after therapy. Data were analyzed by the Student's t test. Differences at 5% level of probability were considered statistically significant. There was a remarkable reduction in pain symptomatology, without statistically significant differences (p>0.05 between the groups. There was mandibular repositioning during therapy, as demonstrated by the change in occlusal contacts on the splints. Electrognathographic examination demonstrated a significant increase in maximum left lateral movement for group I and right lateral movement for group II (p0.05 in the electromyographic activities at rest after utilization of both splints. In conclusion, both occlusal splints were effective for pain control and presented similar action. The results suggest that maximum intercuspation may be used for fabrication of occlusal splints in patients with occlusal stability without large discrepancies between centric relation and maximum intercuspation. Moreover, this technique is simpler and less expensive.
Folding and assembly of TMD 6-related segments of DMT 1 in trifluoroethanol aqueous solution.
Xiao, Shuyan; Wang, Chunyu; Li, Jiantao; Li, Fei
2011-07-01
Divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (DMT1) belongs to a large class of metal-ion transporters that drive the translocation of a wide range of divalent metal substrates across membranes toward the cytosol with couple of protons. Two highly conserved histidines in the sixth transmembrane domain (TMD6) are essential for metal transport activity in DMT1. In the present study, we determine the high-resolution structures of three 25-residue peptides, corresponding to TMD6 of the wildtype DMT1 (the segment 255-279) and its H267A and H272A mutants, in 30% TFE-d(2) aqueous solution by the combined use of circular dichroism (CD) and NMR spectroscopies. The wildtype peptide forms an 'α-helix-extended segment-α-helix' structure with two helices spanning over Gly258-Ala262 and Met265-Lys277 linked by a hinge at residues Val263-Ile264. The H267A mutation reduces the hinge to one residue (Ile264), while the H272A mutation extends the flexible region of the central part from Val263 to His267. Diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) study demonstrates that all the peptides are self-assembly as trimer in 30% TFE-d(2) aqueous solution. The H272A substitution decreases the intermolecular interaction whereas the H267A substitution may enhance the intermolecular interaction. The specific structure of the discontinuous helix and the self-assembly feature of DMT1-TMD6 may be crucial for its biological function. The changes in conformation and intermolecular interaction induced by histidine substitution may be correlated with the deficiency of DMT1 in metal-ion permeation.
Dawson, Andreas; Ghafouri, Bijar; Gerdle, Björn; List, Thomas; Svensson, Peter; Ernberg, Malin
2015-08-01
It has been suggested that tooth clenching may be associated with local metabolic changes, and is a risk factor for myofascial temporomandibular disorders (M-TMD). This study investigated the effects of experimental tooth clenching on the levels of 5-HT, glutamate, pyruvate, and lactate, as well as on blood flow and pain intensity, in the masseter muscles of M-TMD patients. Fifteen patients with M-TMD and 15 pain-free controls participated. Intramuscular microdialysis was performed to collect 5-HT, glutamate, pyruvate, and lactate and to assess blood flow. Two hours after the insertion of a microdialysis catheter, participants performed a 20-minute repetitive tooth clenching task (50% of maximal voluntary contraction). Pain intensity was measured throughout. A significant effect of group (Ppain intensity (Ppain intensity; or between (2) pyruvate, lactate, and blood flow. This experimental tooth clenching model increased jaw muscle pain levels in M-TMD patients and evoked low levels of jaw muscle pain in controls. M-TMD patients had significantly higher levels of 5-HT than controls and significantly lower blood flow. These 2 factors may facilitate the release of other algesic substances that may cause pain.
刘忠宝; 王士同
2011-01-01
In order to circumvent the deficiencies of Support Vector Machine (SVM) and its improved algorithms, this paper presents Maximum-margin Learning Machine based on Entropy concept and Kernel density estimation (MLMEK). In MLMEK, data distributions in samples are represented by kernel density estimation and classification uncertainties are represented by entropy. MLMEK takes boundary data between classes and inner data in each class seriously, so it performs better than traditional SVM. MLMEK can work for two-class and one-class pattern classification. Experimental results obtained from UCI data sets verify that the algorithms proposed in the paper is effective and competitive.%该文针对支持向量机(SVM)及其变种的不足,提出一种基于熵理论和核密度估计的最大间隔学习机MLMEK.MLMEK引入了核密度估计和熵的概念,用核密度估计表征样本数据的分布特征,用熵表征分类的不确定性.MLMEK真实反映样本数据的分布特征；同时解决两类分类问题和单类分类问题；比传统SVM具有更好的分类性能.UCI数据集上的实验验证了MLMEK的有效性.
AN in inclusive lepton-proton collisions: TMD and twist-3 approaches
Prokudin Alexei
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the inclusive production of hadrons in lepton-nucleon scattering. For a transversely polarized nucleon this reaction shows a left-right azimuthal asymmetry, which we compute in both TMD and in twist-3 collinear factorization formalisms. All non-perturbative parton correlators of the calculation are fixed through information from other hard processes. Our results for the left-right asymmetry agree in sign with recent data for charged pion production from the HERMES Collaboration and from Jefferson Lab. We discuss similarities and differences of the two formalisms.
人群简化模型与人行桥 TMD 参数设计研究%Simplified model of human crowd and parameter design of TMD for footbridges
孙昊; 周叮; 刘伟庆; 李枝军
2016-01-01
用两段连续弹性杆模拟静立人体，建立人群－人行桥－调谐质量阻尼器（TMD）振动系统。将静立人群简化建模为单个的广义人体，研究广义人体－人行桥－调谐质量阻尼器振动系统的动力特性及 TMD 参数设计。运用最小二乘原理确定广义人体的相关参数，通过与已有的实验数据对比，验证了将静立人群简化为广义人体模型的正确性。以均方根加速度作为人体舒适度的优化准则，分析了人行桥 TMD 的最优频率比和最优阻尼比。%Here,a continuous-elastic bar with two segments was used to model bodies standing on a footbridge and the crowd-footbridge-tuned mass damper (TMD) vibration system was built.By simplifying the static crowd as a generalized human body,the dynamic characteristics of the generalized human body-footbridge-TMD system and the parameter design of TMD were studied.The parameters of the generalized human body were identified with the principle of least square.Comparing with the data available from tests,the correctness of the simplified generalized human body was verified.The root-mean-square acceleration was taken as the optimization criterion to assess the human body comfort,the optimal parameters of the TMD were analyzed.
Manel Puig-Domingo
Full Text Available Somatostatin receptors (ssts are expressed in thyroid cancer cells, but their biological significance is not well understood. The aim of this study was to assess ssts in well differentiated (WDTC and poorly differentiated thyroid cancer (PDTC by means of imaging and molecular tools and its relationship with the efficacy of somatostatin analog treatment. Thirty-nine cases of thyroid carcinoma were evaluated (20 PDTC and 19 WDTC. Depreotide scintigraphy and mRNA levels of sst-subtypes, including the truncated variant sst5TMD4, were carried out. Depreotide scans were positive in the recurrent tumor in the neck in 6 of 11 (54% PDTC, and in those with lung metastases in 5/11 cases (45.4%; sst5TMD4 was present in 18/20 (90% of PDTC, being the most densely expressed sst-subtype, with a 20-fold increase in relation to sst2. In WDTC, sst2 was the most represented, while sst5TMD4 was not found; sst2 was significantly increased in PDTC in comparison to WDTC. Five depreotide positive PDTC received octreotide for 3-6 months in a pilot study with no changes in the size of the lesions in 3 of them, and a significant increase in the pulmonary and cervical lesions in the other 2. All PDTC patients treated with octreotide showed high expression of sst5TMD4. ROC curve analysis demonstrated that only sst5TMD4 discriminates between PDTC and WDTC. We conclude that sst5TMD4 is overexpressed in PDTC and may be involved in the lack of response to somatostatin analogue treatment.
Fu, Alexander S; Mehta, Noshir R; Forgione, Albert G; Al-Badawi, Emad A; Zawawi, Khalid H
2003-07-01
This study assessed the maxillomandibular relationship in temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients, before and after short-term, flat plane bite plate therapy. It was of interest to determine the incidence and degree of mandibular deviation in a group of TMD patients and whether the mandible would shift to the midline and consequently affect reported symptoms. Seventeen female and three male subjects (age range 19-60) were included in the study. Thirteen subjects were diagnosed with myofascial pain while seven were diagnosed as exhibiting disk displacement with reduction (Research Diagnostic Criteria). After taking impressions for these subjects, casts were fabricated and mounted. Maxillomandibular relationship was evaluated by the Denar Centric Check system (Anaheim, CA). The maxillary and mandibular labial frena were used as a reference to evaluate mandibular shift. Symptom questionnaires were used to assess temporomandibular joint pain and clicking. All subjects exhibited deviation (12 subjects to the right and 8 subjects to the left) prior to bite plate therapy. After flat plane bite plate therapy, the mandibular position of all subjects shifted toward the labial frenum midline position. Based on the Binomial test, the shift was significant (p occlusal obstructions are eliminated, the mandible will drift to this position.
Lievens, Klaus; Van Nimmen, Katrien; Lombaert, Geert; De Roeck, Guido; Van den Broeck, Peter
2016-09-01
In civil engineering and architecture, the availability of high strength materials and advanced calculation techniques enables the construction of slender footbridges, generally highly sensitive to human-induced excitation. Due to the inherent random character of the human-induced walking load, variability on the pedestrian characteristics must be considered in the response simulation. To assess the vibration serviceability of the footbridge, the statistics of the stochastic dynamic response are evaluated by considering the instantaneous peak responses in a time range. Therefore, a large number of time windows are needed to calculate the mean value and standard deviation of the instantaneous peak values. An alternative method to evaluate the statistics is based on the standard deviation of the response and a characteristic frequency as proposed in wind engineering applications. In this paper, the accuracy of this method is evaluated for human-induced vibrations. The methods are first compared for a group of pedestrians crossing a lightly damped footbridge. Small differences of the instantaneous peak value were found by the method using second order statistics. Afterwards, a TMD tuned to reduce the peak acceleration to a comfort value, was added to the structure. The comparison between both methods in made and the accuracy is verified. It is found that the TMD parameters are tuned sufficiently and good agreements between the two methods are found for the estimation of the instantaneous peak response for a strongly damped structure.
Bae, Youngsook; Park, Yongnam
2013-05-01
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of relaxation exercises for the masticator muscles on the limited ROM and pain of temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 10 men and 31 women in their 20s and 30s. They were randomly divided into no treatment, active exercises and relaxation exercise for the masticator muscle groups. The exercise groups performed exercises three times or more a day over a period of four weeks, performing exercise for 10 minutes each time. Before and after the four weeks, all the subjects were measured for ROM, deviation, occlusion, and pain in the temporomandibular joint. [Results] ROM, deviation and pain showed statistically significant in improvements after the intervention in the active exercise and relaxation exercise for the masticator muscle groups. Deviation also showed a statistically significant difference between the active exercise and relaxation exercise groups. [Conclusion] The results verify that as with active exercises, relaxation exercises for the masticatory muscles are an effective treatment for ROM and pain in TMD. Particularly, masticatory muscle relaxation exercises were found to be a treatment that is also effective for deviation.
Raquel Stumpf Branco
2008-04-01
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: as disfunções temporomandibulares (DTM podem ser definidas como um conjunto de condições dolorosas e/ou disfuncionais, que envolvem os músculos da mastigação e/ou as articulações temporomandibulares (ATM. Um dos meios usados para o diagnóstico é o "Critério Diagnóstico para Pesquisa em Disfunções Temporomandibulares" (RDC/TMD. Hábitos parafuncionais são aqueles não relacionados à execução das funções normais do sistema estomatognático. O bruxismo é caracterizado por atividade parafuncional noturna involuntária dos músculos mastigatórios, enquanto o apertamento dentário é considerado uma parafunção diurna envolvendo esta musculatura, embora possa ocorrer também à noite. OBJETIVOS: o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a freqüência do relato de parafunções orais diurna e/ou noturna em pacientes com DTM nos diferentes subgrupos diagnósticos do RDC/TMD. METODOLOGIA: foram utilizados dados provenientes de 217 pacientes que procuraram tratamento na Clínica de DTM e Dor Orofacial da Faculdade de Medicina de Petrópolis, sendo avaliados através do questionário e exame físico que compõem o RDC/TMD. RESULTADOS: dos 182 pacientes com DTM estudados, 76,9% relataram algum tipo de parafunção, podendo ser diurna, noturna ou a associação de ambas. A parafunção diurna foi a mais freqüentemente relatada entre os subgrupos de DTM, sendo encontrada em 64,8% dos casos contra 55,5% dos casos com relato de bruxismo. O relato de ambas as parafunções foi constatado em 43,4% dos pacientes com DTM. CONCLUSÕES: considerando cada subgrupo diagnóstico, os relatos de parafunções diurna e noturna foram mais freqüentes nos pacientes com dor miofascial.INTRODUCTION: temporomandibular disorders (TMD can be defined as a group of painful and/or dysfunctional conditions that involve masticatory muscles and/or the temporomandibular joints (TMJ. One of the methods used to the diagnostic is the "Research
袁正国
2015-01-01
The horizontal vibration of long-span footbridge by human-induced loads will cause pedestrians discomfort and damage of the structure .In order to control the long-span footbridge ’s horizontal vibration , the author studied the characteristics of the human-induced loads and vibration characteristics with an example of a long -span footbridge , and conducted the TMD control design aiming at the comfort and research damping control by numerical analysis .The results showed that the vibration control effect was significant when TMD mass ratio ranged between 1%and 3%, and the larger the TMD mass , the better the control .The effect of TMD horizon-tal vibration was obvious , and the control effect of displacement was 21.3% and the control effect of acceleration was 20.2%.The effect of MTMD control was better than TMD , but when the number of TMD was more than 5, the control effect was not significantly increased with the increase of TMD .%大跨度步行桥在人行激励下的水平振动将引起行人不适和结构损坏，为了对大跨度步行桥人行激励水平振动进行减震控制，以某大跨度景观步行桥为例研究了人行激励的特征和步行桥的振动特性，以人行桥舒适度为目标进行了TMD控制设计，通过数值分析进行了减振控制研究。研究结果表明， TMD质量比取1％～3％时有明显的减震效果，且TMD质量块越大，控制效果越好； TMD水平减振对大跨度步行桥人行激励引起的水平振动减震效果明显，位移和加速度控制效果分别达到21．3％和20．2％； MTMD的控制效果要比单个TMD的控制效果要好，但当数目超过5个时，随着TMD的个数增多，控制效果增加的并不明显。
Qing Wang
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Free energy calculations of the potential of mean force (PMF based on the combination of targeted molecular dynamics (TMD simulations and umbrella samplings as a function of physical coordinates have been applied to explore the detailed pathways and the corresponding free energy profiles for the conformational transition processes of the butane molecule and the 35-residue villin headpiece subdomain (HP35. The accurate PMF profiles for describing the dihedral rotation of butane under both coordinates of dihedral rotation and root mean square deviation (RMSD variation were obtained based on the different umbrella samplings from the same TMD simulations. The initial structures for the umbrella samplings can be conveniently selected from the TMD trajectories. For the application of this computational method in the unfolding process of the HP35 protein, the PMF calculation along with the coordinate of the radius of gyration (Rg presents the gradual increase of free energies by about 1 kcal/mol with the energy fluctuations. The feature of conformational transition for the unfolding process of the HP35 protein shows that the spherical structure extends and the middle α-helix unfolds firstly, followed by the unfolding of other α-helices. The computational method for the PMF calculations based on the combination of TMD simulations and umbrella samplings provided a valuable strategy in investigating detailed conformational transition pathways for other allosteric processes.
Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos
2001-05-01
Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes alturas (24; 26; 43; 45; 52; 62; 73 e 78 cm do pasto sobre a qualidade de forragem e estrutura do perfil do capim-Tanzânia, (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia – 1 (Poaceae. Foram utilizados novilhos da raça Nelore sob pastejo com carga animal variável, por meio da técnica put and take. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. A densidade de matéria seca total (DMT aumentou com o avanço no período experimental, enquanto a densidade de matéria seca de lâminas (DML não foi influenciada pelo período e pela altura do pasto. O estrato superior da pastagem foi a porção de maior qualidade, apresentando maior DML e maior teor de PB. Os estratos inferiores apresentaram menor qualidade, devido à maior DMT e menor DML, acarretando em maiores valores de FDA e FDN e menores teores de PB. O conteúdo de minerais das lâminas foi superior aos colmos, mantendo-se inalterado com relação aos estratos da pastagem.The effect of different sward heights (24; 26; 43; 45; 52; 62; 73 and 78 cm on forage quality and profile structure Tanzania grass, Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania – 1 (Poaceae is provided. Nelore steers were used in grazing at variable stocking rates with put and take technique. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two replications. Total dry matter bulk densitity (TDMD increased during experimental period, while the leaf blade dry matter bulk density (LDMD was not influenced by period on by sward height. The upper layers had the best quality with higher LDMD and CP levels. Lower layers had the worst quality, due the higher TDMD and lower LDMD. This fact caused higher ADF and NDF levels and lower CP levels. Leaf blade mineral content was higher than that of stem, and remained unaltered in relation to the different layers.
Gesch, Dietmar; Bernhardt, Olaf; Kirbschus, Antje
2004-03-01
The aim of this systematic review of population-based studies was to establish whether or not associations exist between different types of malocclusions, as well as factors of functional occlusion (eg, occlusal interferences, nonworking-side occlusal contacts) and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in adults 20 years or older. Defined criteria were employed in the search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, as well as in a manual search. Finally, using inclusion criteria (eg, random sampling from residents' registration office files or census lists, adequate response rates), out of 22 preselected studies, four relevant population-based studies on this subject were found. Eighteen studies were excluded because of insufficient description of material and methods (eg, lack or unclear description of sample method, randomization, age distribution), mixed under- and over-20-year-old study population, or different outcome of interest (eg, tooth loss, dentures). The methodologic quality of the selected studies was established with a quality assessment list. The average total methodologic score achieved was 43 out of a possible 100 points. Few associations were reported between malocclusion and parameters of functional occlusion and clinical as well as subjective TMD, and these associations were not uniform. No particular morphologic or functional occlusal factor became apparent. Additionally, the occlusal factors found were partly protective for TMD, ie, subjects with these occlusal parameters showed fewer signs and symptoms of TMD (angle Class II malocclusion, deep bite, anterior crossbite). A positive relationship was only described in two cases-between the number of rotated lateral teeth and subjective symptoms of dysfunction, and between excessive abrasions and clinical dysfunction. In neither case, however, was the strength of the correlation given. In summary, few associations were established between malocclusion or functional occlusion and signs and symptoms of TMD. In
Dugashvili, Giorgi*; Van den Berghe, Linda*; Menabde, Giorgi; Janelidze, Marina
2017-01-01
Background The Universal Pain Assessment Tool (UPAT) was used to assess the level of pain in people with limited communication skills. The UPAT enables clinicians to consult a specialized pain management team more often and lead to earlier interventions. The purpose of this study was to determine, whether the UPAT could be used as an extra tool to collect data on functional TMJ pain and to assess orofacial pain levels related to temporomandibular disorder(s) (TMD) in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Material and Methods Non-down syndrome ID Athletes were screened during the Special Olympics European games in 2014. The clinical scores of possible functional jaw pain were collected using the UPAT, to indicate pain severity on a visual scale during different jaw movements (opening, closing and lateral). Results Two hundred and four youngsters were screened by calibrated dentists. The majority (65%) of participants were male (133 male and 71 female athletes); age distribution ranged from 15 to 23 years (mean 19.25 ± 2.53). The results of the UPAT have shown the existence of functional TMJ pain in 32% (n=65) of the athletes without significant prevalence (P > 0.05) in this survey group. Conclusions According to the results of the present study, the UPAT demonstrated that it could be a useful tool to detect the existence of functional jaw pain possibly associated with TMD and also a valid instrument to score pain intensity associated with TMD in people with ID. Key words:Universal pain assessment tool - TMD in ID - TMD in youngsters. PMID:27918746
唐经文; 王林豪; 高诚; 梁鑫俐; 李佳
2009-01-01
对水平环缝内冷水自然对流换热性能进行了实验研究.水平环缝宽度为6～18 mm,外壁温度维持0℃,换热温差为2～24℃.结果表明,在实验范围内,内壁面的平均表面传热系数随环缝宽度的增大而增加;当温差小于4℃或大于8℃时,平均表面传热系数随温差的增大而增大,在4～8℃范围内,随温差的增大而减小.采用逐步线性回归方法,得到了内壁传热关联式.%This paper conducts the experimental study on the natural convection characteristics of cold water near the maximum density in horizontal annulus with the fixed inner radius r_i=14 mm and different width l = 6～18 mm. The temperature at outer wall is maintained at 0 ℃, and the temperature differences between the inner and outer walls range from 2 to 24 ℃. The results show that the heat transfer coefficient at inner wall increases with the increase of the annulus width. When the temperature difference is bellow 4 ℃ or above 8 ℃, the heat transfer coefficient increases with the increase of the temperature difference. When the temperature difference is between 4 ℃ and 8 ℃, it. decreases with the increase of the temperature difference. The formula of heat transfer at inner walls is obtained by using the method of linear regression.
叶飞
2014-01-01
通过对一大跨度楼面进行减振分析,表明大跨度楼面在人行荷载下易发生共振效应,安装调谐质量阻尼器(TMD)后,可有效地减小结构的共振响应,使其能够满足人体舒适度要求.此外,当工程中对单个TMD构件重量有限制时,采用多个TMD(MTMD)代替单个TMD,可以减少其安装尺寸.
Gahete, Manuel D.; Serrano-Somavilla, Ana; Villa-Osaba, Alicia; Adrados, Magdalena; Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Martín-Pérez, Elena; Culler, Michael D.
2016-01-01
Purpose Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are rare and heterogeneous tumors, and their biological behavior is not well known. We studied the presence and potential functional roles of somatostatin receptors (sst1-5), focusing particularly on the truncated variants (sst5TMD4, sst5TMD5) and on their relationships with the angiogenic system (Ang/Tie-2 and VEGF) in human GEP-NETs. Experimental Design We evaluated 42 tumor tissue samples (26 primary/16 metastatic) from 26 patients with GEP-NETs, and 30 non-tumoral tissues (26 from adjacent non-tumor regions and 4 from normal controls) from a single center. Expression of sst1-5, sst5TMD4, sst5TMD5, Ang1-2, Tie-2 and VEGF was analyzed using real-time qPCR, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. Expression levels were associated with tumor characteristics and clinical outcomes. Functional role of sst5TMD4 was analyzed in GEP-NET cell lines. Results sst1 exhibited the highest expression in GEP-NET, whilst sst2 was the most frequently observed sst-subtype (90.2%). Expression levels of sst1, sst2, sst3, sst5TMD4, and sst5TMD5 were significantly higher in tumor tissues compared to their adjacent non-tumoral tissue. Lymph-node metastases expressed higher levels of sst5TMD4 than in its corresponding primary tumor tissue. sst5TMD4 was also significantly higher in intestinal tumor tissues from patients with residual disease of intestinal origin compared to those with non-residual disease. Functional assays demonstrated that the presence of sst5TMD4 was associated to enhanced malignant features in GEP-NET cells. Angiogenic markers correlated positively with sst5TMD4, which was confirmed by immunohistochemical/fluorescence studies. Conclusions sst5TMD4 is overexpressed in GEP-NETs and is associated to enhanced aggressiveness, suggesting its potential value as biomarker and target in GEP-NETs. PMID:26673010
Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.
2000-01-01
This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from...
Santana-Mora, Urbano; López-Ratón, Mónica; Mora, Maria J; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen; López-Cedrún, José; Santana-Penín, Urbano
2014-06-01
The use of surface electromyography (sEMG) to identify subjects with chronic temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is controversial. The main objective of this study is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of EMG to differentiate between healthy subjects and those with TMD. This study evaluated 53 individuals with TMD who were referred to the university service and who fulfilled the eligibility criteria during the period of the study. Thirty-eight dental students were also recruited satisfying same eligibility criteria but without TMD. The inclusion criteria were to be fully dentate, have normal occlusion, and be righthanded. The exclusion criteria were periodontal pathology, caries or damaged dental tissues, orthodontic therapy, maxillofacial disease, botulinum A toxin therapy, and psychological disorders. The means of the masseter muscles, right (RM) and left (LM), and temporalis muscles, right (RT) and left (LT), and intraindividual indexes during resting and during clenching were calculated. Raw sEMG activity was used to determine the cutoff points and calculate the diagnostic accuracy of sEMG. The diagnostic accuracy of these variables for a diagnosis of TMD was evaluated by using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve and the area under it (AUC). A new transformed diagnostic variable was obtained by using the Generalized Additive Models (GAM). Optimal cutoff points were obtained where the sensitivity and specificity were similar and by the Youden index. The highest estimated AUC was 0.660 (95% CI 0.605-0.871) corresponding to the rLT variable during rest. When rLT and rACTIVITY (differences divided by sums of temporalis versus masseter muscles) were considered as a linear combination, the AUC increased to 0.742 (95% CI; 0.783-0.934). In conclusion, the raw sEMG evaluation of rest provided moderate sensitivity and specificity to discriminate between healthy individuals and those with TMD. The use of the indexes (mainly assessing the dominance of
Luciana Barbosa Sousa de Lucena
2006-12-01
Full Text Available The present paper aimed at evaluating the validity of the Portuguese version of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD Axis II Questionnaire. The sample was comprised of 155 patients with signs and symptoms of Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD, evaluated at the Orofacial Pain Control Center, School of Dentistry, University of Pernambuco, Brazil, between July 2003 and February 2004. Data collection was performed with the following tools: the RDC/TMD Axis I (clinical evaluation and TMD classification, and Axis II (psychosocial evaluation, as well as specific questionnaires for evaluation of Oral Health Related Quality of Life, namely, Oral Impacts on Daily Performances and the Oral Health Impact Profile-14, considered to be gold standard criteria. Validity evaluation consisted of internal consistency evaluation by the Cronbach alfa reliability test, reliability and reproducibility estimated by the Kappa test and the Spearman's correlation, and concurring validation through Spearman's correlation. The Portuguese version of the RDC/TMD Axis II questionnaire was considered consistent (Cronbach alfa = 0.72, reproducible (Kappa values from 0.73 to 0.91, p O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a validade da versão em português do questionário Eixo II dos Critérios Diagnósticos de Pesquisa em Disfunção Temporomandibular (RDC/TMD. A amostra foi composta por 155 pacientes com sinais e sintomas de disfunção temporomandibular (DTM atendidos no Centro de Controle da Dor Orofacial da Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de Pernambuco, Brasil, no período de julho de 2003 a fevereiro de 2004. Para a coleta de dados foram utilizados os seguintes instrumentos: RDC/TMD Eixo I, para avaliação clínica e classificação da DTM, Eixo II, para avaliação psicossocial, e os questionários específicos para avaliação da qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal: Impacto da Saúde Bucal nas Atividades Diárias e
张立群
2003-01-01
探讨了战区导弹防御系统(TMD)对抗技术的初步设想与实现方法,重点对TMD系统激光对抗技术和TMD系统红外对抗技术进行了可行性分析论证,介绍了一些具体的光电对抗措施.
刘礼昕; 盛宏玉
2015-01-01
文章建立了多跨折形钢结构人行吊桥模型，通过有限元软件 ANSYS进行模态分析和人行荷载作用下的动力时程分析。结果表明，该桥在人行荷载作用下振动响应过大，影响结构的正常使用。在吊桥的跨中位置安装调频质量阻尼器（tuned mass damper ，TMD）进行减振控制，通过计算选取最优的 TMD参数。对比相同人行荷载作用下安装TMD装置和未安装TMD装置桥梁的动力响应，结果表明 TMD能有效减轻吊桥的振动响应。%In this paper ,a model of multi‐span zigzag‐shaped pedestrian suspension bridge made of steel material is set up .The modal analysis and dynamic time‐history analysis under the pedestrian loads are presented by using the finite element software ANSYS .The results show that the vibration re‐sponse of the bridge under the pedestrian loads is too big and will influence the functions of the struc‐ture .To control the vibration level ,the tuned mass dampers(TMD) are installed on mid‐span of the suspension bridge by selecting optimal TMD parameters based on calculation .The vibration responses of the bridge with and without TMD device under the same pedestrian loads are calculated and com‐pared .The results show that TMD can reduce the vibration response of the suspension bridge effec‐tively .
Maximum-likelihood method in quantum estimation
Paris, M G A; Sacchi, M F
2001-01-01
The maximum-likelihood method for quantum estimation is reviewed and applied to the reconstruction of density matrix of spin and radiation as well as to the determination of several parameters of interest in quantum optics.
Umbach, Frank
2001-01-01
"Angesichts der nuklearen Modernisierungsprogramme Russlands, Chinas und Indiens ist Japans Entscheidung für ein Theather Missile Defense (TMD) – Programm gerechtfertigt. Die Implementierung eines solchen Programms bedarf aber sorgfältiger Analysen von Fall zu Fall." (Autorenreferat)
Umbach, Frank
2001-01-01
"Angesichts der nuklearen Modernisierungsprogramme Russlands, Chinas und Indiens ist Japans Entscheidung für ein Theather Missile Defense (TMD) – Programm gerechtfertigt. Die Implementierung eines solchen Programms bedarf aber sorgfältiger Analysen von Fall zu Fall." (Autorenreferat)
2007-11-02
for Command and Control in Naval and TMD Applications Personal Author: Various from Logica , British Aerospace & Cambridge Consul. Corporate Author Or...Programme SANDERLING 706.70040 ARE, Portsdown SLS21C/19 Authors: Status: Signed : Various from Logica , British Aerospace and Cambridge Consultants...Ltd. Final <T. G^uJ - Authorised PLEASE RETURN TO: SDI TECHNICAL INFORMATION CENTER ©1990 Logica UK Ltd. Copyright in the whole and every part of
High-Definition and Non-Invasive Brain Modulation of Pain and Motor Dysfunction in Chronic TMD
Donnell, Adam; Nascimento, Thiago; Lawrence, Mara; Gupta, Vikas; Zieba, Tina; Truong, Dennis Q.; Bikson, Marom; Datta, Abhi; Bellile, Emily; DaSilva, Alexandre F.
2015-01-01
Background Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) have a relatively high prevalence and in many patients pain and masticatory dysfunction persist despite a range of treatments. Non-invasive brain neuromodulatory methods, namely transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), can provide relatively long-lasting pain relief in chronic pain patients. Objective To define the neuromodulatory effect of five daily 2×2 motor cortex high-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) sessions on clinical pain and motor measures in chronic TMD patients. It is predicted that M1 HD-tDCS will selectively modulate clinical measures, by showing greater analgesic after-effects compared to placebo, and active treatment will increase pain free jaw movement more than placebo. Methods Twenty-four females with chronic myofascial TMD pain underwent five daily, 20-minute sessions of active or sham 2 milliamps (mA) HD-tDCS. Measurable outcomes included pain-free mouth opening, visual analog scale (VAS), sectional sensory-discriminative pain measures tracked by a mobile application, short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Follow-up occurred at one-week and four-weeks post treatment. Results There were significant improvements for clinical pain and motor measurements in the active HD-tDCS group compared to the placebo group for: responders with pain relief above 50% in the VAS at four-week follow-up (p=0.04); pain-free mouth opening at one-week follow-up (pTMD pain patients. PMID:26226938
Witulski, Silke; Vogl, Thomas J; Rehart, Stefan; Ottl, Peter
2014-01-01
This study included 30 patients with diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 30 test subjects without RA (control group). The objective of the study was to examine both groups for the presence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and morphological changes of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). All individuals were examined using a systematic detailed clinical TMD examination as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The clinical TMD examination yielded significant differences between the RA patients and the control group concerning crepitus of the TMJ, and palpation tenderness of the masticatory muscles as well as the unassisted mandibular opening. The evaluation of the MRI images for the RA group showed significantly more frequent deformations of the condyle, osteophyte formations and erosions in the condylar compacta, and degenerative changes in the spongiosa. Increased intra-articular accumulation of synovial liquid and signs of inflammatory changes of the spongiosa were only found in the RA group. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between crepitus and specific osteoarthrotic changes (MRI), respectively, and between crepitus and a complete anterior disk displacement without reduction (MRI). The duration of the RA disease correlated neither with the anamnestic and clinical dysfunction index by Helkimo nor with RA-specific MRI findings.
Mahrokh Imanimoghaddam
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD are the most common disorders of the jaw, and despite their clinical importance, they are not completely understood. This study was aimed to evaluate the changes of temporomandibular joint (TMJ on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT images in disc displacement vs. osteoarthritis of the TMJ. Methods: In this study, 45 patients, including 37 women and 8 men (13-89 years of age, were examined. The patients were selected based on RDC/TMD criteria and group I disorders were excluded from the study. Accordingly, group II consisted of 43 joints with jaw clicking or displaced discs, and group III comprised 46 joints with crepitus. CBCT images in sagittal, coronal, and axial sections were examined to assess osseous changes in terms of flattening, sclerosis, erosion, resorption, and osteophyte formation. Data were analyzed using statistical tests including the chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests with the confidence interval of 95%. Results: Mann-Whitney test for the comparison of mean age between groups II and III was not statistically significant (p value=0.06. A significant differences was found between two (RDC/TMD groups according to the prevalence of condylar erosion, resorption, and osteophyte (p
Silke Witulski
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This study included 30 patients with diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis (RA and 30 test subjects without RA (control group. The objective of the study was to examine both groups for the presence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD and morphological changes of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ. All individuals were examined using a systematic detailed clinical TMD examination as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The clinical TMD examination yielded significant differences between the RA patients and the control group concerning crepitus of the TMJ, and palpation tenderness of the masticatory muscles as well as the unassisted mandibular opening. The evaluation of the MRI images for the RA group showed significantly more frequent deformations of the condyle, osteophyte formations and erosions in the condylar compacta, and degenerative changes in the spongiosa. Increased intra-articular accumulation of synovial liquid and signs of inflammatory changes of the spongiosa were only found in the RA group. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between crepitus and specific osteoarthrotic changes (MRI, respectively, and between crepitus and a complete anterior disk displacement without reduction (MRI. The duration of the RA disease correlated neither with the anamnestic and clinical dysfunction index by Helkimo nor with RA-specific MRI findings.
Eduardo Rollo Duarte
2012-04-01
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Among the sleep disorders reported by the American Academy of Sleep, the most common is obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS, which is caused by difficulties in air passage and complete interruption of air flow in the airway. This syndrome is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in apneic individuals. OBJECTIVE: It was the objective of this paper to evaluate a removable mandibular advancement device as it provides a noninvasive, straightforward treatment readily accepted by patients. METHODS: In this study, 15 patients without temporomandibular disorders (TMD and with excessive daytime sleepiness or snoring were evaluated. Data were collected by means of: Polysomnography before and after placement of an intraoral appliance, analysis of TMD signs and symptoms using a patient history questionnaire, muscle and TMJ palpation. RESULTS: After treatment, the statistical analysis (t-test, and the "before and after" test showed a mean reduction of 77.6% (p=0.001 in the apnea-hypopnea index, an increase in lowest oxyhemoglobin saturation (p=0.05, decrease in desaturation (p=0.05, decrease in micro-awakenings or EEG arousals (p=0.05 and highly significant improvement in daytime sleepiness (p=0.005, measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. No TMD appeared during the monitoring period. CONCLUSION: The oral device developed in this study was considered effective for mild to moderate OSAHS.
Henni Koesmaningati
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The cases of TMD are complex and multifactorial, therefore the management should be done by several disciplines. In this report, a 27-year-old man came to the teaching hospital of the University of Indonesia Faculty of Dentistry’s Prosthodontic Department complaining about clicking sound and pain around his right joint. He received orthodontic treatment 9 years ago with removable appliance at a private practice and had 4 premolar extractions. The patient’s face looked asymmetric, with a low vertical dimension, a Class II occlusion, and an anterior deep bite. Besides that, he clenched his teeth during emotional stress. Lateral transcranial photo showed that the position of the left condyle was relatively normal or slightly anterior, and the right condyle was in the superoposterior position in the fossa with an abnormal shape. To solve this problem, the patient was referred to the Orthodontic Department to get a correct vertical dimension and normal anterior overbite. After 6 years, the patient was again referred to the Prosthodontic Department, but the result was not successful. In order to get the right vertical dimension, an occlusal splint was fabricated to achieve a comfort jaw relation. In this position, the overbite was 2 mm, but the space between the upper and lower posterior teeth was 5 mm. In this situation, full veneer crowns were not impossible to fabricate. Finally, to maintain this comfort position, the patient was suggested to wear the occlusal splint and come regularly for control every 6 months.
Tecco, Simona; Teté, Stefano; Crincoli, Vito; Festa, Mario Armando; Festa, Felice
2010-01-01
This study evaluated the use of a fixed orthodontic appliance in treatment of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) compared to the use of an intra-oral splint. Fifty (50) adult patients, with confirmed anterior disk displacement with reduction in at least one temporomandibular joint (TMJ), were divided into three groups: 20 patients treated with AR splint (Group I); 20 patients treated with a fixed orthodontic appliance (Group II) and 10 patients who underwent no treatment (Control Group). Joint pain, joint noise, muscle pain, and subjective relief were evaluated monthly before the treatment began (T0) and for six months thereafter. Subjects in Group I and Group II displayed a significant decrease in joint pain (p orthodontic appliance seems to be as efficacious as the use of an AR maxillary splint in the treatment of joint pain and muscle pain, but not in the treatment of joint noise. These results are valid, at least for the short-term clinical results (first six months of treatment). Clinical implications for long-term use are not clarified by these results.
A study on the interplay between perturbative QCD and CSS/TMD formalism in SIDIS processes
Boglione, M. [Univ. di Torino, Torino (Italy); INFN, Torino (Italy); Gonzalez Hernandez, J. O. [INFN, Torino (Italy); Melis, S. [Univ. di Torino, Torino (Italy); Prokudin, A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2015-02-16
We study the Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS) cross section as a function of the transverse momentum, _{qT}. In order to describe it over a wide region of _{qT}, soft gluon resummation has to be performed. Here we will use the original Collins-Soper-Sterman (CSS) formalism; however, the same procedure would hold within the improved Transverse Momentum Dependent (TMD) framework. We study the matching between the region where fixed order perturbative QCD can successfully be applied and the region where soft gluon resummation is necessary. We find that the commonly used prescription of matching through the so-called Y-factor cannot be applied in the SIDIS kinematical configurations we examine. In particular, the non-perturbative component of the resummed cross section turns out to play a crucial role and should not be overlooked even at relatively high energies. As a result, the perturbative expansion of the resummed cross section in the matching region is not as reliable as it is usually believed and its treatment requires special attention.
Gesch, Dietmar; Bernhardt, Olaf; Mack, Florian; John, Ulrich; Kocher, Thomas; Alte, Dietrich
2005-03-01
An analysis of exclusively representative population-based studies on adults has shown that only few and inconsistent associations could be detected between malocclusions and clinical signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD)--and none for functional occlusion factors (occlusal interferences, non-working side contacts, etc). The aim of this study was to analyze associations between morphologic occlusion as well as factors of functional occlusion and subjectively perceived symptoms of TMD--again on the basis of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP), providing a sample of 4310 subjects (out of 7008 subjects yielding a response rate of 68.8%) aged 20 to 81 years, and other international representative studies from the systematic review. Besides occlusal factors also parafunctions and socioeconomic status (SES) were taken into account (including age and sex). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used--adjusted for SES. In this study, none of the occlusal factors were significantly associated with the indication of more frequent subjective TMD symptoms. However, the parafunction "frequent clenching" was connected with subjective TMD symptoms (odds ratio = 3.4). Compared with other population-based studies few and (across studies) inconsistent associations between malocclusions and subjective TMD symptoms could be ascertained. No significant associations of factors of functional occlusion with TMD symptoms were identifiable.
Imai, T; Okamoto, T; Kaneko, T; Umeda, K; Yamamoto, T; Nakamura, S
2000-02-01
Fifty-eight patients (mean age 18.4 years) who had received splint therapy for internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) were examined retrospectively to investigate the efficacy of occlusal reconstruction by orthodontic treatment. The subjects were divided into three groups: 18 patients (mean age 18.6 years) who underwent orthodontic treatment combined with the use of splints (ST group); 27 patients (mean age 18.2 years) who underwent orthodontic treatment without the use of splints (NST group); and 13 patients (mean age 17.9 years) who received only splint therapy for temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD; control group). TMJ sound, pain on movement and restriction of mandibular movement were examined at the initial examination (T1), at the end of the splint therapy for TMD or beginning of orthodontic treatment (T2), at the end of orthodontic treatment (T3), and at recall or 1 year after orthodontic treatment (T4). The following results were found. (1) The percentage of patients with no joint sound at T2 was 20-30 per cent. The percentage of such patients in both the ST and NST groups increased to over 50 per cent at T3, but slightly decreased to 39-50 per cent at T4. There were no significant inter-group differences at any time point. (2) The number of patients who had no pain on movement at T2 was 60-80 per cent. The percentage of such patients in both the ST and NST groups increased to over 90 per cent at T3, but then slightly decreased to 80 per cent at T4. There were no significant inter-group differences at any time point. (3) None of the patients showed restriction of movement of the TMJ at T2 or T4. One patient in the ST group was found to have restriction at T3. There were no significant inter-group differences at any time point. (4) The most frequent type of malocclusion in both ST and NST groups was anterior open bite. These results suggest that TMD symptoms that have been eliminated by splint therapy are not likely to recur due to
The JLab TMD Program at 6 GeV and 11 GeV
Puckett, Andrew J. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)
2016-05-01
The precise mapping of the nucleon’s transverse momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs) in the valence quark region has emerged as one of the flagship physics programs of the recently upgraded Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at Jefferson Lab (JLab). The TMDs describe the three-dimensional, spin-correlated densities of quarks and gluons in the nucleon in momentum space, and are accessible experimentally through detailed studies of the Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS) process, N ( e ; e 0 h ) X . The already unrivaled intensity, polarization and duty factor performance of CEBAF will combine with the dramatic expansion of its kinematic reach embodied by the recent near-doubling of the maximum beam energy to enable the first fully differential precision measurements of SIDIS structure functions in the valence region. In this paper, I will review the existing and forthcoming SIDIS results from the 6 GeV era of CEBAF operations and present an overview of the planned JLab SIDIS program at 11 GeV beam energy
吴普; 王丽丽; 邵雪梅
2008-01-01
Having analyzed the tree ring width and maximum latewood density of Pinus den-sata from west Sichuan, we obtained different climate information from tree-ring width and maximum latewood density chronology. The growth of tree ring width was responded princi-pally to the precipitation in current May, which might be influenced by the activity of southwest monsoon, whereas the maximum latewood density reflected summer temperature (June-September). According to the correlation relationship, a transfer function had been used to reconstruct summer temperature for the study area. The explained variance of re-construction is 51% (F=-52.099, p<0.0001). In the reconstruction series: before the 1930s, the climate was relatively cold, and relatively warm from 1930 to 1960, this trend was in accor-dance with the cold-warm period of the last 100 years, west Sichuan. Compared with Chengdu, the warming break point in west Sichuan is 3 years ahead of time, indicating that the Tibetan Plateau was more sensitive to temperature change. There was an evident sum-mer warming signal after 1983. Although the last 100-year running average of summer tem-perature in the 1990s was the maximum, the running average of the early 1990s was below the average line and it was cold summer, but summer drought occurred in the late 1990s.
Review of clinical EMG studies related to muscle and occlusal factors in healthy and TMD subjects.
Suvinen, T I; Kemppainen, P
2007-09-01
Several electronic instruments have been developed as adjuncts to objectively record the dysfunctional features of temporomandibular disorders and to study the effectiveness of various treatment interventions. The aim of this review was to assess the value and contribution of clinical electromyographic research in the understanding of asymptomatic and dysfunctional muscle function and the therapeutic effects of interocclusal appliances. For this purpose MedLine and PubMed searches were conducted with the following main keywords alone and in various combinations: electromyography, muscles of mastication, masseter, temporalis, temporomandibular, TMD, utility, validity, repeatability, rest, postural, vertical dimension, occlusal, splint, treatment. The review includes critical evaluation, discussion and conclusions regarding electromyographic studies in asymptomatic and dysfunctional muscles, rest position, occlusal parameters and interocclusal appliances, as well as a critical summary and proposals for further research. Much of earlier critique of many electromyographic studies still applies regarding comparative sample selections, research designs, analyses and conclusions. The areas not well-understood include normal biological variation, capacity for adaptation, fluctuations regarding the clinical course and multidimensional features of temporomandibular disorders and long-term follow-up data, especially in studies that evaluate the effectiveness of therapeutic measures. Considering the required improvements in technical and research designs features and critical appraisal electromyographic research could have value as an adjunct research tool to study features of craniofacial muscle-related dysfunction. Until electromyographic measures are correlated with other multidimensional, especially subjective and pain-related methods, the clinical use of this method for diagnostic purposes of temporomandibular disorders remains in doubt, and is not at present recommended.
[Post-translational ligation of split CFTR severed before TMD2 and its chloride channel function].
Zhu, Fuxiang; Gong, Xiandi; Liu, Zelong; Yang, Shude; Qu, Huige; Chi, Xiaoyan
2010-12-01
Mutations of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene leads to cystic fibrosis, an autosomal recessive genetic disorder affecting a number of organs including the lung airways, pancreas and sweat glands. In order to investigate the post-translational ligation of CFTR with reconstructed functional chloride ion channel and the split Ssp DnaB intein-mediated protein trans-splicing was explored to co-deliver CFTR gene into eukaryotic cells with two vectors. The human CFTR cDNA was split after Glu838 codon before the second transmembrane dome (TMD2) into two halves of N- and C-parts and fused with the coding sequences of split Ssp DnaB intein. Pair of eukaryotic expression vectors pEGFP-NInt and pEYFP-IntC were constructed by inserting them into the vectors pEGFP-N1 and pEYFP-N1 respectively. The transient expression was carried out for observing the ligation of CFTR by Western blotting and recording the chloride current by patch clamps when cotransfection of the pair of vectors into baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells. The results showed that an obvious protein band proven to be ligated intact CFTR can be seen and a higher chloride current and activity of chloride channel were recorded after cotransfection. These data demonstrated that split Ssp DnaB intein could be used as a strategy in delivering CFTR gene by two vectors providing evidence for application of dual adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors to overcome the limitation of packaging size in cystic fibrosis gene therapy.
TMD pain: the effect on health related quality of life and the influence of pain duration
Tenvergert Elisabeth M
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives As impact of literature concerning this subject is scarce, the objectives of this study were to assess whether the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL is decreased in patients with painful temporomandibular disorders as compared to the HRQoL in the general population, and to evaluate to what extent pain duration affects HRQoL. Methods Data concerning physical and mental health were retrieved from patients with painful temporomandibular disorders. Assessment tools used were: the Mandibular Function Impairment Questionnaire (MFIQ, the Short-Form-36 (SF-36, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Schedule (HADS, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. In order to examine the influence of the duration of pain on HRQoL, the total sample was divided into three different subgroups. Subgroup 1 consisted of patients with complaints existing less than one year. Patients with complaints from 1 to 3 years were allocated to the second group. The 3rd subgroup included patients with complaints longer than 3 years. Results The total sample consisted of 95 patients (90 females and 5 males. On most physical and social functioning items, groups 2 and 3 scored significantly worse than the general population. On the other hand, none of the groups differed from the general population when comparing the mental items. Duration of pain was significantly correlated with SF-36 subscale physical functioning and the mandibular impairment. Conclusion Patients with TMD pain less than one year score better than compared to the population norm. With a longer duration of pain, mental health scores and role limitations due to emotional problems do not appear to be seriously affected by reduced physical health, while social functioning appears to be considerably affected.
Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.; Steenfelt, Agnete
2000-01-01
This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from an ordinary non-spatial factor analysis, and they are interpreted in a geological context. It is demonstrated that MAF analysis contrary to ordinary non-spatial factor analysis gives an objective discrimina...
A New Approach of Designing Superalloys for Low Density
MacKay, Rebecca A.; Gabb, Timothy P.; Smialek, James L.; Nathal, Michael V.
2010-01-01
New low-density single-crystal (LDS) alloy, have bee. developed for turbine blade applications, which have the potential for significant improvements in the thrust-to-weight ratio over current production superalloys. An innovative alloying strategy was wed to achieve alloy density reductions, high-temperature creep resistance, microstructural stability, and cyclic oxidation resistance. The alloy design relies on molybdenum as a potent. lower-density solid-solution strengthener in the nickel-based superalloy. Low alloy density was also achieved with modest rhenium levels tmd the absence of tungsten. Microstructural, physical mechanical, and environmental testing demonstrated the feasibility of this new LDS superalloy design.
陈伟生; 郑有华; 林雪峰
2013-01-01
Objective To assess the axisⅡdiagnosis of TMD patients in China who seek treatment for TMD using Re-search Diagnostic Criteria for TMD(RDC/TMD). Methods Clinical data of the TMD patients were collected using the RDC/TMD. Results A total of 142 TMD patients were surveyed and examined clinically. There were 133 valid scales involving 9 with missing data. There were 38 men and 95 women with the ratio of 1:2.5. Patients suffered from TMD were commonly seen at the age between 18 and 44,and 67.7%of TMD patients received college education;the income of 84.2% TMD patients were below 5000yuan. The axis diagnosis indicated that there were psychological distress and psychosocial dysfunction in TMD patients with no statistical significance among different demography situation (P >0.05). The TMD patients’depressive symptoms were clearly associated with widespread non-specific physical symptoms even when pain items were excluded from the calculation to reduce the effects of pain co-morbidity(P0.05）；抑郁症状与非特异性生理症状相关性分析显示，二者呈正相关（P<0.05）。结论 TMD患者存在不同程度抑郁症状和非特异性生理症状；TMD主要影响颌骨的咀嚼、吃硬食物和打呵欠等功能；TMD患者的抑郁症状与非特异性生理症状呈正相关关系。
TMD对人行天桥的振动控制研究%Research on the Vibration Control for Pedestrian Bridge with TMD
王立彬; 苏骥; 刘康安; 贺星新; 陈广生
2013-01-01
根据调频质量阻尼器(TMD)的工作原理,以拉萨市林廓天桥为研究对象,建立空间有限元模型,对其结构的振动响应进行动力分析,得到TMD的设计参数.并对天桥安装TMD前后在共振频率下的荷载工况进行动力测试.测试数据结果表明设计的TMD有明显的减振效果.同时TMD设计可为类似工程提供参考.%According to the working principle of the Tuned Mass Damper(TMD),the finite element model of the Linkuo Road pedestrian flyover is established,then,based on it,the dynamic response of the structure is analyzed to get the design parameters of the TMD.The on-site dynamic tests were done before and after the installation of TMD under the resonance frequency load case.The comparison of the data from the tests shows that TMD reduced the vibration amplitude dramatically.This work could be a useful reference for the similar projects.
Parametrización de un prototipo de TMD magnético ajustable en frecuencia y amortiguamiento
Anel Martín, César
2016-01-01
Las vibraciones pueden ser responsables de grandes daños en la estructura de un edificio, para intentar que el daño sufrido en la estructura sea el menor posible, se están desarrollando sistemas capaces de atenuar las vibraciones. El objeto de estudio de este trabajo fin de grado, será la caracterización de un TMD (Tuned Mass Damper), un sistema capaz de absorber las vibraciones de una estructura. La caracterización de este sistema se basará en el fundamento teórico de las vibraciones m...
The Validity and Reliability of the Persian Version of Test of Mobile Phone Dependency (TMD
MohammadReza Mohammadi
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Objective: Despite the fact that the mobile phone has become a pervasive technology of our time, little research has been done on mobile dependency. A valid and reliable assessment instrument corresponding to the Persian culture is essential. This study aimed to describe the construction and validation of the Persian version of TMD (Test of Mobile phone Dependency to assess the addictive use of mobile phone.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, for which data were collected from 350 students who were studying at Tehran universities. Sampling method was quota sampling. The participants anonymously completed the demographic questionnaire, and CPDQ as a valid questionnaire and gold standard. Finally, clinical interview [based on DSM-IV-TR] was performed. To analyze the data, concurrent validity, factor analysis, internal consistency (Cronbachα, split half; test-retest and ROC Curve by SPSS18 Software were used.Results: As a result of the reliability analysis and factor analysis by principal component and Varimax rotation, three factors (“salient”, “preoccupation” and “Spend a lot of time and money” for both male and female participants were extracted. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of the CPDQ was .92 (Cronbach alpha of the factors is .88, .82, and .84, respectively. The test-retest correlation of the TMD was .56.The best cut off point for this questionnaire (TMD is 38.Conclusion: The TMD proved to have an acceptable internal consistency with adequate factor models to assess the extent of problems caused by the "misuse" of the mobile phone in the Iranian society. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Persian version of the test was reliable and valid; however, further analysis is needed.
Control Effect Analysis of New Type Frequency Changeable TMD%新型变频TMD减振分析
刘江; 秦岭
2004-01-01
针对原有TMD(调谐质量阻尼器)减振的局限性,提出了一种新型变频TMD的概念和模型.并以大跨度拱形结构为计算对象,分析了在水平地震作用下,这种新型变频TMD的减振效果.计算结果表明,新型变频TMD较原有的TMD而言,能够更好地减少结构物的振动.
Maximum likely scale estimation
Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo
2005-01-01
A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...
Piao, Daqing; Holyoak, G Reed; Patel, Sanjay
2016-01-01
We demonstrate a laparoscopic applicator probe and a method thereof for real-time en-face topographic mapping of near-surface heterogeneity for potential use in intraoperative margin assessment during minimally invasive oncological procedures. The probe fits in a 12mm port and houses at its maximum 128 copper-coated 750um fibers that form radially alternating illumination (70 fibers) and detection (58 fibers) channels. By simultaneously illuminating the 70 source channels of the probe that is in contact with a scattering medium and concurrently measuring the light diffusely propagated to the 58 detector channels, the presence of near-surface optical heterogeneities can be resolved in an en-face 9.5mm field-of-view in real-time. Visualization of a subsurface margin of strong attenuation contrast at a depth up to 3mm is demonstrated at one wavelength at a frame rate of 1.25Hz.
韩旭; 邵玉婷; 孙钦凤; 郭泾
2015-01-01
Objective To investigate the effects of orthodontic intervention on maximum intercuspation (MIC)-centric relation (CR)condylar displacement of patients with or without temporomandibular disorders (TMD).Methods A total of 31 orthodontic patients aged 16 to 45 years were selected and divided into the TMD group (n =15)and non-TMD group (n =16).Records of MIC and CR of these patients taken before and after orthodontic intervention were compared.Results The two groups had different MIC-CR displacement before and after treatment.There were more changes in the TMD group,and the changes were mostly favorable.The MIC-CR condylar displacement was correlated with the symptom checklist (SCL)score.Conclusion Orthodontic intervention has effect on condylar position of pa-tients,especially for those with TMD.Orthodontists,therefore,need to understand and pay attention to the effect of malocclusion on TMD and limitations of measurement of condylar displacement (MCD)in the diagnosis.%目的：旨在探讨正畸干预对最大牙尖交错位（MIC）-正中关系位（CR）髁突位移量的影响。方法选取16～45岁门诊正畸患者31例，其中非颞下颌关节紊乱病（TMD）组16例（NTMD 组），TMD 组15例，在正畸干预前后分别取 MIC 与 CR 位记录。分析两组患者正畸干预前后正中牙合位与正中关系位的髁突位置差异。结果正畸干预前 TMD 组与 NTMD 组 MIC-CR 之间髁突位移（MCD）量存在差异，正畸干预后两组 MIC-CR 位移量减小，TMD组较为显著，且多为有利变化，TMD 组正畸干预前后 MIC-CR 髁突位移量与 TMD 症状自评量表得分呈相关性。结论正畸干预在一定程度上对错牙合畸形患者的髁突位置产生影响，对于 TMD 患者尤甚。因此，正畸医生要认识并注意到错牙合畸形对 TMD 产生和发展的作用，并正确认识 MCD 在诊断中的局限性。
Ahlberg, Jari P; Kovero, Outi A; Hurmerinta, Kirsti A; Zepa, Inta; Nissinen, Maunu J; Könönen, Mauno H
2003-10-01
The purpose of this population-based cohort was to measure maximal bite force (MBF) in the molar and incisal regions and to examine whether MBF was associated with TMD, gender, occlusion (in terms of overjet, overbite, and total number of occluding contacts), and body mass index (BMI). MBF in the molar and incisal regions was measured using a calibrated method in 384 (196 males, 188 females) and 357 (181 males, 176 females) subjects, respectively. Two attempts in each region (right molar, left molar, and incisal) were made in random order. The subjects completed a multiple-choice questionnaire including subjective symptoms of TMD and were subsequently clinically examined. Helkimo's clinical dysfunction index and BMI were calculated. The mean MBF value in the molar region was significantly higher in males (878 N, SD 194) than in females (690 N, SD 175) (p TMD and studied occlusal factors, unlike body mass, associate independently with MBF.
Maximum information photoelectron metrology
Hockett, P; Wollenhaupt, M; Baumert, T
2015-01-01
Photoelectron interferograms, manifested in photoelectron angular distributions (PADs), are a high-information, coherent observable. In order to obtain the maximum information from angle-resolved photoionization experiments it is desirable to record the full, 3D, photoelectron momentum distribution. Here we apply tomographic reconstruction techniques to obtain such 3D distributions from multiphoton ionization of potassium atoms, and fully analyse the energy and angular content of the 3D data. The PADs obtained as a function of energy indicate good agreement with previous 2D data and detailed analysis [Hockett et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 223001 (2014)] over the main spectral features, but also indicate unexpected symmetry-breaking in certain regions of momentum space, thus revealing additional continuum interferences which cannot otherwise be observed. These observations reflect the presence of additional ionization pathways and, most generally, illustrate the power of maximum information measurements of th...
Xiao-Huan Liao
2016-01-01
Objective:To explore the correlation of MMP-2 and Hyp levels in the synovial fluid with the lesion degree in patients with TMD.Methods: The clinical materials of 89 cases with TMD (97 sides) who were admitted in our hospital from December, 2010 to December, 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. According to the diagnostic results of clinical examinations and imaging examinations, 37 sides with structural disorders were served as the disorder group, 32 sides with osteoarthropathy were served as the joint disease group, and 28 sides with joint inflammation were served as the inflammation group. While 25 healthy individuals who came for physical examinations were served as the control group. The double-antibody sandwich ELISA was used to detect the levels of MMP-2 and Hyp in the synovial fluids, and their correlations with the lesion degree were analyzed.Results:The comparison of MMP-2 level among the four groups was statistically significant; the comparison between the disorder group and joint disease group was not statistically significant; the comparison between the inflammation group and other three groups was statistically significant; while MMP-2 level in the 3 groups of TMD was significantly higher than that in the control group. The comparison of Hyp level among the four groups was statistically significant; the comparison between the inflammation group and the joint disease group was statistically significant; while Hyp level in the 3 groups of TMD was significantly higher than that in the control group.Conclusions:MMP-2 and Hyp levels in the synovial fluids are different in TMD patients, are closely associated with the pathological damage, and can be served as an effective biochemical indicator in the diagnosis of lesion degree of TMD.
Maximum Likelihood Associative Memories
Gripon, Vincent; Rabbat, Michael
2013-01-01
Associative memories are structures that store data in such a way that it can later be retrieved given only a part of its content -- a sort-of error/erasure-resilience property. They are used in applications ranging from caches and memory management in CPUs to database engines. In this work we study associative memories built on the maximum likelihood principle. We derive minimum residual error rates when the data stored comes from a uniform binary source. Second, we determine the minimum amo...
Maximum likely scale estimation
Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo
2005-01-01
A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and....../or having different derivative orders. Although the principle is applicable to a wide variety of image models, the main focus here is on the Brownian model and its use for scale selection in natural images. Furthermore, in the examples provided, the simplifying assumption is made that the behavior...... of the measurements is completely characterized by all moments up to second order....
张癑; 高向宇; 尹学军; 付学智
2014-01-01
Using the orthogonal test theory,five full sized tuning mass damped buckling-restrained brace (TMD-BRB)specimens were designed,manufactured and tested.The influence factors included work period,contact surface craft and springs layout.There were 3 levels for work period and 2 levels for the other two.The effects of spring,friction between contact surfaces and force form on the dynamic behavior of specimens were investigated in detail.In addition,the performance of BRBs in the related structures was tested.The tests included free vibration,resonance tests under common seismic intensity and cyclic static tests.Spectral characteristics of specimens,change laws of dynamic coefficients and damping ratios,and hysteretic curves were analyzed.The results showed that the specimens with symmetrical springs and wheels have a high tuning precision,strong TMD properties and standard index for BRB performance to realize a structural balance between composite vibration reduction functions.%借鉴正交试验理论，设计，制作并测试了5个足尺调谐质量型防屈曲支撑试件。影响因素包括工作周期、接触工艺和弹簧布置。其中工作周期3水平，其它因素2水平。重点考察弹簧、接触面摩擦、受力形式等对试件动力性能的影响，以及相关构造条件下 BRB 的性能表现。试验包括自由振动，常见地震烈度条件下共振试验和静力拉压试验。研究分析了试件频谱特性，动力系数和阻尼比变化规律，拉压滞回性能。试验结果表明，对称弹簧布置的轮式构造试件调谐精度高，TMD 特性明显，BRB 相关性能指标能够满足行业规定，实现复合减震功能在构造上的“兼顾”。
B. Hribar-Lee
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Very recently the effect of equisized charged hard sphere solutes in a mixture with core-softened fluid model on the structural and thermodynamic anomalies of the system has been explored in detail by using Monte Carlo simulations and integral equations theory (J. Chem. Phys., Vol. 137, 244502 (2012. Our objective of the present short work is to complement this study by considering univalent ions of unequal diameters in a mixture with the same soft-core fluid model. Specifically, we are interested in the analysis of changes of the temperature of maximum density (TMD lines with ion concentration for three model salt solutes, namely sodium chloride, potassium chloride and rubidium chloride models. We resort to Monte Carlo simulations for this purpose. Our discussion also involves the dependences of the pair contribution to excess entropy and of constant volume heat capacity on the temperature of maximum density line. Some examples of the microscopic structure of mixtures in question in terms of pair distributions functions are given in addition.
F. TopsÃƒÂ¸e
2001-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over
Regularized maximum correntropy machine
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2015-02-12
In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.
Zonnenberg, A.J.J.
2014-01-01
Starting point for this study was the assumption that centric slide could be an etiologic factor for a temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Centric slide must be considered as the mismatch between the ideal condylar alignment in the fossa and the maximal intercuspal position. Centric slide may be
Application of TMD in Large Span Steel Box Girder Footbridge%TMD在大跨径钢箱梁人行桥上的应用分析
苑翔
2013-01-01
This paper introduces the Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) composition and operation principle of the structure, comparison of advantages and disadvantages of TMD and other control of steel box girder footbridge vibration methods, and combined with the Mianyang No.1 bridge footbridge of Sichuan Province as an example, through the use of text and graph-table combination method, describes vividly the practical application of TMD in large span footbridge.% 介绍了质量调谐阻尼器(TMD)的结构组成以及工作原理，比较了TMD与其它控制钢箱梁人行桥振动方法的优缺点，并结合四川省绵阳市一号桥人行桥为工程实例，通过采用文字与图、表相结合的方式，形象地阐述了TMD在大跨径人行桥中的实际应用。
Ahmad, Mansur; Hollender, Lars; Odont; Anderson, Quentin; Kartha, Krishnan; Ohrbach, Richard K.; Truelove, Edmond L.; John, Mike T.; Schiffman, Eric L.
2011-01-01
Introduction As a part of a multi-site RDC/TMD Validation Project, comprehensive TMJ diagnostic criteria were developed for image analysis using panoramic radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT). Methods Inter-examiner reliability was estimated using the kappa (k) statistic, and agreement between rater pairs was characterized by overall, positive, and negative percent agreement. CT was the reference standard for assessing validity of other imaging modalities for detecting osteoarthritis (OA). Results For the radiological diagnosis of OA, reliability of the three examiners was poor for panoramic radiography (k = 0.16), fair for MRI (k = 0.46), and close to the threshold for excellent for CT (k = 0.71). Using MRI, reliability was excellent for diagnosing disc displacements (DD) with reduction (k = 0.78) and for DD without reduction (k = 0.94), and was good for effusion (k = 0.64). Overall percent agreement for pair-wise ratings was ≥ 82% for all conditions. Positive percent agreement for diagnosing OA was 19% for panoramic radiography, 59% for MRI, and 84% for CT. Using MRI, positive percent agreement for diagnoses of any DD was 95% and for effusion was 81%. Negative percent agreement was ≥ 88% for all conditions. Compared to CT, panoramic radiography and MRI had poor to marginal sensitivity, respectively, but excellent specificity, in detecting OA. Conclusion Comprehensive image analysis criteria for RDC/TMD Validation Project were developed, which can reliably be employed for assessing OA using CT, and for disc position and effusion using MRI. PMID:19464658
Equalized near maximum likelihood detector
2012-01-01
This paper presents new detector that is used to mitigate intersymbol interference introduced by bandlimited channels. This detector is named equalized near maximum likelihood detector which combines nonlinear equalizer and near maximum likelihood detector. Simulation results show that the performance of equalized near maximum likelihood detector is better than the performance of nonlinear equalizer but worse than near maximum likelihood detector.
Baranov, S. P.; Lipatov, A. V.; Zotov, N. P.
2014-05-01
We consider the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) quark densities of the proton which are very important ingredients for unpolarized Drell-Yan lepton pair production in proton-proton collisions at the LHC energies. We investigate the case where the gluon-to-quark splitting occurs at the last evolution step and calculate the TMD sea quark density as a convolution of the Catani-Ciafaloni-Fiorani-Marchesini-evolved gluon distribution and the TMD gluon-to-quark splitting function. This splitting function contains all single logarithmic small-x corrections to the sea quark evolution for any order of perturbation theory. Based on the O(α) production amplitude q*+q¯*→Z/γ*→l++l-, calculated by taking into account the effective q*q¯*Z/γ* vertex, we analyze the distributions on the dilepton invariant mass, transverse momentum and rapidity and specific angular correlations between the produced leptons as measured by the CMS, ATLAS and LHCb collaborations. We show that our predictions are sensitive to the TMD quark distributions of the proton.
李宁; 王树青
2011-01-01
The structural vibration control of offshore platform under random wave loading by using Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) is investigated. The model of offshore platform -TMD is established. Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) is installed on the offshore platform for sharing the energy of main structure* so that vibration of the main structure can be controlled. Optimal TMD parameters can be determined by analyzing the energy dissipation and transmission of the structure-TMD. Meanwhile, states feedback is introduced in the structure -TMD. Optimal controlling force is determined based on feedback from structural responses. By use of pole assignment method, feedback gain is selected suitably. The vibration could be reduced further.%研究了随机波浪载荷作用下海洋平台的TMD振动控制,建立了TMD-海洋平台振动模型,从TMD能量分析的角度对TMD参数进行了优化设计;同时将状态反馈引入系统,依据结构响应的反馈信息确定控制力,运用极点配置法,选取适当的反馈增益K,从而进一步达到控制结构振动的目的.
闫安志; 路晶晶
2011-01-01
提出了一种在TMD质量块上安装磁流变阻尼器的新型半主动MR-TMD控制装置,采用半主动控制算法,仿真分析了质量块在矩形波激励作用下,半主动MR-TMD控制系统对结构振动控制的可行性和有效性,并比较了半主动MR-TMD控制与被动TMD控制、主动AMD控制对同一模型结构的控制效果.仿真结果表明,半主动MR-TMD控制的减振性能优于被动的TMD控制和主动的AMD控制.%A new semi - active MR - TMD control device was proposed, which is installed on the TMD with a magneto - theological damper. The feasibility and effectiveness of semi - active MR - TMD control system for structural vibration control under rectangular periodic excitations were simulated and analyzed by adopting one semi - active control algorithm proposed in the article. The control effect of semi - active MR - TMD , passive TMD and active AMD were compared by adopting the same model structure. Simulations numerical show that the damping performance of using semi - active MR - TMD control is better than that of using passive TMD control and active AMD control.
Research on a new type of accelerated TMD and its seismic control effectiveness%新型可加速TMD及其地震控制效果的研究
秦丽; 曹林涛; 谢向东
2012-01-01
提出一种新型可加速TMD,加速装置基于直线电机原理而设计.根据TMD的工作原理,制订了所设计TMD的加速策略,并采用VB编制了相应的程序.以单自由度结构的地震响应控制为例,采用数值模拟的方法,通过与被动TMD的比较,分析了新型可加速TMD的地震控制效果.以一个钢塔为例,讨论了加速装置应用于实际工程的可行性.结果表明:不同的地震波对被动TMD的控制效果有很大的影响,而所设计新型TMD在常见地震波的作用下,控制效果都明显好于被动TMD.%A new type of accelerated TMD is presented. Accelerating devices is designed based on linear motors. According to the working mechanism of TMD, accelerating rules are established. The analysis program is developed in VB platform. Seismic response of SDOF structures with passive TMD and accelerated TMD are analyzed. A steel tower is taken as an example to demonstrate the feasibility of accelerating device applying to real projects. From the analysis results,it can be concluded that (1) the control effect of normal passive TMD is greatly depended on the characteristics of ground motion and structures and sometimes not so good; (2) the control effectiveness of the proposed accelerated TMD is much better than normal TMD under typical earthquake acceleration recordings.
Lila-Krasniqi, Zana D.; Shala, Kujtim Sh.; Pustina-Krasniqi, Teuta; Bicaj, Teuta; Dula, Linda J.; Guguvčevski, Ljuben
2015-01-01
Objective: To compare subjects from the group with fixed dentures, the group who present temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and a control group considering centric relation (CR) and maximum intercuspation (MIC)/habitual occlusion (Hab. Occl.) and to analyze the related variables also compared and analyzed with electronic system T-scan III. Materials and Methods: A total of 54 subjects were divided into three groups; 17 subjects with fixed dentures, 14 with TMD and 23 controls-selection based on anamnesis-responded to a Fonseca questionnaire and clinical measurements analyzed with electronic system T-scan III. Occlusal force, presented by percentage (automatically by the T-scan electronic system) was analyzed in CR and in MIC. Results: Data were presented as mean ± standard deviation and differences in P 0.05 it was not significant in all three groups. Conclusion: In our study, it was concluded that there are not statistically significant differences between CR and MIC in the group of individuals without any symptom or sign of TMD although there are noticed in the group with TMD and fixed dentures disharmonic relation between the arches with overload of the occlusal force on the one side. PMID:26929698
屋顶水箱TMD对加固结构的减震控制研究%Application of roof tank TMD in structural reinforcement design
王磊; 谭平; 方创杰; 莫艳丽; 李文彦
2013-01-01
Roof tank TMD is employed in structural reinforcement design of an existed international hotel in Guangdong.This paper proposes two TMD schemes.Numerical simulation is carried out to investigate the control performance of two TMDs for the hotel under various earthquake records.Results show that roof tank TMDs in structure reinforcement is feasible,effective and economic.%对某国际大酒店进行了加固改造和楼顶水箱TMD装置设计,提出了两种TMD方案,并对结构在地震激励下的控制效果进行了仿真分析,验证了屋顶水箱TMD系统对于结构改造加固的可行性与有效性.
Ghosh, Borna; Satyshur, Kenneth A.; Czajkowski, Cynthia
2013-01-01
General anesthetics exert many of their CNS actions by binding to and modulating membrane-embedded pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs). The structural mechanisms underlying how anesthetics modulate pLGIC function remain largely unknown. GLIC, a prokaryotic pLGIC homologue, is inhibited by general anesthetics, suggesting anesthetics stabilize a closed channel state, but in anesthetic-bound GLIC crystal structures the channel appears open. Here, using functional GLIC channels expressed in oocytes, we examined whether propofol induces structural rearrangements in the GLIC transmembrane domain (TMD). Residues in the GLIC TMD that frame intrasubunit and intersubunit water-accessible cavities were individually mutated to cysteine. We measured and compared the rates of modification of the introduced cysteines by sulfhydryl-reactive reagents in the absence and presence of propofol. Propofol slowed the rate of modification of L240C (intersubunit) and increased the rate of modification of T254C (intrasubunit), indicating that propofol binding induces structural rearrangements in these cavities that alter the local environment near these residues. Propofol acceleration of T254C modification suggests that in the resting state propofol does not bind in the TMD intrasubunit cavity as observed in the crystal structure of GLIC with bound propofol (Nury, H., Van Renterghem, C., Weng, Y., Tran, A., Baaden, M., Dufresne, V., Changeux, J. P., Sonner, J. M., Delarue, M., and Corringer, P. J. (2011) Nature 469, 428–431). In silico docking using a GLIC closed channel homology model suggests propofol binds to intersubunit sites in the TMD in the resting state. Propofol-induced motions in the intersubunit cavity were distinct from motions associated with channel activation, indicating propofol stabilizes a novel closed state. PMID:23640880
The Wave Response Control of the Single Pile Platform by Using the TMD%独桩平台波浪反应的TMD控制
孙树民
2001-01-01
采用调谐质量阻尼器(TMD)对独桩平台的波浪反应进行控制,在对受控结构的波浪反应进行随机振动分析时,考虑了流体-桩-土相互作用的影响,通过算例具体讨论了TMD的参数对控制效果的影响.
Pahkala, R H; Laine-Alava, M T
2000-12-01
This study is part of a longitudinal study on the associations between different orofacial dysfunctions. The aim was to determine changes in signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and in mandibular movement capacity in subjects with articulatory speech disorders and in controls by re-examining a sample of 187 previously studied children from 10 to 15 years of age. Articulatory speech disorders were diagnosed by a phoniatrician. Mandibular movement capacity, signs of TMD, occlusal contacts/ interference and slide between retruded and intercuspal positions were recorded by a dentist. The follow-up results showed that mandibular mobility mainly increased up to the age of 15, but there was a decrease in protrusion capacity in almost half of the cases. This fluctuation probably reflects the normal changes in growth pattern. Signs of TMDs proved to be inconsistent in nature, especially among the controls. With age, girls in the control group, more so than boys, were prone to new signs of TMD, but no gender difference was found in the group of subjects with misarticulations of speech. The findings indicate that in adolescence different orofacial dysfunctions are related.
Simmons, H Clifton; Oxford, D Eric; Hill, Matthew D
2008-01-01
Fifty-six consecutive patients in a referral-based practice seeking treatment for a complex chronic painful temporomandibular disorder (TMD) were enrolled in a retrospective study to evaluate the skeletal relationship of patients with TMD compared to the distribution of skeletal patterns found in the average population. During the standard clinical workup, lateral cephalometric radiographs were performed. Using Wits appraisal all of the fifty-six (56) cephalometric radiographs were analyzed. Based on the results of the Wits analysis, 34.6 percent of the patients were skeletal Class I, 63.6 percent were skeletal Class II, and 1.8 percent were skeletal Class III. These results were compared with the data published by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in Proffit's text Contemporary Orthodontics. This study states that in the general population occlusal diversity is eighty to eighty-five percent (80-85%) skeletal Class I, fifteen percent (15%) are skeletal Class II, and one percent (1%) are skeletal Class III. The conclusion can be drawn that the patient sampling analyzed shows that TMD patients have a higher prevalence for skeletal Class II than the general population.
Spin physics and TMD studies at A Fixed-Target ExpeRiment at the LHC (AFTER@LHC
Lansberg J.P.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We report on the opportunities for spin physics and Transverse-Momentum Dependent distribution (TMD studies at a future multi-purpose fixed-target experiment using the proton or lead ion LHC beams extracted by a bent crystal. The LHC multi-TeV beams allow for the most energetic fixed-target experiments ever performed, opening new domains of particle and nuclear physics and complementing that of collider physics, in particular that of RHIC and the EIC projects. The luminosity achievable with AFTER@LHC using typical targets would surpass that of RHIC by more that 3 orders of magnitude in a similar energy region. In unpolarised proton-proton collisions, AFTER@LHC allows for measurements of TMDs such as the Boer-Mulders quark distributions, the distribution of unpolarised and linearly polarised gluons in unpolarised protons. Using the polarisation of hydrogen and nuclear targets, one can measure transverse single-spin asymmetries of quark and gluon sensitive probes, such as, respectively, Drell-Yan pair and quarkonium production. The fixed-target mode has the advantage to allow for measurements in the target-rapidity region, namely at large x↑ in the polarised nucleon. Overall, this allows for an ambitious spin program which we outline here.
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF SEISMIC STEEL FRAMEWORK WITH TMD%TMD减震钢框架有限元分析
陈晓桐; 卜国雄
2009-01-01
TMD在实际工程结构中得到了广泛的运用和认同,为了进一步验证TMD的减震控制效果,进行了TMD-钢框架有限元模型的地震时程分析.首先分析了TMD的减震原理及其参数优化设计方法,根据有限元钢框架模型的动力特性设计了TMD减震装置的参数;然后利用有限元软件SAP2000对该TMD减震钢框架进行动反应有限元仿真分析.分析结果表明:该TMD减震装置具有显著的减震效果,能够有效地减小结构地震反应峰值.
Spin physics and TMD studies at A Fixed-Target ExpeRiment at the LHC (AFTER@LHC)
Lansberg, J P; Arnaldi, R; Brodsky, S J; Chambert, V; Dunnen, W den; Didelez, J P; Genolini, B; Ferreiro, E G; Fleuret, F; Gao, Y; Hadjidakis, C; Hrvinacova, I; Lorce, C; Massacrier, L; Mikkelsen, R; Pisano, C; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Rosier, P; Schienbein, I; Schlegel, M; Scomparin, E; Trzeciak, B; Uggerhoj, U I; Ulrich, R; Yang, Z
2014-01-01
We report on the opportunities for spin physics and Transverse-Momentum Dependent distribution (TMD) studies at a future multi-purpose fixed-target experiment using the proton or lead ion LHC beams extracted by a bent crystal. The LHC multi-TeV beams allow for the most energetic fixed-target experiments ever performed, opening new domains of particle and nuclear physics and complementing that of collider physics, in particular that of RHIC and the EIC projects. The luminosity achievable with AFTER@LHC using typical targets would surpass that of RHIC by more that 3 orders of magnitude in a similar energy region. In unpolarised proton-proton collisions, AFTER@LHC allows for measurements of TMDs such as the Boer-Mulders quark distributions, the distribution of unpolarised and linearly polarised gluons in unpolarised protons. Using the polarisation of hydrogen and nuclear targets, one can measure transverse single-spin asymmetries of quark and gluon sensitive probes, such as, respectively, Drell-Yan pair and quar...
Quantum gravity momentum representation and maximum energy
Moffat, J. W.
2016-11-01
We use the idea of the symmetry between the spacetime coordinates xμ and the energy-momentum pμ in quantum theory to construct a momentum space quantum gravity geometry with a metric sμν and a curvature tensor Pλ μνρ. For a closed maximally symmetric momentum space with a constant 3-curvature, the volume of the p-space admits a cutoff with an invariant maximum momentum a. A Wheeler-DeWitt-type wave equation is obtained in the momentum space representation. The vacuum energy density and the self-energy of a charged particle are shown to be finite, and modifications of the electromagnetic radiation density and the entropy density of a system of particles occur for high frequencies.
Delaine Rodrigues
2004-12-01
Full Text Available Temporomandibular disorders (TMD are characterized by several signs and symptoms, such as pain and changes in the electrical activity of masticatory muscles. Considering that transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS is a resource indicated to promote analgesia, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of TENS on pain and electromyographic (EMG activity of the jaw elevator muscles in TMD patients. This study evaluated 35 female volunteers: 19 TMD patients (mean age = 23.04 ± 3.5 and 16 normal subjects (mean age = 23.3 ± 3.0. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (conventional mode, 150 Hz was applied once to each group for 45 minutes. Surface electromyography (gain of 100 times and 1 kHz sampling frequency and the visual analogue scale (VAS were applied before and immediately after TENS application. Both VAS data and root mean square (RMS values were analyzed using Student's t-test. The TMD group, compared to the control group, showed higher EMG activity of the jaw elevator muscles at rest. No difference was observed between the groups regarding maximum voluntary clenching (MVC. In TMD patients, TENS reduced both pain and EMG activity of the anterior portion of the temporal muscle, increasing the activity of the masseter muscles during MVC. It is possible to conclude that a single TENS application is effective in pain reduction. However, it does not act homogeneously on the features of the electric activity of the muscles evaluated.A desordem temporomandibular (DTM é caracterizada por diversos sinais e sintomas, como dor e alteração do sinal eletromiográfico dos músculos da mastigação. Considerando que a estimulação elétrica nervosa transcutânea (TENS é um recurso indicado para promover analgesia, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da TENS na dor e na atividade eletromiográfica (EMG dos músculos elevadores da mandíbula em indivíduos com DTM. Foram selecionados 35 voluntários do sexo
Abduljabbar, T; Mehta, N R; Forgione, A G; Clark, R E; Kronman, J H; Munsat, T L; George, P
1997-01-01
The effect on isometric strength of the shoulders and limbs while biting in habitual occlusion, on a bite-elevating appliance and on a placebo appliance was analyzed. Twenty female volunteer patients, presenting with temporomandibular pain dysfunction syndrome and obvious loss of vertical dimension, served as subjects. All were weaker to the manual application of the isometric Deltoid Press (IDP) when biting, as opposed to maintaining the mandible in an unsupported rest position. Two intraoral appliances were fabricated for each subject: a bite-elevating appliance (BEA) set by a functional criterion of peak strength to the IDP and a placebo appliance which did not interfere with occlusion but was "set" with a mock IDP procedure. Testing was carried out by the Neuromuscular Research Testing Laboratory of the Neurology Department of Tufts New England Medical Center. Testing was independent of the dentist who fabricated and set the appliances. A standard neuromuscular test with the Maximal Voluntary Isometric Contraction apparatus was used to assess strength of right and left shoulder, elbow and knee flexion and extension as is routinely performed with all neuromuscular disease patients. Twelve strength tests were carried out for each of three conditions: 1. Baseline-biting in habitual occlusion; 2. Elevated-biting on the BEA; and 3. Placebo-biting with the placebo appliance inserted. The order of conditions 2 and 3 was counterbalanced without knowledge of the subjects. Twelve repeated measures ANOVAs (each subject as their own control) were conducted for each of the 12 strength measures. All F-tests indicated a significant main effect for treatment differences (p TMD Center: individuals with loss of vertical dimension of occlusion respond to a bite raising appliance by increased isometric-strength.
OECD Maximum Residue Limit Calculator
With the goal of harmonizing the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the OECD has developed an MRL Calculator. View the calculator.
朱甫祥; 宫贤弟; 刘泽隆; 杨树德; 屈慧鸽; 迟晓艳
2010-01-01
CFTR基因突变导致一种常染色体隐性遗传疾病--囊性纤维化(CF).利用split Ssp DnaB intein的蛋白质反式剪接技术的真核细胞双载体转CFTR基因,旨在研究翻译后水平CFTR的连接,以及由其建立的氯离子通道功能.于CFTR膜内第2个跨膜结构域(TMD2)前的Glu838密码子后将其cDNA断裂为N端和C端两部分,与具有蛋白质反式剪接作用的split Ssp DnaB intein编码序列融合,分别插入到载体pEGFP-N1和pEYFP-N1,构建一对真核表达载体pEGFP-Nint和pEYFP-IntC.用脂质体将这对载体共转染至幼年仓鼠肾细胞(BHK),瞬时表达实验用Western blotting观察CFTR蛋白质的连接,并用膜片钳技术记录Cl-通道电流.结果显示,基因共转染细胞呈现完整的CFTR蛋白条带,膜片钳记录到全细胞Cl-电流和单个Cl-通道开放活性.结果表明split Ssp DnaB intein的蛋白质反式剪接技术可用于双载体共转移CFTR基因,为CF基因治疗应用双腺相关病毒载体(AAV)转运CFTR基因,克服AAV的容量限制提供了依据.
Lipatov, A. V.; Zotov, N. P.
2014-11-01
We study the associated production of real (isolated) or virtual photons (with their subsequent leptonic decay) and hadronic jets in proton-proton collisions at the LHC using the kT-factorization approach of QCD. The consideration is based on the off-shell quark-gluon QCD Compton scattering subprocesses. In the case of virtual photon production, the contributions from Z boson exchange as well as γ*-Z interference with the full spin correlations are included. The transversemomentum-dependent (TMD) quark and gluon densities in a proton are determined from the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription or Catani-Ciafoloni-Fiorani-Marchesini (CCFM) equation. In the latter, we restrict to the case where the gluon-to-quark splitting occurs at the last evolution step and calculate the sea quark density as a convolution of the CCFM-evolved gluon distribution and the TMD gluon-to-quark splitting function. Our numerical predictions are compared with the recent experimental data taken by the ATLAS Collaboration. We discuss the theoretical uncertainties of our calculations and argue that further studies are capable of constraining the TMD parton densities in the proton.
Electrostatic Discharge Sensitivity and Electrical Conductivity of Composite Energetic Materials
2013-02-01
the stoichiometric (sto) fuel to oxidizer ratio. The stoichiometric ratio (F/O)sto is calculated using Eq. (2) where Mfuel and Mox are the masses of...theoretical maximum density (TMD) describes the bulk density of the mixture and was calculated using Eq. (3). TMD ¼ 1 %Mf rf þ % Mox rox þ %MAl2O3
João Alfredo Braida
2006-08-01
ótese de que a palha existente sobre o solo é capaz de absorver parte da energia de compactação produzida pelo trânsito de máquinas e animais.The susceptibility of soils to compaction, measured by the Proctor test, decreases with increasing soil organic matter (SOM content. For a given energy level, with increasing SOM contents the maximum obtained density decreases and the corresponding critical moisture content increases. Due to its low density, elasticity and deformation susceptibility, straw is potentially able to dissipate applied loads. This study was conducted to evaluate the SOM effect on the soil compaction curve and to evaluate the ability that mulch has to absorb compactive energy in the Proctor test. The compaction test was carried out using soil surface samples (0 to 0.05 m of a Hapludalf, with sandy loam texture at its soil surface, and an Oxisol, with clayey texture at its soil surface, both with variations in the SOM content. The maximum density, the critical moisture content, the liquid and plastic limits, and the soil organic carbon content were determined. A second test was performed to evaluate the ability of mulch to absorb compactive energy, by compacting Hapludalf samples with the presence of a straw layer on the soil surface, inside a Proctor cylinder, at amounts corresponding to 2, 4, 8 and 12 Mg ha-1. SOM accumulation reduced the maximum density and increased the critical moisture content, suggesting an increased resistance to soil compaction. In the Proctor test the straw on the soil surface dissipated up to 30 % of the compactive energy and reduced the bulk density, confirming the hypothesis that mulch can absorb part of the compactive energy caused by machine traffic and by animals.
Ludovica Antonella Macrì
2008-06-01
Full Text Available
Background: Multiple-language versions of the same psychometric instrument are increasingly needed, but simply translating an English version word-to-word into another language is not adequate to account for linguistic and cultural differences. Our aim was to alidate an Italian version of the Axis II of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD and to test its reproducibility in order to use this important diagnostic instrument in Italian patients.
Methods: The original English-language version was translated and culturally adapted for Italian-speaking people, back-translated to English and then tested on 68 subjects: 34 TMD patients and 34 healthy subjects. Internal consistency was assessed by calculating the Cronbach coefficient alpha for the entire scale in the two samples. The reproducibility of the domains was assessed with the use of the Spearman-Brown test-retest reliability test, Wilcoxon matched pair test, Sign test and 2x2table Chi Square test according to the data types. Correlation of the initial and test-retest scores of the Axis II was measured with the Spearman rank correlation coefficient as an additional measure of reproducibility.
Results: The Italian version of Axis II has a good eproducibility; the internal consistency (measured with he Cronbach coefficient alpha of the overall final questionnaire was excellent: 0.95.
Conclusions: The Axis II Italian version appeared reliable and it could be useful to assess TMD patients and to standardize the data acquisition in this relevant and common disease.
Maximum margin Bayesian network classifiers.
Pernkopf, Franz; Wohlmayr, Michael; Tschiatschek, Sebastian
2012-03-01
We present a maximum margin parameter learning algorithm for Bayesian network classifiers using a conjugate gradient (CG) method for optimization. In contrast to previous approaches, we maintain the normalization constraints on the parameters of the Bayesian network during optimization, i.e., the probabilistic interpretation of the model is not lost. This enables us to handle missing features in discriminatively optimized Bayesian networks. In experiments, we compare the classification performance of maximum margin parameter learning to conditional likelihood and maximum likelihood learning approaches. Discriminative parameter learning significantly outperforms generative maximum likelihood estimation for naive Bayes and tree augmented naive Bayes structures on all considered data sets. Furthermore, maximizing the margin dominates the conditional likelihood approach in terms of classification performance in most cases. We provide results for a recently proposed maximum margin optimization approach based on convex relaxation. While the classification results are highly similar, our CG-based optimization is computationally up to orders of magnitude faster. Margin-optimized Bayesian network classifiers achieve classification performance comparable to support vector machines (SVMs) using fewer parameters. Moreover, we show that unanticipated missing feature values during classification can be easily processed by discriminatively optimized Bayesian network classifiers, a case where discriminative classifiers usually require mechanisms to complete unknown feature values in the data first.
Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery
Chih-Yuan Tseng
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.
M. Anselmino
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The inclusive large-pT production of a single pion, jet or direct photon, and Drell-Yan processes, are considered for proton-proton collisions in the kinematical range expected for the fixed-target experiment AFTER, proposed at LHC. For all these processes, predictions are given for the transverse single-spin asymmetry, AN, computed according to a Generalised Parton Model previously discussed in the literature and based on TMD factorisation. Comparisons with the results of a collinear twist-3 approach, recently presented, are made and discussed.
TMD控制下车桥动力特性研究%Dynamic Character of the Bridge and Train under the Controlling of TMD
沈火明; 肖艳平
2005-01-01
在考虑轨道不平顺的情况下,通过建立车-桥-TMD(Tuned Mass Damper)动力系统振动方程,研究了编组列车过桥时TMD的控制效应、列车过桥时速度对桥梁挠度的影响和TMD对乘坐舒适性的影响.作者最后给出了不同质量比下TMD控制的效果对比曲线,提出了中小跨度桥梁的建议最佳质量比.
Anselmino, M; Melis, S
2015-01-01
The inclusive large-$p_T$ production of a single pion, jet or direct photon, together with Drell-Yan processes, are considered for proton-proton collisions in the kinematical range expected for the fixed-target experiment AFTER, proposed at LHC. For all these processes, predictions are given for the transverse single-spin asymmetry, $A_N$, computed according to a Generalised Parton Model previously discussed in the literature and based on TMD factorisation. Comparisons with the results of a collinear twist-3 approach, recently presented, are made and discussed.
Universality of TMD correlators
Buffing M.G.A.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In a high-energy scattering process with hadrons in the initial state, color is involved. Transverse momentum dependent distribution functions (TMDs describe the quark and gluon distributions in these hadrons in momentum space with the inclusion of transverse directions. Apart from the (anti-quarks and gluons that are involved in the hard scattering process, additional gluon emissions by the hadrons have to be taken into account as well, giving rise to Wilson lines or gauge links. The TMDs involved are sensitive to the process under consideration and hence potentially nonuniversal due to these Wilson line interactions with the hard process; different hard processes give rise to different Wilson line structures. We will show that in practice only a finite number of universal TMDs have to be considered, which come in different linear combinations depending on the hard process under consideration, ensuring a generalized universality. For quarks this gives rise to three Pretzelocity functions, whereas for gluons a richer structure of functions arises.
Miller, David B
2009-01-01
The objectives of functional orthodontic treatment include creating a broad smile, pleasing facial profile, and healthy, functional occlusions and temporomandibular joints. Removable orthodontic appliances have long been used in the treatment of some temporomandibular disorders. Invisalign aligners are removable orthodontic appliances. Certain TMJ case types can be treated successfully with Invisalign.
Abolishing the maximum tension principle
Dabrowski, Mariusz P
2015-01-01
We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension $F_{max} = c^2/4G$ represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.
Abolishing the maximum tension principle
Mariusz P. Da̧browski
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension Fmax=c4/4G represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.
李雪; 张娟; 王雨生
2015-01-01
目的：研究颞下颌关节紊乱病（TMD）患者电刺激后唾液皮质醇变化及与疼痛灾难化认知的相关性。方法：选11名TMD 患者与11名正常人进行电刺激实验，分别于刺激前、刺激50、100 s 后收集唾液，用 ELISA 酶联免疫分析皮质醇浓度；受试者在刺激前填写疼痛灾难化认知量表（PCS），统计学分析数据。结果：TMD 患者皮质醇浓度高于对照组（P ＜0．05），随着电刺激时间延长，皮质醇浓度呈下降趋势；时间因素与处理分组无交互作用。PCS 总分及3项指标（反复思虑、夸大、无助）均与刺激前皮质醇浓度呈正相关。结论：不可预知性应激使唾液皮质醇浓度升高，与疼痛灾难化认知有关。%Objective:To analyse the salivary cortisol changes in patients with temporomandibular disorders(TMD)after electrical stimulation,and the relationship between cortisol and pain catastrophizing.Methods:1 1 TMD and 1 1 healthy subjects were evoked by electrical stimulation.The saliva samples were collested before test,50 s and 1 00 s of stimulation after test seperately.Salivary cortisol was analysed by ELISA kit.The pain catastrophizing scale(PCS)was answered by all the subjects before stimulation.Data were statis-tically analysed.Results:The salivary cortisol concentration in TMD patients was higher than that in the controls(P <0.05).After stimulation,it showed a downward trend.No interaction between time and groups.The total scores of PCS including three indexes(ru-mination,magnification,helpless)were positively correlated with salivary cortisol concentration.Conclusion:The unpredictable stress causes high level of cortisol.which is related to pain catastrophizing.
Stein, Steffen; Hellak, Andreas; Popović, Nenad; Toll, Douglas; Schauseil, Michael; Braun, Andreas
2017-01-01
The aim of this study was to investigate possible correlation of specific skeletal or dental class in children and adolescents with clinical signs of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) with the severity of internal derangement (ID) of the temporomandibular joint. Based on MRI images, the ID of 232 juvenile temporomandibular joints in 116 patients were retrospectively recorded. The distribution of the ID stages within the skeletal and dental classes was compared by means of the χ (2) test. Excluding the comparison between skeletal Class I (S I) and skeletal Class II (S II; p 0.05). No statistically significant differences were found when comparing the distribution of the ID stages between the dental classes (p > 0.05). According to these findings, there is no skeletal or dental class that is related to higher degrees of internal derangement in the TMJs of children and adolescents presenting clinical signs of TMD. Therefore, it is not possible to draw conclusions about the severity of the ID in relation to the dental and skeletal class in symptomatic juvenile TMJs.
Moyaho-Bernal, Angeles; Lara-Muñoz, Ma Del Carmen; Espinosa-De Santillana, Irene; Etchegoyen, Graciela
2010-01-01
The aim of this work was to describe the prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in children of the State of Puebla, Mexico. A descriptive observational study was performed. After calculating sample size, children who met the following selection criteria were included: registered at an official elementary school, either sex, ages between 8 and 12 years, who accept to participate in the study and whose parents have signed the informed consent forms. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders were used by calibrated researchers (Kappa 90) under the same conditions. Descriptive statistics were applied by using SPSSv15 software. The study included 235 children, 129 (54.9%) female and 106 (45.1%) male, of average age 9.31 + 1.2 years. Prevalence of signs and symptoms was 33.2%, and predominately muscular (82%), 48.1% showed signs of muscular pain and 19.1% joint pain. 63.4% showed signs of alteration in the mouth opening pattern, 39.1% presented joint sounds on opening or closing the mouth and 20.4% on mandibular excursions. The high prevalence of signs and symptoms related to temporomandibular disorders, in particular in children with mixed dentition, shows the importance of TMD evaluation during this period, when morphological changes associated to growth and craniofacial development prevail.
基于RDC/TMD数字化问卷的初步临床应用%Clinical application of a digital questionnaire based on RDC/TMD
胡萍萍; 李希吉; 王红梅; 张玉玮
2011-01-01
Objective: To design and develop a digital questionnaire based on the research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD) axis II.Methods: In Microsoft office access 2007 database for the background, Borland Delphi 7.0 for the development tools to establish the TMD digital form, the depression symptom scale (DSS), the pain intensity (PI) and the limitation related to mandibular functioning(LRMF) were evaluated.Results: Most patients (97.2％) had low disability, with 10 patientshaving low PI and 25 patients having moderately PI.The study demonstrated statistically significant differences in the DSS and the PI in Grade Ⅰ and Grade Ⅱ.The DSS was related to the PI.In addition, the PI was related to the LRMF.Conclusion: The patients who are severely depressed have higher PI than normal patients.Patients that are moderately or severely depressed have significantly higher scores for the LRMF than normal patients.The TMD digital questionnaire is working well and acting as an assistant diagnosis in TMD.%目的:设计和开发一种基于颞下颌关节紊乱研究诊断标准(RDC/TMD)的数字化问卷.方法:以Microsoft Office Access 2007为后台数据库,以Borland Delphi 7.0为前台开发工具,用ADO接口使两者交互连接,以RDC/TMD轴Ⅱ为标准建立TMD数字化问卷,评价36名TMD患者精神抑郁水平(DSS)、疼痛强度(PI)和颌骨功能受限(LRMF)情况.结果:大多数患者(97.2%)属于轻度功能丧失,其中10位患者有轻度疼痛(Ⅰ级);25位患者有重度疼痛(Ⅱ级).Ⅰ级组患者PI与DSS呈显著性相关(r=0.531,P＜0.05),PI与LRMF呈低度线性相关(r=0.387,P＜0.05);Ⅱ级组患者PI与DSS呈显著性相关(r=0.606,P＜0.05),PI与LRMF呈低度线性相关(r=0.318,P＜0.05),DSS与LRMF呈低度线性相关(r=0.324,P＜0.05).结论:DSS值较高患者的PI值比DSS值较低的患者高.DSS值较高患者的LRMF分数高于DSS值较低的患者,且明显的被疼痛症状所困扰.该数字化问卷运行良
Chen, Min Cheng
2014-12-01
Stackable 3DFETs such as FinFET using hybrid Si/MoS
Maximum Genus of Strong Embeddings
Er-ling Wei; Yan-pei Liu; Han Ren
2003-01-01
The strong embedding conjecture states that any 2-connected graph has a strong embedding on some surface. It implies the circuit double cover conjecture: Any 2-connected graph has a circuit double cover.Conversely, it is not true. But for a 3-regular graph, the two conjectures are equivalent. In this paper, a characterization of graphs having a strong embedding with exactly 3 faces, which is the strong embedding of maximum genus, is given. In addition, some graphs with the property are provided. More generally, an upper bound of the maximum genus of strong embeddings of a graph is presented too. Lastly, it is shown that the interpolation theorem is true to planar Halin graph.
Remizov, Ivan D
2009-01-01
In this note, we represent a subdifferential of a maximum functional defined on the space of all real-valued continuous functions on a given metric compact set. For a given argument, $f$ it coincides with the set of all probability measures on the set of points maximizing $f$ on the initial compact set. This complete characterization lies in the heart of several important identities in microeconomics, such as Roy's identity, Sheppard's lemma, as well as duality theory in production and linear programming.
The Testability of Maximum Magnitude
Clements, R.; Schorlemmer, D.; Gonzalez, A.; Zoeller, G.; Schneider, M.
2012-12-01
Recent disasters caused by earthquakes of unexpectedly large magnitude (such as Tohoku) illustrate the need for reliable assessments of the seismic hazard. Estimates of the maximum possible magnitude M at a given fault or in a particular zone are essential parameters in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), but their accuracy remains untested. In this study, we discuss the testability of long-term and short-term M estimates and the limitations that arise from testing such rare events. Of considerable importance is whether or not those limitations imply a lack of testability of a useful maximum magnitude estimate, and whether this should have any influence on current PSHA methodology. We use a simple extreme value theory approach to derive a probability distribution for the expected maximum magnitude in a future time interval, and we perform a sensitivity analysis on this distribution to determine if there is a reasonable avenue available for testing M estimates as they are commonly reported today: devoid of an appropriate probability distribution of their own and estimated only for infinite time (or relatively large untestable periods). Our results imply that any attempt at testing such estimates is futile, and that the distribution is highly sensitive to M estimates only under certain optimal conditions that are rarely observed in practice. In the future we suggest that PSHA modelers be brutally honest about the uncertainty of M estimates, or must find a way to decrease its influence on the estimated hazard.
Alternative Multiview Maximum Entropy Discrimination.
Chao, Guoqing; Sun, Shiliang
2016-07-01
Maximum entropy discrimination (MED) is a general framework for discriminative estimation based on maximum entropy and maximum margin principles, and can produce hard-margin support vector machines under some assumptions. Recently, the multiview version of MED multiview MED (MVMED) was proposed. In this paper, we try to explore a more natural MVMED framework by assuming two separate distributions p1( Θ1) over the first-view classifier parameter Θ1 and p2( Θ2) over the second-view classifier parameter Θ2 . We name the new MVMED framework as alternative MVMED (AMVMED), which enforces the posteriors of two view margins to be equal. The proposed AMVMED is more flexible than the existing MVMED, because compared with MVMED, which optimizes one relative entropy, AMVMED assigns one relative entropy term to each of the two views, thus incorporating a tradeoff between the two views. We give the detailed solving procedure, which can be divided into two steps. The first step is solving our optimization problem without considering the equal margin posteriors from two views, and then, in the second step, we consider the equal posteriors. Experimental results on multiple real-world data sets verify the effectiveness of the AMVMED, and comparisons with MVMED are also reported.
Maximum Likelihood Estimation of the Identification Parameters and Its Correction
无
2002-01-01
By taking the subsequence out of the input-output sequence of a system polluted by white noise, anindependent observation sequence and its probability density are obtained and then a maximum likelihood estimation of theidentification parameters is given. In order to decrease the asymptotic error, a corrector of maximum likelihood (CML)estimation with its recursive algorithm is given. It has been proved that the corrector has smaller asymptotic error thanthe least square methods. A simulation example shows that the corrector of maximum likelihood estimation is of higherapproximating precision to the true parameters than the least square methods.
Cacti with maximum Kirchhoff index
Wang, Wen-Rui; Pan, Xiang-Feng
2015-01-01
The concept of resistance distance was first proposed by Klein and Randi\\'c. The Kirchhoff index $Kf(G)$ of a graph $G$ is the sum of resistance distance between all pairs of vertices in $G$. A connected graph $G$ is called a cactus if each block of $G$ is either an edge or a cycle. Let $Cat(n;t)$ be the set of connected cacti possessing $n$ vertices and $t$ cycles, where $0\\leq t \\leq \\lfloor\\frac{n-1}{2}\\rfloor$. In this paper, the maximum kirchhoff index of cacti are characterized, as well...
Generic maximum likely scale selection
Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo
2007-01-01
The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...... on second order moments of multiple measurements outputs at a fixed location. These measurements, which reflect local image structure, consist in the cases considered here of Gaussian derivatives taken at several scales and/or having different derivative orders....
Economics and Maximum Entropy Production
Lorenz, R. D.
2003-04-01
Price differentials, sales volume and profit can be seen as analogues of temperature difference, heat flow and work or entropy production in the climate system. One aspect in which economic systems exhibit more clarity than the climate is that the empirical and/or statistical mechanical tendency for systems to seek a maximum in production is very evident in economics, in that the profit motive is very clear. Noting the common link between 1/f noise, power laws and Self-Organized Criticality with Maximum Entropy Production, the power law fluctuations in security and commodity prices is not inconsistent with the analogy. There is an additional thermodynamic analogy, in that scarcity is valued. A commodity concentrated among a few traders is valued highly by the many who do not have it. The market therefore encourages via prices the spreading of those goods among a wider group, just as heat tends to diffuse, increasing entropy. I explore some empirical price-volume relationships of metals and meteorites in this context.
Objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality
Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan
2015-01-01
We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. The upper bound is attained if and only if the object is transparent for fields of one handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e. helicity preservation upon scattering, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal scatterers to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal scatterers. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar scatterers or as material constitutive relations. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: A twofold resonantly enhanced and background free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle independent helicity filtering glasses.
Maximum mutual information regularized classification
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2014-09-07
In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.
曲烁; 战德松
2012-01-01
目的:通过测量和比较正常人群与TMD患者在牙尖交错位时的咬合接触情况及牙弓宽度情况,探讨这2个解剖特征与TMD发病的相关性.方法:收集120个临床病例分为2组,A组TMD患者50例,B组正常人群(对照组)70例,通过对2组人群的咬合接触情况、牙弓宽度进行测量分析,探讨这2个解剖特征与TMD发病的相关性.结果:牙尖交错位时,TMD患者的无咬合接触牙齿数高于正常人群;牙弓宽度较正常人群窄(P＜0.05).结论:TMD发病与咬合接触少,牙弓宽度窄这2个解剖特征有关.%Objective: To investigate relevance between the two anatomical characteristics and the incidence of patients with TMD by measuring and comparing occlusal contact which is in intercuspal position and arch width be-lwccn the normal population and patients with TMD. Methods: There were 120 clinical cases in this study. They were divided into 2 groups. Group A is 50 patients with TMD, Group B is 70 normal populations as control group. To investigate relevance between the two anatomical characteristics and the incidence of patients with TMD by measuring and comparing occlusal contact and arch width between the normal population and patients with TMD. Results; The number of no occlusal contact teeth which are in intercuspal position is higher than the normal population, and patients with TMD have narrower arch width than the normal population (P < 0. 05). Conclusion: The incidence of TMD contacts with the characteristics of less occlusion and narrower arch width.
The strong maximum principle revisited
Pucci, Patrizia; Serrin, James
In this paper we first present the classical maximum principle due to E. Hopf, together with an extended commentary and discussion of Hopf's paper. We emphasize the comparison technique invented by Hopf to prove this principle, which has since become a main mathematical tool for the study of second order elliptic partial differential equations and has generated an enormous number of important applications. While Hopf's principle is generally understood to apply to linear equations, it is in fact also crucial in nonlinear theories, such as those under consideration here. In particular, we shall treat and discuss recent generalizations of the strong maximum principle, and also the compact support principle, for the case of singular quasilinear elliptic differential inequalities, under generally weak assumptions on the quasilinear operators and the nonlinearities involved. Our principal interest is in necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of both principles; in exposing and simplifying earlier proofs of corresponding results; and in extending the conclusions to wider classes of singular operators than previously considered. The results have unexpected ramifications for other problems, as will develop from the exposition, e.g. two point boundary value problems for singular quasilinear ordinary differential equations (Sections 3 and 4); the exterior Dirichlet boundary value problem (Section 5); the existence of dead cores and compact support solutions, i.e. dead cores at infinity (Section 7); Euler-Lagrange inequalities on a Riemannian manifold (Section 9); comparison and uniqueness theorems for solutions of singular quasilinear differential inequalities (Section 10). The case of p-regular elliptic inequalities is briefly considered in Section 11.
颞下颌关节紊乱病患者咬合稳定性的研究%Study on occlusal stabilization of TMD
王琛; 殷新民
2008-01-01
目的 研究颞下颌关节紊乱病(tempromandi bular disorders,TMD)患者的咬合稳定状况.方法 应用T-ScanII咬合分析仪对34例TMD患者进行牙尖交错位的咬合检查并与正常组对照.结果 TMD患者的牙合力不对称指数、牙合力中心点最大位移、牙合干扰指数均明显高于对照组,但总牙合力值与对照组无显著性差异.结论 与正常人群相比,TMD患者咬合的稳定性及平衡性均下降.
Long Xiaohong; Li Li
2004-01-01
The practical design of the cable-stayed bridge of the 3rd Macao-Taipa bridge is investigated by the finite element analysis program ANSYS, and 3-D elements BEAM188 and BEAM4 are adopted to create a dynamic calculation model. In order to analyze the material nonlinear seismic response of the cable-stayed bridge, the nonlinear behaviors of the ductile plastic hinges of the bridge towers are taken into account by employing the nonlinear rotational spring element COMBIN40. To simulate a major earthquake, three earthquake records were chosen using a wave-choosing program and input into the bridge structure along longitudinal and transversal directions. Comparisons of the linear and nonlinear seismic responses of the cable-stayed bridge are performed. In addition, a study of TMD primary control is carried out using element MASS21 and element COMBIN14, and it is indicated that the effects of mitigation monitoring are evident.
Filip Zdraveski
2015-05-01
Full Text Available This paper explores the possibilities of the Eurocode EN 1991-1-4 to be used to predict the response of structures with installed dynamic vibration absorber or TMD.The analysis is performed in a way that Davenport model is used to conduct theoretical calculation, and then is made calculation according to Eurocode procedure 2. Finally, results from both methods are compared. Floor displacements, accelerations, aerodynamical damping of structure and compliance to serviceability criteria ISO 10137:2007 is being calculated. In the end, remarks concerning the usability of the EN standard for predicting wind response of wind susceptible structures are given on the basis of calculated results from both methods.
Shaking Table Test Research on Steel Structure with FPS Typed TMD%FPS-TMD减震钢框架振动台试验研究
潘琴存; 黄丽婷
2009-01-01
本文设计制作出一个FPS-TMD,对装有FPS-TMD的4层钢框架结构进行了振动台试验,结果表明当激励频率接近结构受控自振频率时,FPS-TMD能够有效地减小结构的动力反应和抑制结构共振,减震率在50%以上,证明了本文所研究的FPS-TMD减震的有效性.文中采用的分析方法和研究结果可为FPS-TMD减震的深入研究及其实际工程应用提供重要参考.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...
Maximum entropy production in daisyworld
Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.
2012-05-01
Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.
Maximum stellar iron core mass
F W Giacobbe
2003-03-01
An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is described in this paper. The method employed depends, in part, upon an estimate of the true relativistic mass increase experienced by electrons within a highly compressed iron core, just prior to core collapse, and is signiﬁcantly different from a more typical Chandrasekhar mass limit approach. This technique produced a maximum stellar iron core mass value of 2.69 × 1030 kg (1.35 solar masses). This mass value is very near to the typical mass values found for neutron stars in a recent survey of actual neutron star masses. Although slightly lower and higher neutron star masses may also be found, lower mass neutron stars are believed to be formed as a result of enhanced iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large stars. And, higher mass neutron stars are likely to be formed as a result of fallback or accretion of additional matter after an initial collapse event involving an iron core having a mass no greater than 2.69 × 1030 kg.
Maximum Matchings via Glauber Dynamics
Jindal, Anant; Pal, Manjish
2011-01-01
In this paper we study the classic problem of computing a maximum cardinality matching in general graphs $G = (V, E)$. The best known algorithm for this problem till date runs in $O(m \\sqrt{n})$ time due to Micali and Vazirani \\cite{MV80}. Even for general bipartite graphs this is the best known running time (the algorithm of Karp and Hopcroft \\cite{HK73} also achieves this bound). For regular bipartite graphs one can achieve an $O(m)$ time algorithm which, following a series of papers, has been recently improved to $O(n \\log n)$ by Goel, Kapralov and Khanna (STOC 2010) \\cite{GKK10}. In this paper we present a randomized algorithm based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo paradigm which runs in $O(m \\log^2 n)$ time, thereby obtaining a significant improvement over \\cite{MV80}. We use a Markov chain similar to the \\emph{hard-core model} for Glauber Dynamics with \\emph{fugacity} parameter $\\lambda$, which is used to sample independent sets in a graph from the Gibbs Distribution \\cite{V99}, to design a faster algori...
2011-01-10
...: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure Using Record Evidence, and... facilities of their responsibilities, under Federal integrity management (IM) regulations, to perform... system, especially when calculating Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) or Maximum Operating...
The Sherpa Maximum Likelihood Estimator
Nguyen, D.; Doe, S.; Evans, I.; Hain, R.; Primini, F.
2011-07-01
A primary goal for the second release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is to include X-ray sources with as few as 5 photon counts detected in stacked observations of the same field, while maintaining acceptable detection efficiency and false source rates. Aggressive source detection methods will result in detection of many false positive source candidates. Candidate detections will then be sent to a new tool, the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE), to evaluate the likelihood that a detection is a real source. MLE uses the Sherpa modeling and fitting engine to fit a model of a background and source to multiple overlapping candidate source regions. A background model is calculated by simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in multiple background regions. This model is used to determine the quality of the fit statistic for a background-only hypothesis in the potential source region. The statistic for a background-plus-source hypothesis is calculated by adding a Gaussian source model convolved with the appropriate Chandra point spread function (PSF) and simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in each observation in the stack. Since a candidate source may be located anywhere in the field of view of each stacked observation, a different PSF must be used for each observation because of the strong spatial dependence of the Chandra PSF. The likelihood of a valid source being detected is a function of the two statistics (for background alone, and for background-plus-source). The MLE tool is an extensible Python module with potential for use by the general Chandra user.
Vestige: Maximum likelihood phylogenetic footprinting
Maxwell Peter
2005-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic footprinting is the identification of functional regions of DNA by their evolutionary conservation. This is achieved by comparing orthologous regions from multiple species and identifying the DNA regions that have diverged less than neutral DNA. Vestige is a phylogenetic footprinting package built on the PyEvolve toolkit that uses probabilistic molecular evolutionary modelling to represent aspects of sequence evolution, including the conventional divergence measure employed by other footprinting approaches. In addition to measuring the divergence, Vestige allows the expansion of the definition of a phylogenetic footprint to include variation in the distribution of any molecular evolutionary processes. This is achieved by displaying the distribution of model parameters that represent partitions of molecular evolutionary substitutions. Examination of the spatial incidence of these effects across regions of the genome can identify DNA segments that differ in the nature of the evolutionary process. Results Vestige was applied to a reference dataset of the SCL locus from four species and provided clear identification of the known conserved regions in this dataset. To demonstrate the flexibility to use diverse models of molecular evolution and dissect the nature of the evolutionary process Vestige was used to footprint the Ka/Ks ratio in primate BRCA1 with a codon model of evolution. Two regions of putative adaptive evolution were identified illustrating the ability of Vestige to represent the spatial distribution of distinct molecular evolutionary processes. Conclusion Vestige provides a flexible, open platform for phylogenetic footprinting. Underpinned by the PyEvolve toolkit, Vestige provides a framework for visualising the signatures of evolutionary processes across the genome of numerous organisms simultaneously. By exploiting the maximum-likelihood statistical framework, the complex interplay between mutational
Garnett, E S; Webber, C E; Coates, G
1977-01-01
The density of a defined volume of the human lung can be measured in vivo by a new noninvasive technique. A beam of gamma-rays is directed at the lung and, by measuring the scattered gamma-rays, lung density is calculated. The density in the lower lobe of the right lung in normal man during quiet...... breathing in the sitting position ranged from 0.25 to 0.37 g.cm-3. Subnormal values were found in patients with emphsema. In patients with pulmonary congestion and edema, lung density values ranged from 0.33 to 0.93 g.cm-3. The lung density measurement correlated well with the findings in chest radiographs...... but the lung density values were more sensitive indices. This was particularly evident in serial observations of individual patients....
秦丽; 李业学; 徐福卫
2011-01-01
在TMD中采用摩擦阻尼代替传统的粘滞阻尼,可有效降低TMD的造价,从而促进其推广应用.但摩擦元件是非线性的,给摩擦TMD分析和设计造成了一定的困难.为了研究常摩擦TMD地震控制的特点和规律,文中采用时程分析法进行了简谐激励和地震激励下摩擦TMD对单自由度结构响应控制的理论分析;在理论分析结果的指导下,进行了单自由度主结构和摩擦TMD系统在简谐激励和地震激励下的振动台试验.理论分析和试验结果表明:除了频率比和质量比的影响,摩擦TMD的控制效果和摩擦力大小、激励幅值有关,只要参数设置合适,其控制效果是令人满意的;在设计摩擦TMD时要针对激励大小、目标控制效率进行具体分析.%Replacing traditional viscous damping with friction damping TMD can reduce self cost and improve its application to real projects.However, friction element is non-linear, which makes the analysis and design of friction TMD difficult.The seismic control effectiveness of friction TMD is analyzed theoretically and experimentally.The theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that the control effectiveness of friction TMD is influenced by the magnitude of friction force and amplitude of excitation except for the affection of frequency ratio and mass ratio.With only adopting proper parameters, friction TMD can achieve satisfying control effectiveness.When designing friction TMD, the parameters should be determined according to magnitude of excitation and desired control effectiveness.
On some problems of the maximum entropy ansatz
K Bandyopadhyay; K Bhattacharyya; A K Bhattacharyya
2000-03-01
Some problems associated with the use of the maximum entropy principle, namely, (i) possible divergence of the series that is exponentiated, (ii) input-dependent asymptotic behaviour of the density function resulting from the truncation of the said series, and (iii) non-vanishing of the density function at the boundaries of a ﬁnite domain are pointed out. Prescriptions for remedying the aforesaid problems are put forward. Pilot calculations involving the ground quantum eigenenergy states of the quartic oscillator, the particle-in-a-box model, and the classical Maxwellian speed and energy distributions lend credence to our approach.
Smoothed log-concave maximum likelihood estimation with applications
Chen, Yining
2011-01-01
We study the smoothed log-concave maximum likelihood estimator of a probability distribution on $\\mathbb{R}^d$. This is a fully automatic nonparametric density estimator, obtained as a canonical smoothing of the log-concave maximum likelihood estimator. We demonstrate its attractive features both through an analysis of its theoretical properties and a simulation study. Moreover, we show how the estimator can be used as an intermediate stage of more involved procedures, such as constructing a classifier or estimating a functional of the density. Here again, the use of the estimator can be justified both on theoretical grounds and through its finite sample performance, and we illustrate its use in a breast cancer diagnosis (classification) problem.
Propane spectral resolution enhancement by the maximum entropy method
Bonavito, N. L.; Stewart, K. P.; Hurley, E. J.; Yeh, K. C.; Inguva, R.
1990-01-01
The Burg algorithm for maximum entropy power spectral density estimation is applied to a time series of data obtained from a Michelson interferometer and compared with a standard FFT estimate for resolution capability. The propane transmittance spectrum was estimated by use of the FFT with a 2 to the 18th data sample interferogram, giving a maximum unapodized resolution of 0.06/cm. This estimate was then interpolated by zero filling an additional 2 to the 18th points, and the final resolution was taken to be 0.06/cm. Comparison of the maximum entropy method (MEM) estimate with the FFT was made over a 45/cm region of the spectrum for several increasing record lengths of interferogram data beginning at 2 to the 10th. It is found that over this region the MEM estimate with 2 to the 16th data samples is in close agreement with the FFT estimate using 2 to the 18th samples.
Mass mortality of the vermetid gastropod Ceraesignum maximum
Brown, A. L.; Frazer, T. K.; Shima, J. S.; Osenberg, C. W.
2016-09-01
Ceraesignum maximum (G.B. Sowerby I, 1825), formerly Dendropoma maximum, was subject to a sudden, massive die-off in the Society Islands, French Polynesia, in 2015. On Mo'orea, where we have detailed documentation of the die-off, these gastropods were previously found in densities up to 165 m-2. In July 2015, we surveyed shallow back reefs of Mo'orea before, during and after the die-off, documenting their swift decline. All censused populations incurred 100% mortality. Additional surveys and observations from Mo'orea, Tahiti, Bora Bora, and Huahine (but not Taha'a) suggested a similar, and approximately simultaneous, die-off. The cause(s) of this cataclysmic mass mortality are currently unknown. Given the previously documented negative effects of C. maximum on corals, we expect the die-off will have cascading effects on the reef community.
Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution
吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生
2003-01-01
Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.
覃方芳; 党育
2011-01-01
The measured vertical velocity and acceleration exceed the normal requirements when multi-storey factory floor subjected to machine excitation. This paper used several TMDs (tuned mass dampers) hanging in specific location to reduce floor vertical vibration with the construction and operation requirements in considering. The analysis model was established by SAP2000 software, including designed multi-vertical-TMD and o-riginal structure. The response was analyzed and compared between the additional-TMD-structure floor and o-riginal one. Numerical simulation results show that vibration-reduction effects of the TMD designed in this paper are remarkable, and reduction-ratio is up to 70%.%多层工业厂房楼板在机器扰力下,实测发现楼板竖向速度和加速度超过结构正常使用要求.考虑到施工和使用要求,本文用多个TMD(调谐质量阻尼器)悬挂在楼板特定位置,以减少楼板竖向振动.通过理论推导,设计了多TMD体系的参数,并用SAP2000建立楼板与TMD的振动模型,得到附加TMD后楼板的响应,并与不加TMD的楼板振动响应比较.结果表明,本文设计的TMD可有效减小楼板在机器扰力下的竖向振动响应,减振比达到70％以上.
Maximum Power from a Solar Panel
Michael Miller
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.
Daniela Aparecida Biasotto-Gonzalez
2012-12-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar dois ângulos cervicais com as classificações oclusais em crianças de 6 a 10 anos com e sem Disfunção Temporomandibular (DTM,identificar se há prevalência de DTM quanto ao gênero, e se há influencia da oclusão sobre os ângulos estudados. MÉTODO: realizou-se um estudo observacional transversal com 91 crianças de ambos os gêneros de uma Instituição de Ensino privado, dispostas em Grupo A (sem DTM e Grupo B (com DTM. Todas as crianças foram avaliadas seguindo uma ficha cadastral constituída de dados referentes a sexo, idade, peso, altura e exame clínico intra-oral para classificação oclusal de Angle. O diagnóstico e a severidade da DTM, foram verificados pelo questionário proposto por Fonseca. Para avaliação dos ângulos cervicais (A1 e A2 foi utilizada a fotogrametria e o Software Alcimagem®. RESULTADOS: entre as crianças avaliadas, 52 (57,14% apresentaram maloclusão, sendo 29 com DTM e 23 sem DTM, 39 (42,85% apresentaram normoclusão, sendo 18 sem DTM e 21 com DTM. Quando comparados os ângulos (A1 e A2 a classe oclusal, foi encontrada diferença significante entre as crianças normoclusivas e maloclusivas com o ângulo A1 (p=0,04. CONCLUSÃO: esse estudo demonstrou que o ângulo A1 (C7, ATM e Ápice do Mento foi estatisticamente significante quando associado com a condição oclusal. Não foi encontrado associação, na população estudada, entre ângulo cervical e DTM. Além disso, também foi possível observar que, a prevalência de crianças do gênero feminino com DTM é significantemente maior que a do gênero masculino. Esse estudo demonstrou que a maloclusão pode alterar somente o ângulo A1 e que a DTM não interfere nos ângulos cervicais estudados.PURPOSE: to compare two cervical angles with occlusal classifications in children between 6 and 10 years old with and without Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD, to identify if there is a prevalence of TMD according to gender, and if there is
Verena Kise Capellini
2006-01-01
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The Temporomandibular disorder (TMD is greatly prevalent in the population and can be associated with bruxism. This disorder produces several signs and symptoms. Among them, pain is one of the most important because it reduces life quality and productivity of people who have such disorder. The aim of this research was to study if massage causes pain relief and/or electromyographic (EMG changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects were chosen by a questionnaire and divided into 2 different groups. Their ages varied from 19 to 22 years. The experimental group consisted of 6 TMD patients, who were submitted to the massage treatment and 4 EMG-sessions (the 1st EMG-session occurred before the treatment and the others in the 1st, 15th and 30th days after the treatment. The control group consisted of 6 TMD patients, who were submitted to the same 4 EMG-sessions. While EMG activity was recorded, subjects were asked to keep mandibular rest position (MRP and to perform maximal voluntary clenching (MVC. The treatment consisted of 15 massage-sessions on face and neck and in application of Visual Analogue Scale (VAS for measuring pain level. The massage sessions had 30 minutes of duration and were performed daily. The EMG data were processed to obtain the Root Mean Square (RMS, which were normalized by MVC. RESULTS: It was demonstrated that (1 RMS-MRP of the right masseter in experimental group at the 1st EMG-session was higher than at the 2nd EMG-session and (2 statistically significant reduction was found for VAS values after massage session. CONCLUSION: Unfortunately the sample is insufficient to draw any conclusions, therefore, more studies regarding the use of massage in the management of myogenic TMD are necessary.INTRODUÇÃO: A disfunção temporomandibular (DTM tem grande prevalência na população e pode ser associada com bruxismo. Esta desordem produz vários sinais e sintomas. Entre eles, a dor é um do mais importantes porque
A Clinical Study on Elderly Patients With TMD%老年人颞下颌关节紊乱病的临床研究
殷新民; 张道珍
2000-01-01
目的:研究老年人颞下颌关节紊乱病(TMD)的临床表现、诊断和治疗的特点.方法:对56例60岁以上的TMD患者进行治疗观察,对临床资料进行总结分析.结果:老年人TMD占同期TMD患者总数的9.9%.男女之比为1:1.7.经采用综合措施治疗,结果显效39.3%、有效53.6%、无效7.1%.结论:老年人TMD器质变化型明显增多,牙齿缺失与磨损是老年人TMD的重要病因,治疗应采取综合措施,咬合板、封闭和义齿修复是主要的治疗方法.
Analysis of TMD vibration reduction test on scale model of pedestrian bridge%人行桥缩尺模型的TMD减振试验研究
康俊涛; 董培东; 秦世强; 邢英兴
2014-01-01
为使调谐质量阻尼器(TMD)在人行桥减振控制中达到最佳效果,提高人行桥的安全性,以某人行独塔斜拉桥为工程背景,根据现场实测数据与模型相似理论,设计与制作几何长度相似比为1/30的缩尺模型.根据TMD的基本工作原理,运用MIDAS/Civil确定TMD的最优参数,并制作TMD减振装置;采用单点激励的方式,确定TMD的最佳安装位置,并进行TMD减振试验,测试结构的最大加速度响应,分析TMD的减振效果.结果表明:安装TMD后,在不同激励频率下,结构的最大加速度响应均有不同程度的减小;在共振工况下,最大减振率可达73.5％,有效降低人行桥的结构振动.
Shen, Y H; Chen, Y K; Chuang, S Y
2005-05-01
A 28-year-old female underwent orthodontic treatment for approximately 22 months. During the later stages of this treatment, the patient reported right shoulder and neck-muscle pain. In addition, temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) with a 'clicking' sound during mastication commenced 5 months prior to treatment completion. Specific medication to deal with these symptoms was suggested by medical specialists, as were some stress-relief methods, although the pain still progressed, and subsequent clinical and radiographical examinations were undertaken by another orthodontist. Right mandibular condylar resorption was observed from both the panorex and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) radiographs. No clinical signs of rheumatic disease were observed, although bruxism was noted. Following the termination of the orthodontic treatment by the second practitioner, the patient was treated with splint therapy 1 month subsequent to which, the previous symptoms of pain in the shoulder and neck, and the clicking sound during mastication had subsided. During the 14-month period of splint therapy and follow-up, new bone growth in the right condyle was observed from radiographs.
The inverse maximum dynamic flow problem
BAGHERIAN; Mehri
2010-01-01
We consider the inverse maximum dynamic flow (IMDF) problem.IMDF problem can be described as: how to change the capacity vector of a dynamic network as little as possible so that a given feasible dynamic flow becomes a maximum dynamic flow.After discussing some characteristics of this problem,it is converted to a constrained minimum dynamic cut problem.Then an efficient algorithm which uses two maximum dynamic flow algorithms is proposed to solve the problem.
基于投资-效益准则的TMD装置的优化设计%Optimal design of the TMD device based on cost-effectiveness criterion
卜国雄; 谭平; 周福霖
2011-01-01
分析TMD装置系统的全寿命周期费用LCC(Life Cycle Cost)的构成及与减振效果之间的关系,提出基于投资-效益准则的TMD减振装置的优化设计方法.首先,对不同质量比下的TMD减震装置,分别计算出其相对应的全寿命周期费用及减震百分率;然后,进行TMD装置的效-费比分析,即在满足业主具体的性能要求的前提下,以效-费比为优化性能指标,求出减振控制系统的最优参数,以最低的费用,达到最好的效果,节约资源.同时,提出减振控制装置全寿命费用和效-费比的概念,为各种减振控制策略的有效性、经济性及可靠性等提供一种评价指标.以目前在建的世界第一高塔--广州新电视塔为工程算例,验证本文方法有效性和正确性,在实际工程中具有较大的应用价值.%The composition of the life-cycle cost (LCC) of TMD control device is analyzed and an optimal design method for TMD device is proposed based on cost-effectiveness criterion. The life-cycle costs and control effectiveness of the TMD system with different mass ratios are calculated, and then an analysis of the effectiveness-cost ratio of the TMD device is carried out. With the condition of meeting the specific performance requirements of the owners, the optimal parameters of the TMD system are obtained by using a performance index of the effectiveness-cost ratio, thus the best control performance is achieved with a low cost and the optimal saving of resources. Moreover, the LCC and the effectiveness-cost ratio of the control device are proposed to evaluate the effectiveness, economy and reliability of different vibration control strategies. The new Guangzhou TV Tower, highest structure in the world, is employed as an example, and the results show that the proposed method is efficient and of significance in practical applications.
Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors
Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)
2014-06-15
Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.
Generalised maximum entropy and heterogeneous technologies
Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.
1999-01-01
Generalised maximum entropy methods are used to estimate a dual model of production on panel data of Dutch cash crop farms over the period 1970-1992. The generalised maximum entropy approach allows a coherent system of input demand and output supply equations to be estimated for each farm in the sam
20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.
2010-04-01
... month on one person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family maximum used to adjust the social security overall minimum rate is based on the employee's Overall..., when any of the persons entitled to benefits on the insured individual's compensation would, except...
The maximum rotation of a galactic disc
Bottema, R
1997-01-01
The observed stellar velocity dispersions of galactic discs show that the maximum rotation of a disc is on average 63% of the observed maximum rotation. This criterion can, however, not be applied to small or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies because such systems show, in general, a continuously
Duality of Maximum Entropy and Minimum Divergence
Shinto Eguchi
2014-06-01
Full Text Available We discuss a special class of generalized divergence measures by the use of generator functions. Any divergence measure in the class is separated into the difference between cross and diagonal entropy. The diagonal entropy measure in the class associates with a model of maximum entropy distributions; the divergence measure leads to statistical estimation via minimization, for arbitrarily giving a statistical model. The dualistic relationship between the maximum entropy model and the minimum divergence estimation is explored in the framework of information geometry. The model of maximum entropy distributions is characterized to be totally geodesic with respect to the linear connection associated with the divergence. A natural extension for the classical theory for the maximum likelihood method under the maximum entropy model in terms of the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy is given. We discuss the duality in detail for Tsallis entropy as a typical example.
Condytar reference point and the occlusal reconstruction of TMD patients%髁状突参考位与TMD患者的(牙合)重建
康宏; 巢永烈; 易新竹
2003-01-01
咬合重建是颞下颌关节病(TMD)永久性修复治疗的方法之一,关键在于(牙合)重建时如何确定最适颌种位.但是,由于对口腔修复中所采用的最适颌位的概念,尚无统一的定义标准,对髁状突运动中心及基本颌位下,髁位的稳定性及位置的研究存在争议,对髁位重建后的口腔功能还不能进行客观的评价.本文就有关最适颌位的概念、髁状突参考位与(牙合)重建的关系、TMD患者的(牙合)重建等问题作一综述.提出尽管正中关系位(CR)是生理性的最适髁位,可以用于建(牙合),但TMD病人的最大牙尖交错位(MI)也可能是生理性的.有些情况下,应采用生理性的MI建(牙合).若MI不是生理性的,应首先调整肌肉的状态,然后再选在CR位或适应性正中位建(牙合).
Maximum-entropy probability distributions under Lp-norm constraints
Dolinar, S.
1991-01-01
Continuous probability density functions and discrete probability mass functions are tabulated which maximize the differential entropy or absolute entropy, respectively, among all probability distributions with a given L sub p norm (i.e., a given pth absolute moment when p is a finite integer) and unconstrained or constrained value set. Expressions for the maximum entropy are evaluated as functions of the L sub p norm. The most interesting results are obtained and plotted for unconstrained (real valued) continuous random variables and for integer valued discrete random variables. The maximum entropy expressions are obtained in closed form for unconstrained continuous random variables, and in this case there is a simple straight line relationship between the maximum differential entropy and the logarithm of the L sub p norm. Corresponding expressions for arbitrary discrete and constrained continuous random variables are given parametrically; closed form expressions are available only for special cases. However, simpler alternative bounds on the maximum entropy of integer valued discrete random variables are obtained by applying the differential entropy results to continuous random variables which approximate the integer valued random variables in a natural manner. All the results are presented in an integrated framework that includes continuous and discrete random variables, constraints on the permissible value set, and all possible values of p. Understanding such as this is useful in evaluating the performance of data compression schemes.
Maximum-entropy closure of hydrodynamic moment hierarchies including correlations.
Hughes, Keith H; Burghardt, Irene
2012-06-07
Generalized hydrodynamic moment hierarchies are derived which explicitly include nonequilibrium two-particle and higher-order correlations. The approach is adapted to strongly correlated media and nonequilibrium processes on short time scales which necessitate an explicit treatment of time-evolving correlations. Closure conditions for the extended moment hierarchies are formulated by a maximum-entropy approach, generalizing related closure procedures for kinetic equations. A self-consistent set of nonperturbative dynamical equations are thus obtained for a chosen set of single-particle and two-particle (and possibly higher-order) moments. Analytical results are derived for generalized Gaussian closures including the dynamic pair distribution function and a two-particle correction to the current density. The maximum-entropy closure conditions are found to involve the Kirkwood superposition approximation.
A dual method for maximum entropy restoration
Smith, C. B.
1979-01-01
A simple iterative dual algorithm for maximum entropy image restoration is presented. The dual algorithm involves fewer parameters than conventional minimization in the image space. Minicomputer test results for Fourier synthesis with inadequate phantom data are given.
Maximum Throughput in Multiple-Antenna Systems
Zamani, Mahdi
2012-01-01
The point-to-point multiple-antenna channel is investigated in uncorrelated block fading environment with Rayleigh distribution. The maximum throughput and maximum expected-rate of this channel are derived under the assumption that the transmitter is oblivious to the channel state information (CSI), however, the receiver has perfect CSI. First, we prove that in multiple-input single-output (MISO) channels, the optimum transmission strategy maximizing the throughput is to use all available antennas and perform equal power allocation with uncorrelated signals. Furthermore, to increase the expected-rate, multi-layer coding is applied. Analogously, we establish that sending uncorrelated signals and performing equal power allocation across all available antennas at each layer is optimum. A closed form expression for the maximum continuous-layer expected-rate of MISO channels is also obtained. Moreover, we investigate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels, and formulate the maximum throughput in the asympt...
Photoemission spectromicroscopy with MAXIMUM at Wisconsin
Ng, W.; Ray-Chaudhuri, A.K.; Cole, R.K.; Wallace, J.; Crossley, S.; Crossley, D.; Chen, G.; Green, M.; Guo, J.; Hansen, R.W.C.; Cerrina, F.; Margaritondo, G. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Dept. of Physics and Synchrotron Radiation Center, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA)); Underwood, J.H.; Korthright, J.; Perera, R.C.C. (Center for X-ray Optics, Accelerator and Fusion Research Div., Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))
1990-06-01
We describe the development of the scanning photoemission spectromicroscope MAXIMUM at the Wisoncsin Synchrotron Radiation Center, which uses radiation from a 30-period undulator. The article includes a discussion of the first tests after the initial commissioning. (orig.).
Maximum-entropy for the laser fusion problem
Madkour, M.A. [Nansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Phys.
1996-09-01
The problem of heat flux at the critical surfaces and the surfaces of a pellet of deuterium and tritium (conduction zone) heated by laser have been considered. Ion-electron collisions are only allowed for: i.e. the linear transport equation is used to describe the problem with boundary conditions. The maximum-entropy approach is used to calculate the electron density and temperature across the conduction zone as well as the heat flux. Numerical results are given and compared with those of Rouse and Williams and El-Wakil et al. (orig.).
A Maximum Entropy Modelling of the Rain Drop Size Distribution
Francisco J. Tapiador
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a maximum entropy approach to Rain Drop Size Distribution (RDSD modelling. It is shown that this approach allows (1 to use a physically consistent rationale to select a particular probability density function (pdf (2 to provide an alternative method for parameter estimation based on expectations of the population instead of sample moments and (3 to develop a progressive method of modelling by updating the pdf as new empirical information becomes available. The method is illustrated with both synthetic and real RDSD data, the latest coming from a laser disdrometer network specifically designed to measure the spatial variability of the RDSD.
Maximum-likelihood analysis of the COBE angular correlation function
Seljak, Uros; Bertschinger, Edmund
1993-01-01
We have used maximum-likelihood estimation to determine the quadrupole amplitude Q(sub rms-PS) and the spectral index n of the density fluctuation power spectrum at recombination from the COBE DMR data. We find a strong correlation between the two parameters of the form Q(sub rms-PS) = (15.7 +/- 2.6) exp (0.46(1 - n)) microK for fixed n. Our result is slightly smaller than and has a smaller statistical uncertainty than the 1992 estimate of Smoot et al.
OIL MONITORING DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIONS BASED ON MAXIMUM ENTROPY PRINCIPLE
Huo Hua; Li Zhuguo; Xia Yanchun
2005-01-01
A method of applying maximum entropy probability density estimation approach to constituting diagnostic criterions of oil monitoring data is presented. The method promotes the precision of diagnostic criterions for evaluating the wear state of mechanical facilities, and judging abnormal data. According to the critical boundary points defined, a new measure on monitoring wear state and identifying probable wear faults can be got. The method can be applied to spectrometric analysis and direct reading ferrographic analysis. On the basis of the analysis and discussion of two examples of 8NVD48A-2U diesel engines, the practicality is proved to be an effective method in oil monitoring.
The maximum entropy technique. System's statistical description
Belashev, B Z
2002-01-01
The maximum entropy technique (MENT) is applied for searching the distribution functions of physical values. MENT takes into consideration the demand of maximum entropy, the characteristics of the system and the connection conditions, naturally. It is allowed to apply MENT for statistical description of closed and open systems. The examples in which MENT had been used for the description of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium states and the states far from the thermodynamical equilibrium are considered
19 CFR 114.23 - Maximum period.
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum period. 114.23 Section 114.23 Customs... CARNETS Processing of Carnets § 114.23 Maximum period. (a) A.T.A. carnet. No A.T.A. carnet with a period of validity exceeding 1 year from date of issue shall be accepted. This period of validity cannot be...
Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM
Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.
1993-01-01
Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.
SEXUAL DIMORPHISM OF MAXIMUM FEMORAL LENGTH
Pandya A M
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Sexual identification from the skeletal parts has medico legal and anthropological importance. Present study aims to obtain values of maximum femoral length and to evaluate its possible usefulness in determining correct sexual identification. Study sample consisted of 184 dry, normal, adult, human femora (136 male & 48 female from skeletal collections of Anatomy department, M. P. Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat. Maximum length of femur was considered as maximum vertical distance between upper end of head of femur and the lowest point on femoral condyle, measured with the osteometric board. Mean Values obtained were, 451.81 and 417.48 for right male and female, and 453.35 and 420.44 for left male and female respectively. Higher value in male was statistically highly significant (P< 0.001 on both sides. Demarking point (D.P. analysis of the data showed that right femora with maximum length more than 476.70 were definitely male and less than 379.99 were definitely female; while for left bones, femora with maximum length more than 484.49 were definitely male and less than 385.73 were definitely female. Maximum length identified 13.43% of right male femora, 4.35% of right female femora, 7.25% of left male femora and 8% of left female femora. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 67-70
Natalia C. M. C. Gomes
2012-02-01
Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A dor é o principal sintoma dos pacientes com disfunção temporomandibular (DTM. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da estimulação elétrica de alta voltagem catódica (EEAV sobre a intensidade da dor em mulheres com DTM. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 20 mulheres (24,25±8,90 anos com DTM, divididas em grupo experimental (GE n=10, no qual as mulheres receberam dez aplicações de EEAV, e grupo placebo (GP n=10, no qual foi aplicada a EEAV, porém com o aparelho desligado. Para seleção da amostra, utilizou-se o critério de diagnóstico em pesquisa para DTM (RDC/TMD e, para avaliação da dor, utilizou-se a Escala Visual Analógica (EVA aplicada antes do início do tratamento (pré-tratamento e após a décima aplicação da EEAV (pós-tratamento. Os dados foram analisados pelos testes Wilcoxon das ordens assinaladas e Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: As dez aplicações de EEAV promoveram redução da intensidade da dor no GE (p=0,01; no GP, não se observou diferença significativa (p=0,20. Comparando-se os grupos após a aplicação da EEAV, não se notou diferença (p=0,65. CONCLUSÃO: A EEAV catódica é efetiva para redução da dor em mulheres com DTM. Registro de Ensaio Clinico RBR-4bk94x.BACKGROUND: Pain is the main symptom of patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of cathodal high-voltage electrical stimulation (HVES on pain intensity in women with TMD. METHODS: Twenty women with TMD (24.25±8.90 years old participated in the study. They were divided into experimental group (EG, n=10, which received 10 applications of HVES, and placebo group (PG, n=10, which received sham treatment with disconnected HVES equipment. For the sample selection, we used the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorder (RDC/TMD. Pain level was evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS applied prior to and after the tenth application of HVES. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed
Maximum tunneling velocities in symmetric double well potentials
Manz, Jörn; Schmidt, Burkhard; Yang, Yonggang
2014-01-01
We consider coherent tunneling of one-dimensional model systems in non-cyclic or cyclic symmetric double well potentials. Generic potentials are constructed which allow for analytical estimates of the quantum dynamics in the non-relativistic deep tunneling regime, in terms of the tunneling distance, barrier height and mass (or moment of inertia). For cyclic systems, the results may be scaled to agree well with periodic potentials for which semi-analytical results in terms of Mathieu functions exist. Starting from a wavepacket which is initially localized in one of the potential wells, the subsequent periodic tunneling is associated with tunneling velocities. These velocities (or angular velocities) are evaluated as the ratio of the flux densities versus the probability densities. The maximum velocities are found under the top of the barrier where they scale as the square root of the ratio of barrier height and mass (or moment of inertia), independent of the tunneling distance. They are applied exemplarily to ...
张鸣祥; 王建国; 汪权
2012-01-01
This study addresses the methodology and parameter study of TMD control for long-span bridges. The differential equations governing the motion of the structure with TMDs are established in the mode space, in which the effects of aerodynamic self-excited force are taken into account. The revised automatic analysis for multimode-coupled flutter,which is the single parameter searching method with- out iterations,is adapted for the flutter control analysis of structure-TMDs system based on the complex modal theory. Taking a three-tower suspension bridge being built crossing the Yangtze River for a nu- merical example,the flutter analysis of the original bridge and flutter control analysis of bridge-TMDs system are performed. The TMD parameters are discussed for influence of critical wind speed.%推导了装有TMD的结构在气动自激力作用下的动力微分方程,基于模态空间中多模态耦合颤振分析手段,运用考虑安装TMD的多模态自动分析法对结构-TMD系统进行了颤振分析和TMD控制分析,使多模态自动分析法能适用于TMD颤振控制分析,避免了双参数搜索和迭代计算,提高了计算效率。对某在建三塔悬索桥进行了原结构颤振分析和TMD-结构颤振频域分析,探讨TMD控制参数对颤振临界风速的影响。
Eva K. Linares Tovar
2004-04-01
Full Text Available Analizamos una muestra de 102 pacientes procedentes de la Unidad de DTM de la clínica odontológica universitaria de la Universidad de Murcia y revisamos 110 historias clínicas de pacientes que asisten a la clínica odontológica universitaria y no presentan DTM. Las mediciones del ángulo mandibular se han realizado en las ortopantomografías trazando la línea que une los puntos más periféricos de la rama mandibular y del cuerpo mandibular. Hemos encontrado que el ángulo es mayor en los pacientes sanos que en los pacientes con DTM (p-valor = 0,00149. El ángulo mandibular es mayor en los pacientes de edad mas avanzada y en los varones. Los pacientes con ausencia de molares posteriores presentan aumento en la angulación, al igual que los pacientes con clase III de Angle molar. En cuanto al grupo que presenta patologías de la DTM, se observaron ángulos mayores en los pacientes con alteraciones articulares y mixtas.This study analyses a sample of 102 patients from the Dental Clinic TMD Unit of the University of Murcia (Spain, and revise 110 clinic reports of patients attending the University dental clinic with no sign of TMD. The mea surements of the gonial angle have been determined from the orthopantomogram by drawing the line joining the furthest points of the mandibular ramus and condyle (rama y cuerpo. lt has been found that that the angle is greater in healthy patients than in those with TMD (p-value = 0.00149. The gonial angle is also greater in older patients and maleo Patients with no back teeth show again greater angle, as well as patients with type III teeth Angle. As regards the group with pathologies of the TMD, greater angles were observed in patients with articular and mixed disorders.
Analysis on control of wind induced Vibration of one symbol tower with MR-TMD%某标志塔MR-TMD减振系统风振控制分析
崔家安
2007-01-01
对某标志塔进行了动力特性分析,应用半主动质量驱动器(MR-TMD)系统,采用Matlab软件编制了半主动减振控制分析程序,分析比较了在模拟脉动风荷载作用下无控、被动TMD和MR-TMD控制下塔的响应,仿真结果表明,MR-TMD作为一种半主动质量驱动器能有效降低标志塔的风振反应.
The maximum rotation of a galactic disc
Bottema, R
1997-01-01
The observed stellar velocity dispersions of galactic discs show that the maximum rotation of a disc is on average 63% of the observed maximum rotation. This criterion can, however, not be applied to small or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies because such systems show, in general, a continuously rising rotation curve until the outermost measured radial position. That is why a general relation has been derived, giving the maximum rotation for a disc depending on the luminosity, surface brightness, and colour of the disc. As a physical basis of this relation serves an adopted fixed mass-to-light ratio as a function of colour. That functionality is consistent with results from population synthesis models and its absolute value is determined from the observed stellar velocity dispersions. The derived maximum disc rotation is compared with a number of observed maximum rotations, clearly demonstrating the need for appreciable amounts of dark matter in the disc region and even more so for LSB galaxies. Matters h...
Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors
Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.; Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C.
2014-06-01
Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (Ic) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the Ic degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.
Computing Rooted and Unrooted Maximum Consistent Supertrees
van Iersel, Leo
2009-01-01
A chief problem in phylogenetics and database theory is the computation of a maximum consistent tree from a set of rooted or unrooted trees. A standard input are triplets, rooted binary trees on three leaves, or quartets, unrooted binary trees on four leaves. We give exact algorithms constructing rooted and unrooted maximum consistent supertrees in time O(2^n n^5 m^2 log(m)) for a set of m triplets (quartets), each one distinctly leaf-labeled by some subset of n labels. The algorithms extend to weighted triplets (quartets). We further present fast exact algorithms for constructing rooted and unrooted maximum consistent trees in polynomial space. Finally, for a set T of m rooted or unrooted trees with maximum degree D and distinctly leaf-labeled by some subset of a set L of n labels, we compute, in O(2^{mD} n^m m^5 n^6 log(m)) time, a tree distinctly leaf-labeled by a maximum-size subset X of L that all trees in T, when restricted to X, are consistent with.
Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection
McGarr, Arthur F.
2014-01-01
Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.
Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection
McGarr, A.
2014-02-01
Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.
IDENTIFICATION OF IDEOTYPES BY CANONICAL ANALYSIS IN Panicum maximum
Janaina Azevedo Martuscello
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Grouping of genotypes by canonical variable analysis is an important tool in breeding. It allows the grouping of individuals with similar characteristics that are associated with superior agronomic performance and may indicate the ideal profile of a plant for the region. The objective of the present study was to define, by canonical analysis, the agronomic profile of Panicum maximum plants adapted to the Agreste region. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 28 treatments, 22 genotypes of Panicum maximum, and cultivars Mombasa, Tanzania, Massai, Milenio, BRS Zuri, and BRS Tamani in triplicate in 4-m² plots. Plots were harvested five times and the following traits were evaluated: plant height; total, leaf, and stem; dead dry matter yields; leaf:stem ratio; leaf percentage; and volumetric density of forage. The analysis of canonical variables was performed based on the phenotypic means of the evaluated traits and on the residual variance and covariance matrix. Genotype PM34 showed higher mean leaf dry matter yield under the conditions of the Agreste of Alagoas (on average 53% higher than cultivars Mombasa, Tanzania, Milenio and Massai. It was possible to summarize the variation observed in eight agronomic characteristics in only two canonical variables accounting for 81.44 % of the data variation. The ideotype plant adapted to the conditions of the Agreste should be tall and present high leaf yield, leaf percentage, and leaf:stem ratio, and intermediate values of volumetric density of forage.
Maximum Multiflow in Wireless Network Coding
Zhou, Jin-Yi; Jiang, Yong; Zheng, Hai-Tao
2012-01-01
In a multihop wireless network, wireless interference is crucial to the maximum multiflow (MMF) problem, which studies the maximum throughput between multiple pairs of sources and sinks. In this paper, we observe that network coding could help to decrease the impacts of wireless interference, and propose a framework to study the MMF problem for multihop wireless networks with network coding. Firstly, a network model is set up to describe the new conflict relations modified by network coding. Then, we formulate a linear programming problem to compute the maximum throughput and show its superiority over one in networks without coding. Finally, the MMF problem in wireless network coding is shown to be NP-hard and a polynomial approximation algorithm is proposed.
Boer, Daniël
2016-01-01
A high-energy Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) would offer a most promising tool to study in detail the transverse momentum distributions of gluons inside hadrons. This applies to unpolarized as well as linearly polarized gluons inside unpolarized protons, and to left-right asymmetric distributions of gl
Boer Daniël
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A high-energy Electron-Ion Collider (EIC would offer a most promising tool to study in detail the transverse momentum distributions of gluons inside hadrons. This applies to unpolarized as well as linearly polarized gluons inside unpolarized protons, and to left-right asymmetric distributions of gluons inside transversely polarized protons, the so-called gluon Sivers effect. The inherent process dependence of these distributions can be studied by comparing to similar, but often complementary observables at LHC.
Erich Regener and the maximum in ionisation of the atmosphere
Carlson, P
2014-01-01
In the 1930s the German physicist Erich Regener (1881-1955) did important work on the measurement of the rate of production of ionisation deep under-water and in the atmosphere. He discovered, along with one of his students, Georg Pfotzer, the altitude at which the production of ionisation in the atmosphere reaches a maximum, often, but misleadingly, called the Pfotzer maximum. Regener was one of the first to estimate the energy density of cosmic rays, an estimate that was used by Baade and Zwicky to bolster their postulate that supernovae might be their source. Yet Regener's name is less recognised by present-day cosmic ray physicists than it should be largely because in 1937 he was forced to take early retirement by the National Socialists as his wife had Jewish ancestors. In this paper we briefly review his work on cosmic rays and recommend an alternative naming of the ionisation maximum. The influence that Regener had on the field through his son, his son-in-law, his grandsons and his students and through...
The Wiener maximum quadratic assignment problem
Cela, Eranda; Woeginger, Gerhard J
2011-01-01
We investigate a special case of the maximum quadratic assignment problem where one matrix is a product matrix and the other matrix is the distance matrix of a one-dimensional point set. We show that this special case, which we call the Wiener maximum quadratic assignment problem, is NP-hard in the ordinary sense and solvable in pseudo-polynomial time. Our approach also yields a polynomial time solution for the following problem from chemical graph theory: Find a tree that maximizes the Wiener index among all trees with a prescribed degree sequence. This settles an open problem from the literature.
Maximum confidence measurements via probabilistic quantum cloning
Zhang Wen-Hai; Yu Long-Bao; Cao Zhuo-Liang; Ye Liu
2013-01-01
Probabilistic quantum cloning (PQC) cannot copy a set of linearly dependent quantum states.In this paper,we show that if incorrect copies are allowed to be produced,linearly dependent quantum states may also be cloned by the PQC.By exploiting this kind of PQC to clone a special set of three linearly dependent quantum states,we derive the upper bound of the maximum confidence measure of a set.An explicit transformation of the maximum confidence measure is presented.
Maximum floodflows in the conterminous United States
Crippen, John R.; Bue, Conrad D.
1977-01-01
Peak floodflows from thousands of observation sites within the conterminous United States were studied to provide a guide for estimating potential maximum floodflows. Data were selected from 883 sites with drainage areas of less than 10,000 square miles (25,900 square kilometers) and were grouped into regional sets. Outstanding floods for each region were plotted on graphs, and envelope curves were computed that offer reasonable limits for estimates of maximum floods. The curves indicate that floods may occur that are two to three times greater than those known for most streams.
Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper
Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu
2009-01-01
The strength of polycrystalline materials increases with decreasing grain size. Below a critical size, smaller grains might lead to softening, as suggested by atomistic simulations. The strongest size should arise at a transition in deformation mechanism from lattice dislocation activities to grain...... boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...
The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem
Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.
2006-01-01
Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find...
Maximum entropy analysis of EGRET data
Pohl, M.; Strong, A.W.
1997-01-01
EGRET data are usually analysed on the basis of the Maximum-Likelihood method \\cite{ma96} in a search for point sources in excess to a model for the background radiation (e.g. \\cite{hu97}). This method depends strongly on the quality of the background model, and thus may have high systematic unce...... uncertainties in region of strong and uncertain background like the Galactic Center region. Here we show images of such regions obtained by the quantified Maximum-Entropy method. We also discuss a possible further use of MEM in the analysis of problematic regions of the sky....
Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper
Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu
2009-01-01
The strength of polycrystalline materials increases with decreasing grain size. Below a critical size, smaller grains might lead to softening, as suggested by atomistic simulations. The strongest size should arise at a transition in deformation mechanism from lattice dislocation activities to grain...... boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...
Maximum phytoplankton concentrations in the sea
Jackson, G.A.; Kiørboe, Thomas
2008-01-01
A simplification of plankton dynamics using coagulation theory provides predictions of the maximum algal concentration sustainable in aquatic systems. These predictions have previously been tested successfully against results from iron fertilization experiments. We extend the test to data collected...... in the North Atlantic as part of the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series program as well as data collected off Southern California as part of the Southern California Bight Study program. The observed maximum particulate organic carbon and volumetric particle concentrations are consistent with the predictions...
Critical density of urban traffic
da Silva, Adilton Jose
2010-01-01
A modified version of the Intelligent Driver Model was used to simulate traffic in the district of Afogados, in the city of Recife, Brazil, with the objective to verify whether the complexity of the underlying street grid, with multiple lane streets, crossings, and semaphores, is capable of exhibiting the effect of critical density: appearance of a maximum in the vehicle flux versus density curve. Numerical simulations demonstrate that this effect indeed is observed on individual avenues, while the phase offset among the avenues results in damping of this effect for the region as a whole.
Analysis of Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Trackers
Veerachary, Mummadi
The photovoltaic generator exhibits a non-linear i-v characteristic and its maximum power point (MPP) varies with solar insolation. An intermediate switch-mode dc-dc converter is required to extract maximum power from the photovoltaic array. In this paper buck, boost and buck-boost topologies are considered and a detailed mathematical analysis, both for continuous and discontinuous inductor current operation, is given for MPP operation. The conditions on the connected load values and duty ratio are derived for achieving the satisfactory maximum power point operation. Further, it is shown that certain load values, falling out of the optimal range, will drive the operating point away from the true maximum power point. Detailed comparison of various topologies for MPPT is given. Selection of the converter topology for a given loading is discussed. Detailed discussion on circuit-oriented model development is given and then MPPT effectiveness of various converter systems is verified through simulations. Proposed theory and analysis is validated through experimental investigations.
On maximum cycle packings in polyhedral graphs
Peter Recht
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses upper and lower bounds for the cardinality of a maximum vertex-/edge-disjoint cycle packing in a polyhedral graph G. Bounds on the cardinality of such packings are provided, that depend on the size, the order or the number of faces of G, respectively. Polyhedral graphs are constructed, that attain these bounds.
Hard graphs for the maximum clique problem
Hoede, Cornelis
1988-01-01
The maximum clique problem is one of the NP-complete problems. There are graphs for which a reduction technique exists that transforms the problem for these graphs into one for graphs with specific properties in polynomial time. The resulting graphs do not grow exponentially in order and number. Gra
Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Search Costs
J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); M.R. Wildenbeest (Matthijs)
2006-01-01
textabstractIn a recent paper Hong and Shum (forthcoming) present a structural methodology to estimate search cost distributions. We extend their approach to the case of oligopoly and present a maximum likelihood estimate of the search cost distribution. We apply our method to a data set of online p
Weak Scale From the Maximum Entropy Principle
Hamada, Yuta; Kawana, Kiyoharu
2015-01-01
The theory of multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the $S^{3}$ universe at the final stage $S_{rad}$ becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the Standard Model, we can check whether $S_{rad}$ actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard $S_{rad}$ at the final stage as a function of the weak scale ( the Higgs expectation value ) $v_{h}$, and show that it becomes maximum around $v_{h}={\\cal{O}}(300\\text{GeV})$ when the dimensionless couplings in the Standard Model, that is, the Higgs self coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by \\begin{equation} v_{h}\\sim\\frac{T_{BBN}^{2}}{M_{pl}y_{e}^{5}},\
Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle
Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu
2015-03-01
The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.
Global characterization of the Holocene Thermal Maximum
Renssen, H.; Seppä, H.; Crosta, X.; Goosse, H.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.
2012-01-01
We analyze the global variations in the timing and magnitude of the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) and their dependence on various forcings in transient simulations covering the last 9000 years (9 ka), performed with a global atmosphere-ocean-vegetation model. In these experiments, we consider the i
Instance Optimality of the Adaptive Maximum Strategy
L. Diening; C. Kreuzer; R. Stevenson
2016-01-01
In this paper, we prove that the standard adaptive finite element method with a (modified) maximum marking strategy is instance optimal for the total error, being the square root of the squared energy error plus the squared oscillation. This result will be derived in the model setting of Poisson’s e
Maximum phonation time: variability and reliability.
Speyer, Renée; Bogaardt, Hans C A; Passos, Valéria Lima; Roodenburg, Nel P H D; Zumach, Anne; Heijnen, Mariëlle A M; Baijens, Laura W J; Fleskens, Stijn J H M; Brunings, Jan W
2010-05-01
The objective of the study was to determine maximum phonation time reliability as a function of the number of trials, days, and raters in dysphonic and control subjects. Two groups of adult subjects participated in this reliability study: a group of outpatients with functional or organic dysphonia versus a group of healthy control subjects matched by age and gender. Over a period of maximally 6 weeks, three video recordings were made of five subjects' maximum phonation time trials. A panel of five experts were responsible for all measurements, including a repeated measurement of the subjects' first recordings. Patients showed significantly shorter maximum phonation times compared with healthy controls (on average, 6.6 seconds shorter). The averaged interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) over all raters per trial for the first day was 0.998. The averaged reliability coefficient per rater and per trial for repeated measurements of the first day's data was 0.997, indicating high intrarater reliability. The mean reliability coefficient per day for one trial was 0.939. When using five trials, the reliability increased to 0.987. The reliability over five trials for a single day was 0.836; for 2 days, 0.911; and for 3 days, 0.935. To conclude, the maximum phonation time has proven to be a highly reliable measure in voice assessment. A single rater is sufficient to provide highly reliable measurements.
Maximum Phonation Time: Variability and Reliability
R. Speyer; H.C.A. Bogaardt; V.L. Passos; N.P.H.D. Roodenburg; A. Zumach; M.A.M. Heijnen; L.W.J. Baijens; S.J.H.M. Fleskens; J.W. Brunings
2010-01-01
The objective of the study was to determine maximum phonation time reliability as a function of the number of trials, days, and raters in dysphonic and control subjects. Two groups of adult subjects participated in this reliability study: a group of outpatients with functional or organic dysphonia v
Maximum likelihood estimation of fractionally cointegrated systems
Lasak, Katarzyna
In this paper we consider a fractionally cointegrated error correction model and investigate asymptotic properties of the maximum likelihood (ML) estimators of the matrix of the cointe- gration relations, the degree of fractional cointegration, the matrix of the speed of adjustment...
Maximum likelihood estimation for integrated diffusion processes
Baltazar-Larios, Fernando; Sørensen, Michael
EM-algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in the diffusion model. As part of the algorithm, we use a recent simple method for approximate simulation of diffusion bridges. In simulation studies for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the CIR process the proposed method works...
Maximum gain of Yagi-Uda arrays
Bojsen, J.H.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Nilsson, E.
1971-01-01
Numerical optimisation techniques have been used to find the maximum gain of some specific parasitic arrays. The gain of an array of infinitely thin, equispaced dipoles loaded with arbitrary reactances has been optimised. The results show that standard travelling-wave design methods are not optimum....... Yagi–Uda arrays with equal and unequal spacing have also been optimised with experimental verification....
刘洪波
2013-01-01
通过对15例颞下颌关节紊乱病（TMD）的患者进行两周的分组分期治疗观察，初步浅显地探求血府逐瘀口服液对于推拿手法治疗颞下颌关节紊乱病（TMD）的辅助疗效。%Through the 15 cases of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) in patients with two weeks of treatment and observation, auxiliary effect of the Xuefu Zhuyu oral liquid on treating TMD with manipulation therapy acceptes a preliminary and plain exploration.
Local solutions of Maximum Likelihood Estimation in Quantum State Tomography
Gonçalves, Douglas S; Lavor, Carlile; Farías, Osvaldo Jiménez; Ribeiro, P H Souto
2011-01-01
Maximum likelihood estimation is one of the most used methods in quantum state tomography, where the aim is to find the best density matrix for the description of a physical system. Results of measurements on the system should match the expected values produced by the density matrix. In some cases however, if the matrix is parameterized to ensure positivity and unit trace, the negative log-likelihood function may have several local minima. In several papers in the field, authors associate a source of errors to the possibility that most of these local minima are not global, so that optimization methods can be trapped in the wrong minimum, leading to a wrong density matrix. Here we show that, for convex negative log-likelihood functions, all local minima are global. We also show that a practical source of errors is in fact the use of optimization methods that do not have global convergence property or present numerical instabilities. The clarification of this point has important repercussion on quantum informat...
Electronic Structure and Maximum Energy Product of MnBi
Jihoon Park
2014-08-01
Full Text Available We have performed first-principles calculations to obtain magnetic moment, magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE, i.e., the magnetic crystalline anisotropy constant (K, and the Curie temperature (Tc of low temperature phase (LTP MnBi and also estimated the maximum energy product (BHmax at elevated temperatures. The full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW method, based on density functional theory (DFT within the local spin density approximation (LSDA, was used to calculate the electronic structure of LPM MnBi. The Tc was calculated by the mean field theory. The calculated magnetic moment, MAE, and Tc are 3.63 μB/f.u. (formula unit (79 emu/g or 714 emu/cm3, −0.163 meV/u.c. (or K = −0.275 × 106 J/m3 and 711 K, respectively. The (BHmax at the elevated temperatures was estimated by combining experimental coercivity (Hci and the temperature dependence of magnetization (Ms(T. The (BHmax is 17.7 MGOe at 300 K, which is in good agreement with the experimental result for directionally-solidified LTP MnBi (17 MGOe. In addition, a study of electron density maps and the lattice constant c/a ratio dependence of the magnetic moment suggested that doping of a third element into interstitial sites of LTP MnBi can increase the Ms.
... Information › Bone Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your ... compared to people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine ...
Diagnostic group differences in temporomandibular joint energy densities
Gallo, LM; Iwasaki, LR; Gonzalez, YM; Liu, H; Marx, DB; Nickel, JC
2015-01-01
Objectives Cartilage fatigue, due to mechanical work, may account for precocious development of degenerative joint disease in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). This study compared energy densities (mJ/mm3) in TMJs of three diagnostic groups. Setting and Sample Population Sixty-eight subjects (44 women, 24 men) gave informed consent. Diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (DC/TMD) and imaging were used to group subjects according to presence of jaw muscle or joint pain (+P) and bilateral disc displacement (+DD). Material and Methods Subjects (+P+DD, n=16; −P+DD, n=16; and −P−DD, n=36) provided cone-beam computed tomography and magnetic resonance images, and jaw tracking data. Numerical modeling was used to determine TMJ loads (Fnormal). Dynamic stereometry was used to characterize individual-specific data of stress-field dynamics during 10 symmetrical jaw closing cycles. These data were used to estimate tractional forces (Ftraction). Energy densities were then calculated as W/Q(W=workdoneormechanicalenergyinput=tractionalforce×distanceofstress-fieldtranslation,Q=volumeofcartilage). ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer post-hoc analyses tested for intergroup differences. Results Mean ±standard error energy density for the +P+DD group was 12.7±1.5 mJ/mm3 and significantly greater (all adjusted p<0.04) when compared to −P+DD (7.4±1.4 mJ/mm3) and −P−DD (5.8±0.9 mJ/mm3) groups. Energy densities in −P+DD and −P−DD groups were not significantly different. Conclusion Diagnostic group differences in energy densities suggest that mechanical work may be a unique mechanism which contributes to cartilage fatigue in subjects with pain and disc displacement. PMID:25865545
Density limits investigation and high density operation in EAST tokamak
Zheng, Xingwei; Li, Jiangang; Hu, Jiansheng; Liu, Haiqing; Jie, Yinxian; Wang, Shouxin; Li, Jiahong; Duan, Yanming; Li, Miaohui; Li, Yongchun; Zhang, Ling; Ye, Yang; Yang, Qingquan; Zhang, Tao; Cheng, Yingjie; Xu, Jichan; Wang, Liang; Xu, Liqing; Zhao, Hailin; Wang, Fudi; Lin, Shiyao; Wu, Bin; Lyu, Bo; Xu, Guosheng; Gao, Xiang; Shi, Tonghui; He, Kaiyang; Lan, Heng; Chu, Nan; Cao, Bin; Sun, Zhen; Zuo, Guizhong; Ren, Jun; Zhuang, Huidong; Li, Changzheng; Yuan, Xiaolin; Yu, Yaowei; Wang, Houyin; Chen, Yue; Wu, Jinhua; EAST Team
2016-05-01
Increasing the density in a tokamak is limited by the so-called density limit, which is generally performed as an appearance of disruption causing loss of plasma confinement, or a degradation of high confinement mode which could further lead to a H → L transition. The L-mode and H-mode density limit has been investigated in EAST tokamak. Experimental results suggest that density limits could be triggered by either edge cooling or excessive central radiation. The L-mode density limit disruption is generally triggered by edge cooling, which leads to the current profile shrinkage and then destabilizes a 2/1 tearing mode, ultimately resulting in a disruption. The L-mode density limit scaling agrees well with the Greenwald limit in EAST. The observed H-mode density limit in EAST is an operational-space limit with a value of 0.8∼ 0.9{{n}\\text{GW}} . High density H-mode heated by neutral beam injection (NBI) and lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) are analyzed, respectively. The constancy of the edge density gradients in H-mode indicates a critical limit caused perhaps by e.g. ballooning induced transport. The maximum density is accessed at the H → L transition which is generally caused by the excessive core radiation due to high Z impurities (Fe, Cu). Operating at a high density (>2.8× {{10}19} {{\\text{m}}-3} ) is favorable for suppressing the beam shine through NBI. High density H-mode up to 5.3× {{10}19}{{\\text{m}}-3}~≤ft(∼ 0.8{{n}\\text{GW}}\\right) could be sustained by 2 MW 4.6 GHz LHCD alone, and its current drive efficiency is studied. Statistics show that good control of impurities and recycling facilitate high density operation. With careful control of these factors, high density up to 0.93{{n}\\text{GW}} stable H-mode operation was carried out heated by 1.7 MW LHCD and 1.9 MW ion cyclotron resonance heating with supersonic molecular beam injection fueling.
Model Selection Through Sparse Maximum Likelihood Estimation
Banerjee, Onureena; D'Aspremont, Alexandre
2007-01-01
We consider the problem of estimating the parameters of a Gaussian or binary distribution in such a way that the resulting undirected graphical model is sparse. Our approach is to solve a maximum likelihood problem with an added l_1-norm penalty term. The problem as formulated is convex but the memory requirements and complexity of existing interior point methods are prohibitive for problems with more than tens of nodes. We present two new algorithms for solving problems with at least a thousand nodes in the Gaussian case. Our first algorithm uses block coordinate descent, and can be interpreted as recursive l_1-norm penalized regression. Our second algorithm, based on Nesterov's first order method, yields a complexity estimate with a better dependence on problem size than existing interior point methods. Using a log determinant relaxation of the log partition function (Wainwright & Jordan (2006)), we show that these same algorithms can be used to solve an approximate sparse maximum likelihood problem for...
Maximum-entropy description of animal movement.
Fleming, Chris H; Subaşı, Yiğit; Calabrese, Justin M
2015-03-01
We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic.
Pareto versus lognormal: a maximum entropy test.
Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano
2011-08-01
It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.
Maximum Variance Hashing via Column Generation
Lei Luo
2013-01-01
item search. Recently, a number of data-dependent methods have been developed, reflecting the great potential of learning for hashing. Inspired by the classic nonlinear dimensionality reduction algorithm—maximum variance unfolding, we propose a novel unsupervised hashing method, named maximum variance hashing, in this work. The idea is to maximize the total variance of the hash codes while preserving the local structure of the training data. To solve the derived optimization problem, we propose a column generation algorithm, which directly learns the binary-valued hash functions. We then extend it using anchor graphs to reduce the computational cost. Experiments on large-scale image datasets demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art hashing methods in many cases.
The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem
Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.
2006-01-01
algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find......Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... the competitive ratio of various natural algorithms. We study the general versions of the problems as well as the parameterized versions where there is an upper bound of on the item sizes, for some integer k....
Nonparametric Maximum Entropy Estimation on Information Diagrams
Martin, Elliot A; Meinke, Alexander; Děchtěrenko, Filip; Davidsen, Jörn
2016-01-01
Maximum entropy estimation is of broad interest for inferring properties of systems across many different disciplines. In this work, we significantly extend a technique we previously introduced for estimating the maximum entropy of a set of random discrete variables when conditioning on bivariate mutual informations and univariate entropies. Specifically, we show how to apply the concept to continuous random variables and vastly expand the types of information-theoretic quantities one can condition on. This allows us to establish a number of significant advantages of our approach over existing ones. Not only does our method perform favorably in the undersampled regime, where existing methods fail, but it also can be dramatically less computationally expensive as the cardinality of the variables increases. In addition, we propose a nonparametric formulation of connected informations and give an illustrative example showing how this agrees with the existing parametric formulation in cases of interest. We furthe...
Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy
Visser, Matt
2013-04-01
Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.
Zipf's law, power laws, and maximum entropy
Visser, Matt
2012-01-01
Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines - from astronomy to demographics to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation [RGF] attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present article I argue that the cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.
Regions of constrained maximum likelihood parameter identifiability
Lee, C.-H.; Herget, C. J.
1975-01-01
This paper considers the parameter identification problem of general discrete-time, nonlinear, multiple-input/multiple-output dynamic systems with Gaussian-white distributed measurement errors. Knowledge of the system parameterization is assumed to be known. Regions of constrained maximum likelihood (CML) parameter identifiability are established. A computation procedure employing interval arithmetic is proposed for finding explicit regions of parameter identifiability for the case of linear systems. It is shown that if the vector of true parameters is locally CML identifiable, then with probability one, the vector of true parameters is a unique maximal point of the maximum likelihood function in the region of parameter identifiability and the CML estimation sequence will converge to the true parameters.
A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.
Alibert, Yann
2015-09-01
We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope.
Maximum tunneling velocities in symmetric double well potentials
Manz, Jörn [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Laser Spectroscopy, Shanxi University, 92, Wucheng Road, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Schild, Axel [Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Schmidt, Burkhard, E-mail: burkhard.schmidt@fu-berlin.de [Institut für Mathematik, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Yang, Yonggang, E-mail: ygyang@sxu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Laser Spectroscopy, Shanxi University, 92, Wucheng Road, Taiyuan 030006 (China)
2014-10-17
Highlights: • Coherent tunneling in one-dimensional symmetric double well potentials. • Potentials for analytical estimates in the deep tunneling regime. • Maximum velocities scale as the square root of the ratio of barrier height and mass. • In chemical physics maximum tunneling velocities are in the order of a few km/s. - Abstract: We consider coherent tunneling of one-dimensional model systems in non-cyclic or cyclic symmetric double well potentials. Generic potentials are constructed which allow for analytical estimates of the quantum dynamics in the non-relativistic deep tunneling regime, in terms of the tunneling distance, barrier height and mass (or moment of inertia). For cyclic systems, the results may be scaled to agree well with periodic potentials for which semi-analytical results in terms of Mathieu functions exist. Starting from a wavepacket which is initially localized in one of the potential wells, the subsequent periodic tunneling is associated with tunneling velocities. These velocities (or angular velocities) are evaluated as the ratio of the flux densities versus the probability densities. The maximum velocities are found under the top of the barrier where they scale as the square root of the ratio of barrier height and mass (or moment of inertia), independent of the tunneling distance. They are applied exemplarily to several prototypical molecular models of non-cyclic and cyclic tunneling, including ammonia inversion, Cope rearrangement of semibullvalene, torsions of molecular fragments, and rotational tunneling in strong laser fields. Typical maximum velocities and angular velocities are in the order of a few km/s and from 10 to 100 THz for our non-cyclic and cyclic systems, respectively, much faster than time-averaged velocities. Even for the more extreme case of an electron tunneling through a barrier of height of one Hartree, the velocity is only about one percent of the speed of light. Estimates of the corresponding time scales for
Maximum Profit Configurations of Commercial Engines
Yiran Chen
2011-01-01
An investigation of commercial engines with finite capacity low- and high-price economic subsystems and a generalized commodity transfer law [n ∝ Δ (P m)] in commodity flow processes, in which effects of the price elasticities of supply and demand are introduced, is presented in this paper. Optimal cycle configurations of commercial engines for maximum profit are obtained by applying optimal control theory. In some special cases, the eventual state—market equilibrium—is solely determined by t...
A stochastic maximum principle via Malliavin calculus
Øksendal, Bernt; Zhou, Xun Yu; Meyer-Brandis, Thilo
2008-01-01
This paper considers a controlled It\\^o-L\\'evy process where the information available to the controller is possibly less than the overall information. All the system coefficients and the objective performance functional are allowed to be random, possibly non-Markovian. Malliavin calculus is employed to derive a maximum principle for the optimal control of such a system where the adjoint process is explicitly expressed.
Tissue radiation response with maximum Tsallis entropy.
Sotolongo-Grau, O; Rodríguez-Pérez, D; Antoranz, J C; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar
2010-10-08
The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is currently based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation, and conditions. Here, we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature.
Maximum Estrada Index of Bicyclic Graphs
Wang, Long; Wang, Yi
2012-01-01
Let $G$ be a simple graph of order $n$, let $\\lambda_1(G),\\lambda_2(G),...,\\lambda_n(G)$ be the eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix of $G$. The Esrada index of $G$ is defined as $EE(G)=\\sum_{i=1}^{n}e^{\\lambda_i(G)}$. In this paper we determine the unique graph with maximum Estrada index among bicyclic graphs with fixed order.
Maximum privacy without coherence, zero-error
Leung, Debbie; Yu, Nengkun
2016-09-01
We study the possible difference between the quantum and the private capacities of a quantum channel in the zero-error setting. For a family of channels introduced by Leung et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 030512 (2014)], we demonstrate an extreme difference: the zero-error quantum capacity is zero, whereas the zero-error private capacity is maximum given the quantum output dimension.
Automatic maximum entropy spectral reconstruction in NMR.
Mobli, Mehdi; Maciejewski, Mark W; Gryk, Michael R; Hoch, Jeffrey C
2007-10-01
Developments in superconducting magnets, cryogenic probes, isotope labeling strategies, and sophisticated pulse sequences together have enabled the application, in principle, of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy to biomolecular systems approaching 1 megadalton. In practice, however, conventional approaches to NMR that utilize the fast Fourier transform, which require data collected at uniform time intervals, result in prohibitively lengthy data collection times in order to achieve the full resolution afforded by high field magnets. A variety of approaches that involve nonuniform sampling have been proposed, each utilizing a non-Fourier method of spectrum analysis. A very general non-Fourier method that is capable of utilizing data collected using any of the proposed nonuniform sampling strategies is maximum entropy reconstruction. A limiting factor in the adoption of maximum entropy reconstruction in NMR has been the need to specify non-intuitive parameters. Here we describe a fully automated system for maximum entropy reconstruction that requires no user-specified parameters. A web-accessible script generator provides the user interface to the system.
Maximum entropy analysis of cosmic ray composition
Nosek, Dalibor; Vícha, Jakub; Trávníček, Petr; Nosková, Jana
2016-01-01
We focus on the primary composition of cosmic rays with the highest energies that cause extensive air showers in the Earth's atmosphere. A way of examining the two lowest order moments of the sample distribution of the depth of shower maximum is presented. The aim is to show that useful information about the composition of the primary beam can be inferred with limited knowledge we have about processes underlying these observations. In order to describe how the moments of the depth of shower maximum depend on the type of primary particles and their energies, we utilize a superposition model. Using the principle of maximum entropy, we are able to determine what trends in the primary composition are consistent with the input data, while relying on a limited amount of information from shower physics. Some capabilities and limitations of the proposed method are discussed. In order to achieve a realistic description of the primary mass composition, we pay special attention to the choice of the parameters of the sup...
A Maximum Resonant Set of Polyomino Graphs
Zhang Heping
2016-05-01
Full Text Available A polyomino graph P is a connected finite subgraph of the infinite plane grid such that each finite face is surrounded by a regular square of side length one and each edge belongs to at least one square. A dimer covering of P corresponds to a perfect matching. Different dimer coverings can interact via an alternating cycle (or square with respect to them. A set of disjoint squares of P is a resonant set if P has a perfect matching M so that each one of those squares is M-alternating. In this paper, we show that if K is a maximum resonant set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching. We further prove that the maximum forcing number of a polyomino graph is equal to the cardinality of a maximum resonant set. This confirms a conjecture of Xu et al. [26]. We also show that if K is a maximal alternating set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching.
The maximum rate of mammal evolution
Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.
2012-03-01
How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.
Maximum saliency bias in binocular fusion
Lu, Yuhao; Stafford, Tom; Fox, Charles
2016-07-01
Subjective experience at any instant consists of a single ("unitary"), coherent interpretation of sense data rather than a "Bayesian blur" of alternatives. However, computation of Bayes-optimal actions has no role for unitary perception, instead being required to integrate over every possible action-percept pair to maximise expected utility. So what is the role of unitary coherent percepts, and how are they computed? Recent work provided objective evidence for non-Bayes-optimal, unitary coherent, perception and action in humans; and further suggested that the percept selected is not the maximum a posteriori percept but is instead affected by utility. The present study uses a binocular fusion task first to reproduce the same effect in a new domain, and second, to test multiple hypotheses about exactly how utility may affect the percept. After accounting for high experimental noise, it finds that both Bayes optimality (maximise expected utility) and the previously proposed maximum-utility hypothesis are outperformed in fitting the data by a modified maximum-salience hypothesis, using unsigned utility magnitudes in place of signed utilities in the bias function.
The maximum rate of mammal evolution
Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.
2012-01-01
How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461
Maximum-biomass prediction of homofermentative Lactobacillus.
Cui, Shumao; Zhao, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaoming; Chen, Yong Q; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei
2016-07-01
Fed-batch and pH-controlled cultures have been widely used for industrial production of probiotics. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the relationship between the maximum biomass of different homofermentative Lactobacillus and lactate accumulation, and to develop a prediction equation for the maximum biomass concentration in such cultures. The accumulation of the end products and the depletion of nutrients by various strains were evaluated. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of acid anions for various strains at pH 7.0 were examined. The lactate concentration at the point of complete inhibition was not significantly different from the MIC of lactate for all of the strains, although the inhibition mechanism of lactate and acetate on Lactobacillus rhamnosus was different from the other strains which were inhibited by the osmotic pressure caused by acid anions at pH 7.0. When the lactate concentration accumulated to the MIC, the strains stopped growing. The maximum biomass was closely related to the biomass yield per unit of lactate produced (YX/P) and the MIC (C) of lactate for different homofermentative Lactobacillus. Based on the experimental data obtained using different homofermentative Lactobacillus, a prediction equation was established as follows: Xmax - X0 = (0.59 ± 0.02)·YX/P·C.
The maximum rate of mammal evolution.
Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D
2012-03-13
How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.
Selection of conditions for production of maximum H beam current density from multicusp source
Krylov, A.I.; Kuznetsov, V.V.; Penkin, D.V.; Semashko, N.N. (I. V. Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, Moscow (USSR))
1990-08-05
This paper describes a large filtered multicusp H{sup {minus}} ion source. The influence of a number of parameters on the yield characteristics of the H{sup {minus}} source were investigated including pressure in discharge chamber, cathode{endash}filter spacing and multicusp geometry. (AIP)
TCAD Analysis of Heating and Maximum Current Density in Carbon Nanofiber Interconnects
2011-09-01
high power applications , greater than 16 nm, and the long term and low power applications , less than 16 nm. As the connection distance decreases...different factors become important due to various quantum effects. Interconnects that fall in the near term/high power applications category are...entire length of the nanotube. This kind of structure is refered to as bamboo -like. The difference between a regular nanotube and the internal
Hydrodynamic states in water below the temperature of the density maximum: the limit to supercooling
van der Elsken, J.; van Boom, L.; Bot, A.
1988-01-01
Spectra of fluctuations in the total intensity of laser light deflected by supercooled water show that even under carefully controlled conditions large samples give convection when cooled below -0%. This is in agreement with the Rayleigh versus Prandtlnumber relation for supercooled water.
1984-06-01
RKHS) if point evaluation is a continuous operation, that is, v - vn in H(f?) implies that v (t) -o v(t) for all t e 12. See n Goffman and Pedrick ...34, ,-’, . .’. ’**’,,**4, .’ *"".-..’ * . .’ *" .-. .;¢ .’ .*** * .’ ’.L’,.’o ¢ . .* h~ ’a . ’’ *’’".2’ *.,’.. .: " 17 Goffman, C. & Pedrick , C
Maximum Likelihood Learning of Conditional MTE Distributions
Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael
2009-01-01
We describe a procedure for inducing conditional densities within the mixtures of truncated exponentials (MTE) framework. We analyse possible conditional MTE speciﬁcations and propose a model selection scheme, based on the BIC score, for partitioning the domain of the conditioning variables....... Finally, experimental results demonstrate the applicability of the learning procedure as well as the expressive power of the conditional MTE distribution....
Upstream proton cyclotron waves at Venus near solar maximum
Delva, M.; Bertucci, C.; Volwerk, M.; Lundin, R.; Mazelle, C.; Romanelli, N.
2015-01-01
magnetometer data of Venus Express are analyzed for the occurrence of waves at the proton cyclotron frequency in the spacecraft frame in the upstream region of Venus, for conditions of rising solar activity. The data of two Venus years up to the time of highest sunspot number so far (1 Mar 2011 to 31 May 2012) are studied to reveal the properties of the waves and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions under which they are observed. In general, waves generated by newborn protons from exospheric hydrogen are observed under quasi- (anti)parallel conditions of the IMF and the solar wind velocity, as is expected from theoretical models. The present study near solar maximum finds significantly more waves than a previous study for solar minimum, with an asymmetry in the wave occurrence, i.e., mainly under antiparallel conditions. The plasma data from the Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms instrument aboard Venus Express enable analysis of the background solar wind conditions. The prevalence of waves for IMF in direction toward the Sun is related to the stronger southward tilt of the heliospheric current sheet for the rising phase of Solar Cycle 24, i.e., the "bashful ballerina" is responsible for asymmetric background solar wind conditions. The increase of the number of wave occurrences may be explained by a significant increase in the relative density of planetary protons with respect to the solar wind background. An exceptionally low solar wind proton density is observed during the rising phase of Solar Cycle 24. At the same time, higher EUV increases the ionization in the Venus exosphere, resulting in higher supply of energy from a higher number of newborn protons to the wave. We conclude that in addition to quasi- (anti)parallel conditions of the IMF and the solar wind velocity direction, the higher relative density of Venus exospheric protons with respect to the background solar wind proton density is the key parameter for the higher number of
A strong test of the maximum entropy theory of ecology.
Xiao, Xiao; McGlinn, Daniel J; White, Ethan P
2015-03-01
The maximum entropy theory of ecology (METE) is a unified theory of biodiversity that predicts a large number of macroecological patterns using information on only species richness, total abundance, and total metabolic rate of the community. We evaluated four major predictions of METE simultaneously at an unprecedented scale using data from 60 globally distributed forest communities including more than 300,000 individuals and nearly 2,000 species.METE successfully captured 96% and 89% of the variation in the rank distribution of species abundance and individual size but performed poorly when characterizing the size-density relationship and intraspecific distribution of individual size. Specifically, METE predicted a negative correlation between size and species abundance, which is weak in natural communities. By evaluating multiple predictions with large quantities of data, our study not only identifies a mismatch between abundance and body size in METE but also demonstrates the importance of conducting strong tests of ecological theories.
Radiation Pressure Acceleration: the factors limiting maximum attainable ion energy
Bulanov, S S; Schroeder, C B; Bulanov, S V; Esirkepov, T Zh; Kando, M; Pegoraro, F; Leemans, W P
2016-01-01
Radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) is a highly efficient mechanism of laser-driven ion acceleration, with with near complete transfer of the laser energy to the ions in the relativistic regime. However, there is a fundamental limit on the maximum attainable ion energy, which is determined by the group velocity of the laser. The tightly focused laser pulses have group velocities smaller than the vacuum light speed, and, since they offer the high intensity needed for the RPA regime, it is plausible that group velocity effects would manifest themselves in the experiments involving tightly focused pulses and thin foils. However, in this case, finite spot size effects are important, and another limiting factor, the transverse expansion of the target, may dominate over the group velocity effect. As the laser pulse diffracts after passing the focus, the target expands accordingly due to the transverse intensity profile of the laser. Due to this expansion, the areal density of the target decreases, making it trans...
下颌第三磨牙拔出方法与颞下颌关节紊乱病的相关性研究%Relationship between Methods of Extract Mandibular Third Tooth and TMD
刘志明; 张周文; 黄丽; 毛甜甜; 彭友俭
2015-01-01
Objective:To investigate the relationship between methods of extract tooth and TMD.Methods:160 individual were randomly chosed.Minimally invasive and traditional extract tooth methods were used respectively to extract impacted tooth of third molar of mandibular.Dual-axis diagnosis standard was used to analyse the symptom of TMD after operation of extract the tooth in pre-operation,post-operation 1,4,24 weeks.Results:The group of minimally invasive morbidity of temporomandibular joint click was significantly lower than the traditional extract tooth methods group,and this difference was statistically significant.Conclusion:Minimally invasive extract tooth methods can reduce the complication of TMD.%目的:分析不同拔牙方式对下颌第三磨牙拔出后患者出现TMD的症状,探讨两种拔牙方式拔出下颌第三磨牙后与TMD的相关性.方法:随机选择符合纳入标准的需要拔出下颌第三磨牙的患者160例,采用微创拔牙法与传统拔牙法拔出异位萌出的下颌第三磨牙,在拔牙术前、术后1周、4周、6月分别进行TMD的双轴诊断,确定TMD的不同程度.结果:通过对160例拔牙患者6个月的回访发现,微创拔牙方式拔除下颌第三磨牙后弹响消失、减轻的患者占15％,选择传统拔牙方式拔除下颌第三磨牙后弹响消失、减轻的患者占7.5％;双轴诊断评价结果显示运用微创技术拔出下颌第三磨牙后出现颞下颌关节结构紊乱疾病、咀嚼肌紊乱疾病的患者数量较传统拔牙法有下降的趋势,差异具有统计学意义.结论:微创拔牙技术能够显著降低下颌第三磨牙拔出术中、术后颞下颌关节紊乱并发症出现的几率.
Maximum power operation of interacting molecular motors
Golubeva, Natalia; Imparato, Alberto
2013-01-01
We study the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of different traffic models for kinesin which are relevant in biological and experimental contexts. We find that motor-motor interactions play a fundamental role by enhancing the thermodynamic efficiency at maximum power of the motors......, as compared to the non-interacting system, in a wide range of biologically compatible scenarios. We furthermore consider the case where the motor-motor interaction directly affects the internal chemical cycle and investigate the effect on the system dynamics and thermodynamics....
Maximum a posteriori decoder for digital communications
Altes, Richard A. (Inventor)
1997-01-01
A system and method for decoding by identification of the most likely phase coded signal corresponding to received data. The present invention has particular application to communication with signals that experience spurious random phase perturbations. The generalized estimator-correlator uses a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator to generate phase estimates for correlation with incoming data samples and for correlation with mean phases indicative of unique hypothesized signals. The result is a MAP likelihood statistic for each hypothesized transmission, wherein the highest value statistic identifies the transmitted signal.
Kernel-based Maximum Entropy Clustering
JIANG Wei; QU Jiao; LI Benxi
2007-01-01
With the development of Support Vector Machine (SVM),the "kernel method" has been studied in a general way.In this paper,we present a novel Kernel-based Maximum Entropy Clustering algorithm (KMEC).By using mercer kernel functions,the proposed algorithm is firstly map the data from their original space to high dimensional space where the data are expected to be more separable,then perform MEC clustering in the feature space.The experimental results show that the proposed method has better performance in the non-hyperspherical and complex data structure.
The sun and heliosphere at solar maximum.
Smith, E J; Marsden, R G; Balogh, A; Gloeckler, G; Geiss, J; McComas, D J; McKibben, R B; MacDowall, R J; Lanzerotti, L J; Krupp, N; Krueger, H; Landgraf, M
2003-11-14
Recent Ulysses observations from the Sun's equator to the poles reveal fundamental properties of the three-dimensional heliosphere at the maximum in solar activity. The heliospheric magnetic field originates from a magnetic dipole oriented nearly perpendicular to, instead of nearly parallel to, the Sun's rotation axis. Magnetic fields, solar wind, and energetic charged particles from low-latitude sources reach all latitudes, including the polar caps. The very fast high-latitude wind and polar coronal holes disappear and reappear together. Solar wind speed continues to be inversely correlated with coronal temperature. The cosmic ray flux is reduced symmetrically at all latitudes.
Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension
Bastea, S
2009-01-27
Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.
Maximum entropy signal restoration with linear programming
Mastin, G.A.; Hanson, R.J.
1988-05-01
Dantzig's bounded-variable method is used to express the maximum entropy restoration problem as a linear programming problem. This is done by approximating the nonlinear objective function with piecewise linear segments, then bounding the variables as a function of the number of segments used. The use of a linear programming approach allows equality constraints found in the traditional Lagrange multiplier method to be relaxed. A robust revised simplex algorithm is used to implement the restoration. Experimental results from 128- and 512-point signal restorations are presented.
COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMULAS OF MAXIMUM SHIP SQUAT
PETRU SERGIU SERBAN
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Ship squat is a combined effect of ship’s draft and trim increase due to ship motion in limited navigation conditions. Over time, researchers conducted tests on models and ships to find a mathematical formula that can define squat. Various forms of calculating squat can be found in the literature. Among those most commonly used are of Barrass, Millward, Eryuzlu or ICORELS. This paper presents a comparison between the squat formulas to see the differences between them and which one provides the most satisfactory results. In this respect a cargo ship at different speeds was considered as a model for maximum squat calculations in canal navigation conditions.
Multi-Channel Maximum Likelihood Pitch Estimation
Christensen, Mads Græsbøll
2012-01-01
In this paper, a method for multi-channel pitch estimation is proposed. The method is a maximum likelihood estimator and is based on a parametric model where the signals in the various channels share the same fundamental frequency but can have different amplitudes, phases, and noise characteristics....... This essentially means that the model allows for different conditions in the various channels, like different signal-to-noise ratios, microphone characteristics and reverberation. Moreover, the method does not assume that a certain array structure is used but rather relies on a more general model and is hence...
Maximum entropy PDF projection: A review
Baggenstoss, Paul M.
2017-06-01
We review maximum entropy (MaxEnt) PDF projection, a method with wide potential applications in statistical inference. The method constructs a sampling distribution for a high-dimensional vector x based on knowing the sampling distribution p(z) of a lower-dimensional feature z = T (x). Under mild conditions, the distribution p(x) having highest possible entropy among all distributions consistent with p(z) may be readily found. Furthermore, the MaxEnt p(x) may be sampled, making the approach useful in Monte Carlo methods. We review the theorem and present a case study in model order selection and classification for handwritten character recognition.
CORA: Emission Line Fitting with Maximum Likelihood
Ness, Jan-Uwe; Wichmann, Rainer
2011-12-01
CORA analyzes emission line spectra with low count numbers and fits them to a line using the maximum likelihood technique. CORA uses a rigorous application of Poisson statistics. From the assumption of Poissonian noise, the software derives the probability for a model of the emission line spectrum to represent the measured spectrum. The likelihood function is used as a criterion for optimizing the parameters of the theoretical spectrum and a fixed point equation is derived allowing an efficient way to obtain line fluxes. CORA has been applied to an X-ray spectrum with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra observatory.
Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking
Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M.
2014-04-01
We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter.
Maximum Temperature Detection System for Integrated Circuits
Frankiewicz, Maciej; Kos, Andrzej
2015-03-01
The paper describes structure and measurement results of the system detecting present maximum temperature on the surface of an integrated circuit. The system consists of the set of proportional to absolute temperature sensors, temperature processing path and a digital part designed in VHDL. Analogue parts of the circuit where designed with full-custom technique. The system is a part of temperature-controlled oscillator circuit - a power management system based on dynamic frequency scaling method. The oscillator cooperates with microprocessor dedicated for thermal experiments. The whole system is implemented in UMC CMOS 0.18 μm (1.8 V) technology.
Zipf's law and maximum sustainable growth
Malevergne, Y; Sornette, D
2010-01-01
Zipf's law states that the number of firms with size greater than S is inversely proportional to S. Most explanations start with Gibrat's rule of proportional growth but require additional constraints. We show that Gibrat's rule, at all firm levels, yields Zipf's law under a balance condition between the effective growth rate of incumbent firms (which includes their possible demise) and the growth rate of investments in entrant firms. Remarkably, Zipf's law is the signature of the long-term optimal allocation of resources that ensures the maximum sustainable growth rate of an economy.
Maximum Entropy Estimation of n-Year Extreme Waveheights
徐德伦; 张军; 郑桂珍
2004-01-01
A new method for estimating the n (50 or 100) -year return-period waveheight, namely, the extreme waveheightexpected to occur in n years, is presented on the basis of the maximum entropy principle. The main points of the method are as follows: ( 1 ) based on the Hamiltonian principle, a maximum entropy probability density function for the extreme waveheight H, f(H)= αHγe-βΗ4 is derived from a Lagrangian function subject to some necessary and rational constraints; (2) the parametersα,β, andγin the function are expressed in terms of the mean H, variance V = ( H - H)2and bias B = ( H- H)3; and (3) with H, V and B estimated from observed data, the n-year return-period wave height Hn is computed in accordance with the formula 1/1 - F(Hn) = n, where F(Hn) is defined as F(Hn) =n Hn Of(H)dH.Examples of estimating the 50 and 100-year retum period waveheights by the present method and by some currently used method from observed data acquired from two hydrographic stations are given. A comparison of the estimated results shows that the present method is superior to the others.
Maximum mass, moment of inertia and compactness of relativistic stars
Breu, Cosima
2016-01-01
A number of recent works have highlighted that it is possible to express the properties of general-relativistic stellar equilibrium configurations in terms of functions that do not depend on the specific equation of state employed to describe matter at nuclear densities. These functions are normally referred to as "universal relations" and have been found to apply, within limits, both to static or stationary isolated stars, as well as to fully dynamical and merging binary systems. Further extending the idea that universal relations can be valid also away from stability, we show that a universal relation is exhibited also by equilibrium solutions that are not stable. In particular, the mass of rotating configurations on the turning-point line shows a universal behaviour when expressed in terms of the normalised Keplerian angular momentum. In turn, this allows us to compute the maximum mass allowed by uniform rotation, M_{max}, simply in terms of the maximum mass of the nonrotating configuration, M_{TOV}, findi...
NERO- a post-maximum supernova radiation transport code
Maurer, I.; Jerkstrand, A.; Mazzali, P. A.; Taubenberger, S.; Hachinger, S.; Kromer, M.; Sim, S.; Hillebrandt, W.
2011-12-01
The interpretation of supernova (SN) spectra is essential for deriving SN ejecta properties such as density and composition, which in turn can tell us about their progenitors and the explosion mechanism. A very large number of atomic processes are important for spectrum formation. Several tools for calculating SN spectra exist, but they mainly focus on the very early or late epochs. The intermediate phase, which requires a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) treatment of radiation transport has rarely been studied. In this paper, we present a new SN radiation transport code, NERO, which can look at those epochs. All the atomic processes are treated in full NLTE, under a steady-state assumption. This is a valid approach between roughly 50 and 500 days after the explosion depending on SN type. This covers the post-maximum photospheric and the early and the intermediate nebular phase. As a test, we compare NERO to the radiation transport code of Jerkstrand, Fransson & Kozma and to the nebular code of Mazzali et al. All three codes have been developed independently and a comparison provides a valuable opportunity to investigate their reliability. Currently, NERO is one-dimensional and can be used for predicting spectra of synthetic explosion models or for deriving SN properties by spectral modelling. To demonstrate this, we study the spectra of the 'normal' Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2005cf between 50 and 350 days after the explosion and identify most of the common SN Ia line features at post-maximum epochs.
Maximum mass of a barotropic spherical star
Fujisawa, Atsuhito; Yoo, Chul-Moon; Nambu, Yasusada
2015-01-01
The ratio of total mass $M$ to surface radius $R$ of spherical perfect fluid ball has an upper bound, $M/R < B$. Buchdahl obtained $B = 4/9$ under the assumptions; non-increasing mass density in outward direction, and barotropic equation of states. Barraco and Hamity decreased the Buchdahl's bound to a lower value $B = 3/8$ $(< 4/9)$ by adding the dominant energy condition to Buchdahl's assumptions. In this paper, we further decrease the Barraco-Hamity's bound to $B \\simeq 0.3636403$ $(< 3/8)$ by adding the subluminal (slower-than-light) condition of sound speed. In our analysis, we solve numerically Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations, and the mass-to-radius ratio is maximized by variation of mass, radius and pressure inside the fluid ball as functions of mass density.
Accurate structural correlations from maximum likelihood superpositions.
Douglas L Theobald
2008-02-01
Full Text Available The cores of globular proteins are densely packed, resulting in complicated networks of structural interactions. These interactions in turn give rise to dynamic structural correlations over a wide range of time scales. Accurate analysis of these complex correlations is crucial for understanding biomolecular mechanisms and for relating structure to function. Here we report a highly accurate technique for inferring the major modes of structural correlation in macromolecules using likelihood-based statistical analysis of sets of structures. This method is generally applicable to any ensemble of related molecules, including families of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR models, different crystal forms of a protein, and structural alignments of homologous proteins, as well as molecular dynamics trajectories. Dominant modes of structural correlation are determined using principal components analysis (PCA of the maximum likelihood estimate of the correlation matrix. The correlations we identify are inherently independent of the statistical uncertainty and dynamic heterogeneity associated with the structural coordinates. We additionally present an easily interpretable method ("PCA plots" for displaying these positional correlations by color-coding them onto a macromolecular structure. Maximum likelihood PCA of structural superpositions, and the structural PCA plots that illustrate the results, will facilitate the accurate determination of dynamic structural correlations analyzed in diverse fields of structural biology.
Maximum entropy production and the fluctuation theorem
Dewar, R C [Unite EPHYSE, INRA Centre de Bordeaux-Aquitaine, BP 81, 33883 Villenave d' Ornon Cedex (France)
2005-05-27
Recently the author used an information theoretical formulation of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics (MaxEnt) to derive the fluctuation theorem (FT) concerning the probability of second law violating phase-space paths. A less rigorous argument leading to the variational principle of maximum entropy production (MEP) was also given. Here a more rigorous and general mathematical derivation of MEP from MaxEnt is presented, and the relationship between MEP and the FT is thereby clarified. Specifically, it is shown that the FT allows a general orthogonality property of maximum information entropy to be extended to entropy production itself, from which MEP then follows. The new derivation highlights MEP and the FT as generic properties of MaxEnt probability distributions involving anti-symmetric constraints, independently of any physical interpretation. Physically, MEP applies to the entropy production of those macroscopic fluxes that are free to vary under the imposed constraints, and corresponds to selection of the most probable macroscopic flux configuration. In special cases MaxEnt also leads to various upper bound transport principles. The relationship between MaxEnt and previous theories of irreversible processes due to Onsager, Prigogine and Ziegler is also clarified in the light of these results. (letter to the editor)
Thermodynamic hardness and the maximum hardness principle
Franco-Pérez, Marco; Gázquez, José L.; Ayers, Paul W.; Vela, Alberto
2017-08-01
An alternative definition of hardness (called the thermodynamic hardness) within the grand canonical ensemble formalism is proposed in terms of the partial derivative of the electronic chemical potential with respect to the thermodynamic chemical potential of the reservoir, keeping the temperature and the external potential constant. This temperature dependent definition may be interpreted as a measure of the propensity of a system to go through a charge transfer process when it interacts with other species, and thus it keeps the philosophy of the original definition. When the derivative is expressed in terms of the three-state ensemble model, in the regime of low temperatures and up to temperatures of chemical interest, one finds that for zero fractional charge, the thermodynamic hardness is proportional to T-1(I -A ) , where I is the first ionization potential, A is the electron affinity, and T is the temperature. However, the thermodynamic hardness is nearly zero when the fractional charge is different from zero. Thus, through the present definition, one avoids the presence of the Dirac delta function. We show that the chemical hardness defined in this way provides meaningful and discernible information about the hardness properties of a chemical species exhibiting integer or a fractional average number of electrons, and this analysis allowed us to establish a link between the maximum possible value of the hardness here defined, with the minimum softness principle, showing that both principles are related to minimum fractional charge and maximum stability conditions.
Maximum Likelihood Analysis in the PEN Experiment
Lehman, Martin
2013-10-01
The experimental determination of the π+ -->e+ ν (γ) decay branching ratio currently provides the most accurate test of lepton universality. The PEN experiment at PSI, Switzerland, aims to improve the present world average experimental precision of 3 . 3 ×10-3 to 5 ×10-4 using a stopped beam approach. During runs in 2008-10, PEN has acquired over 2 ×107 πe 2 events. The experiment includes active beam detectors (degrader, mini TPC, target), central MWPC tracking with plastic scintillator hodoscopes, and a spherical pure CsI electromagnetic shower calorimeter. The final branching ratio will be calculated using a maximum likelihood analysis. This analysis assigns each event a probability for 5 processes (π+ -->e+ ν , π+ -->μ+ ν , decay-in-flight, pile-up, and hadronic events) using Monte Carlo verified probability distribution functions of our observables (energies, times, etc). A progress report on the PEN maximum likelihood analysis will be presented. Work supported by NSF grant PHY-0970013.
王云霁; 陈嵩; 石安田; 吴艳; 邓潇
2013-01-01
Objective To investigate the relationship between the degree of displacement of centric relation-maximum intercuspation (CR-MI) and temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) in Class Ⅱ patients. Methods The questionnaire and clinical examination were administered in 107 Class Ⅱ patients and students, using the Helkimo index (Di and Ai). The differences in condylar position between CR and MI in all three spatial planes were measured using the Condyle Position Indication (CPI). Results Di positively correlated with degree of CR-MI displacement in all five displacement (P<0. 05), while Ai positively correlated with degree of CR-MI displacement except horizontal displacement. Di and Ai significantly correlated with degree of CR-MI discrepancy in all five displacement (P< 0. 05) ; With the increasing of Di and Ai rank, the degree of CR-MI displacement and CR-MI discrepancy increased. Also, symptoms of TMD were significantly correlated with the degree of CR-MI displacement and CR-MI discrepancy except horizontal displacement (P<0. 05). Severer CR-MI displacement and CR-MI discrepancy were observed in patients who had TMD symptoms. Conclusion In Class Ⅱ patients, degree of CR-MI displacement is an important factor of TMD, and correlated with the severity of TMD.%目的 横向调查安氏Ⅱ类错(牙合)畸形正畸初诊人群正中关系位-最大牙尖交错位(CR-MI)的位移程度与颞下颌关节紊乱病(TMD)之间的相关性,为制定临床治疗计划提供参考.方法 选取符合纳入标准的安氏Ⅱ类错(牙合)患者107例.对所有受检者进行TMD症状、体征及相关情况的专科检查和问卷调查,所得结果用Helkimo指数[临床功能紊乱指数(Di)、既往功能紊乱指数(Ai)]进行分析.受检者正中关系位(CR)与最大牙尖交错位(MI)在三维方向上的差异用髁突位置测量仪(Condyle Position Indication,CPI)记录及测量.结果 所有受检者Di与5个方向、Ai与4个方向(除横向偏斜)上
High precision Hugoniot measurements of D2 near maximum compression
Benage, John; Knudson, Marcus; Desjarlais, Michael
2015-11-01
The Hugoniot response of liquid deuterium has been widely studied due to its general importance and to the significant discrepancy in the inferred shock response obtained from early experiments. With improvements in dynamic compression platforms and experimental standards these results have converged and show general agreement with several equation of state (EOS) models, including quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) calculations within the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA). This approach to modeling the EOS has also proven quite successful for other materials and is rapidly becoming a standard approach. However, small differences remain among predictions obtained using different local and semi-local density functionals; these small differences show up in the deuterium Hugoniot at ~ 30-40 GPa near the region of maximum compression. Here we present experimental results focusing on that region of the Hugoniot and take advantage of advancements in the platform and standards, resulting in data with significantly higher precision than that obtained in previous studies. These new data may prove to distinguish between the subtle differences predicted by the various density functionals. Results of these experiments will be presented along with comparison to various QMD calculations. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin company, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Lake Basin Fetch and Maximum Length/Width
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear features representing the Fetch, Maximum Length and Maximum Width of a lake basin. Fetch, maximum length and average width are calcuated from the lake polygon...
李春祥
1999-01-01
根据导出的设置调谐质量阻尼器(TMD)高层建筑动力放大系数计算公式,利用数值迭代法给出了TMD最优参数设计表格,同时分析了TMD最优设计参数对振型参与系数的敏感性.给出了地震作用下高层建筑TMD控制优化设计方法.最后给出了仿真分析,以说明本设计方法的应用及TMD对地震反应控制的有效性.
苏荣华; 梁冰; 宋维源
2001-01-01
本文研究结构-TMD(调谐质量阻尼器)系统地震反应控制中参数的优化设计问题,包括TMD在结构上的最佳位置、最佳频率、最佳阻尼等参数值以及TMD对与其非调谐结构振型地震反应的作用进行了分析,导出了最优参数的近似计算式,为TMD在结构抗震方面的设计提供了理论依据.
李春祥; 黄金枝
2000-01-01
本文研究了TMD-高层钢结构系统的风振舒适度控制设计方法.导出了受控高层钢结构的风振加速度设计计算公式.给出了受控高层钢结构脉动增大系数及有关TMD系统参数实用设计表格.给出了高层结构-TMD系统风振舒适度控制设计过程.算例表明TMD对高层钢结构风振加速度的控制是十分有效的.
陈浩雄; 刘兴利; 李佳; 赵亮; 温清波
2015-01-01
目的:探讨整脊治疗颞下颌关节功能紊乱症(TMD)疗效的临床研究.方法:选择TMD患者60例,分为治疗组与对照组各30例.治疗组采用整脊疗法配合一些颈部附近的放松手法(以推拿的点、按、揉手法).对照组采用传统的中医对颞下颌关节附近的放松手法.应用Fricton指数定量评定表分别评定治疗前和治疗后的颞下颌关节功能状况.结果:2组Friction指数评分均较治疗前有好转,差异有统计学意义(P＜0.05).治疗组能更有效的降低疼痛程度及改善关节活动功能, 治疗后颞下颌关节功能障碍指数评分较治疗前有明显下降(P＜0.01),肌肉压痛指数和Friction指数评分较治疗前明显降低(P＜0.01).2组间差异具有统计学意义(P＜0.01),治疗组疗效优于对照组.结论:应用整脊治疗颞下颌关节功能紊乱症(TMD)能有效地缓解疼痛,改善颞下颌关节功能状况,值得临床推广应用.%Objective:To investigate the chiropractic treatment of temporo mandibular joint disorder (TMD) clinical research.Meth-ods:Choose 60 patients of temporo mandibular disorders,randomly divided the cases into a treatment group and a control group.Treat-ment group with the use of chiropractic therapy combined with some neck near the relaxation techniques ( to massage point, press, knea-ding manipulation) , while the control group used traditional Chinese medicine in the vicinity of the temporo mandibular joint relaxation technique.Application of Fricton index were used to assess the quantitative assessment of temporo mandibular joint function before and af-ter treatment.Results:The Friction index of two groups were significantly improved, the difference has statistical significance(P＜0. 05).Muscle tenderness index and the Friction index was significantly lower than that before treatment(P＜0.01), There were significant differences between the two groups (P ＜0.01), the treatment group was better than control group
刘爱民; 王兴; 张震康
2001-01-01
Objective To evaluate the function of temporomandibu larjoint(TMJ) of patients with diverse maxillo-mandibular defromities, investigate TMD related to a maxil lo-mandibular deformity. Methods The Helkimo index was used to analyze the anam nestic(Ai) and clinical(Di) data of 123 preoperative cases with severe maxillo- mandibular deformities. Results 1. The incidence of symptom of TMD in the patient group with diverse severe dentofacial deformities was higher tha n the control group. The most frequent symptom was clicking or other joint sound s. Pain originating from muscle or TMJ and limiation of jaw movement were the ne xt two commonest symptoms. The incidence of signs of TMD in the patient group wa s not found to be different from the controls. 2. Clicking or other joint sounds were reported more often in female patients than male. In contrast with it the palpation tenderness from the TMJ was found more often in male. The incidence of limitation of jaw movement was higher in younger patients than older, but most mild. The symptom of TMJ sounds was significantly correlated with asymmetry defo rmity. The lateral movement mobility of the asymmetry patients was reduced in th e deviation side. The more impaired mandibular mobility of the patients with man dibular retrusion suggested that their TMDs were severe. Conclusion The temporomandibular joint function of patients with severe maxillofacial deformities is different from that of normal peole. Mandibular asymmetry and retrusion deformities are associated with temporomandibular join t disorders.%目的 了解正颌患者颞下颌关节(TMJ)的功能状况，探讨牙颌面畸形与颞下颌关节之间的关系。方法正颌外科发育性牙颌面畸形123例患者，平均年龄23.8岁，男性45例，女性78例。颞下颌关节功能的检查方法采取问诊与检查相结合，颞下颌关节功能记分采取Helkimo指数记分方法。结果 (1)牙颌面畸形患者颞下颌关节紊乱病(TMD)各种症
The maximum optical depth toward bulge stars from axisymmetric models of the Milky Way
Kuijken, K
1997-01-01
It has been known that recent microlensing results toward the bulge imply mass densities that are surprisingly high, given dynamical constraints on the Milky Way mass distribution. We derive the maximum optical depth toward the bulge that may be generated by axisymmetric structures in the Milky Way,
Hong, Hunsop; Schonfeld, Dan
2008-06-01
In this paper, we propose a maximum-entropy expectation-maximization (MEEM) algorithm. We use the proposed algorithm for density estimation. The maximum-entropy constraint is imposed for smoothness of the estimated density function. The derivation of the MEEM algorithm requires determination of the covariance matrix in the framework of the maximum-entropy likelihood function, which is difficult to solve analytically. We, therefore, derive the MEEM algorithm by optimizing a lower-bound of the maximum-entropy likelihood function. We note that the classical expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm has been employed previously for 2-D density estimation. We propose to extend the use of the classical EM algorithm for image recovery from randomly sampled data and sensor field estimation from randomly scattered sensor networks. We further propose to use our approach in density estimation, image recovery and sensor field estimation. Computer simulation experiments are used to demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed MEEM algorithm in comparison to existing methods.
Maximum likelihood PSD estimation for speech enhancement in reverberant and noisy conditions
Kuklasinski, Adam; Doclo, Simon; Jensen, Jesper
2016-01-01
We propose a novel Power Spectral Density (PSD) estimator for multi-microphone systems operating in reverberant and noisy conditions. The estimator is derived using the maximum likelihood approach and is based on a blocked and pre-whitened additive signal model. The intended application......, the difference between algorithms was found to be statistically significant only in some of the experimental conditions....
Maximum probability domains for the analysis of the microscopic structure of liquids
Agostini, Federica; Savin, Andreas; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe
2014-01-01
We introduce the concept of maximum probability domains, developed in the context of the analysis of electronic densities, in the study of the microscopic spatial structures of liquids. The idea of locating a particle in a three dimensional region, by determining the domain where the probability of finding that, and only that, particle is maximum, gives an interesting characterisation of the local structure of the liquid. The optimisation procedure, required for the search of the domain of maximum probability, is carried out by the implementation of the level set method. Some results for few case studies are presented. In particular by looking at liquid water at different densities or at the solvation shells of Na$^+$ always in liquid water.
Maximum-Entropy Method for Evaluating the Slope Stability of Earth Dams
Shuai Wang
2012-10-01
Full Text Available The slope stability is a very important problem in geotechnical engineering. This paper presents an approach for slope reliability analysis based on the maximum-entropy method. The key idea is to implement the maximum entropy principle in estimating the probability density function. The performance function is formulated by the Simplified Bishop’s method to estimate the slope failure probability. The maximum-entropy method is used to estimate the probability density function (PDF of the performance function subject to the moment constraints. A numerical example is calculated and compared to the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS and the Advanced First Order Second Moment Method (AFOSM. The results show the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method. The proposed method should be valuable for performing probabilistic analyses.
Maximum entropy principle and texture formation
Arminjon, M; Arminjon, Mayeul; Imbault, Didier
2006-01-01
The macro-to-micro transition in a heterogeneous material is envisaged as the selection of a probability distribution by the Principle of Maximum Entropy (MAXENT). The material is made of constituents, e.g. given crystal orientations. Each constituent is itself made of a large number of elementary constituents. The relevant probability is the volume fraction of the elementary constituents that belong to a given constituent and undergo a given stimulus. Assuming only obvious constraints in MAXENT means describing a maximally disordered material. This is proved to have the same average stimulus in each constituent. By adding a constraint in MAXENT, a new model, potentially interesting e.g. for texture prediction, is obtained.
MLDS: Maximum Likelihood Difference Scaling in R
Kenneth Knoblauch
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The MLDS package in the R programming language can be used to estimate perceptual scales based on the results of psychophysical experiments using the method of difference scaling. In a difference scaling experiment, observers compare two supra-threshold differences (a,b and (c,d on each trial. The approach is based on a stochastic model of how the observer decides which perceptual difference (or interval (a,b or (c,d is greater, and the parameters of the model are estimated using a maximum likelihood criterion. We also propose a method to test the model by evaluating the self-consistency of the estimated scale. The package includes an example in which an observer judges the differences in correlation between scatterplots. The example may be readily adapted to estimate perceptual scales for arbitrary physical continua.
Maximum Profit Configurations of Commercial Engines
Yiran Chen
2011-06-01
Full Text Available An investigation of commercial engines with finite capacity low- and high-price economic subsystems and a generalized commodity transfer law [n ∝ Δ (P m] in commodity flow processes, in which effects of the price elasticities of supply and demand are introduced, is presented in this paper. Optimal cycle configurations of commercial engines for maximum profit are obtained by applying optimal control theory. In some special cases, the eventual state—market equilibrium—is solely determined by the initial conditions and the inherent characteristics of two subsystems; while the different ways of transfer affect the model in respects of the specific forms of the paths of prices and the instantaneous commodity flow, i.e., the optimal configuration.
Maximum Segment Sum, Monadically (distilled tutorial
Jeremy Gibbons
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The maximum segment sum problem is to compute, given a list of integers, the largest of the sums of the contiguous segments of that list. This problem specification maps directly onto a cubic-time algorithm; however, there is a very elegant linear-time solution too. The problem is a classic exercise in the mathematics of program construction, illustrating important principles such as calculational development, pointfree reasoning, algebraic structure, and datatype-genericity. Here, we take a sideways look at the datatype-generic version of the problem in terms of monadic functional programming, instead of the traditional relational approach; the presentation is tutorial in style, and leavened with exercises for the reader.
Maximum Information and Quantum Prediction Algorithms
McElwaine, J N
1997-01-01
This paper describes an algorithm for selecting a consistent set within the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics and investigates its properties. The algorithm uses a maximum information principle to select from among the consistent sets formed by projections defined by the Schmidt decomposition. The algorithm unconditionally predicts the possible events in closed quantum systems and ascribes probabilities to these events. A simple spin model is described and a complete classification of all exactly consistent sets of histories formed from Schmidt projections in the model is proved. This result is used to show that for this example the algorithm selects a physically realistic set. Other tentative suggestions in the literature for set selection algorithms using ideas from information theory are discussed.
Maximum process problems in optimal control theory
Goran Peskir
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Given a standard Brownian motion (Btt≥0 and the equation of motion dXt=vtdt+2dBt, we set St=max0≤s≤tXs and consider the optimal control problem supvE(Sτ−Cτ, where c>0 and the supremum is taken over all admissible controls v satisfying vt∈[μ0,μ1] for all t up to τ=inf{t>0|Xt∉(ℓ0,ℓ1} with μ0g∗(St, where s↦g∗(s is a switching curve that is determined explicitly (as the unique solution to a nonlinear differential equation. The solution found demonstrates that the problem formulations based on a maximum functional can be successfully included in optimal control theory (calculus of variations in addition to the classic problem formulations due to Lagrange, Mayer, and Bolza.
Maximum Spectral Luminous Efficacy of White Light
Murphy, T W
2013-01-01
As lighting efficiency improves, it is useful to understand the theoretical limits to luminous efficacy for light that we perceive as white. Independent of the efficiency with which photons are generated, there exists a spectrally-imposed limit to the luminous efficacy of any source of photons. We find that, depending on the acceptable bandpass and---to a lesser extent---the color temperature of the light, the ideal white light source achieves a spectral luminous efficacy of 250--370 lm/W. This is consistent with previous calculations, but here we explore the maximum luminous efficacy as a function of photopic sensitivity threshold, color temperature, and color rendering index; deriving peak performance as a function of all three parameters. We also present example experimental spectra from a variety of light sources, quantifying the intrinsic efficacy of their spectral distributions.
Maximum entropy model for business cycle synchronization
Xi, Ning; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Azaele, Sandro; Wang, Yougui
2014-11-01
The global economy is a complex dynamical system, whose cyclical fluctuations can mainly be characterized by simultaneous recessions or expansions of major economies. Thus, the researches on the synchronization phenomenon are key to understanding and controlling the dynamics of the global economy. Based on a pairwise maximum entropy model, we analyze the business cycle synchronization of the G7 economic system. We obtain a pairwise-interaction network, which exhibits certain clustering structure and accounts for 45% of the entire structure of the interactions within the G7 system. We also find that the pairwise interactions become increasingly inadequate in capturing the synchronization as the size of economic system grows. Thus, higher-order interactions must be taken into account when investigating behaviors of large economic systems.
Video segmentation using Maximum Entropy Model
QIN Li-juan; ZHUANG Yue-ting; PAN Yun-he; WU Fei
2005-01-01
Detecting objects of interest from a video sequence is a fundamental and critical task in automated visual surveillance.Most current approaches only focus on discriminating moving objects by background subtraction whether or not the objects of interest can be moving or stationary. In this paper, we propose layers segmentation to detect both moving and stationary target objects from surveillance video. We extend the Maximum Entropy (ME) statistical model to segment layers with features, which are collected by constructing a codebook with a set of codewords for each pixel. We also indicate how the training models are used for the discrimination of target objects in surveillance video. Our experimental results are presented in terms of the success rate and the segmenting precision.
Evaluation of pliers' grip spans in the maximum gripping task and sub-maximum cutting task.
Kim, Dae-Min; Kong, Yong-Ku
2016-12-01
A total of 25 males participated to investigate the effects of the grip spans of pliers on the total grip force, individual finger forces and muscle activities in the maximum gripping task and wire-cutting tasks. In the maximum gripping task, results showed that the 50-mm grip span had significantly higher total grip strength than the other grip spans. In the cutting task, the 50-mm grip span also showed significantly higher grip strength than the 65-mm and 80-mm grip spans, whereas the muscle activities showed a higher value at 80-mm grip span. The ratios of cutting force to maximum grip strength were also investigated. Ratios of 30.3%, 31.3% and 41.3% were obtained by grip spans of 50-mm, 65-mm, and 80-mm, respectively. Thus, the 50-mm grip span for pliers might be recommended to provide maximum exertion in gripping tasks, as well as lower maximum-cutting force ratios in the cutting tasks.
Cosmic shear measurement with maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori inference
Hall, Alex
2016-01-01
We investigate the problem of noise bias in maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori estimators for cosmic shear. We derive the leading and next-to-leading order biases and compute them in the context of galaxy ellipticity measurements, extending previous work on maximum likelihood inference for weak lensing. We show that a large part of the bias on these point estimators can be removed using information already contained in the likelihood when a galaxy model is specified, without the need for external calibration. We test these bias-corrected estimators on simulated galaxy images similar to those expected from planned space-based weak lensing surveys, with very promising results. We find that the introduction of an intrinsic shape prior mitigates noise bias, such that the maximum a posteriori estimate can be made less biased than the maximum likelihood estimate. Second-order terms offer a check on the convergence of the estimators, but are largely sub-dominant. We show how biases propagate to shear estima...
20 CFR 211.14 - Maximum creditable compensation.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum creditable compensation. 211.14... CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.14 Maximum creditable compensation. Maximum creditable compensation... Employment Accounts shall notify each employer of the amount of maximum creditable compensation applicable...
49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the ultimate...
Theoretical Estimate of Maximum Possible Nuclear Explosion
Bethe, H. A.
1950-01-31
The maximum nuclear accident which could occur in a Na-cooled, Be moderated, Pu and power producing reactor is estimated theoretically. (T.R.H.) 2O82 Results of nuclear calculations for a variety of compositions of fast, heterogeneous, sodium-cooled, U-235-fueled, plutonium- and power-producing reactors are reported. Core compositions typical of plate-, pin-, or wire-type fuel elements and with uranium as metal, alloy, and oxide were considered. These compositions included atom ratios in the following range: U-23B to U-235 from 2 to 8; sodium to U-235 from 1.5 to 12; iron to U-235 from 5 to 18; and vanadium to U-235 from 11 to 33. Calculations were performed to determine the effect of lead and iron reflectors between the core and blanket. Both natural and depleted uranium were evaluated as the blanket fertile material. Reactors were compared on a basis of conversion ratio, specific power, and the product of both. The calculated results are in general agreement with the experimental results from fast reactor assemblies. An analysis of the effect of new cross-section values as they became available is included. (auth)
Proposed principles of maximum local entropy production.
Ross, John; Corlan, Alexandru D; Müller, Stefan C
2012-07-12
Articles have appeared that rely on the application of some form of "maximum local entropy production principle" (MEPP). This is usually an optimization principle that is supposed to compensate for the lack of structural information and measurements about complex systems, even systems as complex and as little characterized as the whole biosphere or the atmosphere of the Earth or even of less known bodies in the solar system. We select a number of claims from a few well-known papers that advocate this principle and we show that they are in error with the help of simple examples of well-known chemical and physical systems. These erroneous interpretations can be attributed to ignoring well-established and verified theoretical results such as (1) entropy does not necessarily increase in nonisolated systems, such as "local" subsystems; (2) macroscopic systems, as described by classical physics, are in general intrinsically deterministic-there are no "choices" in their evolution to be selected by using supplementary principles; (3) macroscopic deterministic systems are predictable to the extent to which their state and structure is sufficiently well-known; usually they are not sufficiently known, and probabilistic methods need to be employed for their prediction; and (4) there is no causal relationship between the thermodynamic constraints and the kinetics of reaction systems. In conclusion, any predictions based on MEPP-like principles should not be considered scientifically founded.
Maximum entropy production and plant optimization theories.
Dewar, Roderick C
2010-05-12
Plant ecologists have proposed a variety of optimization theories to explain the adaptive behaviour and evolution of plants from the perspective of natural selection ('survival of the fittest'). Optimization theories identify some objective function--such as shoot or canopy photosynthesis, or growth rate--which is maximized with respect to one or more plant functional traits. However, the link between these objective functions and individual plant fitness is seldom quantified and there remains some uncertainty about the most appropriate choice of objective function to use. Here, plants are viewed from an alternative thermodynamic perspective, as members of a wider class of non-equilibrium systems for which maximum entropy production (MEP) has been proposed as a common theoretical principle. I show how MEP unifies different plant optimization theories that have been proposed previously on the basis of ad hoc measures of individual fitness--the different objective functions of these theories emerge as examples of entropy production on different spatio-temporal scales. The proposed statistical explanation of MEP, that states of MEP are by far the most probable ones, suggests a new and extended paradigm for biological evolution--'survival of the likeliest'--which applies from biomacromolecules to ecosystems, not just to individuals.
Maximum likelihood continuity mapping for fraud detection
Hogden, J.
1997-05-01
The author describes a novel time-series analysis technique called maximum likelihood continuity mapping (MALCOM), and focuses on one application of MALCOM: detecting fraud in medical insurance claims. Given a training data set composed of typical sequences, MALCOM creates a stochastic model of sequence generation, called a continuity map (CM). A CM maximizes the probability of sequences in the training set given the model constraints, CMs can be used to estimate the likelihood of sequences not found in the training set, enabling anomaly detection and sequence prediction--important aspects of data mining. Since MALCOM can be used on sequences of categorical data (e.g., sequences of words) as well as real valued data, MALCOM is also a potential replacement for database search tools such as N-gram analysis. In a recent experiment, MALCOM was used to evaluate the likelihood of patient medical histories, where ``medical history`` is used to mean the sequence of medical procedures performed on a patient. Physicians whose patients had anomalous medical histories (according to MALCOM) were evaluated for fraud by an independent agency. Of the small sample (12 physicians) that has been evaluated, 92% have been determined fraudulent or abusive. Despite the small sample, these results are encouraging.
Maximum life spiral bevel reduction design
Savage, M.; Prasanna, M. G.; Coe, H. H.
1992-07-01
Optimization is applied to the design of a spiral bevel gear reduction for maximum life at a given size. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial values. Gear tooth bending strength and minimum contact ratio under load are included in the active constraints. The optimal design of the spiral bevel gear reduction includes the selection of bearing and shaft proportions in addition to gear mesh parameters. System life is maximized subject to a fixed back-cone distance of the spiral bevel gear set for a specified speed ratio, shaft angle, input torque, and power. Significant parameters in the design are: the spiral angle, the pressure angle, the numbers of teeth on the pinion and gear, and the location and size of the four support bearings. Interpolated polynomials expand the discrete bearing properties and proportions into continuous variables for gradient optimization. After finding the continuous optimum, a designer can analyze near optimal designs for comparison and selection. Design examples show the influence of the bearing lives on the gear parameters in the optimal configurations. For a fixed back-cone distance, optimal designs with larger shaft angles have larger service lives.
CORA - emission line fitting with Maximum Likelihood
Ness, J.-U.; Wichmann, R.
2002-07-01
The advent of pipeline-processed data both from space- and ground-based observatories often disposes of the need of full-fledged data reduction software with its associated steep learning curve. In many cases, a simple tool doing just one task, and doing it right, is all one wishes. In this spirit we introduce CORA, a line fitting tool based on the maximum likelihood technique, which has been developed for the analysis of emission line spectra with low count numbers and has successfully been used in several publications. CORA uses a rigorous application of Poisson statistics. From the assumption of Poissonian noise we derive the probability for a model of the emission line spectrum to represent the measured spectrum. The likelihood function is used as a criterion for optimizing the parameters of the theoretical spectrum and a fixed point equation is derived allowing an efficient way to obtain line fluxes. As an example we demonstrate the functionality of the program with an X-ray spectrum of Capella obtained with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra observatory and choose the analysis of the Ne IX triplet around 13.5 Å.
Finding maximum JPEG image block code size
Lakhani, Gopal
2012-07-01
We present a study of JPEG baseline coding. It aims to determine the minimum storage needed to buffer the JPEG Huffman code bits of 8-bit image blocks. Since DC is coded separately, and the encoder represents each AC coefficient by a pair of run-length/AC coefficient level, the net problem is to perform an efficient search for the optimal run-level pair sequence. We formulate it as a two-dimensional, nonlinear, integer programming problem and solve it using a branch-and-bound based search method. We derive two types of constraints to prune the search space. The first one is given as an upper-bound for the sum of squares of AC coefficients of a block, and it is used to discard sequences that cannot represent valid DCT blocks. The second type constraints are based on some interesting properties of the Huffman code table, and these are used to prune sequences that cannot be part of optimal solutions. Our main result is that if the default JPEG compression setting is used, space of minimum of 346 bits and maximum of 433 bits is sufficient to buffer the AC code bits of 8-bit image blocks. Our implementation also pruned the search space extremely well; the first constraint reduced the initial search space of 4 nodes down to less than 2 nodes, and the second set of constraints reduced it further by 97.8%.
Maximum likelihood estimates of pairwise rearrangement distances.
Serdoz, Stuart; Egri-Nagy, Attila; Sumner, Jeremy; Holland, Barbara R; Jarvis, Peter D; Tanaka, Mark M; Francis, Andrew R
2017-06-21
Accurate estimation of evolutionary distances between taxa is important for many phylogenetic reconstruction methods. Distances can be estimated using a range of different evolutionary models, from single nucleotide polymorphisms to large-scale genome rearrangements. Corresponding corrections for genome rearrangement distances fall into 3 categories: Empirical computational studies, Bayesian/MCMC approaches, and combinatorial approaches. Here, we introduce a maximum likelihood estimator for the inversion distance between a pair of genomes, using a group-theoretic approach to modelling inversions introduced recently. This MLE functions as a corrected distance: in particular, we show that because of the way sequences of inversions interact with each other, it is quite possible for minimal distance and MLE distance to differently order the distances of two genomes from a third. The second aspect tackles the problem of accounting for the symmetries of circular arrangements. While, generally, a frame of reference is locked, and all computation made accordingly, this work incorporates the action of the dihedral group so that distance estimates are free from any a priori frame of reference. The philosophy of accounting for symmetries can be applied to any existing correction method, for which examples are offered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boedeker, Peter
2017-01-01
Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) is a useful tool when analyzing data collected from groups. There are many decisions to be made when constructing and estimating a model in HLM including which estimation technique to use. Three of the estimation techniques available when analyzing data with HLM are maximum likelihood, restricted maximum…
Minimax Current Density Coil Design
Poole, Michael; Lopez, Hector Sanchez; Ng, Michael; Crozier, Stuart; 10.1088/0022-3727/43/9/095001
2010-01-01
'Coil design' is an inverse problem in which arrangements of wire are designed to generate a prescribed magnetic field when energized with electric current. The design of gradient and shim coils for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are important examples of coil design. The magnetic fields that these coils generate are usually required to be both strong and accurate. Other electromagnetic properties of the coils, such as inductance, may be considered in the design process, which becomes an optimization problem. The maximum current density is additionally optimized in this work and the resultant coils are investigated for performance and practicality. Coils with minimax current density were found to exhibit maximally spread wires and may help disperse localized regions of Joule heating. They also produce the highest possible magnetic field strength per unit current for any given surface and wire size. Three different flavours of boundary element method that employ different basis functions (triangular elements...
Maximum likelihood molecular clock comb: analytic solutions.
Chor, Benny; Khetan, Amit; Snir, Sagi
2006-04-01
Maximum likelihood (ML) is increasingly used as an optimality criterion for selecting evolutionary trees, but finding the global optimum is a hard computational task. Because no general analytic solution is known, numeric techniques such as hill climbing or expectation maximization (EM), are used in order to find optimal parameters for a given tree. So far, analytic solutions were derived only for the simplest model--three taxa, two state characters, under a molecular clock. Four taxa rooted trees have two topologies--the fork (two subtrees with two leaves each) and the comb (one subtree with three leaves, the other with a single leaf). In a previous work, we devised a closed form analytic solution for the ML molecular clock fork. In this work, we extend the state of the art in the area of analytic solutions ML trees to the family of all four taxa trees under the molecular clock assumption. The change from the fork topology to the comb incurs a major increase in the complexity of the underlying algebraic system and requires novel techniques and approaches. We combine the ultrametric properties of molecular clock trees with the Hadamard conjugation to derive a number of topology dependent identities. Employing these identities, we substantially simplify the system of polynomial equations. We finally use tools from algebraic geometry (e.g., Gröbner bases, ideal saturation, resultants) and employ symbolic algebra software to obtain analytic solutions for the comb. We show that in contrast to the fork, the comb has no closed form solutions (expressed by radicals in the input data). In general, four taxa trees can have multiple ML points. In contrast, we can now prove that under the molecular clock assumption, the comb has a unique (local and global) ML point. (Such uniqueness was previously shown for the fork.).
Maximum speeds and alpha angles of flowing avalanches
McClung, David; Gauer, Peter
2016-04-01
A flowing avalanche is one which initiates as a slab and, if consisting of dry snow, will be enveloped in a turbulent snow dust cloud once the speed reaches about 10 m/s. A flowing avalanche has a dense core of flowing material which dominates the dynamics by serving as the driving force for downslope motion. The flow thickness typically on the order of 1 -10 m which is on the order of about 1% of the length of the flowing mass. We have collected estimates of maximum frontal speed um (m/s) from 118 avalanche events. The analysis is given here with the aim of using the maximum speed scaled with some measure of the terrain scale over which the avalanches ran. We have chosen two measures for scaling, from McClung (1990), McClung and Schaerer (2006) and Gauer (2012). The two measures are the √H0-;√S0-- (total vertical drop; total path length traversed). Our data consist of 118 avalanches with H0 (m)estimated and 106 with S0 (m)estimated. Of these, we have 29 values with H0 (m),S0 (m)and um (m/s)estimated accurately with the avalanche speeds measured all or nearly all along the path. The remainder of the data set includes approximate estimates of um (m/s)from timing the avalanche motion over a known section of the path where approximate maximum speed is expected and with either H0or S0or both estimated. Our analysis consists of fitting the values of um/√H0--; um/√S0- to probability density functions (pdf) to estimate the exceedance probability for the scaled ratios. In general, we found the best fits for the larger data sets to fit a beta pdf and for the subset of 29, we found a shifted log-logistic (s l-l) pdf was best. Our determinations were as a result of fitting the values to 60 different pdfs considering five goodness-of-fit criteria: three goodness-of-fit statistics :K-S (Kolmogorov-Smirnov); A-D (Anderson-Darling) and C-S (Chi-squared) plus probability plots (P-P) and quantile plots (Q-Q). For less than 10% probability of exceedance the results show that
The directed flow maximum near cs = 0
Brachmann, J.; Dumitru, A.; Stöcker, H.; Greiner, W.
2000-07-01
We investigate the excitation function of quark-gluon plasma formation and of directed in-plane flow of nucleons in the energy range of the BNL-AGS and for the E {Lab/kin} = 40 AGeV Pb + Pb collisions performed recently at the CERN-SPS. We employ the three-fluid model with dynamical unification of kinetically equilibrated fluid elements. Within our model with first-order phase transition at high density, droplets of QGP coexisting with hadronic matter are produced already at BNL-AGS energies, E {Lab/kin} ≃ 10 AGeV. A substantial decrease of the isentropic velocity of sound, however, requires higher energies, E {Lab/kin} ≃ 0 AGeV. We show the effect on the flow of nucleons in the reaction plane. According to our model calculations, kinematic requirements and EoS effects work hand-in-hand at E {Lab/kin} = 40 AGeV to allow the observation of the dropping velocity of sound via an increase of the directed flow around midrapidity as compared to top BNL-AGS energy.
Volumetric Concentration Maximum of Cohesive Sediment in Waters: A Numerical Study
Jisun Byun
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Cohesive sediment has different characteristics compared to non-cohesive sediment. The density and size of a cohesive sediment aggregate (a so-called, floc continuously changes through the flocculation process. The variation of floc size and density can cause a change of volumetric concentration under the condition of constant mass concentration. This study investigates how the volumetric concentration is affected by different conditions such as flow velocity, water depth, and sediment suspension. A previously verified, one-dimensional vertical numerical model is utilized here. The flocculation process is also considered by floc in the growth type flocculation model. Idealized conditions are assumed in this study for the numerical experiments. The simulation results show that the volumetric concentration profile of cohesive sediment is different from the Rouse profile. The volumetric concentration decreases near the bed showing the elevated maximum in the cases of both current and oscillatory flow. The density and size of floc show the minimum and the maximum values near the elevation of volumetric concentration maximum, respectively. This study also shows that the flow velocity and the critical shear stress have significant effects on the elevated maximum of volumetric concentration. As mechanisms of the elevated maximum, the strong turbulence intensity and increased mass concentration are considered because they cause the enhanced flocculation process. This study uses numerical experiments. To the best of our knowledge, no laboratory or field experiments on the elevated maximum have been carried out until now. It is of great necessity to conduct well-controlled laboratory experiments in the near future.
The Prediction of Maximum Amplitudes of Solar Cycles and the Maximum Amplitude of Solar Cycle 24
无
2002-01-01
We present a brief review of predictions of solar cycle maximum ampli-tude with a lead time of 2 years or more. It is pointed out that a precise predictionof the maximum amplitude with such a lead-time is still an open question despiteprogress made since the 1960s. A method of prediction using statistical character-istics of solar cycles is developed: the solar cycles are divided into two groups, ahigh rising velocity (HRV) group and a low rising velocity (LRV) group, dependingon the rising velocity in the ascending phase for a given duration of the ascendingphase. The amplitude of Solar Cycle 24 can be predicted after the start of thecycle using the formula derived in this paper. Now, about 5 years before the startof the cycle, we can make a preliminary prediction of 83.2-119.4 for its maximumamplitude.
Laboratory Density Functionals
Giraud, B. G.
2007-01-01
We compare several definitions of the density of a self-bound system, such as a nucleus, in relation with its center-of-mass zero-point motion. A trivial deconvolution relates the internal density to the density defined in the laboratory frame. This result is useful for the practical definition of density functionals.
Laboratory Density Functionals
Giraud, B G
2007-01-01
We compare several definitions of the density of a self-bound system, such as a nucleus, in relation with its center-of-mass zero-point motion. A trivial deconvolution relates the internal density to the density defined in the laboratory frame. This result is useful for the practical definition of density functionals.
NERO - A Post Maximum Supernova Radiation Transport Code
Maurer, I; Mazzali, P A; Taubenberger, S; Hachinger, S; Kromer, M; Sim, S; Hillebrandt, W
2011-01-01
The interpretation of supernova (SN) spectra is essential for deriving SN ejecta properties such as density and composition, which in turn can tell us about their progenitors and the explosion mechanism. A very large number of atomic processes are important for spectrum formation. Several tools for calculating SN spectra exist, but they mainly focus on the very early or late epochs. The intermediate phase, which requires a NLTE treatment of radiation transport has rarely been studied. In this paper we present a new SN radiation transport code, NERO, which can look at those epochs. All the atomic processes are treated in full NLTE, under a steady-state assumption. This is a valid approach between roughly 50 and 500 days after the explosion depending on SN type. This covers the post-maximum photospheric and the early and the intermediate nebular phase. As a test, we compare NERO to the radiation transport code of Jerkstrand et al. (2011) and to the nebular code of Mazzali et al. (2001). All three codes have bee...
Pattern formation, logistics, and maximum path probability
Kirkaldy, J. S.
1985-05-01
The concept of pattern formation, which to current researchers is a synonym for self-organization, carries the connotation of deductive logic together with the process of spontaneous inference. Defining a pattern as an equivalence relation on a set of thermodynamic objects, we establish that a large class of irreversible pattern-forming systems, evolving along idealized quasisteady paths, approaches the stable steady state as a mapping upon the formal deductive imperatives of a propositional function calculus. In the preamble the classical reversible thermodynamics of composite systems is analyzed as an externally manipulated system of space partitioning and classification based on ideal enclosures and diaphragms. The diaphragms have discrete classification capabilities which are designated in relation to conserved quantities by descriptors such as impervious, diathermal, and adiabatic. Differentiability in the continuum thermodynamic calculus is invoked as equivalent to analyticity and consistency in the underlying class or sentential calculus. The seat of inference, however, rests with the thermodynamicist. In the transition to an irreversible pattern-forming system the defined nature of the composite reservoirs remains, but a given diaphragm is replaced by a pattern-forming system which by its nature is a spontaneously evolving volume partitioner and classifier of invariants. The seat of volition or inference for the classification system is thus transferred from the experimenter or theoretician to the diaphragm, and with it the full deductive facility. The equivalence relations or partitions associated with the emerging patterns may thus be associated with theorems of the natural pattern-forming calculus. The entropy function, together with its derivatives, is the vehicle which relates the logistics of reservoirs and diaphragms to the analog logistics of the continuum. Maximum path probability or second-order differentiability of the entropy in isolation are
吕西林; 丁鲲; 施卫星; 翁大根
2012-01-01
上海世博文化中心是2010上海世博会永久性场馆之一,其主体结构由沿环向的36榀悬臂长度不一的钢桁架和矩形钢管混凝土内框架组成.结构六层为悬挑钢结构楼盖,易引起人致振动问题.对采用调谐质量阻尼器(TMD)进行人致振动控制的上海世博文化中心进行了大量的计算分析和现场实测.结果表明结构各榀桁架的竖向共振频率处于2.5 Hz-3.0 Hz之间;当人以2.0 Hz的频率正常行走时,结构竖向振动较小,TMD基本无影响;而当人以结构竖向共振频率快速走动或奔跑时,TMD能有效减小结构的竖向振动响应,减振效率约为15％.这对长悬臂空间结构的舒适度问题和采用TMD进行人致振动控制问题的研究具有参考借鉴意义.%Shanghai Expo culture center is one of the permanent buildings for Expo 2010 Shanghai. Its main structure is composed of 36 hoop cantilever steel trusses with different lengths and inner frames made of rectangle CFST members. The 6-storey steel structure with cantilevered floors easily causes human-induced vibration. A large amount of analysis and field tests were performed for this culture center with tuned mass dampers ( TMDs) used to reduce human-induced vibration. The results showed that the resonance frequencies of each truss are between 2. Ohz and 3. 5Hz; the vertical vibration of the structure is very small and TMDs have no influence on the vibration when people walk normally with frequency 2. Ohz; when people rapidly walk or run with structural resonance frequency, TMDs can reduce the structural vertical vibration about 15% effectively. The results could be a reference for study on serviceability of space structures with long cantilever and human-induced vibration control with TMD.
Cardiorespiratory Fitness of Inmates of a Maximum Security Prison ...
USER
Maximum Security Prison; and also to determine the effects of age, gender, and period of incarceration on CRF. A total of 247 apparently healthy inmates of Maiduguri Maximum Security ... with different types of cardiovascular and metabolic.
Maximum likelihood polynomial regression for robust speech recognition
LU Yong; WU Zhenyang
2011-01-01
The linear hypothesis is the main disadvantage of maximum likelihood linear re- gression （MLLR）. This paper applies the polynomial regression method to model adaptation and establishes a nonlinear model adaptation algorithm using maximum likelihood polyno
Surface Elevation Distribution of Sea Waves Based on the Maximum Entropy Principle
戴德君; 王伟; 钱成春; 孙孚
2001-01-01
A probability density function of surface elevation is obtained through improvement of the method introduced byCieslikiewicz who employed the maximum entropy principle to investigate the surface elevation distribution. The densityfunction can be easily extended to higher order according to demand and is non-negative everywhere, satisfying the basicbehavior of the probability. Moreover because the distribution is derived without any assumption about sea waves, it isfound from comparison with several accepted distributions that the new form of distribution can be applied in a widerrange of wave conditions. In addition, the density function can be used to fit some observed distributions of surface verti-cal acceleration although something remains unsolved.
Bennani, Youssef; Pronzato, Luc; Rendas, Maria João
2015-01-01
We estimate the density of a set of biophysical parameters from region censored observations. We propose a new Maximum Entropy (maxent) estimator formulated as finding the most likely constrained maxent density. By using the Ŕnyi entropy of order two instead of the Shannon entropy, we are lead to a quadratic optimization problem with linear inequality constraints that has an efficient numerical solution. We compare the proposed estimator to the NPMLE and to the best fitting maxent solutions in real data from hyperbaric diving, showing that the resulting distribution has better generalization performance than NPMLE or maxent alone.
M. Mihelich
2014-11-01
Full Text Available We derive rigorous results on the link between the principle of maximum entropy production and the principle of maximum Kolmogorov–Sinai entropy using a Markov model of the passive scalar diffusion called the Zero Range Process. We show analytically that both the entropy production and the Kolmogorov–Sinai entropy seen as functions of f admit a unique maximum denoted fmaxEP and fmaxKS. The behavior of these two maxima is explored as a function of the system disequilibrium and the system resolution N. The main result of this article is that fmaxEP and fmaxKS have the same Taylor expansion at first order in the deviation of equilibrium. We find that fmaxEP hardly depends on N whereas fmaxKS depends strongly on N. In particular, for a fixed difference of potential between the reservoirs, fmaxEP(N tends towards a non-zero value, while fmaxKS(N tends to 0 when N goes to infinity. For values of N typical of that adopted by Paltridge and climatologists (N ≈ 10 ~ 100, we show that fmaxEP and fmaxKS coincide even far from equilibrium. Finally, we show that one can find an optimal resolution N* such that fmaxEP and fmaxKS coincide, at least up to a second order parameter proportional to the non-equilibrium fluxes imposed to the boundaries. We find that the optimal resolution N* depends on the non equilibrium fluxes, so that deeper convection should be represented on finer grids. This result points to the inadequacy of using a single grid for representing convection in climate and weather models. Moreover, the application of this principle to passive scalar transport parametrization is therefore expected to provide both the value of the optimal flux, and of the optimal number of degrees of freedom (resolution to describe the system.
Maximum initial growth-rate of strong-shock-driven Richtmyer-Meshkov instability
Dell, Z. R.; Pandian, A.; Bhowmick, A. K.; Swisher, N. C.; Stanic, M.; Stellingwerf, R. F.; Abarzhi, S. I.
2017-09-01
We focus on the classical problem of the dependence on the initial conditions of the initial growth-rate of strong shock driven Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) by developing a novel empirical model and by employing rigorous theories and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics simulations to describe the simulation data with statistical confidence in a broad parameter regime. For the given values of the shock strength, fluid density ratio, and wavelength of the initial perturbation of the fluid interface, we find the maximum value of the RMI initial growth-rate, the corresponding amplitude scale of the initial perturbation, and the maximum fraction of interfacial energy. This amplitude scale is independent of the shock strength and density ratio and is characteristic quantity of RMI dynamics. We discover the exponential decay of the ratio of the initial and linear growth-rates of RMI with the initial perturbation amplitude that excellently agrees with available data.
20 CFR 617.14 - Maximum amount of TRA.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum amount of TRA. 617.14 Section 617.14... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.14 Maximum amount of TRA. (a) General rule. Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, the maximum amount of...
40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.
2010-07-01
... specified in 40 CFR 1065.510. These data points form the lug curve. It is not necessary to generate the... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of maximum test speed... Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test...
14 CFR 25.1505 - Maximum operating limit speed.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum operating limit speed. 25.1505... Operating Limitations § 25.1505 Maximum operating limit speed. The maximum operating limit speed (V MO/M MO airspeed or Mach Number, whichever is critical at a particular altitude) is a speed that may not...
Maximum Performance Tests in Children with Developmental Spastic Dysarthria.
Wit, J.; And Others
1993-01-01
Three Maximum Performance Tasks (Maximum Sound Prolongation, Fundamental Frequency Range, and Maximum Repetition Rate) were administered to 11 children (ages 6-11) with spastic dysarthria resulting from cerebral palsy and 11 controls. Despite intrasubject and intersubject variability in normal and pathological speakers, the tasks were found to be…
Maximum physical capacity testing in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy
Knutsen, L.; Quist, M; Midtgaard, J
2006-01-01
BACKGROUND: Over the past few years there has been a growing interest in the field of physical exercise in rehabilitation of cancer patients, leading to requirements for objective maximum physical capacity measurement (maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) and one-repetition maximum (1RM)) to determine...
Hekmati, Arsalan; Hekmati, Rasoul
2016-12-01
Electrical power quality and stability is an important issue nowadays and technology of Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage systems, SMES, has brought real power storage capability to power systems. Therefore, optimum SMES design to achieve maximum energy with the least length of tape has been quite a matter of concern. This paper provides an approach to design optimization of solenoid and toroid types of SMES, ensuring maximum possible energy storage. The optimization process, based on Genetic Algorithm, calculates the operating current of superconducting tapes through intersection of a load line with the surface indicating the critical current variation versus the parallel and perpendicular components of magnetic flux density. FLUX3D simulations of SMES have been utilized for energy calculations. Through numerical analysis of obtained data, formulations have been obtained for the optimum dimensions of superconductor coil and maximum stored energy for a given length and cross sectional area of superconductor tape.
The Scaling of Maximum and Basal Metabolic Rates of Mammals and Birds
Barbosa, L A; Silva, J K L; Barbosa, Lauro A.; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; Silva, Jafferson K. L. da
2004-01-01
Allometric scaling is one of the most pervasive laws in biology. Its origin, however, is still a matter of dispute. Recent studies have established that maximum metabolic rate scales with an exponent larger than that found for basal metabolism. This unpredicted result sets a challenge that can decide which of the concurrent hypotheses is the correct theory. Here we show that both scaling laws can be deduced from a single network model. Besides the 3/4-law for basal metabolism, the model predicts that maximum metabolic rate scales as $M^{6/7}$, maximum heart rate as $M^{-1/7}$, and muscular capillary density as $M^{-1/7}$, in agreement with data.
Bremner, Paul G.; Vazquez, Gabriel; Christiano, Daniel J.; Trout, Dawn H.
2016-01-01
Prediction of the maximum expected electromagnetic pick-up of conductors inside a realistic shielding enclosure is an important canonical problem for system-level EMC design of space craft, launch vehicles, aircraft and automobiles. This paper introduces a simple statistical power balance model for prediction of the maximum expected current in a wire conductor inside an aperture enclosure. It calculates both the statistical mean and variance of the immission from the physical design parameters of the problem. Familiar probability density functions can then be used to predict the maximum expected immission for deign purposes. The statistical power balance model requires minimal EMC design information and solves orders of magnitude faster than existing numerical models, making it ultimately viable for scaled-up, full system-level modeling. Both experimental test results and full wave simulation results are used to validate the foundational model.
Lattice Field Theory with the Sign Problem and the Maximum Entropy Method
Masahiro Imachi
2007-02-01
Full Text Available Although numerical simulation in lattice field theory is one of the most effective tools to study non-perturbative properties of field theories, it faces serious obstacles coming from the sign problem in some theories such as finite density QCD and lattice field theory with the θ term. We reconsider this problem from the point of view of the maximum entropy method.
Maximum Langmuir Fields in Planetary Foreshocks Determined from the Electrostatic Decay Threshold
Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, Iver H.
1995-01-01
Maximum electric fields of Langmuir waves at planetary foreshocks are estimated from the threshold for electrostatic decay, assuming it saturates beam driven growth, and incorporating heliospheric variation of plasma density and temperature. Comparisons with spacecraft observations yields good quantitative agreement. Observations in type 3 radio sources are also in accord with this interpretation. A single mechanism can thus account for the highest fields of beam driven waves in both contexts.
Berry, Vincent; Nicolas, François
2006-01-01
Given a set of evolutionary trees on a same set of taxa, the maximum agreement subtree problem (MAST), respectively, maximum compatible tree problem (MCT), consists of finding a largest subset of taxa such that all input trees restricted to these taxa are isomorphic, respectively compatible. These problems have several applications in phylogenetics such as the computation of a consensus of phylogenies obtained from different data sets, the identification of species subjected to horizontal gene transfers and, more recently, the inference of supertrees, e.g., Trees Of Life. We provide two linear time algorithms to check the isomorphism, respectively, compatibility, of a set of trees or otherwise identify a conflict between the trees with respect to the relative location of a small subset of taxa. Then, we use these algorithms as subroutines to solve MAST and MCT on rooted or unrooted trees of unbounded degree. More precisely, we give exact fixed-parameter tractable algorithms, whose running time is uniformly polynomial when the number of taxa on which the trees disagree is bounded. The improves on a known result for MAST and proves fixed-parameter tractability for MCT.
Indoor Ultra-Wide Band Network Adjustment using Maximum Likelihood Estimation
Koppanyi, Z.; Toth, C. K.
2014-11-01
This study is the part of our ongoing research on using ultra-wide band (UWB) technology for navigation at the Ohio State University. Our tests have indicated that the UWB two-way time-of-flight ranges under indoor circumstances follow a Gaussian mixture distribution that may be caused by the incompleteness of the functional model. In this case, to adjust the UWB network from the observed ranges, the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) may provide a better solution for the node coordinates than the widely-used least squares approach. The prerequisite of the maximum likelihood method is to know the probability density functions. The 30 Hz sampling rate of the UWB sensors enables to estimate these functions between each node from the samples in static positioning mode. In order to prove the MLE hypothesis, an UWB network has been established in a multi-path density environment for test data acquisition. The least squares and maximum likelihood coordinate solutions are determined and compared, and the results indicate that better accuracy can be achieved with maximum likelihood estimation.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...
黎腾聪; 王美青; Kelun Wang; Peter Svensson
2007-01-01
目的:探讨调(牙合)治疗颞下颌关节紊乱病(TMD)慢性疼痛的疗效.方法:TMD伴慢性口颌面痛患者21例,盲法随机分为治疗组(10例)和对照组(11例),治疗组予以本课题组所报道的方法进行调(牙合)治疗,以建立平稳咬合接触为目标,对照组作模拟调(牙合).检测治疗前、治疗后即刻和治疗1月时疼痛指数(VAS)、开口度及咬合力水平.结果:治疗组VAS降低(p=0.000),开口度增加(p=0.008),咬合力有所增加(p=0.050),与对照组相差显著.对照组治疗前后无明显差异.结论:以建立自然牙列稳定咬合接触关系为目的的调(牙合)治疗可以明显缓解TMD慢性疼痛.
赵英华; 陈永进; 刘继光; 秦海燕; 陈凤兰; 王磊
2005-01-01
目的:研究不同高度的咬合板对颞下颌关节紊乱病(TMD)患者颞肌前束、咬肌肌电的影响.方法:73例TMD患者随机分为3组,戴用不同高度咬合板使咬合距离分别增加3 mm、5 mm、7 mm,比较分析戴板前和戴板后即刻测量的双侧颞肌前束(TA)和咬肌(MM)肌电电位.结果:在静息及紧咬状态下,戴用不同高度咬合板即刻测量的TA及MM肌电电位均明显低于戴板前的测量值(P<0.05);紧咬状态下5 mm和7 mm咬合板对MM肌电电位的降低程度显著高于3 mm组.结论:咬合板是治疗肌功能紊乱的有效方法.高度为5 mm和7 mm的咬合板降低咀嚼肌肌电的能力较3 mm咬合板更强.
The Relative study on TMD about Occlusal and Dental caries factors%颞下颌关节紊乱病合因素与龋因素的相关性研究
高芸; 孙斌; 刘海霞
2010-01-01
目的:探讨合因素、龋因素与颞下颌关节紊乱病(TMD)致病关系和作用机理.方法:以问诊及临床检查方式,调查石河子市第二中学即将高考体检的学生,采用TMD、龋临床诊断标准和安氏分类等方法,对680名高三学生进行流行病学调查.结果:受测人群中,正常合TMD阳性率为9.5%,异常合TMD阳性率为39.2%,二者差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);无龋病者TMD阳性率为22.9%,龋病者TMD阳性率为40.7%,二者差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:异常合、龋病是TMD的致病因素之一.
薛飞; 王美青; 李晓峰; 刘小勇
2007-01-01
目的: 探讨错(牙合)主要类别(安氏错(牙合)及覆(牙合)覆盖关系)在颞下颌关节紊乱病(temporomandibular disorders,TMD)组与正畸病人组间有无明显差别.方法:颞下颌关节紊乱病相关症状为主诉的369例(TMD组),要求正畸治疗的933例(MAL组),对两组人群同年龄、同性别配对,取研究模观察.结果: ①两组比较安氏错(牙合)类型无明显差异(P＞0.05);② TMD组深覆(牙合)病例明显高于正畸治疗组,而前牙对刃(牙合)、反(牙合),后牙反(牙合)的比例均明显低于错(牙合)组 (P＜0.05).结论: 深覆(牙合)与TMD关系比较密切.
Matter composition at high density by effective scaled lagrangian
Hyun, Chang Ho; Min, Dong Pil [Dept. of Physics, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
1998-06-01
We investigate the matter composition at around the neutron star densities with a model lagrangian satisfying Brown-Rho scaling law. We calculate the neutron star properties such as maximum mass, radius, hyperon compositions and central density. We compare our results with those of Walecka model. (orig.)
Design and Environment, 1972
1972-01-01
Three-part report pinpointing problems and uncovering solutions for the dual concepts of density (ratio of people to space) and crowding (psychological response to density). Section one, A Primer on Crowding,'' reviews new psychological and social findings; section two, Density in the Suburbs,'' shows conflict between status quo and increased…
Zhu, Z.Q.; Chen, Y. S.; Howe, D.
2002-01-01
The airgap flux density distribution, flux density loci in the stator core, and the associated iron loss in two topologies of brushless AC motor, having a surface-mounted magnet rotor and an interior-mounted magnet rotor, respectively, are investigated when operated under maximum torque per ampere control in the constant torque mode and maximum power control in the flux-weakening mode. It is shown that whilst the interior magnet topology is known to be eminently suitable for flux-weakening op...
The density limit in JET diverted plasmas
Campbell, D.J.; Clement, S.; Gottardi, N.; Gowers, C.; Harbour, P.; Loarte, A.; Horton, L.; Lingertat, J.; Lowry, C.G.; Saibene, G.; Stamp, M.; Stork, D. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Monk, R. [Royal Holloway Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics
1994-07-01
In JET limiter plasmas the density limit is associated with radiated power fractions of 100% and, in plasmas with carbon limiters, it is invariably disruptive. However, in discharges with solid beryllium limiters the limit is identified with the formation of a MARFE and disruptions are less frequent. In addition, the improved conditioning of the vessel arising from the use of beryllium has significantly improved the density limit scaling, so that the maximum density rises with the square root of the input power. In diverted plasmas several confinement regimes exist, making the characterization of the density limit more complex. While the density limit in L-mode plasmas is generally disruptive, the limit in ELMy and ELM-free H-modes generally prompts a return to the L-mode and a disruption is not inevitable. The density limit does rise with the increasing power, but the L-to-H transition complicates the analysis. Nevertheless, at low plasma currents (<2 MA), densities significantly above the Greenwald limit can be achieved, while at higher currents power handling limitations have constrained the range of density which can be achieved. (authors). 7 refs., 4 figs.
Present and Last Glacial Maximum climates as states of maximum entropy production
Herbert, Corentin; Kageyama, Masa; Dubrulle, Berengere
2011-01-01
The Earth, like other planets with a relatively thick atmosphere, is not locally in radiative equilibrium and the transport of energy by the geophysical fluids (atmosphere and ocean) plays a fundamental role in determining its climate. Using simple energy-balance models, it was suggested a few decades ago that the meridional energy fluxes might follow a thermodynamic Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) principle. In the present study, we assess the MEP hypothesis in the framework of a minimal climate model based solely on a robust radiative scheme and the MEP principle, with no extra assumptions. Specifically, we show that by choosing an adequate radiative exchange formulation, the Net Exchange Formulation, a rigorous derivation of all the physical parameters can be performed. The MEP principle is also extended to surface energy fluxes, in addition to meridional energy fluxes. The climate model presented here is extremely fast, needs very little empirical data and does not rely on ad hoc parameterizations. We in...
Comparison Between Bayesian and Maximum Entropy Analyses of Flow Networks†
Steven H. Waldrip
2017-02-01
Full Text Available We compare the application of Bayesian inference and the maximum entropy (MaxEnt method for the analysis of ﬂow networks, such as water, electrical and transport networks. The two methods have the advantage of allowing a probabilistic prediction of ﬂow rates and other variables, when there is insufﬁcient information to obtain a deterministic solution, and also allow the effects of uncertainty to be included. Both methods of inference update a prior to a posterior probability density function (pdf by the inclusion of new information, in the form of data or constraints. The MaxEnt method maximises an entropy function subject to constraints, using the method of Lagrange multipliers,to give the posterior, while the Bayesian method ﬁnds its posterior by multiplying the prior with likelihood functions incorporating the measured data. In this study, we examine MaxEnt using soft constraints, either included in the prior or as probabilistic constraints, in addition to standard moment constraints. We show that when the prior is Gaussian,both Bayesian inference and the MaxEnt method with soft prior constraints give the same posterior means, but their covariances are different. In the Bayesian method, the interactions between variables are applied through the likelihood function, using second or higher-order cross-terms within the posterior pdf. In contrast, the MaxEnt method incorporates interactions between variables using Lagrange multipliers, avoiding second-order correlation terms in the posterior covariance. The MaxEnt method with soft prior constraints, therefore, has a numerical advantage over Bayesian inference, in that the covariance terms are avoided in its integrations. The second MaxEnt method with soft probabilistic constraints is shown to give posterior means of similar, but not identical, structure to the other two methods, due to its different formulation.
Effect of the equation of state on the maximum mass of differentially rotating neutron stars
Studzińska, A. M.; Kucaba, M.; Gondek-Rosińska, D.; Villain, L.; Ansorg, M.
2016-12-01
Knowing the value of the maximum mass of a differentially rotating relativistic star is a key step towards the understanding of the signals to be expected from the merger of binary neutron stars, one of the most awaited alternative sources of gravitational waves after binary black holes. In this paper, we study the effects of differential rotation and of the equation of state on the maximum mass of rotating neutron stars modelled as relativistic polytropes with various adiabatic indices. Calculations are performed using a highly accurate numerical code, based on a multidomain spectral method. We thoroughly explore the parameter space and determine how the maximum mass depends on the stiffness, on the degree of differential rotation and on the maximal density, taking into account all the types of solutions that were proven to exist in a preceding paper. The highest increase with respect to the maximum mass for non-rotating stars with the same equation of state is reached for a moderate stiffness. With differential rotation, the maximum mass can even be 3-4 times higher than it is for static stars. This result may have important consequences for the gravitational wave signal from coalescing neutron star binaries or for some supernovae events.
Probability densities and Lévy densities
Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler
For positive Lévy processes (i.e. subordinators) formulae are derived that express the probability density or the distribution function in terms of power series in time t. The applicability of the results to finance and to turbulence is briefly indicated.......For positive Lévy processes (i.e. subordinators) formulae are derived that express the probability density or the distribution function in terms of power series in time t. The applicability of the results to finance and to turbulence is briefly indicated....
Probability densities and Lévy densities
Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler
For positive Lévy processes (i.e. subordinators) formulae are derived that express the probability density or the distribution function in terms of power series in time t. The applicability of the results to finance and to turbulence is briefly indicated.......For positive Lévy processes (i.e. subordinators) formulae are derived that express the probability density or the distribution function in terms of power series in time t. The applicability of the results to finance and to turbulence is briefly indicated....
Loveday, J; Baldry, I K; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Brough, S; Brown, M J I; Driver, S P; Kelvin, L S; Phillipps, S
2015-01-01
We describe modifications to the joint stepwise maximum likelihood method of Cole (2011) in order to simultaneously fit the GAMA-II galaxy luminosity function (LF), corrected for radial density variations, and its evolution with redshift. The whole sample is reasonably well-fit with luminosity (Qe) and density (Pe) evolution parameters Qe, Pe = 1.0, 1.0 but with significant degeneracies characterized by Qe = 1.4 - 0.4Pe. Blue galaxies exhibit larger luminosity density evolution than red galaxies, as expected. We present the evolution-corrected r-band LF for the whole sample and for blue and red sub-samples, using both Petrosian and Sersic magnitudes. Petrosian magnitudes miss a substantial fraction of the flux of de Vaucouleurs profile galaxies: the Sersic LF is substantially higher than the Petrosian LF at the bright end.
The maximum mass and radius of neutron stars and the nuclear symmetry energy
Gandolfi, S; Reddy, Sanjay
2011-01-01
We calculate the equation of state of neutron matter with realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions using Quantum Monte Carlo techniques, and demonstrate that the short-range three-neutron interaction determines the correlation between neutron matter energy at nuclear saturation density and the higher densities relevant to neutron stars. Our model for the nuclear interactions makes an experimentally testable prediction for the correlation between the neutron matter energy (which in turn is related to the symmetry energy) and its density dependence. This correlation is solely determined by the strength of the short-range 3 neutron force. The same force also provides a stringent constraint on the maximum mass and radius of neutron stars. An experimental measurement of the symmetry energy with an accuracy of $\\lsim 1$ MeV will enable model predictions for neutron star structure that can be tested with current and anticipated constraints on the masses and radii of neutron stars from x-ray observations.
Burnout current density of bismuth nanowires
Cornelius, T. W.; Picht, O.; Müller, S.; Neumann, R.; Völklein, F.; Karim, S.; Duan, J. L.
2008-05-01
Single bismuth nanowires with diameters ranging from 100nmto1μm were electrochemically deposited in ion track-etched single-pore polycarbonate membranes. The maximum current density the wires are able to carry was investigated by ramping up the current until failure occurred. It increases by three to four orders of magnitude for nanowires embedded in the template compared to bulk bismuth and rises with diminishing diameter. Simulations show that the wires are heated up electrically to the melting temperature. Since the surface-to-volume ratio rises with diminishing diameter, thinner wires dissipate the heat more efficiently to the surrounding polymer matrix and, thus, can tolerate larger current densities.
A Note on k-Limited Maximum Base
Yang Ruishun; Yang Xiaowei
2006-01-01
The problem of k-limited maximum base was specified into two special problems of k-limited maximum base; that is, let subset D of the problem of k-limited maximum base be an independent set and a circuit of the matroid, respectively. It was proved that under this circumstance the collections of k-limited base satisfy base axioms. Then a new matroid was determined, and the problem of k-limited maximum base was transformed to the problem of maximum base of this new matroid. Aiming at the problem, two algorithms, which in essence are greedy algorithms based on former matroid, were presented for the two special problems of k-limited maximum base. They were proved to be reasonable and more efficient than the algorithm presented by Ma Zhongfan in view of the complexity of algorithm.
An Interval Maximum Entropy Method for Quadratic Programming Problem
RUI Wen-juan; CAO De-xin; SONG Xie-wu
2005-01-01
With the idea of maximum entropy function and penalty function methods, we transform the quadratic programming problem into an unconstrained differentiable optimization problem, discuss the interval extension of the maximum entropy function, provide the region deletion test rules and design an interval maximum entropy algorithm for quadratic programming problem. The convergence of the method is proved and numerical results are presented. Both theoretical and numerical results show that the method is reliable and efficient.
Hutchinson, Thomas H. [Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3DH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: thom1@pml.ac.uk; Boegi, Christian [BASF SE, Product Safety, GUP/PA, Z470, 67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany); Winter, Matthew J. [AstraZeneca Safety, Health and Environment, Brixham Environmental Laboratory, Devon TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Owens, J. Willie [The Procter and Gamble Company, Central Product Safety, 11810 East Miami River Road, Cincinnati, OH 45252 (United States)
2009-02-19
There is increasing recognition of the need to identify specific sublethal effects of chemicals, such as reproductive toxicity, and specific modes of actions of the chemicals, such as interference with the endocrine system. To achieve these aims requires criteria which provide a basis to interpret study findings so as to separate these specific toxicities and modes of action from not only acute lethality per se but also from severe inanition and malaise that non-specifically compromise reproductive capacity and the response of endocrine endpoints. Mammalian toxicologists have recognized that very high dose levels are sometimes required to elicit both specific adverse effects and present the potential of non-specific 'systemic toxicity'. Mammalian toxicologists have developed the concept of a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) beyond which a specific toxicity or action cannot be attributed to a test substance due to the compromised state of the organism. Ecotoxicologists are now confronted by a similar challenge and must develop an analogous concept of a MTD and the respective criteria. As examples of this conundrum, we note recent developments in efforts to validate protocols for fish reproductive toxicity and endocrine screens (e.g. some chemicals originally selected as 'negatives' elicited decreases in fecundity or changes in endpoints intended to be biomarkers for endocrine modes of action). Unless analogous criteria can be developed, the potentially confounding effects of systemic toxicity may then undermine the reliable assessment of specific reproductive effects or biomarkers such as vitellogenin or spiggin. The same issue confronts other areas of aquatic toxicology (e.g., genotoxicity) and the use of aquatic animals for preclinical assessments of drugs (e.g., use of zebrafish for drug safety assessment). We propose that there are benefits to adopting the concept of an MTD for toxicology and pharmacology studies using fish and other aquatic