Horvath, Eric E; Yoo, Paul B; Amundsen, Cindy L; Webster, George D; Grill, Warren M
2010-03-01
Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) exhibit neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) causing high intravesicle pressures and incontinence. The first aim was to measure changes in maximum cystometric capacity (MCC) evoked by electrical stimulation of the dorsal genital nerve (DGN) delivered either continuously or conditionally (only during bladder contractions) in persons with SCI. The second aim was to use the external anal sphincter electromyogram (EMG(EAS)) for real-time control of conditional stimulation. Serial filling cystometries were performed in nine volunteers with complete or incomplete supra-sacral SCI. Conditional stimulation was delivered automatically when detrusor pressure increased to 8-12 cmH(2)O above baseline. MCCs were measured for each treatment (continuous, conditional, and no stimulation) and compared using post-ANOVA Tukey HSD paired comparisons. Additional treatments in two subjects used the EMG(EAS) for automatic control of conditional stimulation. Continuous and conditional stimulation increased MCC by 63 +/- 73 ml (36 +/- 24%) and 74 +/- 71 ml (51 +/- 37%), respectively (P stimulation. There was no significant difference between MCCs for conditional and continuous stimulation, but conditional stimulation significantly reduced stimulation time (174 +/- 154 sec, or 27 +/- 17% of total time) as compared to continuous stimulation (469 +/- 269 sec, 100% of total time, P stimulation time (21 +/- 8% of total time). Conditional stimulation generates increases in bladder capacity while substantially reducing stimulation time. Furthermore, EMG(EAS) was successfully used as a real-time feedback signal to control conditional electrical stimulation in a laboratory setting. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Cystometric analysis of the transplanted bladder
Rocha, Jeová Nina
2017-01-01
ABSTRACT Objective Cystometric evaluation of the bladder after autotransplant and isogeneic transplant in female rats. Material and Methods Two groups were constituted: (A) bladder autotransplant with two subgroups: R1 – (control) and R2 – (bladder transplant); (B) isogeneic bladder transplant with three subgroups; T1 – (control); T2–T3, two subgroups observed for 30 and 60 days after transplant, respectively. All animals underwent cystometric evaluation. Afterwards, the bladders were removed for histological study. Results The transplanted bladders did not show significant changes in filling/storage and emptying/micturition functions after 30 and 60 days of evolution. Upon macroscopical evaluation, there was good revascularization and the tissue was well preserved. Cystometry results: Did not show significant differences in the micturition pressure in subgroups T2-T3, but did between subgroups R1−R2, T1−T2, and T1−T3. Significant differences were verified in the micturition interval between T1−T3, T2−T3, but not between R1−R2, T1−T2. There was significant difference in the micturition duration between T1−T3 but not between R1−R2, T1−T2 and T2−T3. No fistula was noted on the suture site nor leakage of urine in the abdominal cavity or signs of necrosis or retraction were observed. Conclusions Transplant of the bladder was shown to be a viable procedure. The results indicate that there was structural and functional regeneration of transplanted bladders, and these results indicate that it is possible that vascular endothelium growth and neurogenesis factors are involved and activated in the process of the preservation or survival of the transplanted organ. PMID:28124533
AN INVERSE MAXIMUM CAPACITY PATH PROBLEM WITH LOWER BOUND CONSTRAINTS
杨超; 陈学旗
2002-01-01
The computational complexity of inverse mimimum capacity path problem with lower bound on capacity of maximum capacity path is examined, and it is proved that solution of this problem is NP-complete. A strong polynomial algorithm for a local optimal solution is provided.
Maximum physical capacity testing in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy
Knutsen, L.; Quist, M; Midtgaard, J
2006-01-01
BACKGROUND: Over the past few years there has been a growing interest in the field of physical exercise in rehabilitation of cancer patients, leading to requirements for objective maximum physical capacity measurement (maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) and one-repetition maximum (1RM)) to determine...
Maximum capacities of the 100-B water plant
Strand, N.O.
1953-04-27
Increases in process water flows will be needed as the current program of increasing pile power levels continues. The future process water flows that will be required are known to be beyond the present maximum capacities of component parts of the water system. It is desirable to determine the present maximum capacities of each major component part so that plans can be mode for modifications and/or additions to the present equipment to meet future required flows. The apparent hydraulic limit of the present piles is about 68,000 gpm. This figure is based on a tube inlet pressure of 400 psi, a tube flow of 34 gpm, and 2,000 effective tubes. In this document the results of tests and calculations to determine the present maximum capacities of each major component part of the 100-B water system will be presented. Emergency steam operated pumps will not be considered as it is doubtful of year around operation of a steam driven pump could be economically justified. Some possible ways to increase the process water flows of each component part of the water system to the ultimate of 68,000 gpm are given.
Mahanta, Kinkar; Medhi, Bikas; Kaur, Balpinder; Narasimhan, Kannan Laksmi
2008-04-01
To evaluate the comparative efficacy and safety of extended-release (ER) and instant-release (IR) tolterodine preparations in a pediatric population with neural tube defects having cystometric abnormalities. Twenty-five patients with neural tube defects and a similar demographic profile underwent a routine hemogram, liver function tests, renal function tests, urine culture, X-ray lumbo-sacral spine, and renal and bladder ultrasound. Vesicoureteric reflux was diagnosed by micturating cystourethrogram under fluoroscopy. Dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy was performed to study the presence or absence of renal scars. Patients were treated with tolterodine ER (Group I: 2mg once daily for 21 days) and tolterodine IR (Group II: 2mg twice daily for 21 day) in a cross-over study with a 10-day washout period between administrations. Evaluation was by subjective assessment, visual analog scale, urodynamic assessment and adverse drug reaction monitoring. There was ultrasound evidence of hydroureteronephrosis in 20% of the patients. One patient out of 25 had impaired renal function and eight patients had renal scarring on dimercaptosuccinic acid scans. Both forms of the drug increased the maximum cystometric bladder capacity, decreased detrusor leak pressures and increased compliance compared to pre-therapy levels (P=0.0001). Visual analog scale showed a significant clinical improvement with both ER and IR tolterodine. A significant increase in maximum bladder capacity in the group receiving IR tolterodine as compared to the ER preparation was noted (P=0.0001). The decrease in detrusor leak pressures and improvement in compliance were not significantly different between the groups. No adverse effects of hyperpyrexia, flushing or intolerance to outdoor temperatures, or dryness of mouth were observed in either group. No patient suffered from constipation. ER tolterodine 2mg once daily is as effective and well tolerated in children with neurogenic bladder as IR
Maximum work configurations of finite potential capacity reservoir chemical engines
无
2010-01-01
An isothermal endoreversible chemical engine operating between the finite potential capacity high-chemical-potential reservoir and the infinite potential capacity low-chemical-potential reservoir has been studied in this work.Optimal control theory was applied to determine the optimal cycle configurations corresponding to the maximum work output per cycle for the fixed total cycle time and a universal mass transfer law.Analyses of special examples showed that the optimal cycle configuration with the mass transfer law g∝△μ,where△μis the chemical potential difference,is an isothermal endoreversible chemical engine cycle,in which the chemical potential(or the concentration) of the key component in the working substance of low-chemical-potential side is a constant,while the chemical potentials(or the concentrations) of the key component in the finite potential capacity high-chemical-potential reservoir and the corresponding side working substance change nonlinearly with time,and the difference of the chemical potentials(or the ratio of the concentrations) of the key component between the high-chemical-potential reservoir and the working substance is a constant.While the optimal cycle configuration with the mass transfer law g∝△μc,where △μc is the concentration difference,is different from that with the mass transfer law g∝△μ significantly.When the high-chemical-potential reservoir is also an infinite potential capacity chemical potential reservoir,the optimal cycle configuration of the isothermal endoreversible chemical engine consists of two constant chemical potential branches and two instantaneous constant mass-flux branches,which is independent of the mass transfer law.The object studied in this paper is general,and the results can provide some guidelines for optimal design and operation of real chemical engines.
On the Maximum Storage Capacity of the Hopfield Model
Folli, Viola; Leonetti, Marco; Ruocco, Giancarlo
2017-01-01
Recurrent neural networks (RNN) have traditionally been of great interest for their capacity to store memories. In past years, several works have been devoted to determine the maximum storage capacity of RNN, especially for the case of the Hopfield network, the most popular kind of RNN. Analyzing the thermodynamic limit of the statistical properties of the Hamiltonian corresponding to the Hopfield neural network, it has been shown in the literature that the retrieval errors diverge when the number of stored memory patterns (P) exceeds a fraction (≈ 14%) of the network size N. In this paper, we study the storage performance of a generalized Hopfield model, where the diagonal elements of the connection matrix are allowed to be different from zero. We investigate this model at finite N. We give an analytical expression for the number of retrieval errors and show that, by increasing the number of stored patterns over a certain threshold, the errors start to decrease and reach values below unit for P ≫ N. We demonstrate that the strongest trade-off between efficiency and effectiveness relies on the number of patterns (P) that are stored in the network by appropriately fixing the connection weights. When P≫N and the diagonal elements of the adjacency matrix are not forced to be zero, the optimal storage capacity is obtained with a number of stored memories much larger than previously reported. This theory paves the way to the design of RNN with high storage capacity and able to retrieve the desired pattern without distortions. PMID:28119595
Estimating landscape carrying capacity through maximum clique analysis.
Donovan, Therese M; Warrington, Gregory S; Schwenk, W Scott; Dinitz, Jeffrey H
2012-12-01
Habitat suitability (HS) maps are widely used tools in wildlife science and establish a link between wildlife populations and landscape pattern. Although HS maps spatially depict the distribution of optimal resources for a species, they do not reveal the population size a landscape is capable of supporting--information that is often crucial for decision makers and managers. We used a new approach, "maximum clique analysis," to demonstrate how HS maps for territorial species can be used to estimate the carrying capacity, N(k), of a given landscape. We estimated the N(k) of Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapillus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) in an 1153-km2 study area in Vermont, USA. These two species were selected to highlight different approaches in building an HS map as well as computational challenges that can arise in a maximum clique analysis. We derived 30-m2 HS maps for each species via occupancy modeling (Ovenbird) and by resource utilization modeling (bobcats). For each species, we then identified all pixel locations on the map (points) that had sufficient resources in the surrounding area to maintain a home range (termed a "pseudo-home range"). These locations were converted to a mathematical graph, where any two points were linked if two pseudo-home ranges could exist on the landscape without violating territory boundaries. We used the program Cliquer to find the maximum clique of each graph. The resulting estimates of N(k) = 236 Ovenbirds and N(k) = 42 female bobcats were sensitive to different assumptions and model inputs. Estimates of N(k) via alternative, ad hoc methods were 1.4 to > 30 times greater than the maximum clique estimate, suggesting that the alternative results may be upwardly biased. The maximum clique analysis was computationally intensive but could handle problems with < 1500 total pseudo-home ranges (points). Given present computational constraints, it is best suited for species that occur in clustered distributions (where the problem can be
Power optimization for maximum channel capacity in MIMO relay system
无
2007-01-01
Introducing multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay channel could offer significant capacity gain.And it is of great importance to develop effective power allocation strategies to achieve power efficiency and improve channel capacity in amplify-and-forward relay system.This article investigates a two-hop MIMO relay system with multiple antennas in relay node (RN) and receiver (RX).Maximizing capacity with antenna selection (MCAS) and maximizing capacity with eigen-decomposition (MCED) schemes are proposed to efficiently allocate power among antennas in RN under first and second hop limited scenarios.The analysis and simulation results show that both MCED and MCAS can improve the channel capacity compared with uniform power allocation (UPA) scheme in most of the studied areas.The MCAS bears comparison with MCED with an acceptable capacity loss, but lowers the complexity by saving channel state information (CSI) feedback to the transmitter (TX).Moreover, when the RN is close to RX, the performance of UPA is also close to the upper bound as the performance of first hop is limited.
Maximum Flow in Planar Networks with Exponentially Distributed Arc Capacities.
1984-12-01
avoid constructing the dual, are described in Itai and Shiloach P 97 91. In this paper, we consider the maximum flow problem in (st) planar networks...use arc e and lies completely below P. If no such path exists we say P(e) - *. An algorithm tc construct P(e) given P and e is described in Itai and...suggested in Ford and Fulkerson [1956], developed in Berge and Ghouila-Houri [1962] and its time complexity is reduced to 0( IVI log IVI ) by Itai and
A MODEL FOR THE "MAXIMUM CAPACITY" OF ROOMS OR OF SPACE
Zi-yan WU
2003-01-01
A discrete optimum mathematical model to derive the "maximum capacity" of people in a roomor in a space used for public gatherings is developed. There are two outcomes in the model. One isfocused on whether the person farthest from exits can escape from the room. The other concentrateson the evacuation time of all the people in the room. According to the results of the two outcomes, amore reasonable "maximum capacity" can be worked out in a simple way.
STUDY ON MAXIMUM HYDROGEN CAPACITY FOR Zr-Ni AMORPHOUS ALLOY
无
2000-01-01
To design the amorphous hydrogen storage alloy efficiently, the maximum hydrogen capacities for Zr-Ni amorphous alloy were calculated. Based on the Rhomb Unit Structure Model(RUSM) for amorphous alloy and the experimental result that hydrogen atoms exist in 3Zr1Ni and 4Zr tetrahedron interstices in Zr-Ni amorphous alloy, the numbers of 3Zr-1Ni and 4Zr tetrahedron interstices in a RUSM were calculated which correspond to the hydrogen capacity. The two extremum Zr distribution states were calculated, such as highly heterogeneous Zr distribution and homogeneous Zr distribution. The calculated curves of hydrogen capacity with different Zr contents at two states indicate that the hydrogen capacity increases with increasing Zr content and reaches its maximum when Zr is 75%. The theoretical maximum hydrogen capacity for Zr-Ni amorphous alloy is 2.0(H/M). Meanwhile, the hydrogen capacity of heterogeneous Zr distribution alloy is higher than that of homogenous one at the same Zr content. The experimental results prove the calculated results reasonable, and accordingly, the experimental results that the distribution of Zr atom in amorphous alloy occur heterogeneous after a few hydrogen absorption-desorption cycles can be explained.
Lihui Guo
2015-01-01
Full Text Available With the increasing penetration of wind power, the randomness and volatility of wind power output would have a greater impact on safety and steady operation of power system. In allusion to the uncertainty of wind speed and load demand, this paper applied box set robust optimization theory in determining the maximum allowable installed capacity of wind farm, while constraints of node voltage and line capacity are considered. Optimized duality theory is used to simplify the model and convert uncertainty quantities in constraints into certainty quantities. Under the condition of multi wind farms, a bilevel optimization model to calculate penetration capacity is proposed. The result of IEEE 30-bus system shows that the robust optimization model proposed in the paper is correct and effective and indicates that the fluctuation range of wind speed and load and the importance degree of grid connection point of wind farm and load point have impact on the allowable capacity of wind farm.
Abhishek Khanna
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We revisit the problem of optimal power extraction in four-step cycles (two adiabatic and two heat-transfer branches when the finite-rate heat transfer obeys a linear law and the heat reservoirs have finite heat capacities. The heat-transfer branch follows a polytropic process in which the heat capacity of the working fluid stays constant. For the case of ideal gas as working fluid and a given switching time, it is shown that maximum work is obtained at Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency. Our expressions clearly show the dependence on the relative magnitudes of heat capacities of the fluid and the reservoirs. Many previous formulae, including infinite reservoirs, infinite-time cycles, and Carnot-like and non-Carnot-like cycles, are recovered as special cases of our model.
Ghiyasvand Mehdi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new problem on a directed network is presented. Let D be a feasible network such that all arc capacities are equal to U. Given a t > 0, the network D with arc capacities U - t is called the t-network. The goal of the problem is to compute the largest t such that the t-network is feasible. First, we present a weakly polynomial time algorithm to solve this problem, which runs in O(log(nU maximum flow computations, where n is the number of nodes. Then, an O(m2n time approach is presented, where m is the number of arcs. Both the weakly and strongly polynomial algorithms are inspired by McCormick and Ervolina (1994.
Yang, Hui; Zhu, Xiaoxu; Bai, Wei; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Zhu; Zhou, Ziguan; Ou, Qinghai
2016-09-01
Virtualization is considered to be a promising solution to support various emerging applications. This paper illustrates the problem of virtual mapping from a new perspective, and mainly focuses on survivable mapping of virtual networks and the potential trade-off between spectral resource usage effectiveness and failure resilience level. We design an optimum shared protection mapping (OSPM) scheme in elastic optical networks. A differentiable maximum shared capacity of each frequency slot is defined to more efficiently shared protection resource. In order to satisfy various assessment standards, a metric called ambiguity similitude is defined for the first time to give insight on the optimizing difficulty. Simulation results are presented to compare the outcome of the novel OSPM algorithm with traditional dedicated link protection and maximum shared protection mapping. By synthetic analysis, OSPM outperforms the other two schemes in terms of striking a perfect balance among blocking probability, resources utilization, protective success rate, and spectrum redundancy.
Impact of Maximum Allowable Cost on CO2 Storage Capacity in Saline Formations.
Mathias, Simon A; Gluyas, Jon G; Goldthorpe, Ward H; Mackay, Eric J
2015-11-17
Injecting CO2 into deep saline formations represents an important component of many greenhouse-gas-reduction strategies for the future. A number of authors have posed concern over the thousands of injection wells likely to be needed. However, a more important criterion than the number of wells is whether the total cost of storing the CO2 is market-bearable. Previous studies have sought to determine the number of injection wells required to achieve a specified storage target. Here an alternative methodology is presented whereby we specify a maximum allowable cost (MAC) per ton of CO2 stored, a priori, and determine the corresponding potential operational storage capacity. The methodology takes advantage of an analytical solution for pressure build-up during CO2 injection into a cylindrical saline formation, accounting for two-phase flow, brine evaporation, and salt precipitation around the injection well. The methodology is applied to 375 saline formations from the U.K. Continental Shelf. Parameter uncertainty is propagated using Monte Carlo simulation with 10 000 realizations for each formation. The results show that MAC affects both the magnitude and spatial distribution of potential operational storage capacity on a national scale. Different storage prospects can appear more or less attractive depending on the MAC scenario considered. It is also shown that, under high well-injection rate scenarios with relatively low cost, there is adequate operational storage capacity for the equivalent of 40 years of U.K. CO2 emissions.
Maximum jaw opening capacity in adolescents in relation to general joint mobility.
Westling, L; Helkimo, E
1992-09-01
Mandibular jaw opening was related with general joint mobility in a non-patient adolescent group. The angular rotation of the mandible at maximum jaw opening was slightly larger in females than in males and significantly larger in hypermobile individuals. No significant relationship between linear measuring of maximal mandibular opening capacity and peripheral joint mobility was found either at active (AROM) or at passive range of mandibular opening (PROM). PROM was strongly correlated to the mandibular length. Clinical signs in the great jaw closer muscles could not be associated to decreased AROM. The mean value of the difference between PROM-AROM (DPA) was 1.2 mm. Frequent clenching and/or grinding was correlated to increased DPA only in hypermobile adolescents (r = 0.49***). Those with DPA exceeding 5mm had all reciprocal clicking.
P. Heydari
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Background: The maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max can be used to evaluate the cardio-pulmonary condition and to provide physiological balance between a person and his job. Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the maximum aerobic capacity and its associated factors among students of medical emergencies in Qazvin. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 36 male students of medical emergencies in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, 2015. The Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q and demographic questionnaire were completed by the participants. The participants meeting the inclusion criteria were assessed using the Gerkin treadmill protocol. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis. Findings: Mean maximum aerobic capacity was 1.94±0.27 L/min. The maximum aerobic capacity was associated with weight and height groups. There was significant positive correlation between maximal aerobic capacity and height, weight and body mass index. Conclusion: The Gerkin treadmill test is useful for estimation of the maximum aerobic capacity and the maximum working ability in students of medical emergencies.
L. T. Murray
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The oxidative capacity of past atmospheres is highly uncertain. We present here a new climate-biosphere-chemistry modeling framework to determine oxidant levels in the present and past troposphere. We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model driven by meteorological fields from the NASA Goddard Institute of Space Studies (GISS ModelE, with land cover and fire emissions from dynamic global vegetation models. We present time-slice simulations for the present day, late preindustrial (AD 1770, and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 19–23 ka, and we test the sensitivity of model results to uncertainty in lightning and fire emissions. We find that most preindustrial and paleo climate simulations yield reduced oxidant levels relative to the present day. Contrary to prior studies, tropospheric mean OH in our ensemble shows little change at the LGM relative to the preindustrial (0.5 ± 12%, despite large reductions in methane concentrations. We find a simple linear relationship between tropospheric mean ozone photolysis rates, water vapor, and total emissions of NOx and reactive carbon that explains 72% of the variability in global mean OH in 11 different simulations across the last glacial-interglacial time interval and the Industrial Era. Key parameters controlling the tropospheric oxidative capacity over glacial-interglacial periods include overhead stratospheric ozone, tropospheric water vapor, and lightning NOx emissions. Variability in global mean OH since the LGM is insensitive to fire emissions. Our simulations are broadly consistent with ice-core records of Δ17O in sulfate and nitrate at the LGM, and CO, HCHO, and H2O2 in the preindustrial. Our results imply that the glacial-interglacial changes in atmospheric methane observed in ice cores are predominantly driven by changes in its sources as opposed to its sink with OH.
Giese, Heiner; Azizan, Amizon; Kümmel, Anne; Liao, Anping; Peter, Cyril P; Fonseca, João A; Hermann, Robert; Duarte, Tiago M; Büchs, Jochen
2014-02-01
In biotechnological screening and production, oxygen supply is a crucial parameter. Even though oxygen transfer is well documented for viscous cultivations in stirred tanks, little is known about the gas/liquid oxygen transfer in shake flask cultures that become increasingly viscous during cultivation. Especially the oxygen transfer into the liquid film, adhering on the shake flask wall, has not yet been described for such cultivations. In this study, the oxygen transfer of chemical and microbial model experiments was measured and the suitability of the widely applied film theory of Higbie was studied. With numerical simulations of Fick's law of diffusion, it was demonstrated that Higbie's film theory does not apply for cultivations which occur at viscosities up to 10 mPa s. For the first time, it was experimentally shown that the maximum oxygen transfer capacity OTRmax increases in shake flasks when viscosity is increased from 1 to 10 mPa s, leading to an improved oxygen supply for microorganisms. Additionally, the OTRmax does not significantly undermatch the OTRmax at waterlike viscosities, even at elevated viscosities of up to 80 mPa s. In this range, a shake flask is a somehow self-regulating system with respect to oxygen supply. This is in contrary to stirred tanks, where the oxygen supply is steadily reduced to only 5% at 80 mPa s. Since, the liquid film formation at shake flask walls inherently promotes the oxygen supply at moderate and at elevated viscosities, these results have significant implications for scale-up.
Benkhelifa, Fatma
2013-04-01
In this letter, we study the ergodic capacity of a maximum ratio combining (MRC) Rician fading channel with full channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter and at the receiver. We focus on the low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) regime and we show that the capacity scales as L ΩK+L SNRx log(1SNR), where Ω is the expected channel gain per branch, K is the Rician fading factor, and L is the number of diversity branches. We show that one-bit CSI feedback at the transmitter is enough to achieve this capacity using an on-off power control scheme. Our framework can be seen as a generalization of recently established results regarding the fading-channels capacity characterization in the low-SNR regime. © 2012 IEEE.
Bahrami Hamid Reza
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The ergodic capacity of MIMO frequency-flat and -selective channels depends greatly on the eigenvalue distribution of spatial correlation matrices. Knowing the eigenstructure of correlation matrices at the transmitter is very important to enhance the capacity of the system. This fact becomes of great importance in MIMO wireless systems where because of the fast changing nature of the underlying channel, full channel knowledge is difficult to obtain at the transmitter. In this paper, we first investigate the effect of eigenvalues distribution of spatial correlation matrices on the capacity of frequency-flat and -selective channels. Next, we introduce a practical scheme known as linear precoding that can enhance the ergodic capacity of the channel by changing the eigenstructure of the channel by applying a linear transformation. We derive the structures of precoders using eigenvalue decomposition and linear algebra techniques in both cases and show their similarities from an algebraic point of view. Simulations show the ability of this technique to change the eigenstructure of the channel, and hence enhance the ergodic capacity considerably.
Ar Rasyid Shadiqin
2013-11-01
Full Text Available This study is aimed to compare the blood cholesterol profile, before and after the measurement of maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max in the students of Jurusan Pendidikan Olahraga dan Kesehatan (JPOK pada Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan (FKIP Universitas Lambung Mangkurat Banjarmasin.Variables in this study consist of lipid profiles, including total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, triglyceride (TG and Maximum Aerobic Capacity (VO2max. The concept of VO2max according to Kent(1994:268: “maximum oxygen volume consumed per minute to show total work capacity, or volume per minute relative to body weight (ml/kg.min”. Operationally, VO2max referred in this study is the maximum volume of oxygen that can be consumed per minute, as measured at progressive run (Bleep Test.The method used in this study is pre-experimental with one group pretest-posttest design. This design implies that a group of subjects are treated for a specific period and the measurements are taken both pre and post.The results: There are changes in blood cholesterol profile after the measurement of maximum oxygen capacity (VO2max, shown by significant decrease of total cholesterol variable, increased HDL, and decreased LDL. Changes in triglyceride variable showed no significant decrease despite the statistic differences. Specific HDL sub-class increasing after exercise is a constructive lipoprotein sub-class whereas LDL is destructive lipoproteins sub-class that might damage the body. Therefore, an increase in HDL and decrease in LDL found in this study appears to be advantageous and consequently might alter the risk of coronary heart disease.
BV-capacities on Wiener Spaces and Regularity of the Maximum of the Wiener Process
Trevisan, Dario
2012-01-01
We define a capacity C on abstract Wiener spaces and prove that, for any u with bounded variation, the total variation measure |Du| is absolutely continuous with respect to C: this enables us to extend the usual rules of calculus in many cases dealing with BV functions. As an application, we show that, on the classical Wiener space, the random variable sup_{0\\leqt\\leqT} W_t admits a measure as second derivative, whose total variation measure is singular w.r.t. the Wiener measure.
Assessment of Maximum Aerobic Capacity and Anaerobic Threshold of Elite Ballet Dancers.
Wyon, Matthew A; Allen, Nick; Cloak, Ross; Beck, Sarah; Davies, Paul; Clarke, Frances
2016-09-01
An athlete's cardiorespiratory profile, maximal aerobic capacity, and anaerobic threshold is affected by training regimen and competition demands. The present study aimed to ascertain whether there are company rank differences in maximal aerobic capacity and anaerobic threshold in elite classical ballet dancers. Seventy-four volunteers (M 34, F 40) were recruited from two full-time professional classical ballet companies. All participants completed a continuous incremental treadmill protocol with a 1-km/hr speed increase at the end of each 1-min stage until termination criteria had been achieved (e.g., voluntary cessation, respiratory exchange ratio <1.15, HR ±5 bpm of estimated HRmax). Peak VO2 (5-breathe smooth) was recorded and anaerobic threshold calculated using ventilatory curve and ventilatory equivalents methods. Statistical analysis reported between-subject effects for gender (F1,67=35.18, p<0.001) and rank (F1,67=8.67, p<0.001); post hoc tests reported soloists (39.5±5.15 mL/kg/min) as having significantly lower VO2 peak than artists (45.9±5.75 mL/kg/min, p<0.001) and principal dancers (48.07±3.24 mL/kg/min, p<0.001). Significant differences in anaerobic threshold were reported for age (F1,67=7.68, p=0.008) and rank (F1,67=3.56, p=0.034); post hoc tests reported artists (75.8±5.45%) having significantly lower anaerobic threshold than soloists (80.9±5.71, p<0.01) and principals (84.1±4.84%, p<0.001). The observed differences in VO2 peak and anaerobic threshold between the ranks in ballet companies are probably due to the different rehearsal and performance demands.
Ghani, Kay Dora Abd.; Tukiar, Mohd Azuan; Hamid, Nor Hayati Abdul
2017-08-01
Malaysia is surrounded by the tectonic feature of the Sumatera area which consists of two seismically active inter-plate boundaries, namely the Indo-Australian and the Eurasian Plates on the west and the Philippine Plates on the east. Hence, Malaysia experiences tremors from far distant earthquake occurring in Banda Aceh, Nias Island, Padang and other parts of Sumatera Indonesia. In order to predict the safety of precast buildings in Malaysia under near field ground motion the response spectrum analysis could be used for dealing with future earthquake whose specific nature is unknown. This paper aimed to develop of capacity demand response spectrum subject to Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) and Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) in order to assess the performance of precast beam column joint. From the capacity-demand response spectrum analysis, it can be concluded that the precast beam-column joints would not survive when subjected to earthquake excitation with surface-wave magnitude, Mw, of more than 5.5 Scale Richter (Type 1 spectra). This means that the beam-column joint which was designed using the current code of practice (BS8110) would be severely damaged when subjected to high earthquake excitation. The capacity-demand response spectrum analysis also shows that the precast beam-column joints in the prototype studied would be severely damaged when subjected to Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) with PGA=0.22g having a surface-wave magnitude of more than 5.5 Scale Richter, or Type 1 spectra.
Brileya, Kristen A; Camilleri, Laura B; Zane, Grant M; Wall, Judy D; Fields, Matthew W
2014-01-01
Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can interact syntrophically with other community members in the absence of sulfate, and interactions with hydrogen-consuming methanogens are beneficial when these archaea consume potentially inhibitory H2 produced by the SRB. A dual continuous culture approach was used to characterize population structure within a syntrophic biofilm formed by the SRB Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and the methanogenic archaeum Methanococcus maripaludis. Under the tested conditions, monocultures of D. vulgaris formed thin, stable biofilms, but monoculture M. maripaludis did not. Microscopy of intact syntrophic biofilm confirmed that D. vulgaris formed a scaffold for the biofilm, while intermediate and steady-state images revealed that M. maripaludis joined the biofilm later, likely in response to H2 produced by the SRB. Close interactions in structured biofilm allowed efficient transfer of H2 to M. maripaludis, and H2 was only detected in cocultures with a mutant SRB that was deficient in biofilm formation (ΔpilA). M. maripaludis produced more carbohydrate (uronic acid, hexose, and pentose) as a monoculture compared to total coculture biofilm, and this suggested an altered carbon flux during syntrophy. The syntrophic biofilm was structured into ridges (∼300 × 50 μm) and models predicted lactate limitation at ∼50 μm biofilm depth. The biofilm had structure that likely facilitated mass transfer of H2 and lactate, yet maximized biomass with a more even population composition (number of each organism) when compared to the bulk-phase community. Total biomass protein was equivalent in lactate-limited and lactate-excess conditions when a biofilm was present, but in the absence of biofilm, total biomass protein was significantly reduced. The results suggest that multispecies biofilms create an environment conducive to resource sharing, resulting in increased biomass retention, or carrying capacity, for cooperative populations.
Kristen Annis Brileya
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB can interact syntrophically with other community members in the absence of sulfate, and interactions with hydrogen-consuming methanogens are beneficial when these archaea consume potentially inhibitory H2 produced by the SRB. A dual continuous culture approach was used to characterize population structure within a syntrophic biofilm formed by the SRB Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and the methanogenic archaeum Methanococcus maripaludis. Under the tested conditions, monocultures of D. vulgaris formed thin, stable biofilms, but monoculture M. maripaludis did not. Microscopy of intact syntrophic biofilm confirmed that D. vulgaris formed a scaffold for the biofilm, while intermediate and steady-state images revealed that M. maripaludis joined the biofilm later, likely in response to H2 produced by the SRB. Close interactions in structured biofilm allowed efficient transfer of H2 to M. maripaludis, and H2 was only detected in cocultures with a mutant SRB that was deficient in biofilm formation ( delta pilA. M. maripaludis produced more carbohydrate (uronic acid, hexose, and pentose as a monoculture compared to total coculture biofilm, and this suggested an altered carbon flux during syntrophy. The syntrophic biofilm was structured into ridges (~300 x 50 um and models predicted lactate limitation at approximately 50 um biofilm depth. The biofilm had structure that likely facilitated mass transfer of H2 and lactate, yet maximized biomass with a more even population composition (number of each organism when compared to the bulk-phase community. Total biomass protein was equivalent in lactate-limited and lactate-excess conditions when a biofilm was present, but in the absence of biofilm, total biomass protein was significantly reduced. The results suggest that multispecies biofilms create an environment conducive to resource sharing, resulting in increased biomass retention, or carrying capacity, for cooperative
Inoue, T.; Yurimoto, H.
2012-12-01
Water is the most important volatile component in the Earth, and affects the physicochemical properties of mantle minerals, e.g. density, elastic property, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, rheological property, melting temperature, melt composition, element partitioning, etc. So many high pressure experiments have been conducted so far to determine the effect of water on mantle minerals. To clarify the maximum water storage capacity in nominally anhydrous mantle minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle is an important issue to discuss the possibility of the existence of water reservoir in the Earth mantle. So we have been clarifying the maximum water storage capacity in mantle minerals using MA-8 type (KAWAI-type) high pressure apparatus and SIMS (secondary ion mass spectroscopy). Upper mantle mineral, olivine can contain ~0.9 wt% H2O in the condition just above 410 km discontinuity in maximum (e.g. Chen et al., 2002; Smyth et al., 2006). On the other hand, mantle transition zone mineral, wadsleyite and ringwoodite can contain significant amount (about 2-3 wt.%) of H2O (e.g. Inoue et al., 1995, 1998, 2010; Kawamoto et al., 1996; Ohtani et al., 2000). But the lower mantle mineral, perovskite can not contain significant amount of H2O, less than ~0.1 wt% (e.g. Murakami et al., 2002; Inoue et al., 2010). In addition, garnet and stishovite also can not contain significant amount of H2O (e.g. Katayama et al., 2003; Mookherjee and Karato, 2010; Litasov et al., 2007). On the other hand, the water storage capacities of mantle minerals are supposed to be significantly coupled with Al by a substitution with Mg2+, Si4+ or Mg2+ + Si4+, because Al3+ is the trivalent cation, and H+ is the monovalent cation. To clarify the degree of the substitution, the water contents and the chemical compositions of Al-bearing minerals in the mantle transition zone and the lower mantle were also determined in the Al-bearing systems with H2O. We will introduce the
ZHANG Yang-zhu; HUANG Shun-hong; WAN Da-juan; HUANG Yun-xiang; ZHOU Wei-jun; ZOU Ying-bin
2007-01-01
In order to understand the status of fixed ammonium, fixed ammonium content, maximum capacity of ammonium fixation, and their influencing factors in major types of tillage soils of Hunan Province, China, were studied with sampling on fields, and laboratory incubation and determination. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) Content of fixed ammonium in the tested soils varies greatly with soil use pattern and the nature of parent material. For the paddy soils, it ranges from 135.4 ± 57.4 to 412.8±32.4 mg kg-1, with 304.7±96.7 mg kg-1 in average; while it ranges from 59.4 to 435.7 mg kg-1, with 230.1 ± 89.2 mg kg1 in average for the upland soils. The soils developed from limnic material and slate had higher fixed ammonium content than the soils developed from granite. The percentage of fixed ammonium to total N in the upland soils is always higher than that in the paddy soils. It ranges from 6.1 ± 3.6% to 16.6 ±4.6%, with 14.0% ± 5.1% in average for the paddy soils and it amounted to 5.8 ±2.0% to 40.1 ± 17.8%, with 23.5 ± 14.2% in average for upland soils. (2) The maximum capacity of ammonium fixation has the same trend with the fixed ammonium content in the tested soils. For all the tested soils, the percentage of recently fixed ammonium to maximum capacity of ammonium fixation is always bellow 20% and it may be due to the fact that the soils have high fertility and high saturation of ammonium-fixing site. (3) The clay content and clay composition in the tested soils are the two important factors influe ncing their fixed ammonium content and maximum capacity of ammonium fixation. The results showed that hydrous mica is the main 2:1 type clay mineral in ＜0.02 mm clay of the paddy soils, and its content in 0.02-0.002 mm clay is much higher than that in ＜ 0.002 mm clay of the soils. The statistical analysis showed that both the fixed ammonium content and the maximum capacity of ammonium fixation of the paddy soils were positively correlated with
Melnikov, A. A.; Kostishin, V. G.; Alenkov, V. V.
2016-09-01
Real operating conditions of a thermoelectric cooling device are in the presence of thermal resistances between thermoelectric material and a heat medium or cooling object. They limit performance of a device and should be considered when modeling. Here we propose a dimensionless mathematical steady state model, which takes them into account. Analytical equations for dimensionless cooling capacity, voltage, and coefficient of performance (COP) depending on dimensionless current are given. For improved accuracy a device can be modeled with use of numerical or combined analytical-numerical methods. The results of modeling are in acceptable accordance with experimental results. The case of zero temperature difference between hot and cold heat mediums at which the maximum cooling capacity mode appears is considered in detail. Optimal device parameters for maximal cooling capacity, such as fraction of thermal conductance on the cold side y, fraction of current relative to maximal j' are estimated in range of 0.38-0.44 and 0.48-0.95, respectively, for dimensionless conductance K' = 5-100. Also, a method for determination of thermal resistances of a thermoelectric cooling system is proposed.
Zhou, W.; Qiu, G. Y.; Oodo, S. O.; He, H.
2013-03-01
An increasing interest in wind energy and the advance of related technologies have increased the connection of wind power generation into electrical grids. This paper proposes an optimization model for determining the maximum capacity of wind farms in a power system. In this model, generator power output limits, voltage limits and thermal limits of branches in the grid system were considered in order to limit the steady-state security influence of wind generators on the power system. The optimization model was solved by a nonlinear primal-dual interior-point method. An IEEE-30 bus system with two wind farms was tested through simulation studies, plus an analysis conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed model. The results indicated that the model is efficient and reasonable.
Chappell, Mark; Odell, Jason
2004-01-01
We measured maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) and burst speed in populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from contrasting high- and low-predation habitats but reared in "common garden" conditions. We tested two hypothesis: first, that predation, which causes rapid life-history evolution in guppies, also impacts locomotor physiology, and second, that trade-offs would occur between burst and aerobic performance. VO(2max) was higher than predicted from allometry, and resting VO(2) was lower than predicted. There were small interdrainage differences in male VO(2max), but predation did not affect VO(2max) in either sex. Maximum burst speed was correlated with size; absolute burst speed was higher in females, but size-adjusted speed was greater in males. For both sexes, burst speed conformed to allometric predictions. There were differences in burst speed between drainages in females, but predation regime did not affect burst speed in either sex. We did not find a significant correlation between burst speed and VO(2max), suggesting no trade-off between these traits. These results indicate that predation-mediated evolution of guppy life history does not produce concomitant evolution in aerobic capacity and maximum burst speed. However, other aspects of swimming performance (response latencies or acceleration) might show adaptive divergence in contrasting predation regimes.
Matthew D. Beekley
2006-07-01
Full Text Available Sumo wrestling is unique in combat sport, and in all of sport. We examined the maximum aerobic capacity and body composition of sumo wrestlers and compared them to untrained controls. We also compared "aerobic muscle quality", meaning VO2max normalized to predicted skeletal muscle mass (SMM (VO2max /SMM, between sumo wrestlers and controls and among previously published data for male athletes from combat, aerobic, and power sports. Sumo wrestlers, compared to untrained controls, had greater (p < 0.05 body mass (mean ± SD; 117.0 ± 4.9 vs. 56.1 ± 9.8 kg, percent fat (24.0 ± 1.4 vs. 13.3 ± 4.5, fat-free mass (88.9 ± 4.2 vs. 48.4 �� 6.8 kg, predicted SMM (48.2 ± 2.9 vs. 20.6 ± 4.7 kg and absolute VO2max (3.6 ± 1.3 vs. 2.5 ± 0.7 L·min-1. Mean VO2max /SMM (ml·kg SMM-1·min-1 was significantly different (p < 0.05 among aerobic athletes (164.8 ± 18.3, combat athletes (which was not different from untrained controls; 131.4 ± 9.3 and 128.6 ± 13.6, respectively, power athletes (96.5 ± 5.3, and sumo wrestlers (71.4 ± 5.3. There was a strong negative correlation (r = - 0.75 between percent body fat and VO2max /SMM (p < 0.05. We conclude that sumo wrestlers have some of the largest percent body fat and fat-free mass and the lowest "aerobic muscle quality" (VO2max /SMM, both in combat sport and compared to aerobic and power sport athletes. Additionally, it appears from analysis of the relationship between SMM and absolute VO2max for all sports that there is a "ceiling" at which increases in SMM do not result in additional increases in absolute VO2max
Culley, S.; Noble, S.; Yates, A.; Timbs, M.; Westra, S.; Maier, H. R.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.
2016-09-01
Many water resource systems have been designed assuming that the statistical characteristics of future inflows are similar to those of the historical record. This assumption is no longer valid due to large-scale changes in the global climate, potentially causing declines in water resource system performance, or even complete system failure. Upgrading system infrastructure to cope with climate change can require substantial financial outlay, so it might be preferable to optimize existing system performance when possible. This paper builds on decision scaling theory by proposing a bottom-up approach to designing optimal feedback control policies for a water system exposed to a changing climate. This approach not only describes optimal operational policies for a range of potential climatic changes but also enables an assessment of a system's upper limit of its operational adaptive capacity, beyond which upgrades to infrastructure become unavoidable. The approach is illustrated using the Lake Como system in Northern Italy—a regulated system with a complex relationship between climate and system performance. By optimizing system operation under different hydrometeorological states, it is shown that the system can continue to meet its minimum performance requirements for more than three times as many states as it can under current operations. Importantly, a single management policy, no matter how robust, cannot fully utilize existing infrastructure as effectively as an ensemble of flexible management policies that are updated as the climate changes.
风电场最大注入容量的研究%RESEARCH ON CAPACITY OF WIND FARM MAXIMUM POWER INTEGRATION
王湘明; 高杨; 刘丽钧
2012-01-01
In recent years, with the increasing development and application of wind power technology, the proportion of the wind power in power system has grown up, consequently the connecting wind power had impacted much on power system. In this paper, it studies of variable speed constant frequency doubly fed wind turbine, separately join 3-kind-turbine wind farms to IEEE-14. A method combined of steady and transient state has been used to analyse the maximum capacity of power systems, and ensure the wind farm capacity maintained the system stability. Simulation results show that the number of the turbines connecting to the system will be proportional to the its power, thus determine the maximum capacity of the wind farm. The method is used to determine the largest wind farm connecting to power system capacity, thus can guarantee its own wind farm and the system stability.%以变速恒频双馈风电机组为研究对象,对IEEE-14系统分别加入3种不同功率的风力发电机组成的风电场,采用稳态和暂态相结合的方法对最大装机容量进行分析,确定能使系统保持稳定的风电场容量.仿真计算结果表明,不同功率的风机并入系统中的台数与其功率有一定的比例关系,从而确定了风电场的最大容量.利用该方法确定的风电场接入电力系统最大容量,可保证风电场自身及系统运行的稳定性.
Di Cagno, Massimiliano; Styskala, Jakub; Hlaváč, Jan
2011-01-01
Four new 3-hydroxy-quinolinone derivatives with promising anticancer activity could be solubilized using liposomes as vehicle to an extent that allows their in vitro and in vivo testing without use of toxic solvent(s). A screening method to identify the maximum incorporation capacity of hydrophobic...... drugs within liposomes was successfully applied. The compounds and lipid(s) were dissolved in methanol, and the solvent was removed by rotary evaporation. The film was resuspended with phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), and the dispersion was sonicated to reduce vesicle size. Ultracentrifugation was used...
Kuijer, P P F M; van Oostrom, S H; Duijzer, K; van Dieën, J H
2012-01-01
It is unclear whether the maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL), a common psychophysical method, reflects joint kinetics when different lifting techniques are employed. In a within-participants study (n = 12), participants performed three lifting techniques--free style, stoop and squat lifting from knee to waist level--using the same dynamic functional capacity evaluation lifting test to assess MAWL and to calculate low back and knee kinetics. We assessed which knee and back kinetic parameters increased with the load mass lifted, and whether the magnitudes of the kinetic parameters were consistent across techniques when lifting MAWL. MAWL was significantly different between techniques (p = 0.03). The peak lumbosacral extension moment met both criteria: it had the highest association with the load masses lifted (r > 0.9) and was most consistent between the three techniques when lifting MAWL (ICC = 0.87). In conclusion, MAWL reflects the lumbosacral extension moment across free style, stoop and squat lifting in healthy young males, but the relation between the load mass lifted and lumbosacral extension moment is different between techniques. Tests of maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) from knee to waist height are used to assess work capacity of individuals with low-back disorders. This article shows that the MAWL reflects the lumbosacral extension moment across free style, stoop and squat lifting in healthy young males, but the relation between the load mass lifted and lumbosacral extension moment is different between techniques. This suggests that standardisation of lifting technique used in tests of the MAWL would be indicated if the aim is to assess the capacity of the low back.
Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chiang, Pen-Chi; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chen, Chun-Da; Lin, Hsun-Yu; Chang, E-E
2013-01-01
Accelerated carbonation of basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) coupled with cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was performed in a rotating packed bed (RPB) as a promising process for both CO2 fixation and wastewater treatment. The maximum achievable capture capacity (MACC) via leaching and carbonation processes for BOFS in an RPB was systematically determined throughout this study. The leaching behavior of various metal ions from the BOFS into the CRW was investigated by a kinetic model. In addition, quantitative X-ray diffraction (QXRD) using the Rietveld method was carried out to determine the process chemistry of carbonation of BOFS with CRW in an RPB. According to the QXRD results, the major mineral phases reacting with CO2 in BOFS were Ca(OH)2, Ca2(HSiO4)(OH), CaSiO3, and Ca2Fe1.04Al0.986O5. Meanwhile, the carbonation product was identified as calcite according to the observations of SEM, XEDS, and mappings. Furthermore, the MACC of the lab-scale RPB process was determined by balancing the carbonation conversion and energy consumption. In that case, the overall energy consumption, including grinding, pumping, stirring, and rotating processes, was estimated to be 707 kWh/t-CO2. It was thus concluded that CO2 capture by accelerated carbonation of BOFS could be effectively and efficiently performed by coutilizing with CRW in an RPB.
影响内贸煤炭船最大载货能力的因素研究%Study on Influence Factors of Domestic Coal Ship Maximum Cargo Capacity
王威
2015-01-01
Under the influence of domestic coal ship navigation area, seasonal, oil-water reserves, con-stant, ship ballast water storage and other factors, the change of large cargo capacity, the paper gives the cal-culation method of domestic coal ship maximum cargo capacity, analysis of the factors affecting the domestic coal ship maximum cargo capacity and determination method, is of guiding significance in practical work.%内贸煤炭船受航区、季节、油水储备量、船舶常数、压载水存量等因素的影响，其载货能力变化较大。文章给出了计算内贸煤炭船最大载货能力的方法，分析了影响内贸煤炭船最大载货能力的各项因素及确定方法，对实际工作有指导意义。
北京电网风电发展与消纳能力%Development and Maximum Accommodating Capacity of Wind Power in Beijing Power Grid
余潇潇; 张璞; 刘兆燕; 左向红; 张凯; 田子婵
2015-01-01
结合北京地区风力资源分布情况及风力发电的并网现状，对北京地区风力发电的发展情况进行了预测。预测内容包括规划风力发电的输出特性，以及“十三五”期间北京地区风力发电的发展情况。提出了一种以电网的负荷特性、常规电源调峰能力、新能源处理特性及外受电力交换情况作为边界条件的风电消纳计算方法。运用该方法对北京电网“十二五”末及“十三五”末对风电的消纳能力进行了计算，并提出了促进北京电网风电发展的相关技术措施。%According to the distribution of wind energy resource and the present situation of wind power integration in Beijing, the forecast of wind power generation development in Beijing power grid was provided, which focused on the output characteristics of the planned wind power projects and the development of wind power generation in Beijing during the 13th national five￣year plan. A calculation method of the maximum proliferation ratio of wind power in Beijing power grid was proposed, whose boundary condition included the load characteristics of grid, the peak shift capability of local power generation plants, the new energy processing features and the power flow exchange limit with the outside grid. The method was used to calculate the maximum penetration ratio of wind power in Beijing power grid during the end of the 12th, 13th national five￣year plan. Finally, this paper suggested some related technical measures to promote the development of wind power in Beijing power grid.
Yuan, Jing; Li, Guo-xue; Zhang, Hong-yu; Luo, Yi-ming
2013-09-01
It is necessary to achieve the optimization for MSW logistics based on the new Xicheng (combining the former Xicheng and the former Xuanwu districts) and the new Dongcheng (combining the former Dongcheng and the former Chongwen districts) districts of Beijing. Based on the analysis of current MSW logistics system, transfer station's processing capacity and the terminal treatment facilities' conditions of the four former districts and other districts, a MSW logistics system was built by GIS methods considering transregional treatment. This article analyzes the MSW material balance of current and new logistics systems. Results show that the optimization scheme could reduce the MSW collection distance of the new Xicheng and the new Dongcheng by 9.3 x 10(5) km x a(-1), reduced by 10% compared with current logistics. Under the new logistics solution, considering transregional treatment, can reduce landfill treatment of untreated MSW about 28.3%. If the construction of three incineration plants finished based on the new logistics, the system's optimal ratio of incineration: biochemical treatment: landfill can reach 3.8 : 4.5 : 1.7 compared with 1 : 4.8 : 4.2, which is the ratio of current MSW logistics. The ratio of the amount of incineration: biochemical treatment: landfill approximately reach 4 : 3 : 3 which is the target for 2015. The research results are benefit in increasing MSW utilization and reduction rate of the new Dongcheng and Xicheng districts and nearby districts.
De Kauwe, Martin G; Lin, Yan-Shih; Wright, Ian J; Medlyn, Belinda E; Crous, Kristine Y; Ellsworth, David S; Maire, Vincent; Prentice, I Colin; Atkin, Owen K; Rogers, Alistair; Niinemets, Ülo; Serbin, Shawn P; Meir, Patrick; Uddling, Johan; Togashi, Henrique F; Tarvainen, Lasse; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Evans, Bradley J; Ishida, F Yoko; Domingues, Tomas F
2016-05-01
Simulations of photosynthesis by terrestrial biosphere models typically need a specification of the maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax ). Estimating this parameter using A-Ci curves (net photosynthesis, A, vs intercellular CO2 concentration, Ci ) is laborious, which limits availability of Vcmax data. However, many multispecies field datasets include net photosynthetic rate at saturating irradiance and at ambient atmospheric CO2 concentration (Asat ) measurements, from which Vcmax can be extracted using a 'one-point method'. We used a global dataset of A-Ci curves (564 species from 46 field sites, covering a range of plant functional types) to test the validity of an alternative approach to estimate Vcmax from Asat via this 'one-point method'. If leaf respiration during the day (Rday ) is known exactly, Vcmax can be estimated with an r(2) value of 0.98 and a root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 8.19 μmol m(-2) s(-1) . However, Rday typically must be estimated. Estimating Rday as 1.5% of Vcmax, we found that Vcmax could be estimated with an r(2) of 0.95 and an RMSE of 17.1 μmol m(-2) s(-1) . The one-point method provides a robust means to expand current databases of field-measured Vcmax , giving new potential to improve vegetation models and quantify the environmental drivers of Vcmax variation.
Brdareski Zorica
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Regular physical activity and exercise improves quality of life and possibly reduces risk of disease relapse and prolongs survival in breast cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a 3-week moderate intensity aerobic training, on aerobic capacity (VO2max in breast cancer survivors. Methods. A prospective, randomized clinical study included 18 female breast cancer survivors in stage I-IIIA, in which the primary treatment was accomplished at least 3 months before the study inclusion. In all the patients VO2max was estimated using the Astrand’s protocol on a bicycle-ergometer (before and after 3 weeks of training, while subjective assessment of exertion during training were estimated by the Category-Ratio RPE Scale. Each workout lasted 21 minutes: 3 minutes for warmup and cool-down each and 15 min of full training, 2 times a week. The workload in the group E1 was predefined at the level of 45% to 65% of individual VO2max, and in the group E2 it was based on subjective evaluation of exertion, at the level marked 4-6. Data on the subjective feeling of exertion were collected after each training course in both groups. Results. We recorded a statistically significant improvement in VO2max in both groups (E1 - 11.86%; E2 - 17.72%, with no significant differences between the groups. The workload level, determined by the percent of VO2max, was different between the groups E1 and E2 (50.47 ± 7.02% vs 55.58 ± 9.58%, as well as subjective perception of exertion (in the groups E1 and E2, 11.6% and 41.6% of training, respectively, was graded in the mark 6. Conclusion. In our group of breast cancer survivors, a 3-week moderate intensity aerobic training significantly improved the level of VO2max.
Tønnessen, Espen; Shalfawi, Shaher A I; Haugen, Thomas; Enoksen, Eystein
2011-09-01
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 10 weeks' 40-m repeated sprint training program that does not involve strength training on sprinting speed and repeated sprint speed on young elite soccer players. Twenty young well-trained elite male soccer players of age (±SD) 16.4 (±0.9) years, body mass 67.2 (±9.1) kg, and stature 176.3 (±7.4) cm volunteered to participate in this study. All participants were tested on 40-m running speed, 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed, 20-m acceleration speed, 20-m top speed, countermovement jump (CMJ), and aerobic endurance (beep test). Participants were divided into training group (TG) (n = 10) and control group (CG) (n = 10). The study was conducted in the precompetition phase of the training program for the participants and ended 13 weeks before the start of the season; the duration of the precompetition period was 26 weeks. The TG followed a Periodized repeated sprint training program once a week. The training program consisted of running 40 m with different intensities and duration from week to week. Within-group results indicate that TG had a statistically marked improvement in their performance from pre to posttest in 40-m maximum sprint (-0.06 seconds), 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed (-0.12 seconds), 20- to 40-m top speed (-0.05 seconds), and CMJ (2.7 cm). The CG showed only a statistically notable improvement from pre to posttest in 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed (-0.06 seconds). Between-group differences showed a statistically marked improvement for the TG over the CG in 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed (-0.07 seconds) and 20- to 40-m top speed (-0.05 seconds), but the effect of the improvement was moderate. The results further indicate that a weekly training with repeated sprint gave a moderate but not statistically marked improvement in 40-m sprinting, CMJ, and beep test. The results of this study indicate that the repeated sprint program had a positive effect on several of the parameters tested
动态约束下的风电场最大可接入容量研究%Research on maximum access capacity of wind farm based on dynamic constraints
张俊; 晁勤; 段晓田; 袁铁江
2011-01-01
基于DIgSILENT/Power Factory仿真平台建立了新疆某地区含风电场的电力系统仿真模型,以电压和频率两个电气量作为动态约束条件,通过对风电场的穿透功率极限的计算和仿真,确定了该地区电网的风电场最大可接入容量.研究结果表明:采用频率约束法计算和时域仿真分析相结合确定的风电场最大可接入容量,能保证风电系统的稳定运行;并且优化影响风电系统稳定运行的因素和不同约束条件,对确定系统的风电场最大可接入容量和风电场的设计、运行和规划都有重要意义.%In this paper, a simulation model of power system with wind farm in some area of Xinjiang is established based on the DIgSILENT/Power Factory simulation platform. The wind power penetration limit is calculated and simulated with voltage and frequency being considered as dynamic constraints, and then the maximum access capacity of wind power plant of Xinjiang is determined. Research results show that the maximum access capacity of wind farm that determined by the combination of the frequency restriction and the time simulation can ensure the stability of wind power system. Besides, the optimization of some factors and other security constraints play a significant role in determining the maximum access capacity of wind farm and its designing,operating and planning.This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 50667002).
Kinkhabwala, Ali
2013-01-01
The most fundamental problem in statistics is the inference of an unknown probability distribution from a finite number of samples. For a specific observed data set, answers to the following questions would be desirable: (1) Estimation: Which candidate distribution provides the best fit to the observed data?, (2) Goodness-of-fit: How concordant is this distribution with the observed data?, and (3) Uncertainty: How concordant are other candidate distributions with the observed data? A simple unified approach for univariate data that addresses these traditionally distinct statistical notions is presented called "maximum fidelity". Maximum fidelity is a strict frequentist approach that is fundamentally based on model concordance with the observed data. The fidelity statistic is a general information measure based on the coordinate-independent cumulative distribution and critical yet previously neglected symmetry considerations. An approximation for the null distribution of the fidelity allows its direct conversi...
黎冰; 高玉峰; 沙成明; 童小东
2012-01-01
To accurately determine the maximum pull-out loading capacity of suction caisson foundation in sand, the limit equilibrium method is applied. Based on the mechanical characteristics of suction caisson foundation with horizontal translation, a method for three-dimensional limit equilibrium analysis of maximum pull-out loading capacity of suction caisson foundation in sand is proposed. In the proposed method, the development process of earth pressure and shear resistance with displacement, and the characteristics of different earth pressure and side shear resistance over the caisson cross-section are considered. The earth pressure acting on the caisson is assumed to obey the Winkler model and is not in excess of the limiting earth pressure. The shear resistance between caisson and soil is assumed to be linearly proportional to the relative displacement between them before reaching its ultimate value. Fifteen model tests of suction caisson foundation under horizontal loading in sand are conducted to investigate its pull-out behaviors, and the load-displacement curves are obtained. The calculation results by the proposed method agree well with the experimental results, indicating that the proposed method is accurate and effective. Key w%为了准确确定砂土中吸力式沉箱基础的最大承载力,应用极限平衡法对其进行分析.基于吸力式沉箱基础平动时的受力特点,充分考虑土压力和摩擦力的发挥过程以及沉箱横截面上各点土压力大小的不同,提出了一种计算砂土中吸力式沉箱基础最大承载力的三维极限平衡方法.方法中假定沉箱侧壁土压力满足Winkler模型,但其值不超过水平极限土压力值;假定沉箱侧壁与地基土之间的摩擦力在达到最大值之前与两者之间的相对位移成线性正比关系.开展了15组水平荷载作用下吸力式沉箱基础的模型试验,得到了吸力式沉箱基础的荷载-位移曲线.利用所提方法得到的计
Mari Lucia Campos
2007-12-01
Full Text Available A alta toxicidade do As aos animais e humanos e a possibilidade de existência de grande número de áreas contaminadas tornam imprescindível o conhecimento do teor semitotal em solos ditos não-contaminados e dos processos de adsorção do As em solos de carga variável. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o teor e a capacidade máxima de adsorção de As (CMADS AS em Latossolos. O teor total foi determinado pelo método USEPA 3051A, e a CMADS As, com auxílio de isotermas de Langmuir com base nos valores de adsorção obtidos em dose de As (0, 90, 190, 380, 760 e 1.150 µmol L-1 (relação solo:solução final = 1:100, a pH 5,5 e força iônica de 15 mmol L-1. Os 17 Latossolos apresentaram teor médio total de As de 5,92 mg kg-1 e CMADS As média de 2.013 mg kg-1. O teor de argila e os óxidos de Fe e Al apresentaram influência positiva na CMADS As.In view of the toxicity of As for man and animals and the possibility of existence of a great number of contaminated areas it is imperative to know the total As content in soils considered uncontaminated and about As sorption processes in soils of variable charge. The objective of this work was to determine the total content and maximum capacity of As adsorption (CMADS As in Oxisols. The total content was determined by the USEPA 3051A method. The cmADS As was determined by the Langmuir Isotherms using six solution concentrations (0, 0.09, 0.19, 0.38, 0.76, 1.15 mmol L-1 (1:100 soil: solution ratio, pH values 5.5 and ionic strength 15 mmol L-1. In the 17 Oxisols the average total As content was 5.92 mg kg-1 and mean cmADS As was 2.013 mg kg-1. Clay, and Fe and Al oxides content influenced cmADSs positively.
Carla Aparecida Cielo
2012-06-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar e correlacionar os tempos máximos de fonação (TMF de vogais, a capacidade vital (CV e os tipos de afecções laríngeas (AL de mulheres com disfonia organofuncional (DOF. MÉTODO: pesquisa retrospectiva, transversal, exploratória, não experimental, quantitativa, com banco de dados de medidas de TMF [a, i, u], de CV e de AL de mulheres com DOF; e os testes estatísticos Qui- quadrado e exato de Fisher, para verificar as diferenças entre as variáveis e suas relações e o teste binomial, a fim de verificar a significância de proporção ou percentual da análise descritiva, com pPURPOSE: to determine and to correlate the maximum phonation times (MPT of vowels, vital capacity (VC and laryngeal disorders (LD for women with benign organic lesions resulting from vocal misuse or abuse (BOL. METHOD: retrospective, transverse, exploratory, non-experimental, quantitative study, with measurement database of MPT [a, i, u], VC and LD of women with BOL, and Chi-Square statistic and exact tests of Fisher in order to investigate the differences between the variables and their relationships and a binomial test in order to check the significance of proportion or percentage of descriptive analysis, with p<0.05. RESULTS: the majority (22; 75.86% showed MPT significantly reduced (p = 0.0053 and seven (24.14% normal MPT. The normal VC was statistically significant (p = 0.0001 (26; 89.66%, but three women (10.34% showed it to be reduced. There was significant dominance of vocal nodules (p = 0.0016 (22; 75.86%, followed by Reinke's edema (6, 20.69% and vocal polyp (1; 3.45%. Among the 22 woman (75.86% which showed reduced MPT, there was a predominance with normal VC (19; 86.36%, although no statistical significance (p = 0,558. All the individuals with normal MPT showed VC normal (7; 100%. The majority with BOL showed normal VC, although not statistically significant (p=0,199. There was a predominance of vocal nodules and reduced MPT (16; 72
Fábio Broggi
2011-02-01
Full Text Available O Fator Capacidade de Fósforo (FCP é definido pela razão de equilíbrio entre o fator quantidade de P (Q e o fator intensidade (I e representa uma medida da capacidade do solo em manter um determinado nível de P em solução. As características e o teor dos constituintes minerais da fração argila são responsáveis por uma maior ou menor FCP, interferindo nas relações solo-planta. Por outro lado, o pH do solo tem, em alguns casos, mostrado-se com efeito na adsorção e, em outros, com pequena e não consistente alteração na Capacidade Máxima de Adsorção de P (CMAP. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, determinar o FCP de solos mineralogicamente diferentes em Pernambuco; correlacionar características físicas e químicas dos solos com o FCP; e avaliar o efeito do pH na CMAP. Amostras subsuperficiais de quatro solos, mineralogicamente diferentes, foram caracterizadas química e fisicamente e determinado o FCP. Essas amostras foram corrigidas com CaCO3 e MgCO3 na proporção 4:1 e incubadas por 30 dias, com exceção do Vertissolo. Determinou-se a CMAP antes e após a correção dos solos. O experimento consistiu de um fatorial 4 x 2 (quatro solos com e sem correção, distribuídos em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. As características dos solos que melhor refletiram o FCP foram o P remanescente (P-rem e a CMAP. Independentemente dos constituintes mineralógicos da fração argila, solos com elevados teores de alumínio apresentaram aumento da CMAP com a correção. A energia de adsorção (EA nos solos corrigidos foi, em média, significativamente menor, independentemente do solo.Phosphate Maximum Capacity (FCP is defined by the ratio of equilibrium between the amount of factor P (Q and factor intensity (I and represents a measure of the soil ability to maintain a certain level of P in solution. The characteristics and content of the constituents of clay minerals are responsible for a greater or lesser FCP, interfering in soil
Maximum privacy without coherence, zero-error
Leung, Debbie; Yu, Nengkun
2016-09-01
We study the possible difference between the quantum and the private capacities of a quantum channel in the zero-error setting. For a family of channels introduced by Leung et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 030512 (2014)], we demonstrate an extreme difference: the zero-error quantum capacity is zero, whereas the zero-error private capacity is maximum given the quantum output dimension.
The inverse maximum dynamic flow problem
BAGHERIAN; Mehri
2010-01-01
We consider the inverse maximum dynamic flow (IMDF) problem.IMDF problem can be described as: how to change the capacity vector of a dynamic network as little as possible so that a given feasible dynamic flow becomes a maximum dynamic flow.After discussing some characteristics of this problem,it is converted to a constrained minimum dynamic cut problem.Then an efficient algorithm which uses two maximum dynamic flow algorithms is proposed to solve the problem.
罗铭; 刚傲
2016-01-01
In the modernization process of social transformation and development ,one of the important factors which influ-ence and restrict the Beijing -Tianjin - Hebei(BTH)wing area one of reality for the sustainable development is water short-age .This research is quantitative research by the method of carrying population in BTH region water can carry the size of population and economic development .Model validation results show that in the short term ,water quantity of the BTH re-gion population carrying capacity of rich ,can alleviate the contradiction between supply and demand of water resources ;But since the 2025 years ,because the population of the region water resources carrying capacity is insufficient ,the BTH region again go into a period of scarcity .After the implementation of south - to - north water diversion project ,BTH region ob-tained a certain degree of increase ,the water resources carrying capacity in population growth ,however ,under the situation of water resources carrying population are almost limited .Based on this ,the problem of water shortages in exploring the BTH resolution strategy ,not just focus on water saving and water diversion engineering problems ,also need to include for the population growth factors ,avoid excessive increase in population .Otherwise ,the results obtained with water ,is likely to be excessive increase of the population consume ,not really solve the problem of water shortage .%应用“承载人口数”方法定量研究了京、津、冀地区总的水资源所能承载的人口数量与经济发展规模。模型验证结果表明：在短期内，京、津、冀地区的水资源量人口承载能力富足，能缓解水资源供需矛盾；但从2025年后，由于该地区水资源量人口承载能力不足，则京、津、冀地区又重新陷入水资源匮乏时期。南水北调实施以后，京、津、冀地区水资源承载力获得了一定程度的增加，然而在人口增长的态势下，水资
Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.
2000-01-01
This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from...
Landex, Alex
2011-01-01
Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station...
Landex, Alex
2011-01-01
Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...
Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.; Steenfelt, Agnete
2000-01-01
This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from an ordinary non-spatial factor analysis, and they are interpreted in a geological context. It is demonstrated that MAF analysis contrary to ordinary non-spatial factor analysis gives an objective discrimina...
33 CFR 183.53 - Horsepower capacity.
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horsepower capacity. 183.53...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Safe Powering § 183.53 Horsepower capacity. The maximum horsepower capacity marked on a boat must not exceed the horsepower capacity determined by the...
Maria Regina Machado Perrotti
2000-02-01
Full Text Available Objetivo: comparar a capacidade de diagnosticar oligoâmnio pela ultra-sonografia por meio de diferentes valores do maior bolsão de líquido amniótico, em comparação ao índice de líquido amniótico (ILA, em gestantes normais, de 36 a 42 semanas de gestação. Métodos: realizou-se um estudo descritivo de validação de método diagnóstico, incluindo 875 gestantes normais. Mediante um exame ultra-sonográfico obstétrico de rotina, foi feita a medida do maior bolsão de líquido amniótico para o diagnóstico de oligoâmnio, utilizando como padrão-ouro o índice de líquido amniótico. Os dados foram analisados por meio do cálculo da sensibilidade e da especificidade da medida do maior bolsão de líquido amniótico, utilizando os diferentes pontos de corte de 10, 20 e 30 mm, em comparação aos valores normais do índice de líquido amniótico determinados pelos percentis 2,5 e 10 nas respectivas idades gestacionais. Resultados: a medida do maior bolsão de líquido amniótico apresenta baixa sensibilidade para diagnosticar oligoâmnio quando se adotam os pontos de corte 10 e 20 mm, e boa sensibilidade e especificidade quando se adota 30 mm, quando comparadas às medidas do índice de líquido amniótico nos percentis 2,5 e 10 da curva normal. A sensibilidade e especificidade da medida do maior bolsão são melhores, quando se adota o ponto de corte de 30 mm para diagnosticar oligoâmnio em comparação ao percentil 2,5. Conclusões: a capacidade de diagnosticar oligoâmnio pela medida do maior bolsão é satisfatória apenas com o ponto de corte em 30 mm.Purpose: to compare the capacity of diagnosing oligohy-dramnios by ultrasound using different measures of the maximum pool depth of amniotic fluid in comparison to the amniotic fluid index among normal pregnant women from the 36th to the 42nd week of gestation. Methods: a descriptive study of diagnostic validity was perfomed, on 875 normal pregnant women who were studied through
Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente
2012-01-01
A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive...... carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative carrying capacity (ACC). The act mandates that the latter two aspects must be taken into consideration in the local spatial plans. The present study aimed at developing a background for a national guideline for carrying capacity in Indonesian provinces and districts...... standard or governmental political objective exists. In most cases it was possible to select a set of indicators, including thresholds that are workable in a carrying capacity planning at the local administrative levels. Not all relevant sectors at the decentralized level were included. Indicators of SCC...
Maximum likely scale estimation
Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo
2005-01-01
A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...
[Does maximum short-term electric stimulation cause contraction of the pelvic floor muscles?].
Martan, A; Halaska, M; Masata, M; Voigt, R; Vering, A
1997-04-01
Electric stimulation is successfully used in the treatment of the stress and urgent type of incontinence. Electric stimulation of the muscles of the pelvic floor causes reflex contraction of the striated peri- and paraurethral muscles and is associated with concurrent reflex inhibition of the detrusor muscle. The therapeutic results depends greatly on the total or at least partially preserved innervation of the muscles of the pelvic floor by the pudendal nerve. One of the possible stimuli of the pelvic floor muscles is maximal electric stimulation (MES) and the objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of MES on the muscles of the pelvic floor or to detect possible changes by US and urodynamic examination. The study comprised women with the stress type of incontinence (GSI). The group was formed by 40 women with GSI, 20 were subjected to US examination and urodynamic examination (n = 20). The group of subjects subjected to urodynamic examination was extended to 40 (n = 40). For electrostimulation a Conmax apparatus was used. The applied frequency was 20 Hz, the amplitude from 0 to 90 mA (grades 0.6), pulse duration 0.75 ms. During the cystometric examination the authors recorded a significant increase of the maximal urethral closure pressure (MUCP), prolongation of the functional (FUL) and anatomical length (AUL) of the urethra during MES. During US examination the authors recorded a significant diminution of the gamma angle, a reduction of the mobility of the UV junction and prolongation of the anatomical length of the urethra during MES. From the investigation ensues that the pelvic floor muscles are contracted during MES and those changes contribute to an increase of the muscular tonus and contracting capacity of the muscles of the pelvic floor and thus cause among other things elevation of the neck of the urinary bladder. The elevation contributes to the normalization of the intraabdominal transmission of pressure to the proximal urethra and thus to
Maximum information photoelectron metrology
Hockett, P; Wollenhaupt, M; Baumert, T
2015-01-01
Photoelectron interferograms, manifested in photoelectron angular distributions (PADs), are a high-information, coherent observable. In order to obtain the maximum information from angle-resolved photoionization experiments it is desirable to record the full, 3D, photoelectron momentum distribution. Here we apply tomographic reconstruction techniques to obtain such 3D distributions from multiphoton ionization of potassium atoms, and fully analyse the energy and angular content of the 3D data. The PADs obtained as a function of energy indicate good agreement with previous 2D data and detailed analysis [Hockett et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 223001 (2014)] over the main spectral features, but also indicate unexpected symmetry-breaking in certain regions of momentum space, thus revealing additional continuum interferences which cannot otherwise be observed. These observations reflect the presence of additional ionization pathways and, most generally, illustrate the power of maximum information measurements of th...
Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente
2012-01-01
A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive...... and ACC may increase the political focus on resources and environmental issues and may help to move local authorities towards a more holistic spatial planning approach. A carrying capacity approach could be an inspiration for local spatial planning in developing countries. A spatial planning act...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...
Dual capacity reciprocating compressor
Wolfe, Robert W.
1984-01-01
A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.
Maximum Likelihood Associative Memories
Gripon, Vincent; Rabbat, Michael
2013-01-01
Associative memories are structures that store data in such a way that it can later be retrieved given only a part of its content -- a sort-of error/erasure-resilience property. They are used in applications ranging from caches and memory management in CPUs to database engines. In this work we study associative memories built on the maximum likelihood principle. We derive minimum residual error rates when the data stored comes from a uniform binary source. Second, we determine the minimum amo...
Maximum likely scale estimation
Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo
2005-01-01
A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and....../or having different derivative orders. Although the principle is applicable to a wide variety of image models, the main focus here is on the Brownian model and its use for scale selection in natural images. Furthermore, in the examples provided, the simplifying assumption is made that the behavior...... of the measurements is completely characterized by all moments up to second order....
F. TopsÃƒÂ¸e
2001-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over
Regularized maximum correntropy machine
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2015-02-12
In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.
Maximum Profit Configurations of Commercial Engines
Yiran Chen
2011-01-01
An investigation of commercial engines with finite capacity low- and high-price economic subsystems and a generalized commodity transfer law [n ∝ Δ (P m)] in commodity flow processes, in which effects of the price elasticities of supply and demand are introduced, is presented in this paper. Optimal cycle configurations of commercial engines for maximum profit are obtained by applying optimal control theory. In some special cases, the eventual state—market equilibrium—is solely determined by t...
Equalized near maximum likelihood detector
2012-01-01
This paper presents new detector that is used to mitigate intersymbol interference introduced by bandlimited channels. This detector is named equalized near maximum likelihood detector which combines nonlinear equalizer and near maximum likelihood detector. Simulation results show that the performance of equalized near maximum likelihood detector is better than the performance of nonlinear equalizer but worse than near maximum likelihood detector.
Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John
2005-01-01
A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].
Capacity and Capacity Utilization in Fishing Industries
Kirkley, James E; Squires, Dale
1999-01-01
Excess capacity of fishing fleets is one of the most pressing problems facing the world's fisheries and the sustainable harvesting of resource stocks. Considerable confusion persists over the definition and measurement of capacity and capacity utilization in fishing. Fishing capacity and capacity utilization, rather than capital (or effort) utilization, provide the appropriate framework. This paper provides both technological-economic and economic definitions of capacity and excess capacity i...
Prabhu, Ninad V.; Sharp, Kim A.
2005-05-01
Heat capacity (Cp) is one of several major thermodynamic quantities commonly measured in proteins. With more than half a dozen definitions, it is the hardest of these quantities to understand in physical terms, but the richest in insight. There are many ramifications of observed Cp changes: The sign distinguishes apolar from polar solvation. It imparts a temperature (T) dependence to entropy and enthalpy that may change their signs and which of them dominate. Protein unfolding usually has a positive ΔCp, producing a maximum in stability and sometimes cold denaturation. There are two heat capacity contributions, from hydration and protein-protein interactions; which dominates in folding and binding is an open question. Theoretical work to date has dealt mostly with the hydration term and can account, at least semiquantitatively, for the major Cp-related features: the positive and negative Cp of hydration for apolar and polar groups, respectively; the convergence of apolar group hydration entropy at T ≈ 112°C; the decrease in apolar hydration Cp with increasing T; and the T-maximum in protein stability and cold denaturation.
Pirandola, Stefano; Lupo, Cosmo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L.
2011-11-01
The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory (Pirandola 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 090504). In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e. a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of ‘parallel’ channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of a large block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantifying the maximum number of readable bits per cell. This notion of capacity is nontrivial when we suitably constrain the physical resources of the decoder. For optical memories (encoding bosonic channels), such a constraint is energetic and corresponds to fixing the mean total number of photons per cell. In this case, we are able to prove a separation between the quantum reading capacity and the maximum information rate achievable by classical transmitters, i.e. arbitrary classical mixtures of coherent states. In fact, we can easily construct nonclassical transmitters that are able to outperform any classical transmitter, thus showing that the advantages of quantum reading persist in the optimal multi-cell scenario.
Capacity Analysis for Dynamic Space Networks
Yang Lu; Bo Li; Wenjing Kang; Gongliang Liu; Xueting Li
2015-01-01
To evaluate transmission rate of highly dynamic space networks, a new method for studying space network capacity is proposed in this paper. Using graph theory, network capacity is defined as the maximum amount of flows ground stations can receive per unit time. Combined with a hybrid constellation model, network capacity is calculated and further analyzed for practical cases. Simulation results show that network capacity will increase to different extents as link capacity, minimum ground elevation constraint and satellite onboard processing capability change. Considering the efficiency and reliability of communication networks, how to scientifically design satellite networks is also discussed.
25 CFR 168.5 - Grazing capacity.
2010-04-01
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing capacity. 168.5 Section 168.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.5 Grazing capacity. (a) The Area Director shall prescribe the maximum number of...
Shanna Lara Miglioranzi
2011-12-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a relação entre capacidade vital (CV, tempos máximos de fonação de /e/ fechado emitido de forma áfona (TMF/ė/ e de /s/ (TMF/s/ e estatura em mulheres adultas. MÉTODO: 48 indivíduos do sexo feminino, entre 18 e 44 anos, com ausência de fatores intervenientes nas medidas de interesse (tabagistas, atletas, cantores, alterações pulmonares, articulatórias, tiveram suas medidas de CV, TMF/ė/ e TMF/s/ coletadas, três vezes cada, selecionando-se o maior valor obtido para cada variável, além da estatura auto-referida. Os valores das quatro variáveis do grupo foram comparados entre si por meio de análise estatística. Utilizou-se o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman para verificar sua relação; o teste de Wilcoxon para amostras relacionadas para comparar os TMF/s/ e TMF/ė/, além do cálculo do coeficiente de variação para comparar a homogeneidade dessas variáveis. RESULTADOS: correlação positiva significante entre: CV e TMF/s/ (r=0,326; P=0,024; CV e TMF/ė/ (r=0,379; P=0,008; TMF/s/ e TMF/ė/ (r=0,360; P=0,012; e CV e estatura (r=0,432; P=0,002. TMF/s/ significantemente maior do que TMF/ė/. TMF/ė/ da amostra (10,43s significantemente menor que os valores de referência (PPURPOSE: to check the relation among the values of vital capacity (CV, maximum phonation times (MPT of closed voiceless /e/ (/ė/ and of /s/ and height in adult normal women. METHOD: 48 females, between 18 and 44 years, with no intervening factors in measures of interest (smoking, sport practicing, singing, lung disorder, articulation disorder collected their measures of VC, MPT/ė/ and MPT/s/, three times each, and the highest produced values for each variable were selected for analysis, beyond the self-reported height. All four variables were compared. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to check the relationship; Wilcoxon test for related samples was used to compare MPT/s/ and MPT/ė/, such as the coefficient of variation
Random Access Transport Capacity
Andrews, Jeffrey G; Kountouris, Marios; Haenggi, Martin
2009-01-01
We develop a new metric for quantifying end-to-end throughput in multihop wireless networks, which we term random access transport capacity, since the interference model presumes uncoordinated transmissions. The metric quantifies the average maximum rate of successful end-to-end transmissions, multiplied by the communication distance, and normalized by the network area. We show that a simple upper bound on this quantity is computable in closed-form in terms of key network parameters when the number of retransmissions is not restricted and the hops are assumed to be equally spaced on a line between the source and destination. We also derive the optimum number of hops and optimal per hop success probability and show that our result follows the well-known square root scaling law while providing exact expressions for the preconstants as well. Numerical results demonstrate that the upper bound is accurate for the purpose of determining the optimal hop count and success (or outage) probability.
Melike Ersoy
2014-06-01
Full Text Available In this study, capacity estimations with the incorporation of Highway Capacity Manual (HCM 2010 method are evaluated. Parameter based sensitivity analysis on calculations with the new HCM formula and a comparative evaluation of the new methodology with two most common capacity analysis methods, i.e., the method of critical gap acceptance and the method of regression analysis, are performed. Maximum and minimum headway intervals of follow up time and critical gap parameters are alternated within the sensitivity analysis. The Transport Research Laboratory formula for regression and Australian formula for gap acceptance method are considered in comparison. Relative comparisons of predictions on capacity by HCM2010 method, regression analysis and gap acceptance method are presented considering field data obtained by observations at two roundabouts in Izmir, Turkey. The results of the study show that the HCM2010 formula led to lower capacity estimates than regression analysis and higher estimates than the gap acceptance method. Regarding the real capacity observations under high circulating flow-rates the HCM2010 method yielded to more appropriate results than the regression method. In addition to comparisons, studies on the sensitivity analysis show that entry capacity estimates possess sharper changes as smaller follow up headways are accepted.
OECD Maximum Residue Limit Calculator
With the goal of harmonizing the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the OECD has developed an MRL Calculator. View the calculator.
Accessible Capacity of Secondary Users
Ma, Xiao; Lin, Lei; Bai, Baoming
2010-01-01
A new problem formulation is presented for the Gaussian interference channels (GIFC) with two pairs of users, which are distinguished as primary users and secondary users, respectively. The primary users employ a pair of encoder and decoder that were originally designed to satisfy a given error performance requirement under the assumption that no interference exists from other users. In the case when the secondary users attempt to access the same medium, we are interested in the maximum transmission rate (defined as {\\em accessible capacity}) at which secondary users can communicate reliably without affecting the error performance requirement by the primary users under the constraint that the primary encoder (not the decoder) is kept unchanged. By modeling the primary encoder as a generalized trellis code (GTC), we are then able to treat the secondary link as a finite state channel (FSC). The relation of the accessible capacity to the capacity region of the GIFC is revealed. Upper and lower bounds on the acce...
Maximum margin Bayesian network classifiers.
Pernkopf, Franz; Wohlmayr, Michael; Tschiatschek, Sebastian
2012-03-01
We present a maximum margin parameter learning algorithm for Bayesian network classifiers using a conjugate gradient (CG) method for optimization. In contrast to previous approaches, we maintain the normalization constraints on the parameters of the Bayesian network during optimization, i.e., the probabilistic interpretation of the model is not lost. This enables us to handle missing features in discriminatively optimized Bayesian networks. In experiments, we compare the classification performance of maximum margin parameter learning to conditional likelihood and maximum likelihood learning approaches. Discriminative parameter learning significantly outperforms generative maximum likelihood estimation for naive Bayes and tree augmented naive Bayes structures on all considered data sets. Furthermore, maximizing the margin dominates the conditional likelihood approach in terms of classification performance in most cases. We provide results for a recently proposed maximum margin optimization approach based on convex relaxation. While the classification results are highly similar, our CG-based optimization is computationally up to orders of magnitude faster. Margin-optimized Bayesian network classifiers achieve classification performance comparable to support vector machines (SVMs) using fewer parameters. Moreover, we show that unanticipated missing feature values during classification can be easily processed by discriminatively optimized Bayesian network classifiers, a case where discriminative classifiers usually require mechanisms to complete unknown feature values in the data first.
Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery
Chih-Yuan Tseng
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.
Maximum Profit Configurations of Commercial Engines
Yiran Chen
2011-06-01
Full Text Available An investigation of commercial engines with finite capacity low- and high-price economic subsystems and a generalized commodity transfer law [n ∝ Δ (P m] in commodity flow processes, in which effects of the price elasticities of supply and demand are introduced, is presented in this paper. Optimal cycle configurations of commercial engines for maximum profit are obtained by applying optimal control theory. In some special cases, the eventual state—market equilibrium—is solely determined by the initial conditions and the inherent characteristics of two subsystems; while the different ways of transfer affect the model in respects of the specific forms of the paths of prices and the instantaneous commodity flow, i.e., the optimal configuration.
Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.
1985-01-01
Discusses a series of experiments performed by Thomas Hope in 1805 which show the temperature at which water has its maximum density. Early data cast into a modern form as well as guidelines and recent data collected from the author provide background for duplicating Hope's experiments in the classroom. (JN)
Abolishing the maximum tension principle
Dabrowski, Mariusz P
2015-01-01
We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension $F_{max} = c^2/4G$ represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.
Abolishing the maximum tension principle
Mariusz P. Da̧browski
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension Fmax=c4/4G represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.
49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...
46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity of pressure relief valves. 154.806 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.806 Capacity of pressure relief valves. Pressure relief valves for each... pressure above the set pressure of the relief valves: (a) The maximum capacity of an installed cargo...
Maximum Genus of Strong Embeddings
Er-ling Wei; Yan-pei Liu; Han Ren
2003-01-01
The strong embedding conjecture states that any 2-connected graph has a strong embedding on some surface. It implies the circuit double cover conjecture: Any 2-connected graph has a circuit double cover.Conversely, it is not true. But for a 3-regular graph, the two conjectures are equivalent. In this paper, a characterization of graphs having a strong embedding with exactly 3 faces, which is the strong embedding of maximum genus, is given. In addition, some graphs with the property are provided. More generally, an upper bound of the maximum genus of strong embeddings of a graph is presented too. Lastly, it is shown that the interpolation theorem is true to planar Halin graph.
Remizov, Ivan D
2009-01-01
In this note, we represent a subdifferential of a maximum functional defined on the space of all real-valued continuous functions on a given metric compact set. For a given argument, $f$ it coincides with the set of all probability measures on the set of points maximizing $f$ on the initial compact set. This complete characterization lies in the heart of several important identities in microeconomics, such as Roy's identity, Sheppard's lemma, as well as duality theory in production and linear programming.
The Testability of Maximum Magnitude
Clements, R.; Schorlemmer, D.; Gonzalez, A.; Zoeller, G.; Schneider, M.
2012-12-01
Recent disasters caused by earthquakes of unexpectedly large magnitude (such as Tohoku) illustrate the need for reliable assessments of the seismic hazard. Estimates of the maximum possible magnitude M at a given fault or in a particular zone are essential parameters in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), but their accuracy remains untested. In this study, we discuss the testability of long-term and short-term M estimates and the limitations that arise from testing such rare events. Of considerable importance is whether or not those limitations imply a lack of testability of a useful maximum magnitude estimate, and whether this should have any influence on current PSHA methodology. We use a simple extreme value theory approach to derive a probability distribution for the expected maximum magnitude in a future time interval, and we perform a sensitivity analysis on this distribution to determine if there is a reasonable avenue available for testing M estimates as they are commonly reported today: devoid of an appropriate probability distribution of their own and estimated only for infinite time (or relatively large untestable periods). Our results imply that any attempt at testing such estimates is futile, and that the distribution is highly sensitive to M estimates only under certain optimal conditions that are rarely observed in practice. In the future we suggest that PSHA modelers be brutally honest about the uncertainty of M estimates, or must find a way to decrease its influence on the estimated hazard.
Alternative Multiview Maximum Entropy Discrimination.
Chao, Guoqing; Sun, Shiliang
2016-07-01
Maximum entropy discrimination (MED) is a general framework for discriminative estimation based on maximum entropy and maximum margin principles, and can produce hard-margin support vector machines under some assumptions. Recently, the multiview version of MED multiview MED (MVMED) was proposed. In this paper, we try to explore a more natural MVMED framework by assuming two separate distributions p1( Θ1) over the first-view classifier parameter Θ1 and p2( Θ2) over the second-view classifier parameter Θ2 . We name the new MVMED framework as alternative MVMED (AMVMED), which enforces the posteriors of two view margins to be equal. The proposed AMVMED is more flexible than the existing MVMED, because compared with MVMED, which optimizes one relative entropy, AMVMED assigns one relative entropy term to each of the two views, thus incorporating a tradeoff between the two views. We give the detailed solving procedure, which can be divided into two steps. The first step is solving our optimization problem without considering the equal margin posteriors from two views, and then, in the second step, we consider the equal posteriors. Experimental results on multiple real-world data sets verify the effectiveness of the AMVMED, and comparisons with MVMED are also reported.
Capacity Statement for Railways
Landex, Alex
2007-01-01
The subject “Railway capacity” is a combination of the capacity consumption and how the capacity is utilized. The capacity utilization of railways can be divided into 4 core elements: The number of trains; the average speed; the heterogeneity of the operation; and the stability. This article...... describes how the capacity consumption for railways can be worked out and analytical measurements of how the capacity is utilized. Furthermore, the article describes how it is possible to state and visualize railway capacity. Having unused railway capacity is not always equal to be able to operate more...
Classical information capacity of superdense coding
Bowen, G H
2001-01-01
Classical communication through quantum channels may be enhanced by sharing entanglement. Superdense coding allows the encoding, and transmission, of up to two classical bits of information in a single qubit. In this paper, the maximum classical channel capacity for states that are not maximally entangled is derived. Particular schemes are then shown to attain this capacity, firstly for pairs of qubits, and secondly for pairs of qutrits.
Cacti with maximum Kirchhoff index
Wang, Wen-Rui; Pan, Xiang-Feng
2015-01-01
The concept of resistance distance was first proposed by Klein and Randi\\'c. The Kirchhoff index $Kf(G)$ of a graph $G$ is the sum of resistance distance between all pairs of vertices in $G$. A connected graph $G$ is called a cactus if each block of $G$ is either an edge or a cycle. Let $Cat(n;t)$ be the set of connected cacti possessing $n$ vertices and $t$ cycles, where $0\\leq t \\leq \\lfloor\\frac{n-1}{2}\\rfloor$. In this paper, the maximum kirchhoff index of cacti are characterized, as well...
Generic maximum likely scale selection
Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo
2007-01-01
The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...... on second order moments of multiple measurements outputs at a fixed location. These measurements, which reflect local image structure, consist in the cases considered here of Gaussian derivatives taken at several scales and/or having different derivative orders....
Economics and Maximum Entropy Production
Lorenz, R. D.
2003-04-01
Price differentials, sales volume and profit can be seen as analogues of temperature difference, heat flow and work or entropy production in the climate system. One aspect in which economic systems exhibit more clarity than the climate is that the empirical and/or statistical mechanical tendency for systems to seek a maximum in production is very evident in economics, in that the profit motive is very clear. Noting the common link between 1/f noise, power laws and Self-Organized Criticality with Maximum Entropy Production, the power law fluctuations in security and commodity prices is not inconsistent with the analogy. There is an additional thermodynamic analogy, in that scarcity is valued. A commodity concentrated among a few traders is valued highly by the many who do not have it. The market therefore encourages via prices the spreading of those goods among a wider group, just as heat tends to diffuse, increasing entropy. I explore some empirical price-volume relationships of metals and meteorites in this context.
Algorithm of capacity expansion on networks optimization
无
2003-01-01
The paper points out the relationship between the bottleneck and the minimum cutset of the network, and presents a capacity expansion algorithm of network optimization to solve the network bottleneck problem. The complexity of the algorithm is also analyzed. As required by the algorithm, some virtual sources are imported through the whole positive direction subsection in the network, in which a certain capacity value is given. Simultaneously, a corresponding capacity-expanded network is constructed to search all minimum cutsets. For a given maximum flow value of the network, the authors found an adjustment value of each minimum cutset arc's group with gradually reverse calculation and marked out the feasible flow on the capacity-extended networks again with the adjustment value increasing. All this has been done repeatedly until the original topology structure is resumed. So the algorithm can increase the capacity of networks effectively and solve the bottleneck problem of networks.
Objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality
Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan
2015-01-01
We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. The upper bound is attained if and only if the object is transparent for fields of one handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e. helicity preservation upon scattering, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal scatterers to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal scatterers. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar scatterers or as material constitutive relations. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: A twofold resonantly enhanced and background free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle independent helicity filtering glasses.
Maximum mutual information regularized classification
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2014-09-07
In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.
Estimation of Aerobic Capacity (VO2-max and Physical Work Capacity in Laborers
Sedeghe Hosseinabadi
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Measurement of Maximum aerobic capacity (VO2-max is important in physiologically fitting the laborers to the job. This study was conducted to estimate the aerobic capacity and physical work capacity (PWC of workers of galvanize department of Semnan rolling pipe Company and also determine the relative frequency of workers whom their jobs were proportional to their physical work capacity . Methods: 50 male workers of Semnan rolling pipe company were selected randomly to participate in this cross-sectional study. Tuxworth & shahnavaz methods were applied to measure instances VO2-MAX. Independent-Sample t-test and correlation technique were used to analysis the data by SPSS software. Results: Average maximum aerobic capacity of workers was 2.88± .033 liters per minute and the average of physical work capacity was 4.76 ± 0.54 kilocalories per minute. There was a significant relationship between body mass index and aerobic capacity. The result showed that 36 percent of subjects expend more energy than their physical work capacity to perform their duties during the work time. Conclusion: According to the ILO classification, the average physical work capacity of the workers fall into a category of light energy;accordingly, on average, these workers had physical ability to performe less or lighter duties. More than one-third of these workers need to undergo job modification or to change their present job to a job with less energy consumption.
The strong maximum principle revisited
Pucci, Patrizia; Serrin, James
In this paper we first present the classical maximum principle due to E. Hopf, together with an extended commentary and discussion of Hopf's paper. We emphasize the comparison technique invented by Hopf to prove this principle, which has since become a main mathematical tool for the study of second order elliptic partial differential equations and has generated an enormous number of important applications. While Hopf's principle is generally understood to apply to linear equations, it is in fact also crucial in nonlinear theories, such as those under consideration here. In particular, we shall treat and discuss recent generalizations of the strong maximum principle, and also the compact support principle, for the case of singular quasilinear elliptic differential inequalities, under generally weak assumptions on the quasilinear operators and the nonlinearities involved. Our principal interest is in necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of both principles; in exposing and simplifying earlier proofs of corresponding results; and in extending the conclusions to wider classes of singular operators than previously considered. The results have unexpected ramifications for other problems, as will develop from the exposition, e.g. two point boundary value problems for singular quasilinear ordinary differential equations (Sections 3 and 4); the exterior Dirichlet boundary value problem (Section 5); the existence of dead cores and compact support solutions, i.e. dead cores at infinity (Section 7); Euler-Lagrange inequalities on a Riemannian manifold (Section 9); comparison and uniqueness theorems for solutions of singular quasilinear differential inequalities (Section 10). The case of p-regular elliptic inequalities is briefly considered in Section 11.
Discontinuous symplectic capacities
Zehmisch, K.; Ziltener, F.J.
2014-01-01
We show that the spherical capacity is discontinuous on a smooth family of ellipsoidal shells. Moreover, we prove that the shell capacity is discontinuous on a family of open sets with smooth connected boundaries.
Ryberg, Jesper
2014-01-01
That responsible moral agency presupposes certain mental capacities, constitutes a widely accepted view among theorists. Moreover, it is often assumed that degrees in the development of the relevant capacities co-vary with degrees of responsibility. In this article it is argued that, the move from...... the view that responsibility requires certain mental capacities to the position that degrees of responsibility co-vary with degrees of the development of the mental capacities, is premature....
Information storage capacity of incompletely connected associative memories.
Bosch, Holger; Kurfess, Franz J.
1998-07-01
In this paper, the memory capacity of incompletely connected associative memories is investigated. First, the capacity is derived for memories with fixed parameters. Optimization of the parameters yields a maximum capacity between 0.53 and 0.69 for hetero-association and half of it for autoassociation improving previously reported results. The maximum capacity grows with increasing connectivity of the memory and requires sparse input and output patterns. Further, parameters can be chosen in such a way that the information content per pattern asymptotically approaches 1 with growing size of the memory.
CDMA systems capacity engineering
Kim, Kiseon
2004-01-01
This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.
A CAPACITY EXPANSION PROBLEM WITHBUDGET CONSTRAINT AND BOTTLENECK LIMITATION
无
2001-01-01
This paper considers a capacity expansion problem with budget constraint.Suppose each edge in the network has two attributes: capacity and the degree of difficulty.The difficulty degree of a tree T is the maximum degree of difficulty of all edges in the tree and the cost for coping with the difficulty in a tree is a nondecreasing function about the difficulty degree of the tree. The authors need to increase capacities of some edges so that there is a spanning tree whose capacity can be increased to the maximum extent.meanwhile the total cost for increasing capacity as well as overcoming the difficulty in the spanning tree does not exceed a given budget D*. Suppose the cost for increasing capacity on each edge is a linear function about the increment of capacity, they transform this problem into solving some hybrid parametric spanning tree problems[1] and propose a strongly polynomial algorithm.
Maximum entropy production in daisyworld
Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.
2012-05-01
Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.
Maximum stellar iron core mass
F W Giacobbe
2003-03-01
An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is described in this paper. The method employed depends, in part, upon an estimate of the true relativistic mass increase experienced by electrons within a highly compressed iron core, just prior to core collapse, and is signiﬁcantly different from a more typical Chandrasekhar mass limit approach. This technique produced a maximum stellar iron core mass value of 2.69 × 1030 kg (1.35 solar masses). This mass value is very near to the typical mass values found for neutron stars in a recent survey of actual neutron star masses. Although slightly lower and higher neutron star masses may also be found, lower mass neutron stars are believed to be formed as a result of enhanced iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large stars. And, higher mass neutron stars are likely to be formed as a result of fallback or accretion of additional matter after an initial collapse event involving an iron core having a mass no greater than 2.69 × 1030 kg.
Maximum Matchings via Glauber Dynamics
Jindal, Anant; Pal, Manjish
2011-01-01
In this paper we study the classic problem of computing a maximum cardinality matching in general graphs $G = (V, E)$. The best known algorithm for this problem till date runs in $O(m \\sqrt{n})$ time due to Micali and Vazirani \\cite{MV80}. Even for general bipartite graphs this is the best known running time (the algorithm of Karp and Hopcroft \\cite{HK73} also achieves this bound). For regular bipartite graphs one can achieve an $O(m)$ time algorithm which, following a series of papers, has been recently improved to $O(n \\log n)$ by Goel, Kapralov and Khanna (STOC 2010) \\cite{GKK10}. In this paper we present a randomized algorithm based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo paradigm which runs in $O(m \\log^2 n)$ time, thereby obtaining a significant improvement over \\cite{MV80}. We use a Markov chain similar to the \\emph{hard-core model} for Glauber Dynamics with \\emph{fugacity} parameter $\\lambda$, which is used to sample independent sets in a graph from the Gibbs Distribution \\cite{V99}, to design a faster algori...
2011-01-10
...: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure Using Record Evidence, and... facilities of their responsibilities, under Federal integrity management (IM) regulations, to perform... system, especially when calculating Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) or Maximum Operating...
Maximum power point tracking for optimizing energy harvesting process
Akbari, S.; Thang, P. C.; Veselov, D. S.
2016-10-01
There has been a growing interest in using energy harvesting techniques for powering wireless sensor networks. The reason for utilizing this technology can be explained by the sensors limited amount of operation time which results from the finite capacity of batteries and the need for having a stable power supply in some applications. Energy can be harvested from the sun, wind, vibration, heat, etc. It is reasonable to develop multisource energy harvesting platforms for increasing the amount of harvesting energy and to mitigate the issue concerning the intermittent nature of ambient sources. In the context of solar energy harvesting, it is possible to develop algorithms for finding the optimal operation point of solar panels at which maximum power is generated. These algorithms are known as maximum power point tracking techniques. In this article, we review the concept of maximum power point tracking and provide an overview of the research conducted in this area for wireless sensor networks applications.
The maximum force in a column under constant speed compression
Kuzkin, Vitaly A
2015-01-01
Dynamic buckling of an elastic column under compression at constant speed is investigated assuming the first-mode buckling. Two cases are considered: (i) an imperfect column (Hoff's statement), and (ii) a perfect column having an initial lateral deflection. The range of parameters, where the maximum load supported by a column exceeds Euler static force is determined. In this range, the maximum load is represented as a function of the compression rate, slenderness ratio, and imperfection/initial deflection. Considering the results we answer the following question: "How slowly the column should be compressed in order to measure static load-bearing capacity?" This question is important for the proper setup of laboratory experiments and computer simulations of buckling. Additionally, it is shown that the behavior of a perfect column having an initial deflection differ significantlys form the behavior of an imperfect column. In particular, the dependence of the maximum force on the compression rate is non-monotoni...
The Sherpa Maximum Likelihood Estimator
Nguyen, D.; Doe, S.; Evans, I.; Hain, R.; Primini, F.
2011-07-01
A primary goal for the second release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is to include X-ray sources with as few as 5 photon counts detected in stacked observations of the same field, while maintaining acceptable detection efficiency and false source rates. Aggressive source detection methods will result in detection of many false positive source candidates. Candidate detections will then be sent to a new tool, the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE), to evaluate the likelihood that a detection is a real source. MLE uses the Sherpa modeling and fitting engine to fit a model of a background and source to multiple overlapping candidate source regions. A background model is calculated by simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in multiple background regions. This model is used to determine the quality of the fit statistic for a background-only hypothesis in the potential source region. The statistic for a background-plus-source hypothesis is calculated by adding a Gaussian source model convolved with the appropriate Chandra point spread function (PSF) and simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in each observation in the stack. Since a candidate source may be located anywhere in the field of view of each stacked observation, a different PSF must be used for each observation because of the strong spatial dependence of the Chandra PSF. The likelihood of a valid source being detected is a function of the two statistics (for background alone, and for background-plus-source). The MLE tool is an extensible Python module with potential for use by the general Chandra user.
Vestige: Maximum likelihood phylogenetic footprinting
Maxwell Peter
2005-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic footprinting is the identification of functional regions of DNA by their evolutionary conservation. This is achieved by comparing orthologous regions from multiple species and identifying the DNA regions that have diverged less than neutral DNA. Vestige is a phylogenetic footprinting package built on the PyEvolve toolkit that uses probabilistic molecular evolutionary modelling to represent aspects of sequence evolution, including the conventional divergence measure employed by other footprinting approaches. In addition to measuring the divergence, Vestige allows the expansion of the definition of a phylogenetic footprint to include variation in the distribution of any molecular evolutionary processes. This is achieved by displaying the distribution of model parameters that represent partitions of molecular evolutionary substitutions. Examination of the spatial incidence of these effects across regions of the genome can identify DNA segments that differ in the nature of the evolutionary process. Results Vestige was applied to a reference dataset of the SCL locus from four species and provided clear identification of the known conserved regions in this dataset. To demonstrate the flexibility to use diverse models of molecular evolution and dissect the nature of the evolutionary process Vestige was used to footprint the Ka/Ks ratio in primate BRCA1 with a codon model of evolution. Two regions of putative adaptive evolution were identified illustrating the ability of Vestige to represent the spatial distribution of distinct molecular evolutionary processes. Conclusion Vestige provides a flexible, open platform for phylogenetic footprinting. Underpinned by the PyEvolve toolkit, Vestige provides a framework for visualising the signatures of evolutionary processes across the genome of numerous organisms simultaneously. By exploiting the maximum-likelihood statistical framework, the complex interplay between mutational
STUDY ON MAXIMUM SPECIFIC SLUDGE ACIVITY OF DIFFERENT ANAEROBIC GRANULAR SLUDGE BY BATCH TESTS
无
2001-01-01
The maximum specific sludge activity of granular sludge from large-scale UASB, IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were investigated by batch tests. The limitation factors related to maximum specific sludge activity (diffusion, substrate sort, substrate concentration and granular size) were studied. The general principle and procedure for the precise measurement of maximum specific sludge activity were suggested. The potential capacity of loading rate of the IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were analyzed and compared by use of the batch tests results.
Landex, Alex
2011-01-01
Stations do have other challenges regarding capacity than open lines as it is here the traffic is dispatched. The UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyse the capacity consumption can be exposed in different ways at stations which may lead to different results. Therefore, stations need...... special focus when conducting UIC 406 capacity analyses.This paper describes how the UIC 406 capacity method can be expounded for stations. Commonly for the analyses of the stations it is recommended to include the entire station including the switch zone(s) and all station tracks. By including the switch...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...
Evaluation of railway capacity
Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.; Schittenhelm, Bernd
2006-01-01
This paper describes the relatively new UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. The UIC 406 method is an easy and effective way of calculating the capacity consumption, but it is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different...... capacity consumptions. This paper describes the UIC 406 method and how it is expounded in Denmark. The paper describes the importance of choosing the right length of the line sections examined and how line sections with multiple track sections are examined. Furthermore, the possibility of using idle...... capacity to run more trains is examined. The paper presents a method to examine the expected capacity utilization of future timetables. The method is based on the plan of operation instead of the exact (known) timetable. At the end of the paper it is described how it is possible to make capacity statements...
Adam McCarty
2001-01-01
This report is the outcome of a study commissioned to examine the capacity building needs in Vietnam, and is a supplementary document to the Asian Development Bank's Country Operational Strategy for Vietnam. Vietnam's needs in terms of capacity building are particularly important given that is it a transitional economy and also one with little institutional experience in dealing with the international donor community. This paper examines the international awareness of capacity building and ca...
Lower urinary tract symptoms in dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson disease, and Alzheimer disease.
Ransmayr, G N; Holliger, S; Schletterer, K; Heidler, H; Deibl, M; Poewe, W; Madersbacher, H; Kiss, G
2008-01-22
The present study sought to investigate lower urinary tract symptoms and urodynamic and cystometric findings in Parkinson disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and Alzheimer disease (AD). Included were patients with frequency, urgency, incontinence, and nocturia, without major bladder outflow obstruction. The protocol comprised physical examination, urine analysis, prostate specific antigen, 24-hours frequency of micturition, mean voided volume (MVV), free flow before instrumentation (Qmax(before)), post-void residual volume (PVR), and cystometry. Fifteen patients with DLB and PD and 16 patients with AD were examined. MVV, PVR, Qmax(before) and with transurethral catheter, cystometric bladder capacity, and detrusor pressor at maximum flow were similar in the three groups and corresponded to values of the general elderly population. Urge episodes and urge incontinence were observed in 93 and 53% of the patients with DLB, 53 and 27% of the patients with PD, and 19 and 12% of the patients with AD, and detrusor overactivity in 92% of the patients with DLB, 46% of the patients with PD, and 40% of the patients with AD. Urgency and urge incontinence suggest detrusor overactivity, which was more prevalent in dementia with Lewy bodies than in Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease, whereas mean voided volume, free flow, cystometric bladder capacity, and detrusor pressor were similar in the groups. Frequency of micturition could not be reliably assessed in patients with dementia.
Light dependence of carboxylation capacity for C3 photosynthesis models
Photosynthesis at high light is often modelled by assuming limitation by the maximum capacity of Rubisco carboxylation at low carbon dioxide concentrations, by electron transport capacity at higher concentrations, and sometimes by triose-phosphate utilization rate at the highest concentrations. Pho...
Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.
2007-05-01
The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.
Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi
2009-01-01
to patient testing, and review existing TVA-based patient studies organized by lesion anatomy. Lesions in three anatomical regions affect visual capacity: The parietal lobes, frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and extrastriate cortex. Visual capacity thus depends on large, bilaterally distributed anatomical...
Sameni, Melody Khadem; Preston, John M.
2012-01-01
Growth in rail traffic has not been matched by increases in railway infrastructure. Given this capacity challenge and the current restrictions on public spending, the allocation and the utilization of existing railway capacity are more important than ever. Great Britain has had the greatest growth...... in rail passenger kilometers of European countries since 1996. However, costs are higher and efficiency is lower than European best practice. This paper provides an innovative methodology for assessing the efficiency of passenger operators in capacity utilization. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used...... to analyze the efficiency of operators in transforming inputs of allocated capacity of infrastructure and franchise payments into valuable passenger service outputs while avoiding delays. By addressing operational and economic aspects of capacity utilization simultaneously, the paper deviates from existing...
ON THE BOTTLENECK CAPACITY EXPANSION PROBLEMS ON NETWORKS
Yang Chao; Zhang Jianzhong
2006-01-01
This article considers a class of bottleneck capacity expansion problems. Such problems aim to enhance bottleneck capacity to a certain level with minimum cost. Given a network G(V, A,(-C)) consisting of a set of nodes V = {v1, v2,………, vn}, a set of arcs A(∪-){(vi, vj) | i = 1, 2,………, n; j = 1, 2,………, n} and a capacity vector (-C). The component (-C)ij of (-C) is the capacity of arc (vi, vj). Define the capacity of a subset A' of A as the minimum capacity of the arcs in A, the capacity of a family F of subsets of A is the maximum capacity of its members. There axe two types of expanding models. In the arc-expanding model, the unit cost to increase the capacity of arc (vi, vj) is wij. In the node-expanding model, it is assumed that the capacities of all arcs (vi, vi) which start at the same node vi should be increased by the same amount and that the unit cost to make such expansion is wi. This article considers three kinds of bottleneck capacity expansion problems (path,spanning arborescence and maximum flow) in both expanding models. For each kind of expansion problems, this article discusses the characteristics of the problems and presents several results on the complexity of the problems.
Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution
吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生
2003-01-01
Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.
Capacity of Discrete Molecular Diffusion Channels
Einolghozati, Arash; Beirami, Ahmad; Fekri, Faramarz
2011-01-01
In diffusion-based molecular communications, messages can be conveyed via the variation in the concentration of molecules in the medium. In this paper, we intend to analyze the achievable capacity in transmission of information from one node to another in a diffusion channel. We observe that because of the molecular diffusion in the medium, the channel possesses memory. We then model the memory of the channel by a two-step Markov chain and obtain the equations describing the capacity of the diffusion channel. By performing a numerical analysis, we obtain the maximum achievable rate for different levels of the transmitter power, i.e., the molecule production rate.
Maximum Power from a Solar Panel
Michael Miller
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.
Maximum likelihood method and Fisher's information in physics and econophysics
Syska, Jacek
2012-01-01
Three steps in the development of the maximum likelihood (ML) method are presented. At first, the application of the ML method and Fisher information notion in the model selection analysis is described (Chapter 1). The fundamentals of differential geometry in the construction of the statistical space are introduced, illustrated also by examples of the estimation of the exponential models. At second, the notions of the relative entropy and the information channel capacity are introduced (Chapter 2). The observed and expected structural information principle (IP) and the variational IP of the modified extremal physical information (EPI) method of Frieden and Soffer are presented and discussed (Chapter 3). The derivation of the structural IP based on the analyticity of the logarithm of the likelihood function and on the metricity of the statistical space of the system is given. At third, the use of the EPI method is developed (Chapters 4-5). The information channel capacity is used for the field theory models cl...
Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand.
Nazir, Ashraf; Nasr, Ahmed
2013-03-01
Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21-31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18-75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.
Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand
Ashraf Nazir
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21–31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18–75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.
Vedr.: Military capacity building
Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert
2013-01-01
Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...... Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...
Vedr.: Military capacity building
Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert
2013-01-01
Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from......Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...
Triadic conceptual structure of the maximum entropy approach to evolution.
Herrmann-Pillath, Carsten; Salthe, Stanley N
2011-03-01
Many problems in evolutionary theory are cast in dyadic terms, such as the polar oppositions of organism and environment. We argue that a triadic conceptual structure offers an alternative perspective under which the information generating role of evolution as a physical process can be analyzed, and propose a new diagrammatic approach. Peirce's natural philosophy was deeply influenced by his reception of both Darwin's theory and thermodynamics. Thus, we elaborate on a new synthesis which puts together his theory of signs and modern Maximum Entropy approaches to evolution in a process discourse. Following recent contributions to the naturalization of Peircean semiosis, pointing towards 'physiosemiosis' or 'pansemiosis', we show that triadic structures involve the conjunction of three different kinds of causality, efficient, formal and final. In this, we accommodate the state-centered thermodynamic framework to a process approach. We apply this on Ulanowicz's analysis of autocatalytic cycles as primordial patterns of life. This paves the way for a semiotic view of thermodynamics which is built on the idea that Peircean interpretants are systems of physical inference devices evolving under natural selection. In this view, the principles of Maximum Entropy, Maximum Power, and Maximum Entropy Production work together to drive the emergence of information carrying structures, which at the same time maximize information capacity as well as the gradients of energy flows, such that ultimately, contrary to Schrödinger's seminal contribution, the evolutionary process is seen to be a physical expression of the Second Law.
Mielke, U.
1979-01-01
We measured in 287 persons the pulmonary CO diffusion capacity with the steady-state and the single breath methods, applying apnoeic periods of 4 and 10 seconds duration. The aspects methodical significance, polyclinical applicability and pathognostic relevance with respect to other approved pulmonary functional tests are discussed. Differing pulmonary diffusion capacity values found in normal persons or in patients suffering from silicosis, pulmonary fibrosis, Boeck's disease or rheumatoid arthritis, were investigated and critically evaluated.
Revisiting Absorptive Capacity
de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher
Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...
Revisiting Absorptive Capacity
de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher
Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...
Alkaline solution neutralization capacity of soil.
Asakura, Hiroshi; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Matsuto, Toshihiko
2010-10-01
Alkaline eluate from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration residue deposited in landfill alkalizes waste and soil layers. From the viewpoint of accelerating stability and preventing heavy metal elution, pH of the landfill layer (waste and daily cover soil) should be controlled. On the other hand, pH of leachate from existing MSW landfill sites is usually approximately neutral. One of the reasons is that daily cover soil can neutralize alkaline solution containing Ca(2+) as cation. However, in landfill layer where various types of wastes and reactions should be taken into consideration, the ability to neutralize alkaline solutions other than Ca(OH)(2) by soil should be evaluated. In this study, the neutralization capacities of various types of soils were measured using Ca(OH)(2) and NaOH solutions. Each soil used in this study showed approximately the same capacity to neutralize both alkaline solutions of Ca(OH)(2) and NaOH. The cation exchange capacity was less than 30% of the maximum alkali neutralization capacity obtained by the titration test. The mechanism of neutralization by the pH-dependent charge can explain the same neutralization capacities of the soils. Although further investigation on the neutralization capacity of the soils for alkaline substances other than NaOH is required, daily cover soil could serve as a buffer zone for alkaline leachates containing Ca(OH)(2) or other alkaline substances.
Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors
Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)
2014-06-15
Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.
MEASUREMENT OF SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE
Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V
2008-09-29
One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify (and quantify the impact of) the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. The heat capacity of the Saltstone waste form is one of the important properties of Saltstone mixes that was last measured at SRNL in 1997. It is therefore important to develop a core competency for rapid and accurate analysis of the specific heat capacity of the Saltstone mixes in order to quantify the impact of compositional and operational variations on this property as part of the variability study. The heat capacity, coupled with the heat of hydration data obtained from isothermal calorimetry for a given Saltstone mix, can be used to predict the maximum temperature increase in the cells within the vaults of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The temperature increase controls the processing rate and the pour schedule. The maximum temperature is also important to the performance properties of the Saltstone. For example, in mass pours of concrete or grout of which Saltstone is an example, the maximum temperature increase and the maximum temperature difference (between the surface and the hottest location) are controlled to ensure durability of the product and prevent or limit the cracking caused by the thermal gradients produced during curing. This report details the development and implementation of a method for the measurement of the heat capacities of Saltstone mixes as well as the heat capacities of the cementitious materials of the premix and the simulated salt solutions used to batch the mixes. The developed method utilizes the TAM Air isothermal calorimeter and takes advantage of the sophisticated heat flow measurement capabilities of the instrument. Standards and reference materials were identified and used to validate the procedure and ensure accuracy of testing. Heat capacities of Saltstone mixes were
Healthy adults maximum oxygen uptake prediction from a six minute walking test
Nury Nusdwinuringtyas
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Background: A parameter is needed in medical activities or services to determine functional capacity. This study is aimed to produce functional capacity parameter for Indonesian adult as maximum O2.Methods: This study used 123 Indonesian healthy adult subjects (58 males and 65 females with a sedentary lifestyle, using a cross-sectional method.Results: Designed by using the followings: distance, body height, body weight, sex, age, maximum heart rate of six minute walking test and lung capacity (FEV and FVC, the study revealed a good correlation (except body weight with maximum O2. Three new formulas were proposed, which consisted of eight, six, and five variable respectively. Test of the new formula gave result of maximum O2 that is relevant to the golden standard maximum O2 using Cosmed® C-Pex.Conclusion: The Nury formula is the appropriate predictor of maximum oxygen uptake for healthy Indonesians adult as it is designed using Indonesian subjects (Mongoloid compared to the Cahalin’s formula (Caucasian. The Nury formula which consists of five variables is more applicable because it does not require any measurement tools neither specific competency. (Med J Indones 2011;20:195-200Keywords: maximum O2, Nury’s formula, six minute walking test
Estimation of Maximum Allowable PV Connection to LV Residential Power Networks
Demirok, Erhan; Sera, Dezso; Teodorescu, Remus
2011-01-01
transformer or using solar inverters with new grid support features. This study presents a methodology for the estimation of maximum PV hosting capacity including IEC 60076-7 based thermal model of distribution transformer. Certain part of a real distribution network of Braedstrup suburban area in Denmark...... is used in simulation as a case study model. Furthermore, varying solutions (utilizing thermally upgraded insulation paper in transformers, reactive power services from solar inverters, etc.) are implemented on the network under investigation to examine PV penetration level and finally key results learnt......Maximum photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacity of low voltage (LV) power networks is mainly restricted by either thermal limits of network components or grid voltage quality resulted from high penetration of distributed PV systems. This maximum hosting capacity may be lower than the available solar...
Generalised maximum entropy and heterogeneous technologies
Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.
1999-01-01
Generalised maximum entropy methods are used to estimate a dual model of production on panel data of Dutch cash crop farms over the period 1970-1992. The generalised maximum entropy approach allows a coherent system of input demand and output supply equations to be estimated for each farm in the sam
20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.
2010-04-01
... month on one person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family maximum used to adjust the social security overall minimum rate is based on the employee's Overall..., when any of the persons entitled to benefits on the insured individual's compensation would, except...
The maximum rotation of a galactic disc
Bottema, R
1997-01-01
The observed stellar velocity dispersions of galactic discs show that the maximum rotation of a disc is on average 63% of the observed maximum rotation. This criterion can, however, not be applied to small or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies because such systems show, in general, a continuously
Duality of Maximum Entropy and Minimum Divergence
Shinto Eguchi
2014-06-01
Full Text Available We discuss a special class of generalized divergence measures by the use of generator functions. Any divergence measure in the class is separated into the difference between cross and diagonal entropy. The diagonal entropy measure in the class associates with a model of maximum entropy distributions; the divergence measure leads to statistical estimation via minimization, for arbitrarily giving a statistical model. The dualistic relationship between the maximum entropy model and the minimum divergence estimation is explored in the framework of information geometry. The model of maximum entropy distributions is characterized to be totally geodesic with respect to the linear connection associated with the divergence. A natural extension for the classical theory for the maximum likelihood method under the maximum entropy model in terms of the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy is given. We discuss the duality in detail for Tsallis entropy as a typical example.
Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors
Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood
2015-01-01
The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.
Capacity Maximizing Constellations
Barsoum, Maged; Jones, Christopher
2010-01-01
Some non-traditional signal constellations have been proposed for transmission of data over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel using such channel-capacity-approaching codes as low-density parity-check (LDPC) or turbo codes. Computational simulations have shown performance gains of more than 1 dB over traditional constellations. These gains could be translated to bandwidth- efficient communications, variously, over longer distances, using less power, or using smaller antennas. The proposed constellations have been used in a bit-interleaved coded modulation system employing state-ofthe-art LDPC codes. In computational simulations, these constellations were shown to afford performance gains over traditional constellations as predicted by the gap between the parallel decoding capacity of the constellations and the Gaussian capacity
Jensen, Thomas Christian
2014-01-01
The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore......, the capacity of the highway seems to be reduced in bad weather and there are indications that travel time variability is also increased, at least in free-flow conditions. Heavy precipitation reduces speed and capacity by around 5-8%, whereas snow primarily reduces capacity. Other weather variables......-parametrically against traffic density and in step 2 the residuals from step 1 are regressed linearly against the weather variables. The choice of a non-parametric method is made to avoid constricting ties from a parametric specification and because the focus here is not on the relationship between traffic flow...
Hutchinson, Thomas H. [Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3DH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: thom1@pml.ac.uk; Boegi, Christian [BASF SE, Product Safety, GUP/PA, Z470, 67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany); Winter, Matthew J. [AstraZeneca Safety, Health and Environment, Brixham Environmental Laboratory, Devon TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Owens, J. Willie [The Procter and Gamble Company, Central Product Safety, 11810 East Miami River Road, Cincinnati, OH 45252 (United States)
2009-02-19
There is increasing recognition of the need to identify specific sublethal effects of chemicals, such as reproductive toxicity, and specific modes of actions of the chemicals, such as interference with the endocrine system. To achieve these aims requires criteria which provide a basis to interpret study findings so as to separate these specific toxicities and modes of action from not only acute lethality per se but also from severe inanition and malaise that non-specifically compromise reproductive capacity and the response of endocrine endpoints. Mammalian toxicologists have recognized that very high dose levels are sometimes required to elicit both specific adverse effects and present the potential of non-specific 'systemic toxicity'. Mammalian toxicologists have developed the concept of a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) beyond which a specific toxicity or action cannot be attributed to a test substance due to the compromised state of the organism. Ecotoxicologists are now confronted by a similar challenge and must develop an analogous concept of a MTD and the respective criteria. As examples of this conundrum, we note recent developments in efforts to validate protocols for fish reproductive toxicity and endocrine screens (e.g. some chemicals originally selected as 'negatives' elicited decreases in fecundity or changes in endpoints intended to be biomarkers for endocrine modes of action). Unless analogous criteria can be developed, the potentially confounding effects of systemic toxicity may then undermine the reliable assessment of specific reproductive effects or biomarkers such as vitellogenin or spiggin. The same issue confronts other areas of aquatic toxicology (e.g., genotoxicity) and the use of aquatic animals for preclinical assessments of drugs (e.g., use of zebrafish for drug safety assessment). We propose that there are benefits to adopting the concept of an MTD for toxicology and pharmacology studies using fish and other aquatic
Maximum flow-based resilience analysis: From component to system
Jin, Chong; Li, Ruiying; Kang, Rui
2017-01-01
Resilience, the ability to withstand disruptions and recover quickly, must be considered during system design because any disruption of the system may cause considerable loss, including economic and societal. This work develops analytic maximum flow-based resilience models for series and parallel systems using Zobel’s resilience measure. The two analytic models can be used to evaluate quantitatively and compare the resilience of the systems with the corresponding performance structures. For systems with identical components, the resilience of the parallel system increases with increasing number of components, while the resilience remains constant in the series system. A Monte Carlo-based simulation method is also provided to verify the correctness of our analytic resilience models and to analyze the resilience of networked systems based on that of components. A road network example is used to illustrate the analysis process, and the resilience comparison among networks with different topologies but the same components indicates that a system with redundant performance is usually more resilient than one without redundant performance. However, not all redundant capacities of components can improve the system resilience, the effectiveness of the capacity redundancy depends on where the redundant capacity is located. PMID:28545135
Testamentary capacity and delirium.
Liptzin, Benjamin; Peisah, Carmelle; Shulman, Kenneth; Finkel, Sanford
2010-09-01
With the aging of the population there will be a substantial transfer of wealth in the next 25 years. The presence of delirium can complicate the evaluation of an older person's testamentary capacity and susceptibility to undue influence but has not been well examined in the existing literature. A subcommittee of the IPA Task Force on Testamentary Capacity and Undue Influence undertook to review how to assess prospectively and retrospectively testamentary capacity and susceptibility to undue influence in patients with delirium. The subcommittee identified questions that should be asked in cases where someone changes their will or estate plan towards the end of their life in the presence of delirium. These questions include: was there consistency in the patient's wishes over time? Were these wishes expressed during a "lucid interval" when the person was less confused? Were the patient's wishes clearly expressed in response to open-ended questions? Is there clear documentation of the patient's mental status at the time of the discussion? This review with some case examples provides guidance on how to consider the question of testamentary capacity or susceptibility to undue influence in someone undergoing an episode of delirium.
Flood Bypass Capacity Optimization
Siclari, A.; Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.
2015-12-01
Large river flows can damage adjacent flood-prone areas, by exceeding river channel and levee capacities. Particularly large floods are difficult to contain in leveed river banks alone. Flood bypasses often can efficiently reduce flood risks, where excess river flow is diverted over a weir to bypasses, that incur much less damage and cost. Additional benefits of bypasses include ecosystem protection, agriculture, groundwater recharge and recreation. Constructing or expanding an existing bypass costs in land purchase easements, and levee setbacks. Accounting for such benefits and costs, this study develops a simple mathematical model for optimizing flood bypass capacity using benefit-cost and risk analysis. Application to the Yolo Bypass, an existing bypass along the Sacramento River in California, estimates optimal capacity that economically reduces flood damage and increases various benefits, especially for agriculture. Land availability is likely to limit bypass expansion. Compensation for landowners could relax such limitations. Other economic values could affect the optimal results, which are shown by sensitivity analysis on major parameters. By including land geography into the model, location of promising capacity expansions can be identified.
A dual method for maximum entropy restoration
Smith, C. B.
1979-01-01
A simple iterative dual algorithm for maximum entropy image restoration is presented. The dual algorithm involves fewer parameters than conventional minimization in the image space. Minicomputer test results for Fourier synthesis with inadequate phantom data are given.
Maximum Throughput in Multiple-Antenna Systems
Zamani, Mahdi
2012-01-01
The point-to-point multiple-antenna channel is investigated in uncorrelated block fading environment with Rayleigh distribution. The maximum throughput and maximum expected-rate of this channel are derived under the assumption that the transmitter is oblivious to the channel state information (CSI), however, the receiver has perfect CSI. First, we prove that in multiple-input single-output (MISO) channels, the optimum transmission strategy maximizing the throughput is to use all available antennas and perform equal power allocation with uncorrelated signals. Furthermore, to increase the expected-rate, multi-layer coding is applied. Analogously, we establish that sending uncorrelated signals and performing equal power allocation across all available antennas at each layer is optimum. A closed form expression for the maximum continuous-layer expected-rate of MISO channels is also obtained. Moreover, we investigate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels, and formulate the maximum throughput in the asympt...
Photoemission spectromicroscopy with MAXIMUM at Wisconsin
Ng, W.; Ray-Chaudhuri, A.K.; Cole, R.K.; Wallace, J.; Crossley, S.; Crossley, D.; Chen, G.; Green, M.; Guo, J.; Hansen, R.W.C.; Cerrina, F.; Margaritondo, G. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Dept. of Physics and Synchrotron Radiation Center, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA)); Underwood, J.H.; Korthright, J.; Perera, R.C.C. (Center for X-ray Optics, Accelerator and Fusion Research Div., Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))
1990-06-01
We describe the development of the scanning photoemission spectromicroscope MAXIMUM at the Wisoncsin Synchrotron Radiation Center, which uses radiation from a 30-period undulator. The article includes a discussion of the first tests after the initial commissioning. (orig.).
Maximum-likelihood method in quantum estimation
Paris, M G A; Sacchi, M F
2001-01-01
The maximum-likelihood method for quantum estimation is reviewed and applied to the reconstruction of density matrix of spin and radiation as well as to the determination of several parameters of interest in quantum optics.
The maximum entropy technique. System's statistical description
Belashev, B Z
2002-01-01
The maximum entropy technique (MENT) is applied for searching the distribution functions of physical values. MENT takes into consideration the demand of maximum entropy, the characteristics of the system and the connection conditions, naturally. It is allowed to apply MENT for statistical description of closed and open systems. The examples in which MENT had been used for the description of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium states and the states far from the thermodynamical equilibrium are considered
19 CFR 114.23 - Maximum period.
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum period. 114.23 Section 114.23 Customs... CARNETS Processing of Carnets § 114.23 Maximum period. (a) A.T.A. carnet. No A.T.A. carnet with a period of validity exceeding 1 year from date of issue shall be accepted. This period of validity cannot be...
Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM
Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.
1993-01-01
Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.
SEXUAL DIMORPHISM OF MAXIMUM FEMORAL LENGTH
Pandya A M
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Sexual identification from the skeletal parts has medico legal and anthropological importance. Present study aims to obtain values of maximum femoral length and to evaluate its possible usefulness in determining correct sexual identification. Study sample consisted of 184 dry, normal, adult, human femora (136 male & 48 female from skeletal collections of Anatomy department, M. P. Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat. Maximum length of femur was considered as maximum vertical distance between upper end of head of femur and the lowest point on femoral condyle, measured with the osteometric board. Mean Values obtained were, 451.81 and 417.48 for right male and female, and 453.35 and 420.44 for left male and female respectively. Higher value in male was statistically highly significant (P< 0.001 on both sides. Demarking point (D.P. analysis of the data showed that right femora with maximum length more than 476.70 were definitely male and less than 379.99 were definitely female; while for left bones, femora with maximum length more than 484.49 were definitely male and less than 385.73 were definitely female. Maximum length identified 13.43% of right male femora, 4.35% of right female femora, 7.25% of left male femora and 8% of left female femora. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 67-70
2015-02-01
In a similar manner, globalization has also created new realities, such as in the case of food production where choice now affects demand as much as...quantity did in the past. “Two major factors drive food requirements [and market prices]: a growing global population and prosperity that expands...argued earlier, to expend effort in other nations without consideration of building capacity and resiliency risks strategic failure and wastage of
Markets and Institutional Capacity
Ingemann, Jan Holm
2010-01-01
Adequate explanations concerning the introduction of production and consumption of organic food in Denmark imply the necessity to engage a certain understanding of markets. Markets should subsequently not be seen as entities nor places but as complex relations between human actors. Further, the e......, the establishment, maintenance and development of markets are depending on the capacity of the actors to enter into continuous and enhancing interplay....
Capacity factors of a mixed speed railway network
Harrod, Steven
2009-01-01
Fifty-four combinations of track network and speed differential are evaluated within a linear, discrete time network model that maximizes an objective function of train volume, delays, and idle train time. The results contradict accepted dispatching practice by suggesting that when introducing...... a priority, high-speed train onto a network, maximum network now is attained when the priority train operates at maximum speed. in addition, increasing siding capacity at meeting points may offer a network capacity improvement comparable to partial double track. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....
Competence building capacity shortage
Doorman, Gerard; Wangensteen, Ivar; Bakken, Bjoern
2005-02-01
The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather
The maximum rotation of a galactic disc
Bottema, R
1997-01-01
The observed stellar velocity dispersions of galactic discs show that the maximum rotation of a disc is on average 63% of the observed maximum rotation. This criterion can, however, not be applied to small or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies because such systems show, in general, a continuously rising rotation curve until the outermost measured radial position. That is why a general relation has been derived, giving the maximum rotation for a disc depending on the luminosity, surface brightness, and colour of the disc. As a physical basis of this relation serves an adopted fixed mass-to-light ratio as a function of colour. That functionality is consistent with results from population synthesis models and its absolute value is determined from the observed stellar velocity dispersions. The derived maximum disc rotation is compared with a number of observed maximum rotations, clearly demonstrating the need for appreciable amounts of dark matter in the disc region and even more so for LSB galaxies. Matters h...
Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors
Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.; Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C.
2014-06-01
Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (Ic) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the Ic degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.
Computing Rooted and Unrooted Maximum Consistent Supertrees
van Iersel, Leo
2009-01-01
A chief problem in phylogenetics and database theory is the computation of a maximum consistent tree from a set of rooted or unrooted trees. A standard input are triplets, rooted binary trees on three leaves, or quartets, unrooted binary trees on four leaves. We give exact algorithms constructing rooted and unrooted maximum consistent supertrees in time O(2^n n^5 m^2 log(m)) for a set of m triplets (quartets), each one distinctly leaf-labeled by some subset of n labels. The algorithms extend to weighted triplets (quartets). We further present fast exact algorithms for constructing rooted and unrooted maximum consistent trees in polynomial space. Finally, for a set T of m rooted or unrooted trees with maximum degree D and distinctly leaf-labeled by some subset of a set L of n labels, we compute, in O(2^{mD} n^m m^5 n^6 log(m)) time, a tree distinctly leaf-labeled by a maximum-size subset X of L that all trees in T, when restricted to X, are consistent with.
Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection
McGarr, Arthur F.
2014-01-01
Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.
Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection
McGarr, A.
2014-02-01
Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.
CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO MALE URINARY INCONTINENCE: A CONTROLLED RANDOMIZED COMPARATIVE STUDY
Hany M. I. Elgohary
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Background: Urinary incontinence UI is an involuntary leakage of urine due to loss of bladder control which is a common and often embarrassing problem that may cause tremendous emotional distress. Prevalence and risk factors depend on baseline physiological mechanisms, including weakness of pelvic floor muscles, hyperactive bladder that may result in urge UI, poor urethral sphincter function associated with stress UI, and impaired structural and functional integrity of pudendal nerve activity, associated with Pelvic floor muscle weakness plays an important role in UI etiology. Pelvic floor muscles work to support the bladder neck in the intra- abdominal cavity and maintain urinary continence. Weakness of these muscles leads the bladder to shift to the extra-abdominal cavity and thus a change in the urethra-vesicle angle occurs. Methods: Group (A twenty participants who received behavioral training (BT pelvic floor exercises (PFE and interferential current, group (B twenty participants who received BT, PFE and posterior tibial nerve stimulation, and group (C twenty participants who received BT, PFE and placebo interferential current. Urodynamic and cystometric measures including bladder volume at first desire to void, maximum cystometric capacity, and pressure at maximum flow rate were measured before and after intervention. Results: Results of this study revealed that there was a statistical significant difference in bladder volume at first desire to void, maximum cystometric capacity, and pressure at maximum flow rate in favor of participants who received a combination of BT, PFE and interferential current compared with those who received a combination of BH and PFE with either posterior tibial nerve stimulation or placebo interferential current. Conclusion: Interferential current is better than posterior tibial nerve stimulation in the rehabilitation of urinary incontinence.
Maximum Multiflow in Wireless Network Coding
Zhou, Jin-Yi; Jiang, Yong; Zheng, Hai-Tao
2012-01-01
In a multihop wireless network, wireless interference is crucial to the maximum multiflow (MMF) problem, which studies the maximum throughput between multiple pairs of sources and sinks. In this paper, we observe that network coding could help to decrease the impacts of wireless interference, and propose a framework to study the MMF problem for multihop wireless networks with network coding. Firstly, a network model is set up to describe the new conflict relations modified by network coding. Then, we formulate a linear programming problem to compute the maximum throughput and show its superiority over one in networks without coding. Finally, the MMF problem in wireless network coding is shown to be NP-hard and a polynomial approximation algorithm is proposed.
Rainfall Maximum Intensities for Urban Hydrological Design in Mexican Republic
Campos–Aranda D.F.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Firstly, through the urban hydrosystem concept and through urbanization, the difficulties and approach of the urban flood estimation are established, based in the Intensity–Duration–Frequency curves (IDF. Next, in 10 recording gages located in very different geographic zones, a procedure is contrasted for IDF estimation curves, which utilized the Chen formula and the available information in the Mexican Republic for isohyet intensities and annual daily maximum rainfall. Late, having verified their capacity and approximation to reproduce the IDF curves, the utilized procedure was applied in 45 important locations of the country, showing the results. Lastly, the conclusions are formulated, which point out the approximation and simplicity of the proposal procedure.
The Wiener maximum quadratic assignment problem
Cela, Eranda; Woeginger, Gerhard J
2011-01-01
We investigate a special case of the maximum quadratic assignment problem where one matrix is a product matrix and the other matrix is the distance matrix of a one-dimensional point set. We show that this special case, which we call the Wiener maximum quadratic assignment problem, is NP-hard in the ordinary sense and solvable in pseudo-polynomial time. Our approach also yields a polynomial time solution for the following problem from chemical graph theory: Find a tree that maximizes the Wiener index among all trees with a prescribed degree sequence. This settles an open problem from the literature.
Maximum confidence measurements via probabilistic quantum cloning
Zhang Wen-Hai; Yu Long-Bao; Cao Zhuo-Liang; Ye Liu
2013-01-01
Probabilistic quantum cloning (PQC) cannot copy a set of linearly dependent quantum states.In this paper,we show that if incorrect copies are allowed to be produced,linearly dependent quantum states may also be cloned by the PQC.By exploiting this kind of PQC to clone a special set of three linearly dependent quantum states,we derive the upper bound of the maximum confidence measure of a set.An explicit transformation of the maximum confidence measure is presented.
Maximum floodflows in the conterminous United States
Crippen, John R.; Bue, Conrad D.
1977-01-01
Peak floodflows from thousands of observation sites within the conterminous United States were studied to provide a guide for estimating potential maximum floodflows. Data were selected from 883 sites with drainage areas of less than 10,000 square miles (25,900 square kilometers) and were grouped into regional sets. Outstanding floods for each region were plotted on graphs, and envelope curves were computed that offer reasonable limits for estimates of maximum floods. The curves indicate that floods may occur that are two to three times greater than those known for most streams.
Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper
Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu
2009-01-01
The strength of polycrystalline materials increases with decreasing grain size. Below a critical size, smaller grains might lead to softening, as suggested by atomistic simulations. The strongest size should arise at a transition in deformation mechanism from lattice dislocation activities to grain...... boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...
The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem
Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.
2006-01-01
Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find...
Maximum entropy analysis of EGRET data
Pohl, M.; Strong, A.W.
1997-01-01
EGRET data are usually analysed on the basis of the Maximum-Likelihood method \\cite{ma96} in a search for point sources in excess to a model for the background radiation (e.g. \\cite{hu97}). This method depends strongly on the quality of the background model, and thus may have high systematic unce...... uncertainties in region of strong and uncertain background like the Galactic Center region. Here we show images of such regions obtained by the quantified Maximum-Entropy method. We also discuss a possible further use of MEM in the analysis of problematic regions of the sky....
Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper
Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu
2009-01-01
The strength of polycrystalline materials increases with decreasing grain size. Below a critical size, smaller grains might lead to softening, as suggested by atomistic simulations. The strongest size should arise at a transition in deformation mechanism from lattice dislocation activities to grain...... boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...
Maximum phytoplankton concentrations in the sea
Jackson, G.A.; Kiørboe, Thomas
2008-01-01
A simplification of plankton dynamics using coagulation theory provides predictions of the maximum algal concentration sustainable in aquatic systems. These predictions have previously been tested successfully against results from iron fertilization experiments. We extend the test to data collected...... in the North Atlantic as part of the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series program as well as data collected off Southern California as part of the Southern California Bight Study program. The observed maximum particulate organic carbon and volumetric particle concentrations are consistent with the predictions...
The capacity of the Hopfield associative memory
Mceliece, Robert J.; Posner, Edward C.; Rodemich, Eugene R.; Venkatesh, Santosh S.
1987-01-01
Techniques from coding theory are applied to study rigorously the capacity of the Hopfield associative memory. Such a memory stores n-tuple of + or - 1s. The components change depending on a hard-limited version of linear functions of all other components. With symmetric connections between components, a stable state is ultimately reached. By building up the connection matrix as a sum-of-outer products of m fundamental memories, it may be possible to recover a certain one of the m memories by using an initial n-tuple probe vector less than a Hamming distance n/2 away from the fundamental memory. If m fundamental memories are chosen at random, the maximum asymptotic value of m in order that most of the m original memories are exactly recoverable is n/(2 log n). With the added restriction that every one of the m fundamental memories be recoverable exactly, m can be no more than n/(4 log n) asymptotically as n approaches infinity. Extensions are also considered, in particular to capacity under quantization of the outer-product connection matrix. This quantized memory-capacity problem is closely related to the capacity of the quantized Gaussian channel.
Maximum Likelihood Blind Channel Estimation for Space-Time Coding Systems
Hakan A. Çırpan
2002-05-01
Full Text Available Sophisticated signal processing techniques have to be developed for capacity enhancement of future wireless communication systems. In recent years, space-time coding is proposed to provide significant capacity gains over the traditional communication systems in fading wireless channels. Space-time codes are obtained by combining channel coding, modulation, transmit diversity, and optional receive diversity in order to provide diversity at the receiver and coding gain without sacrificing the bandwidth. In this paper, we consider the problem of blind estimation of space-time coded signals along with the channel parameters. Both conditional and unconditional maximum likelihood approaches are developed and iterative solutions are proposed. The conditional maximum likelihood algorithm is based on iterative least squares with projection whereas the unconditional maximum likelihood approach is developed by means of finite state Markov process modelling. The performance analysis issues of the proposed methods are studied. Finally, some simulation results are presented.
Savulescu, Julian; Kahane, Guy
2011-01-01
Enhancing Human Capacities is the first to review the very latest scientific developments in human enhancement. It is unique in its examination of the ethical and policy implications of these technologies from a broad range of perspectives. Presents a rich range of perspectives on enhancement from world leading ethicists and scientists from Europe and North America The most comprehensive volume yet on the science and ethics of human enhancement Unique in providing a detailed overview of current and expected scientific advances in this area Discusses both general conceptual and ethical issues
Analysis of Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Trackers
Veerachary, Mummadi
The photovoltaic generator exhibits a non-linear i-v characteristic and its maximum power point (MPP) varies with solar insolation. An intermediate switch-mode dc-dc converter is required to extract maximum power from the photovoltaic array. In this paper buck, boost and buck-boost topologies are considered and a detailed mathematical analysis, both for continuous and discontinuous inductor current operation, is given for MPP operation. The conditions on the connected load values and duty ratio are derived for achieving the satisfactory maximum power point operation. Further, it is shown that certain load values, falling out of the optimal range, will drive the operating point away from the true maximum power point. Detailed comparison of various topologies for MPPT is given. Selection of the converter topology for a given loading is discussed. Detailed discussion on circuit-oriented model development is given and then MPPT effectiveness of various converter systems is verified through simulations. Proposed theory and analysis is validated through experimental investigations.
On maximum cycle packings in polyhedral graphs
Peter Recht
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses upper and lower bounds for the cardinality of a maximum vertex-/edge-disjoint cycle packing in a polyhedral graph G. Bounds on the cardinality of such packings are provided, that depend on the size, the order or the number of faces of G, respectively. Polyhedral graphs are constructed, that attain these bounds.
Hard graphs for the maximum clique problem
Hoede, Cornelis
1988-01-01
The maximum clique problem is one of the NP-complete problems. There are graphs for which a reduction technique exists that transforms the problem for these graphs into one for graphs with specific properties in polynomial time. The resulting graphs do not grow exponentially in order and number. Gra
Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Search Costs
J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); M.R. Wildenbeest (Matthijs)
2006-01-01
textabstractIn a recent paper Hong and Shum (forthcoming) present a structural methodology to estimate search cost distributions. We extend their approach to the case of oligopoly and present a maximum likelihood estimate of the search cost distribution. We apply our method to a data set of online p
Weak Scale From the Maximum Entropy Principle
Hamada, Yuta; Kawana, Kiyoharu
2015-01-01
The theory of multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the $S^{3}$ universe at the final stage $S_{rad}$ becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the Standard Model, we can check whether $S_{rad}$ actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard $S_{rad}$ at the final stage as a function of the weak scale ( the Higgs expectation value ) $v_{h}$, and show that it becomes maximum around $v_{h}={\\cal{O}}(300\\text{GeV})$ when the dimensionless couplings in the Standard Model, that is, the Higgs self coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by \\begin{equation} v_{h}\\sim\\frac{T_{BBN}^{2}}{M_{pl}y_{e}^{5}},\
Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle
Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu
2015-03-01
The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.
Global characterization of the Holocene Thermal Maximum
Renssen, H.; Seppä, H.; Crosta, X.; Goosse, H.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.
2012-01-01
We analyze the global variations in the timing and magnitude of the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) and their dependence on various forcings in transient simulations covering the last 9000 years (9 ka), performed with a global atmosphere-ocean-vegetation model. In these experiments, we consider the i
Instance Optimality of the Adaptive Maximum Strategy
L. Diening; C. Kreuzer; R. Stevenson
2016-01-01
In this paper, we prove that the standard adaptive finite element method with a (modified) maximum marking strategy is instance optimal for the total error, being the square root of the squared energy error plus the squared oscillation. This result will be derived in the model setting of Poisson’s e
Maximum phonation time: variability and reliability.
Speyer, Renée; Bogaardt, Hans C A; Passos, Valéria Lima; Roodenburg, Nel P H D; Zumach, Anne; Heijnen, Mariëlle A M; Baijens, Laura W J; Fleskens, Stijn J H M; Brunings, Jan W
2010-05-01
The objective of the study was to determine maximum phonation time reliability as a function of the number of trials, days, and raters in dysphonic and control subjects. Two groups of adult subjects participated in this reliability study: a group of outpatients with functional or organic dysphonia versus a group of healthy control subjects matched by age and gender. Over a period of maximally 6 weeks, three video recordings were made of five subjects' maximum phonation time trials. A panel of five experts were responsible for all measurements, including a repeated measurement of the subjects' first recordings. Patients showed significantly shorter maximum phonation times compared with healthy controls (on average, 6.6 seconds shorter). The averaged interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) over all raters per trial for the first day was 0.998. The averaged reliability coefficient per rater and per trial for repeated measurements of the first day's data was 0.997, indicating high intrarater reliability. The mean reliability coefficient per day for one trial was 0.939. When using five trials, the reliability increased to 0.987. The reliability over five trials for a single day was 0.836; for 2 days, 0.911; and for 3 days, 0.935. To conclude, the maximum phonation time has proven to be a highly reliable measure in voice assessment. A single rater is sufficient to provide highly reliable measurements.
Maximum Phonation Time: Variability and Reliability
R. Speyer; H.C.A. Bogaardt; V.L. Passos; N.P.H.D. Roodenburg; A. Zumach; M.A.M. Heijnen; L.W.J. Baijens; S.J.H.M. Fleskens; J.W. Brunings
2010-01-01
The objective of the study was to determine maximum phonation time reliability as a function of the number of trials, days, and raters in dysphonic and control subjects. Two groups of adult subjects participated in this reliability study: a group of outpatients with functional or organic dysphonia v
Maximum likelihood estimation of fractionally cointegrated systems
Lasak, Katarzyna
In this paper we consider a fractionally cointegrated error correction model and investigate asymptotic properties of the maximum likelihood (ML) estimators of the matrix of the cointe- gration relations, the degree of fractional cointegration, the matrix of the speed of adjustment...
Maximum likelihood estimation for integrated diffusion processes
Baltazar-Larios, Fernando; Sørensen, Michael
EM-algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in the diffusion model. As part of the algorithm, we use a recent simple method for approximate simulation of diffusion bridges. In simulation studies for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the CIR process the proposed method works...
Maximum gain of Yagi-Uda arrays
Bojsen, J.H.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Nilsson, E.
1971-01-01
Numerical optimisation techniques have been used to find the maximum gain of some specific parasitic arrays. The gain of an array of infinitely thin, equispaced dipoles loaded with arbitrary reactances has been optimised. The results show that standard travelling-wave design methods are not optimum....... Yagi–Uda arrays with equal and unequal spacing have also been optimised with experimental verification....
Deficiency of employability capacity
Pelse I.
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a nature of habit and are developed in a long-term work socialization process, which begins even before the formal education and will continue throughout the life cycle. However, when the socialization is lost, these habits are depreciated faster than they can be restored. Currently a new generation is entering the labour market, which is missing the succession of work socialization. Factors, such as rising unemployment and poverty in the background over the past twenty years in Latvia have created a very unfavourable employability background of “personal circumstances” and “external factors”, which seriously have impaired formation of the skills and attitudes in a real work environment. The study reveals another paradox – the paradox of poverty. Common sense would want to argue that poverty can be overcome by the job. However, the real state of affairs shows that unfavourable coincidence of the individual, personal circumstances and external factors leads to deficit of employability capacity and possibility of marked social and employment deprivation.
Intra-articular capacity of the elbow joint.
Van Den Broek, Mathias; Van Riet, Roger
2017-09-01
The intra-articular capacity of the elbow joint is reported to be 23 ± 4 ml on cadaveric elbows. During years, this value was the standard. The aim of this observational study was to reanalyze the volume of the elbow joint on live patients. Measurement of the intra-articular capacity and pressure of the elbow joint was performed on 30 patients (mean age: 43.8 years) undergoing elbow arthroscopy. Intra-articular capacity was recorded when the elbow moved to the maximum lose packed position and/or when there was a sudden drop in pressure, indicating a capsular rupture (maximum capacity). Indications for arthroscopy were loose bodies, osteoarthritis, synovitis, radial head resection, and lateral collateral ligament repair. Mean intra-articular capacity and pressure were 35.8 ml and 557.5 mm Hg, respectively. Mean maximal capacity was 40.5 ml. We conclude that the intra-articular capacity of the elbow joint is substantially greater than reported in previous studies. Clin. Anat. 30:795-798, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Violating the Shannon capacity of metric graphs with entanglement
Briët, Jop; Buhrman, Harry; Gijswijt, Dion
2013-01-01
The Shannon capacity of a graph G is the maximum asymptotic rate at which messages can be sent with zero probability of error through a noisy channel with confusability graph G. This extensively studied graph parameter disregards the fact that on atomic scales, nature behaves in line with quantum mechanics. Entanglement, arguably the most counterintuitive feature of the theory, turns out to be a useful resource for communication across noisy channels. Recently [Leung D, Mančinska L, Matthews W, Ozols M, Roy A (2012) Commun Math Phys 311:97–111], two examples of graphs were presented whose Shannon capacity is strictly less than the capacity attainable if the sender and receiver have entangled quantum systems. Here, we give natural, possibly infinite, families of graphs for which the entanglement-assisted capacity exceeds the Shannon capacity. PMID:23267109
THE TRANSMISSION CAPACITY OF MANET BASED ON CONFLICT GRAPH
无
2007-01-01
The transmission capacity of Mobile Ad Hoc Networking (MANET) is constrained by the mutual interference of concurrent transmissions between nodes. First, the transmission capacity of MANET is studied by the view of information flow between nodes. At the same time, the problem that the interference between nodes affects the transmission capacity of MANET is also studied by the tool of the event conflict graph. Secondly, the paper presents the method to compute the maximum expectant achievable capacity for the given conflict graph, and concludes and proves an sufficient condition that the information flow transmit successfully between nodes. At last, the results are simulated and a fitting equation of transmission capacity between nodes is given.
Effective capacity of multiple antenna channels: Correlation and keyhole
Zhong, Caijun
2012-01-01
In this study, the authors derive the effective capacity limits for multiple antenna channels which quantify the maximum achievable rate with consideration of link-layer delay-bound violation probability. Both correlated multiple-input single-output and multiple-input multiple-output keyhole channels are studied. Based on the closed-form exact expressions for the effective capacity of both channels, the authors look into the asymptotic high and low signal-to-noise ratio regimes, and derive simple expressions to gain more insights. The impact of spatial correlation on effective capacity is also characterised with the aid of a majorisation theory result. It is revealed that antenna correlation reduces the effective capacity of the channels and a stringent quality-of-service requirement causes a severe reduction in the effective capacity but can be alleviated by increasing the number of antennas. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.
Measurement and relevance of maximum metabolic rate in fishes.
Norin, T; Clark, T D
2016-01-01
Maximum (aerobic) metabolic rate (MMR) is defined here as the maximum rate of oxygen consumption (M˙O2max ) that a fish can achieve at a given temperature under any ecologically relevant circumstance. Different techniques exist for eliciting MMR of fishes, of which swim-flume respirometry (critical swimming speed tests and burst-swimming protocols) and exhaustive chases are the most common. Available data suggest that the most suitable method for eliciting MMR varies with species and ecotype, and depends on the propensity of the fish to sustain swimming for extended durations as well as its capacity to simultaneously exercise and digest food. MMR varies substantially (>10 fold) between species with different lifestyles (i.e. interspecific variation), and to a lesser extent (aerobic scope, interest in measuring this trait has spread across disciplines in attempts to predict effects of climate change on fish populations. Here, various techniques used to elicit and measure MMR in different fish species with contrasting lifestyles are outlined and the relevance of MMR to the ecology, fitness and climate change resilience of fishes is discussed.
Workshop on moisture buffer capacity
2003-01-01
Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003......Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003...
无
2007-01-01
@@ Paraformaldehyde (PF) production in China has grown to a considerable scale today. The total capacity was around 90 thousand t/a in 2006. Since 2007, the production capacity of PF has increased drastically.
Landfill Construction and Capacity Expansion
Andre, F.J.; Cerda, E.
2003-01-01
We study the optimal capacity and lifetime of landfills taking into account their sequential nature.Such an optimal capacity is characterized by the so-called Optimal Capacity Condition.Particular versions of this condition are obtained for two alternative settings: first, if all the landfills are t
Phosphorus retention capacity of sediments in Mandovi estuary (Goa)
Rajagopal, M.D.; Reddy, C.V.G.
Experiments carried out under controlled conditions to study P retention capacity of sediments indicate that the processes of adsorption and desorption of P are pH dependent. Adsorption of P is maximum (58-99%) at pH 4. Both the exchangeable P...
Violating the Shannon capacity of metric graphs with entanglement
J. Briët (Jop); H. Buhrman (Harry); D. Gijswijt (Dion)
2012-01-01
htmlabstractThe Shannon capacity of a graph G is the maximum asymptotic rate at which messages can be sent with zero probability of error through a noisy channel with confusability graph G. This extensively studied graph parameter disregards the fact that on atomic scales, nature behaves in line
Maximum holding endurance time: Effects of load and load's center of gravity height.
Lee, Tzu-Hsien
2015-01-01
Manual holding task is a potential risk to the development of musculoskeletal injuries since it is prone to induce localized muscle fatigue. Maximum holding endurance time is a significant parameter for the design of manual holding task. This study aimed to examine the effects of load and load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time. Fifteen young and healthy males were recruited as participants. A factorial design was used to examine the effects of load and load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time. Four levels of load (15% , 30% , 45% and 60% of the participant's maximum holding capacity) and two levels of load's COG height in box (0 cm and 40 cm high from the handle position) were examined. Maximum holding endurance time decreased with increasing load and/or increasing load's COG height. The effect of load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time decreased with increasing load. Load, load's COG height, and the interaction of load and load's COG height significantly affected maximum holding endurance time. Practitioners should realize the effects of load, load's COG height, and the interaction of load and load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time when setting the working conditions of holding tasks.
Model Selection Through Sparse Maximum Likelihood Estimation
Banerjee, Onureena; D'Aspremont, Alexandre
2007-01-01
We consider the problem of estimating the parameters of a Gaussian or binary distribution in such a way that the resulting undirected graphical model is sparse. Our approach is to solve a maximum likelihood problem with an added l_1-norm penalty term. The problem as formulated is convex but the memory requirements and complexity of existing interior point methods are prohibitive for problems with more than tens of nodes. We present two new algorithms for solving problems with at least a thousand nodes in the Gaussian case. Our first algorithm uses block coordinate descent, and can be interpreted as recursive l_1-norm penalized regression. Our second algorithm, based on Nesterov's first order method, yields a complexity estimate with a better dependence on problem size than existing interior point methods. Using a log determinant relaxation of the log partition function (Wainwright & Jordan (2006)), we show that these same algorithms can be used to solve an approximate sparse maximum likelihood problem for...
Maximum-entropy description of animal movement.
Fleming, Chris H; Subaşı, Yiğit; Calabrese, Justin M
2015-03-01
We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic.
Pareto versus lognormal: a maximum entropy test.
Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano
2011-08-01
It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.
Maximum Variance Hashing via Column Generation
Lei Luo
2013-01-01
item search. Recently, a number of data-dependent methods have been developed, reflecting the great potential of learning for hashing. Inspired by the classic nonlinear dimensionality reduction algorithm—maximum variance unfolding, we propose a novel unsupervised hashing method, named maximum variance hashing, in this work. The idea is to maximize the total variance of the hash codes while preserving the local structure of the training data. To solve the derived optimization problem, we propose a column generation algorithm, which directly learns the binary-valued hash functions. We then extend it using anchor graphs to reduce the computational cost. Experiments on large-scale image datasets demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art hashing methods in many cases.
The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem
Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.
2006-01-01
algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find......Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... the competitive ratio of various natural algorithms. We study the general versions of the problems as well as the parameterized versions where there is an upper bound of on the item sizes, for some integer k....
Nonparametric Maximum Entropy Estimation on Information Diagrams
Martin, Elliot A; Meinke, Alexander; Děchtěrenko, Filip; Davidsen, Jörn
2016-01-01
Maximum entropy estimation is of broad interest for inferring properties of systems across many different disciplines. In this work, we significantly extend a technique we previously introduced for estimating the maximum entropy of a set of random discrete variables when conditioning on bivariate mutual informations and univariate entropies. Specifically, we show how to apply the concept to continuous random variables and vastly expand the types of information-theoretic quantities one can condition on. This allows us to establish a number of significant advantages of our approach over existing ones. Not only does our method perform favorably in the undersampled regime, where existing methods fail, but it also can be dramatically less computationally expensive as the cardinality of the variables increases. In addition, we propose a nonparametric formulation of connected informations and give an illustrative example showing how this agrees with the existing parametric formulation in cases of interest. We furthe...
Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy
Visser, Matt
2013-04-01
Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.
Zipf's law, power laws, and maximum entropy
Visser, Matt
2012-01-01
Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines - from astronomy to demographics to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation [RGF] attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present article I argue that the cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.
Regions of constrained maximum likelihood parameter identifiability
Lee, C.-H.; Herget, C. J.
1975-01-01
This paper considers the parameter identification problem of general discrete-time, nonlinear, multiple-input/multiple-output dynamic systems with Gaussian-white distributed measurement errors. Knowledge of the system parameterization is assumed to be known. Regions of constrained maximum likelihood (CML) parameter identifiability are established. A computation procedure employing interval arithmetic is proposed for finding explicit regions of parameter identifiability for the case of linear systems. It is shown that if the vector of true parameters is locally CML identifiable, then with probability one, the vector of true parameters is a unique maximal point of the maximum likelihood function in the region of parameter identifiability and the CML estimation sequence will converge to the true parameters.
A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.
Alibert, Yann
2015-09-01
We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope.
A stochastic maximum principle via Malliavin calculus
Øksendal, Bernt; Zhou, Xun Yu; Meyer-Brandis, Thilo
2008-01-01
This paper considers a controlled It\\^o-L\\'evy process where the information available to the controller is possibly less than the overall information. All the system coefficients and the objective performance functional are allowed to be random, possibly non-Markovian. Malliavin calculus is employed to derive a maximum principle for the optimal control of such a system where the adjoint process is explicitly expressed.
Tissue radiation response with maximum Tsallis entropy.
Sotolongo-Grau, O; Rodríguez-Pérez, D; Antoranz, J C; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar
2010-10-08
The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is currently based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation, and conditions. Here, we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature.
Maximum Estrada Index of Bicyclic Graphs
Wang, Long; Wang, Yi
2012-01-01
Let $G$ be a simple graph of order $n$, let $\\lambda_1(G),\\lambda_2(G),...,\\lambda_n(G)$ be the eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix of $G$. The Esrada index of $G$ is defined as $EE(G)=\\sum_{i=1}^{n}e^{\\lambda_i(G)}$. In this paper we determine the unique graph with maximum Estrada index among bicyclic graphs with fixed order.
Automatic maximum entropy spectral reconstruction in NMR.
Mobli, Mehdi; Maciejewski, Mark W; Gryk, Michael R; Hoch, Jeffrey C
2007-10-01
Developments in superconducting magnets, cryogenic probes, isotope labeling strategies, and sophisticated pulse sequences together have enabled the application, in principle, of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy to biomolecular systems approaching 1 megadalton. In practice, however, conventional approaches to NMR that utilize the fast Fourier transform, which require data collected at uniform time intervals, result in prohibitively lengthy data collection times in order to achieve the full resolution afforded by high field magnets. A variety of approaches that involve nonuniform sampling have been proposed, each utilizing a non-Fourier method of spectrum analysis. A very general non-Fourier method that is capable of utilizing data collected using any of the proposed nonuniform sampling strategies is maximum entropy reconstruction. A limiting factor in the adoption of maximum entropy reconstruction in NMR has been the need to specify non-intuitive parameters. Here we describe a fully automated system for maximum entropy reconstruction that requires no user-specified parameters. A web-accessible script generator provides the user interface to the system.
Maximum entropy analysis of cosmic ray composition
Nosek, Dalibor; Vícha, Jakub; Trávníček, Petr; Nosková, Jana
2016-01-01
We focus on the primary composition of cosmic rays with the highest energies that cause extensive air showers in the Earth's atmosphere. A way of examining the two lowest order moments of the sample distribution of the depth of shower maximum is presented. The aim is to show that useful information about the composition of the primary beam can be inferred with limited knowledge we have about processes underlying these observations. In order to describe how the moments of the depth of shower maximum depend on the type of primary particles and their energies, we utilize a superposition model. Using the principle of maximum entropy, we are able to determine what trends in the primary composition are consistent with the input data, while relying on a limited amount of information from shower physics. Some capabilities and limitations of the proposed method are discussed. In order to achieve a realistic description of the primary mass composition, we pay special attention to the choice of the parameters of the sup...
A Maximum Resonant Set of Polyomino Graphs
Zhang Heping
2016-05-01
Full Text Available A polyomino graph P is a connected finite subgraph of the infinite plane grid such that each finite face is surrounded by a regular square of side length one and each edge belongs to at least one square. A dimer covering of P corresponds to a perfect matching. Different dimer coverings can interact via an alternating cycle (or square with respect to them. A set of disjoint squares of P is a resonant set if P has a perfect matching M so that each one of those squares is M-alternating. In this paper, we show that if K is a maximum resonant set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching. We further prove that the maximum forcing number of a polyomino graph is equal to the cardinality of a maximum resonant set. This confirms a conjecture of Xu et al. [26]. We also show that if K is a maximal alternating set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching.
The maximum rate of mammal evolution
Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.
2012-03-01
How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.
Minimal Length, Friedmann Equations and Maximum Density
Awad, Adel
2014-01-01
Inspired by Jacobson's thermodynamic approach[gr-qc/9504004], Cai et al [hep-th/0501055,hep-th/0609128] have shown the emergence of Friedmann equations from the first law of thermodynamics. We extend Akbar--Cai derivation [hep-th/0609128] of Friedmann equations to accommodate a general entropy-area law. Studying the resulted Friedmann equations using a specific entropy-area law, which is motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), reveals the existence of a maximum energy density closed to Planck density. Allowing for a general continuous pressure $p(\\rho,a)$ leads to bounded curvature invariants and a general nonsingular evolution. In this case, the maximum energy density is reached in a finite time and there is no cosmological evolution beyond this point which leaves the big bang singularity inaccessible from a spacetime prospective. The existence of maximum energy density and a general nonsingular evolution is independent of the equation of state and the spacial curvature $k$. As an example w...
Maximum saliency bias in binocular fusion
Lu, Yuhao; Stafford, Tom; Fox, Charles
2016-07-01
Subjective experience at any instant consists of a single ("unitary"), coherent interpretation of sense data rather than a "Bayesian blur" of alternatives. However, computation of Bayes-optimal actions has no role for unitary perception, instead being required to integrate over every possible action-percept pair to maximise expected utility. So what is the role of unitary coherent percepts, and how are they computed? Recent work provided objective evidence for non-Bayes-optimal, unitary coherent, perception and action in humans; and further suggested that the percept selected is not the maximum a posteriori percept but is instead affected by utility. The present study uses a binocular fusion task first to reproduce the same effect in a new domain, and second, to test multiple hypotheses about exactly how utility may affect the percept. After accounting for high experimental noise, it finds that both Bayes optimality (maximise expected utility) and the previously proposed maximum-utility hypothesis are outperformed in fitting the data by a modified maximum-salience hypothesis, using unsigned utility magnitudes in place of signed utilities in the bias function.
The maximum rate of mammal evolution
Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.
2012-01-01
How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461
Maximum-biomass prediction of homofermentative Lactobacillus.
Cui, Shumao; Zhao, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaoming; Chen, Yong Q; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei
2016-07-01
Fed-batch and pH-controlled cultures have been widely used for industrial production of probiotics. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the relationship between the maximum biomass of different homofermentative Lactobacillus and lactate accumulation, and to develop a prediction equation for the maximum biomass concentration in such cultures. The accumulation of the end products and the depletion of nutrients by various strains were evaluated. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of acid anions for various strains at pH 7.0 were examined. The lactate concentration at the point of complete inhibition was not significantly different from the MIC of lactate for all of the strains, although the inhibition mechanism of lactate and acetate on Lactobacillus rhamnosus was different from the other strains which were inhibited by the osmotic pressure caused by acid anions at pH 7.0. When the lactate concentration accumulated to the MIC, the strains stopped growing. The maximum biomass was closely related to the biomass yield per unit of lactate produced (YX/P) and the MIC (C) of lactate for different homofermentative Lactobacillus. Based on the experimental data obtained using different homofermentative Lactobacillus, a prediction equation was established as follows: Xmax - X0 = (0.59 ± 0.02)·YX/P·C.
The maximum rate of mammal evolution.
Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D
2012-03-13
How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.
Capacity Utilization in European Railways
Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex
2013-01-01
At the strategic level, railways currently use different indices to estimate how ‘value’ is generated by using railway capacity. However, railway capacity is a multidisciplinary area, and attempts to develop various indices cannot provide a holistic measure of operational efficiency. European...... railways are facing a capacity challenge which is caused by passenger and freight demand exceeding the track capacity supply. In the absence of a comprehensive railway capacity manual, methodologies are needed to assess how well railways use their track capacity. This paper presents a novel...... and unprecedented approach for this aim. Relative operational efficiency of 24 European railways in capacity utilization is studied for the first time by data envelopment analysis (DEA). It deviates from previous applications of DEA in the railway industry that are conducted to analyze cost efficiency of railways...
Artificial Neural Network In Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithm Of Photovoltaic Systems
Modestas Pikutis
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Scientists are looking for ways to improve the efficiency of solar cells all the time. The efficiency of solar cells which are available to the general public is up to 20%. Part of the solar energy is unused and a capacity of solar power plant is significantly reduced – if slow controller or controller which cannot stay at maximum power point of solar modules is used. Various algorithms of maximum power point tracking were created, but mostly algorithms are slow or make mistakes. In the literature more and more oftenartificial neural networks (ANN in maximum power point tracking process are mentioned, in order to improve performance of the controller. Self-learner artificial neural network and IncCond algorithm were used for maximum power point tracking in created solar power plant model. The algorithm for control was created. Solar power plant model is implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment.
Gabriel Gulis PhD
2007-09-01
Full Text Available
Background: To integrate health impact assessment (HIA into existing decision-making processes requires not only methods and procedures but also well-trained experts, aware policy makers and appropriate institutions. Capacity building is the assistance which is provided to entities, which have a need to develop a certain skill or competence, or for general upgrading of performance ability. If a new technique is planned to be introduced there is a need for capacity building with no respect to levels (local, regional, national, international or sectors (health, environment, finance, social care, education, etc.. As such, HIA is a new technique for most of the new Member States and accession countries of the European Union.
Methods: To equip individuals with the understanding and skills needed to launch a HIA or be aware of the availability of this methodology and to access information, knowledge and training, we focused on the organization of workshops in participating countries. The workshops served also as pilot events to test a “curriculum” for HIA; a set of basic topics and presentations had been developed to be tested during workshops. In spite of classical in-class workshops we aimed to organize e-learning events as a way to over come the “busyness” problem of decision makers.
Results: Throughout March – October 2006 we organized and ran 7 workshops in Denmark, Turkey, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria, Slovak Republic and Hungary. Participants came from the public health sector (141, non-public health decision makers (113 and public health students (100. A concise curriculum was developed and tested during these workshops. Participants developed a basic understanding of HIA, skills to develop and use their own screening tools as well as scoping.Within the workshop in Denmark we tested an online, real-time Internet based training method; participants highly welcomed this
Pirandola, Stefano; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L
2011-01-01
The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory [S. Pirandola, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 090504 (2011)]. In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e., a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of "parallel" channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of an infinite block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantify...
Wireless Connectivity and Capacity
Halldorsson, Magnus M
2011-01-01
Given $n$ wireless transceivers located in a plane, a fundamental problem in wireless communications is to construct a strongly connected digraph on them such that the constituent links can be scheduled in fewest possible time slots, assuming the SINR model of interference. In this paper, we provide an algorithm that connects an arbitrary point set in $O(\\log n)$ slots, improving on the previous best bound of $O(\\log^2 n)$ due to Moscibroda. This is complemented with a super-constant lower bound on our approach to connectivity. An important feature is that the algorithms allow for bi-directional (half-duplex) communication. One implication of this result is an improved bound of $\\Omega(1/\\log n)$ on the worst-case capacity of wireless networks, matching the best bound known for the extensively studied average-case. We explore the utility of oblivious power assignments, and show that essentially all such assignments result in a worst case bound of $\\Omega(n)$ slots for connectivity. This rules out a recent cla...
Integrated flexible capacity and inventory management under flexible capacity uncertainty
Paç, Mehmet Fazıl
2006-01-01
Cataloged from PDF version of article. In a manufacturing environment with volatile demand, inventory management can be coupled with dynamic capacity adjustments for handling the fluctuations more effectively. In this study we consider the integrated management of inventory and flexible capacity management under seasonal stochastic demand and uncertain labor supply. The capacity planning problem is investigated from the workforce planning perspective. We consider a manufactu...
Maximum power operation of interacting molecular motors
Golubeva, Natalia; Imparato, Alberto
2013-01-01
We study the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of different traffic models for kinesin which are relevant in biological and experimental contexts. We find that motor-motor interactions play a fundamental role by enhancing the thermodynamic efficiency at maximum power of the motors......, as compared to the non-interacting system, in a wide range of biologically compatible scenarios. We furthermore consider the case where the motor-motor interaction directly affects the internal chemical cycle and investigate the effect on the system dynamics and thermodynamics....
Maximum a posteriori decoder for digital communications
Altes, Richard A. (Inventor)
1997-01-01
A system and method for decoding by identification of the most likely phase coded signal corresponding to received data. The present invention has particular application to communication with signals that experience spurious random phase perturbations. The generalized estimator-correlator uses a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator to generate phase estimates for correlation with incoming data samples and for correlation with mean phases indicative of unique hypothesized signals. The result is a MAP likelihood statistic for each hypothesized transmission, wherein the highest value statistic identifies the transmitted signal.
Kernel-based Maximum Entropy Clustering
JIANG Wei; QU Jiao; LI Benxi
2007-01-01
With the development of Support Vector Machine (SVM),the "kernel method" has been studied in a general way.In this paper,we present a novel Kernel-based Maximum Entropy Clustering algorithm (KMEC).By using mercer kernel functions,the proposed algorithm is firstly map the data from their original space to high dimensional space where the data are expected to be more separable,then perform MEC clustering in the feature space.The experimental results show that the proposed method has better performance in the non-hyperspherical and complex data structure.
The sun and heliosphere at solar maximum.
Smith, E J; Marsden, R G; Balogh, A; Gloeckler, G; Geiss, J; McComas, D J; McKibben, R B; MacDowall, R J; Lanzerotti, L J; Krupp, N; Krueger, H; Landgraf, M
2003-11-14
Recent Ulysses observations from the Sun's equator to the poles reveal fundamental properties of the three-dimensional heliosphere at the maximum in solar activity. The heliospheric magnetic field originates from a magnetic dipole oriented nearly perpendicular to, instead of nearly parallel to, the Sun's rotation axis. Magnetic fields, solar wind, and energetic charged particles from low-latitude sources reach all latitudes, including the polar caps. The very fast high-latitude wind and polar coronal holes disappear and reappear together. Solar wind speed continues to be inversely correlated with coronal temperature. The cosmic ray flux is reduced symmetrically at all latitudes.
Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension
Bastea, S
2009-01-27
Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.
Maximum entropy signal restoration with linear programming
Mastin, G.A.; Hanson, R.J.
1988-05-01
Dantzig's bounded-variable method is used to express the maximum entropy restoration problem as a linear programming problem. This is done by approximating the nonlinear objective function with piecewise linear segments, then bounding the variables as a function of the number of segments used. The use of a linear programming approach allows equality constraints found in the traditional Lagrange multiplier method to be relaxed. A robust revised simplex algorithm is used to implement the restoration. Experimental results from 128- and 512-point signal restorations are presented.
COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMULAS OF MAXIMUM SHIP SQUAT
PETRU SERGIU SERBAN
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Ship squat is a combined effect of ship’s draft and trim increase due to ship motion in limited navigation conditions. Over time, researchers conducted tests on models and ships to find a mathematical formula that can define squat. Various forms of calculating squat can be found in the literature. Among those most commonly used are of Barrass, Millward, Eryuzlu or ICORELS. This paper presents a comparison between the squat formulas to see the differences between them and which one provides the most satisfactory results. In this respect a cargo ship at different speeds was considered as a model for maximum squat calculations in canal navigation conditions.
Multi-Channel Maximum Likelihood Pitch Estimation
Christensen, Mads Græsbøll
2012-01-01
In this paper, a method for multi-channel pitch estimation is proposed. The method is a maximum likelihood estimator and is based on a parametric model where the signals in the various channels share the same fundamental frequency but can have different amplitudes, phases, and noise characteristics....... This essentially means that the model allows for different conditions in the various channels, like different signal-to-noise ratios, microphone characteristics and reverberation. Moreover, the method does not assume that a certain array structure is used but rather relies on a more general model and is hence...
Maximum entropy PDF projection: A review
Baggenstoss, Paul M.
2017-06-01
We review maximum entropy (MaxEnt) PDF projection, a method with wide potential applications in statistical inference. The method constructs a sampling distribution for a high-dimensional vector x based on knowing the sampling distribution p(z) of a lower-dimensional feature z = T (x). Under mild conditions, the distribution p(x) having highest possible entropy among all distributions consistent with p(z) may be readily found. Furthermore, the MaxEnt p(x) may be sampled, making the approach useful in Monte Carlo methods. We review the theorem and present a case study in model order selection and classification for handwritten character recognition.
CORA: Emission Line Fitting with Maximum Likelihood
Ness, Jan-Uwe; Wichmann, Rainer
2011-12-01
CORA analyzes emission line spectra with low count numbers and fits them to a line using the maximum likelihood technique. CORA uses a rigorous application of Poisson statistics. From the assumption of Poissonian noise, the software derives the probability for a model of the emission line spectrum to represent the measured spectrum. The likelihood function is used as a criterion for optimizing the parameters of the theoretical spectrum and a fixed point equation is derived allowing an efficient way to obtain line fluxes. CORA has been applied to an X-ray spectrum with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra observatory.
Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking
Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M.
2014-04-01
We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter.
Maximum Temperature Detection System for Integrated Circuits
Frankiewicz, Maciej; Kos, Andrzej
2015-03-01
The paper describes structure and measurement results of the system detecting present maximum temperature on the surface of an integrated circuit. The system consists of the set of proportional to absolute temperature sensors, temperature processing path and a digital part designed in VHDL. Analogue parts of the circuit where designed with full-custom technique. The system is a part of temperature-controlled oscillator circuit - a power management system based on dynamic frequency scaling method. The oscillator cooperates with microprocessor dedicated for thermal experiments. The whole system is implemented in UMC CMOS 0.18 μm (1.8 V) technology.
Zipf's law and maximum sustainable growth
Malevergne, Y; Sornette, D
2010-01-01
Zipf's law states that the number of firms with size greater than S is inversely proportional to S. Most explanations start with Gibrat's rule of proportional growth but require additional constraints. We show that Gibrat's rule, at all firm levels, yields Zipf's law under a balance condition between the effective growth rate of incumbent firms (which includes their possible demise) and the growth rate of investments in entrant firms. Remarkably, Zipf's law is the signature of the long-term optimal allocation of resources that ensures the maximum sustainable growth rate of an economy.
Determination of Maximum Follow-up Speed of Electrode System of Resistance Projection Welders
Wu, Pei; Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels
2004-01-01
the weld process settings for the stable production and high quality of products. In this paper, the maximum follow-up speed of electrode system was tested by using a special designed device which can be mounted to all types of machine and easily to be applied in industry, the corresponding mathematical......The maximum follow-up speed of electrode system represents the dynamic mechanical response capacity of resistance projection welding machines, which is important to make the diffrernce from one machine to the other and to consider the individual behavior of machines in designing or optimizing...
Accurate structural correlations from maximum likelihood superpositions.
Douglas L Theobald
2008-02-01
Full Text Available The cores of globular proteins are densely packed, resulting in complicated networks of structural interactions. These interactions in turn give rise to dynamic structural correlations over a wide range of time scales. Accurate analysis of these complex correlations is crucial for understanding biomolecular mechanisms and for relating structure to function. Here we report a highly accurate technique for inferring the major modes of structural correlation in macromolecules using likelihood-based statistical analysis of sets of structures. This method is generally applicable to any ensemble of related molecules, including families of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR models, different crystal forms of a protein, and structural alignments of homologous proteins, as well as molecular dynamics trajectories. Dominant modes of structural correlation are determined using principal components analysis (PCA of the maximum likelihood estimate of the correlation matrix. The correlations we identify are inherently independent of the statistical uncertainty and dynamic heterogeneity associated with the structural coordinates. We additionally present an easily interpretable method ("PCA plots" for displaying these positional correlations by color-coding them onto a macromolecular structure. Maximum likelihood PCA of structural superpositions, and the structural PCA plots that illustrate the results, will facilitate the accurate determination of dynamic structural correlations analyzed in diverse fields of structural biology.
Maximum entropy production and the fluctuation theorem
Dewar, R C [Unite EPHYSE, INRA Centre de Bordeaux-Aquitaine, BP 81, 33883 Villenave d' Ornon Cedex (France)
2005-05-27
Recently the author used an information theoretical formulation of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics (MaxEnt) to derive the fluctuation theorem (FT) concerning the probability of second law violating phase-space paths. A less rigorous argument leading to the variational principle of maximum entropy production (MEP) was also given. Here a more rigorous and general mathematical derivation of MEP from MaxEnt is presented, and the relationship between MEP and the FT is thereby clarified. Specifically, it is shown that the FT allows a general orthogonality property of maximum information entropy to be extended to entropy production itself, from which MEP then follows. The new derivation highlights MEP and the FT as generic properties of MaxEnt probability distributions involving anti-symmetric constraints, independently of any physical interpretation. Physically, MEP applies to the entropy production of those macroscopic fluxes that are free to vary under the imposed constraints, and corresponds to selection of the most probable macroscopic flux configuration. In special cases MaxEnt also leads to various upper bound transport principles. The relationship between MaxEnt and previous theories of irreversible processes due to Onsager, Prigogine and Ziegler is also clarified in the light of these results. (letter to the editor)
Thermodynamic hardness and the maximum hardness principle
Franco-Pérez, Marco; Gázquez, José L.; Ayers, Paul W.; Vela, Alberto
2017-08-01
An alternative definition of hardness (called the thermodynamic hardness) within the grand canonical ensemble formalism is proposed in terms of the partial derivative of the electronic chemical potential with respect to the thermodynamic chemical potential of the reservoir, keeping the temperature and the external potential constant. This temperature dependent definition may be interpreted as a measure of the propensity of a system to go through a charge transfer process when it interacts with other species, and thus it keeps the philosophy of the original definition. When the derivative is expressed in terms of the three-state ensemble model, in the regime of low temperatures and up to temperatures of chemical interest, one finds that for zero fractional charge, the thermodynamic hardness is proportional to T-1(I -A ) , where I is the first ionization potential, A is the electron affinity, and T is the temperature. However, the thermodynamic hardness is nearly zero when the fractional charge is different from zero. Thus, through the present definition, one avoids the presence of the Dirac delta function. We show that the chemical hardness defined in this way provides meaningful and discernible information about the hardness properties of a chemical species exhibiting integer or a fractional average number of electrons, and this analysis allowed us to establish a link between the maximum possible value of the hardness here defined, with the minimum softness principle, showing that both principles are related to minimum fractional charge and maximum stability conditions.
Maximum Likelihood Analysis in the PEN Experiment
Lehman, Martin
2013-10-01
The experimental determination of the π+ -->e+ ν (γ) decay branching ratio currently provides the most accurate test of lepton universality. The PEN experiment at PSI, Switzerland, aims to improve the present world average experimental precision of 3 . 3 ×10-3 to 5 ×10-4 using a stopped beam approach. During runs in 2008-10, PEN has acquired over 2 ×107 πe 2 events. The experiment includes active beam detectors (degrader, mini TPC, target), central MWPC tracking with plastic scintillator hodoscopes, and a spherical pure CsI electromagnetic shower calorimeter. The final branching ratio will be calculated using a maximum likelihood analysis. This analysis assigns each event a probability for 5 processes (π+ -->e+ ν , π+ -->μ+ ν , decay-in-flight, pile-up, and hadronic events) using Monte Carlo verified probability distribution functions of our observables (energies, times, etc). A progress report on the PEN maximum likelihood analysis will be presented. Work supported by NSF grant PHY-0970013.
Available transmission capacity assessment
Škokljev Ivan
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Effective power system operation requires the analysis of vast amounts of information. Power market activities expose power transmission networks to high-level power transactions that threaten normal, secure operation of the power system. When there are service requests for a specific sink/source pair in a transmission system, the transmission system operator (TSO must allocate the available transfer capacity (ATC. It is common that ATC has a single numerical value. Additionally, the ATC must be calculated for the base case configuration of the system, while generation dispatch and topology remain unchanged during the calculation. Posting ATC on the internet should benefit prospective users by aiding them in formulating their requests. However, a single numerical value of ATC offers little for prospect for analysis, planning, what-if combinations, etc. A symbolic approach to the power flow problem (DC power flow and ATC offers a numerical computation at the very end, whilst the calculation beforehand is performed by using symbols for the general topology of the electrical network. Qualitative analysis of the ATC using only qualitative values, such as increase, decrease or no change, offers some new insights into ATC evaluation, multiple transactions evaluation, value of counter-flows and their impact etc. Symbolic analysis in this paper is performed after the execution of the linear, symbolic DC power flow. As control variables, the mathematical model comprises linear security constraints, ATC, PTDFs and transactions. The aim is to perform an ATC sensitivity study on a five nodes/seven lines transmission network, used for zonal market activities tests. A relatively complicated environment with twenty possible bilateral transactions is observed.
Peak capacity in unidimensional chromatography.
Neue, Uwe Dieter
2008-03-14
The currently existing knowledge about peak capacity in unidimensional separations is reviewed. The majority of the paper is dedicated to reversed-phase gradient chromatography, covering specific techniques as well as the subject of peak compression. Other sections deal with peak capacity in isocratic chromatography, size-exclusion chromatography and ion-exchange chromatography. An important topic is the limitation of the separation power and the meaning of the concept of peak capacity for real applications.
Lake Basin Fetch and Maximum Length/Width
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear features representing the Fetch, Maximum Length and Maximum Width of a lake basin. Fetch, maximum length and average width are calcuated from the lake polygon...
On Cellular MIMO Channel Capacity
Adachi, Koichi; Adachi, Fumiyuki; Nakagawa, Masao
To increase the transmission rate without bandwidth expansion, the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique has recently been attracting much attention. The MIMO channel capacity in a cellular system is affected by the interference from neighboring co-channel cells. In this paper, we introduce the cellular channel capacity and evaluate its outage capacity, taking into account the frequency-reuse factor, path loss exponent, standard deviation of shadowing loss, and transmission power of a base station (BS). Furthermore, we compare the cellular MIMO downlink channel capacity with those of other multi-antenna transmission techniques such as single-input multiple-output (SIMO) and space-time block coded multiple-input single-output (STBC-MISO). We show that the optimum frequency-reuse factor F that maximizes 10%-outage capacity is 3 and both 50%- and 90%-outage capacities is 1 irrespective of the type of multi-antenna transmission technique, where q%-outage capacity is defined as the channel capacity that gives an outage probability of q%. We also show that the cellular MIMO channel capacity is always higher than those of SIMO and STBC-MISO.
Capacity Building in Land Management
Enemark, Stig; Ahene, Rexford
2003-01-01
There is a significant need for capacity building in the interdisciplinary area of land management especially in developing countries and countries in transition, to deal with the complex issues of building efficient land information systems and sustainable institutional infrastructures. Capacity...... development in this area. Furthermore, capacity building should ensure that the focus is on building sound institutions and governance rather than just high-level IT-infrastructures. This overall approach to capacity building in land management is used for implementing a new land policy reform in Malawi...
Low-SNR Capacity of MIMO Optical Intensity Channels
Chaaban, Anas
2017-09-18
The capacity of the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) optical intensity channel is studied, under both average and peak intensity constraints. We focus on low SNR, which can be modeled as the scenario where both constraints proportionally vanish, or where the peak constraint is held constant while the average constraint vanishes. A capacity upper bound is derived, and is shown to be tight at low SNR under both scenarios. The capacity achieving input distribution at low SNR is shown to be a maximally-correlated vector-binary input distribution. Consequently, the low-SNR capacity of the channel is characterized. As a byproduct, it is shown that for a channel with peak intensity constraints only, or with peak intensity constraints and individual (per aperture) average intensity constraints, a simple scheme composed of coded on-off keying, spatial repetition, and maximum-ratio combining is optimal at low SNR.
Capacity Measurement with the UIC 406 Capacity Method
Landex, Alex; Schittenhelm, Bernd; Kaas, Anders H.
2008-01-01
This article describes the fast and effective UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. It is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different capacity consumptions. Therefore, this article describes how the methodology is expounded...
Research on configuration of railway self-equipped tanker based on minimum cost maximum flow model
Yang, Yuefang; Gan, Chunhui; Shen, Tingting
2017-05-01
In the study of the configuration of the tanker of chemical logistics park, the minimum cost maximum flow model is adopted. Firstly, the transport capacity of the park loading and unloading area and the transportation demand of the dangerous goods are taken as the constraint condition of the model; then the transport arc capacity, the transport arc flow and the transport arc edge weight are determined in the transportation network diagram; finally, the software calculations. The calculation results show that the configuration issue of the tankers can be effectively solved by the minimum cost maximum flow model, which has theoretical and practical application value for tanker management of railway transportation of dangerous goods in the chemical logistics park.
SAFETY-BASED CAPACITY ANALYSIS FOR CHINESE HIGHWAYS
Ping YI, Ph.D.
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Many years of research have led to the development of theories and methodologies in roadway capacity analysis in the developed countries. However, those resources coexist with roadway design and traffic control practices in the local country, and cannot be simply transferred to China for applications. For example, the Highway Capacity Manual in the United State describes roadway capacity under ideal conditions and estimates practical capacities under prevailing conditions in the field. This capacity and the conditions for change are expected to be different on Chinese roadways as the local roadway design (lane width, curves and grades, vehicle size, and traffic mix are different. This research looks into an approach to the capacity issue different from the Highway Capacity Manual. According to the car-following principle, this paper first describes the safety criteria that affect traffic operations. Several speed schemes are subsequently discussed as they are affected by the maximum speed achievable under the local conditions. The study has shown that the effect of geometric and traffic conditions can be effectually reflected in the maximum speed adopted by the drivers. For most Chinese highways without a posted speed limit, the choice of speed by the drivers from the safety prospective is believed to have incorporated considerations of the practical driving conditions. Based on this, a condition for capacity calculation is obtained by comparing the desired vs. safety-based distance headways. The formulations of the model are mathematically sound and physically meaningful, and preliminary testing of the model is encouraging. Future research includes field data acquisition for calibration and adjustment, and model testing on Chinese highways.
Maximum entropy principle and texture formation
Arminjon, M; Arminjon, Mayeul; Imbault, Didier
2006-01-01
The macro-to-micro transition in a heterogeneous material is envisaged as the selection of a probability distribution by the Principle of Maximum Entropy (MAXENT). The material is made of constituents, e.g. given crystal orientations. Each constituent is itself made of a large number of elementary constituents. The relevant probability is the volume fraction of the elementary constituents that belong to a given constituent and undergo a given stimulus. Assuming only obvious constraints in MAXENT means describing a maximally disordered material. This is proved to have the same average stimulus in each constituent. By adding a constraint in MAXENT, a new model, potentially interesting e.g. for texture prediction, is obtained.
MLDS: Maximum Likelihood Difference Scaling in R
Kenneth Knoblauch
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The MLDS package in the R programming language can be used to estimate perceptual scales based on the results of psychophysical experiments using the method of difference scaling. In a difference scaling experiment, observers compare two supra-threshold differences (a,b and (c,d on each trial. The approach is based on a stochastic model of how the observer decides which perceptual difference (or interval (a,b or (c,d is greater, and the parameters of the model are estimated using a maximum likelihood criterion. We also propose a method to test the model by evaluating the self-consistency of the estimated scale. The package includes an example in which an observer judges the differences in correlation between scatterplots. The example may be readily adapted to estimate perceptual scales for arbitrary physical continua.
Maximum Segment Sum, Monadically (distilled tutorial
Jeremy Gibbons
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The maximum segment sum problem is to compute, given a list of integers, the largest of the sums of the contiguous segments of that list. This problem specification maps directly onto a cubic-time algorithm; however, there is a very elegant linear-time solution too. The problem is a classic exercise in the mathematics of program construction, illustrating important principles such as calculational development, pointfree reasoning, algebraic structure, and datatype-genericity. Here, we take a sideways look at the datatype-generic version of the problem in terms of monadic functional programming, instead of the traditional relational approach; the presentation is tutorial in style, and leavened with exercises for the reader.
Maximum Information and Quantum Prediction Algorithms
McElwaine, J N
1997-01-01
This paper describes an algorithm for selecting a consistent set within the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics and investigates its properties. The algorithm uses a maximum information principle to select from among the consistent sets formed by projections defined by the Schmidt decomposition. The algorithm unconditionally predicts the possible events in closed quantum systems and ascribes probabilities to these events. A simple spin model is described and a complete classification of all exactly consistent sets of histories formed from Schmidt projections in the model is proved. This result is used to show that for this example the algorithm selects a physically realistic set. Other tentative suggestions in the literature for set selection algorithms using ideas from information theory are discussed.
Maximum process problems in optimal control theory
Goran Peskir
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Given a standard Brownian motion (Btt≥0 and the equation of motion dXt=vtdt+2dBt, we set St=max0≤s≤tXs and consider the optimal control problem supvE(Sτ−Cτ, where c>0 and the supremum is taken over all admissible controls v satisfying vt∈[μ0,μ1] for all t up to τ=inf{t>0|Xt∉(ℓ0,ℓ1} with μ0g∗(St, where s↦g∗(s is a switching curve that is determined explicitly (as the unique solution to a nonlinear differential equation. The solution found demonstrates that the problem formulations based on a maximum functional can be successfully included in optimal control theory (calculus of variations in addition to the classic problem formulations due to Lagrange, Mayer, and Bolza.
Maximum Spectral Luminous Efficacy of White Light
Murphy, T W
2013-01-01
As lighting efficiency improves, it is useful to understand the theoretical limits to luminous efficacy for light that we perceive as white. Independent of the efficiency with which photons are generated, there exists a spectrally-imposed limit to the luminous efficacy of any source of photons. We find that, depending on the acceptable bandpass and---to a lesser extent---the color temperature of the light, the ideal white light source achieves a spectral luminous efficacy of 250--370 lm/W. This is consistent with previous calculations, but here we explore the maximum luminous efficacy as a function of photopic sensitivity threshold, color temperature, and color rendering index; deriving peak performance as a function of all three parameters. We also present example experimental spectra from a variety of light sources, quantifying the intrinsic efficacy of their spectral distributions.
Maximum entropy model for business cycle synchronization
Xi, Ning; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Azaele, Sandro; Wang, Yougui
2014-11-01
The global economy is a complex dynamical system, whose cyclical fluctuations can mainly be characterized by simultaneous recessions or expansions of major economies. Thus, the researches on the synchronization phenomenon are key to understanding and controlling the dynamics of the global economy. Based on a pairwise maximum entropy model, we analyze the business cycle synchronization of the G7 economic system. We obtain a pairwise-interaction network, which exhibits certain clustering structure and accounts for 45% of the entire structure of the interactions within the G7 system. We also find that the pairwise interactions become increasingly inadequate in capturing the synchronization as the size of economic system grows. Thus, higher-order interactions must be taken into account when investigating behaviors of large economic systems.
Quantum gravity momentum representation and maximum energy
Moffat, J. W.
2016-11-01
We use the idea of the symmetry between the spacetime coordinates xμ and the energy-momentum pμ in quantum theory to construct a momentum space quantum gravity geometry with a metric sμν and a curvature tensor Pλ μνρ. For a closed maximally symmetric momentum space with a constant 3-curvature, the volume of the p-space admits a cutoff with an invariant maximum momentum a. A Wheeler-DeWitt-type wave equation is obtained in the momentum space representation. The vacuum energy density and the self-energy of a charged particle are shown to be finite, and modifications of the electromagnetic radiation density and the entropy density of a system of particles occur for high frequencies.
Video segmentation using Maximum Entropy Model
QIN Li-juan; ZHUANG Yue-ting; PAN Yun-he; WU Fei
2005-01-01
Detecting objects of interest from a video sequence is a fundamental and critical task in automated visual surveillance.Most current approaches only focus on discriminating moving objects by background subtraction whether or not the objects of interest can be moving or stationary. In this paper, we propose layers segmentation to detect both moving and stationary target objects from surveillance video. We extend the Maximum Entropy (ME) statistical model to segment layers with features, which are collected by constructing a codebook with a set of codewords for each pixel. We also indicate how the training models are used for the discrimination of target objects in surveillance video. Our experimental results are presented in terms of the success rate and the segmenting precision.
Evaluation model for safety capacity of chemical industrial park based on acceptable regional risk
Guohua Chen; Shukun Wang; Xiaoqun Tan
2015-01-01
The paper defines the Safety Capacity of Chemical Industrial Park (SCCIP) from the perspective of acceptable regional risk. For the purpose of exploring the evaluation model for the SCCIP, a method based on quantitative risk assessment was adopted for evaluating transport risk and to confirm reasonable safety transport capacity of chemical industrial park, and then by combining with the safety storage capacity, a SCCIP evaluation model was put forward. The SCCIP was decided by the smaller one between the largest safety storage capacity and the maximum safety transport capacity, or else, the regional risk of the park will exceed the acceptable level. The developed method was applied to a chemical industrial park in Guangdong province to obtain the maximum safety transport capacity and the SCCIP. The results can be realized in the regional risk control of the park effectively.
Reach capacity in older women submitted to flexibility training
Elciana de Paiva Lima Vieira
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of flexibility training on the maximum range of motion levels and reach capacity of older women practitioners of aquatic exercises of the Prev-Quedas project. Participants were divided into two groups: intervention (IG, n = 25, which were submitted to flexibility training program and control (CG, n = 21, in which older women participated only in aquatic exercises. Flexibility training lasted three months with weekly frequency of two days, consisting of stretching exercises involving trunk and lower limbs performed after aquatic exercises. The stretching method used was passive static. Assessment consisted of the functional reach, lateral and goniometric tests. Statistical analysis was performed using the following tests: Shapiro-Wilk normality, ANCOVA, Pearson and Spearman correlations. Significant results for GI in gains of maximum range of motion for the right hip joint (p = 0.0025, however, the same result was not observed in other joints assessed, and there was no improvement in functional and lateral reach capacity for both groups. Significant correlations between reach capacity and range of motion in the trunk, hip and ankle were not observed. Therefore, flexibility training associated with the practice of aquatic exercises promoted increased maximum range of motion only for the hip joint; however, improvement in the reach capacity was not observed. The practice of aquatic exercises alone did not show significant results.
Validity of Selected Lab and Field Tests of Physical Working Capacity.
Burke, Edmund J.
The validity of selected lab and field tests of physical working capacity was investigated. Forty-four male college students were administered a series of lab and field tests of physical working capacity. Lab tests include a test of maximum oxygen uptake, the PWC 170 test, the Harvard Step Test, the Progressive Pulse Ratio Test, Margaria Test of…
Evaluation of pliers' grip spans in the maximum gripping task and sub-maximum cutting task.
Kim, Dae-Min; Kong, Yong-Ku
2016-12-01
A total of 25 males participated to investigate the effects of the grip spans of pliers on the total grip force, individual finger forces and muscle activities in the maximum gripping task and wire-cutting tasks. In the maximum gripping task, results showed that the 50-mm grip span had significantly higher total grip strength than the other grip spans. In the cutting task, the 50-mm grip span also showed significantly higher grip strength than the 65-mm and 80-mm grip spans, whereas the muscle activities showed a higher value at 80-mm grip span. The ratios of cutting force to maximum grip strength were also investigated. Ratios of 30.3%, 31.3% and 41.3% were obtained by grip spans of 50-mm, 65-mm, and 80-mm, respectively. Thus, the 50-mm grip span for pliers might be recommended to provide maximum exertion in gripping tasks, as well as lower maximum-cutting force ratios in the cutting tasks.
Cosmic shear measurement with maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori inference
Hall, Alex
2016-01-01
We investigate the problem of noise bias in maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori estimators for cosmic shear. We derive the leading and next-to-leading order biases and compute them in the context of galaxy ellipticity measurements, extending previous work on maximum likelihood inference for weak lensing. We show that a large part of the bias on these point estimators can be removed using information already contained in the likelihood when a galaxy model is specified, without the need for external calibration. We test these bias-corrected estimators on simulated galaxy images similar to those expected from planned space-based weak lensing surveys, with very promising results. We find that the introduction of an intrinsic shape prior mitigates noise bias, such that the maximum a posteriori estimate can be made less biased than the maximum likelihood estimate. Second-order terms offer a check on the convergence of the estimators, but are largely sub-dominant. We show how biases propagate to shear estima...
Fiscal Capacity Equalisation in Tanzania
Allers, Maarten A.; Ishemoi, Lewis J.
2010-01-01
Fiscal equalisation aims at enabling decentralised governments to supply similar services at similar tax rates. In order to equalise fiscal disparities, differences in both fiscal capacities and in fiscal needs have to be measured. This paper focuses on the measurement of fiscal capacity in a develo
Improving African health research capacity
Lazarus, Jeff; Wallace, Samantha A; Liljestrand, Jerker
2010-01-01
The issue of strengthening local research capacity in Africa is again high on the health and development agenda. The latest initiative comes from the Wellcome Trust. But when it comes to capacity development, one of the chief obstacles that health sectors in the region must confront is the migrat...
Fiscal Capacity Equalisation in Tanzania
Allers, Maarten A.; Ishemoi, Lewis J.
2010-01-01
Fiscal equalisation aims at enabling decentralised governments to supply similar services at similar tax rates. In order to equalise fiscal disparities, differences in both fiscal capacities and in fiscal needs have to be measured. This paper focuses on the measurement of fiscal capacity in a develo
Checking Capacity for MIMO Configurations
Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne
2007-01-01
Wireless system capacity can be added by increasing the number of antennas in a MIMO setup or by carefully optimizing the performance of a smaller number of antennas.......Wireless system capacity can be added by increasing the number of antennas in a MIMO setup or by carefully optimizing the performance of a smaller number of antennas....
Information capacity of quantum observable
Holevo, A S
2011-01-01
In this paper we consider the classical capacities of quantum-classical channels corresponding to measurement of observables. Special attention is paid to the case of continuous observables. We give the formulas for unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities $C,C_{ea}$ and consider some explicitly solvable cases which give new examples of entanglement-breaking channels with $C_{ea}>C.$
Capacity Building in Land Administration
Enemark, Stig; Williamson, I
2004-01-01
Capacity building increasingly seen as a key component of land administration projects in developing and countries in transition undertaken by the international development banks and individual country development assistance agencies. However, the capacity building concept is often used within...... infrastructures for implementing land policies in a sustainable way. Where a project is established to create land administration infrastructures in developing or transition countries, it is critical that capacity building is a mainstream component, not as an add-on, which is often the case. In fact such projects...... should be dealt with as capacity building projects in themselves. The article introduces a conceptual analytical framework that provides some guidance when dealing with capacity building for land administration in support of a broader land policy agenda....
Brazilian Cardiorespiratory Fitness Classification Based on Maximum Oxygen Consumption
Herdy, Artur Haddad; Caixeta, Ananda
2016-01-01
Background Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is the most complete tool available to assess functional aerobic capacity (FAC). Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max), an important biomarker, reflects the real FAC. Objective To develop a cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) classification based on VO2 max in a Brazilian sample of healthy and physically active individuals of both sexes. Methods We selected 2837 CEPT from 2837 individuals aged 15 to 74 years, distributed as follows: G1 (15 to 24); G2 (25 to 34); G3 (35 to 44); G4 (45 to 54); G5 (55 to 64) and G6 (65 to 74). Good CRF was the mean VO2 max obtained for each group, generating the following subclassification: Very Low (VL): VO2 105%. Results Men VL 105% G1 53.13 G2 49.77 G3 47.67 G4 42.52 G5 37.06 G6 31.50 Women G1 40.85 G2 40.01 G3 34.09 G4 32.66 G5 30.04 G6 26.36 Conclusions This chart stratifies VO2 max measured on a treadmill in a robust Brazilian sample and can be used as an alternative for the real functional evaluation of physically and healthy individuals stratified by age and sex. PMID:27305285
LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL
Don Augenstein
2001-02-01
The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.
Paddle River Dam : review of probable maximum flood
Clark, D. [UMA Engineering Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Neill, C.R. [Northwest Hydraulic Consultants Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)
2008-07-01
The Paddle River Dam was built in northern Alberta in the mid 1980s for flood control. According to the 1999 Canadian Dam Association (CDA) guidelines, this 35 metre high, zoned earthfill dam with a spillway capacity sized to accommodate a probable maximum flood (PMF) is rated as a very high hazard. At the time of design, it was estimated to have a peak flow rate of 858 centimetres. A review of the PMF in 2002 increased the peak flow rate to 1,890 centimetres. In light of a 2007 revision of the CDA safety guidelines, the PMF was reviewed and the inflow design flood (IDF) was re-evaluated. This paper discussed the levels of uncertainty inherent in PMF determinations and some difficulties encountered with the SSARR hydrologic model and the HEC-RAS hydraulic model in unsteady mode. The paper also presented and discussed the analysis used to determine incremental damages, upon which a new IDF of 840 m{sup 3}/s was recommended. The paper discussed the PMF review, modelling methodology, hydrograph inputs, and incremental damage of floods. It was concluded that the PMF review, involving hydraulic routing through the valley bottom together with reconsideration of the previous runoff modeling provides evidence that the peak reservoir inflow could reasonably be reduced by approximately 20 per cent. 8 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs.
20 CFR 211.14 - Maximum creditable compensation.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum creditable compensation. 211.14... CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.14 Maximum creditable compensation. Maximum creditable compensation... Employment Accounts shall notify each employer of the amount of maximum creditable compensation applicable...
49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the ultimate...
Theoretical Estimate of Maximum Possible Nuclear Explosion
Bethe, H. A.
1950-01-31
The maximum nuclear accident which could occur in a Na-cooled, Be moderated, Pu and power producing reactor is estimated theoretically. (T.R.H.) 2O82 Results of nuclear calculations for a variety of compositions of fast, heterogeneous, sodium-cooled, U-235-fueled, plutonium- and power-producing reactors are reported. Core compositions typical of plate-, pin-, or wire-type fuel elements and with uranium as metal, alloy, and oxide were considered. These compositions included atom ratios in the following range: U-23B to U-235 from 2 to 8; sodium to U-235 from 1.5 to 12; iron to U-235 from 5 to 18; and vanadium to U-235 from 11 to 33. Calculations were performed to determine the effect of lead and iron reflectors between the core and blanket. Both natural and depleted uranium were evaluated as the blanket fertile material. Reactors were compared on a basis of conversion ratio, specific power, and the product of both. The calculated results are in general agreement with the experimental results from fast reactor assemblies. An analysis of the effect of new cross-section values as they became available is included. (auth)
Proposed principles of maximum local entropy production.
Ross, John; Corlan, Alexandru D; Müller, Stefan C
2012-07-12
Articles have appeared that rely on the application of some form of "maximum local entropy production principle" (MEPP). This is usually an optimization principle that is supposed to compensate for the lack of structural information and measurements about complex systems, even systems as complex and as little characterized as the whole biosphere or the atmosphere of the Earth or even of less known bodies in the solar system. We select a number of claims from a few well-known papers that advocate this principle and we show that they are in error with the help of simple examples of well-known chemical and physical systems. These erroneous interpretations can be attributed to ignoring well-established and verified theoretical results such as (1) entropy does not necessarily increase in nonisolated systems, such as "local" subsystems; (2) macroscopic systems, as described by classical physics, are in general intrinsically deterministic-there are no "choices" in their evolution to be selected by using supplementary principles; (3) macroscopic deterministic systems are predictable to the extent to which their state and structure is sufficiently well-known; usually they are not sufficiently known, and probabilistic methods need to be employed for their prediction; and (4) there is no causal relationship between the thermodynamic constraints and the kinetics of reaction systems. In conclusion, any predictions based on MEPP-like principles should not be considered scientifically founded.
Maximum entropy production and plant optimization theories.
Dewar, Roderick C
2010-05-12
Plant ecologists have proposed a variety of optimization theories to explain the adaptive behaviour and evolution of plants from the perspective of natural selection ('survival of the fittest'). Optimization theories identify some objective function--such as shoot or canopy photosynthesis, or growth rate--which is maximized with respect to one or more plant functional traits. However, the link between these objective functions and individual plant fitness is seldom quantified and there remains some uncertainty about the most appropriate choice of objective function to use. Here, plants are viewed from an alternative thermodynamic perspective, as members of a wider class of non-equilibrium systems for which maximum entropy production (MEP) has been proposed as a common theoretical principle. I show how MEP unifies different plant optimization theories that have been proposed previously on the basis of ad hoc measures of individual fitness--the different objective functions of these theories emerge as examples of entropy production on different spatio-temporal scales. The proposed statistical explanation of MEP, that states of MEP are by far the most probable ones, suggests a new and extended paradigm for biological evolution--'survival of the likeliest'--which applies from biomacromolecules to ecosystems, not just to individuals.
Maximum likelihood continuity mapping for fraud detection
Hogden, J.
1997-05-01
The author describes a novel time-series analysis technique called maximum likelihood continuity mapping (MALCOM), and focuses on one application of MALCOM: detecting fraud in medical insurance claims. Given a training data set composed of typical sequences, MALCOM creates a stochastic model of sequence generation, called a continuity map (CM). A CM maximizes the probability of sequences in the training set given the model constraints, CMs can be used to estimate the likelihood of sequences not found in the training set, enabling anomaly detection and sequence prediction--important aspects of data mining. Since MALCOM can be used on sequences of categorical data (e.g., sequences of words) as well as real valued data, MALCOM is also a potential replacement for database search tools such as N-gram analysis. In a recent experiment, MALCOM was used to evaluate the likelihood of patient medical histories, where ``medical history`` is used to mean the sequence of medical procedures performed on a patient. Physicians whose patients had anomalous medical histories (according to MALCOM) were evaluated for fraud by an independent agency. Of the small sample (12 physicians) that has been evaluated, 92% have been determined fraudulent or abusive. Despite the small sample, these results are encouraging.
Maximum life spiral bevel reduction design
Savage, M.; Prasanna, M. G.; Coe, H. H.
1992-07-01
Optimization is applied to the design of a spiral bevel gear reduction for maximum life at a given size. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial values. Gear tooth bending strength and minimum contact ratio under load are included in the active constraints. The optimal design of the spiral bevel gear reduction includes the selection of bearing and shaft proportions in addition to gear mesh parameters. System life is maximized subject to a fixed back-cone distance of the spiral bevel gear set for a specified speed ratio, shaft angle, input torque, and power. Significant parameters in the design are: the spiral angle, the pressure angle, the numbers of teeth on the pinion and gear, and the location and size of the four support bearings. Interpolated polynomials expand the discrete bearing properties and proportions into continuous variables for gradient optimization. After finding the continuous optimum, a designer can analyze near optimal designs for comparison and selection. Design examples show the influence of the bearing lives on the gear parameters in the optimal configurations. For a fixed back-cone distance, optimal designs with larger shaft angles have larger service lives.
CORA - emission line fitting with Maximum Likelihood
Ness, J.-U.; Wichmann, R.
2002-07-01
The advent of pipeline-processed data both from space- and ground-based observatories often disposes of the need of full-fledged data reduction software with its associated steep learning curve. In many cases, a simple tool doing just one task, and doing it right, is all one wishes. In this spirit we introduce CORA, a line fitting tool based on the maximum likelihood technique, which has been developed for the analysis of emission line spectra with low count numbers and has successfully been used in several publications. CORA uses a rigorous application of Poisson statistics. From the assumption of Poissonian noise we derive the probability for a model of the emission line spectrum to represent the measured spectrum. The likelihood function is used as a criterion for optimizing the parameters of the theoretical spectrum and a fixed point equation is derived allowing an efficient way to obtain line fluxes. As an example we demonstrate the functionality of the program with an X-ray spectrum of Capella obtained with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra observatory and choose the analysis of the Ne IX triplet around 13.5 Å.
Finding maximum JPEG image block code size
Lakhani, Gopal
2012-07-01
We present a study of JPEG baseline coding. It aims to determine the minimum storage needed to buffer the JPEG Huffman code bits of 8-bit image blocks. Since DC is coded separately, and the encoder represents each AC coefficient by a pair of run-length/AC coefficient level, the net problem is to perform an efficient search for the optimal run-level pair sequence. We formulate it as a two-dimensional, nonlinear, integer programming problem and solve it using a branch-and-bound based search method. We derive two types of constraints to prune the search space. The first one is given as an upper-bound for the sum of squares of AC coefficients of a block, and it is used to discard sequences that cannot represent valid DCT blocks. The second type constraints are based on some interesting properties of the Huffman code table, and these are used to prune sequences that cannot be part of optimal solutions. Our main result is that if the default JPEG compression setting is used, space of minimum of 346 bits and maximum of 433 bits is sufficient to buffer the AC code bits of 8-bit image blocks. Our implementation also pruned the search space extremely well; the first constraint reduced the initial search space of 4 nodes down to less than 2 nodes, and the second set of constraints reduced it further by 97.8%.
Maximum likelihood estimates of pairwise rearrangement distances.
Serdoz, Stuart; Egri-Nagy, Attila; Sumner, Jeremy; Holland, Barbara R; Jarvis, Peter D; Tanaka, Mark M; Francis, Andrew R
2017-06-21
Accurate estimation of evolutionary distances between taxa is important for many phylogenetic reconstruction methods. Distances can be estimated using a range of different evolutionary models, from single nucleotide polymorphisms to large-scale genome rearrangements. Corresponding corrections for genome rearrangement distances fall into 3 categories: Empirical computational studies, Bayesian/MCMC approaches, and combinatorial approaches. Here, we introduce a maximum likelihood estimator for the inversion distance between a pair of genomes, using a group-theoretic approach to modelling inversions introduced recently. This MLE functions as a corrected distance: in particular, we show that because of the way sequences of inversions interact with each other, it is quite possible for minimal distance and MLE distance to differently order the distances of two genomes from a third. The second aspect tackles the problem of accounting for the symmetries of circular arrangements. While, generally, a frame of reference is locked, and all computation made accordingly, this work incorporates the action of the dihedral group so that distance estimates are free from any a priori frame of reference. The philosophy of accounting for symmetries can be applied to any existing correction method, for which examples are offered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Systrom, D M; Pappagianopoulos, P; Fishman, R S; Wain, J C; Ginns, L C
1998-12-01
Single lung transplantation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease relieves a ventilatory limit to incremental exercise, but maximum oxygen uptake remains abnormal. The purpose of this study was to define the relative contributions of Fick principle variables to abnormal aerobic capacity after lung transplantation. Twelve paired incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test results obtained before and 3 to 6 months after single lung transplantation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were compared. Maximum workload nearly doubled after operation (42.5+/-4.2 vs 25.5+/-4.7 watts, P < .05). Peak exercise minute ventilation increased (32.8+/-3.3 vs 21+/-2.4 L/min, n = 11, P < .05), but maximum oxygen uptake remained markedly abnormal after transplantation (46.6%+/-4.4% vs 32.1%+/-2.9% predicted, P < .05, n = 8). Peak exercise cardiac output was normal (11.0+/-1.4 L/min, 89% predicted), but arterial-mixed venous oxygen content difference at peak exercise was only half of normal (7.2+/-0.61 mL/dL), as a result in part of the failure of mixed venous oxygen saturation to fall normally (peak exercise SvO2 = 49.8%+/-2.8%). Lung transplantation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease relieves a ventilatory limit to exercise, but maximum aerobic capacity remains abnormal, in part because of abnormal systemic O2 extraction.
Overview of Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques for Photovoltaic Energy Production Systems
Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede
2015-01-01
of photovoltaic sources during stochastically varying solar irradiation and ambient temperature conditions. Thus, the overall efficiency of the photovoltaic energy production system is increased. Numerous techniques have been presented during the last decade for implementing the maximum power point tracking......A substantial growth of the installed photovoltaic systems capacity has occurred around the world during the last decade, thus enhancing the availability of electric energy in an environmentally friendly way. The maximum power point tracking technique enables maximization of the energy production...... process in a photovoltaic system. This article provides an overview of the operating principles of these techniques, which are suited for either uniform or non-uniform solar irradiation conditions. The operational characteristics and implementation requirements of these maximum power point tracking...
Boedeker, Peter
2017-01-01
Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) is a useful tool when analyzing data collected from groups. There are many decisions to be made when constructing and estimating a model in HLM including which estimation technique to use. Three of the estimation techniques available when analyzing data with HLM are maximum likelihood, restricted maximum…
Interference and memory capacity limitations.
Endress, Ansgar D; Szabó, Szilárd
2017-10-01
Working memory (WM) is thought to have a fixed and limited capacity. However, the origins of these capacity limitations are debated, and generally attributed to active, attentional processes. Here, we show that the existence of interference among items in memory mathematically guarantees fixed and limited capacity limits under very general conditions, irrespective of any processing assumptions. Assuming that interference (a) increases with the number of interfering items and (b) brings memory performance to chance levels for large numbers of interfering items, capacity limits are a simple function of the relative influence of memorization and interference. In contrast, we show that time-based memory limitations do not lead to fixed memory capacity limitations that are independent of the timing properties of an experiment. We show that interference can mimic both slot-like and continuous resource-like memory limitations, suggesting that these types of memory performance might not be as different as commonly believed. We speculate that slot-like WM limitations might arise from crowding-like phenomena in memory when participants have to retrieve items. Further, based on earlier research on parallel attention and enumeration, we suggest that crowding-like phenomena might be a common reason for the 3 major cognitive capacity limitations. As suggested by Miller (1956) and Cowan (2001), these capacity limitations might arise because of a common reason, even though they likely rely on distinct processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Propiverine versus tolterodine: efficacy and tolerability in patients with overactive bladder.
Jünemann, Klaus-Peter; Halaska, Michael; Rittstein, Tomas; Mürtz, Gerd; Schnabel, Frieder; Brünjes, Rainer; Nurkiewicz, Wojciech
2005-09-01
Propiverine and tolterodine were compared with respect to efficacy, tolerability and impact on the quality of life in the treatment of patients with idiopathic detrusor overactivity. In a randomised, double-blind, multicentre clinical trial, patients with idiopathic detrusor overactivity were treated with 15 mg propiverine twice daily or 2mg tolterodine twice daily over a period of 28 days. The maximum cystometric capacity was determined at baseline and after 4 weeks of therapy. The difference of both values was used as the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints were voided volume per micturition, evaluation of efficacy (by the investigator), tolerability, post void residual urine, and quality of life. The mean maximum cystometric capacity increased significantly (p tolterodine group experienced adverse events. The most common adverse event, dry mouth, occurred in 20 patients in the propiverine group and in 19 patients in the tolterodine group. The scores for the quality of life improved comparably in both groups. The study demonstrates comparable efficacy, tolerability, and improvement in the quality of life of 15 mg propiverine twice-daily and 2mg tolterodine twice-daily in the treatment of the symptoms of idiopathic detrusor overactivity.
Maximum likelihood molecular clock comb: analytic solutions.
Chor, Benny; Khetan, Amit; Snir, Sagi
2006-04-01
Maximum likelihood (ML) is increasingly used as an optimality criterion for selecting evolutionary trees, but finding the global optimum is a hard computational task. Because no general analytic solution is known, numeric techniques such as hill climbing or expectation maximization (EM), are used in order to find optimal parameters for a given tree. So far, analytic solutions were derived only for the simplest model--three taxa, two state characters, under a molecular clock. Four taxa rooted trees have two topologies--the fork (two subtrees with two leaves each) and the comb (one subtree with three leaves, the other with a single leaf). In a previous work, we devised a closed form analytic solution for the ML molecular clock fork. In this work, we extend the state of the art in the area of analytic solutions ML trees to the family of all four taxa trees under the molecular clock assumption. The change from the fork topology to the comb incurs a major increase in the complexity of the underlying algebraic system and requires novel techniques and approaches. We combine the ultrametric properties of molecular clock trees with the Hadamard conjugation to derive a number of topology dependent identities. Employing these identities, we substantially simplify the system of polynomial equations. We finally use tools from algebraic geometry (e.g., Gröbner bases, ideal saturation, resultants) and employ symbolic algebra software to obtain analytic solutions for the comb. We show that in contrast to the fork, the comb has no closed form solutions (expressed by radicals in the input data). In general, four taxa trees can have multiple ML points. In contrast, we can now prove that under the molecular clock assumption, the comb has a unique (local and global) ML point. (Such uniqueness was previously shown for the fork.).
Precision markedly attenuates repetitive lift capacity.
Collier, Brooke R; Holland, Laura; McGhee, Deirdre; Sampson, John A; Bell, Alison; Stapley, Paul J; Groeller, Herbert
2014-01-01
This study investigated the effect of precision on time to task failure in a repetitive whole-body manual handling task. Twelve participants were required to repetitively lift a box weighing 65% of their single repetition maximum to shoulder height using either precise or unconstrained box placement. Muscle activity, forces exerted at the ground, 2D body kinematics, box acceleration and psychophysical measures of performance were recorded until task failure was reached. With precision, time to task failure for repetitive lifting was reduced by 72%, whereas the duration taken to complete a single lift and anterior deltoid muscle activation increased by 39% and 25%, respectively. Yet, no significant difference was observed in ratings of perceived exertion or heart rate at task failure. In conclusion, our results suggest that when accuracy is a characteristic of a repetitive manual handling task, physical work capacity will decline markedly. The capacity to lift repetitively to shoulder height was reduced by 72% when increased accuracy was required to place a box upon a shelf. Lifting strategy and muscle activity were also modified, confirming practitioners should take into consideration movement precision when evaluating the demands of repetitive manual handling tasks.
The Embedding Capacity of Information Flows Under Renewal Traffic
Marano, Stefano; He, Ting; Tong, Lang
2011-01-01
Given two independent point processes and a certain rule for matching points between them, what is the fraction of matched points over infinitely long streams? In many application contexts, e.g., secure networking, a meaningful matching rule is that of a maximum causal delay, and the problem is related to embedding a flow of packets in cover traffic such that no traffic analysis can detect it. We study the best undetectable embedding policy and the corresponding maximum flow rate ---that we call the embedding capacity--- under the assumption that the cover traffic can be modeled as arbitrary renewal processes. We find that computing the embedding capacity requires the inversion of very structured linear systems that, for a broad range of renewal models encountered in practice, admits a fully analytical expression in terms of the renewal function of the processes. Our main theoretical contribution is a simple closed form of such relationship. This result enables us to explore properties of the embedding capaci...
Research projects and capacity building
driniev
2004-10-04
Oct 4, 2004 ... plan and a commitment to capacity building in the previously marginalised sectors. .... rather than active process, and diffusion, adoption and innovation .... personal results and business results are related, and how delays.
Capacity Building in Land Management
Enemark, Stig; Ahene, Rexford
2003-01-01
There is a significant need for capacity building in the interdisciplinary area of land management especially in developing countries and countries in transition, to deal with the complex issues of building efficient land information systems and sustainable institutional infrastructures. Capacity...... building in land management is not only a question of establishing a sufficient technological level or sufficient economic resources. It is mainly a question of understanding the interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral nature of land administration systems, and understanding the need for human resource...... development in this area. Furthermore, capacity building should ensure that the focus is on building sound institutions and governance rather than just high-level IT-infrastructures. This overall approach to capacity building in land management is used for implementing a new land policy reform in Malawi...
Quantum channel capacities - multiparty communication
Demianowicz, M; Demianowicz, Maciej; Horodecki, Pawel
2006-01-01
We analyze different aspects of multiparty communication over quantum memoryless channels and generalize some of key results known from bipartite channels to that of multiparty scenario. In particular, we introduce multiparty versions of minimal subspace transmission fidelity and entanglement transmission fidelity. We also provide alternative, local, versions of fidelities and show their equivalence to the global ones in context of capacity regions defined. The equivalence of two different capacity notions with respect to two types of the fidelities is proven. In analogy to bipartite case it is shown, via sufficiency of isometric encoding theorem, that additional classical forward side channel does not increase capacity region of any quantum channel with $k$ senders and $m$ receivers which represents a compact unit of general quantum networks theory. The result proves that recently provided capacity region of multiple access channel ([M. Horodecki et al, Nature {\\bf 436} 673 (2005)], [J.Yard et al, quant-ph/0...
LABORATORY FERMENTERS OF CAPACITY TYPE
Yu I Sidorov
2012-01-01
...) of a capacity type with mixing devices that are intended for the cultivation of prokaryotes and also vegetable, animal, and insect cells, which the following firms such as Sartorius BBI Systems, New...
Capacity-achieving CPM schemes
Perotti, Alberto; Benedetto, Sergio; Montorsi, Guido
2008-01-01
The pragmatic approach to coded continuous-phase modulation (CPM) is proposed as a capacity-achieving low-complexity alternative to the serially-concatenated CPM (SC-CPM) coding scheme. In this paper, we first perform a selection of the best spectrally-efficient CPM modulations to be embedded into SC-CPM schemes. Then, we consider the pragmatic capacity (a.k.a. BICM capacity) of CPM modulations and optimize it through a careful design of the mapping between input bits and CPM waveforms. The so obtained schemes are cascaded with an outer serially-concatenated convolutional code to form a pragmatic coded-modulation system. The resulting schemes exhibit performance very close to the CPM capacity without requiring iterations between the outer decoder and the CPM demodulator. As a result, the receiver exhibits reduced complexity and increased flexibility due to the separation of the demodulation and decoding functions.
Chen Shaofeng
2004-01-01
The concept of carrying capacity is derived from ecology, with widespread contentions of its theoretical connotations and applications in the international academic community, especially the impact of human activities on the environment.Disputes on carrying capacity have been occurring not only among biologists and ecologists, but also among mainstream economists. Based on their efforts,the author makes an attempt to describe its origin,connotations, problems, measurement, and at the same time note the latest international progress in this field.
Warfare, Fiscal Capacity, and Performance
Dincecco, Mark; Prado, Mauricio
2012-01-01
We exploit differences in casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to estimate the impact of fiscal capacity on economic performance. In the past, states fought different amounts of external conflicts, of various lengths and magnitudes. To raise the revenues to wage wars, states made fiscal innova...... estimate substantial impacts of fiscal capacity on GDP per worker. The results are robust to a broad range of specifications, controls, and sub-samples....
The Prediction of Maximum Amplitudes of Solar Cycles and the Maximum Amplitude of Solar Cycle 24
无
2002-01-01
We present a brief review of predictions of solar cycle maximum ampli-tude with a lead time of 2 years or more. It is pointed out that a precise predictionof the maximum amplitude with such a lead-time is still an open question despiteprogress made since the 1960s. A method of prediction using statistical character-istics of solar cycles is developed: the solar cycles are divided into two groups, ahigh rising velocity (HRV) group and a low rising velocity (LRV) group, dependingon the rising velocity in the ascending phase for a given duration of the ascendingphase. The amplitude of Solar Cycle 24 can be predicted after the start of thecycle using the formula derived in this paper. Now, about 5 years before the startof the cycle, we can make a preliminary prediction of 83.2-119.4 for its maximumamplitude.
Effects of Ce on damping capacity of AZ91D magnesium alloy
黄正华; 郭学锋; 张忠明
2004-01-01
The microstructures and damping capacity of AZ91D cast alloys containing various Ce contents were investigated. Damping capacity (Q-1) of the alloys was measured by cantilever beam technique, and the relationship between damping capacity and strain amplitude was investigated. The results show that Al4 Ce phase is formed in AZ91D alloy after adding a certain quantity of Ce contents, then as-cast microstructures of the alloys are refined.Meanwhile the damping capacity of the alloys is also improved. When the mass fraction of Ce is 0.7 %, the most obvious refinement effect and the maximum damping capacity can be obtained. When the damping capacity (Q-1) is 2. 728 × 10-3 , 61% increment can be obtained compared with unmodified AZ91D alloy. The damping capacity of the alloys is relative to strain amplitude, and the damping behavior can be explained by the theory of Granato and Lucke.
Boundary slippage for generating hydrodynamic load-carrying capacity
ZHANG Yong-bin
2008-01-01
Boundary slippage is used to generate the load-carrying capacity of the hydrodynamic contact between two parallel plane surfaces.In the fluid inlet zone,the fluidcontact interfacial shear strength on a stationary surface is set at low to generate boundary slippage there,while in the fluid outlet zone the fluid-contact interfacial shear strength on the stationary surface is set at high enough to prevent the occurrence of boundary slippage.The fluid-contact interfacial shear strength on the entire moving surface is set at high enough to prevent boundary slippage on the moving surface.These hydrodynamic contact configurations are analyzed to generate the pronounced load-carrying capacity.The optimum ratio of the outlet zone width to the inlet zone width for the maximum load-carrying capacity of the whole contact is found to be 0.5.
The capacity of associative memories with malfunctioning neurons.
Shirazi, M N; Maekawa, S
1993-01-01
Hopfield associative memories with alphan malfunctioning neurons are considered. Using some facts from exchangeable events theory, the asymptotic storage capacity of such a network is derived as a function of the parameter alpha under stability and attractivity requirements. It is shown that the asymptotic storage capacity is (1-alpha)(2)/n(4 log n) under stability and (1-alpha)(2)(1-2rho)(2)n/(4 log n) under attractivity requirements, respectively. Comparing these capacities with their maximum values corresponding to the case when there is no malfunctioning neurons, alpha=0, shows the robustness of the retrieval mechanism of Hopfield associative memories with respect to the existence of malfunctioning neurons. This result also supports the claim that neural networks are fault tolerant.
Shear Capacity of Dowelled Mortise and Tenon in Tropical Timber
Hassan, Rohana; Ibrahim, Azmi; Ahmad, Zakiah, E-mail: rohan742@salam.uitm.edu.my [Faculty of Civil Engineering, UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)
2011-02-15
The European Yield Models (EYM) concept has been applied to observe an experimental study of single-dowelled mortise and tenon. Specimens consisting of structural size mortise and tenon dowelled with 20.6 mm diameter were axially loaded in shear. Test variables are the material for the dowels namely steel; glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP) and wood. Connections were tested until failure to observe the ultimate capacities and possible modes of failure as the variables were changed. Results show that the shear strength capacity of the mortise and tenon connection single-dowelled with steel, GFRP and wood is not directly reflected the capacity of the dowel. The proportional limit, 5% diameter offset and maximum strength of the connection are in the order of steel, wood and GFRP but the dowel yield modes are in the order of steel, GFRP and wood. Failure modes of GFRP were found as stiff as steel (mode Im) compared to wood (mode IIIs).
Pattern formation, logistics, and maximum path probability
Kirkaldy, J. S.
1985-05-01
The concept of pattern formation, which to current researchers is a synonym for self-organization, carries the connotation of deductive logic together with the process of spontaneous inference. Defining a pattern as an equivalence relation on a set of thermodynamic objects, we establish that a large class of irreversible pattern-forming systems, evolving along idealized quasisteady paths, approaches the stable steady state as a mapping upon the formal deductive imperatives of a propositional function calculus. In the preamble the classical reversible thermodynamics of composite systems is analyzed as an externally manipulated system of space partitioning and classification based on ideal enclosures and diaphragms. The diaphragms have discrete classification capabilities which are designated in relation to conserved quantities by descriptors such as impervious, diathermal, and adiabatic. Differentiability in the continuum thermodynamic calculus is invoked as equivalent to analyticity and consistency in the underlying class or sentential calculus. The seat of inference, however, rests with the thermodynamicist. In the transition to an irreversible pattern-forming system the defined nature of the composite reservoirs remains, but a given diaphragm is replaced by a pattern-forming system which by its nature is a spontaneously evolving volume partitioner and classifier of invariants. The seat of volition or inference for the classification system is thus transferred from the experimenter or theoretician to the diaphragm, and with it the full deductive facility. The equivalence relations or partitions associated with the emerging patterns may thus be associated with theorems of the natural pattern-forming calculus. The entropy function, together with its derivatives, is the vehicle which relates the logistics of reservoirs and diaphragms to the analog logistics of the continuum. Maximum path probability or second-order differentiability of the entropy in isolation are
7 CFR 983.27 - Proprietary capacity.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proprietary capacity. 983.27 Section 983.27..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.27 Proprietary capacity. Proprietary capacity means the capacity... the interest in that capacity as an individual, a shareholder, member of a cooperative,...
Absorptive capacity and smart companies
Patricia Moro González
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose: The current competitive environment is substantially modifying the organizations’ learning processes due to a global increase of available information allowing this to be transformed into knowledge. This opportunity has been exploited since the nineties by the tools of “Business Analytics” and “Business Intelligence” but, nevertheless, being integrated in the study of new organizational capacities engaged in the process of creating intelligence inside organizations is still an outstanding task. The review of the concept of absorptive capacity and a detailed study from the perspective of this new reality will be the main objective of study of this paper.Design/methodology/approach: By comparing classical absorptive capacity and absorptive capacity from the point of view of information management tools in each one of the three stages of the organizational learning cycle, some gaps of the former are overcome/fulfilled. The academic/bibliographical references provided in this paper have been obtained from ISI web of knowledge, Scopus and Dialnet data bases, supporting the state of affairs on absorptive capacity and thereafter filtering by "Business Intelligence" and "Business Analytics". Specialized websites and Business Schools` Publications there have also been included, crowning the content on information management tools used that are currently used in the strategic consulting.Findings: Our contribution to the literature is the development of "smart absorptive capacity". This is a new capacity emerging from the reformulation of the classical concept of absorptive capacity wherein some aspects of its definition that might have been omitted are emphasized. The result of this new approach is the creation of a new Theoretical Model of Organizational Intelligence, which aims to explain, within the framework of the Resources and Capabilities Theory, the competitive advantage achieved by the so-called smart companies
Cardiorespiratory Fitness of Inmates of a Maximum Security Prison ...
USER
Maximum Security Prison; and also to determine the effects of age, gender, and period of incarceration on CRF. A total of 247 apparently healthy inmates of Maiduguri Maximum Security ... with different types of cardiovascular and metabolic.
Maximum likelihood polynomial regression for robust speech recognition
LU Yong; WU Zhenyang
2011-01-01
The linear hypothesis is the main disadvantage of maximum likelihood linear re- gression （MLLR）. This paper applies the polynomial regression method to model adaptation and establishes a nonlinear model adaptation algorithm using maximum likelihood polyno
Capacities of quantum amplifier channels
Qi, Haoyu; Wilde, Mark M.
2017-01-01
Quantum amplifier channels are at the core of several physical processes. Not only do they model the optical process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion, but the transformation corresponding to an amplifier channel also describes the physics of the dynamical Casimir effect in superconducting circuits, the Unruh effect, and Hawking radiation. Here we study the communication capabilities of quantum amplifier channels. Invoking a recently established minimum output-entropy theorem for single-mode phase-insensitive Gaussian channels, we determine capacities of quantum-limited amplifier channels in three different scenarios. First, we establish the capacities of quantum-limited amplifier channels for one of the most general communication tasks, characterized by the trade-off between classical communication, quantum communication, and entanglement generation or consumption. Second, we establish capacities of quantum-limited amplifier channels for the trade-off between public classical communication, private classical communication, and secret key generation. Third, we determine the capacity region for a broadcast channel induced by the quantum-limited amplifier channel, and we also show that a fully quantum strategy outperforms those achieved by classical coherent-detection strategies. In all three scenarios, we find that the capacities significantly outperform communication rates achieved with a naive time-sharing strategy.
Capacity sharing of water reservoirs
Dudley, Norman J.; Musgrave, Warren F.
1988-05-01
The concept of a water use property right is developed which does not apply to water volumes as such but to a share of the capacity (not contents) of river storage reservoirs and their inflows. The shareholders can withdraw water from their share over time in accordance with their preferences for stability of water deliveries. The reservoir authority does not manage reservoir releases but keeps record of individual shareholder's withdrawals and net inflows to monitor the quantity of water in each shareholder's capacity share. A surplus of total reservoir contents over the sum of the contents of the individual shareholder's capacity shares will accrue over time. Two different criteria for its periodic distribution among shareholders are compared. A previous paper Dudley (this issue(b)) noted a loss of short-run economic efficiency as reservoir and farm management decision making become separated. This is largely overcome by capacity sharing which allows each user to integrate the management of their portion of the reservoir and their farming operations. The nonattenuated nature of the capacity sharing water rights also promotes long-run economic efficiency.
M. Mihelich
2014-11-01
Full Text Available We derive rigorous results on the link between the principle of maximum entropy production and the principle of maximum Kolmogorov–Sinai entropy using a Markov model of the passive scalar diffusion called the Zero Range Process. We show analytically that both the entropy production and the Kolmogorov–Sinai entropy seen as functions of f admit a unique maximum denoted fmaxEP and fmaxKS. The behavior of these two maxima is explored as a function of the system disequilibrium and the system resolution N. The main result of this article is that fmaxEP and fmaxKS have the same Taylor expansion at first order in the deviation of equilibrium. We find that fmaxEP hardly depends on N whereas fmaxKS depends strongly on N. In particular, for a fixed difference of potential between the reservoirs, fmaxEP(N tends towards a non-zero value, while fmaxKS(N tends to 0 when N goes to infinity. For values of N typical of that adopted by Paltridge and climatologists (N ≈ 10 ~ 100, we show that fmaxEP and fmaxKS coincide even far from equilibrium. Finally, we show that one can find an optimal resolution N* such that fmaxEP and fmaxKS coincide, at least up to a second order parameter proportional to the non-equilibrium fluxes imposed to the boundaries. We find that the optimal resolution N* depends on the non equilibrium fluxes, so that deeper convection should be represented on finer grids. This result points to the inadequacy of using a single grid for representing convection in climate and weather models. Moreover, the application of this principle to passive scalar transport parametrization is therefore expected to provide both the value of the optimal flux, and of the optimal number of degrees of freedom (resolution to describe the system.
20 CFR 617.14 - Maximum amount of TRA.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum amount of TRA. 617.14 Section 617.14... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.14 Maximum amount of TRA. (a) General rule. Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, the maximum amount of...
40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.
2010-07-01
... specified in 40 CFR 1065.510. These data points form the lug curve. It is not necessary to generate the... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of maximum test speed... Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test...
14 CFR 25.1505 - Maximum operating limit speed.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum operating limit speed. 25.1505... Operating Limitations § 25.1505 Maximum operating limit speed. The maximum operating limit speed (V MO/M MO airspeed or Mach Number, whichever is critical at a particular altitude) is a speed that may not...
Maximum Performance Tests in Children with Developmental Spastic Dysarthria.
Wit, J.; And Others
1993-01-01
Three Maximum Performance Tasks (Maximum Sound Prolongation, Fundamental Frequency Range, and Maximum Repetition Rate) were administered to 11 children (ages 6-11) with spastic dysarthria resulting from cerebral palsy and 11 controls. Despite intrasubject and intersubject variability in normal and pathological speakers, the tasks were found to be…
Warfare, Fiscal Capacity, and Performance
Prado, Mauricio; Dincecco, Mark
We exploit differences in casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to estimate the impact of fiscal capacity on economic performance. In the past, states fought different amounts of external conflicts, of various lengths and magnitudes. To raise the revenues to wage wars, states made fiscal...... innovations, which persisted and helped to shape current fiscal institutions. Economic historians claim that greater fiscal capacity was the key long-run institutional change brought about by historical conflicts. Using casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to instrument for current fiscal institutions, we...... estimate substantial impacts of fiscal capacity on GDP per worker. The results are robust to a broad range of specifications, controls, and sub-samples....
The Innovative Capacity of Firms
Neely Andy
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Innovation is widely accepted as a crucial competitive weapon in today's global market place. Yet the levels of innovation achieved by different firms, even within the same industry, can vary widely. The key question raised by this observation is why. Why are some firms more innovative than others? What are the factors that determine a firm's capacity to innovate and how can these be managed to enhance the firm's innovative potential? This paper sets out to address these and related issues. It reports the results of a study of competitiveness and innovation of firms in the East of England. In the paper it is argued that the innovative capacity of a firm is a function of the firm's culture, resources, competences and networks. Justification for this framework is provided by a review of the relevant literature and a series of case studies examining the capacity to innovate of a sample of firms in the East of England.
Localization capacity of human listeners
Hammershøi, Dorte
2009-01-01
For some scenarios and situations, successful localization of the sound is vital for the hearing experience. One aspect of this is the natural limits of the human localization capacity, incl. dependence on e.g. direction and distance. When addressed in laboratory experiments, the significance...... of other modalities are controlled in different ways, yet figures will inherently reflect properties of the test situation as well as the capacity of the individual. The present paper will review some contemporary localization experiments, with a specific view to the "absolute" acuity, the measures used...
Samskabelse og Evaluation Capacity Building
2017-01-01
Styringsparadigmer bærer ikke blot organisationsopskrifter med sig, men også evalueringsopskrifter. Som det fremgår af Kapitel 1, Et nyt styringsparadigme på vej? bærer styringsparadigmet New Public Governance organisationsopskriften samskabelse med sig, men det er endnu ikke tydeligt hvilken eva...... skifte fra en evaluerings¬bølge til en anden kræver, at der sker en Evaluation Capacity Building. Evaluation Capacity Building har dobbelt binding, som dels handler om evnen til at gennemføre evaluering, dels om evnen til at anvende evaluering....
Berry, Vincent; Nicolas, François
2006-01-01
Given a set of evolutionary trees on a same set of taxa, the maximum agreement subtree problem (MAST), respectively, maximum compatible tree problem (MCT), consists of finding a largest subset of taxa such that all input trees restricted to these taxa are isomorphic, respectively compatible. These problems have several applications in phylogenetics such as the computation of a consensus of phylogenies obtained from different data sets, the identification of species subjected to horizontal gene transfers and, more recently, the inference of supertrees, e.g., Trees Of Life. We provide two linear time algorithms to check the isomorphism, respectively, compatibility, of a set of trees or otherwise identify a conflict between the trees with respect to the relative location of a small subset of taxa. Then, we use these algorithms as subroutines to solve MAST and MCT on rooted or unrooted trees of unbounded degree. More precisely, we give exact fixed-parameter tractable algorithms, whose running time is uniformly polynomial when the number of taxa on which the trees disagree is bounded. The improves on a known result for MAST and proves fixed-parameter tractability for MCT.
Online capacity planning of repairs
Kempen, J.W. van
2006-01-01
In this thesis we describe our research into a capacity planning problem that occurs in practice at a big group of car dealers, the Rüttchen group. A considerable part is about the construction of a model for this problem, showing and justifying the assumptions we make. Then it is shown that this mo
Research projects and capacity building
Breen, CM
2004-10-01
Full Text Available to successfully bid for funding from government and parastatal organisations unless there is both a plan and a commitment to capacity building in the previously marginalised sectors. There are currently no guidelines to support researchers in their attempts...
Antioxidant capacity and physical exercise
A Marciniak
2009-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of this article is a presentation of current knowledge regarding the changes of plasma antioxidant capacity observed in response to physical exercise. Human body created the enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems, which play a protective role in the harmful impact of free radicals. Those two systems constitute what is known as the plasma total antioxidant capacity. The amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (NOS in combination with oxidation processes increases in some tissues during physiological response to physical exercise. These changes are observed after single bout of exercise as well as after regular training. The response of human body to physical exercise can be analysed using various models of exercise test. Application of repeated type of exhaustion allows for characterizing the ability of human body to adjust to the increased energy loss and increased oxygen consumption. This article presents the characteristics of components of plasma antioxidant capacity, the mechanisms of free radicals production and their role in human body. It discusses also the currently used methods of detecting changes in total antioxidant capacity and its individual elements in response to single bout of exercise and regular training. It presents the review of literature about research performed in groups of both regularly training and low exercise activity individuals as well as in group of healthy subjects and patients with circulation diseases.
Livelihood Resilience and Adaptive Capacity
Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben
2015-01-01
This article analyses the implementation and outcomes of national development programs in a mountainous commune in Vietnam. The article traces the history of State intervention and the capacity of households and the community to adapt to change. The assessment reveals unintended consequences of t...
The COSPAR Capacity Building Initiative
Gabriel, C.; Willmore, P.; Méndez, M.; Mathieu, P.-P.; Santolik, O.; Smith, R.; Evans, Ian N.; Accomazzi, Alberto; Mink, Douglas J.; Rots, Arnold H.
2011-01-01
The COSPAR Capacity Building Workshops have been conceived to meet the following objectives: (1) To increase knowledge and use of public archives of space data in order both to broaden the scope of research programs in developing countries and to ensure that scientists in those countries are aware o
The COSPAR Capacity Building Initiative
Gabriel, C.; Willmore, P.; Méndez, M.; Mathieu, P.-P.; Santolik, O.; Smith, R.; Evans, Ian N.; Accomazzi, Alberto; Mink, Douglas J.; Rots, Arnold H.
The COSPAR Capacity Building Workshops have been conceived to meet the following objectives: (1) To increase knowledge and use of public archives of space data in order both to broaden the scope of research programs in developing countries and to ensure that scientists in those countries are aware
Capacity Planning and Leadtime management
Zijm, Willem H.M.; Buitenhek, R.
1996-01-01
In this paper we discuss a framework for capacity planning and lead time management in manufacturing companies, with an emphasis on the machine shop. First we show how queueing models can be used to find approximations of the mean and the variance of manufacturing shop lead times. These quantities
Bearing capacity and mechanical behavior of CFG pile composite foundation
陈秋南; 赵明华; 周国华; 张主华
2008-01-01
CFG pile (i.e., pile constructed by granular materials of cement, fly-ash and gravel) composite foundation is applied in subsoil treatment widely and successfully. In order to have a further study of this kind of subsoil treatment technology, the influencing factors and calculation methods of the vertical bearing capacity of single CFG pile and the CFG pile composite foundation were discussed respectively. And based on the obtained solutions, effects by the cushion and measurements to reduce negative friction area were analyzed. Moreover, the developing law of settlement and bearing capacity eigenvalue controlled by the material strength with the increase of load were given for the CFG composite foundation. The in-situ static load test was tested for CFG pile. The results of test show that the maximum test load or half of the ultimate load is used from all the points of test, the average bearing capacity eigenvalue of single pile is 390 kN, and slightly greater than the design value of bearing capacity. The bearing capacity eigenvalues of composite foundation for 3 piles are greater than 300 kPa, and the mechanical properties of CFG pile composite foundation are almost identical in the case of the same load and cushion thickness. The pile-soil stress ratio and the load-sharing ratio can be adjusted through setting up cushion thickness.
Chhabra, S K
1998-01-01
Vital capacity can be measured as forced vital capacity (FVC), slow vital capacity (SVC), and inspiratory vital capacity (IVC). Although it is well known that the latter two are generally greater, a systematic comparison of the three in subjects with different degrees of airways obstruction has not been made. Sixty asthmatics and 20 normal subjects performed maneuvers for measurement of FVC, SVC, and IVC on a dry, rolling-seal spirometer. The severity of airways obstruction in asthmatics was classified as mild, moderate, and severe. There was no significant difference between FVC, SVC, and IVC in normal subjects. However, the three measurements of vital capacity were significantly different in all subgroups of asthmatics. FVC was smaller than both SVC and IVC. The differences were more marked in patients with moderate and severe degrees of airways obstruction. The differences between SVC and IVC were small and clinically not important. Forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) expressed as percent of FVC, SVC, and IVC, was not different in normals and asthmatics with mild airways obstruction. The ratios were significantly different in asthmatics with moderate and severe airways obstruction. FEV1/IVC ratio was the lowest in both the groups followed by FEV1/SVC and FEV1/FVC. IVC and SVC are greater than FVC in patients with airways obstruction. This difference increases as the degree of obstruction increases. The difference between SVC or IVC and FVC serves as an indicator of air trapping. Both FVC and IVC could be measured and the largest VC used to calculate the FEV1/VC ratio because this increases the sensitivity of spirometry in detecting airways obstruction.
Present and Last Glacial Maximum climates as states of maximum entropy production
Herbert, Corentin; Kageyama, Masa; Dubrulle, Berengere
2011-01-01
The Earth, like other planets with a relatively thick atmosphere, is not locally in radiative equilibrium and the transport of energy by the geophysical fluids (atmosphere and ocean) plays a fundamental role in determining its climate. Using simple energy-balance models, it was suggested a few decades ago that the meridional energy fluxes might follow a thermodynamic Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) principle. In the present study, we assess the MEP hypothesis in the framework of a minimal climate model based solely on a robust radiative scheme and the MEP principle, with no extra assumptions. Specifically, we show that by choosing an adequate radiative exchange formulation, the Net Exchange Formulation, a rigorous derivation of all the physical parameters can be performed. The MEP principle is also extended to surface energy fluxes, in addition to meridional energy fluxes. The climate model presented here is extremely fast, needs very little empirical data and does not rely on ad hoc parameterizations. We in...
Lifting speed preferences and their effects on the maximal lifting capacity.
Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Cheng, Chih-Feng
2017-02-07
The objectives of this study were to evaluate how lifting capacity and subjective preferences are affected by different lifting speeds. The maximum lifting capacity of lift was determined with three independent variables, lifting speed, lifting technique, and lifting height. Questionnaires were evaluated after the experiment by the participants for the lifting speed preferences. This study found that the lifting speed was a significant factor in the lifting capacity (plifting height (plifting speed and lifting height (p=0.005) affected the lifting capacity significantly. The maximal lifting capacity was achieved around the optimal speed that was neither too fast nor too slow. Moreover, the participants' preferred lifting speeds were consistently close to the optimal lifting speed. The results showed that the common lifting practice guideline to lift slowly might make the worker unable to generate a large lifting capacity.
Network capacity with probit-based stochastic user equilibrium problem
Lu, Lili; Wang, Jian; Zheng, Pengjun; Wang, Wei
2017-01-01
Among different stochastic user equilibrium (SUE) traffic assignment models, the Logit-based stochastic user equilibrium (SUE) is extensively investigated by researchers. It is constantly formulated as the low-level problem to describe the drivers’ route choice behavior in bi-level problems such as network design, toll optimization et al. The Probit-based SUE model receives far less attention compared with Logit-based model albeit the assignment result is more consistent with drivers’ behavior. It is well-known that due to the identical and irrelevant alternative (IIA) assumption, the Logit-based SUE model is incapable to deal with route overlapping problem and cannot account for perception variance with respect to trips. This paper aims to explore the network capacity with Probit-based traffic assignment model and investigate the differences of it is with Logit-based SUE traffic assignment models. The network capacity is formulated as a bi-level programming where the up-level program is to maximize the network capacity through optimizing input parameters (O-D multiplies and signal splits) while the low-level program is the Logit-based or Probit-based SUE problem formulated to model the drivers’ route choice. A heuristic algorithm based on sensitivity analysis of SUE problem is detailed presented to solve the proposed bi-level program. Three numerical example networks are used to discuss the differences of network capacity between Logit-based SUE constraint and Probit-based SUE constraint. This study finds that while the network capacity show different results between Probit-based SUE and Logit-based SUE constraints, the variation pattern of network capacity with respect to increased level of travelers’ information for general network under the two type of SUE problems is the same, and with certain level of travelers’ information, both of them can achieve the same maximum network capacity. PMID:28178284
Maximum Entropy Principle Based Estimation of Performance Distribution in Queueing Theory
He, Dayi; Li, Ran; Huang, Qi; Lei, Ping
2014-01-01
In related research on queuing systems, in order to determine the system state, there is a widespread practice to assume that the system is stable and that distributions of the customer arrival ratio and service ratio are known information. In this study, the queuing system is looked at as a black box without any assumptions on the distribution of the arrival and service ratios and only keeping the assumption on the stability of the queuing system. By applying the principle of maximum entropy, the performance distribution of queuing systems is derived from some easily accessible indexes, such as the capacity of the system, the mean number of customers in the system, and the mean utilization of the servers. Some special cases are modeled and their performance distributions are derived. Using the chi-square goodness of fit test, the accuracy and generality for practical purposes of the principle of maximum entropy approach is demonstrated. PMID:25207992
Hussain Mutlag, Ammar; Mohamed, Azah; Shareef, Hussain
2016-03-01
Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is normally required to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper presents artificial intelligent-based maximum power point tracking (AI-MPPT) by considering three artificial intelligent techniques, namely, artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system with seven triangular fuzzy sets (7-tri), and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system with seven gbell fuzzy sets. The AI-MPPT is designed for the 25 SolarTIFSTF-120P6 PV panels, with the capacity of 3 kW peak. A complete PV system is modelled using 300,000 data samples and simulated in the MATLAB/SIMULINK. The AI-MPPT has been tested under real environmental conditions for two days from 8 am to 18 pm. The results showed that the ANN based MPPT gives the most accurate performance and then followed by the 7-tri-based MPPT.
Maximum entropy principle based estimation of performance distribution in queueing theory.
He, Dayi; Li, Ran; Huang, Qi; Lei, Ping
2014-01-01
In related research on queuing systems, in order to determine the system state, there is a widespread practice to assume that the system is stable and that distributions of the customer arrival ratio and service ratio are known information. In this study, the queuing system is looked at as a black box without any assumptions on the distribution of the arrival and service ratios and only keeping the assumption on the stability of the queuing system. By applying the principle of maximum entropy, the performance distribution of queuing systems is derived from some easily accessible indexes, such as the capacity of the system, the mean number of customers in the system, and the mean utilization of the servers. Some special cases are modeled and their performance distributions are derived. Using the chi-square goodness of fit test, the accuracy and generality for practical purposes of the principle of maximum entropy approach is demonstrated.
Maximum entropy principle based estimation of performance distribution in queueing theory.
Dayi He
Full Text Available In related research on queuing systems, in order to determine the system state, there is a widespread practice to assume that the system is stable and that distributions of the customer arrival ratio and service ratio are known information. In this study, the queuing system is looked at as a black box without any assumptions on the distribution of the arrival and service ratios and only keeping the assumption on the stability of the queuing system. By applying the principle of maximum entropy, the performance distribution of queuing systems is derived from some easily accessible indexes, such as the capacity of the system, the mean number of customers in the system, and the mean utilization of the servers. Some special cases are modeled and their performance distributions are derived. Using the chi-square goodness of fit test, the accuracy and generality for practical purposes of the principle of maximum entropy approach is demonstrated.
Overview of Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques for Photovoltaic Energy Production Systems
2017-01-01
A substantial growth of the installed photovoltaic (PV) systems capacity has occurred around the world during the last decade, thus enhancing the availability of electric energy in an environmentally friendly way. The maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique enables to maximize the energy...... production of PV sources, despite the stochastically varying solar irradiation and ambient temperature conditions. Thereby, the overall efficiency of the PV energy production system is increased. Numerous techniques have been presented during the last decades for implementing the MPPT process in a PV system...
Global-scale environmental control of plant photosynthetic capacity.
Ali, Ashehad A; Xu, Chonggang; Rogers, Alistair; McDowell, Nathan G; Medlyn, Belinda E; Fisher, Rosie A; Wullschleger, Stan D; Reich, Peter B; Vrugt, Jasper A; Bauerle, William L; Santiago, Louis S; Wilson, Cathy J
2015-12-01
Photosynthetic capacity, determined by light harvesting and carboxylation reactions, is a key plant trait that determines the rate of photosynthesis; however, in Earth System Models (ESMs) at a reference temperature, it is either a fixed value for a given plant functional type or derived from a linear function of leaf nitrogen content. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis that considered correlations of environmental factors with photosynthetic capacity as determined by maximum carboxylation (V(cm)) rate scaled to 25 degrees C (i.e., V(c),25; μmol CO2 x m(-2)x s(-1)) and maximum electron transport rate (J(max)) scaled to 25 degrees C (i.e., J25; μmol electron x m(-2) x s(-1)) at the global scale. Our results showed that the percentage of variation in observed V(c),25 and J25 explained jointly by the environmental factors (i.e., day length, radiation, temperature, and humidity) were 2-2.5 times and 6-9 times of that explained by area-based leaf nitrogen content, respectively. Environmental factors influenced photosynthetic capacity mainly through photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, rather than through leaf nitrogen content. The combination of leaf nitrogen content and environmental factors was able to explain -56% and -66% of the variation in V(c),25 and J25 at the global scale, respectively. Our analyses suggest that model projections of plant photosynthetic capacity and hence land-atmosphere exchange under changing climatic conditions could be substantially improved if environmental factors are incorporated into algorithms used to parameterize photosynthetic capacity in ESMs.
Sabarish, R. Mani; Narasimhan, R.; Chandhru, A. R.; Suribabu, C. R.; Sudharsan, J.; Nithiyanantham, S.
2017-05-01
In the design of irrigation and other hydraulic structures, evaluating the magnitude of extreme rainfall for a specific probability of occurrence is of much importance. The capacity of such structures is usually designed to cater to the probability of occurrence of extreme rainfall during its lifetime. In this study, an extreme value analysis of rainfall for Tiruchirapalli City in Tamil Nadu was carried out using 100 years of rainfall data. Statistical methods were used in the analysis. The best-fit probability distribution was evaluated for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days of continuous maximum rainfall. The goodness of fit was evaluated using Chi-square test. The results of the goodness-of-fit tests indicate that log-Pearson type III method is the overall best-fit probability distribution for 1-day maximum rainfall and consecutive 2-, 3-, 4-, 5- and 6-day maximum rainfall series of Tiruchirapalli. To be reliable, the forecasted maximum rainfalls for the selected return periods are evaluated in comparison with the results of the plotting position.
LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL
Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta
2000-02-26
Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with
Estimating Metabolic Fluxes Using a Maximum Network Flexibility Paradigm
Megchelenbrink, Wout; Rossell, Sergio; Huynen, Martijn A.
2015-01-01
Motivation Genome-scale metabolic networks can be modeled in a constraint-based fashion. Reaction stoichiometry combined with flux capacity constraints determine the space of allowable reaction rates. This space is often large and a central challenge in metabolic modeling is finding the biologically most relevant flux distributions. A widely used method is flux balance analysis (FBA), which optimizes a biologically relevant objective such as growth or ATP production. Although FBA has proven to be highly useful for predicting growth and byproduct secretion, it cannot predict the intracellular fluxes under all environmental conditions. Therefore, alternative strategies have been developed to select flux distributions that are in agreement with experimental “omics” data, or by incorporating experimental flux measurements. The latter, unfortunately can only be applied to a limited set of reactions and is currently not feasible at the genome-scale. On the other hand, it has been observed that micro-organisms favor a suboptimal growth rate, possibly in exchange for a more “flexible” metabolic network. Instead of dedicating the internal network state to an optimal growth rate in one condition, a suboptimal growth rate is used, that allows for an easier switch to other nutrient sources. A small decrease in growth rate is exchanged for a relatively large gain in metabolic capability to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Results Here, we propose Maximum Metabolic Flexibility (MMF) a computational method that utilizes this observation to find the most probable intracellular flux distributions. By mapping measured flux data from central metabolism to the genome-scale models of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae we show that i) indeed, most of the measured fluxes agree with a high adaptability of the network, ii) this result can be used to further reduce the space of feasible solutions iii) this reduced space improves the quantitative predictions
Estimating Metabolic Fluxes Using a Maximum Network Flexibility Paradigm.
Wout Megchelenbrink
Full Text Available Genome-scale metabolic networks can be modeled in a constraint-based fashion. Reaction stoichiometry combined with flux capacity constraints determine the space of allowable reaction rates. This space is often large and a central challenge in metabolic modeling is finding the biologically most relevant flux distributions. A widely used method is flux balance analysis (FBA, which optimizes a biologically relevant objective such as growth or ATP production. Although FBA has proven to be highly useful for predicting growth and byproduct secretion, it cannot predict the intracellular fluxes under all environmental conditions. Therefore, alternative strategies have been developed to select flux distributions that are in agreement with experimental "omics" data, or by incorporating experimental flux measurements. The latter, unfortunately can only be applied to a limited set of reactions and is currently not feasible at the genome-scale. On the other hand, it has been observed that micro-organisms favor a suboptimal growth rate, possibly in exchange for a more "flexible" metabolic network. Instead of dedicating the internal network state to an optimal growth rate in one condition, a suboptimal growth rate is used, that allows for an easier switch to other nutrient sources. A small decrease in growth rate is exchanged for a relatively large gain in metabolic capability to adapt to changing environmental conditions.Here, we propose Maximum Metabolic Flexibility (MMF a computational method that utilizes this observation to find the most probable intracellular flux distributions. By mapping measured flux data from central metabolism to the genome-scale models of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae we show that i indeed, most of the measured fluxes agree with a high adaptability of the network, ii this result can be used to further reduce the space of feasible solutions iii this reduced space improves the quantitative predictions made by FBA and
Remarks on entanglement assisted classical capacity
Fan, Heng
2003-06-01
The property of the optimal signal ensembles of entanglement assisted channel capacity is studied. A relationship between entanglement assisted channel capacity and one-shot capacity of unassisted channel is obtained. The data processing inequalities, convexity and additivity of the entanglement assisted channel capacity are reformulated by simple methods.
10 CFR 904.9 - Excess capacity.
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess capacity. 904.9 Section 904.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Marketing § 904.9 Excess capacity. (a) If the Uprating Program results in Excess Capacity, Western shall be entitled to such Excess Capacity to integrate the operation of the Boulder City Area Projects and...
Remarks on entanglement assisted classical capacity
Fan, Heng
2003-01-01
The property of the optimal signal ensembles of entanglement assisted channel capacity is studied. A relationship between entanglement assisted channel capacity and one-shot capacity of unassisted channel is obtained. The data processing inequalities, convexity and additivity of the entanglement assisted channel capacity are reformulated by simple methods.
Remarks on entanglement assisted classical capacity
Fan, H
2003-01-01
The property of the optimal signal ensembles of entanglement assisted channel capacity is studied. A relationship between entanglement assisted channel capacity and capacities of unassisted and enviornment channels is obtained. The data processing inequalities, convexity and additivity of the entanglement assisted channel capacity are reformulated by simple methods.
A Note on k-Limited Maximum Base
Yang Ruishun; Yang Xiaowei
2006-01-01
The problem of k-limited maximum base was specified into two special problems of k-limited maximum base; that is, let subset D of the problem of k-limited maximum base be an independent set and a circuit of the matroid, respectively. It was proved that under this circumstance the collections of k-limited base satisfy base axioms. Then a new matroid was determined, and the problem of k-limited maximum base was transformed to the problem of maximum base of this new matroid. Aiming at the problem, two algorithms, which in essence are greedy algorithms based on former matroid, were presented for the two special problems of k-limited maximum base. They were proved to be reasonable and more efficient than the algorithm presented by Ma Zhongfan in view of the complexity of algorithm.
Channel capacity of multiple-input multiple-output systems with transmit and receive correlation
无
2008-01-01
In order to investigate the impact of channel model parameters on the channel capacity of a multipleinput multiple-output (MIMO) system,a novel method is proposed to explore the channel capacity under Rayleigh flat fading with correlated transmit and receive antennas.The optimal transmitting direction which can achieve maximum channel capacity is derived using random matrices theory.In addition,the closed-form expression for the channel capacity of MIMO systems is given by utilizing the properties of Wishart distribution when SNR is high.Computer simulation results show that the channel capacity is maximized when the antenna spacing increases to a certain point,and furthermore,the larger the scattering angle is,the more quickly the channel capacity converges to its maximum.At high SNR (＞12 dB),the estimation of capacity is close to its true value.And,when the same array configuration is adopted both at the transmitter and the receiver,the UCA yields higher channel capacity than ULA.
Estimating overland flow erosion capacity using unit stream power
Hui-Ming SHIH; Chih Ted YANG
2009-01-01
Soil erosion caused by water flow is a complex problem.Both empirical and physically based approaches were used for the estimation of surface erosion rates.Their applications are mainly limited to experimental areas or laboratory studies.The maximum sediment concentration overland flow can carry is not considered in most of the existing surface erosion models.The lack of erosion capacity limitation may cause over estimations of sediment concentration.A correlation analysis is used in this study to determine significant factors that impact surface erosion capacity.The result shows that the unit stream power is the most dominant factor for overland flow erosion which is consistent with experimental data.A bounded regression formula is used to reflect the limits that sediment concentration cannot be less than zero nor greater than a maximum value.The coefficients used in the model are calibrated using published laboratory data.The computed results agree with laboratory data very well.A one dimensional overland flow diffusive wave model is used in conjunction with the developed soil erosion equation to simulate field experimental results.This study concludes that the non-linear regression method using unit stream power as the dominant factor performs well for estimating overland flow erosion capacity.
High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent
Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan
2015-09-01
The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.
Optical information capacity of silicon
Dimitropoulos, Dimitris
2014-01-01
Modern computing and data storage systems increasingly rely on parallel architectures where processing and storage load is distributed within a cluster of nodes. The necessity for high-bandwidth data links has made optical communication a critical constituent of modern information systems and silicon the leading platform for creating the necessary optical components. While silicon is arguably the most extensively studied material in history, one of its most important attributes, an analysis of its capacity to carry optical information, has not been reported. The calculation of the information capacity of silicon is complicated by nonlinear losses, phenomena that emerge in optical nanowires as a result of the concentration of optical power in a small geometry. Nonlinear losses are absent in silica glass optical fiber and other common communication channels. While nonlinear loss in silicon is well known, noise and fluctuations that arise from it have never been considered. Here we report sources of fluctuations...
Activated sludge inhibition capacity index
V. Surerus
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Toxic compounds in sewage or industrial wastewater may inhibit the biological activity of activated sludge impairing the treatment process. This paper evaluates the Inhibition Capacity Index (ICI for the assessment of activated sludge in the presence of toxicants. In this study, activated sludge was obtained from industrial treatment plants and was also synthetically produced. Continuous respirometric measurements were carried out in a reactor, and the oxygen uptake rate profile obtained was used to evaluate the impact of inhibiting toxicants, such as dissolved copper, phenol, sodium alkylbenzene sulfonate and amoxicillin, on activated sludge. The results indicate that ICI is an efficient tool to quantify the intoxication capacity. The activated sludge from the pharmaceutical industry showed higher resistance than the sludge from other sources, since toxicants are widely discharged in the biological treatment system. The ICI range was from 58 to 81% when compared to the synthetic effluent with no toxic substances.
An Interval Maximum Entropy Method for Quadratic Programming Problem
RUI Wen-juan; CAO De-xin; SONG Xie-wu
2005-01-01
With the idea of maximum entropy function and penalty function methods, we transform the quadratic programming problem into an unconstrained differentiable optimization problem, discuss the interval extension of the maximum entropy function, provide the region deletion test rules and design an interval maximum entropy algorithm for quadratic programming problem. The convergence of the method is proved and numerical results are presented. Both theoretical and numerical results show that the method is reliable and efficient.
High Information Capacity Quantum Imaging
2014-09-19
the quantum nature of light), and detector reset time. Algorithmic : We provide a method for spatiotemporally-regularized estimation of intensity and...High Information Capacity Quantum Imaging This is the final report for the DARPA InPho program. In reality, we finished this program in early 2013...Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Quantum Imaging, Photon Counting, LIDAR REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11
High capacity immobilized amine sorbents
Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Soong, Yee; Filburn, Thomas
2007-10-30
A method is provided for making low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. The improved method entails treating an amine to increase the number of secondary amine groups and impregnating the amine in a porous solid support. The method increases the CO.sub.2 capture capacity and decreases the cost of utilizing an amine-enriched solid sorbent in CO.sub.2 capture systems.
Absorptive capacity and smart companies
Patricia Moro González; Garcia Muiña, Fernando E.
2014-01-01
Purpose: The current competitive environment is substantially modifying the organizations’ learning processes due to a global increase of available information allowing this to be transformed into knowledge. This opportunity has been exploited since the nineties by the tools of “Business Analytics” and “Business Intelligence” but, nevertheless, being integrated in the study of new organizational capacities engaged in the process of creating intelligence inside organizations is still an outsta...
Outage capacity of multicarrier systems
Yilmaz, Ferkan
2010-01-01
The probability density function and the cumulative distribution function of the product of shifted Gamma variates are obtained in terms of the generalized Fox\\'s H function. Using these new results, the exact outage capacity of multi carrier transmission through a slow Nakagami-m fading channel is presented. Moreover, it is shown that analytical and simulation results are in perfect agreement. © 2009 IEEE.
Future High Capacity Backbone Networks
Wang, Jiayuan
This thesis - Future High Capacity Backbone Networks - deals with the energy efficiency problems associated with the development of future optical networks. In the first half of the thesis, novel approaches for using multiple/single alternative energy sources for improving energy efficiency...... the context of the integrated control plane structure. Results show improvements of energy efficiency over three types of traffic, while still keeping acceptable QoS levels for high priority traffic....
Integer Programming Model for Maximum Clique in Graph
YUAN Xi-bo; YANG You; ZENG Xin-hai
2005-01-01
The maximum clique or maximum independent set of graph is a classical problem in graph theory. Combined with Boolean algebra and integer programming, two integer programming models for maximum clique problem,which improve the old results were designed in this paper. Then, the programming model for maximum independent set is a corollary of the main results. These two models can be easily applied to computer algorithm and software, and suitable for graphs of any scale. Finally the models are presented as Lingo algorithms, verified and compared by several examples.
Counterexamples to convergence theorem of maximum-entropy clustering algorithm
于剑; 石洪波; 黄厚宽; 孙喜晨; 程乾生
2003-01-01
In this paper, we surveyed the development of maximum-entropy clustering algorithm, pointed out that the maximum-entropy clustering algorithm is not new in essence, and constructed two examples to show that the iterative sequence given by the maximum-entropy clustering algorithm may not converge to a local minimum of its objective function, but a saddle point. Based on these results, our paper shows that the convergence theorem of maximum-entropy clustering algorithm put forward by Kenneth Rose et al. does not hold in general cases.
LAW CAPACITY WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS
Nicoleta Luminiţa Jurj
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The question of small water users having no centralized wastewater collecting, cleaning and discharging system is of maximal actuality in Romania. Therefor economically efficient solutions are looked for. For disperse mountain villages, farms, or detached households traditional systems, with high maintenance expences because of long networks for small flows, can be economicaly not advantageos. Very small capacity treatement plants are a solution for such cases. The aim of the experimental part of the present work is to simulate situations, damages which can occur during running of a low capacity wastewater treatement plant. Low capacity hosehold wastewater treatement plants are economic alternatives which remove the disadvantages of emptyable basins namely the high costs, the frequvent empying operations, with unpleasant smelling, continous danger of groundwater infection, need for massive and expensive concrete buildings. The proposed plants are based on a classical treatement technology and need emptying of the exess mud only once or twice a year. In opposition with the case of classical plants, the mixture extracted from the proposed low cost systems does not smell and has a relatively low content of solid matter.
[Mental capacity of psychiatric patients].
Wu, Kevin Chien-Chang
2010-12-01
Nearly every society maintains legal norms that define those members of society qualified to participate in social affairs. Mental capacity and legal competence are deemed necessary conditions for legal actions to have legal validity. On Nov. 23, 2009, newly revised adult guardianship provisions came into effect in Taiwan. However, there has been lack of discussion with regard to how assessments of mental capacity and legal competence should be conducted on psychiatric patients. This paper reviewed relevant overseas literature on this subject and followed common practice in separating legal mental capacity into causal and functional components. The causal component predicates the diseases and illnesses that render the disability, while the functional component represents legally substantial impairments in terms of cognition, emotion and behavior. The paper explored functional component contents, including finance management, individual health care, independence in daily life, interpersonal relationships and communing. Findings pointed out that in setting up competence standards, a trade-off between respect for autonomy and beneficence is unavoidable. As Taiwan does not have rich empirical data on competence assessments and decisions, collaboration between the legal and psychiatric professions is recommended to engage in relevant research to enhance legal consistencies and the science of competence assessment.
Capacity theory on algebraic curves
Rumely, Robert S
1989-01-01
Capacity is a measure of size for sets, with diverse applications in potential theory, probability and number theory. This book lays foundations for a theory of capacity for adelic sets on algebraic curves. Its main result is an arithmetic one, a generalization of a theorem of Fekete and Szegö which gives a sharp existence/finiteness criterion for algebraic points whose conjugates lie near a specified set on a curve. The book brings out a deep connection between the classical Green's functions of analysis and Néron's local height pairings; it also points to an interpretation of capacity as a kind of intersection index in the framework of Arakelov Theory. It is a research monograph and will primarily be of interest to number theorists and algebraic geometers; because of applications of the theory, it may also be of interest to logicians. The theory presented generalizes one due to David Cantor for the projective line. As with most adelic theories, it has a local and a global part. Let /K be a smooth, complet...
Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity
Pierre-Gerlier Forest
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility
Evaluation of the capacity of communication lines with nonlinear finite memory
Shapiro, E. G.; Shapiro, D. A.
2016-12-01
We propose a method for calculating the capacity of a finite-memory channel up to the square of the nonlinear memory parameter. A comparison with a regular Gaussian model is performed, in which the Kerr nonlinearity is considered as an additional Gaussian noise. The estimate by the regular Gaussian model is shown to yield a greater capacity as compared with the estimate obtained by the nonlinear memory model. The optimal signal powers, providing the maximum mutual information, are found to be equal.
Transmission Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Energy Harvesting Nodes
Vaze, Rahul
2012-01-01
Transmission capacity of an ad hoc wireless network is analyzed when each node of the network harvests energy from nature, e.g. solar, wind, vibration etc. Transmission capacity is the maximum allowable density of nodes, satisfying a per transmitter-receiver rate, and an outage probability constraint. Energy arrivals at each node are assumed to follow a Bernoulli distribution, and each node stores energy using an energy buffer/battery. For ALOHA medium access protocol (MAP), optimal transmiss...
Optimal Capacity Allocation of Large-Scale Wind-PV-Battery Units
Kehe Wu; Huan Zhou; Jizhen Liu
2014-01-01
An optimal capacity allocation of large-scale wind-photovoltaic- (PV-) battery units was proposed. First, an output power model was established according to meteorological conditions. Then, a wind-PV-battery unit was connected to the power grid as a power-generation unit with a rated capacity under a fixed coordinated operation strategy. Second, the utilization rate of renewable energy sources and maximum wind-PV complementation was considered and the objective function of full life cycle-net...
Study and Analysis Capacity of MIMO Systems for AWGN Channel Model Scenarios
Hussain Bohra
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Future wireless communication systems can utilize the spatial properties of the wireless channel to enhance the spectral efficiency and therefore increases its channel capacity. This can be designed by deploying multiple antennas at both the transmitter side and receiver side. The basic measure of performance is the capacity of a channel; the maximum rate of communication for which arbitrarily small error probability can be achieved. The AWGN (additive white Gaussian noise channel introduces the notion of capacity through a heuristic argument. The AWGN channel is then used as a basic building block to check the capacity of wireless fading channels in contrast to the AWGN channel. There is no single definition of capacity for fading channels that is applicable in all situations. Several notions of capacity are developed, and together they form a systematic study of performance limits of fading channels. The various capacity measures allow us to observe clearly the various types of resources available in fading channels: degrees of freedom, power and diversity. The MIMO systems capacity can be enhanced linearly with large the number of antennas. This paper elaborates the study of MIMO system capacity using the AWGN Channel Model, Channel Capacity, Channel Fast Fading, Spatial Autocorrelation and Power delay profile for various channel environments.
Fast estimation from above of the maximum wave speed in the Riemann problem for the Euler equations
Guermond, Jean-Luc; Popov, Bojan
2016-09-01
This paper is concerned with the construction of a fast algorithm for computing the maximum speed of propagation in the Riemann solution for the Euler system of gas dynamics with the co-volume equation of state. The novelty in the algorithm is that it stops when a guaranteed upper bound for the maximum speed is reached with a prescribed accuracy. The convergence rate of the algorithm is cubic and the bound is guaranteed for gasses with the co-volume equation of state and the heat capacity ratio γ in the range (1 , 5 / 3 ].
Hetzel, Terence; Blaesing, Christina; Jaeger, Martin; Teutenberg, Thorsten; Schmidt, Torsten C
2017-02-17
The performance of micro-liquid chromatography columns with an inner diameter of 0.3mm was investigated on a dedicated micro-LC system for gradient elution. Core-shell as well as fully porous particle packed columns were compared on the basis of peak capacity and gradient kinetic plot limits. The results for peak capacity showed the superior performance of columns packed with sub-2μm fully porous particles compared to 3.0μm fully porous and 2.7μm core-shell particles within a range of different gradient time to column void time ratios. For ultra-fast chromatography a maximum peak capacity of 16 can be obtained using a 30s gradient for the sub-2μm fully porous particle packed column. A maximum peak capacity of 121 can be achieved using a 5min gradient. In addition, the influence of an alternative detector cell on the basis of optical waveguide technology and contributing less to system variance was investigated showing an increased peak capacity for all applied gradient time/column void time ratios. Finally, the influence of pressure was evaluated indicating increased peak capacity for maximum performance whereas a limited benefit for ultra-fast chromatography with gradient times below 30s was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Combining Experiments and Simulations Using the Maximum Entropy Principle
Boomsma, Wouter; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten
2014-01-01
are not in quantitative agreement with experimental data. The principle of maximum entropy is a general procedure for constructing probability distributions in the light of new data, making it a natural tool in cases when an initial model provides results that are at odds with experiments. The number of maximum entropy...
49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating speed. 174.86 Section... operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten glass shipped in packagings other than those prescribed in § 173.247 of this subchapter, the maximum allowable operating speed may not exceed 24 km/hour (15...
Parametric optimization of thermoelectric elements footprint for maximum power generation
Rezania, A.; Rosendahl, Lasse; Yin, Hao
2014-01-01
The development studies in thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems are mostly disconnected to parametric optimization of the module components. In this study, optimum footprint ratio of n- and p-type thermoelectric (TE) elements is explored to achieve maximum power generation, maximum cost-perform...
30 CFR 56.19066 - Maximum riders in a conveyance.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum riders in a conveyance. 56.19066 Section 56.19066 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19066 Maximum riders in a conveyance. In shafts inclined over 45...
30 CFR 57.19066 - Maximum riders in a conveyance.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum riders in a conveyance. 57.19066 Section 57.19066 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19066 Maximum riders in a conveyance. In shafts inclined over 45...
Maximum Atmospheric Entry Angle for Specified Retrofire Impulse
T. N. Srivastava
1969-07-01
Full Text Available Maximum atmospheric entry angles for vehicles initially moving in elliptic orbits are investigated and it is shown that tangential retrofire impulse at the apogee results in the maximum entry angle. Equivalence of maximizing the entry angle and minimizing the retrofire impulse is also established.
5 CFR 838.711 - Maximum former spouse survivor annuity.
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum former spouse survivor annuity... Orders Awarding Former Spouse Survivor Annuities Limitations on Survivor Annuities § 838.711 Maximum former spouse survivor annuity. (a) Under CSRS, payments under a court order may not exceed the...
46 CFR 151.45-6 - Maximum amount of cargo.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum amount of cargo. 151.45-6 Section 151.45-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-6 Maximum amount of cargo. (a)...
20 CFR 226.52 - Total annuity subject to maximum.
2010-04-01
... rate effective on the date the supplemental annuity begins, before any reduction for a private pension... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total annuity subject to maximum. 226.52... COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Railroad Retirement Family Maximum § 226.52...
49 CFR 195.406 - Maximum operating pressure.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum operating pressure. 195.406 Section 195... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.406 Maximum operating pressure. (a) Except for surge pressures and other variations from normal operations, no operator may operate a pipeline at a...
Maximum-entropy clustering algorithm and its global convergence analysis
无
2001-01-01
Constructing a batch of differentiable entropy functions touniformly approximate an objective function by means of the maximum-entropy principle, a new clustering algorithm, called maximum-entropy clustering algorithm, is proposed based on optimization theory. This algorithm is a soft generalization of the hard C-means algorithm and possesses global convergence. Its relations with other clustering algorithms are discussed.
Distribution of maximum loss of fractional Brownian motion with drift
Çağlar, Mine; Vardar-Acar, Ceren
2013-01-01
In this paper, we find bounds on the distribution of the maximum loss of fractional Brownian motion with H >= 1/2 and derive estimates on its tail probability. Asymptotically, the tail of the distribution of maximum loss over [0, t] behaves like the tail of the marginal distribution at time t.
48 CFR 436.575 - Maximum workweek-construction schedule.
2010-10-01
...-construction schedule. 436.575 Section 436.575 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Maximum workweek-construction schedule. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-75, Maximum Workweek-Construction Schedule, if the clause at FAR 52.236-15 is used and the contractor's...
30 CFR 57.5039 - Maximum permissible concentration.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum permissible concentration. 57.5039... Maximum permissible concentration. Except as provided by standard § 57.5005, persons shall not be exposed to air containing concentrations of radon daughters exceeding 1.0 WL in active workings. ...
5 CFR 550.105 - Biweekly maximum earnings limitation.
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biweekly maximum earnings limitation. 550.105 Section 550.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Maximum Earnings Limitations § 550.105 Biweekly...
5 CFR 550.106 - Annual maximum earnings limitation.
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual maximum earnings limitation. 550.106 Section 550.106 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Maximum Earnings Limitations § 550.106 Annual...
32 CFR 842.35 - Depreciation and maximum allowances.
2010-07-01
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Depreciation and maximum allowances. 842.35... LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Personnel Claims (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3721) § 842.35 Depreciation and maximum allowances. The military services have jointly established the “Allowance List-Depreciation Guide”...
Ariane Martins
2010-08-01
Full Text Available The relationship between force and balance show controversy results and has directimplications in exercise prescription practice. The objective was to investigate the relationshipbetween maximum dynamic force (MDF of inferior limbs and the static and dynamic balances.Participated in the study 60 individuals, with 18 to 24 years old, strength training apprentices.The MDF was available by mean the One Maximum Repetition (1MR in “leg press” and “kneeextension” and motor testes to available of static and dynamic balances. The correlation testsand multiple linear regression were applied. The force and balance variables showed correlationin females (p=0.038. The corporal mass and static balance showed correlation for the males(p=0.045. The explication capacity at MDF and practices time were small: 13% for staticbalance in males, 18% and 17%, respectively, for static and dynamic balance in females. Inconclusion: the MDF of inferior limbs showed low predictive capacity for performance in staticand dynamic balances, especially for males.
Maximum Principles for Discrete and Semidiscrete Reaction-Diffusion Equation
Petr Stehlík
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We study reaction-diffusion equations with a general reaction function f on one-dimensional lattices with continuous or discrete time ux′ (or Δtux=k(ux-1-2ux+ux+1+f(ux, x∈Z. We prove weak and strong maximum and minimum principles for corresponding initial-boundary value problems. Whereas the maximum principles in the semidiscrete case (continuous time exhibit similar features to those of fully continuous reaction-diffusion model, in the discrete case the weak maximum principle holds for a smaller class of functions and the strong maximum principle is valid in a weaker sense. We describe in detail how the validity of maximum principles depends on the nonlinearity and the time step. We illustrate our results on the Nagumo equation with the bistable nonlinearity.
Experimental study on prediction model for maximum rebound ratio
LEI Wei-dong; TENG Jun; A.HEFNY; ZHAO Jian; GUAN Jiong
2007-01-01
The proposed prediction model for estimating the maximum rebound ratio was applied to a field explosion test, Mandai test in Singapore.The estimated possible maximum Deak particle velocities(PPVs)were compared with the field records.Three of the four available field-recorded PPVs lie exactly below the estimated possible maximum values as expected.while the fourth available field-recorded PPV lies close to and a bit higher than the estimated maximum possible PPV The comparison results show that the predicted PPVs from the proposed prediction model for the maximum rebound ratio match the field.recorded PPVs better than those from two empirical formulae.The very good agreement between the estimated and field-recorded values validates the proposed prediction model for estimating PPV in a rock mass with a set of ipints due to application of a two dimensional compressional wave at the boundary of a tunnel or a borehole.
Improved Capacity Spectrum Method Using Structural Inelastic Response
Yang Cheng; Zhao Renda
2006-01-01
Existing problems of capacity-demand diagram were considered, and the conversion method between the results of the capacitydemand curves method and dynamic time-history analysis is presented. The factors causing the relative error between the different capacity curves, such as the distribution type for lateral load, assumptions of member bar model , surface irregularity of the structures and P-△ effects, were analyzed to build the statistical correlation between the maximum base shear and the top displacements of the components under the different pushover analysis. ATC-40 (Procedure-B) method is verified to be more accurate in calculating the roof displacements of buildings. Meanwhile, the improved method is refined in three aspects and proved effective by a real concrete-frame building.
Analysis of the maximum discharge of karst springs
Bonacci, Ognjen
2001-07-01
Analyses are presented of the conditions that limit the discharge of some karst springs. The large number of springs studied show that, under conditions of extremely intense precipitation, a maximum value exists for the discharge of the main springs in a catchment, independent of catchment size and the amount of precipitation. Outflow modelling of karst-spring discharge is not easily generalized and schematized due to numerous specific characteristics of karst-flow systems. A detailed examination of the published data on four karst springs identified the possible reasons for the limitation on the maximum flow rate: (1) limited size of the karst conduit; (2) pressure flow; (3) intercatchment overflow; (4) overflow from the main spring-flow system to intermittent springs within the same catchment; (5) water storage in the zone above the karst aquifer or epikarstic zone of the catchment; and (6) factors such as climate, soil and vegetation cover, and altitude and geology of the catchment area. The phenomenon of limited maximum-discharge capacity of karst springs is not included in rainfall-runoff process modelling, which is probably one of the main reasons for the present poor quality of karst hydrological modelling. Résumé. Les conditions qui limitent le débit de certaines sources karstiques sont présentées. Un grand nombre de sources étudiées montrent que, sous certaines conditions de précipitations extrêmement intenses, il existe une valeur maximale pour le débit des sources principales d'un bassin, indépendante des dimensions de ce bassin et de la hauteur de précipitation. La modélisation des débits d'exhaure d'une source karstique n'est pas facilement généralisable, ni schématisable, à cause des nombreuses caractéristiques spécifiques des écoulements souterrains karstiques. Un examen détaillé des données publiées concernant quatre sources karstiques permet d'identifier les raisons possibles de la limitation de l'écoulement maximal: (1
Capacity Building for Engineering Education
de Graaff, Erik; Deboer, Jennifer
2015-01-01
The International Institute for Developing Engineering Academics (IIDEA) is a joint initiative from IFEES and SEFI, aiming to provide all the engineering education associations, institutions and other engineering education stakeholders a clearing house of high caliber and world-class engineering ...... and universities are being challenged to incorporate innovative tools in their classrooms as well as to prepare students to research and innovate themselves. The paper will present an overview of IIDEA activities and aims to evaluate the success of the capacity building workshops....
Intraocular lens with accommodation capacity
Dorronsoro, Carlos; Alejandre, Nicolás; Bekesi, Nandor; Marcos, Susana
2014-01-01
Intraocular lens with accommodation capacity comprising a first optical member (1) having a dynamic optical power, to which a second optical member (2) with a fixed optical power is affixed, in such a manner that at least a central part of each of one of one of the curved surfaces (2a, 2b) of the second optical member (2) and of at least one of the surfaces (1a, 1b) of the first optical member (1) are in contact with each other, the second optical member (2) and the first optical member (1) p...
Capacitated Dynamic Lot Sizing with Capacity Acquisition
Li, Hongyan; Meissner, Joern
One of the fundamental problems in operations management is to determine the optimal investment in capacity. Capacity investment consumes resources and the decision is often irreversible. Moreover, the available capacity level affects the action space for production and inventory planning decisions...... with inventory carrying costs. The production per period limited by a capacity restriction. The underlying capacity must be purchased up front for the upcoming season and remains constant over the entire season. We assume that the capacity acquisition cost is smooth and convex. For this situation, we develop...
Rocky Mountain Regional CO{sub 2} Storage Capacity and Significance
Laes, Denise; Eisinger, Chris; Esser, Richard; Morgan, Craig; Rauzi, Steve; Scholle, Dana; Matthews, Vince; McPherson, Brian
2013-08-30
The purpose of this study includes extensive characterization of the most promising geologic CO{sub 2} storage formations on the Colorado Plateau, including estimates of maximum possible storage capacity. The primary targets of characterization and capacity analysis include the Cretaceous Dakota Formation, the Jurassic Entrada Formation and the Permian Weber Formation and their equivalents in the Colorado Plateau region. The total CO{sub 2} capacity estimates for the deep saline formations of the Colorado Plateau region range between 9.8 metric GT and 143 metric GT, depending on assumed storage efficiency, formations included, and other factors.
无
2002-01-01
Capacity both in uplink and downlink of TD-SCDMA (time division-synchronous code division multiple access)system is studied in a multi-cell environment. The theoretical expressions of the mean of intercell interference in uplinkand the mean of sum of power allocation in downlink are given, by which uplink and downlink capacity is analyzed.Furthermore, we give the simulation models for both uplink and downlink capacity. The results from theoretical analysisand simulation fit very well. In the end, the maximum number of users that TD-SCDMA system can serve for 12.2kspeech service is given.
Khadzhiolova, I; Mincheva, L; Nakasheva, E; Diankova, M
1984-01-01
The physical capacity for work of electronic workers that assembly and check up the printed was determined. The physical capacity for work of the female assembly-workers is assessed to be moderate and that of the operators-very good. A reduction of the maximum oxygen consumption with 0.375 ml/kg per year was established in the female assembly-workers, in the age group 21-40. The results obtained are discussed in connection with the unfavourable effect of the reduced motor activity during work, taken as base for the elaboration of measures for the improvement of the physical capacity for work.
Interface Capacity of Repaired Concrete Columns Strengthened with RC Jackets
Achillopoulou Dimitra
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The study describes the retrofit of repaired elements by reinforced concrete (RC jacketing conducted to quantify the influence of initial construction deficiencies and of different type of anchors to the ability of the interface to transfer loads. Sixteen specimens (section scale 1:2 were designed with variables the initial deficiencies and the confinement ratio. The results indicate that: a the maximum resistance load and dissipated energy of initially damaged specimens are decreased; b surpassing a specific amount of damage, columns even suitably repaired present lower strain capacity, c welded bars lead to buckling of longitudinal bars.
2010-07-01
... as specified in 40 CFR 1065.610. This is the maximum in-use engine speed used for calculating the NOX... procedures of 40 CFR part 1065, based on the manufacturer's design and production specifications for the..., power density, and maximum in-use engine speed. 1042.140 Section 1042.140 Protection of...
Albertella, A.; Brovelli, M. A.; Gonzalez Ferreiro, D.
2017-07-01
The UN Open GIS Initiative is to identify and develop, under UN guidance, an Open Source GIS bundle that meets the requirements of UN operations, taking full advantage of the expertise of mission partners (partner nations, technology contributing countries, international organizations, academia, NGO's, private sector). The project, started in 2016, is composed by 4 working groups. One of the working group is specifically related to Capacity Building, given its importance for the success of the project. UN Open GIS will be based on some existing open source geospatial software (packages and libraries) with many extensions specifically developed. The users of the platform will be the UN staff supporting with mapping and GIS the peacekeeping missions. Therefore, they are generally expert of this specific domain, even if they are currently using proprietary software. UN Open GIS Capacity Building is specifically thought for covering this gap, providing them the suitable background about open source geospatial software in general and the education tailored to the solution that has been being developed within the project itself.
National and State Treatment Need and Capacity for Opioid Agonist Medication-Assisted Treatment
Campopiano, Melinda; Baldwin, Grant; McCance-Katz, Elinore
2015-01-01
Objectives. We estimated national and state trends in opioid agonist medication-assisted treatment (OA-MAT) need and capacity to identify gaps and inform policy decisions. Methods. We generated national and state rates of past-year opioid abuse or dependence, maximum potential buprenorphine treatment capacity, number of patients receiving methadone from opioid treatment programs (OTPs), and the percentage of OTPs operating at 80% capacity or more using Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration data. Results. Nationally, in 2012, the rate of opioid abuse or dependence was 891.8 per 100 000 people aged 12 years or older compared with national rates of maximum potential buprenorphine treatment capacity and patients receiving methadone in OTPs of, respectively, 420.3 and 119.9. Among states and the District of Columbia, 96% had opioid abuse or dependence rates higher than their buprenorphine treatment capacity rates; 37% had a gap of at least 5 per 1000 people. Thirty-eight states (77.6%) reported at least 75% of their OTPs were operating at 80% capacity or more. Conclusions. Significant gaps between treatment need and capacity exist at the state and national levels. Strategies to increase the number of OA-MAT providers are needed. PMID:26066931
Capacity Prediction Model Based on Limited Priority Gap-Acceptance Theory at Multilane Roundabouts
Zhaowei Qu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Capacity is an important design parameter for roundabouts, and it is the premise of computing their delay and queue. Roundabout capacity has been studied for decades, and empirical regression model and gap-acceptance model are the two main methods to predict it. Based on gap-acceptance theory, by considering the effect of limited priority, especially the relationship between limited priority factor and critical gap, a modified model was built to predict the roundabout capacity. We then compare the results between Raff’s method and maximum likelihood estimation (MLE method, and the MLE method was used to predict the critical gaps. Finally, the predicted capacities from different models were compared, with the observed capacity by field surveys, which verifies the performance of the proposed model.
Stone, Wesley W.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Crawford, Charles G.
2008-01-01
Regression models were developed for predicting annual maximum and selected annual maximum moving-average concentrations of atrazine in streams using the Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) methodology developed by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The current effort builds on the original WARP models, which were based on the annual mean and selected percentiles of the annual frequency distribution of atrazine concentrations. Estimates of annual maximum and annual maximum moving-average concentrations for selected durations are needed to characterize the levels of atrazine and other pesticides for comparison to specific water-quality benchmarks for evaluation of potential concerns regarding human health or aquatic life. Separate regression models were derived for the annual maximum and annual maximum 21-day, 60-day, and 90-day moving-average concentrations. Development of the regression models used the same explanatory variables, transformations, model development data, model validation data, and regression methods as those used in the original development of WARP. The models accounted for 72 to 75 percent of the variability in the concentration statistics among the 112 sampling sites used for model development. Predicted concentration statistics from the four models were within a factor of 10 of the observed concentration statistics for most of the model development and validation sites. Overall, performance of the models for the development and validation sites supports the application of the WARP models for predicting annual maximum and selected annual maximum moving-average atrazine concentration in streams and provides a framework to interpret the predictions in terms of uncertainty. For streams with inadequate direct measurements of atrazine concentrations, the WARP model predictions for the annual maximum and the annual maximum moving-average atrazine concentrations can be used to characterize
Maximum Likelihood Estimation of the Identification Parameters and Its Correction
无
2002-01-01
By taking the subsequence out of the input-output sequence of a system polluted by white noise, anindependent observation sequence and its probability density are obtained and then a maximum likelihood estimation of theidentification parameters is given. In order to decrease the asymptotic error, a corrector of maximum likelihood (CML)estimation with its recursive algorithm is given. It has been proved that the corrector has smaller asymptotic error thanthe least square methods. A simulation example shows that the corrector of maximum likelihood estimation is of higherapproximating precision to the true parameters than the least square methods.
Maximum frequency of the decametric radiation from Jupiter
Barrow, C. H.; Alexander, J. K.
1980-01-01
The upper frequency limits of Jupiter's decametric radio emission are found to be essentially the same when observed from the earth or, with considerably higher sensitivity, from the Voyager spacecraft close to Jupiter. This suggests that the maximum frequency is a real cut-off corresponding to a maximum gyrofrequency of about 38-40 MHz at Jupiter. It no longer appears to be necessary to specify different cut-off frequencies for the Io and non-Io emission as the maximum frequencies are roughly the same in each case.
Analytical Expression for the MIMO Channel Capacity
ZHAO Yifei; ZHAO Ming; XIAO Limin; WANG Jing
2006-01-01
This paper presents analytical expressions for the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channel capacity in frequency-flat Rayleigh fading environments. An exact analytical expression is given for the ergodic capacity for single-input multiple-output (SIMO) channels. The analysis shows that the SIMO channel capacity can be approximated by a Gaussian random variable and that the MIMO channel capacity can be approximated as the sum of multiple SIMO capacities. The SIMO channel results are used to derive approximate closed-form expressions for the MIMO channel ergodic capacity and the complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) of the MIMO channel capacity (outage capacity). Simulations show that these theoretical results are good approximations for MIMO systems with an arbitrary number of transmit or receive antennas. Moreover, these analytical expressions are relatively simple which makes them very useful for practical computations.
Determination of the maximum retention of cobalt by ion exchange in h-zeolites
A. S. Zola
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This work aimed to determine the maximum content of cobalt that can be incorporated by ion exchange in zeolites H-USY, H-Beta, H-Mordenite, and H-ZSM-5. To reach this goal, batch isotherms at 75ºC were constructed after addition of zeolite samples in flasks filled with cobalt nitrate solution. The equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, and Tóth adsorption isotherm models. Langmuir was the best model for zeolites H-Beta, H-Mordenite, and H-ZSM-5, whereas experimental data for H-USY were better fitted to the Freundlich isotherm model. From the isotherms, it was possible to determine the maximum cobalt exchange level (q max that can be incorporated in each zeolite through ion exchange. In this sense, H-USY presented the highest q max value (2.40 meq/g zeol, while H-ZSM-5 showed the lowest one (0.64 meq/g zeol. These results also show the influence of the zeolite framework related to the channel system, pore opening, presence of cavities and secondary porosity and SiO2/Al2O3 ratio (SAR on the maximum capacity and behavior of cobalt ion exchange in protonic zeolites.
Why Are We Talking About Capacity Markets?
Frew, Bethany
2017-06-28
Revenue sufficiency or 'missing money' concerns in wholesale electricity markets are important because they could lead to resource (or capacity) adequacy shortfalls. Capacity markets or other capacity-based payments are among the proposed solutions to remedy these challenges. This presentation provides a high-level overview of the importance of and process for ensuring resource adequacy, and then discusses considerations for capacity markets under futures with high penetrations of variable resources such as wind and solar.
Myers, R.A.; MacKenzie, Brian; Bowen, K.G.;
2001-01-01
model 21 Atlanic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks in the North Atlantic assuming that the maximum reproductive rate and the carrying capacity per unit area are random variables. This method uses a nonlinear mixed model and is a natural approach to investigate how carrying capacity varies among populations. We...... used empirical Bayes techniques to estimate the maximum reproductive rate and carrying capacity of each stock. In all cases, the empirical Bayes estimates were biologically reasonable, whereas a stock by stock analysis occasionally yielded nonsensical parameter estimates (e.g., infinite values). Our...... analysis showed that the carrying capacity per unit area varied by more than 20-fold among populations and that much of this variation was related to temperature. That is, the carrying capacity per square kilometre declines as temperature increases....
Can Science and Technology Capacity be Measured?
Wagner, Caroline S; Dutta, Arindum
2015-01-01
The ability of a nation to participate in the global knowledge economy depends to some extent on its capacities in science and technology. In an effort to assess the capacity of different countries in science and technology, this article updates a classification scheme developed by RAND to measure science and technology capacity for 150 countries of the world.
25 CFR 167.6 - Carrying capacities.
2010-04-01
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carrying capacities. 167.6 Section 167.6 Indians BUREAU... Carrying capacities. (a) The Commissioner of Indian Affairs on June 26, 1943, promulgated the authorized carrying capacity for each land management district of the Navajo Reservation. (b) Recommended...
7 CFR 1437.402 - Carrying capacity.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrying capacity. 1437.402 Section 1437.402... Determining Coverage of Forage Intended for Animal Consumption § 1437.402 Carrying capacity. (a) CCC will establish a carrying capacity for all grazed forage present in the county for purposes of administering...
The product of capacities and belief functions
Hendon, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte
1996-01-01
Capacities (monotone, non-additive set functions) have been suggested to describe situations of uncertainty. We examine the question of how to define the product of two independent capacities. In particular, for the product of two belief functions (totally monotone capacities), there is a unique...... minimal product belief function. This is characterized in several ways....
30 CFR 77.1402 - Rated capacity.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rated capacity. 77.1402 Section 77.1402 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1402 Rated capacity. Hoists and elevators shall have rated capacities consistent with the...
49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mental capacity. 1572.109 Section 1572.109... ASSESSMENTS Standards for Security Threat Assessments § 1572.109 Mental capacity. (a) An applicant has mental incapacity, if he or she has been— (1) Adjudicated as lacking mental capacity; or (2) Committed to a...
40 CFR 35.2123 - Reserve capacity.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reserve capacity. 35.2123 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2123 Reserve capacity. EPA will limit grant assistance for reserve capacity as follows: (a) If EPA awarded a grant for a Step...
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Capacity. 574.410 Section 574.410... Project Sponsors § 574.410 Capacity. The grantee shall ensure that any project sponsor with which the grantee contracts to carry out an activity under this part has the capacity and capability to...
47 CFR 80.861 - Required capacity.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required capacity. 80.861 Section 80.861... Required capacity. If the main power supply or the reserve power supply provided for the purpose of... capacity available at all times while the vessel is leaving or attempting to leave a harbor or port for...
47 CFR 80.919 - Required capacity.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required capacity. 80.919 Section 80.919... capacity. If either the main or reserve power supply includes batteries, these batteries must have sufficient reserve capacity to permit proper operation of the required transmitter and receiver for at...
Understanding Dimensions of Organizational Evaluation Capacity
Bourgeois, Isabelle; Cousins, J. Bradley
2013-01-01
Organizational evaluation capacity building has been a topic of increasing interest in recent years. However, the actual dimensions of evaluation capacity have not been clearly articulated through empirical research. This study sought to address this gap by identifying the key dimensions of evaluation capacity in Canadian federal government…
The Application of Maximum Principle in Supply Chain Cost Optimization
Zhou Ling; Wang Jun
2013-01-01
In this paper, using the maximum principle for analyzing dynamic cost, we propose a new two-stage supply chain model of the manufacturing-assembly mode for high-tech perishable products supply chain...
Maximum Principle for Nonlinear Cooperative Elliptic Systems on IR N
LEADI Liamidi; MARCOS Aboubacar
2011-01-01
We investigate in this work necessary and sufficient conditions for having a Maximum Principle for a cooperative elliptic system on the whole (IR)N.Moreover,we prove the existence of solutions by an approximation method for the considered system.
Maximum Likelihood Factor Structure of the Family Environment Scale.
Fowler, Patrick C.
1981-01-01
Presents the maximum likelihood factor structure of the Family Environment Scale. The first bipolar dimension, "cohesion v conflict," measures relationship-centered concerns, while the second unipolar dimension is an index of "organizational and control" activities. (Author)
Multiresolution maximum intensity volume rendering by morphological adjunction pyramids
Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.
We describe a multiresolution extension to maximum intensity projection (MIP) volume rendering, allowing progressive refinement and perfect reconstruction. The method makes use of morphological adjunction pyramids. The pyramidal analysis and synthesis operators are composed of morphological 3-D
Multiresolution Maximum Intensity Volume Rendering by Morphological Adjunction Pyramids
Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.
2001-01-01
We describe a multiresolution extension to maximum intensity projection (MIP) volume rendering, allowing progressive refinement and perfect reconstruction. The method makes use of morphological adjunction pyramids. The pyramidal analysis and synthesis operators are composed of morphological 3-D
Changes in context and perception of maximum reaching height.
Wagman, Jeffrey B; Day, Brian M
2014-01-01
Successfully performing a given behavior requires flexibility in both perception and behavior. In particular, doing so requires perceiving whether that behavior is possible across the variety of contexts in which it might be performed. Three experiments investigated how (changes in) context (ie point of observation and intended reaching task) influenced perception of maximum reaching height. The results of experiment 1 showed that perceived maximum reaching height more closely reflected actual reaching ability when perceivers occupied a point of observation that was compatible with that required for the reaching task. The results of experiments 2 and 3 showed that practice perceiving maximum reaching height from a given point of observation improved perception of maximum reaching height from a different point of observation, regardless of whether such practice occurred at a compatible or incompatible point of observation. In general, such findings show bounded flexibility in perception of affordances and are thus consistent with a description of perceptual systems as smart perceptual devices.
Water Quality Assessment and Total Maximum Daily Loads Information (ATTAINS)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Assessment TMDL Tracking And Implementation System (ATTAINS) stores and tracks state water quality assessment decisions, Total Maximum Daily Loads...
Combining Experiments and Simulations Using the Maximum Entropy Principle
Boomsma, Wouter; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten
2014-01-01
are not in quantitative agreement with experimental data. The principle of maximum entropy is a general procedure for constructing probability distributions in the light of new data, making it a natural tool in cases when an initial model provides results that are at odds with experiments. The number of maximum entropy...... in the context of a simple example, after which we proceed with a real-world application in the field of molecular simulations, where the maximum entropy procedure has recently provided new insight. Given the limited accuracy of force fields, macromolecular simulations sometimes produce results....... Three very recent papers have explored this problem using the maximum entropy approach, providing both new theoretical and practical insights to the problem. We highlight each of these contributions in turn and conclude with a discussion on remaining challenges....
On the sufficiency of the linear maximum principle
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
1987-01-01
Presents a family of linear maximum principles for the discrete-time optimal control problem, derived from the saddle-point theorem of mathematical programming. Some simple examples illustrate the applicability of the main theoretical results...
Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint
Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J.; Kroposki, B.
2012-07-01
This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.
16 CFR 1505.8 - Maximum acceptable material temperatures.
2010-01-01
... Association, 155 East 44th Street, New York, NY 10017. Material Degrees C. Degrees F. Capacitors (1) (1) Class... capacitor has no marked temperature limit, the maximum acceptable temperature will be assumed to be 65...
Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Clean Water Act Section 303(d) establishes the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. The purpose of the TMDL program is to identify sources of pollution and...
PREDICTION OF MAXIMUM DRY DENSITY OF LOCAL GRANULAR ...
methods. A test on a soil of relatively high solid density revealed that the developed relation looses ... where, Pd max is the laboratory maximum dry ... Addis-Jinima Road Rehabilitation. ..... data sets that differ considerably in the magnitude.
Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)
NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The Clean Water Act Section 303(d) establishes the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. The purpose of the TMDL program is to identify sources of pollution and...
Solar Panel Maximum Power Point Tracker for Power Utilities
Sandeep Banik,
2014-01-01
Full Text Available ―Solar Panel Maximum Power Point Tracker For power utilities‖ As the name implied, it is a photovoltaic system that uses the photovoltaic array as a source of electrical power supply and since every photovoltaic (PV array has an optimum operating point, called the maximum power point, which varies depending on the insolation level and array voltage. A maximum power point tracker (MPPT is needed to operate the PV array at its maximum power point. The objective of this thesis project is to build a photovoltaic (PV array Of 121.6V DC Voltage(6 cell each 20V, 100watt And convert the DC voltage to Single phase 120v,50Hz AC voltage by switch mode power converter‘s and inverter‘s.
A Family of Maximum SNR Filters for Noise Reduction
Huang, Gongping; Benesty, Jacob; Long, Tao;
2014-01-01
This paper is devoted to the study and analysis of the maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) filters for noise reduction both in the time and short-time Fourier transform (STFT) domains with one single microphone and multiple microphones. In the time domain, we show that the maximum SNR filters can...... significantly increase the SNR but at the expense of tremendous speech distortion. As a consequence, the speech quality improvement, measured by the perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ) algorithm, is marginal if any, regardless of the number of microphones used. In the STFT domain, the maximum SNR....... This demonstrates that the maximum SNR filters, particularly the multichannel ones, in the STFT domain may be of great practical value....
Maximum likelihood estimation of finite mixture model for economic data
Phoong, Seuk-Yen; Ismail, Mohd Tahir
2014-06-01
Finite mixture model is a mixture model with finite-dimension. This models are provides a natural representation of heterogeneity in a finite number of latent classes. In addition, finite mixture models also known as latent class models or unsupervised learning models. Recently, maximum likelihood estimation fitted finite mixture models has greatly drawn statistician's attention. The main reason is because maximum likelihood estimation is a powerful statistical method which provides consistent findings as the sample sizes increases to infinity. Thus, the application of maximum likelihood estimation is used to fit finite mixture model in the present paper in order to explore the relationship between nonlinear economic data. In this paper, a two-component normal mixture model is fitted by maximum likelihood estimation in order to investigate the relationship among stock market price and rubber price for sampled countries. Results described that there is a negative effect among rubber price and stock market price for Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines and Indonesia.
Frequency-dependent heat capacity
Behrens, Claus Flensted
and as a thermometer. The aim of the work is to improve and understand this planar heater experiment. I find: • Carbon has advantages as heater material over the traditionally used metal (nickel) heaters. • The thermal coupling to the surrounding temperature bath should not be made through the liquid but through......The frequency–dependent heat capacity of super-cooled glycerol near the glass transition is measured using the 3w detection technique. An electrical conducting thin film with a temperature–dependent electrical resistance is deposited on a substrate. The thin film is used simultaneously as a heater...... the substrate. • Edge effects, as a result of the finite size of the heater, play an important role. The traditionally way of dealing with these effects are not entirely correct. • The Cole–Davidson function with bCD...
Transmission capacity of wireless networks
Weber, Steven
2012-01-01
Transmission capacity (TC) is a performance metric for wireless networks that measures the spatial intensity of successful transmissions per unit area, subject to a constraint on the permissible outage probability (where outage occurs when the SINR at a receiver is below a threshold). This volume gives a unified treatment of the TC framework that has been developed by the authors and their collaborators over the past decade. The mathematical framework underlying the analysis (reviewed in Ch. 2) is stochastic geometry: Poisson point processes model the locations of interferers, and (stable) shot noise processes represent the aggregate interference seen at a receiver. Ch. 3 presents TC results (exact, asymptotic, and bounds) on a simple model in order to illustrate a key strength of the framework: analytical tractability yields explicit performance dependence upon key model parameters. Ch. 4 presents enhancements to this basic model --- channel fading, variable link distances, and multi-hop. Ch. 5 presents four...
Community capacity for cancer prevention.
Ransom, Pamela E; Wei, Ying; Stellman, Steven D
2009-01-01
We pilot-tested a street-level study of availability of physical resources to assess ethnic disparities in community capacity for cancer prevention in forty Brooklyn, NY, census tracts with high proportions of White, African American, or Jamaican immigrant populations. Interns with GIS maps made street-level inventories of food retailers, fast-food restaurants, and commercial exercise facilities. Availability was quantified as resources per capita or square mile. Median income-adjusted number of supermarkets, greengrocers and fast-food restaurants per square mile was significantly higher in Jamaican than in African American or White tracts. Bodegas per capita was greatest in African American tracts, with no significant differences among the population groups in availability of health food stores, or commercial exercise venues.
Asynchronous Capacity per Unit Cost
Chandar, Venkat; Tse, David
2010-01-01
The capacity per unit cost, or equivalently minimum cost to transmit one bit, is a well-studied quantity. It has been studied under the assumption of full synchrony between the transmitter and the receiver. In many applications, such as sensor networks, transmissions are very bursty, with small amounts of bits arriving infrequently at random times. In such scenarios, the cost of acquiring synchronization is significant and one is interested in the fundamental limits on communication without assuming a priori synchronization. In this paper, we show that the minimum cost to transmit B bits of information asynchronously is (B + \\bar{H})k_sync, where k_sync is the synchronous minimum cost per bit and \\bar{H} is a measure of timing uncertainty equal to the entropy for most reasonable arrival time distributions.
Working capacity and cervical dystonia.
Martikainen, Kirsti K; Luukkaala, Tiina H; Marttila, Reijo J
2010-03-01
The objective of this questionnaire study was to assess the effect of cervical dystonia on patients' working capacity. Of the 303 working-aged members of the Finnish Dystonia Association (N = 433) who participated in the study 247 (82%) had cervical dystonia. Their median age was 50 years, the median duration of CD symptoms was 12.3 years. Most (78%) subjects were on botulinum toxin treatment. Ninety-seven (39%) had retired because of CD at a median age of 48 years; 96 (39%) of the subjects were working: 87 full-time and 9 part-time. The remaining participants were on sick leave, unemployed, studying or retired of other reasons. Retirement occurred more than ten years earlier compared with the general Finnish population. All possibilities to help CD patients to continue longer in work should be considered early.
On the maximum sufficient range of interstellar vessels
Cartin, Daniel
2011-01-01
This paper considers the likely maximum range of space vessels providing the basis of a mature interstellar transportation network. Using the principle of sufficiency, it is argued that this range will be less than three parsecs for the average interstellar vessel. This maximum range provides access from the Solar System to a large majority of nearby stellar systems, with total travel distances within the network not excessively greater than actual physical distance.
Efficiency at Maximum Power of Interacting Molecular Machines
Golubeva, Natalia; Imparato, Alberto
2012-01-01
We investigate the efficiency of systems of molecular motors operating at maximum power. We consider two models of kinesin motors on a microtubule: for both the simplified and the detailed model, we find that the many-body exclusion effect enhances the efficiency at maximum power of the many- motor...... system, with respect to the single motor case. Remarkably, we find that this effect occurs in a limited region of the system parameters, compatible with the biologically relevant range....
Filtering Additive Measurement Noise with Maximum Entropy in the Mean
Gzyl, Henryk
2007-01-01
The purpose of this note is to show how the method of maximum entropy in the mean (MEM) may be used to improve parametric estimation when the measurements are corrupted by large level of noise. The method is developed in the context on a concrete example: that of estimation of the parameter in an exponential distribution. We compare the performance of our method with the bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches.
The maximum entropy production principle: two basic questions.
Martyushev, Leonid M
2010-05-12
The overwhelming majority of maximum entropy production applications to ecological and environmental systems are based on thermodynamics and statistical physics. Here, we discuss briefly maximum entropy production principle and raises two questions: (i) can this principle be used as the basis for non-equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics and (ii) is it possible to 'prove' the principle? We adduce one more proof which is most concise today.
A tropospheric ozone maximum over the equatorial Southern Indian Ocean
L. Zhang
2012-05-01
Full Text Available We examine the distribution of tropical tropospheric ozone (O_{3} from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS and the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES by using a global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS-Chem. MLS and TES observations of tropospheric O_{3} during 2005 to 2009 reveal a distinct, persistent O_{3} maximum, both in mixing ratio and tropospheric column, in May over the Equatorial Southern Indian Ocean (ESIO. The maximum is most pronounced in 2006 and 2008 and less evident in the other three years. This feature is also consistent with the total column O_{3} observations from the Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS. Model results reproduce the observed May O_{3} maximum and the associated interannual variability. The origin of the maximum reflects a complex interplay of chemical and dynamic factors. The O_{3} maximum is dominated by the O_{3} production driven by lightning nitrogen oxides (NO_{x} emissions, which accounts for 62% of the tropospheric column O_{3} in May 2006. We find the contribution from biomass burning, soil, anthropogenic and biogenic sources to the O_{3} maximum are rather small. The O_{3} productions in the lightning outflow from Central Africa and South America both peak in May and are directly responsible for the O_{3} maximum over the western ESIO. The lightning outflow from Equatorial Asia dominates over the eastern ESIO. The interannual variability of the O_{3} maximum is driven largely by the anomalous anti-cyclones over the southern Indian Ocean in May 2006 and 2008. The lightning outflow from Central Africa and South America is effectively entrained by the anti-cyclones followed by northward transport to the ESIO.
On the sufficiency of the linear maximum principle
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
1987-01-01
Presents a family of linear maximum principles for the discrete-time optimal control problem, derived from the saddle-point theorem of mathematical programming. Some simple examples illustrate the applicability of the main theoretical results......Presents a family of linear maximum principles for the discrete-time optimal control problem, derived from the saddle-point theorem of mathematical programming. Some simple examples illustrate the applicability of the main theoretical results...
Semidefinite Programming for Approximate Maximum Likelihood Sinusoidal Parameter Estimation
2009-01-01
We study the convex optimization approach for parameter estimation of several sinusoidal models, namely, single complex/real tone, multiple complex sinusoids, and single two-dimensional complex tone, in the presence of additive Gaussian noise. The major difficulty for optimally determining the parameters is that the corresponding maximum likelihood (ML) estimators involve finding the global minimum or maximum of multimodal cost functions because the frequencies are nonlinear in the observed s...
Hybrid TOA/AOA Approximate Maximum Likelihood Mobile Localization
Mohamed Zhaounia; Mohamed Adnan Landolsi; Ridha Bouallegue
2010-01-01
This letter deals with a hybrid time-of-arrival/angle-of-arrival (TOA/AOA) approximate maximum likelihood (AML) wireless location algorithm. Thanks to the use of both TOA/AOA measurements, the proposed technique can rely on two base stations (BS) only and achieves better performance compared to the original approximate maximum likelihood (AML) method. The use of two BSs is an important advantage in wireless cellular communication systems because it avoids hearability problems and reduces netw...
Bounds on the Capacity of Weakly constrained two-dimensional Codes
Forchhammer, Søren
2002-01-01
Upper and lower bounds are presented for the capacity of weakly constrained two-dimensional codes. The maximum entropy is calculated for two simple models of 2-D codes constraining the probability of neighboring 1s as an example. For given models of the coded data, upper and lower bounds...
Quist, Morten; Rørth, Mikael Rahbek; Zacho, Morten
2006-01-01
and 65 years of age (mean age 42.8) participated in a 9-h weekly training program over 6 weeks. The intervention involved physical exercise, relaxation, massage, and body-awareness training. Physical capacity (one-repetition maximum tests (1RM), VO2max) and body composition (weight, skin-fold) were...
Towards green high capacity optical networks
Glesk, I.; Mohd Warip, M. N.; Idris, S. K.; Osadola, T. B.; Andonovic, I.
2012-02-01
The demand for fast, secure, energy efficient high capacity networks is growing. It is fuelled by transmission bandwidth needs which will support among other things the rapid penetration of multimedia applications empowering smart consumer electronics and E-businesses. All the above trigger unparallel needs for networking solutions which must offer not only high-speed low-cost "on demand" mobile connectivity but should be ecologically friendly and have low carbon footprint. The first answer to address the bandwidth needs was deployment of fibre optic technologies into transport networks. After this it became quickly obvious that the inferior electronic bandwidth (if compared to optical fiber) will further keep its upper hand on maximum implementable serial data rates. A new solution was found by introducing parallelism into data transport in the form of Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) which has helped dramatically to improve aggregate throughput of optical networks. However with these advancements a new bottleneck has emerged at fibre endpoints where data routers must process the incoming and outgoing traffic. Here, even with the massive and power hungry electronic parallelism routers today (still relying upon bandwidth limiting electronics) do not offer needed processing speeds networks demands. In this paper we will discuss some novel unconventional approaches to address network scalability leading to energy savings via advance optical signal processing. We will also investigate energy savings based on advanced network management through nodes hibernation proposed for Optical IP networks. The hibernation reduces the network overall power consumption by forming virtual network reconfigurations through selective nodes groupings and by links segmentations and partitionings.
[Study on the maximum entropy principle and population genetic equilibrium].
Zhang, Hong-Li; Zhang, Hong-Yan
2006-03-01
A general mathematic model of population genetic equilibrium about one locus was constructed based on the maximum entropy principle by WANG Xiao-Long et al. They proved that the maximum solve of the model was just the frequency distribution that a population reached Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium. It can suggest that a population reached Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium when the genotype entropy of the population reached the maximal possible value, and that the frequency distribution of the maximum entropy was equivalent to the distribution of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium law about one locus. They further assumed that the frequency distribution of the maximum entropy was equivalent to all genetic equilibrium distributions. This is incorrect, however. The frequency distribution of the maximum entropy was only equivalent to the distribution of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with respect to one locus or several limited loci. The case with regard to limited loci was proved in this paper. Finally we also discussed an example where the maximum entropy principle was not the equivalent of other genetic equilibria.
Probabilistic Capacity Assessment of Lattice Transmission Towers under Strong Wind
Wei eZhang
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Serving as one key component of the most important lifeline infrastructure system, transmission towers are vulnerable to multiple nature hazards including strong wind and could pose severe threats to the power system security with possible blackouts under extreme weather conditions, such as hurricanes, derechoes, or winter storms. For the security and resiliency of the power system, it is important to ensure the structural safety with enough capacity for all possible failure modes, such as structural stability. The study is to develop a probabilistic capacity assessment approach for transmission towers under strong wind loads. Due to the complicated structural details of lattice transmission towers, wind tunnel experiments are carried out to understand the complex interactions of wind and the lattice sections of transmission tower and drag coefficients and the dynamic amplification factor for different panels of the transmission tower are obtained. The wind profile is generated and the wind time histories are simulated as a summation of time-varying mean and fluctuating components. The capacity curve for the transmission towers is obtained from the incremental dynamic analysis (IDA method. To consider the stochastic nature of wind field, probabilistic capacity curves are generated by implementing IDA analysis for different wind yaw angles and different randomly generated wind speed time histories. After building the limit state functions based on the maximum allowable drift to height ratio, the probabilities of failure are obtained based on the meteorological data at a given site. As the transmission tower serves as the key nodes for the power network, the probabilistic capacity curves can be incorporated into the performance based design of the power transmission network.
Bathymetry and capacity of Blackfoot Reservoir, Caribou County, Idaho, 2011
Wood, Molly S.; Skinner, Kenneth D.; Fosness, Ryan L.
2012-01-01
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, surveyed the bathymetry and selected above-water sections of Blackfoot Reservoir, Caribou County, Idaho, in 2011. Reservoir operators manage releases from Government Dam on Blackfoot Reservoir based on a stage-capacity relation developed about the time of dam construction in the early 1900s. Reservoir operation directly affects the amount of water that is available for irrigation of agricultural land on the Fort Hall Indian Reservation and surrounding areas. The USGS surveyed the below-water sections of the reservoir using a multibeam echosounder and real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS) equipment at full reservoir pool in June 2011, covering elevations from 6,090 to 6,119 feet (ft) above the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). The USGS used data from a light detection and ranging (LiDAR) survey performed in 2000 to map reservoir bathymetry from 6,116 to 6,124 ft NAVD 88, which were mostly in depths too shallow to measure with the multibeam echosounder, and most of the above-water section of the reservoir (above 6,124 ft NAVD 88). Selected points and bank erosional features were surveyed by the USGS using RTK-GPS and a total station at low reservoir pool in September 2011 to supplement and verify the LiDAR data. The stage-capacity relation was revised and presented in a tabular format. The datasets show a 2.0-percent decrease in capacity from the original survey, due to sedimentation or differences in accuracy between surveys. A 1.3-percent error also was detected in the previously used capacity table and measured water-level elevation because of questionable reference elevation at monitoring stations near Government Dam. Reservoir capacity in 2011 at design maximum pool of 6,124 ft above NAVD 88 was 333,500 acre-ft.
Xiaoming Chen
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Most of previous studies on diversity gains and capacities of multiantenna systems assumed independent and identically distributed (i.i.d. Gaussian noises. There are a few studies about the noise correlation effects on diversity gains or MIMO capacities, however, by simulations only. In this paper, the maximum ratio combining (MRC diversity gain and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO capacity including correlated noises are presented. Based on the derived formulas, measurements in a reverberation chamber are performed for the first time to observe the effect of noise correlations on diversity gains and MIMO capacities.
Capacity analysis of vehicular communication networks
Lu, Ning
2013-01-01
This SpringerBrief focuses on the network capacity analysis of VANETs, a key topic as fundamental guidance on design and deployment of VANETs is very limited. Moreover, unique characteristics of VANETs impose distinguished challenges on such an investigation. This SpringerBrief first introduces capacity scaling laws for wireless networks and briefly reviews the prior arts in deriving the capacity of VANETs. It then studies the unicast capacity considering the socialized mobility model of VANETs. With vehicles communicating based on a two-hop relaying scheme, the unicast capacity bound is deriv
Pile Load Capacity – Calculation Methods
Wrana Bogumił
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The article is a review of the current problems of the foundation pile capacity calculations. The article considers the main principles of pile capacity calculations presented in Eurocode 7 and other methods with adequate explanations. Two main methods are presented: α – method used to calculate the short-term load capacity of piles in cohesive soils and β – method used to calculate the long-term load capacity of piles in both cohesive and cohesionless soils. Moreover, methods based on cone CPTu result are presented as well as the pile capacity problem based on static tests.
Assessing urban adaptive capacity to climate change.
Araya-Muñoz, Dahyann; Metzger, Marc J; Stuart, Neil; Wilson, A Meriwether W; Alvarez, Luis
2016-12-01
Despite the growing number of studies focusing on urban vulnerability to climate change, adaptive capacity, which is a key component of the IPCC definition of vulnerability, is rarely assessed quantitatively. We examine the capacity of adaptation in the Concepción Metropolitan Area, Chile. A flexible methodology based on spatial fuzzy modelling was developed to standardise and aggregate, through a stepwise approach, seventeen indicators derived from widely available census statistical data into an adaptive capacity index. The results indicate that all the municipalities in the CMA increased their level of adaptive capacity between 1992 and 2002. However, the relative differences between municipalities did not change significantly over the studied timeframe. Fuzzy overlay allowed us to standardise and to effectively aggregate indicators with differing ranges and granularities of attribute values into an overall index. It also provided a conceptually sound and reproducible means of exploring the interplay of many indicators that individually influence adaptive capacity. Furthermore, it captured the complex, aggregated and continued nature of the adaptive capacity, favouring to deal with gaps of data and knowledge associated with the concept of adaptive capacity. The resulting maps can help identify municipalities where adaptive capacity is weak and identify which components of adaptive capacity need strengthening. Identification of these capacity conditions can stimulate dialogue amongst policymakers and stakeholders regarding how to manage urban areas and how to prioritise resources for urban development in ways that can also improve adaptive capacity and thus reduce vulnerability to climate change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Measures of Financial Capacity: A Review.
Ghesquiere, Angela R; McAfee, Caitlin; Burnett, Jason
2017-05-23
Capacity to manage finances and make financial decisions can affect risk for financial exploitation and is often the basis for legal determinations of conservatorship/guardianship. Several structured assessments of financial capacity have been developed, but have not been compared regarding their focus, validity, or reliability. Therefore, we conducted a review of financial capacity measures to examine these factors. We searched electronic databases, reference lists in identified articles, conference proceedings and other grey literature for measures of financial capacity. We then extracted data on the length and domains of each measure, the population for which they were intended, and their validity and reliability. We identified 10 structured measures of financial capacity. Most measures could be completed in 25-30 min, and were designed to be administered to older adults with some level of cognitive impairment. Reliability and validity were high for most. Measurement of financial capacity is complex and multidimensional. When selecting a measure of financial capacity, consideration should be made of the population of focus and the domains of capacity to be assessed. More work is needed on the cultural sensitivity of financial capacity measures, their acceptability, and their use in clinical work. Better understanding of when, and to whom, to administer different financial capacity measures could enhance the ability to accurately detect those suffering from impaired financial capacity, and prevent related negative outcomes like financial exploitation.
Deshmukh, Amol; Chiu, Cheng-Chau; Chen, Yun-Wen; Kuo, Jer-Lai
2016-09-28
We study the hydrogen adsorption in porous frameworks composed of silsesquioxane cages linked via boron substituted aromatic structures by first-principles modeling. Such polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) frameworks can be further modified by decorating them with metal atoms binding to the ring structures of the linkers. We have considered Sc- and Ti-doped frameworks which bind H2 via so-called Kubas interaction between hydrogen molecules and transition metal atoms. It will be demonstrated that the maximum H2 gravimetric capacity can be improved to more than 7.5 wt % by using longer linkers with more ring structures. However, the maximum H2 volumetric capacity can be tuned to more than 70 g/L by varying the size of silsesquioxane cages. We are optimistic that by varying the building blocks, POSS frameworks can be modified to meet the targets for the gravimetric and volumetric capacities set by the U.S. Department of Energy.
Capacitated dynamic lot sizing with capacity acquisition
Li, Hongyan; Meissner, Joern
2011-01-01
batch, along with inventory carrying costs. The production per period is limited by a capacity restriction. The underlying capacity must be purchased up front for the upcoming season and remains constant over the entire season. We assume that the capacity acquisition cost is smooth and convex......One of the fundamental problems in operations management is determining the optimal investment in capacity. Capacity investment consumes resources and the decision, once made, is often irreversible. Moreover, the available capacity level affects the action space for production and inventory...... planning decisions directly. In this article, we address the joint capacitated lot-sizing and capacity-acquisition problems. The firm can produce goods in each of the finite periods into which the production season is partitioned. Fixed as well as variable production costs are incurred for each production...
Kuracina Richard
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The article deals with the measurement of maximum explosion pressure and the maximum rate of exposure pressure rise of wood dust cloud. The measurements were carried out according to STN EN 14034-1+A1:2011 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds. Part 1: Determination of the maximum explosion pressure pmax of dust clouds and the maximum rate of explosion pressure rise according to STN EN 14034-2+A1:2012 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds - Part 2: Determination of the maximum rate of explosion pressure rise (dp/dtmax of dust clouds. The wood dust cloud in the chamber is achieved mechanically. The testing of explosions of wood dust clouds showed that the maximum value of the pressure was reached at the concentrations of 450 g / m3 and its value is 7.95 bar. The fastest increase of pressure was observed at the concentrations of 450 g / m3 and its value was 68 bar / s.
Carbon Dioxide Sealing Capacity: Textural or Compositional Controls?
Cranganu, Constantin; Soleymani, Hamidreza; Sadiqua, Soleymani; Watson, Kieva
2013-11-30
This research project is aiming to assess the carbon dioxide sealing capacity of most common seal-rocks, such as shales and non-fractured limestones, by analyzing the role of textural and compositional parameters of those rocks. We hypothesize that sealing capacity is controlled by textural and/or compositional pa-rameters of caprocks. In this research, we seek to evaluate the importance of textural and compositional parameters affecting the sealing capacity of caprocks. The conceptu-al framework involves two testable end-member hypotheses concerning the sealing ca-pacity of carbon dioxide reservoir caprocks. Better understanding of the elements controlling sealing quality will advance our knowledge regarding the sealing capacity of shales and carbonates. Due to relatively low permeability, shale and non-fractured carbonate units are considered relatively imper-meable formations which can retard reservoir fluid flow by forming high capillary pres-sure. Similarly, these unites can constitute reliable seals for carbon dioxide capture and sequestration purposes. This project is a part of the comprehensive project with the final aim of studying the caprock sealing properties and the relationship between microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of seal rocks in depleted gas fields of Oklahoma Pan-handle. Through this study we examined various seal rock characteristics to infer about their respective effects on sealing capacity in special case of replacing reservoir fluid with super critical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}). To assess the effect of textural and compositional properties on scCO{sub 2} maximum reten-tion column height we collected 30 representative core samples in caprock formations in three counties (Cimarron, Texas, Beaver) in Oklahoma Panhandle. Core samples were collected from various seal formations (e.g., Cherokee, Keys, Morrowan) at different depths. We studied the compositional and textural properties of the core samples using several techniques
Effects of hip center location on the moment-generating capacity of the muscles.
Delp, S L; Maloney, W
1993-01-01
We have developed a three-dimensional biomechanical model of the human lower extremity to study how the location of the hip center affects the moment-generating capacity of four muscle groups: the hip abductors, adductors, flexors, and extensors. The model computes the maximum isometric force and the resulting joint moments that each of 25 muscle-tendon complexes develops at any body position. Abduction, adduction, flexion, and extension moments calculated with the model correspond closely with isometric joint moments measured during maximum voluntary contractions. We used the model to determine (1) the hip center locations that maximize and minimize the moment-generating capacity of each muscle group and (2) the effects of superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, and medial-lateral displacement of the hip center on the moment arms, maximum isometric muscle forces, and maximum isometric moments generated by each muscle group. We found that superior-inferior displacement of the hip center has the greatest effect on the force- and moment-generating capacity of the muscles. A 2 cm superior displacement decreases abduction force (44%), moment arm (12%), and moment (49%), while a 2 cm inferior displacement increases abduction force (20%), moment arm (7%) and moment (26%). Similarly, a 2 cm superior displacement decreases flexion force (27%), moment arm (6%), and moment (22%), while inferior displacement increases all three variables. Anterior-posterior displacement alters the moment-generating capacity of the flexors and extensors considerably, primarily due to moment arm changes. Medial-lateral displacement has a large effect on the moment-generating capacity of the adductors only. A 2 cm medial displacement decreases adduction moment arm (20%), force (26%) and moment (40%). These results demonstrate that the force- and moment-generating capacities of the muscles are sensitive to the location of the hip center.
Individual Module Maximum Power Point Tracking for Thermoelectric Generator Systems
Vadstrup, Casper; Schaltz, Erik; Chen, Min
2013-07-01
In a thermoelectric generator (TEG) system the DC/DC converter is under the control of a maximum power point tracker which ensures that the TEG system outputs the maximum possible power to the load. However, if the conditions, e.g., temperature, health, etc., of the TEG modules are different, each TEG module will not produce its maximum power. If each TEG module is controlled individually, each TEG module can be operated at its maximum power point and the TEG system output power will therefore be higher. In this work a power converter based on noninverting buck-boost converters capable of handling four TEG modules is presented. It is shown that, when each module in the TEG system is operated under individual maximum power point tracking, the system output power for this specific application can be increased by up to 8.4% relative to the situation when the modules are connected in series and 16.7% relative to the situation when the modules are connected in parallel.
Size dependence of efficiency at maximum power of heat engine
Izumida, Y.
2013-10-01
We perform a molecular dynamics computer simulation of a heat engine model to study how the engine size difference affects its performance. Upon tactically increasing the size of the model anisotropically, we determine that there exists an optimum size at which the model attains the maximum power for the shortest working period. This optimum size locates between the ballistic heat transport region and the diffusive heat transport one. We also study the size dependence of the efficiency at the maximum power. Interestingly, we find that the efficiency at the maximum power around the optimum size attains a value that has been proposed as a universal upper bound, and it even begins to exceed the bound as the size further increases. We explain this behavior of the efficiency at maximum power by using a linear response theory for the heat engine operating under a finite working period, which naturally extends the low-dissipation Carnot cycle model [M. Esposito, R. Kawai, K. Lindenberg, C. Van den Broeck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150603 (2010)]. The theory also shows that the efficiency at the maximum power under an extreme condition may reach the Carnot efficiency in principle.© EDP Sciences Società Italiana di Fisica Springer-Verlag 2013.
How long do centenarians survive? Life expectancy and maximum lifespan.
Modig, K; Andersson, T; Vaupel, J; Rau, R; Ahlbom, A
2017-08-01
The purpose of this study was to explore the pattern of mortality above the age of 100 years. In particular, we aimed to examine whether Scandinavian data support the theory that mortality reaches a plateau at particularly old ages. Whether the maximum length of life increases with time was also investigated. The analyses were based on individual level data on all Swedish and Danish centenarians born from 1870 to 1901; in total 3006 men and 10 963 women were included. Birth cohort-specific probabilities of dying were calculated. Exact ages were used for calculations of maximum length of life. Whether maximum age changed over time was analysed taking into account increases in cohort size. The results confirm that there has not been any improvement in mortality amongst centenarians in the past 30 years and that the current rise in life expectancy is driven by reductions in mortality below the age of 100 years. The death risks seem to reach a plateau of around 50% at the age 103 years for men and 107 years for women. Despite the rising life expectancy, the maximum age does not appear to increase, in particular after accounting for the increasing number of individuals of advanced age. Mortality amongst centenarians is not changing despite improvements at younger ages. An extension of the maximum lifespan and a sizeable extension of life expectancy both require reductions in mortality above the age of 100 years. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.
Predicting species' maximum dispersal distances from simple plant traits.
Tamme, Riin; Götzenberger, Lars; Zobel, Martin; Bullock, James M; Hooftman, Danny A P; Kaasik, Ants; Pärtel, Meelis
2014-02-01
Many studies have shown plant species' dispersal distances to be strongly related to life-history traits, but how well different traits can predict dispersal distances is not yet known. We used cross-validation techniques and a global data set (576 plant species) to measure the predictive power of simple plant traits to estimate species' maximum dispersal distances. Including dispersal syndrome (wind, animal, ant, ballistic, and no special syndrome), growth form (tree, shrub, herb), seed mass, seed release height, and terminal velocity in different combinations as explanatory variables we constructed models to explain variation in measured maximum dispersal distances and evaluated their power to predict maximum dispersal distances. Predictions are more accurate, but also limited to a particular set of species, if data on more specific traits, such as terminal velocity, are available. The best model (R2 = 0.60) included dispersal syndrome, growth form, and terminal velocity as fixed effects. Reasonable predictions of maximum dispersal distance (R2 = 0.53) are also possible when using only the simplest and most commonly measured traits; dispersal syndrome and growth form together with species taxonomy data. We provide a function (dispeRsal) to be run in the software package R. This enables researchers to estimate maximum dispersal distances with confidence intervals for plant species using measured traits as predictors. Easily obtainable trait data, such as dispersal syndrome (inferred from seed morphology) and growth form, enable predictions to be made for a large number of species.
Prediction of three dimensional maximum isometric neck strength.
Fice, Jason B; Siegmund, Gunter P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien
2014-09-01
We measured maximum isometric neck strength under combinations of flexion/extension, lateral bending and axial rotation to determine whether neck strength in three dimensions (3D) can be predicted from principal axes strength. This would allow biomechanical modelers to validate their neck models across many directions using only principal axis strength data. Maximum isometric neck moments were measured in 9 male volunteers (29±9 years) for 17 directions. The 3D moments were normalized by the principal axis moments, and compared to unity for all directions tested. Finally, each subject's maximum principal axis moments were used to predict their resultant moment in the off-axis directions. Maximum moments were 30±6 N m in flexion, 32±9 N m in lateral bending, 51±11 N m in extension, and 13±5 N m in axial rotation. The normalized 3D moments were not significantly different from unity (95% confidence interval contained one), except for three directions that combined ipsilateral axial rotation and lateral bending; in these directions the normalized moments exceeded one. Predicted resultant moments compared well to the actual measured values (r2=0.88). Despite exceeding unity, the normalized moments were consistent across subjects to allow prediction of maximum 3D neck strength using principal axes neck strength.
The COSPAR Capacity Building Initiative
Gabriel, C.; Willmore, P.; Méndez, M.; Mathieu, P.-P.; Santolik, O.; Smith, R.
2011-07-01
The COSPAR Capacity Building Workshops have been conceived to meet the following objectives: (1) To increase knowledge and use of public archives of space data in order both to broaden the scope of research programs in developing countries and to ensure that scientists in those countries are aware of the full range of facilities that are available to them; (2) To provide highly-practical instruction in the use of these archives and the associated publicly-available software; and (3) To foster personal links between participants and experienced scientists attending the workshops to contribute to reducing the isolation often experienced by scientists in developing countries. Since 2001 a total of twelve workshops have been successfully held in different scientific areas (X-ray, Gamma-ray, Space Optical and UV Astronomy, Magnetospheric Physics, Space Oceanography and Planetary Science) in nine developing countries (Brazil, India, China, South Africa, Morocco, Romania, Uruguay, Egypt and Malaysia). In this contribution we discuss the modalities of the workshops, the experience so-far gained, and the future including collaborations with other institutions sharing the aim of increasing the scientific activities in developing countries.
Novelty, Adaptive Capacity, and Resilience
C. S. Holling
2010-09-01
Full Text Available We present a conceptual framework that explores some of the forces creating innovation and novelty in complex systems. Understanding the sources of variability and novelty may help us better understand complex systems. Understanding complex phenomena such as invasions, migration, and nomadism may provide insight into the structure of ecosystems and other complex systems, and aid our attempts to cope with and mitigate these phenomena, in the case of invasions, and better understand and or predict them. Our model is broadly applicable to ecological theory, including community ecology, resilience, restoration, and policy. Characterizing the link between landscape change and the composition of species communities may help policymakers in their decision-making processes. Understanding how variability is related to system structure, and how that generates novelty, may help us understand how resilience is generated. We suggest that there are three primary opportunities for the generation of novelty into complex systems. These sources of novelty are inherent in the cross-scale structure of complex systems, and are critical for creating adaptive capacity. Novelty originates from the inherent variability present in cross scale structures, within scale reorganization associated with adaptive cycles, and whole-scale transformations resulting from regime shifts. Although speculative, our ideas are grounded in research and observation, and they may provide insight into the evolution of complex systems.
Advancing leadership capacity in nursing.
Scott, Elaine S; Miles, Jane
2013-01-01
To address the potential shortage of nurse leaders, the profession must evaluate current strategies in both education and practice. While many new graduates dream of becoming a nurse practitioner or nurse anesthetist, few transition into practice with the goal of becoming a nurse leader. To increase the number of nurses capable of leadership, the profession must address 2 critical issues. First, effort must be made to augment faculty and students' conceptualization of nursing such that leadership is seen as a dimension of practice for all nurses, not just those in formal leadership roles. In so doing, leadership identity development would be seen as a part of becoming an expert nurse. Second, a comprehensive conceptual framework for lifelong leadership development of nurses needs to be designed. This framework should allow for baseline leadership capacity building in all nurses and advanced leadership development for those in formal administrative and advanced practice roles. The knowledge and skill requirements for quality improvement and patient safety have been explored and recommendations made for Quality and Safety Education for Nurses, but parallel work needs to be done to outline educational content, objectives, and effective pedagogy for advancing leadership development in nursing students at all levels.
It’s Out of My Hands! Grasping Capacity May Not Influence Perceived Object Size
2017-01-01
Linkenauger, Witt, and Proffitt (2011) found that the perceived size of graspable objects was scaled by perceived grasping capacity. However, it is possible that this effect occurred because object size was estimated on the same trial as grasping capacity. This may have led to a conflation of estimates of perceived action capacity and spatial properties. In 5 experiments, we tested Linkenauger et al.’s claim that right-handed observers overestimate the grasping capacity of their right hand relative to their left hand, and that this, in turn, leads them to underestimate the size of objects to-be-grasped in their right hand relative to their left hand. We replicated the finding that right handers overestimate the size and grasping capacity of their right hand relative to their left hand. However, when estimates of object size and grasping capacity were made in separate tasks, objects grasped in the right hand were not underestimated relative to those grasped in the left hand. Further, when grasping capacity was physically restricted, observers appropriately recalibrated their perception of their maximum grasp but estimates of object size were unaffected. Our results suggest that changes in action capacity may not influence perceived object size if sources of conflation are controlled for. PMID:28191987
Novel Methods to Determine Feeder Locational PV Hosting Capacity and PV Impact Signatures
Reno, Matthew J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Coogan, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Seuss, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Broderick, Robert Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-05-01
Often PV hosting capacity analysis is performed for a limited number of distribution feeders. For medium - voltage distribution feeders, previous results generally analyze less than 20 feeders, and then the results are extrapolated out to similar types of feeders. Previous hosting capacity research has often focused on determining a single value for the hosting capacity for the entire feeder, whereas this research expands previous hosting capacity work to investigate all the regions of the feeder that may allow many different hosting capacity values wit h an idea called locational hosting capacity (LHC)to determine the largest PV size that can be interconnected at different locations (buses) on the study feeders. This report discusses novel methods for analyzing PV interconnections with advanced simulati on methods. The focus is feeder and location - specific impacts of PV that determine the locational PV hosting capacity. Feeder PV impact signature are used to more precisely determine the local maximum hosting capacity of individual areas of the feeder. T he feeder signature provides improved interconnection screening with certain zones that show the risk of impact to the distribution feeder from PV interconnections.
It's Out of My Hands! Grasping Capacity May Not Influence Perceived Object Size.
Collier, Elizabeth S; Lawson, Rebecca
2017-02-13
Linkenauger, Witt, and Proffitt (2011) found that the perceived size of graspable objects was scaled by perceived grasping capacity. However, it is possible that this effect occurred because object size was estimated on the same trial as grasping capacity. This may have led to a conflation of estimates of perceived action capacity and spatial properties. In 5 experiments, we tested Linkenauger et al.'s claim that right-handed observers overestimate the grasping capacity of their right hand relative to their left hand, and that this, in turn, leads them to underestimate the size of objects to-be-grasped in their right hand relative to their left hand. We replicated the finding that right handers overestimate the size and grasping capacity of their right hand relative to their left hand. However, when estimates of object size and grasping capacity were made in separate tasks, objects grasped in the right hand were not underestimated relative to those grasped in the left hand. Further, when grasping capacity was physically restricted, observers appropriately recalibrated their perception of their maximum grasp but estimates of object size were unaffected. Our results suggest that changes in action capacity may not influence perceived object size if sources of conflation are controlled for. (PsycINFO Database Record
Unconventional Bearing Capacity Analysis and Optimization of Multicell Box Girders
Jovan Tepic
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This study deals with unconventional bearing capacity analysis and the procedure of optimizing a two-cell box girder. The generalized model which enables the local stress-strain analysis of multicell girders was developed based on the principle of cross-sectional decomposition. The applied methodology is verified using the experimental data (Djelosevic et al., 2012 for traditionally formed box girders. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of results obtained for the two-cell box girder is realized based on comparative analysis using the finite element method (FEM and the ANSYS v12 software. The deflection function obtained by analytical and numerical methods was found consistent provided that the maximum deviation does not exceed 4%. Multicell box girders are rationally designed support structures characterized by much lower susceptibility of their cross-sectional elements to buckling and higher specific capacity than traditionally formed box girders. The developed local stress model is applied for optimizing the cross section of a two-cell box carrier. The author points to the advantages of implementing the model of local stresses in the optimization process and concludes that the technological reserve of bearing capacity amounts to 20% at the same girder weight and constant load conditions.
Predicting Maximum Sunspot Number in Solar Cycle 24
Nipa J Bhatt; Rajmal Jain; Malini Aggarwal
2009-03-01
A few prediction methods have been developed based on the precursor technique which is found to be successful for forecasting the solar activity. Considering the geomagnetic activity aa indices during the descending phase of the preceding solar cycle as the precursor, we predict the maximum amplitude of annual mean sunspot number in cycle 24 to be 111 ± 21. This suggests that the maximum amplitude of the upcoming cycle 24 will be less than cycles 21–22. Further, we have estimated the annual mean geomagnetic activity aa index for the solar maximum year in cycle 24 to be 20.6 ± 4.7 and the average of the annual mean sunspot number during the descending phase of cycle 24 is estimated to be 48 ± 16.8.
Construction and enumeration of Boolean functions with maximum algebraic immunity
ZHANG WenYing; WU ChuanKun; LIU XiangZhong
2009-01-01
Algebraic immunity is a new cryptographic criterion proposed against algebraic attacks. In order to resist algebraic attacks, Boolean functions used in many stream ciphers should possess high algebraic immunity. This paper presents two main results to find balanced Boolean functions with maximum algebraic immunity. Through swapping the values of two bits, and then generalizing the result to swap some pairs of bits of the symmetric Boolean function constructed by Dalai, a new class of Boolean functions with maximum algebraic immunity are constructed. Enumeration of such functions is also given. For a given function p(x) with deg(p(x)) < [n/2], we give a method to construct functions in the form p(x)+q(x) which achieve the maximum algebraic immunity, where every term with nonzero coefficient in the ANF of q(x) has degree no less than [n/2].