Three dimensional winds: A maximum cross-correlation application to elastic lidar data
Buttler, William Tillman [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)
1996-05-01
Maximum cross-correlation techniques have been used with satellite data to estimate winds and sea surface velocities for several years. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently using a variation of the basic maximum cross-correlation technique, coupled with a deterministic application of a vector median filter, to measure transverse winds as a function of range and altitude from incoherent elastic backscatter lidar (light detection and ranging) data taken throughout large volumes within the atmospheric boundary layer. Hourly representations of three-dimensional wind fields, derived from elastic lidar data taken during an air-quality study performed in a region of complex terrain near Sunland Park, New Mexico, are presented and compared with results from an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved laser doppler velocimeter. The wind fields showed persistent large scale eddies as well as general terrain-following winds in the Rio Grande valley.
Heuzé, Céline; Eriksson, Leif; Carvajal, Gisela
2017-04-01
Using sea surface temperature from satellite images to retrieve sea surface currents is not a new idea, but so far its operational near-real time implementation has not been possible. Validation studies are too region-specific or uncertain, due to the errors induced by the images themselves. Moreover, the sensitivity of the most common retrieval method, the maximum cross correlation, to the three parameters that have to be set is unknown. Using model outputs instead of satellite images, biases induced by this method are assessed here, for four different seas of Western Europe, and the best of nine settings and eight temporal resolutions are determined. For all regions, tracking a small 5 km pattern from the first image over a large 30 km region around its original location on a second image, separated from the first image by 6 to 9 hours returned the most accurate results. Moreover, for all regions, the problem is not inaccurate results but missing results, where the velocity is too low to be picked by the retrieval. The results are consistent both with limitations caused by ocean surface current dynamics and with the available satellite technology, indicating that automated sea surface current retrieval from sea surface temperature images is feasible now, for search and rescue operations, pollution confinement or even for more energy efficient and comfortable ship navigation.
Chiba Shigeru
2007-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer graphics and virtual reality techniques are useful to develop automatic and effective rehabilitation systems. However, a kind of virtual environment including unstable visual images presented to wide field screen or a head mounted display tends to induce motion sickness. The motion sickness induced in using a rehabilitation system not only inhibits effective training but also may harm patients' health. There are few studies that have objectively evaluated the effects of the repetitive exposures to these stimuli on humans. The purpose of this study is to investigate the adaptation to visually induced motion sickness by physiological data. Methods An experiment was carried out in which the same video image was presented to human subjects three times. We evaluated changes of the intensity of motion sickness they suffered from by a subjective score and the physiological index ρmax, which is defined as the maximum cross-correlation coefficient between heart rate and pulse wave transmission time and is considered to reflect the autonomic nervous activity. Results The results showed adaptation to visually-induced motion sickness by the repetitive presentation of the same image both in the subjective and the objective indices. However, there were some subjects whose intensity of sickness increased. Thus, it was possible to know the part in the video image which related to motion sickness by analyzing changes in ρmax with time. Conclusion The physiological index, ρmax, will be a good index for assessing the adaptation process to visually induced motion sickness and may be useful in checking the safety of rehabilitation systems with new image technologies.
Warren, M. A.; Quartly, G. D.; Shutler, J. D.; Miller, P. I.; Yoshikawa, Y.
2016-09-01
Attempts to automatically estimate surface current velocities from satellite-derived thermal or visible imagery face the limitations of data occlusion due to cloud cover, the complex evolution of features and the degradation of their surface signature. The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) provides a chance to reappraise such techniques due to its multiyear record of hourly high-resolution visible spectrum data. Here we present the results of applying a Maximum Cross Correlation (MCC) technique to GOCI data. Using a combination of simulated and real data we derive suitable processing parameters and examine the robustness of different satellite products, those being water-leaving radiance and chlorophyll concentration. These estimates of surface currents are evaluated using High Frequency (HF) radar systems located in the Tsushima (Korea) Strait. We show the performance of the MCC approach varies depending on the amount of missing data and the presence of strong optical contrasts. Using simulated data it was found that patchy cloud cover occupying 25% of the image pair reduces the number of vectors by 20% compared to using perfect images. Root mean square errors between the MCC and HF radar velocities are of the order of 20 cm s-1. Performance varies depending on the wavelength of the data with the blue-green products out-performing the red and near infra-red products. Application of MCC to GOCI chlorophyll data results in similar performance to radiances in the blue-green bands. The technique has been demonstrated using specific examples of an eddy feature and tidal induced features in the region.
Accurate structural correlations from maximum likelihood superpositions.
Douglas L Theobald
2008-02-01
Full Text Available The cores of globular proteins are densely packed, resulting in complicated networks of structural interactions. These interactions in turn give rise to dynamic structural correlations over a wide range of time scales. Accurate analysis of these complex correlations is crucial for understanding biomolecular mechanisms and for relating structure to function. Here we report a highly accurate technique for inferring the major modes of structural correlation in macromolecules using likelihood-based statistical analysis of sets of structures. This method is generally applicable to any ensemble of related molecules, including families of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR models, different crystal forms of a protein, and structural alignments of homologous proteins, as well as molecular dynamics trajectories. Dominant modes of structural correlation are determined using principal components analysis (PCA of the maximum likelihood estimate of the correlation matrix. The correlations we identify are inherently independent of the statistical uncertainty and dynamic heterogeneity associated with the structural coordinates. We additionally present an easily interpretable method ("PCA plots" for displaying these positional correlations by color-coding them onto a macromolecular structure. Maximum likelihood PCA of structural superpositions, and the structural PCA plots that illustrate the results, will facilitate the accurate determination of dynamic structural correlations analyzed in diverse fields of structural biology.
Ruigrok, Elmer; Gibbons, Steven; Wapenaar, Kees
2016-10-01
An areal distribution of sensors can be used for estimating the direction of incoming waves through beamforming. Beamforming may be implemented as a phase-shifting and stacking of data recorded on the different sensors (i.e., conventional beamforming). Alternatively, beamforming can be applied to cross-correlations between the waveforms on the different sensors. We derive a kernel for beamforming cross-correlated data and call it cross-correlation beamforming (CCBF). We point out that CCBF has slightly better resolution and aliasing characteristics than conventional beamforming. When auto-correlations are added to CCBF, the array response functions are the same as for conventional beamforming. We show numerically that CCBF is more resilient to non-coherent noise. Furthermore, we illustrate that with CCBF individual receiver-pairs can be removed to improve mapping to the slowness domain. An additional flexibility of CCBF is that cross-correlations can be time-windowed prior to beamforming, e.g., to remove the directionality of a scattered wavefield. The observations on synthetic data are confirmed with field data from the SPITS array (Svalbard). Both when beamforming an earthquake arrival and when beamforming ambient noise, CCBF focuses more of the energy to a central beam. Overall, the main advantage of CCBF is noise suppression and its flexibility to remove station pairs that deteriorate the signal-related beampower.
Deary Ian J
2009-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain size is associated with cognitive ability in adulthood (correlation ~ .3, but few studies have investigated the relationship in normal ageing, particularly beyond age 75 years. With age both brain size and fluid-type intelligence decline, and regional atrophy is often suggested as causing decline in specific cognitive abilities. However, an association between brain size and intelligence may be due to the persistence of this relationship from earlier life. Methods We recruited 107 community-dwelling volunteers (29% male aged 75–81 years for cognitive testing and neuroimaging. We used principal components analysis to derived a 'general cognitive factor' (g from tests of fluid-type ability. Using semi-automated analysis, we measured whole brain volume, intracranial area (ICA (an estimate of maximal brain volume, and volume of frontal and temporal lobes, amygdalo-hippocampal complex, and ventricles. Brain atrophy was estimated by correcting WBV for ICA. Results Whole brain volume (WBV correlated with general cognitive ability (g (r = .21, P Conclusion The association between brain regions and specific cognitive abilities in community dwelling people of older age is due to the life-long association between whole brain size and general cognitive ability, rather than atrophy of specific regions. Researchers and clinicians should therefore be cautious of interpreting global or regional brain atrophy on neuroimaging as contributing to cognitive status in older age without taking into account prior mental ability and brain size.
Temporal Correlations of the Running Maximum of a Brownian Trajectory
Bénichou, Olivier; Krapivsky, P. L.; Mejía-Monasterio, Carlos; Oshanin, Gleb
2016-08-01
We study the correlations between the maxima m and M of a Brownian motion (BM) on the time intervals [0 ,t1] and [0 ,t2], with t2>t1. We determine the exact forms of the distribution functions P (m ,M ) and P (G =M -m ), and calculate the moments E {(M-m ) k} and the cross-moments E {mlMk} with arbitrary integers l and k . We show that correlations between m and M decay as √{t1/t2 } when t2/t1→∞ , revealing strong memory effects in the statistics of the BM maxima. We also compute the Pearson correlation coefficient ρ (m ,M ) and the power spectrum of Mt, and we discuss a possibility of extracting the ensemble-averaged diffusion coefficient in single-trajectory experiments using a single realization of the maximum process.
Mary Hokazono
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Transcranial Doppler (TCD detects stroke risk among children with sickle cell anemia (SCA. Our aim was to evaluate TCD findings in patients with different sickle cell disease (SCD genotypes and correlate the time-averaged maximum mean (TAMM velocity with hematological characteristics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study in the Pediatric Hematology sector, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: 85 SCD patients of both sexes, aged 2-18 years, were evaluated, divided into: group I (62 patients with SCA/Sß0 thalassemia; and group II (23 patients with SC hemoglobinopathy/Sß+ thalassemia. TCD was performed and reviewed by a single investigator using Doppler ultrasonography with a 2 MHz transducer, in accordance with the Stroke Prevention Trial in Sickle Cell Anemia (STOP protocol. The hematological parameters evaluated were: hematocrit, hemoglobin, reticulocytes, leukocytes, platelets and fetal hemoglobin. Univariate analysis was performed and Pearson's coefficient was calculated for hematological parameters and TAMM velocities (P < 0.05. RESULTS: TAMM velocities were 137 ± 28 and 103 ± 19 cm/s in groups I and II, respectively, and correlated negatively with hematocrit and hemoglobin in group I. There was one abnormal result (1.6% and five conditional results (8.1% in group I. All results were normal in group II. Middle cerebral arteries were the only vessels affected. CONCLUSION: There was a low prevalence of abnormal Doppler results in patients with sickle-cell disease. Time-average maximum mean velocity was significantly different between the genotypes and correlated with hematological characteristics.
On the maximum backscattering cross section of passive linear arrays
Solymar, L.; Appel-Hansen, Jørgen
1974-01-01
The maximum backscattering cross section of an equispaced linear array connected to a reactive network and consisting of isotropic radiators is calculated forn = 2, 3, and 4 elements as a function of the incident angle and of the distance between the elements. On the basis of the results obtained...
Maximum-entropy closure of hydrodynamic moment hierarchies including correlations.
Hughes, Keith H; Burghardt, Irene
2012-06-07
Generalized hydrodynamic moment hierarchies are derived which explicitly include nonequilibrium two-particle and higher-order correlations. The approach is adapted to strongly correlated media and nonequilibrium processes on short time scales which necessitate an explicit treatment of time-evolving correlations. Closure conditions for the extended moment hierarchies are formulated by a maximum-entropy approach, generalizing related closure procedures for kinetic equations. A self-consistent set of nonperturbative dynamical equations are thus obtained for a chosen set of single-particle and two-particle (and possibly higher-order) moments. Analytical results are derived for generalized Gaussian closures including the dynamic pair distribution function and a two-particle correction to the current density. The maximum-entropy closure conditions are found to involve the Kirkwood superposition approximation.
Maximum-entropy distributions of correlated variables with prespecified marginals.
Larralde, Hernán
2012-12-01
The problem of determining the joint probability distributions for correlated random variables with prespecified marginals is considered. When the joint distribution satisfying all the required conditions is not unique, the "most unbiased" choice corresponds to the distribution of maximum entropy. The calculation of the maximum-entropy distribution requires the solution of rather complicated nonlinear coupled integral equations, exact solutions to which are obtained for the case of Gaussian marginals; otherwise, the solution can be expressed as a perturbation around the product of the marginals if the marginal moments exist.
Minimum disturbance rewards with maximum possible classical correlations
Pande, Varad R., E-mail: varad_pande@yahoo.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Pune, 411008 (India); Shaji, Anil [School of Physics, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Thiruvananthapuram, 695016 (India)
2017-07-12
Weak measurements done on a subsystem of a bipartite system having both classical and nonClassical correlations between its components can potentially reveal information about the other subsystem with minimal disturbance to the overall state. We use weak quantum discord and the fidelity between the initial bipartite state and the state after measurement to construct a cost function that accounts for both the amount of information revealed about the other system as well as the disturbance to the overall state. We investigate the behaviour of the cost function for families of two qubit states and show that there is an optimal choice that can be made for the strength of the weak measurement. - Highlights: • Weak measurements done on one part of a bipartite system with controlled strength. • Weak quantum discord & fidelity used to quantify all correlations and disturbance. • Cost function to probe the tradeoff between extracted correlations and disturbance. • Optimal measurement strength for maximum extraction of classical correlations.
Maximum-likelihood analysis of the COBE angular correlation function
Seljak, Uros; Bertschinger, Edmund
1993-01-01
We have used maximum-likelihood estimation to determine the quadrupole amplitude Q(sub rms-PS) and the spectral index n of the density fluctuation power spectrum at recombination from the COBE DMR data. We find a strong correlation between the two parameters of the form Q(sub rms-PS) = (15.7 +/- 2.6) exp (0.46(1 - n)) microK for fixed n. Our result is slightly smaller than and has a smaller statistical uncertainty than the 1992 estimate of Smoot et al.
Multiscale Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis of STOCK Markets
Yin, Yi; Shang, Pengjian
2014-06-01
In this paper, we employ the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) to investigate the cross-correlations between different stock markets. We report the results of cross-correlated behaviors in US, Chinese and European stock markets in period 1997-2012 by using DCCA method. The DCCA shows the cross-correlated behaviors of intra-regional and inter-regional stock markets in the short and long term which display the similarities and differences of cross-correlated behaviors simply and roughly and the persistence of cross-correlated behaviors of fluctuations. Then, because of the limitation and inapplicability of DCCA method, we propose multiscale detrended cross-correlation analysis (MSDCCA) method to avoid "a priori" selecting the ranges of scales over which two coefficients of the classical DCCA method are identified, and employ MSDCCA to reanalyze these cross-correlations to exhibit some important details such as the existence and position of minimum, maximum and bimodal distribution which are lost if the scale structure is described by two coefficients only and essential differences and similarities in the scale structures of cross-correlation of intra-regional and inter-regional markets. More statistical characteristics of cross-correlation obtained by MSDCCA method help us to understand how two different stock markets influence each other and to analyze the influence from thus two inter-regional markets on the cross-correlation in detail, thus we get a richer and more detailed knowledge of the complex evolutions of dynamics of the cross-correlations between stock markets. The application of MSDCCA is important to promote our understanding of the internal mechanisms and structures of financial markets and helps to forecast the stock indices based on our current results demonstrated the cross-correlations between stock indices. We also discuss the MSDCCA methods of secant rolling window with different sizes and, lastly, provide some relevant implications and
The influence of noise sources on cross-correlation amplitudes
Hanasoge, Shravan M
2012-01-01
We use analytical examples and asymptotic forms to examine the mathematical structure and physical meaning of the seismic cross correlation measurement. We show that in general, cross correlations are not Green's functions of medium, and may be very different depending on the source distribution. The modeling of noise sources using spatial distributions as opposed to discrete collections of sources is emphasized. When stations are illuminated by spatially complex source distributions, cross correlations show arrivals at a variety of time lags, from zero to the maximum surface-wave arrival time. Here, we demonstrate the possibility of inverting for the source distribution using the energy of the full cross-correlation waveform. The interplay between the source distribution and wave attenuation in determining the functional dependence of cross correlation energies on station-pair distance is quantified. Without question, energies contain information about wave attenuation. However, the accurate interpretation o...
Detrended cross-correlation analysis of electroencephalogram
Wang Jun; Zhao Da-Qing
2012-01-01
In the paper we use detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) to study the electroencephalograms of healthy young subjects and healthy old subjects.It is found that the cross-correlation between different leads of a healthy young subject is larger than that of a healthy old subject.It was shown that the cross-correlation relationship decreases with the aging process and the phenomenon can help to diagnose whether the subject's brain function is healthy or not.
Modeling Complex System Correlation Using Detrended Cross-Correlation Coefficient
Keqiang Dong
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The understanding of complex systems has become an area of active research for physicists because such systems exhibit interesting dynamical properties such as scale invariance, volatility correlation, heavy tails, and fractality. We here focus on traffic dynamic as an example of a complex system. By applying the detrended cross-correlation coefficient method to traffic time series, we find that the traffic fluctuation time series may exhibit cross-correlation characteristic. Further, we show that two traffic speed time series derived from adjacent sections exhibit much stronger cross-correlations than the two speed series derived from adjacent lanes. Similarly, we also demonstrate that the cross-correlation property between the traffic volume variables from two adjacent sections is stronger than the cross-correlation property between the volume variables of adjacent lanes.
Relative azimuth inversion by way of damped maximum correlation estimates
Ringler, A.T.; Edwards, J.D.; Hutt, C.R.; Shelly, F.
2012-01-01
Horizontal seismic data are utilized in a large number of Earth studies. Such work depends on the published orientations of the sensitive axes of seismic sensors relative to true North. These orientations can be estimated using a number of different techniques: SensOrLoc (Sensitivity, Orientation and Location), comparison to synthetics (Ekstrom and Busby, 2008), or by way of magnetic compass. Current methods for finding relative station azimuths are unable to do so with arbitrary precision quickly because of limitations in the algorithms (e.g. grid search methods). Furthermore, in order to determine instrument orientations during station visits, it is critical that any analysis software be easily run on a large number of different computer platforms and the results be obtained quickly while on site. We developed a new technique for estimating relative sensor azimuths by inverting for the orientation with the maximum correlation to a reference instrument, using a non-linear parameter estimation routine. By making use of overlapping windows, we are able to make multiple azimuth estimates, which helps to identify the confidence of our azimuth estimate, even when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is low. Finally, our algorithm has been written as a stand-alone, platform independent, Java software package with a graphical user interface for reading and selecting data segments to be analyzed.
Improved position measurement of nanoelectromechanical systems using cross correlations
Doiron, C. B.; Trauzettel, B.; Bruder, C.
2007-11-01
We consider position measurements using the cross-correlated output of two tunnel-junction position detectors. Using a fully quantum treatment, we calculate the equation of motion for the density matrix of the coupled detector detector mechanical-oscillator system. After discussing the presence of a bound on the peak-to-background ratio in a position measurement using a single detector, we show how one can use detector cross correlations to overcome this bound. We analyze two different possible experimental realizations of the cross-correlation measurement and show that in both cases, the maximum cross-correlated output is obtained when using twin detectors and applying equal bias to each tunnel junction. Furthermore, we show how the double-detector setup can be exploited to drastically reduce the added displacement noise of the oscillator.
Detrended cross-correlation analysis consistently extended to multifractality.
Oświecimka, Paweł; Drożdż, Stanisław; Forczek, Marcin; Jadach, Stanisław; Kwapień, Jarosław
2014-02-01
We propose an algorithm, multifractal cross-correlation analysis (MFCCA), which constitutes a consistent extension of the detrended cross-correlation analysis and is able to properly identify and quantify subtle characteristics of multifractal cross-correlations between two time series. Our motivation for introducing this algorithm is that the already existing methods, like multifractal extension, have at best serious limitations for most of the signals describing complex natural processes and often indicate multifractal cross-correlations when there are none. The principal component of the present extension is proper incorporation of the sign of fluctuations to their generalized moments. Furthermore, we present a broad analysis of the model fractal stochastic processes as well as of the real-world signals and show that MFCCA is a robust and selective tool at the same time and therefore allows for a reliable quantification of the cross-correlative structure of analyzed processes. In particular, it allows one to identify the boundaries of the multifractal scaling and to analyze a relation between the generalized Hurst exponent and the multifractal scaling parameter λ(q). This relation provides information about the character of potential multifractality in cross-correlations and thus enables a deeper insight into dynamics of the analyzed processes than allowed by any other related method available so far. By using examples of time series from the stock market, we show that financial fluctuations typically cross-correlate multifractally only for relatively large fluctuations, whereas small fluctuations remain mutually independent even at maximum of such cross-correlations. Finally, we indicate possible utility of MFCCA to study effects of the time-lagged cross-correlations.
Refined Multifractal Cross-Correlation Analysis
Oświȩcimka, Paweł; Forczek, Marcin; Jadach, Stanisław; Kwapień, Jarosław
2013-01-01
We propose a modified algorithm - Multifractal Cross-Correlation Analysis (MFCCA) - that is able to consistently identify and quantify multifractal cross-correlations between two time series. Our motivation for introducing this algorithm is that the already existing methods like MF-DXA have serious limitations for most of the signals describing complex natural processes. The principal component of the related improvement is proper incorporation of the sign of fluctuations. We present a broad analysis of the model fractal stochastic processes as well as of the real-world signals and show that MFCCA is a robust tool and allows a reliable quantification of the cross-correlative structure of analyzed processes. We, in particular, analyze a relation between the generalized Hurst exponent and the MFCCA parameter $\\lambda_q$. This relation provides information about the character of potential multifractality in cross-correlations of the processes under study and thus enables selective insight into their dynamics. Us...
The cross-correlation search for periodic gravitational waves
Dhurandhar, Sanjeev; Mukhopadhyay, Himan; Whelan, John T
2007-01-01
In this paper we study the use of cross-correlations between multiple gravitational wave (GW) data streams for detecting long-lived periodic signals. Cross-correlation searches between data from multiple detectors have traditionally been used to search for stochastic GW signals, but recently they have also been used in directed searches for periodic GWs. Here we further adapt the cross-correlation statistic for periodic GW searches by taking into account both the non-stationarity and the long term-phase coherence of the signal. We study the statistical properties and sensitivity of this search, its relation to existing periodic wave searches, and describe the precise way in which the cross-correlation statistic interpolates between semi-coherent and fully-coherent methods. Depending on the maximum duration over we wish to preserve phase coherence, the cross-correlation statistic can be tuned to go from a standard cross-correlation statistic using data from distinct detectors, to the semi-coherent time-frequen...
Sadjadi, Firooz A; Mahalanobis, Abhijit
2006-05-01
We report the development of a technique for adaptive selection of polarization ellipse tilt and ellipticity angles such that the target separation from clutter is maximized. From the radar scattering matrix [S] and its complex components, in phase and quadrature phase, the elements of the Mueller matrix are obtained. Then, by means of polarization synthesis, the radar cross section of the radar scatters are obtained at different transmitting and receiving polarization states. By designing a maximum average correlation height filter, we derive a target versus clutter distance measure as a function of four transmit and receive polarization state angles. The results of applying this method on real synthetic aperture radar imagery indicate a set of four transmit and receive angles that lead to maximum target versus clutter discrimination. These optimum angles are different for different targets. Hence, by adaptive control of the state of polarization of polarimetric radar, one can noticeably improve the discrimination of targets from clutter.
Cross correlations of the cosmic infrared background
Zhang, P
2003-01-01
Cosmic infrared background (CIB) is a sensitive measure of the structure formation of the universe, especially the star formation history. But this background is overwhelmed by foregrounds. The cross correlation of CIB with galaxies is able to eliminate such foregrounds, minimize and localize several backgrounds which could bias the study of the star formation history. The cross correlation study of CIB has three advantages. (1) Combining the galaxy photometric redshift information, it directly measures the structure formation history. (2) The sky area used for CIB analysis is no long limited to the relatively clean sky. The utilization of CIB full sky data minimizes the sample variance. (3) The CIB measurement is no longer limited to several narrow frequency windows. This allows the measurement of CIB based on integrated intensity, whose theoretical prediction is based on energy conservation, thus is fairly model independent and robust. The cross correlation can be measured with 10% accuracy (statistical and...
HANLi-Bo; CAOLi; WUDa-Jin; WANGJun
2004-01-01
By using the linear approximation method, the intensity correlation function and the intensity correlation time are calculated in a gain-noise model of a single-mode laser driven by colored cross-correlated pump noise and quantum noise, each of which is colored. We detect that, when the cross-correlation between both noises is negative, the behavior of the intensity correlation function C(t) versus time t, in addition to decreasing monotonously, also exhibits several other cases, such as one maximum, one minimum, and two extrema (one maximum and one minimum), i.e., some parameters of the noises can greatly change the dependence of the intensity correlation function upon time. Moreover, we find that there is a minimum Tmin in the curve of the intensity correlation time versus the pump noise intensity, and the depth and position of Train strongly depend on the quantum noise self-correlation time T2 and cross-correlation time T3.
Bing Wang; Xiuqing Wu
2007-01-01
A single-mode laser system with colored cross-correlated additive and multiplicative noise terms is considered. By the means of projection operator method, we study the effects of the cross-correlation time τ and the cross-correlation intensity λ between noises on the normalized intensity correlation function C(s). It is found that if λ＞ 0 (λ＜ 0), the normalized intensity correlation function C(s) increases (decreases) with increasing the cross-correlation time τ, and at large value of τ, the variation of the normalized intensity correlation function C(s) becomes small. With the increase of the net gain a0, C(s) exhibits a maximum when λ is larger. However, a minimum and a maximum appear on C(s) curves with the increase of a0 when λ becomes smaller and smaller.
Cross-correlation properties of cyclotomic sequences
Cai, Kai; Zheng, Zhiming
2009-01-01
Sequences with good correlation properties are widely used in engineering applications, especially in the area of communications. Among the known sequences, cyclotomic families have the optimal autocorrelation property. In this paper, we decide the cross-correlation function of the known cyclotomic sequences completely. Moreover, to get our results, the relations between the multiplier group and the decimations of the characteristic sequence are also established for an arbitrary difference set.
Yamanaka, Kota; Hirata, Shinnosuke; Hachiya, Hiroyuki
2016-07-01
Ultrasonic distance measurement for obstacles has been recently applied in automobiles. The pulse-echo method based on the transmission of an ultrasonic pulse and time-of-flight (TOF) determination of the reflected echo is one of the typical methods of ultrasonic distance measurement. Improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the echo and the avoidance of crosstalk between ultrasonic sensors in the pulse-echo method are required in automotive measurement. The SNR of the reflected echo and the resolution of the TOF are improved by the employment of pulse compression using a maximum-length sequence (M-sequence), which is one of the binary pseudorandom sequences generated from a linear feedback shift register (LFSR). Crosstalk is avoided by using transmitted signals coded by different M-sequences generated from different LFSRs. In the case of lower-order M-sequences, however, the number of measurement channels corresponding to the pattern of the LFSR is not enough. In this paper, pulse compression using linear-frequency-modulated (LFM) signals coded by M-sequences has been proposed. The coding of LFM signals by the same M-sequence can produce different transmitted signals and increase the number of measurement channels. In the proposed method, however, the truncation noise in autocorrelation functions and the interference noise in cross-correlation functions degrade the SNRs of received echoes. Therefore, autocorrelation properties and cross-correlation properties in all patterns of combinations of coded LFM signals are evaluated.
Modeling CMB lensing cross correlations with CLEFT
Modi, Chirag; White, Martin; Vlah, Zvonimir
2017-08-01
A new generation of surveys will soon map large fractions of sky to ever greater depths and their science goals can be enhanced by exploiting cross correlations between them. In this paper we study cross correlations between the lensing of the CMB and biased tracers of large-scale structure at high z. We motivate the need for more sophisticated bias models for modeling increasingly biased tracers at these redshifts and propose the use of perturbation theories, specifically Convolution Lagrangian Effective Field Theory (CLEFT). Since such signals reside at large scales and redshifts, they can be well described by perturbative approaches. We compare our model with the current approach of using scale independent bias coupled with fitting functions for non-linear matter power spectra, showing that the latter will not be sufficient for upcoming surveys. We illustrate our ideas by estimating σ8 from the auto- and cross-spectra of mock surveys, finding that CLEFT returns accurate and unbiased results at high z. We discuss uncertainties due to the redshift distribution of the tracers, and several avenues for future development.
A New Methodology of Spatial Cross-Correlation Analysis
Chen, Yanguang
2015-01-01
Spatial correlation modeling comprises both spatial autocorrelation and spatial cross-correlation processes. The spatial autocorrelation theory has been well-developed. It is necessary to advance the method of spatial cross-correlation analysis to supplement the autocorrelation analysis. This paper presents a set of models and analytical procedures for spatial cross-correlation analysis. By analogy with Moran’s index newly expressed in a spatial quadratic form, a theoretical framework is derived for geographical cross-correlation modeling. First, two sets of spatial cross-correlation coefficients are defined, including a global spatial cross-correlation coefficient and local spatial cross-correlation coefficients. Second, a pair of scatterplots of spatial cross-correlation is proposed, and the plots can be used to visually reveal the causality behind spatial systems. Based on the global cross-correlation coefficient, Pearson’s correlation coefficient can be decomposed into two parts: direct correlation (partial correlation) and indirect correlation (spatial cross-correlation). As an example, the methodology is applied to the relationships between China’s urbanization and economic development to illustrate how to model spatial cross-correlation phenomena. This study is an introduction to developing the theory of spatial cross-correlation, and future geographical spatial analysis might benefit from these models and indexes. PMID:25993120
Temporal and Cross Correlations in Business News
Mizuno, T.; Takei, K.; Ohnishi, T.; Watanabe, T.
We empirically investigate temporal and cross correlations inthe frequency of news reports on companies, using a dataset of more than 100 million news articles reported in English by around 500 press agencies worldwide for the period 2003--2009. Our first finding is that the frequency of news reports on a company does not follow a Poisson process, but instead exhibits long memory with a positive autocorrelation for longer than one year. The second finding is that there exist significant correlations in the frequency of news across companies. Specifically, on a daily time scale or longer the frequency of news is governed by external dynamics, while on a time scale of minutes it is governed by internal dynamics. These two findings indicate that the frequency of news reports on companies has statistical properties similar to trading volume or price volatility in stock markets, suggesting that the flow of information through company news plays an important role in price dynamics in stock markets.
Exploiting Cross Correlations and Joint Analyses
Rhodes, J. [Caltech; Allen, S. [SLAC; Benson, B. A. [Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Chang, T. [Taipei, Inst. Astron. Astrophys.; de Putter, R. [Caltech; Dodelson, S. [Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Doré, O. [Caltech; Honscheid, K. [Ohio State U., CCAPP; Linder, E. [UC, Berkeley; Ménard, B. [Tokyo U., IPMU; Newman, J. [Pittsburgh U.; Nord, B. [Fermilab; Rozo, E. [SLAC; Rykoff, E. [SLAC; Vallinotto, A. [LBL, Berkeley; Weinberg, D. [Ohio State U., CCAPP
2014-02-28
In this report, we present a wide variety of ways in which information from multiple probes of dark energy may be combined to obtain additional information not accessible when they are considered separately. Fundamentally, because all major probes are affected by the underlying distribution of matter in the regions studied, there exist covariances between them that can provide information on cosmology. Combining multiple probes allows for more accurate (less contaminated by systematics) and more precise (since there is cosmological information encoded in cross-correlation statistics) measurements of dark energy. The potential of cross-correlation methods is only beginning to be realized. By bringing in information from other wavelengths, the capabilities of the existing probes of dark energy can be enhanced and systematic effects can be mitigated further. We present a mixture of work in progress and suggestions for future scientific efforts. Given the scope of future dark energy experiments, the greatest gains may only be realized with more coordination and cooperation between multiple project teams; we recommend that this interchange should begin sooner, rather than later, to maximize scientific gains.
World currency exchange rate cross-correlations
Droå¼dÅ¼, S.; Górski, A. Z.; Kwapień, J.
2007-08-01
World currency network constitutes one of the most complex structures that is associated with the contemporary civilization. On a way towards quantifying its characteristics we study the cross correlations in changes of the daily foreign exchange rates within the basket of 60 currencies in the period December 1998 May 2005. Such a dynamics turns out to predominantly involve one outstanding eigenvalue of the correlation matrix. The magnitude of this eigenvalue depends however crucially on which currency is used as a base currency for the remaining ones. Most prominent it looks from the perspective of a peripheral currency. This largest eigenvalue is seen to systematically decrease and thus the structure of correlations becomes more heterogeneous, when more significant currencies are used as reference. An extreme case in this later respect is the USD in the period considered. Besides providing further insight into subtle nature of complexity, these observations point to a formal procedure that in general can be used for practical purposes of measuring the relative currencies significance on various time horizons.
Sidescan Sonar Image Matching Using Cross Correlation
Thisen, Erik; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Stage, Bjarne
2003-01-01
When surveying an area for sea mines with a sidescan sonar, the ability to find the same object in two different sonar images is helpful to determine the nature of the object. The main problem with matching two sidescan sonar images is that a scene changes appearance when viewed from different...... viewpoints. This paper presents a novel approach for matching two sidescan sonar images. The method first registers the two images to ground, then uses the cross correlation of the object positions on the seabed to find the correct displacement between the two images. In order to correct any minor...... displacements of the relative objects position as a result of the ground registration, the object position is given an area of influence. The method is compared to an existing method for matching sidescan sonar images based on hypothetical reasoning. The two methods are compared on a number of real sidescan...
Study on the Correlation Between Chlorophyll Maximum and Remote Sensing Data
XIU Peng; LIU Yuguang
2006-01-01
Based on the in situ optical measurements in the Bohai Sea of China, which belongs to a typical case-2 water area, we studied the characteristics of DCM (deep chlorophyll maximum) such as its spatial distribution, vertical profile,etc.We found that when the depth of the chlorophyll maximum is comparatively small, even in turbid coastal water regions,there is always a good correlation between the concentrations of chlorophyll maximum and the satellite-received signals in blue-green spectral bands; the correlation is even better than that between the surface chlorophyll concentrations and the satellite-received signals.The strong correlation existing even in turbid coastal water regions indicates that an ocean color model to retrieve the concentration of DCM can be constructed for coastal waters if a comprehensive knowledge of the vertical distribution of chlorophyll concentration in the Bohai Sea of China is available.
Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis of agricultural futures markets
He Lingyun, E-mail: lyhe@amss.ac.cn [Center for Futures and Financial Derivatives, College of Economics and Management, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Chen Shupeng [Center for Futures and Financial Derivatives, College of Economics and Management, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China)
2011-06-15
Highlights: > We investigated cross-correlations between China's and US agricultural futures markets. > Power-law cross-correlations are found between the geographically far but correlated markets. > Multifractal features are significant in all the markets. > Cross-correlation exponent is less than averaged GHE when q < 0 and greater than the latter when q > 0. - Abstract: We investigated geographically far but temporally correlated China's and US agricultural futures markets. We found that there exists a power-law cross-correlation between them, and that multifractal features are significant in all the markets. It is very interesting that the geographically far markets show strong cross-correlations and share much of their multifractal structure. Furthermore, we found that for all the agricultural futures markets in our studies, the cross-correlation exponent is less than the averaged generalized Hurst exponents (GHE) when q < 0 and greater than the averaged GHE when q > 0.
Multifractal cross-correlation analysis in electricity spot market
Fan, Qingju; Li, Dan
2015-07-01
In this paper, we investigate the multiscale cross-correlations between electricity price and trading volume in Czech market based on a newly developed algorithm, called Multifractal Cross-Correlation Analysis (MFCCA). The new algorithm is a natural multifractal generalization of the Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (DCCA), and is sensitive to cross-correlation structure and free from limitations of other algorithms. By considering the original sign of the cross-covariance, it allows us to properly quantify and detect the subtle characteristics of two simultaneous recorded time series. First, the multifractality and the long range anti-persistent auto-correlations of price return and trading volume variation are confirmed using Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-DFA). Furthermore, we show that there exist long-range anti-persistent cross-correlations between price return and trading volume variation by MFCCA. And we also identify that the cross-correlations disappear on the level of relative small fluctuations. In order to obtain deeper insight into the dynamics of the electricity market, we analyze the relation between generalized Hurst exponent and the multifractal cross-correlation scaling exponent λq. We find that the difference between the generalized Hurst exponent and the multifractal cross-correlation scaling exponent is significantly different for smaller fluctuation, which indicates that the multifractal character of cross-correlations resembles more each other for electricity price and trading volume on the level of large fluctuations and weakens for the smaller ones.
Speed Estimation in Geared Wind Turbines Using the Maximum Correlation Coefficient
Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Marhadi, Kun S.; Jensen, Bogi Bech;
2015-01-01
to overcome the above mentioned issues. The high speed stage shaft angular velocity is calculated based on the maximum correlation coefficient between the 1 st gear mesh frequency of the last gearbox stage and a pure sinus tone of known frequency and phase. The proposed algorithm utilizes vibration signals...
Robust Statistical Detection of Power-Law Cross-Correlation
Blythe, Duncan A. J.; Nikulin, Vadim V.; Müller, Klaus-Robert
2016-06-01
We show that widely used approaches in statistical physics incorrectly indicate the existence of power-law cross-correlations between financial stock market fluctuations measured over several years and the neuronal activity of the human brain lasting for only a few minutes. While such cross-correlations are nonsensical, no current methodology allows them to be reliably discarded, leaving researchers at greater risk when the spurious nature of cross-correlations is not clear from the unrelated origin of the time series and rather requires careful statistical estimation. Here we propose a theory and method (PLCC-test) which allows us to rigorously and robustly test for power-law cross-correlations, correctly detecting genuine and discarding spurious cross-correlations, thus establishing meaningful relationships between processes in complex physical systems. Our method reveals for the first time the presence of power-law cross-correlations between amplitudes of the alpha and beta frequency ranges of the human electroencephalogram.
Average cross-responses in correlated financial markets
Wang, Shanshan; Schäfer, Rudi; Guhr, Thomas
2016-09-01
There are non-vanishing price responses across different stocks in correlated financial markets, reflecting non-Markovian features. We further study this issue by performing different averages, which identify active and passive cross-responses. The two average cross-responses show different characteristic dependences on the time lag. The passive cross-response exhibits a shorter response period with sizeable volatilities, while the corresponding period for the active cross-response is longer. The average cross-responses for a given stock are evaluated either with respect to the whole market or to different sectors. Using the response strength, the influences of individual stocks are identified and discussed. Moreover, the various cross-responses as well as the average cross-responses are compared with the self-responses. In contrast to the short-memory trade sign cross-correlations for each pair of stocks, the sign cross-correlations averaged over different pairs of stocks show long memory.
Cross-correlations and joint gaussianity in multivariate level crossing models.
Di Bernardino, Elena; León, José; Tchumatchenko, Tatjana
2014-04-17
A variety of phenomena in physical and biological sciences can be mathematically understood by considering the statistical properties of level crossings of random Gaussian processes. Notably, a growing number of these phenomena demand a consideration of correlated level crossings emerging from multiple correlated processes. While many theoretical results have been obtained in the last decades for individual Gaussian level-crossing processes, few results are available for multivariate, jointly correlated threshold crossings. Here, we address bivariate upward crossing processes and derive the corresponding bivariate Central Limit Theorem as well as provide closed-form expressions for their joint level-crossing correlations.
Maximum key-profile correlation (MKC) as a measure of tonal structure in music.
Takeuchi, A H
1994-09-01
Tonal structure is musical organization on the basis of pitch, in which pitches vary in importance and rate of occurrence according to their relationship to a tonal center. Experiment 1 evaluated the maximum key-profile correlation (MKC), a product of Krumhansl and Schmuckler's key-finding algorithm (Krumhansl, 1990), as a measure of tonal structure. The MKC is the maximum correlation coefficient between the pitch class distribution in a musical sample and key profiles, which indicate the stability of pitches with respect to particular tonal centers. The MKC values of melodies correlated strongly with listeners' ratings of tonal structure. To measure the influence of the temporal order of pitches on perceived tonal structure, three measures (fifth span, semitone span, and pitch contour) taken from previous studies of melody perception were also correlated with tonal structure ratings. None of the temporal measures correlated as strongly or as consistently with tonal structure ratings as did the MKC, and nor did combining them with the MKC improve prediction of tonal structure ratings. In Experiment 2, the MKC did not correlate with recognition memory of melodies. However, melodies with very low MKC values were recognized less accurately than melodies with very high MKC values. Although it does not incorporate temporal, rhythmic, or harmonic factors that may influence perceived tonal structure, the MKC can be interpreted as a measure of tonal structure, at least for brief melodies.
Kruse, Marcelo Lapa; Kruse, José Cláudio Lupi; Leiria, Tiago Luiz Luz; Pires, Leonardo Martins; Gensas, Caroline Saltz; Gomes, Daniel Garcia; Boris, Douglas; Mantovani, Augusto; Lima, Gustavo Glotz de
2014-12-01
Occurrences of asymptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) are common. It is important to identify AF because it increases morbidity and mortality. 24-hour Holter has been used to detect paroxysmal AF (PAF). The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between occurrence of PAF in 24-hour Holter and the symptoms of the population studied. Cross-sectional study conducted at a cardiology hospital. 11,321 consecutive 24-hour Holter tests performed at a referral service were analyzed. Patients with pacemakers or with AF throughout the recording were excluded. There were 75 tests (0.67%) with PAF. The mean age was 67 ± 13 years and 45% were female. The heart rate (HR) over the 24 hours was a minimum of 45 ± 8 bpm, mean of 74 ± 17 bpm and maximum of 151 ± 32 bpm. Among the tests showing PAF, only 26% had symptoms. The only factor tested that showed a correlation with symptomatic AF was maximum HR (165 ± 34 versus 147 ± 30 bpm) (P = 0.03). Use of beta blockers had a protective effect against occurrence of PAF symptoms (odds ratio: 0.24, P = 0.031). PAF is a rare event in 24-hour Holter. The maximum HR during the 24 hours was the only factor correlated with symptomatic AF, and use of beta blockers had a protective effect against AF symptom occurrence.
Signal Digitizer and Cross-Correlation Application Specific Integrated Circuit
Baranauskas, Dalius (Inventor); Baranauskas, Gytis (Inventor); Zelenin, Denis (Inventor); Kangaslahti, Pekka (Inventor); Tanner, Alan B. (Inventor); Lim, Boon H. (Inventor)
2017-01-01
According to one embodiment, a cross-correlator comprises a plurality of analog front ends (AFEs), a cross-correlation circuit and a data serializer. Each of the AFEs comprises a variable gain amplifier (VGA) and a corresponding analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in which the VGA receives and modifies a unique analog signal associates with a measured analog radio frequency (RF) signal and the ADC produces digital data associated with the modified analog signal. Communicatively coupled to the AFEs, the cross-correlation circuit performs a cross-correlation operation on the digital data produced from different measured analog RF signals. The data serializer is communicatively coupled to the summing and cross-correlating matrix and continuously outputs a prescribed amount of the correlated digital data.
Fiebig, H R
2002-01-01
We study various aspects of extracting spectral information from time correlation functions of lattice QCD by means of Bayesian inference with an entropic prior, the maximum entropy method (MEM). Correlator functions of a heavy-light meson-meson system serve as a repository for lattice data with diverse statistical quality. Attention is given to spectral mass density functions, inferred from the data, and their dependence on the parameters of the MEM. We propose to employ simulated annealing, or cooling, to solve the Bayesian inference problem, and discuss practical issues of the approach.
Strong Solar Control of Infrared Aurora on Jupiter: Correlation Since the Last Solar Maximum
Kostiuk, T.; Livengood, T. A.; Hewagama, T.
2009-01-01
Polar aurorae in Jupiter's atmosphere radiate throughout the electromagnetic spectrum from X ray through mid-infrared (mid-IR, 5 - 20 micron wavelength). Voyager IRIS data and ground-based spectroscopic measurements of Jupiter's northern mid-IR aurora, acquired since 1982, reveal a correlation between auroral brightness and solar activity that has not been observed in Jovian aurora at other wavelengths. Over nearly three solar cycles, Jupiter auroral ethane emission brightness and solar 10.7 cm radio flux and sunspot number are positively correlated with high confidence. Ethane line emission intensity varies over tenfold between low and high solar activity periods. Detailed measurements have been made using the GSFC HIPWAC spectrometer at the NASA IRTF since the last solar maximum, following the mid-IR emission through the declining phase toward solar minimum. An even more convincing correlation with solar activity is evident in these data. Current analyses of these results will be described, including planned measurements on polar ethane line emission scheduled through the rise of the next solar maximum beginning in 2009, with a steep gradient to a maximum in 2012. This work is relevant to the Juno mission and to the development of the Europa Jupiter System Mission. Results of observations at the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) operated by the University of Hawaii under Cooperative Agreement no. NCC5-538 with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Science Mission Directorate, Planetary Astronomy Program. This work was supported by the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program.
Cross-correlations in Warsaw Stock Exchange
Rak, R; Drozdz, S; Oswiecimka, P
2008-01-01
We study the inter-stock correlations for the largest companies listed on Warsaw Stock Exchange and included in the WIG20 index. Our results from the correlation matrix analysis indicate that the Polish stock market can be well described by a one factor model. We also show that the stock-stock correlations tend to increase with the time scale of returns and they approach a saturation level for the time scales of at least 200 min, i.e. an order of magnitude longer than in the case of some developed markets. We also show that the strength of correlations among the stocks crucially depends on their capitalization. These results combined with our earlier findings together suggest that now the Polish stock market situates itself somewhere between an emerging market phase and a mature market phase.
Non-Stationary Effects and Cross Correlations in Solar Activity
Nefedyev, Yuri; Panischev, Oleg; Demin, Sergey
2016-07-01
In this paper within the framework of the Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy (FNS) we consider the dynamic properties of the solar activity by analyzing the Zurich sunspot numbers. As is well-known astrophysics objects are the non-stationary open systems, whose evolution are the quite individual and have the alternation effects. The main difference of FNS compared to other related methods is the separation of the original signal reflecting the dynamics of solar activity into three frequency bands: system-specific "resonances" and their interferential contributions at lower frequencies, chaotic "random walk" ("irregularity-jump") components at larger frequencies, and chaotic "irregularity-spike" (inertial) components in the highest frequency range. Specific parameters corresponding to each of the bands are introduced and calculated. These irregularities as well as specific resonance frequencies are considered as the information carriers on every hierarchical level of the evolution of a complex natural system with intermittent behavior, consecutive alternation of rapid chaotic changes in the values of dynamic variables on small time intervals with small variations of the values on longer time intervals ("laminar" phases). The jump and spike irregularities are described by power spectra and difference moments (transient structural functions) of the second order. FNS allows revealing the most crucial points of the solar activity dynamics by means of "spikiness" factor. It is shown that this variable behaves as the predictor of crucial changes of the sunspot number dynamics, particularly when the number comes up to maximum value. The change of averaging interval allows revealing the non-stationary effects depending by 11-year cycle and by inside processes in a cycle. To consider the cross correlations between the different variables of solar activity we use the Zurich sunspot numbers and the sequence of corona's radiation energy. The FNS-approach allows extracting the
Statistical tests for power-law cross-correlated processes.
Podobnik, Boris; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H Eugene
2011-12-01
For stationary time series, the cross-covariance and the cross-correlation as functions of time lag n serve to quantify the similarity of two time series. The latter measure is also used to assess whether the cross-correlations are statistically significant. For nonstationary time series, the analogous measures are detrended cross-correlations analysis (DCCA) and the recently proposed detrended cross-correlation coefficient, ρ(DCCA)(T,n), where T is the total length of the time series and n the window size. For ρ(DCCA)(T,n), we numerically calculated the Cauchy inequality -1 ≤ ρ(DCCA)(T,n) ≤ 1. Here we derive -1 ≤ ρ DCCA)(T,n) ≤ 1 for a standard variance-covariance approach and for a detrending approach. For overlapping windows, we find the range of ρ(DCCA) within which the cross-correlations become statistically significant. For overlapping windows we numerically determine-and for nonoverlapping windows we derive--that the standard deviation of ρ(DCCA)(T,n) tends with increasing T to 1/T. Using ρ(DCCA)(T,n) we show that the Chinese financial market's tendency to follow the U.S. market is extremely weak. We also propose an additional statistical test that can be used to quantify the existence of cross-correlations between two power-law correlated time series.
Dithering Digital Ripple Correlation Control for Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking
Barth, C; Pilawa-Podgurski, RCN
2015-08-01
This study demonstrates a new method for rapid and precise maximum power point tracking in photovoltaic (PV) applications using dithered PWM control. Constraints imposed by efficiency, cost, and component size limit the available PWM resolution of a power converter, and may in turn limit the MPP tracking efficiency of the PV system. In these scenarios, PWM dithering can be used to improve average PWM resolution. In this study, we present a control technique that uses ripple correlation control (RCC) on the dithering ripple, thereby achieving simultaneous fast tracking speed and high tracking accuracy. Moreover, the proposed method solves some of the practical challenges that have to date limited the effectiveness of RCC in solar PV applications. We present a theoretical derivation of the principles behind dithering digital ripple correlation control, as well as experimental results that show excellent tracking speed and accuracy with basic hardware requirements.
Antisymmetric galaxy cross-correlations as a cosmological probe
Dai, Liang; Kamionkowski, Marc; Kovetz, Ely D.; Raccanelli, Alvise; Shiraishi, Maresuke
2015-01-01
The auto-correlation between two members of a galaxy population is symmetric under the interchange of the two galaxies being correlated. The cross-correlation between two different types of galaxies, separated by a vector $\\bf{r}$, is not necessarily the same as that for a pair separated by $-\\bf{r}$. Local anisotropies in the two-point cross-correlation function may thus indicate a specific direction which when mapped as a function of position trace out a vector field. This vector field can ...
Gene differential coexpression analysis based on biweight correlation and maximum clique.
Zheng, Chun-Hou; Yuan, Lin; Sha, Wen; Sun, Zhan-Li
2014-01-01
Differential coexpression analysis usually requires the definition of 'distance' or 'similarity' between measured datasets. Until now, the most common choice is Pearson correlation coefficient. However, Pearson correlation coefficient is sensitive to outliers. Biweight midcorrelation is considered to be a good alternative to Pearson correlation since it is more robust to outliers. In this paper, we introduce to use Biweight Midcorrelation to measure 'similarity' between gene expression profiles, and provide a new approach for gene differential coexpression analysis. Firstly, we calculate the biweight midcorrelation coefficients between all gene pairs. Then, we filter out non-informative correlation pairs using the 'half-thresholding' strategy and calculate the differential coexpression value of gene, The experimental results on simulated data show that the new approach performed better than three previously published differential coexpression analysis (DCEA) methods. Moreover, we use the maximum clique analysis to gene subset included genes identified by our approach and previously reported T2D-related genes, many additional discoveries can be found through our method.
Vector Velocity Imaging Using Cross-Correlation and Virtual Sources
Holfort, Iben Kraglund; Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2006-01-01
Previous investigations have shown promising results in using the directional cross-correlation method to estimate velocity vectors. The velocity vector estimate provides information on both velocity direction and magnitude. The direction is estimated by beamforming signals along directions...
Low-power Cross-Correlator ASIC Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Pacific MicroCHIP Corporation offers to design an ASIC that includes a cross-correlation unit together with the interfaces to be connected to the output of the...
Fiber type composition and maximum shortening velocity of muscles crossing the human shoulder.
Srinivasan, R C; Lungren, M P; Langenderfer, J E; Hughes, R E
2007-03-01
A study of the fiber type composition of fourteen muscles spanning the human glenohumeral joint was carried out with the purpose of determining the contribution of fiber types to overall muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and to estimate the maximum shortening velocity (V(max)) of those muscles. Muscle biopsies were procured from 4 male cadavers (mean age 50) within 24 hr of death, snap frozen, mounted, and transversely sectioned (10 microm). Slides were stained for myofibrillar ATPase after alkaline preincubation. Photoimages were taken of defined areas (100 fibers) using the Bioquant system, and fiber type and CSA were measured from these images. Staining for mATPase produced three different fiber types: slow-oxidative (SO), fast-oxidative-glycolytic (FOG), and fast-glycolytic (FG). On average, the muscle fiber type composition ranged from 22 to 40% of FG, from 17 to 51% of FOG, and from 23 to 56% of SO. Twelve out of the 14 muscles had average SO proportions ranging from 35 to 50%. V(max) was calculated from the fiber type contribution relative to CSA and shortening velocity values taken from the literature. The maximum velocities of shortening presented here provide a physiological basis for the development of human shoulder musculoskeletal models suitable for predicting muscle forces for functionally relevant tasks encompassing conditions of muscle shortening and lengthening.
Scanning cross-correlator for monitoring uniform 3D ellipsoidal laser beams
Zelenogorskii, V V; Gacheva, E I; Gelikonov, G V; Krasilnikov, M; Mart'yanov, M A; Mironov, S Yu; Potemkin, A K; Syresin, E M; Stephan, F; Khazanov, E A
2014-01-01
The specific features of experimental implementation of a cross-correlator with a scan rate above 1600 cm s(-1) and a spatial delay amplitude of more than 15 mm are considered. The possibility of measuring the width of femtosecond pulses propagating in a train 300 mu s in duration with a repetition rate of 1 MHz is demonstrated. A time resolution of 300 fs for the maximum time window of 50 ps is attained.The cross-correlator is aimed at testing 3D pulses of a laser driver of an electron photo-injector.
Cross correlation of Cosmic Microwave background and Weak Lensing
Lee, Seokcheon
2015-01-01
The integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect and its non-linear extension Rees-Sciama (RS) effect provide us the information of the time evolution of gravitational potential. The cross-correlation between the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the large scale structure (LSS) is known as a promising way to extract the ISW (RS) effect. It is known that the RS effect shows the unique behavior by changing the anti-correlated cross correlation between the CMB and the mass tracer into the positively correlated cross correlation compared to the linear ISW effect. We show that the dependence of this flipping scale of the cross-correlation between RS and weak lensing on dark energy models. However, there exists the degeneracy between DE and $\\Omega_{\\rm{m}0}$ which might be broken by redshift dependent observables. The cross-correlation between the momentum field and the density field might be served as the better observable to be used for this purpose.
Cross correlations of the American baby names
Barucca, Paolo; Marinari, Enzo; Parisi, Giorgio; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico
2014-01-01
The quantitative description of cultural evolution is a challenging task. The most difficult part of the problem is probably to find the appropriate measurable quantities that can make more quantitative such evasive concepts as, for example, dynamics of cultural movements, behavior patterns and traditions of the people. A strategy to tackle this issue is to observe particular features of human activities, i.e. cultural traits, such as names given to newborns. We study the names of babies born in the United States of America from 1910 to 2012. Our analysis shows that groups of different correlated states naturally emerge in different epochs, and we are able to follow and decrypt their evolution. While these groups of states are stable across many decades, a sudden reorganization occurs in the last part of the twentieth century. We think that this kind of quantitative analysis can be possibly extended to other cultural traits: although databases covering more than one century (as the one we used) are rare, the ...
Liu, Jian; Miller, William H.
2008-08-01
The maximum entropy analytic continuation (MEAC) method is used to extend the range of accuracy of the linearized semiclassical initial value representation (LSC-IVR)/classical Wigner approximation for real time correlation functions. The LSC-IVR provides a very effective 'prior' for the MEAC procedure since it is very good for short times, exact for all time and temperature for harmonic potentials (even for correlation functions of nonlinear operators), and becomes exact in the classical high temperature limit. This combined MEAC+LSC/IVR approach is applied here to two highly nonlinear dynamical systems, a pure quartic potential in one dimensional and liquid para-hydrogen at two thermal state points (25K and 14K under nearly zero external pressure). The former example shows the MEAC procedure to be a very significant enhancement of the LSC-IVR, for correlation functions of both linear and nonlinear operators, and especially at low temperature where semiclassical approximations are least accurate. For liquid para-hydrogen, the LSC-IVR is seen already to be excellent at T = 25K, but the MEAC procedure produces a significant correction at the lower temperature (T = 14K). Comparisons are also made to how the MEAC procedure is able to provide corrections for other trajectory-based dynamical approximations when used as priors.
Source Function Determined from HBT Correlations by the Maximum Entropy Principle
Yuan Fang Wei; Yuanfang, Wu; Heinz, Ulrich
1996-01-01
We study the reconstruction of the source function in space-time directly from the measured HBT correlation function using the Maximum Entropy Principle. We find that the problem is ill-defined without at least one additional theoretical constraint as input. Using the requirement of a finite source lifetime for the latter we find a new Gaussian parametrization of the source function directly in terms of the measured HBT radius parameters and its lifetime, where the latter is a free parameter which is not directly measurable by HBT. We discuss the implications of our results for the remaining freedom in building source models consistent with a given set of measured HBT radius parameters.
Source Function Determined from Hanbury-Brown/Twiss Correlations by the Maximum Entropy Principle
吴元芳; 刘连寿
2002-01-01
We study the reconstruction of the source function in space-time directly from the measured Hanbury-Brown/Twiss (HBT) correlation function using the maximum entropy principle. We find that the problem is ill-defined without at least one additional theoretical constraint as input. Using the requirement of a finite source lifetime for the problem we find a new Gaussian parametrization of the source function directly in terms of the measured HBT radius parameters and its lifetime, where the latter is a free parameter which is not directly measurable by HBT.We discuss the implications of our results for the remaining freedom in building source models consistent with a given set of measured HBT radius parameters.
Testing Cross-Sectional Correlation in Large Panel Data Models with Serial Correlation
Badi H. Baltagi
2016-11-01
Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of testing cross-sectional correlation in large panel data models with serially-correlated errors. It finds that existing tests for cross-sectional correlation encounter size distortions with serial correlation in the errors. To control the size, this paper proposes a modification of Pesaran’s Cross-sectional Dependence (CD test to account for serial correlation of an unknown form in the error term. We derive the limiting distribution of this test as N , T → ∞ . The test is distribution free and allows for unknown forms of serial correlation in the errors. Monte Carlo simulations show that the test has good size and power for large panels when serial correlation in the errors is present.
Arif Billah Dar
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the synchronization of fixed income markets within Eurozone countries using the new wavelet based methodology. Conventional wavelet methods that use multivariate set of variables to calculate pairwise correlation and cross correlation lead to spurious correlation due to possible relationships with other variables, amplification of type-1 errors, and results, in the form of large set of erroneous graphs. Given these disadvantages of conventional wavelet based pairwise correlation and cross-correlation method, we avoid these limitations by using wavelet multiple correlation and multiple cross correlations to analyze the relationships in Eurozone fixed income markets. Our results based on this methodology indicate that Eurozone fixed income markets are highly integrated and this integration grows with timescales, and hence there is almost no scope for independent monetary policy and bond diversification in these countries.
Power-law cross-correlations estimation under heavy tails
Kristoufek, Ladislav
2016-11-01
We examine the performance of six estimators of the power-law cross-correlations-the detrended cross-correlation analysis, the detrending moving-average cross-correlation analysis, the height cross-correlation analysis, the averaged periodogram estimator, the cross-periodogram estimator and the local cross-Whittle estimator-under heavy-tailed distributions. The selection of estimators allows to separate these into the time and frequency domain estimators. By varying the characteristic exponent of the α-stable distributions which controls the tails behavior, we report several interesting findings. First, the frequency domain estimators are practically unaffected by heavy tails bias-wise. Second, the time domain estimators are upward biased for heavy tails but they have lower estimator variance than the other group for short series. Third, specific estimators are more appropriate depending on distributional properties and length of the analyzed series. In addition, we provide a discussion of implications of these results for empirical applications as well as theoretical explanations.
One-factor model for the cross-correlation matrix in the Vietnamese stock market
Nguyen, Quang
2013-07-01
Random matrix theory (RMT) has been applied to the analysis of the cross-correlation matrix of a financial time series. The most important findings of previous studies using this method are that the eigenvalue spectrum largely follows that of random matrices but the largest eigenvalue is at least one order of magnitude higher than the maximum eigenvalue predicted by RMT. In this work, we investigate the cross-correlation matrix in the Vietnamese stock market using RMT and find similar results to those of studies realized in developed markets (US, Europe, Japan) [9-18] as well as in other emerging markets[20,21,19,22]. Importantly, we found that the largest eigenvalue could be approximated by the product of the average cross-correlation coefficient and the number of stocks studied. We demonstrate this dependence using a simple one-factor model. The model could be extended to describe other characteristics of the realistic data.
Time-dependent cross-correlations between different stock returns: a directed network of influence.
Kullmann, L; Kertész, J; Kaski, K
2002-08-01
We study the time-dependent cross-correlations of stock returns, i.e., we measure the correlation as the function of the time shift between pairs of stock return time series using tick-by-tick data. We find a weak but significant effect showing that in many cases the maximum correlation appears at nonzero time shift, indicating directions of influence between the companies. Due to the weakness of this effect and the shortness of the characteristic time (of the order of a few minutes), our findings are compatible with market efficiency. The interaction of companies defines a directed network of influence.
Antisymmetric galaxy cross-correlations as a cosmological probe
Dai, Liang; Kovetz, Ely D; Raccanelli, Alvise; Shiraishi, Maresuke
2016-01-01
The auto-correlation between two members of a galaxy population is symmetric under the interchange of the two galaxies being correlated. The cross-correlation between two different types of galaxies, separated by a vector $\\bf{r}$, is not necessarily the same as that for a pair separated by $-\\bf{r}$. Local anisotropies in the two-point cross-correlation function may thus indicate a specific direction which when mapped as a function of position trace out a vector field. This vector field can then be decomposed into longitudinal and transverse components, and those transverse components written as positive- and negative-helicity components. A locally asymmetric cross-correlation of the longitudinal type arises naturally in halo clustering, even with Gaussian initial conditions, and could be enhanced with local-type non-Gaussianity. Early-Universe scenarios that introduce a vector field may also give rise to such effects. These antisymmetric cross-correlations also provide a new possibility to seek a preferred ...
Absence of significant cross-correlation between WMAP and SDSS
Lopez-Corredoira, M; Betancort-Rijo, J
2010-01-01
AIMS. Recently, several authors have claimed to detect a significant cross-correlation between microwave WMAP anisotropies and the SDSS galaxy distribution. We repeat these analyses determining different cross-correlation errors: re-sampling errors, and field-to-field fluctuations. The first type of errors make use of overlapping sky regions, while the second type use non-overlapping sky regions. METHODS. For the re-sampling errors we use bootstrap and jack-knife techniques. For the field-to-field fluctuations we use three methods: 1) evaluating the dispersion of the cross-correlation when correlating separated regions of WMAP with the original region of SDSS; 2) using mock Monte Carlo WMAP maps; 3) a new method (developed herein) which gives the error as an integral of the product of the self-correlations of each map. RESULTS. The average cross-correlation for b>30 deg. is significantly larger than the re-sampling errors--both jack-knife and bootstrap give similar results--but it is of the order of the field...
Miao, Yonghao; Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Lei, Yaguo
2017-08-01
The extraction of periodic impulses, which are the important indicators of rolling bearing faults, from vibration signals is considerably significance for fault diagnosis. Maximum correlated kurtosis deconvolution (MCKD) developed from minimum entropy deconvolution (MED) has been proven as an efficient tool for enhancing the periodic impulses in the diagnosis of rolling element bearings and gearboxes. However, challenges still exist when MCKD is applied to the bearings operating under harsh working conditions. The difficulties mainly come from the rigorous requires for the multi-input parameters and the complicated resampling process. To overcome these limitations, an improved MCKD (IMCKD) is presented in this paper. The new method estimates the iterative period by calculating the autocorrelation of the envelope signal rather than relies on the provided prior period. Moreover, the iterative period will gradually approach to the true fault period through updating the iterative period after every iterative step. Since IMCKD is unaffected by the impulse signals with the high kurtosis value, the new method selects the maximum kurtosis filtered signal as the final choice from all candidates in the assigned iterative counts. Compared with MCKD, IMCKD has three advantages. First, without considering prior period and the choice of the order of shift, IMCKD is more efficient and has higher robustness. Second, the resampling process is not necessary for IMCKD, which is greatly convenient for the subsequent frequency spectrum analysis and envelope spectrum analysis without resetting the sampling rate. Third, IMCKD has a significant performance advantage in diagnosing the bearing compound-fault which expands the application range. Finally, the effectiveness and superiority of IMCKD are validated by a number of simulated bearing fault signals and applying to compound faults and single fault diagnosis of a locomotive bearing.
Schaefer, Andreas; Wenzel, Friedemann
2017-04-01
Subduction zones are generally the sources of the earthquakes with the highest magnitudes. Not only in Japan or Chile, but also in Pakistan, the Solomon Islands or for the Lesser Antilles, subduction zones pose a significant hazard for the people. To understand the behavior of subduction zones, especially to identify their capabilities to produce maximum magnitude earthquakes, various physical models have been developed leading to a large number of various datasets, e.g. from geodesy, geomagnetics, structural geology, etc. There have been various studies to utilize this data for the compilation of a subduction zone parameters database, but mostly concentrating on only the major zones. Here, we compile the largest dataset of subduction zone parameters both in parameter diversity but also in the number of considered subduction zones. In total, more than 70 individual sources have been assessed and the aforementioned parametric data have been combined with seismological data and many more sources have been compiled leading to more than 60 individual parameters. Not all parameters have been resolved for each zone, since the data completeness depends on the data availability and quality for each source. In addition, the 3D down-dip geometry of a majority of the subduction zones has been resolved using historical earthquake hypocenter data and centroid moment tensors where available and additionally compared and verified with results from previous studies. With such a database, a statistical study has been undertaken to identify not only correlations between those parameters to estimate a parametric driven way to identify potentials for maximum possible magnitudes, but also to identify similarities between the sources themselves. This identification of similarities leads to a classification system for subduction zones. Here, it could be expected if two sources share enough common characteristics, other characteristics of interest may be similar as well. This concept
Improved efficiency of maximum likelihood analysis of time series with temporally correlated errors
Langbein, John O.
2017-01-01
Most time series of geophysical phenomena have temporally correlated errors. From these measurements, various parameters are estimated. For instance, from geodetic measurements of positions, the rates and changes in rates are often estimated and are used to model tectonic processes. Along with the estimates of the size of the parameters, the error in these parameters needs to be assessed. If temporal correlations are not taken into account, or each observation is assumed to be independent, it is likely that any estimate of the error of these parameters will be too low and the estimated value of the parameter will be biased. Inclusion of better estimates of uncertainties is limited by several factors, including selection of the correct model for the background noise and the computational requirements to estimate the parameters of the selected noise model for cases where there are numerous observations. Here, I address the second problem of computational efficiency using maximum likelihood estimates (MLE). Most geophysical time series have background noise processes that can be represented as a combination of white and power-law noise, 1/fα">1/fα1/fα with frequency, f. With missing data, standard spectral techniques involving FFTs are not appropriate. Instead, time domain techniques involving construction and inversion of large data covariance matrices are employed. Bos et al. (J Geod, 2013. doi:10.1007/s00190-012-0605-0) demonstrate one technique that substantially increases the efficiency of the MLE methods, yet is only an approximate solution for power-law indices >1.0 since they require the data covariance matrix to be Toeplitz. That restriction can be removed by simply forming a data filter that adds noise processes rather than combining them in quadrature. Consequently, the inversion of the data covariance matrix is simplified yet provides robust results for a wider range of power-law indices.
Improved efficiency of maximum likelihood analysis of time series with temporally correlated errors
Langbein, John
2017-02-01
Most time series of geophysical phenomena have temporally correlated errors. From these measurements, various parameters are estimated. For instance, from geodetic measurements of positions, the rates and changes in rates are often estimated and are used to model tectonic processes. Along with the estimates of the size of the parameters, the error in these parameters needs to be assessed. If temporal correlations are not taken into account, or each observation is assumed to be independent, it is likely that any estimate of the error of these parameters will be too low and the estimated value of the parameter will be biased. Inclusion of better estimates of uncertainties is limited by several factors, including selection of the correct model for the background noise and the computational requirements to estimate the parameters of the selected noise model for cases where there are numerous observations. Here, I address the second problem of computational efficiency using maximum likelihood estimates (MLE). Most geophysical time series have background noise processes that can be represented as a combination of white and power-law noise, 1/f^{α } with frequency, f. With missing data, standard spectral techniques involving FFTs are not appropriate. Instead, time domain techniques involving construction and inversion of large data covariance matrices are employed. Bos et al. (J Geod, 2013. doi: 10.1007/s00190-012-0605-0) demonstrate one technique that substantially increases the efficiency of the MLE methods, yet is only an approximate solution for power-law indices >1.0 since they require the data covariance matrix to be Toeplitz. That restriction can be removed by simply forming a data filter that adds noise processes rather than combining them in quadrature. Consequently, the inversion of the data covariance matrix is simplified yet provides robust results for a wider range of power-law indices.
Improved efficiency of maximum likelihood analysis of time series with temporally correlated errors
Langbein, John
2017-08-01
Most time series of geophysical phenomena have temporally correlated errors. From these measurements, various parameters are estimated. For instance, from geodetic measurements of positions, the rates and changes in rates are often estimated and are used to model tectonic processes. Along with the estimates of the size of the parameters, the error in these parameters needs to be assessed. If temporal correlations are not taken into account, or each observation is assumed to be independent, it is likely that any estimate of the error of these parameters will be too low and the estimated value of the parameter will be biased. Inclusion of better estimates of uncertainties is limited by several factors, including selection of the correct model for the background noise and the computational requirements to estimate the parameters of the selected noise model for cases where there are numerous observations. Here, I address the second problem of computational efficiency using maximum likelihood estimates (MLE). Most geophysical time series have background noise processes that can be represented as a combination of white and power-law noise, 1/f^{α } with frequency, f. With missing data, standard spectral techniques involving FFTs are not appropriate. Instead, time domain techniques involving construction and inversion of large data covariance matrices are employed. Bos et al. (J Geod, 2013. doi: 10.1007/s00190-012-0605-0) demonstrate one technique that substantially increases the efficiency of the MLE methods, yet is only an approximate solution for power-law indices >1.0 since they require the data covariance matrix to be Toeplitz. That restriction can be removed by simply forming a data filter that adds noise processes rather than combining them in quadrature. Consequently, the inversion of the data covariance matrix is simplified yet provides robust results for a wider range of power-law indices.
Jia, Feng; Lei, Yaguo; Shan, Hongkai; Lin, Jing
2015-01-01
The early fault characteristics of rolling element bearings carried by vibration signals are quite weak because the signals are generally masked by heavy background noise. To extract the weak fault characteristics of bearings from the signals, an improved spectral kurtosis (SK) method is proposed based on maximum correlated kurtosis deconvolution (MCKD). The proposed method combines the ability of MCKD in indicating the periodic fault transients and the ability of SK in locating these transients in the frequency domain. A simulation signal overwhelmed by heavy noise is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that MCKD is beneficial to clarify the periodic impulse components of the bearing signals, and the method is able to detect the resonant frequency band of the signal and extract its fault characteristic frequency. Through analyzing actual vibration signals collected from wind turbines and hot strip rolling mills, we confirm that by using the proposed method, it is possible to extract fault characteristics and diagnose early faults of rolling element bearings. Based on the comparisons with the SK method, it is verified that the proposed method is more suitable to diagnose early faults of rolling element bearings. PMID:26610501
Audio Quality Assurance : An Application of Cross Correlation
Jurik, Bolette Ammitzbøll; Nielsen, Jesper Asbjørn Sindahl
2012-01-01
We describe algorithms for automated quality assurance on content of audio files in context of preservation actions and access. The algorithms use cross correlation to compare the sound waves. They are used to do overlap analysis in an access scenario, where preserved radio broadcasts are used in...
Unified Green’s Function Retrieval by Cross Correlation
Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Slob, E.C.; Snieder, R.
2006-01-01
It has been shown by many authors that the cross correlation of two recordings of a diffuse wave field at different receivers yields the Green’s function between these receivers. Recently the theory has been extended for situations where time-reversal invariance does not hold (e.g., in attenuating m
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: cross correlation with Planck maps
Louis, Thibaut; Calabrese, Erminia; Dunkley, Joanna; Næss, Sigurd [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Addison, Graeme E.; Hincks, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hasselfield, Matthew; Hlozek, Renée [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Bond, J. Richard; Hajian, Amir [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Das, Sudeep [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Devlin, Mark J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, U.S.A (United States); Dünner, Rolando; Infante, Leopoldo [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Gralla, Megan; Marriage, Tobias A. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Huffenberger, Kevin [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Keen Physics Building, 77 Chieftan Way, Tallahassee, Florida (United States); Kosowsky, Arthur [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 15260 (United States); Moodley, Kavilan [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 4041 (South Africa); Niemack, Michael D., E-mail: Thibaut.Louis@astro.ox.ac.uk [Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); and others
2014-07-01
We present the temperature power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background obtained by cross-correlating maps from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 and 218 GHz with maps from the Planck satellite at 143 and 217 GHz, in two overlapping regions covering 592 square degrees. We find excellent agreement between the two datasets at both frequencies, quantified using the variance of the residuals between the ACT power spectra and the ACT × Planck cross-spectra. We use these cross-correlations to measure the calibration of the ACT data at 148 and 218 GHz relative to Planck, to 0.7% and 2% precision respectively. We find no evidence for anisotropy in the calibration parameter. We compare the Planck 353 GHz power spectrum with the measured amplitudes of dust and cosmic infrared background (CIB) of ACT data at 148 and 218 GHz. We also compare planet and point source measurements from the two experiments.
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Cross Correlation with Planck maps
Louis, Thibaut; Hasselfield, Matthew; Bond, J Richard; Calabrese, Erminia; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J; Dunkley, Joanna; Dünner, Rolando; Gralla, Megan; Hajian, Amir; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renée; Huffenberger, Kevin; Infante, Leopoldo; Kosowsky, Arthur; Marriage, Tobias A; Moodley, Kavilan; Næss, Sigurd; Niemack, Michael D; Nolta, Michael R; Page, Lyman A; Partridge, Bruce; Sehgal, Neelima; Sievers, Jonathan L; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Walter, Benjamin Z; Wollack, Edward J
2014-01-01
We present the temperature power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background obtained by cross-correlating maps from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 and 218 GHz with maps from the Planck satellite at 143 and 217 GHz, in two overlapping regions covering 592 square degrees. We find excellent agreement between the two datasets at both frequencies, quantified using the variance of the residuals between the ACT power spectra and the ACTxPlanck cross-spectra. We use these cross-correlations to calibrate the ACT data at 148 and 218 GHz, to 0.7% and 2% precision respectively. We find no evidence for anisotropy in the calibration parameter. We compare the Planck 353 GHz power spectrum with the measured amplitudes of dust and cosmic infrared background (CIB) of ACT data at 148 and 218 GHz. We also compare planet and point source measurements from the two experiments.
Channel cross correlations in transport through complex media
Gehler, Stefan; Köber, Bernd; Celardo, Giuseppe Luca; Kuhl, Ulrich
2016-10-01
Measuring transmission between four antennas in microwave cavities, we investigate directly the channel cross correlations C of the cross sections σa b from antenna at r⃗a to antenna r⃗b. Specifically we look for the CΣ and CΛ, where the only difference is that CΛ has none of the four channels in common, whereas CΣ has exactly one channel in common. We find experimentally that these two channel cross correlations are antiphased as a function of the channel coupling strength, as predicted by theory. This anticorrelation is essential to obtain the correct values for the universal conductance fluctuations. To obtain good agreement between experiment and predictions from random matrix theory the effect of absorption has to be included.
Cross-response in correlated financial markets: individual stocks
Wang, Shanshan; Schäfer, Rudi; Guhr, Thomas
2016-04-01
Previous studies of the stock price response to trades focused on the dynamics of single stocks, i.e. they addressed the self-response. We empirically investigate the price response of one stock to the trades of other stocks in a correlated market, i.e. the cross-responses. How large is the impact of one stock on others and vice versa? - This impact of trades on the price change across stocks appears to be transient instead of permanent as we discuss from the viewpoint of market efficiency. Furthermore, we compare the self-responses on different scales and the self- and cross-responses on the same scale. We also find that the cross-correlation of the trade signs turns out to be a short-memory process.
Axion inflation with cross-correlated axion isocurvature perturbations
Kadota, Kenji [Center for Theoretical Physics of the Universe, Institute for Basic Science,Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University,Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Otsuka, Hajime [Department of Physics, Waseda University,Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)
2016-01-25
We study the inflation scenarios, in the framework of superstring theory, where the inflaton is an axion producing the adiabatic curvature perturbations while there exists another light axion producing the isocurvature perturbations. We discuss how the non-trivial couplings among string axions can generically arise, and calculate the consequent cross-correlations between the adiabatic and isocurvature modes through concrete examples. Based on the Planck analysis on the generally correlated isocurvature perturbations, we show that there is a preference for the existence of the correlated isocurvature modes for the axion monodromy inflation while the natural inflation disfavors such isocurvature modes.
Axion inflation with cross-correlated axion isocurvature perturbations
Kadota, Kenji; Otsuka, Hajime
2015-01-01
We study the inflation scenarios, in the framework of superstring theory, where the inflaton is an axion producing the adiabatic curvature perturbations while there exists another light axion producing the isocurvature perturbations. We discuss how the non-trivial couplings among string axions can generically arise, and calculate the consequent cross-correlations between the adiabatic and isocurvature modes through concrete examples. Based on the Planck analysis on the generally correlated isocurvature perturbations, we show that there is a preference for the existence of the correlated isocurvature modes for the axion monodromy inflation while the natural inflation disfavors such isocurvature modes.
Random matrix theory analysis of cross correlations in financial markets.
Utsugi, Akihiko; Ino, Kazusumi; Oshikawa, Masaki
2004-08-01
We confirm universal behaviors such as eigenvalue distribution and spacings predicted by random matrix theory (RMT) for the cross correlation matrix of the daily stock prices of Tokyo Stock Exchange from 1993 to 2001, which have been reported for New York Stock Exchange in previous studies. It is shown that the random part of the eigenvalue distribution of the cross correlation matrix is stable even when deterministic correlations are present. Some deviations in the small eigenvalue statistics outside the bounds of the universality class of RMT are not completely explained with the deterministic correlations as proposed in previous studies. We study the effect of randomness on deterministic correlations and find that randomness causes a repulsion between deterministic eigenvalues and the random eigenvalues. This is interpreted as a reminiscent of "level repulsion" in RMT and explains some deviations from the previous studies observed in the market data. We also study correlated groups of issues in these markets and propose a refined method to identify correlated groups based on RMT. Some characteristic differences between properties of Tokyo Stock Exchange and New York Stock Exchange are found.
Revisiting the WMAP - NVSS angular cross correlation. A skeptic view
Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos
2009-01-01
In the context of the study of the ISW, we revisit the angular cross correlation of WMAP CMB data with the NVSS radio survey. We compute 2-point cross functions between the two surveys in real and in Fourier space, paying particular attention on the dependence of results on the flux of NVSS radio sources, the angular scales where correlations arise and the comparison with theoretical expectations. We reproduce previous results that claim an excess of correlation in the angular correlation function (ACF), and we also find some (low significance) similarity between the CMB and radio galaxy data in the multipole range $\\el \\in $ [10, 25]. However, the S/N in the ACFs increases with higher flux thresholds for NVSS sources, but drops a $\\sim$ 30 - 50% in separations of the order of a pixel size, suggesting some residual point source contribution. When restricting our analyses to multipoles $\\el \\gt $60, we fail to find any evidence for cross correlation in the range $\\el \\in [2,10]$, where according to the model p...
Wang, Gang-Jin; Xie, Chi; Chen, Shou; Yang, Jiao-Jiao; Yang, Ming-Yan
2013-09-01
In this study, we first build two empirical cross-correlation matrices in the US stock market by two different methods, namely the Pearson’s correlation coefficient and the detrended cross-correlation coefficient (DCCA coefficient). Then, combining the two matrices with the method of random matrix theory (RMT), we mainly investigate the statistical properties of cross-correlations in the US stock market. We choose the daily closing prices of 462 constituent stocks of S&P 500 index as the research objects and select the sample data from January 3, 2005 to August 31, 2012. In the empirical analysis, we examine the statistical properties of cross-correlation coefficients, the distribution of eigenvalues, the distribution of eigenvector components, and the inverse participation ratio. From the two methods, we find some new results of the cross-correlations in the US stock market in our study, which are different from the conclusions reached by previous studies. The empirical cross-correlation matrices constructed by the DCCA coefficient show several interesting properties at different time scales in the US stock market, which are useful to the risk management and optimal portfolio selection, especially to the diversity of the asset portfolio. It will be an interesting and meaningful work to find the theoretical eigenvalue distribution of a completely random matrix R for the DCCA coefficient because it does not obey the Marčenko-Pastur distribution.
Spatially varying cross-correlation coefficients in the presence of nugget effects
Kleiber, William
2012-11-29
We derive sufficient conditions for the cross-correlation coefficient of a multivariate spatial process to vary with location when the spatial model is augmented with nugget effects. The derived class is valid for any choice of covariance functions, and yields substantial flexibility between multiple processes. The key is to identify the cross-correlation coefficient matrix with a contraction matrix, which can be either diagonal, implying a parsimonious formulation, or a fully general contraction matrix, yielding greater flexibility but added model complexity. We illustrate the approach with a bivariate minimum and maximum temperature dataset in Colorado, allowing the two variables to be positively correlated at low elevations and nearly independent at high elevations, while still yielding a positive definite covariance matrix. © 2012 Biometrika Trust.
Structure of a financial cross-correlation matrix under attack
Lim, Gyuchang; Kim, SooYong; Kim, Junghwan; Kim, Pyungsoo; Kang, Yoonjong; Park, Sanghoon; Park, Inho; Park, Sang-Bum; Kim, Kyungsik
2009-09-01
We investigate the structure of a perturbed stock market in terms of correlation matrices. For the purpose of perturbing a stock market, two distinct methods are used, namely local and global perturbation. The former involves replacing a correlation coefficient of the cross-correlation matrix with one calculated from two Gaussian-distributed time series while the latter reconstructs the cross-correlation matrix just after replacing the original return series with Gaussian-distributed time series. Concerning the local case, it is a technical study only and there is no attempt to model reality. The term ‘global’ means the overall effect of the replacement on other untouched returns. Through statistical analyses such as random matrix theory (RMT), network theory, and the correlation coefficient distributions, we show that the global structure of a stock market is vulnerable to perturbation. However, apart from in the analysis of inverse participation ratios (IPRs), the vulnerability becomes dull under a small-scale perturbation. This means that these analysis tools are inappropriate for monitoring the whole stock market due to the low sensitivity of a stock market to a small-scale perturbation. In contrast, when going down to the structure of business sectors, we confirm that correlation-based business sectors are regrouped in terms of IPRs. This result gives a clue about monitoring the effect of hidden intentions, which are revealed via portfolios taken mostly by large investors.
Magnetic noise measurements using cross-correlated Hall sensor arrays
Jung, G.; Ocio, M.; Paltiel, Y.; Shtrikman, H.; Zeldov, E.
2001-01-01
An experimental technique for measuring magnetic fluctuations by means of a double-layer Hall sensor array is described. The technique relies on cross-correlating Hall signals from two independent sensors positioned one above the other in two separate two-dimensional-electron-gas layers of a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated by a reduction of the magnitude of the background noise floor of the correlated sensors with respect to the noise level of the best single sensor.
无
2000-01-01
In most of real operational conditions only response data are measurable while the actual excitations are unknown, so modal parameter must be extracted only from responses. This paper gives a theoretical formulation for the cross-correlation functions and cross-power spectra between the outputs under the assumption of white-noise excitation. It widens the field of modal analysis under ambient excitation because many classical methods by impulse response functions or frequency response functions can be used easily for modal analysis under unknown excitation. The Polyreference Complex Exponential method and Eigensystem Realization Algorithm using cross-correlation functions in time domain and Orthogonal Polynomial method using cross-power spectra in frequency domain are applied to a steel frame to extract modal parameters under operational conditions. The modal properties of the steel frame from these three methods are compared with those from frequency response functions analysis. The results show that the modal analysis method using cross-correlation functions or cross-power spectra presented in this paper can extract modal parameters efficiently under unknown excitation.
Cross-correlation markers in stochastic dynamics of complex systems
Panischev, O Yu; Bhattacharya, J; 10.1016/j.physa.2010.06.026
2010-01-01
The neuromagnetic activity (magnetoencephalogram, MEG) from healthy human brain and from an epileptic patient against chromatic flickering stimuli has been earlier analyzed on the basis of a memory functions formalism (MFF). Information measures of memory as well as relaxation parameters revealed high individuality and unique features in the neuromagnetic brain responses of each subject. The current paper demonstrates new capabilities of MFF by studying cross-correlations between MEG signals obtained from multiple and distant brain regions. It is shown that the MEG signals of healthy subjects are characterized by well-defined effects of frequency synchronization and at the same time by the domination of low-frequency processes. On the contrary, the MEG of a patient is characterized by a sharp abnormality of frequency synchronization, and also by prevalence of high-frequency quasi-periodic processes. Modification of synchronization effects and dynamics of cross-correlations offer a promising method of detectin...
NIRS-BASED CORTICAL ACTIVATION ANALYSIS BY TEMPORAL CROSS CORRELATION
Raul Fernandez-Rojas
2016-02-01
Full Text Available In this study we present a method of signal processing to determine dominant channels in near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. To compare measuring channels and identify delays between them, cross correlation is computed. Furthermore, to find out possible dominant channels, a visual inspection was performed. The outcomes demonstrated that the visual inspection exhibited evoked-related activations in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1 after stimulation which is consistent with comparable studies and the cross correlation study discovered dominant channels on both cerebral hemispheres. The analysis also showed a relationship between dominant channels and adjacent channels. For that reason, our results present a new method to identify dominant regions in the cerebral cortex using near-infrared spectroscopy. These findings have also implications in the decrease of channels by eliminating irrelevant channels for the experiment.
Intensity Mapping During Reionization: 21 cm and Cross-correlations
Aguirre, James E.; HERA Collaboration
2016-01-01
The first generation of 21 cm epoch of reionization (EoR) experiments are now reaching the sensitivities necessary for a detection of the power spectrum of plausible reionization models, and with the advent of next-generation capabilities (e.g. the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) and the Square Kilometer Array Phase I Low) will move beyond the power spectrum to imaging of the EoR intergalactic medium. Such datasets provide context to galaxy evolution studies for the earliest galaxies on scales of tens of Mpc, but at present wide, deep galaxy surveys are lacking, and attaining the depth to survey the bulk of galaxies responsible for reionization will be challenging even for JWST. Thus we seek useful cross-correlations with other more direct tracers of the galaxy population. I review near-term prospects for cross-correlation studies with 21 cm and CO and CII emission, as well as future far-infrared misions suchas CALISTO.
Statistical properties of cross-correlation in the Korean stock market
Oh, G.; Eom, C.; Wang, F.; Jung, W.-S.; Stanley, H. E.; Kim, S.
2011-01-01
We investigate the statistical properties of the cross-correlation matrix between individual stocks traded in the Korean stock market using the random matrix theory (RMT) and observe how these affect the portfolio weights in the Markowitz portfolio theory. We find that the distribution of the cross-correlation matrix is positively skewed and changes over time. We find that the eigenvalue distribution of original cross-correlation matrix deviates from the eigenvalues predicted by the RMT, and the largest eigenvalue is 52 times larger than the maximum value among the eigenvalues predicted by the RMT. The β_{473} coefficient, which reflect the largest eigenvalue property, is 0.8, while one of the eigenvalues in the RMT is approximately zero. Notably, we show that the entropy function E(σ) with the portfolio risk σ for the original and filtered cross-correlation matrices are consistent with a power-law function, E( σ) σ^{-γ}, with the exponent γ 2.92 and those for Asian currency crisis decreases significantly.
Audio Quality Assurance : An Application of Cross Correlation
Jurik, Bolette Ammitzbøll; Nielsen, Jesper Asbjørn Sindahl
2012-01-01
We describe algorithms for automated quality assurance on content of audio files in context of preservation actions and access. The algorithms use cross correlation to compare the sound waves. They are used to do overlap analysis in an access scenario, where preserved radio broadcasts are used...... in research and annotated. They have been applied in a migration scenario, where radio broadcasts are to be migrated for long term preservation....
Probing the circumgalactic baryons through cross-correlations
Singh, Priyanka; Nath, Biman B; Refregier, Alexandre; Silk, Joseph
2015-01-01
We study the cross-correlation of distribution of galaxies, the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) and X-ray power spectra of galaxies from current and upcoming surveys and show these to be excellent probes of the nature, i.e. extent, evolution and energetics, of the circumgalactic medium (CGM). For a flat pressure profile, the SZ cross power spectrum shows oscillations at $l$-values corresponding to the length scales smaller than $\\sim \\frac{2}{3}$ times the virial radius of the galaxy. These oscillations are sensitive to the steepness of the pressure profile of the CGM and vanish for a sufficiently steep profile. Similar oscillations are also present in the X-ray cross power spectrum which is, however, more sensitive to the density profile. We forecast the detectability of the cross-correlated galaxy distribution, SZ and X-ray signals by combining SPT-DES and eROSITA-DES/eROSITA-LSST surveys, respectively. We find that, for the SPT-DES survey, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) peaks at high mass and redshift with SNR $\\...
CMB lensing from SPT+Planck and cross-correlations
Omori, Yuuki; SPT Collaboration; DES Collaboration
2017-01-01
The South Pole Telescope (SPT) SZ survey has observed 2500 square degrees of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) to high accuracy down to 1 arcminute resolution at 150GHz. The Planck satellite has also observed the same patch of the CMB sky at 143GHz, but the two experiments were designed to measure temperature anisotropies optimally at different angular scales. By combining data from these two experiments, we are able to produce a temperature map that has an improved signal-to-noise ratio at all scales. This combined temperature map is used to produce a CMB weak lensing map, which we use for cosmological parameter and cross-correlation analyses. In particular, the SPT footprint has significant overlap with the Dark Energy Survey (DES) observing region, which allows us to cross-correlate the CMB lensing map with galaxy density and galaxy shear measurements obtained by DES. In this talk, I will present the SPT+Planck combining procedure, the CMB lensing reconstruction pipeline, tests performed to verify the lensing map, and finally the cross-correlation measurements.
Random matrix approach to cross correlations in financial data
Plerou, Vasiliki; Gopikrishnan, Parameswaran; Rosenow, Bernd; Amaral, Luís A.; Guhr, Thomas; Stanley, H. Eugene
2002-06-01
We analyze cross correlations between price fluctuations of different stocks using methods of random matrix theory (RMT). Using two large databases, we calculate cross-correlation matrices C of returns constructed from (i) 30-min returns of 1000 US stocks for the 2-yr period 1994-1995, (ii) 30-min returns of 881 US stocks for the 2-yr period 1996-1997, and (iii) 1-day returns of 422 US stocks for the 35-yr period 1962-1996. We test the statistics of the eigenvalues λi of C against a ``null hypothesis'' - a random correlation matrix constructed from mutually uncorrelated time series. We find that a majority of the eigenvalues of C fall within the RMT bounds [λ-,λ+] for the eigenvalues of random correlation matrices. We test the eigenvalues of C within the RMT bound for universal properties of random matrices and find good agreement with the results for the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble of random matrices-implying a large degree of randomness in the measured cross-correlation coefficients. Further, we find that the distribution of eigenvector components for the eigenvectors corresponding to the eigenvalues outside the RMT bound display systematic deviations from the RMT prediction. In addition, we find that these ``deviating eigenvectors'' are stable in time. We analyze the components of the deviating eigenvectors and find that the largest eigenvalue corresponds to an influence common to all stocks. Our analysis of the remaining deviating eigenvectors shows distinct groups, whose identities correspond to conventionally identified business sectors. Finally, we discuss applications to the construction of portfolios of stocks that have a stable ratio of risk to return.
Multifractal detrending moving-average cross-correlation analysis.
Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing
2011-07-01
There are a number of situations in which several signals are simultaneously recorded in complex systems, which exhibit long-term power-law cross correlations. The multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MFDCCA) approaches can be used to quantify such cross correlations, such as the MFDCCA based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (MFXDFA) method. We develop in this work a class of MFDCCA algorithms based on the detrending moving-average analysis, called MFXDMA. The performances of the proposed MFXDMA algorithms are compared with the MFXDFA method by extensive numerical experiments on pairs of time series generated from bivariate fractional Brownian motions, two-component autoregressive fractionally integrated moving-average processes, and binomial measures, which have theoretical expressions of the multifractal nature. In all cases, the scaling exponents h(xy) extracted from the MFXDMA and MFXDFA algorithms are very close to the theoretical values. For bivariate fractional Brownian motions, the scaling exponent of the cross correlation is independent of the cross-correlation coefficient between two time series, and the MFXDFA and centered MFXDMA algorithms have comparative performances, which outperform the forward and backward MFXDMA algorithms. For two-component autoregressive fractionally integrated moving-average processes, we also find that the MFXDFA and centered MFXDMA algorithms have comparative performances, while the forward and backward MFXDMA algorithms perform slightly worse. For binomial measures, the forward MFXDMA algorithm exhibits the best performance, the centered MFXDMA algorithms performs worst, and the backward MFXDMA algorithm outperforms the MFXDFA algorithm when the moment order q0. We apply these algorithms to the return time series of two stock market indexes and to their volatilities. For the returns, the centered MFXDMA algorithm gives the best estimates of h(xy)(q) since its h(xy)(2) is closest to 0.5, as expected, and
Tehsin, Sara; Rehman, Saad; Awan, Ahmad B.; Chaudry, Qaiser; Abbas, Muhammad; Young, Rupert; Asif, Afia
2016-04-01
Sensitivity to the variations in the reference image is a major concern when recognizing target objects. A combinational framework of correlation filters and logarithmic transformation has been previously reported to resolve this issue alongside catering for scale and rotation changes of the object in the presence of distortion and noise. In this paper, we have extended the work to include the influence of different logarithmic bases on the resultant correlation plane. The meaningful changes in correlation parameters along with contraction/expansion in the correlation plane peak have been identified under different scenarios. Based on our research, we propose some specific log bases to be used in logarithmically transformed correlation filters for achieving suitable tolerance to different variations. The study is based upon testing a range of logarithmic bases for different situations and finding an optimal logarithmic base for each particular set of distortions. Our results show improved correlation and target detection accuracies.
Bringing the cross-correlation method up to date
Statler, Thomas
1995-03-01
The cross-correlation (XC) method of Tonry & Davis (1979, AJ, 84, 1511) is generalized to arbitrary parametrized line profiles. In the new algorithm the correlation function itself, rather than the observed galaxy spectrum, is fitted by the model line profile: this removes much of the complication in the error analysis caused by template mismatch. Like the Fourier correlation quotient (FCQ) method of Bender (1990, A&A, 229, 441), the inferred line profiles are, up to a normalization constant, independent of template mismatch as long as there are no blended lines. The standard reduced chi2 is a good measure of the fit of the inferred velocity distribution, largely decoupled from the fit of the spectral template. The updated XC method performs as well as other recently developed methods, with the added virtue of conceptual simplicity.
Bringing the cross-correlation method up to date
Statler, Thomas
1995-01-01
The cross-correlation (XC) method of Tonry & Davis (1979, AJ, 84, 1511) is generalized to arbitrary parametrized line profiles. In the new algorithm the correlation function itself, rather than the observed galaxy spectrum, is fitted by the model line profile: this removes much of the complication in the error analysis caused by template mismatch. Like the Fourier correlation quotient (FCQ) method of Bender (1990, A&A, 229, 441), the inferred line profiles are, up to a normalization constant, independent of template mismatch as long as there are no blended lines. The standard reduced chi(exp 2) is a good measure of the fit of the inferred velocity distribution, largely decoupled from the fit of the spectral template. The updated XC method performs as well as other recently developed methods, with the added virtue of conceptual simplicity.
Singh, Sukhdeep; Brownstein, Joel R
2016-01-01
We present first results from cross-correlating Planck CMB lensing maps with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxy lensing shape catalog and BOSS galaxy catalogs. For galaxy position vs. CMB lensing cross-correlations, we measure the convergence signal around the galaxies in configuration space, using the BOSS LOWZ ($z\\sim0.30$) and CMASS ($z\\sim0.57$) samples. With fixed Planck 2015 cosmology, doing a joint fit with the galaxy clustering measurement, for the LOWZ (CMASS) sample we find a galaxy bias $b_g=1.75\\pm0.04$ ($1.95\\pm 0.02$) and galaxy-matter cross-correlation coefficient $r_{cc}=1.0\\pm0.2$ ($0.8\\pm 0.1$) using $20
Singh, Sukhdeep; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Brownstein, Joel R.
2017-01-01
We present results from cross-correlating Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing maps with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxy lensing shape catalogue and BOSS (Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey) galaxy catalogues. For galaxy position versus CMB lensing cross-correlations, we measure the convergence signal around the galaxies in configuration space, using the BOSS LOWZ (z ˜ 0.30) and CMASS (z ˜ 0.57) samples. With fixed Planck 2015 cosmology, doing a joint fit with the galaxy clustering measurement, for the LOWZ (CMASS) sample we find a galaxy bias bg = 1.75 ± 0.04 (1.95 ± 0.02) and galaxy-matter cross-correlation coefficient rcc = 1.0 ± 0.2 (0.8 ± 0.1) using 20 < rp < 70 h-1 Mpc, consistent with results from galaxy-galaxy lensing. Using the same scales and including the galaxy-galaxy lensing measurements, we constrain Ωm = 0.284 ± 0.024 and relative calibration bias between the CMB lensing and galaxy lensing to be b_γ =0.82^{+0.15}_{-0.14}. The combination of galaxy lensing and CMB lensing also allows us to measure the cosmological distance ratios (with zl ˜ 0.3, zs ˜ 0.5) R=D_s D_{l,*}/D_{* D_{l,s}}=2.68± 0.29, consistent with predictions from the Planck 2015 cosmology (R=2.35). We detect the galaxy position-CMB convergence cross-correlation at small scales, rp < 1 h-1 Mpc, and find consistency with lensing by NFW haloes of mass Mh ˜ 1013 h-1 M⊙. Finally, we measure the CMB lensing-galaxy shear cross-correlation, finding an amplitude of A = 0.76 ± 0.23 (zeff = 0.35, θ < 2°) with respect to Planck 2015 Λ cold dark matter predictions (1σ level consistency). We do not find evidence for relative systematics between the CMB and SDSS galaxy lensing.
Fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy using single wavelength laser
Chao XIE; Chaoqing DONG; Jicun REN
2009-01-01
In this paper, we first introduced the basic principle of fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS) and then established an FCCS setup using a single wavelength laser. We systematically optimized the setup, and the detection volume reached about 0.7 fL. The home-built setup was successfully applied for the study of the binding reaction of human immunoglobulin G with goat antihuman immunoglobulin G. Using quantum dots (745 nm emission wavelength) and Rhodamine B (580 nm emission wavelength) as labeling probes and 532 nm laser beam as an excitation source, the cross-talk effect was almost completely suppressed. The molecule numbers in a highly focused volume, the concentration, and the diffusion time and hydrodynamic radii of the reaction products can be determined by FCCS system.
Rocco, Paolo; Cilurzo, Francesco; Minghetti, Paola; Vistoli, Giulio; Pedretti, Alessandro
2017-10-01
The data presented in this article are related to the article titled "Molecular Dynamics as a tool for in silico screening of skin permeability" (Rocco et al., 2017) [1]. Knowledge of the confidence interval and maximum theoretical value of the correlation coefficient r can prove useful to estimate the reliability of developed predictive models, in particular when there is great variability in compiled experimental datasets. In this Data in Brief article, data from purposely designed numerical simulations are presented to show how much the maximum r value is worsened by increasing the data uncertainty. The corresponding confidence interval of r is determined by using the Fisher r→Z transform.
Bunch Length Measurements With Laser/SR Cross-Correlation
Miller, Timothy; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Daranciang, Dan; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Lindenberg, Aaron; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Corbett, Jeff; /SLAC; Fisher, Alan; /SLAC; Goodfellow, John; /SLAC; Huang, Xiaobiao; /SLAC; Mok, Walter; /SLAC; Safranek, James; /SLAC; Wen, Haidan; /SLAC
2012-07-06
By operating SPEAR3 in low-{alpha} mode the storage ring can generate synchrotron radiation pulses of order 1ps. Applications include pump-probe x-ray science and the production of THz radiation in the CSR regime. Measurements of the bunch length are difficult, however, because the light intensity is low and streak cameras typically provide resolution of only a few ps. Tests are now underway to resolve the short bunch length using cross-correlation between a 60-fs Ti:Sapphire laser and the visible SR beam in a BBO crystal. In this paper we report on the experimental setup, preliminary measurements and prospects for further improvement.
Bunch Length Measurements With Laser/SR Cross-Correlation
Miller, Timothy; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Daranciang, Dan; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Lindenberg, Aaron; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Corbett, Jeff; /SLAC; Fisher, Alan; /SLAC; Goodfellow, John; /SLAC; Huang, Xiaobiao; /SLAC; Mok, Walter; /SLAC; Safranek, James; /SLAC; Wen, Haidan; /SLAC
2012-07-06
By operating SPEAR3 in low-{alpha} mode the storage ring can generate synchrotron radiation pulses of order 1ps. Applications include pump-probe x-ray science and the production of THz radiation in the CSR regime. Measurements of the bunch length are difficult, however, because the light intensity is low and streak cameras typically provide resolution of only a few ps. Tests are now underway to resolve the short bunch length using cross-correlation between a 60-fs Ti:Sapphire laser and the visible SR beam in a BBO crystal. In this paper we report on the experimental setup, preliminary measurements and prospects for further improvement.
Dutta, Srimonti; Ghosh, Dipak; Chatterjee, Sucharita
2016-12-01
The manuscript studies autocorrelation and cross correlation of SENSEX fluctuations and Forex Exchange Rate in respect to Indian scenario. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) and multifractal detrended cross correlation analysis (MFDXA) were employed to study the correlation between the two series. It was observed that the two series are strongly cross correlated. The change of degree of cross correlation with time was studied and the results are interpreted qualitatively.
Study of cross-correlation in a self-affine time series of taxi accidents
Zebende, G. F.; da Silva, P. A.; Machado Filho, A.
2011-05-01
We study in this paper the cross-correlation between self-affine time series of real variables recorded simultaneously in cases of taxi accidents. For this purpose, we apply the DCCA method and show that the cross-correlation can be divided into three distinct groups, if we look for the detrended covariance function, i.e., long-range cross-correlations, short-range cross-correlations and no cross-correlations. Finally, it will be seen that the detrended covariance function is robust, if compared with other methods, in identifying these types of cross-correlations.
Accelerating Radio Astronomy Cross-Correlation with Graphics Processing Units
Clark, M A; Greenhill, L J
2011-01-01
We present a highly parallel implementation of the cross-correlation of time-series data using graphics processing units (GPUs), which is scalable to hundreds of independent inputs and suitable for the processing of signals from "Large-N" arrays of many radio antennas. The computational part of the algorithm, the X-engine, is implementated efficiently on Nvidia's Fermi architecture, sustaining up to 79% of the peak single precision floating-point throughput. We compare performance obtained for hardware- and software-managed caches, observing significantly better performance for the latter. The high performance reported involves use of a multi-level data tiling strategy in memory and use of a pipelined algorithm with simultaneous computation and transfer of data from host to device memory. The speed of code development, flexibility, and low cost of the GPU implementations compared to ASIC and FPGA implementations have the potential to greatly shorten the cycle of correlator development and deployment, for case...
Calibrating photometric redshift distributions with cross-correlations
Schulz, A E
2009-01-01
The next generation of proposed galaxy surveys will increase the number of galaxies with photometric redshifts by two orders of magnitude, drastically expanding both redshift range and detection threshold from the current state of the art. Obtaining spectra for a fair sub-sample of this new data could be cumbersome and expensive. However, adequate calibration of the true redshift distribution of galaxies is vital to tapping the potential of these surveys. We examine a promising alternative to direct spectroscopic follow up: calibration of the redshift distribution of photometric galaxies via cross-correlation with an overlapping spectroscopic survey whose members trace the same density field. We review the theory, develop a pipeline, apply it to mock data from N-body simulations, and examine the properties of this redshift distribution estimator. We demonstrate that the method is effective, but the estimator is weakened by two factors. 1) The correlation function of the spectroscopic sample must be measured i...
A Maximum Entropy Fixed-Point Route Choice Model for Route Correlation
Louis de Grange
2014-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present a stochastic route choice model for transit networks that explicitly addresses route correlation due to overlapping alternatives. The model is based on a multi-objective mathematical programming problem, the optimality conditions of which generate an extension to the Multinomial Logit models. The proposed model considers a fixed point problem for treating correlations between routes, which can be solved iteratively. We estimated the new model on the Santiago (Chile Metro network and compared the results with other route choice models that can be found in the literature. The new model has better explanatory and predictive power that many other alternative models, correctly capturing the correlation factor. Our methodology can be extended to private transport networks.
A new maximum likelihood blood velocity estimator incorporating spatial and temporal correlation
Schlaikjer, Malene; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2001-01-01
The blood flow in the human cardiovascular system obeys the laws of fluid mechanics. Investigation of the flow properties reveals that a correlation exists between the velocity in time and space. The possible changes in velocity are limited, since the blood velocity has a continuous profile in time...... of the observations gives a probability measure of the correlation between the velocities. Both the MLE and the STC-MLE have been evaluated on simulated and in-vivo RF-data obtained from the carotid artery. Using the MLE 4.1% of the estimates deviate significantly from the true velocities, when the performance...
Cross-Correlating 2D and 3D Galaxy Surveys
Passaglia, Samuel [Chicago U., KICP; Manzotti, Alessandro [Chicago U., KICP; Dodelson, Scott [Fermilab
2017-02-09
Galaxy surveys probe both structure formation and the expansion rate, making them promising avenues for understanding the dark universe. Photometric surveys accurately map the 2D distribution of galaxy positions and shapes in a given redshift range, while spectroscopic surveys provide sparser 3D maps of the galaxy distribution. We present a way to analyse overlapping 2D and 3D maps jointly and without loss of information. We represent 3D maps using spherical Fourier-Bessel (sFB) modes, which preserve radial coverage while accounting for the spherical sky geometry, and we decompose 2D maps in a spherical harmonic basis. In these bases, a simple expression exists for the cross-correlation of the two fields. One very powerful application is the ability to simultaneously constrain the redshift distribution of the photometric sample, the sample biases, and cosmological parameters. We use our framework to show that combined analysis of DESI and LSST can improve cosmological constraints by factors of ${\\sim}1.2$ to ${\\sim}1.8$ on the region where they overlap relative to identically sized disjoint regions. We also show that in the overlap of DES and SDSS-III in Stripe 82, cross-correlating improves photo-$z$ parameter constraints by factors of ${\\sim}2$ to ${\\sim}12$ over internal photo-$z$ reconstructions.
Directionality and Resultativity: The Cross-linguistic Correlation Revisited
Minjeong Son
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Recent approaches to the cross-linguistic variation in the expressions of directed motion assume a tight correlation between adjectival resultative and directed motion constructions (e.g., Beck and Snyder 2001, Mateu and Rigau 2001; 2002, McIntyre 2004, Beavers et al. 2004. Beck and Snyder (2001, in particular, argue that languages that allow adjectival resultatives also allow directed motion with goal PP (or telic Path PP based on the compounding parameter proposed by Snyder (1995; 2001. This paper, however, shows that such ‘macro’-parametric approaches to the cross-linguistic variation (in directed motion fail when individual languages are investigated in detail. Based on Korean, Japanese, Hebrew, Czech, and Indonesian, I show that there is no necessary correlation between directed motion (i.e., goal PP constructions and the availability of resultative phrases, and that the previous parameter approaches face challenges in explaining the facts drawn from these languages. I further show that the variation in directed motion is better explained by careful examination of individual adpositions that differ from one language (e.g., English to another (e.g., Korean.
Bahrami Hamid Reza
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The ergodic capacity of MIMO frequency-flat and -selective channels depends greatly on the eigenvalue distribution of spatial correlation matrices. Knowing the eigenstructure of correlation matrices at the transmitter is very important to enhance the capacity of the system. This fact becomes of great importance in MIMO wireless systems where because of the fast changing nature of the underlying channel, full channel knowledge is difficult to obtain at the transmitter. In this paper, we first investigate the effect of eigenvalues distribution of spatial correlation matrices on the capacity of frequency-flat and -selective channels. Next, we introduce a practical scheme known as linear precoding that can enhance the ergodic capacity of the channel by changing the eigenstructure of the channel by applying a linear transformation. We derive the structures of precoders using eigenvalue decomposition and linear algebra techniques in both cases and show their similarities from an algebraic point of view. Simulations show the ability of this technique to change the eigenstructure of the channel, and hence enhance the ergodic capacity considerably.
Cross-correlation analysis of mechanomyographic signals detected in two axes.
Beck, Travis W; Dillon, Michael A; DeFreitas, Jason M; Stock, Matt S
2009-12-01
The purpose of this study was to use laser displacement sensors to examine the cross-correlation of surface mechanomyographic (MMG) signals detected from the rectus femoris muscle in perpendicular and transverse axes during isometric muscle actions of the leg extensors. Ten healthy men (mean +/- SD age = 22.1 +/- 1.6 years) and ten healthy women (age = 24.4 +/- 2.8 years) volunteered to perform submaximal to maximal isometric muscle actions of the dominant leg extensors. During each muscle action, two separate MMG signals were detected from the rectus femoris with laser displacement sensors. One MMG sensor was oriented in an axis that was perpendicular (PERP) to the muscle surface, and the second sensor was oriented in an axis that was transverse (TRAN) to the muscle surface. For each subject and force level, the MMG signals from the PERP and TRAN sensors were cross-correlated. The results showed maximum cross-correlation coefficients that ranged from R(x)(,y) = 0.273 to 0.989, but all subjects demonstrated at least one coefficient greater than 0.89. These findings showed a high level of association between the MMG signals detected in the perpendicular and transverse axes. Thus, it may not be necessary to detect MMG signals in multiple axes.
Characterization of spatiotemporally complex gait patterns using cross-correlation signatures.
Park, Kiwon; Dankowicz, Harry; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T
2012-05-01
We hypothesize that spatiotemporal joint coupling patterns during gait are closely associated with musculoskeletal injury mechanics. Previous studies examining joint coupling, have primarily focused on coupling between single pairs of neighboring body segments or joints; thus falling short of characterizing the full spatiotemporal complexity across the entire gait apparatus. This study proposes the reliance on properties of the temporal cross-correlation of distinct joint variables as a means to characterize and detect differences in multiple segmental coupling pairs and to quantify how these couplings change between different gait conditions or test groups. In particular, for each subject, a characteristic diagram array is obtained whose entries include the maximum values of the cross-correlation between all pairs of joint variables as well as the associated phase shifts at which these maxima are recorded. Paired t-tests are then used to highlight significant differences in the corresponding entries between two gait conditions. In the present study, this technique was applied to angular displacement and velocity histories across 12 lower extremity joint variables, for healthy subjects with and without a brace on the right knee. As expected, the statistical analysis indicated that the temporal cross-correlations associated with the right knee-angle variables differed the most between the two gait conditions. In addition, significant differences (pknee.
Effect of Cross-Correlation on Geomagnetic Forecast Accuracies
Kuang, Weijia; Wei, Zigang; Tangborn, Andrew
2011-01-01
Surface geomagnetic observation can determine up to degree L = 14 time-varying spherical harmonic coefficients of the poloidal magnetic field. Assimilation of these coefficients to numerical dynamo simulation could help us understand better the dynamical processes in the Earth's outer core, and to provide more accurate forecast of geomagnetic secular variations (SV). In our previous assimilation studies, only the poloidal magnetic field in the core is corrected by the observations in the analysis. Unobservable core state variables (the toroidal magnetic field and the core velocity field) are corrected via the dynamical equations of the geodynamo. Our assimilation experiments show that the assimilated core state converges near the CMB, implying that the dynamo state is strongly constrained by surface geomagnetic observations, and is pulled closer to the truth by the data. We are now carrying out an ensemble of assimilation runs with 1000 years of geomagnetic and archeo/paleo magnetic record. In these runs the cross correlation between the toroidal and the poloidal magnetic fields is incorporated into the analysis. This correlation is derived from the physical boundary conditions of the toroidal field at the core-mantle boundary (CMB). The assimilation results are then compared with those of the ensemble runs without the cross-correlation, aiming at understanding two fundamental issues: the effect of the crosscorrelation on (1) the convergence of the core state, and (2) the SV prediction accuracies. The constrained dynamo solutions will provide valuable insights on interpreting the observed SV, e.g. the near-equator magnetic flux patches, the core-mantle interactions, and possibly other geodynamic observables.
Cross-correlations between Baltic Dry Index and crude oil prices
Ruan, Qingsong; Wang, Yao; Lu, Xinsheng; Qin, Jing
2016-07-01
This paper examines the cross-correlation properties of Baltic Dry Index (BDI) and crude oil prices using cross-correlation statistics test and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA). The empirical results show that the cross-correlations between BDI and crude oil prices are significantly multifractal. By introducing the concept of a "crossover", we find that the cross-correlations are strongly persistent in the short term and weakly anti-persistent in the long term. Moreover, cross-correlations of all kinds of fluctuations are persistent in the short time while cross-correlations of small fluctuations are persistent and those of large fluctuations are anti-persistent in the long term. We have also verified that the multifractality of the cross-correlations of BDI and crude oil prices is both attributable to the persistence of fluctuations of time series and fat-tailed distributions.
Kok, S
2012-07-01
Full Text Available is considered in this paper, but the main result of Zimmermann [2] is disproved. 2 Kriging fundamentals A response y(x) is considered to consist of a deterministic contribution f(x) and a stochastic component Z(x), i.e. y(x) = f(x) + Z(x). (1...) and is symmetric by definition. In computer experiment applications, the Gaussian correlation function is particularly popular. In this case, R is given by R(xi, xj) = m? k=1 e??k|x i k?x j k|2 , (4) where m is the number of design variables (i.e...
Principle of Maximum Entanglement Entropy and Local Physics of Strongly Correlated Materials
Lanatà, Nicola [Rutgers University; Strand, Hugo U. R. [University of Gothenburg; Yao, Yongxin [Ames Laboratory; Kotliar, Gabriel [Rutgers University
2014-07-01
We argue that, because of quantum entanglement, the local physics of strongly correlated materials at zero temperature is described in a very good approximation by a simple generalized Gibbs distribution, which depends on a relatively small number of local quantum thermodynamical potentials. We demonstrate that our statement is exact in certain limits and present numerical calculations of the iron compounds FeSe and FeTe and of the elemental cerium by employing the Gutzwiller approximation that strongly support our theory in general.
Using waveform cross correlation for automatic recovery of aftershock sequences
Bobrov, Dmitry; Kitov, Ivan; Rozhkov, Mikhail
2017-04-01
Aftershock sequences of the largest earthquakes are difficult to recover. There can be several hundred mid-sized aftershocks per hour within a few hundred km from each other recorded by the same stations. Moreover, these events generate thousands of reflected/refracted phases having azimuth and slowness close to those from the P-waves. Therefore, aftershock sequences with thousands of events represent a major challenge for automatic and interactive processing at the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Organization (CTBTO). Standard methods of detection and phase association do not use all information contained in signals. As a result, wrong association of the first and later phases, both regular and site specific, produces enormous number of wrong event hypotheses and destroys valid event hypotheses in automatic IDC processing. In turn, the IDC analysts have to reject false and recreate valid hypotheses wasting precious human resources. At the current level of the IDC catalogue completeness, the method of waveform cross correlation (WCC) can resolve most of detection and association problems fully utilizing the similarity of waveforms generated by aftershocks. Array seismic stations of the International monitoring system (IMS) can enhance the performance of the WCC method: reduce station-specific detection thresholds, allow accurate estimate of signal attributes, including relative magnitude, and effectively suppress irrelevant arrivals. We have developed and tested a prototype of an aftershock tool matching all IDC processing requirements and merged it with the current IDC pipeline. This tool includes creation of master events consisting of real or synthetic waveform templates at ten and more IMS stations; cross correlation (CC) of real-time waveforms with these templates, association of arrivals detected at CC-traces in event hypotheses; building events matching the IDC quality criteria; and resolution of conflicts between events
Cross Correlation versus Mutual Information for Image Mosaicing
Sherin Ghannam
2013-12-01
Full Text Available This paper reviews the concept of image mosaicing and presents a comparison between two of the most common image mosaicing techniques. The first technique is based on normalized cross correlation (NCC for registering overlapping 2D images of a 3D scene. The second is based on mutual information (MI. The experimental results demonstrate that the two techniques have a similar performance in most cases but there are some interesting differences. The choice of a distinctive template is critical when working with NCC. On the other hand, when using MI, the registration procedure was able to provide acceptable performance even without distinctive templates. But generally the performance when using MI with large rotation angles was not accurate as with NCC.
Investigation Of The Diffuse IGM By Cross-Correlation Studies
Farnsworth, Damon; Brown, Shea; Rudnick, Lawrence
2009-12-01
We present results from the first cross-correlation search for the synchrotron component of the diffuse intergalactic medium (IGM) in filamentary large scale structure (LSS). We used the low resolution (36') Bonn survey at 21cm, with the infrared 2MASS catalog as a tracer of the LSS. Synchrotron emission likely results from LSS formation shocks and feedback from AGN and galactic winds [2]. We determined 3σ upper limits to the diffuse emission in units of flux per galaxy; these correspond to filament equipartition magnetic fields as low as 0.2 μG. The detection threshold for the average (peak) filament brightness is 1 (7) mK for 0.03Bonn survey, demonstrating the power of this technique.
Cross-correlation cosmography with HI intensity mapping
Pourtsidou, Alkistis; Crittenden, Robert
2015-01-01
The cross-correlation of a foreground density field with two different background convergence fields can be used to measure cosmographic distance ratios and constrain dark energy parameters. We investigate the possibility of performing such measurements using a combination of optical galaxy surveys and HI intensity mapping surveys, with emphasis on the performance of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Using HI intensity mapping to probe the foreground density tracer field and/or the background source fields has the advantage of excellent redshift resolution and a longer lever arm achieved by using the lensing signal from high redshift background sources. Our results show that, for our best SKA-optical configuration of surveys, a constant equation of state for dark energy can be constrained to $\\simeq 8\\%$ for a sky coverage $f_{\\rm sky}=0.5$ and assuming a $\\sigma(\\Omega_{\\rm DE})=0.03$ prior for the dark energy density parameter.
Cross-correlations of ambient noise recorded by accelerometers.
Rábade García, S. E.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.
2014-12-01
We investigate the ambient noise cross-correlations obtained by using properly corrected accelerometric recordings, and determine velocity structure in central Mexico based on a dispersion analysis. The data used comprise ten months of continuous recordings - from April 2013 to January 2014 - of ambient seismic noise at stations operated by the National Seismological Service of Mexico and the Engineering Strong Ground Motion Network of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The vertical component of ambient noise was base-line corrected, filtered, and properly integrated before extracting Green's functions (GF), which were compared successfully against GF obtained using recordings from broadband velocity sensors. In order to obtain dispersion curves, we estimated group and phase velocities applying the FTAN analysis technique and obtained s-wave velocity profiles at selected regions. We conclude and highlight that the use of widely deployed accelerographs to conduct regional studies using ambient noise tomography is feasible
Cross-correlation Aided Transport in Stochastically Driven Accretion Flows
Nath, Sujit Kumar
2014-01-01
Origin of linear instability resulting in rotating sheared accretion flows has remained a controversial subject for long. While some explanations of such non-normal transient growth of disturbances in the Rayleigh stable limit were available for magnetized accretion flows, similar instabilities in absence of magnetic perturbations remained unexplained. This dichotomy was resolved in two recent publications by Chattopadhyay, {\\it et al} where it was shown that such instabilities, especially for non-magnetized accretion flows, were introduced through interaction of the inherent stochastic noise in the system (even a \\enquote{cold} accretion flow at 3000K is too \\enquote{hot} in the statistical parlance and is capable of inducing strong thermal modes) with the underlying Taylor-Couette flow profiles. Both studies, however, excluded the additional energy influx (or efflux) that could result from nonzero cross-correlation of a noise perturbing the velocity flow, say, with the noise that is driving the vorticity fl...
Nonlinear ultrasonic measurements based on cross-correlation filtering techniques
Yee, Andrew; Stewart, Dylan; Bunget, Gheorghe; Kramer, Patrick; Farinholt, Kevin; Friedersdorf, Fritz; Pepi, Marc; Ghoshal, Anindya
2017-02-01
Cyclic loading of mechanical components promotes the formation of dislocation dipoles in metals, which can serve as precursors to crack nucleation and ultimately lead to failure. In the laboratory setting, an acoustic nonlinearity parameter has been assessed as an effective indicator for characterizing the progression of fatigue damage precursors. However, the need to use monochromatic waves of medium-to-high acoustic energy has presented a constraint, making it problematic for use in field applications. This paper presents a potential approach for field measurement of acoustic nonlinearity by using general purpose ultrasonic pulser-receivers. Nonlinear ultrasonic measurements during fatigue testing were analyzed by the using contact and immersion pulse-through method. A novel cross-correlation filtering technique was developed to extract the fundamental and higher harmonic waves from the signals. As in the case of the classic harmonic generation, the nonlinearity parameters of the second and third harmonics indicate a strong correlation with fatigue cycles. Consideration was given to potential nonlinearities in the measurement system, and tests have confirmed that measured second harmonic signals exhibit a linear dependence on the input signal strength, further affirming the conclusion that this parameter relates to damage precursor formation from cyclic loading.
Blind Cartography for Side Channel Attacks: Cross-Correlation Cartography
Laurent Sauvage
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Side channel and fault injection attacks are major threats to cryptographic applications of embedded systems. Best performances for these attacks are achieved by focusing sensors or injectors on the sensible parts of the application, by means of dedicated methods to localise them. Few methods have been proposed in the past, and all of them aim at pinpointing the cryptoprocessor. However it could be interesting to exploit the activity of other parts of the application, in order to increase the attack's efficiency or to bypass its countermeasures. In this paper, we present a localisation method based on cross-correlation, which issues a list of areas of interest within the attacked device. It realizes an exhaustive analysis, since it may localise any module of the device, and not only those which perform cryptographic operations. Moreover, it also does not require a preliminary knowledge about the implementation, whereas some previous cartography methods require that the attacker could choose the cryptoprocessor inputs, which is not always possible. The method is experimentally validated using observations of the electromagnetic near field distribution over a Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGA. The matching between areas of interest and the application layout in the FPGA floorplan is confirmed by correlation analysis.
Inter-diffusion and its correlation with dynamical cross correlation in liquid Ce80Ni20
Hu, J. L.; Zhong, L. X.; Zhu, C. A.; Zhang, B.
2017-03-01
We reported the inter-diffusion coefficients in liquid Ce_{80}Ni_{20} measured by the sliding cell technique. Combined with the self-diffusion data of Ni measured by quasi-elastic neutron scattering in the literature, it was found that the relationship between inter-diffusion and self-diffusion in liquid Ce_{80}Ni_{20} was strongly deviated from the standard Darken equation with an abnormally small dynamical cross correlation factor S (the so called Manning factor) in a range of 0.6-0.8, less than unity in standard systems. Through the calculated distinct diffusion coefficient and its deviation from the standard one, it was discovered that the small S value was directly originated from enhanced distinct diffusion between Ce and Ni atoms and reduced distinct diffusion between Ni and Ni atoms. Because the inter-atomic interaction was not considered in the standard liquids, the present small S factor and intrinsic distinct diffusion coefficients were believed to be resulted from the chemical interaction between Ce and Ni in the liquid. The results provide new evidence of the dynamic cross correlation in liquid diffusion, and thus shed light on the understanding of the correlation between dynamics and structure in liquid alloys.
Cross-correlations between spot and futures markets of nonferrous metals
Liu, Li; Wang, Yudong
2014-04-01
In this paper, we investigate cross-correlations between nonferrous metal spot and futures markets using detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA). We find the existence of significant cross-correlations for both return and volatility series. The DCCA-based cross-correlation coefficients are very high and decrease with the futures maturity increases. Using the multifractal extension of DCCA, the multifractality in cross-correlations is revealed. We also detect the source of cross-correlations between spot and futures markets. We use the vector error correction model and bivariate BEKK-GARCH to model the interactions between returns and volatilities of spot and futures, respectively. Our findings indicate that the volatility spillover between spot and futures markets contributes major to nonlinear cross-correlation while the contribution of mean spillover is very minor.
Keranmu Xielifuguli
2014-01-01
Full Text Available People often make decisions based on sensitivity rather than rationality. In the field of biological information processing, methods are available for analyzing biological information directly based on electroencephalogram: EEG to determine the pleasant/unpleasant reactions of users. In this study, we propose a sensitivity filtering technique for discriminating preferences (pleasant/unpleasant for images using a sensitivity image filtering system based on EEG. Using a set of images retrieved by similarity retrieval, we perform the sensitivity-based pleasant/unpleasant classification of images based on the affective features extracted from images with the maximum entropy method: MEM. In the present study, the affective features comprised cross-correlation features obtained from EEGs produced when an individual observed an image. However, it is difficult to measure the EEG when a subject visualizes an unknown image. Thus, we propose a solution where a linear regression method based on canonical correlation is used to estimate the cross-correlation features from image features. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the validity of sensitivity filtering compared with image similarity retrieval methods based on image features. We found that sensitivity filtering using color correlograms was suitable for the classification of preferred images, while sensitivity filtering using local binary patterns was suitable for the classification of unpleasant images. Moreover, sensitivity filtering using local binary patterns for unpleasant images had a 90% success rate. Thus, we conclude that the proposed method is efficient for filtering unpleasant images.
Wei, Yun-Lan; Yu, Zu-Guo; Zou, Hai-Long; Anh, Vo
2017-06-01
A new method—multifractal temporally weighted detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-TWXDFA)—is proposed to investigate multifractal cross-correlations in this paper. This new method is based on multifractal temporally weighted detrended fluctuation analysis and multifractal cross-correlation analysis (MFCCA). An innovation of the method is applying geographically weighted regression to estimate local trends in the nonstationary time series. We also take into consideration the sign of the fluctuations in computing the corresponding detrended cross-covariance function. To test the performance of the MF-TWXDFA algorithm, we apply it and the MFCCA method on simulated and actual series. Numerical tests on artificially simulated series demonstrate that our method can accurately detect long-range cross-correlations for two simultaneously recorded series. To further show the utility of MF-TWXDFA, we apply it on time series from stock markets and find that power-law cross-correlation between stock returns is significantly multifractal. A new coefficient, MF-TWXDFA cross-correlation coefficient, is also defined to quantify the levels of cross-correlation between two time series.
Wavelet multiple correlation and cross-correlation: A multiscale analysis of Eurozone stock markets
Fernández-Macho, Javier
2012-02-01
Statistical studies that consider multiscale relationships among several variables use wavelet correlations and cross-correlations between pairs of variables. This procedure needs to calculate and compare a large number of wavelet statistics. The analysis can then be rather confusing and even frustrating since it may fail to indicate clearly the multiscale overall relationship that might exist among the variables. This paper presents two new statistical tools that help to determine the overall correlation for the whole multivariate set on a scale-by-scale basis. This is illustrated in the analysis of a multivariate set of daily Eurozone stock market returns during a recent period. Wavelet multiple correlation analysis reveals the existence of a nearly exact linear relationship for periods longer than the year, which can be interpreted as perfect integration of these Euro stock markets at the longest time scales. It also shows that small inconsistencies between Euro markets seem to be just short within-year discrepancies possibly due to the interaction of different agents with different trading horizons.
Younk, Patrick; Risse, Markus
2012-07-01
The composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays is an important issue in astroparticle physics research, and additional experimental results are required for further progress. Here we investigate what can be learned from the statistical correlation factor r between the depth of shower maximum and the muon shower size, when these observables are measured simultaneously for a set of air showers. The correlation factor r contains the lowest-order moment of a two-dimensional distribution taking both observables into account, and it is independent of systematic uncertainties of the absolute scales of the two observables. We find that, assuming realistic measurement uncertainties, the value of r can provide a measure of the spread of masses in the primary beam. Particularly, one can differentiate between a well-mixed composition (i.e., a beam that contains large fractions of both light and heavy primaries) and a relatively pure composition (i.e., a beam that contains species all of a similar mass). The number of events required for a statistically significant differentiation is ˜200. This differentiation, though diluted, is maintained to a significant extent in the presence of uncertainties in the phenomenology of high energy hadronic interactions. Testing whether the beam is pure or well-mixed is well motivated by recent measurements of the depth of shower maximum.
Ruikun Mai
2017-02-01
Full Text Available One of the most promising inductive power transfer applications is the wireless power supply for locomotives which may cancel the need for pantographs. In order to meet the dynamic and high power demands of wireless power supplies for locomotives, a relatively long transmitter track and multiple receivers are usually adopted. However, during the dynamic charging, the mutual inductances between the transmitter and receivers vary and the load of the locomotives also changes randomly, which dramatically affects the system efficiency. A maximum efficiency point tracking control scheme is proposed to improve the system efficiency against the variation of the load and the mutual inductances between the transmitter and receivers while considering the cross coupling between receivers. Firstly, a detailed theoretical analysis on dual receivers is carried out. Then a control scheme with three control loops is proposed to regulate the receiver currents to be the same, to regulate the output voltage and to search for the maximum efficiency point. Finally, a 2 kW prototype is established to validate the performance of the proposed method. The overall system efficiency (DC-DC efficiency reaches 90.6% at rated power and is improved by 5.8% with the proposed method under light load compared with the traditional constant output voltage control method.
The effects of common risk factors on stock returns: A detrended cross-correlation analysis
Ruan, Qingsong; Yang, Bingchan
2017-10-01
In this paper, we investigate the cross-correlations between Fama and French three factors and the return of American industries on the basis of cross-correlation statistic test and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA). Qualitatively, we find that the return series of Fama and French three factors and American industries were overall significantly cross-correlated based on the analysis of a statistic. Quantitatively, we find that the cross-correlations between three factors and the return of American industries were strongly multifractal, and applying MF-DCCA we also investigate the cross-correlation of industry returns and residuals. We find that there exists multifractality of industry returns and residuals. The result of correlation coefficients we can verify that there exist other factors which influence the industry returns except Fama three factors.
Liang Xu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Aiming to reduce the number of crashes caused by speeding at night on road section with a crosswalk, a study was conducted on the maximum speed limit and safe average luminance at night. In order to investigate the potential relationship between drivers’ recognitive characteristics and driving speed under different road lighting features, data of remaining driving time (period from the time that crossing pedestrian is recognized to the time that vehicle arrives at crosswalk with an uniform speed were recorded. The results of the data analysis show that it is more difficult for divers to recognize crossing pedestrian at night when a single pedestrian is statistic and wears dark clothes. The remaining driving time decreases with the increase of driving speed and the decrease of road luminance. With the collected data, several multivariate nonlinear regression models were established to capture the relationship among the variables of remaining driving time at night, the driving speed, and the average luminance. Then the modeling results were used to develop the reasonable speed limit and safe average luminance by physical equations. The case studies are also introduced at the end of the paper.
Fyodorov, Yan V.; Doussal, Pierre Le
2016-07-01
We study three instances of log-correlated processes on the interval: the logarithm of the Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) characteristic polynomial, the Gaussian log-correlated potential in presence of edge charges, and the Fractional Brownian motion with Hurst index H → 0 (fBM0). In previous collaborations we obtained the probability distribution function (PDF) of the value of the global minimum (equivalently maximum) for the first two processes, using the freezing-duality conjecture (FDC). Here we study the PDF of the position of the maximum x_m through its moments. Using replica, this requires calculating moments of the density of eigenvalues in the β -Jacobi ensemble. Using Jack polynomials we obtain an exact and explicit expression for both positive and negative integer moments for arbitrary β >0 and positive integer n in terms of sums over partitions. For positive moments, this expression agrees with a very recent independent derivation by Mezzadri and Reynolds. We check our results against a contour integral formula derived recently by Borodin and Gorin (presented in the Appendix 1 from these authors). The duality necessary for the FDC to work is proved, and on our expressions, found to correspond to exchange of partitions with their dual. Performing the limit n → 0 and to negative Dyson index β → -2, we obtain the moments of x_m and give explicit expressions for the lowest ones. Numerical checks for the GUE polynomials, performed independently by N. Simm, indicate encouraging agreement. Some results are also obtained for moments in Laguerre, Hermite-Gaussian, as well as circular and related ensembles. The correlations of the position and the value of the field at the minimum are also analyzed.
Wang, Fang; Wang, Lin; Chen, Yuming
2017-08-31
In order to investigate the time-dependent cross-correlations of fine particulate (PM2.5) series among neighboring cities in Northern China, in this paper, we propose a new cross-correlation coefficient, the time-lagged q-L dependent height crosscorrelation coefficient (denoted by p q (τ, L)), which incorporates the time-lag factor and the fluctuation amplitude information into the analogous height cross-correlation analysis coefficient. Numerical tests are performed to illustrate that the newly proposed coefficient ρ q (τ, L) can be used to detect cross-correlations between two series with time lags and to identify different range of fluctuations at which two series possess cross-correlations. Applying the new coefficient to analyze the time-dependent cross-correlations of PM2.5 series between Beijing and the three neighboring cities of Tianjin, Zhangjiakou, and Baoding, we find that time lags between the PM2.5 series with larger fluctuations are longer than those between PM2.5 series withsmaller fluctuations. Our analysis also shows that cross-correlations between the PM2.5 series of two neighboring cities are significant and the time lags between two PM2.5 series of neighboring cities are significantly non-zero. These findings providenew scientific support on the view that air pollution in neighboring cities can affect one another not simultaneously but with a time lag.
Bing Wang; Xiuqing Wu
2008-01-01
@@ Considering a single-mode laser system with cross-correlated additive colored noise and multiplicative colored noise, we study the effects of correlation among noises on the normalized intensity correlation function C(s).C(s) is derived by means of the projection operator method.
Constraints on halo formation from cross-correlations with correlated variables
Castorina, Emanuele; Sheth, Ravi K
2016-01-01
Cross-correlations between biased tracers and the dark matter field encode information about the physical variables which characterize these tracers. However, if the physical variables of interest are correlated with one another, then extracting this information is not as straightforward as one might naively have thought. We show how to exploit these correlations so as to estimate scale-independent bias factors of all orders in a model-independent way. We also show that failure to account for this will lead to incorrect conclusions about which variables matter and which do not. Morever, accounting for this allows one to use the scale dependence of bias to constrain the physics of halo formation; to date the argument has been phrased the other way around. We illustrate by showing that the scale dependence of linear and nonlinear bias, measured on nonlinear scales, can be used to provide consistent estimates of how the critical density for halo formation depends on halo mass. Our methods work even when the bias...
$m$-Sequences of Different Lengths with Four-Valued Cross Correlation
Helleseth, Tor; Kholosha, Alexander; Johanssen, Aina
2007-01-01
{\\bf Abstract.} Considered is the distribution of the cross correlation between $m$-sequences of length $2^m-1$, where $m$ is even, and $m$-sequences of shorter length $2^{m/2}-1$. The infinite family of pairs of $m$-sequences with four-valued cross correlation is constructed and the complete correlation distribution of this family is determined.
Big Data Solution for CTBT Monitoring Using Global Cross Correlation
Gaillard, P.; Bobrov, D.; Dupont, A.; Grenouille, A.; Kitov, I. O.; Rozhkov, M.
2014-12-01
Due to the mismatch between data volume and the performance of the Information Technology infrastructure used in seismic data centers, it becomes more and more difficult to process all the data with traditional applications in a reasonable elapsed time. To fulfill their missions, the International Data Centre of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO/IDC) and the Département Analyse Surveillance Environnement of Commissariat à l'Energie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA/DASE) collect, process and produce complex data sets whose volume is growing exponentially. In the medium term, computer architectures, data management systems and application algorithms will require fundamental changes to meet the needs. This problem is well known and identified as a "Big Data" challenge. To tackle this major task, the CEA/DASE takes part during two years to the "DataScale" project. Started in September 2013, DataScale gathers a large set of partners (research laboratories, SMEs and big companies). The common objective is to design efficient solutions using the synergy between Big Data solutions and the High Performance Computing (HPC). The project will evaluate the relevance of these technological solutions by implementing a demonstrator for seismic event detections thanks to massive waveform correlations. The IDC has developed an expertise on such techniques leading to an algorithm called "Master Event" and provides a high-quality dataset for an extensive cross correlation study. The objective of the project is to enhance the Master Event algorithm and to reanalyze 10 years of waveform data from the International Monitoring System (IMS) network thanks to a dedicated HPC infrastructure operated by the "Centre de Calcul Recherche et Technologie" at the CEA of Bruyères-le-Châtel. The dataset used for the demonstrator includes more than 300,000 seismic events, tens of millions of raw detections and more than 30 terabytes of continuous seismic data
Xie, Chi; Zhou, Yingying; Wang, Gangjin; Yan, Xinguo
We use the multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) method to explore the multifractal behavior of the cross-correlation between exchange rates of onshore RMB (CNY) and offshore RMB (CNH) against US dollar (USD). The empirical data are daily prices of CNY/USD and CNH/USD from May 1, 2012 to February 29, 2016. The results demonstrate that: (i) the cross-correlation between CNY/USD and CNH/USD is persistent and its fluctuation is smaller when the order of fluctuation function is negative than that when the order is positive; (ii) the multifractal behavior of the cross-correlation between CNY/USD and CNH/USD is significant during the sample period; (iii) the dynamic Hurst exponents obtained by the rolling windows analysis show that the cross-correlation is stable when the global economic situation is good and volatile in bad situation; and (iv) the non-normal distribution of original data has a greater effect on the multifractality of the cross-correlation between CNY/USD and CNH/USD than the temporary correlation.
Atmospheric stellar parameters from cross-correlation functions
Malavolta, L.; Lovis, C.; Pepe, F.; Sneden, C.; Udry, S.
2017-08-01
The increasing number of spectra gathered by spectroscopic sky surveys and transiting exoplanet follow-up has pushed the community to develop automated tools for atmospheric stellar parameters determination. Here we present a novel approach that allows the measurement of temperature (Teff), metallicity ([Fe/H]) and gravity (log g) within a few seconds and in a completely automated fashion. Rather than performing comparisons with spectral libraries, our technique is based on the determination of several cross-correlation functions (CCFs) obtained by including spectral features with different sensitivity to the photospheric parameters. We use literature stellar parameters of high signal-to-noise (SNR), high-resolution HARPS spectra of FGK main-sequence stars to calibrate Teff, [Fe/H] and log g as a function of CCF parameters. Our technique is validated using low-SNR spectra obtained with the same instrument. For FGK stars we achieve a precision of σ _{{T_eff}} = 50 K, σlog g = 0.09 dex and σ _{{{[Fe/H]}}} =0.035 dex at SNR = 50, while the precision for observation with SNR ≳ 100 and the overall accuracy are constrained by the literature values used to calibrate the CCFs. Our approach can easily be extended to other instruments with similar spectral range and resolution or to other spectral range and stars other than FGK dwarfs if a large sample of reference stars is available for the calibration. Additionally, we provide the mathematical formulation to convert synthetic equivalent widths to CCF parameters as an alternative to direct calibration. We have made our tool publicly available.
Export Pricing and the Cross-Country Correlation of Stock Prices
Tervala, Juha
2009-01-01
This study analyses cross-country correlations of stock prices (values of firms) using the basic New Open Economy Macroeconomics model. We show that cross-country correlations of stock prices greatly depend on the currency of export pricing in the case of monetary shocks but not notably for temporary technology shocks. In the case of a money supply shock, the producer (local) currency pricing version of the model generates a negative (positive) cross-country correlation of stock prices.
Finite sample properties of power-law cross-correlations estimators
Kristoufek, Ladislav
2014-01-01
We study finite sample properties of estimators of power-law cross-correlations -- detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA), height cross-correlation analysis (HXA) and detrending moving-average cross-correlation analysis (DMCA) -- with a special focus on short-term memory bias as well as power-law coherency. Presented broad Monte Carlo simulation study focuses on different time series lengths, specific methods' parameter setting, and memory strength. We find that each method is best suited for different time series dynamics so that there is no clear winner between the three. The method selection should be then made based on observed dynamic properties of the analyzed series.
Detrended cross-correlation analysis on RMB exchange rate and Hang Seng China Enterprises Index
Ruan, Qingsong; Yang, Bingchan; Ma, Guofeng
2017-02-01
In this paper, we investigate the cross-correlations between the Hang Seng China Enterprises Index and RMB exchange markets on the basis of a cross-correlation statistic test and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA). MF-DCCA has, at best, serious limitations for most of the signals describing complex natural processes and often indicates multifractal cross-correlations when there are none. In order to prevent these false multifractal cross-correlations, we apply MFCCA to verify the cross-correlations. Qualitatively, we find that the return series of the Hang Seng China Enterprises Index and RMB exchange markets were, overall, significantly cross-correlated based on the statistical analysis. Quantitatively, we find that the cross-correlations between the stock index and RMB exchange markets were strongly multifractal, and the multifractal degree of the onshore RMB exchange markets was somewhat larger than the offshore RMB exchange markets. Moreover, we use the absolute return series to investigate and confirm the fact of multifractality. The results from the rolling windows show that the short-term cross-correlations between volatility series remain high.
Grossi Márcio L
2007-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertical facial pattern may be related to the direction of pull of the masticatory muscles, yet its effect on occlusal force and elastic deformation of the mandible still is unclear. This study tested whether the variation in vertical facial pattern is related to the variation in maximum occlusal force (MOF and medial mandibular flexure (MMF in 51 fully-dentate adults. Methods Data from cephalometric analysis according to the method of Ricketts were used to divide the subjects into three groups: Dolichofacial (n = 6, Mesofacial (n = 10 and Brachyfacial (n = 35. Bilateral MOF was measured using a cross-arch force transducer placed in the first molar region. For MMF, impressions of the mandibular occlusal surface were made in rest (R and in maximum opening (O positions. The impressions were scanned, and reference points were selected on the occlusal surface of the contralateral first molars. MMF was calculated by subtracting the intermolar distance in O from the intermolar distance in R. Data were analysed by ANCOVA (fixed factors: facial pattern, sex; covariate: body mass index (BMI; alpha = 0.05. Results No significant difference of MOF or MMF was found among the three facial patterns (P = 0.62 and P = 0.72, respectively. BMI was not a significant covariate for MOF or MMF (P > 0.05. Sex was a significant factor only for MOF (P = 0.007; males had higher MOF values than females. Conclusion These results suggest that MOF and MMF did not vary as a function of vertical facial pattern in this Brazilian sample.
Brunker, J.; Beard, P.
2013-03-01
Blood flow measurements have been demonstrated using the acoustic resolution mode of photoacoustic sensing. This is unlike previous flowmetry methods using the optical resolution mode, which limits the maximum penetration depth to approximately 1mm. Here we describe a pulsed time correlation photoacoustic Doppler technique that is inherently flexible, lending itself to both resolution modes. Doppler time shifts are quantified via cross-correlation of pairs of photoacoustic waveforms generated in moving absorbers using pairs of laser light pulses, and the photoacoustic waves detected using an ultrasound transducer. The acoustic resolution mode is employed by using the transducer focal width, rather than the large illuminated volume, to define the lateral spatial resolution. The use of short laser pulses allows depth-resolved measurements to be obtained with high spatial resolution, offering the prospect of mapping flow within microcirculation. Whilst our previous work has been limited to a non-fluid phantom, we now demonstrate measurements in more realistic blood-mimicking phantoms incorporating fluid suspensions of microspheres flowing along an optically transparent tube. Velocities up to 110 mm/s were measured with accuracies approaching 1% of the known velocities, and resolutions of a few mm/s. The velocity range and resolution are scalable with excitation pulse separation, but the maximum measurable velocity was considerably smaller than the value expected from the detector focal beam width. Measurements were also made for blood flowing at velocities up to 13.5 mm/s. This was for a sample reduced to 5% of the normal haematocrit; increasing the red blood cell concentration limited the maximum measurable velocity so that no results were obtained for concentrations greater than 20% of a physiologically realistic haematocrit. There are several possible causes for this limitation; these include the detector bandwidth and irregularities in the flow pattern. Better
Constraints on halo formation from cross-correlations with correlated variables
Castorina, Emanuele; Paranjape, Aseem; Sheth, Ravi K.
2017-07-01
Cross-correlations between biased tracers and the dark matter field encode information about the physical variables that characterize these tracers. However, if the physical variables of interest are correlated with one another, then extracting this information is not as straightforward as one might naively have thought. We show how to exploit these correlations so as to estimate scale-independent bias factors of all orders in a model-independent way. We also show that failure to account for this will lead to incorrect conclusions about which variables matter and which do not. Moreover, accounting for this allows one to use the scale dependence of bias to constrain the physics of halo formation; to date, the argument has been phrased the other way around. We illustrate by showing that the scale dependence of linear and non-linear bias, measured on non-linear scales, can be used to provide consistent estimates of how the critical density for halo formation depends on halo mass. Our methods work even when the bias is non-local and stochastic, such as when, in addition to the spherically averaged density field and its derivatives, the quadrupolar shear field also matters for halo formation. In such models, the non-local bias factors are closely related to the more familiar local non-linear bias factors, which are much easier to measure. Our analysis emphasizes the fact that biased tracers are biased because they do not sample fields (density, velocity, shear, etc.) at all positions in space in the same way as the dark matter does.
DeWalle, David R.; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; Buda, Anthony R.
2016-12-01
Forecasts of ecosystem changes due to variations in atmospheric emissions policies require a fundamental understanding of lag times between changes in chemical inputs and watershed response. Impacts of changes in atmospheric deposition in the United States have been documented using national and regional long-term environmental monitoring programs beginning several decades ago. Consequently, time series of weekly NADP atmospheric wet deposition and monthly EPA-Long Term Monitoring stream chemistry now exist for much of the Northeast which may provide insights into lag times. In this study of Appalachian forest basins, we estimated lag times for S, N and Cl by cross-correlating monthly data from four pairs of stream and deposition monitoring sites during the period from 1978 to 2012. A systems or impulse response function approach to cross-correlation was used to estimate lag times where the input deposition time series was pre-whitened using regression modeling and the stream response time series was filtered using the deposition regression model prior to cross-correlation. Cross-correlations for S were greatest at annual intervals over a relatively well-defined range of lags with the maximum correlations occurring at mean lags of 48 months. Chloride results were similar but more erratic with a mean lag of 57 months. Few high-correlation lags for N were indicated. Given the growing availability of atmospheric deposition and surface water chemistry monitoring data and our results for four Appalachian basins, further testing of cross-correlation as a method of estimating lag times on other basins appears justified.
Er, Hale Çolakoğlu; Erden, Ayşe; Küçük, N Özlem; Geçim, Ethem
2014-01-01
The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the correlation between minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmin) values obtained from diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) obtained from positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) in rectal cancer. Forty-one patients with pathologically confirmed rectal adenocarcinoma were included in this study. For preoperative staging, PET-CT and pelvic MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging were performed within one week (mean time interval, 3±1 day). For ADC measurements, the region of interest (ROI) was manually drawn along the border of each hyperintense tumor on b=1000 s/mm2 images. After repeating this procedure on each consecutive tumor-containing slice to cover the entire tumoral area, ROIs were copied to ADC maps. ADCmin was determined as the lowest ADC value among all ROIs in each tumor. For SUVmax measurements, whole-body images were assessed visually on transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images. ROIs were determined from the lesions observed on each slice, and SUVmax values were calculated automatically. The mean values of ADCmin and SUVmax were compared using Spearman's test. The mean ADCmin was 0.62±0.19×10-3 mm2/s (range, 0.368-1.227×10-3 mm2/s), the mean SUVmax was 20.07±9.3 (range, 4.3-49.5). A significant negative correlation was found between ADCmin and SUVmax (r=-0.347; P = 0.026). There was a significant negative correlation between the ADCmin and SUVmax values in rectal adenocarcinomas.
Cross-correlations between price and volume in Chinese gold markets
Ruan, Qingsong; Jiang, Wei; Ma, Guofeng
2016-06-01
We apply the multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) method to investigate the cross-correlation behaviors between price and volume in Chinese gold spot and futures markets. Qualitatively, we find that the price and volume series are significantly cross-correlated using the cross-correlation test statistics Qcc(m) and the ρDCCA coefficients. Quantitatively, by employing the MF-DCCA analysis, we find that there is a power-law cross-correlation and significant multifractal features between price and volume in gold spot and futures markets. Furthermore, by comparing the multifractality of the original series to the shuffled and surrogated series, we find that, for the gold spot market, the main contribution of multifractality is fat-tail distribution; for the gold futures market, both long-range correlations and fat-tail distributions play important roles in the contribution of multifractality. Finally, by employing the method of rolling windows, we undertake further investigation into the time-varying features of the cross-correlations between price and volume. We find that for both spot and futures markets, the cross-correlations are anti-persistent in general. In the short term, the cross-correlation shows obvious fluctuations due to exogenous shocks while, in the long term, the relationship tends to be at a metastable level due to the dynamic mechanism.
LIANG Gui-Yun; CAO Li; WANG Jun; Wu Da-Jin
2003-01-01
Applying the approximate Fokker-Planck equation we derived, we obtain the analytic expression of thestationary laser intensity distribution Pst(Ⅰ) by studying the single-mode laser cubic model subject to colored cross-correlation additive and multiplicative noise, each of which is colored. Based on it, we discuss the effects on the stationarylaser intensity distribution Pst(Ⅰ) by cross-correlation between noises and "color" of noises (non-Markovian effect) whenthe laser system is above the threshold. In detail, we analyze two cases: One is that the three correlation-times (i.e.the self-correlation and cross-correlation times of the additive and multiplicative noise) are chosen to be the same value(τ1 = τ2 = τ3 = τ). For this case, the effect of noise cross-correlation is investigated emphatically, and we detect thatonly when λ≠ 0 can the noise-induced transition occur in the Pst(Ⅰ) curve, and only when τ≠ 0 and λ≠ 0, can the"reentrant noise-induced transition" occur. The other case is that the three correlation times are not the same value,τ1 ≠τ2 ≠τ3. For this case, we find that the noise-induced transition occurring in the Pst (Ⅰ) curve is entirely differentwhen the values of τ1, τ2, and τ3 are changed respectively. In particular, when τ2 (self-correlation time of additivenoise) is changing, the ratio of the two maximums of the Pst(Ⅰ) curve R exhibits an interesting phenomenon, "reentrantnoise-induced transition", which demonstrates the effect of noise "color" (non-Markovian effect).
The exceedance and cross-correlations between the gold spot and futures markets
Ruan, Qingsong; Huang, Ying; Jiang, Wei
2016-12-01
This paper investigates the dynamic features of cross-correlations and exceedance correlations between COMEX gold spot and futures returns using the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) and a test for symmetrical exceedance correlation. First, we examine the cross-correlations both qualitatively and quantitatively by employing the cross-correlations test and the DCCA method. We find that the cross-correlations are significant for all lagged orders and are weakly persistent. Our results from a rolling sample test also show that some exogenous events can apparently affect the cross-correlations between gold spot and futures returns. Second, after employing the test statistic, our empirical results show that the exceedance correlations between spot and futures returns are both positive and symmetric, indicating that the two returns co-move in the same direction and that the correlations between them are symmetrical for the upper and lower of the returns. However, the results from the rolling sample show that occasional events can induce significant asymmetries of exceedance correlations.
An analysis of the intrinsic cross-correlations between API and meteorological elements using DPCCA
Shen, Chen-hua; Li, Cao-ling
2016-03-01
In order to reveal the intrinsic cross-correlations between air pollution index (API) records and synchronously meteorological elements data, the detrended partial cross-correlation (DPCC) coefficients are analyzed using a detrended partial cross-correlation analysis (DPCCA). DPCC coefficients for different spatial locations and seasons are calculated and compared. The results show that DPCCA can uncover intrinsic cross-correlations between API and meteorological elements, and most of their interactional mechanisms can be explained. DPCC coefficients are either positive or negative, and vary with spatial locations and seasons, with consistently interactional mechanisms. More remarkable, we find that detrended cross-correlation analysis can present the cross-correlations between the fluctuations in two nonstationary time series, but this cross-correlation does not always fully reflect the interactional mechanism for the original time series. Despite this, DPCCA is recommended as a comparatively reliable method for revealing intrinsic cross-correlations between API and meteorological elements, and it can also be useful for our understanding of their interactional mechanisms.
Cross-correlations between crude oil and exchange markets for selected oil rich economies
Li, Jianfeng; Lu, Xinsheng; Zhou, Ying
2016-07-01
Using multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA), this paper studies the cross-correlation behavior between crude oil market and five selected exchange rate markets. The dataset covers the period of January 1,1996-December 31,2014, and contains 4,633 observations for each of the series, including daily closing prices of crude oil, Australian Dollars, Canadian Dollars, Mexican Pesos, Russian Rubles, and South African Rand. Our empirical results obtained from cross-correlation statistic and cross-correlation coefficient have confirmed the existence of cross-correlations, and the MF-DCCA results have demonstrated a strong multifractality between cross-correlated crude oil market and exchange rate markets in both short term and long term. Using rolling window analysis, we have also found the persistent cross-correlations between the exchange rates and crude oil returns, and the cross-correlation scaling exponents exhibit volatility during some time periods due to its sensitivity to sudden events.
Artifacts in blood velocity estimation using ultrasound and cross-correlation
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
1994-01-01
Estimation of blood velocities using ultrasound and time-domain cross-correlation is investigated. The measurement principle is introduced, and the basic properties of the cross-correlation function are discussed. Expressions for the variance of the estimates of the peak location are given, showing...
Stationary-phase integrals in the cross correlation of ambient noise
Boschi, L.; Weemstra, C.
2015-01-01
The cross correlation of ambient signal allows seismologists to collect data even in the absence of seismic events. “Seismic interferometry” shows that the cross correlation of simultaneous recordings of a random wavefield made at two locations is formally related to the impulse response between tho
Multifractal detrended cross-correlations between the Chinese exchange market and stock market
Cao, Guangxi; Xu, Longbing; Cao, Jie
2012-10-01
Based on the daily price data of the Chinese Yuan (RMB)/US dollar exchange rate and the Shanghai Stock Composite Index, we conducted an empirical analysis of the cross-correlations between the Chinese exchange market and stock market using the multifractal cross-correlation analysis method. The results demonstrate the overall significance of the cross-correlation based on the analysis of a statistic. Multifractality exists in cross-correlations, and the cross-correlated behavior of small fluctuations is more persistent than that of large fluctuations. Moreover, using the rolling windows method, we find that the cross-correlations between the Chinese exchange market and stock market vary with time and are especially sensitive to the reform of the RMB exchange rate regime. The previous reduction in the flexibility of the RMB exchange rate in July 2008 strengthened the persistence of cross-correlations and decreased the degree of multifractality, whereas the enhancement of the flexibility of the RMB exchange rate in June 2010 weakened the persistence of cross-correlations and increased the multifractality. Finally, several relevant discussions are provided to verify the robustness of our empirical analysis.
Gong, S.; Labanca, I.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M. [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)
2014-10-15
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a well-established technique to study binding interactions or the diffusion of fluorescently labeled biomolecules in vitro and in vivo. Fast FCS experiments require parallel data acquisition and analysis which can be achieved by exploiting a multi-channel Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) array and a corresponding multi-input correlator. This paper reports a 32-channel FPGA based correlator able to perform 32 auto/cross-correlations simultaneously over a lag-time ranging from 10 ns up to 150 ms. The correlator is included in a 32 × 1 SPAD array module, providing a compact and flexible instrument for high throughput FCS experiments. However, some inherent features of SPAD arrays, namely afterpulsing and optical crosstalk effects, may introduce distortions in the measurement of auto- and cross-correlation functions. We investigated these limitations to assess their impact on the module and evaluate possible workarounds.
Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution
吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生
2003-01-01
Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.
Gang-Jin Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We supply a new perspective to describe and understand the behavior of cross-correlations between energy and emissions markets. Namely, we investigate cross-correlations between oil and gas (Oil-Gas, oil and CO2 (Oil-CO2, and gas and CO2 (Gas-CO2 based on fractal and multifractal analysis. We focus our study on returns of the oil, gas, and CO2 during the period of April 22, 2005–April 30, 2013. In the empirical analysis, by using the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA method, we find that cross-correlations for Oil-Gas, Oil-CO2, and Gas-CO2 obey a power-law and are weakly persistent. Then, we adopt the method of DCCA cross-correlation coefficient to quantify cross-correlations between energy and emissions markets. The results show that their cross-correlations are diverse at different time scales. Next, based on the multifractal DCCA method, we find that cross-correlated markets have the nonlinear and multifractal nature and that the multifractality strength for three cross-correlated markets is arranged in the order of Gas-CO2 > Oil-Gas > Oil-CO2. Finally, by employing the rolling windows method, which can be used to investigate time-varying cross-correlation scaling exponents, we analyze short-term and long-term market dynamics and find that the recent global financial crisis has a notable influence on short-term and long-term market dynamics.
Asymmetric multiscale detrended cross-correlation analysis of financial time series.
Yin, Yi; Shang, Pengjian
2014-09-01
We propose the asymmetric multiscale detrended cross-correlation analysis (MS-ADCCA) method and apply MS-ADCCA method to explore the existence of asymmetric cross-correlation for daily price returns in US and Chinese stock markets and to assess the properties of these asymmetric cross-correlations. The results all show the existences of asymmetric cross-correlations, while small asymmetries at small scales and larger asymmetries at larger scales are also displayed. There is a strong similarity between S&P500 and DJI, and we reveal that the asymmetries depend more on the cross-correlations of S&P500 vs. DJI, S&P500 vs. NQCI, DJI vs. NQCI, and ShangZheng vs. ShenCheng when the market is falling than rising, respectively. By comparing the spectra of S&P500 vs. NQCI and DJI vs. NQCI with uptrends and downtrends, we detect some new characteristics which lead to some new conclusions. Likewise, some new conclusions also can be drawn by the new characteristics displayed through the comparison between the spectra of ShangZheng vs. HSI and ShenCheng vs. HSI. Obviously, we conclude that although the overall spectra are similar and one market has the same effect when it is rising and falling in the study of asymmetric cross-correlations between it and different markets, the cross-correlations and asymmetries on the trends of the different markets are all different. MS-ADCCA method can detect the differences on the asymmetric cross-correlations by different trends of markets. Moreover, the uniqueness of cross-correlation between NQCI and HSI can be detected in the study of the asymmetric cross-correlations, which confirms that HSI is unique in the Chinese stock markets and NQCI is unique in the US stock markets further.
Power law cross-correlations between price change and volume change of Indian stocks
Hasan, Rashid; Mohammed Salim, M.
2017-05-01
We study multifractal long-range correlations and cross-correlations of daily price change and volume change of 50 stocks that comprise Nifty index of National Stock Exchange, Mumbai, using MF-DFA and MF-DCCA methods. We find that the time series of price change are uncorrelated, whereas anti-persistent long-range multifractal correlations are found in volume change series. We also find antipersistent long-range multifractal cross-correlations between the time series of price change and volume change. As multifractality is a signature of complexity, we estimate complexity parameters of the time series of price change, volume change, and cross-correlated price-volume change by fitting the fourth-degree polynomials to their multifractal spectra. Our results indicate that the time series of price change display high complexity, whereas the time series of volume change and cross-correlated price-volume change display low complexity.
Detailed Tremor Migration Styles in Guerrero, Mexico Imaged with Cross-station Cross-correlations
Peng, Y.; Rubin, A. M.
2015-12-01
Tremor occurred downdip of the area that slipped the most during the 2006 slow slip event (SSE) in Guerrero, Mexico, as opposed to Cascadia, where tremor locations and rupture zones of SSEs largely overlap. Here we obtain high resolution tremor locations by applying cross-station cross-correlations [Armbruster et al., 2014] to seismic data from the Meso-America Subduction Experiment deployment. A few 3-station detectors are adopted to capture detailed deformation styles in the tremor "transient zone" and the downdip "sweet spot" as defined in Frank et al., 2014. Similar to Cascadia, tremor activities in our study region were comprised mostly of short tremor bursts lasting minutes to hours. Many of these bursts show clear migration patterns with propagation velocities of hundreds of km/day, comparable to those in Cascadia. However, the propagation of the main tremor front was often not in a simple unilateral fashion. Before the 2006 SSE, we observe 4 large tremor episodes during which both the transient zone and the sweet spot participated, consistent with previous findings [Frank et al., 2014]. The transient zone usually became active a few days after the sweet spot. We find many along-dip migrations with recurrence intervals of about a half day within a region about 10 km along strike and 35 km along dip in the sweet spot, suggesting possible tidal modulation, after the main front moved beyond this region. These migrations appear not to originate at the main front, in contrast to tremor migrations from a few km to tens of km across observed in Cascadia [Rubin and Armbruster, 2013; Peng et al., 2015; Peng and Rubin, submitted], but possibly similar to Shikoku, Japan [Shelly et al., 2007]. We do not observe obvious half-day periodicity for the migrations farther downdip within the sweet spot. During the SSE, the recurrence interval of tremor episodes decreased significantly in both the transient zone and the sweet spot, with that of the former being much shorter
An analysis of cross-correlations in an emerging market
Wilcox, Diane; Gebbie, Tim
2007-03-01
We apply random matrix theory to compare correlation matrix estimators C obtained from emerging market data. The correlation matrices are constructed from 10 years of daily data for stocks listed on the Johannesburg stock exchange (JSE) from January 1993 to December 2002. We test the spectral properties of C against random matrix predictions and find some agreement between the distributions of eigenvalues, nearest neighbour spacings, distributions of eigenvector components and the inverse participation ratios for eigenvectors. We show that interpolating both missing data and illiquid trading days with a zero-order hold increases agreement with RMT predictions. For the more realistic estimation of correlations in an emerging market, we suggest a pairwise measured-data correlation matrix. For the data set used, this approach suggests greater temporal stability for the leading eigenvectors. An interpretation of eigenvectors in terms of trading strategies is given, as opposed to classification by economic sectors.
Investigation of measurement sensitivities in cross-correlation Doppler global velocimetry
Cadel, Daniel R.; Lowe, K. Todd
2016-11-01
Cross-correlation Doppler global velocimetry (CC-DGV) is a flow measurement technique based on the estimation of Doppler frequency shift of scattered light by means of cross-correlating two filtered intensity signals. The signal characteristics of CC-DGV result in fundamental limits for estimation variance as well as the possibility for estimator bias. The current study assesses these aspects theoretically and via Monte Carlo signal simulations. A signal model is developed using canonical numerical functions for the iodine absorption cell and incorporating Poisson and Gaussian signal noise models. Along with consideration of the analytical form of the Cramér-Rao lower bound, best practices for system settings are discussed. The CC-DGV signal processing routine is then assessed by a series of Monte Carlo simulations studying the effect of temperature mismatch between flow signal and reference detector cells, velocity magnitude, and discretization error in the frequency modulation. A measurement bias was observed; the magnitude of the bias is a weak function of the cell temperature mismatch, but it is independent of the flow velocity magnitude. The measurement variance was found to approach the Cramér-Rao lower bound for optimized conditions. A cyclical bias error resulting from the discrete nature of the laser frequency sweep is also observed with maximum errors of ± 1.0 % of the laser frequency scan step size, corresponding to peak errors of ± 0.61 m s-1 for typical settings. Overall, the signal estimator is found to perform best for matched cell temperatures, small frequency step size, and high velocity regimes, where the relative bias errors are collectively minimized.
Cross Correlation Analysis of Multi-Channel Near Infrared Spectroscopy
Raul Fernandez Rojas
2016-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present the use of a signal proces sing technique to find dominant channels in near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Cross correlatio n is computed to compare measuring channels and identify delays among the channels. In addition, visual inspection was used to detect potential dominant channels. The results sho wed that the visual analysis exposed pain- related activations in the primary somatosensory co rtex (S1 after stimulation which is consistent with similar studies and the cross corre lation analysis found dominant channels on both cerebral hemispheres. The analysis also showed a relationship between dominant channels and neighbouring channels. Therefore, our results p resent a new method to detect dominant regions in the cerebral cortex using near-infrared spectroscopy. These results have also implications in the reduction of number of channels by eliminating irrelevant channels for the experiment
Cross-conjugation and quantum interference: a general correlation?
Valkenier, Hennie; Guedon, Constant M.; Markussen, Troels
2014-01-01
We discuss the relationship between the pi-conjugation pattern, molecular length, and charge transport properties of molecular wires, both from an experimental and a theoretical viewpoint. Specifically, we focus on the role of quantum interference in the conductance properties of cross-conjugated...... interference occurs can be tuned by the choice of side group. The latter provides an outlook for future devices in this fascinating field connecting chemistry and physics....
Random Matrix Theory of Dynamical Cross Correlations in Financial Data
Nakayama, Y.; Iyetomi, H.
A new method taking advantage of the random matrix theory is proposed to extract genuine dynamical correlations between price fluctuations of different stocks. One-day returns of 557 Japanese major stocks for the 11-year period from 1996 to 2006 are used for this study. We carry out the discrete Fourier transform of the returns to construct a correlation matrix at each frequency. Also we prepare series of random numbers which are mutually uncorrelated and hence serve as a reference. Comparison of the eigenvalues of the empirical correlation matrix with the reference results of the random one enables us to distinguish between information and noise involved in complicated behavior of the stock returns. It is thus demonstrated that there exist collective motions of the stock prices with periods well over days. Finally we indicate a possible application of the present finding to the risk evaluation of portfolios.
Bing Wang; Shaoping Yan
2009-01-01
Considering an optical bistable system with cross-correlated additive white noise and multiplicative colored noise,we study the effects of correlation between the noises on the correlation function C(s)using the unified colored noise approximation and the Stratonovich decoupling ansatz formalism.The effects of the self-correlation time T of the multiplicative colored noise and the correlation intensity A between the two noises are studied with numerical calculation.It is found that C(s)increases with the increase of the self-correlation time r,but decreases with the increase of the correlation intensity A.At large value of T,there is almost no change for C(s)when T changes.
Tegner, C.; Heilmann-Clausen, C.; Larsen, R. B.; Kent, A. J. R.
2012-04-01
Massive flood basalt volcanism in the NE Atlantic 56 million years ago can be related to the initial manifestation of the Iceland plume and ensuing continental rifting, and has been correlated with a short (c. 200,000 years) global warming period, the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM). A hypothesis is that magmatic sills emplaced into organic-rich sediments on the Norwegian margin triggered rapid release of greenhouse gases. However, the largest exposed volcanic succession in the region, the E Greenland flood basalts provide additional details. The alkaline Ash-17 provides regional correlation of continental volcanism and pertubation of the oceanic environment. In E Greenland Ash-17 is interbedded with the uppermost part of the flood basalt succession. In the marine sections of Denmark, Ash-17 postdates PETM, most likely by 3-400,000 years. While radiometric ages bracket the duration of the main flood basalt event to less than a million years, the subsidence history of the Skaergaard intrusion due to flood basalt emplacement indicates it took less than 300,000 years. It is therefore possible that the main flood basalts in E Greenland postdates PETM. This is supported by a scarcity of ash layers within the PETM interval. Continental flood basalt provinces represent some of the highest sustained volcanic outputs preserved within the geologic record. Recent studies have focused on estimating the atmospheric loading of volatile elements and have led to the suggestion that they may be associated with significant global climate changes and mass extinctions. Estimates suggest that c. 400,000 km3 of basaltic lava erupted in E Greenland and the Faeroe islands. Based on measurements of melt inclusions and solubility models, approximately 3000 Gt of SO2 and 220 Gt of HCl were released by these basalts. Calculated yearly fluxes approach 10 Mt/y SO2 and 0.7 Mt/y HCl. Refinements of these estimates, based largely on further melt inclusion measurements, are proceeding. Our
Nonlinear Behaviors of Tail Dependence and Cross-Correlation of Financial Time Series Model
Wei Deng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear behaviors of tail dependence and cross-correlation of financial time series are reproduced and investigated by stochastic voter dynamic system. The voter process is a continuous-time Markov process and is one of the interacting dynamic systems. The tail dependence of return time series for pairs of Chinese stock markets and the proposed financial models is studied by copula analysis, in an attempt to detect and illustrate the existence of relevant correlation relationships. Further, the multifractality of cross-correlations for return series is studied by multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis, which indicates the analogous cross-correlations and some fractal characters for both actual data and simulative data and provides an intuitive evidence for market inefficiency.
Understanding visual-auditory correlation from heterogeneous features for cross-media retrieval
无
2008-01-01
Cross-media retrieval is an interesting research topic, which seeks to remove the barriers among different modalities. To enable cross-media retrieval, it is needed to find the correlation measures between heterogeneous low-level features and to judge the semantic similarity. This paper presents a novel approach to learn cross-media correlation between visual features and auditory features for image-audio retrieval. A semi-supervised correlation preserving mapping (SSCPM) method is described to construct the isomorphic SSCPM subspace where canonical correlations between the original visual and auditory features are further preserved. Subspace optimization algorithm is proposed to improve the local image cluster and audio cluster quality in an interactive way. A unique relevance feedback strategy is developed to update the knowledge of cross-media correlation by learning from user behaviors, so retrieval performance is enhanced in a progressive manner. Experimental results show that the performance of our approach is effective.
1/f behavior in cross-correlations between absolute returns in a US market
Gvozdanovic, Igor; Podobnik, Boris; Wang, Duan; Eugene Stanley, H.
2012-05-01
Employing detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and detrended cross-correlations analysis (DCCA), we analyze auto-correlations in the absolute returns for each of 30 Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) constituents, Si, and cross-correlations in the absolute returns between the DJIA and each Si. We find that each DJIA member follows the DJIA in absolute returns, since the DCCA curve for each pair (Si,DJIAi) exhibits strong cross-correlations, with average DCCA exponent =1.03±0.04. This value for implies that the power-law cross-correlations are of the 1/f functional form. For the financial firms comprising the DJIA, we also find that the DFA and DCCA exponents controlling the duration of firm risk are somewhat larger than the corresponding values for the rest of the US financial industry.
Taylor, J David; Fletcher, James P
2013-05-01
The 8-repetition maximum test has the potential to be a feasible, cost-effective method of measuring muscle strength for clinicians. The purpose of this study was to investigate the concurrent validity of the 8-repetition maximum test in the measurement of muscle strength by comparing the 8-repetition maximum test to the gold standard of isokinetic dynamometry. Thirty participants (15 males and 15 females, mean age = 23.2 years [standard deviation = 1.0]) underwent 8-repetition maximum testing and isokinetic dynamometry testing of the knee extensors (at 60, 120, and 240 degrees per second) on two separate sessions with 2-3 days between each mode of testing. Linear regression was used to assess the validity by comparing the findings between 8-repetition maximum testing and isokinetic dynamometry testing. Significant correlations were found between the 8-repetition maximum and isokinetic dynamometry peak torque at each testing velocity (r = 0.71-0.85). The highest correlations were between the 8-repetition maximum and isokinetic dynamometry peak torques at 60 (r = 0.85) and 120 (r = 0.85) degrees per second. The findings of this study provide supportive evidence for the use of 8-repetition maximum testing as a valid, alternative method for measuring muscle strength.
Cross-correlation between thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect
Creque-Sarbinowski, Cyril; Kamionkowski, Marc
2016-01-01
Large-angle fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature induced by the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect and Compton-y distortions from the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect are both due to line-of-sight density perturbations. Here we calculate the cross-correlation between these two signals. Measurement of this cross-correlation can be used to test the redshift distribution of the tSZ distortion. We also evaluate the detectability of a yT cross-correlation from exotic early-Universe sources in the presence of this late-time effect.
Large Scale Cross Drive Correlation Of Digital Media
2016-03-01
this new illicit activity , law enforcement agencies, financial institutions, and other private businesses are incorporating digital forensic experts...providing information technology as a service, the digital universe is doubling every two years. It is estimated that by 2020, the amount of data created...response teams in military and business organizations need a way to correlate large amounts of digital media to determine similarity, detect patterns
Effects of Cross-Correlation Colour Noises on Tumour Growth Process
WANG Xian-Ju; ZENG Chang-Chun; DENG Xiao-Yuan; LIU Song-Hao; LIU Liang-Gang
2005-01-01
@@ We present a tumour cell growth process model including a multiplicative coloured noise and an additive coloured noise correlated. How the noise cross-correlation intensity λ and correlation time - can affect the steady state properties of tumour cell growth model are discussed by solving an approximative Fokker-Planck equation. It is found that the increase of noise correlation time т- can cause the tumour cell number increasing, but the increase of multiplicative noise intensity can cause the tumour cell number extinction. We also find that the increase of cross-correlation intensity λ in the case of 0 ＜λ＜ 1 can cause the tumour cell number extinction, whereas increase of cross-correlation intensity λ in the case of λ＜ 0 can cause the tumour cell number increasing.
Multiplexed multiple-{\\tau} auto- and cross- correlators on a single FPGA
Mocsár, Gábor; Buchholz, Jan; Krieger, Jan Wolfgang; Langowski, Jörg; Vámosi, György
2011-01-01
Fluorescence correlation and cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCS, FCCS) are widely used techniques to study the diffusion properties and interactions of fluorescent molecules. Autocorrelation (ACFs) and cross-correlation functions (CCFs) are typically acquired with fast hardware correlators. Here we introduce a new multiple-{\\tau} hardware correlator design for computing ACFs and CCFs in real time. A scheduling algorithm minimizes the use of hardware resources by calculating the different segments of the correlation function on a single correlator block. The program was written in LabVIEW, enabling computation of two multiple-{\\tau} ACFs and two CCFs on a National Instruments FPGA card (NI 7833R) in real time with a minimal sampling time of 400 ns. Raw data are also stored with a time resolution of 50 ns for later analysis. The design can be adapted to other FPGA cards with only minor changes and extended to evaluate more inputs and correlation functions.
The cross-correlation analysis in Z source GX 349+2
Ding, G. Q.; Zhang, W.Y.; Wang, Y. N.; Li, Z. B.; Qu, J. L.; Huang, C. P.
2015-01-01
Using all the observations from Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer for Z source GX 349+2, we systematically carry out cross-correlation analysis between its soft and hard X-ray light curves. During the observations from January 9 to January 29, 1998, GX 349+2 traced out the most extensive Z track on its hardness-intensity diagram, making a comprehensive study of cross-correlation on the track. The positive correlations and positively correlated time lags are detected throughout the Z track. Outside ...
Yin, Yi; Shang, Pengjian
2015-04-01
In this paper, we propose multiscale detrended cross-correlation analysis (MSDCCA) to detect the long-range power-law cross-correlation of considered signals in the presence of nonstationarity. For improving the performance and getting better robustness, we further introduce the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to eliminate the noise effects and propose MSDCCA method combined with EMD, which is called MS-EDXA method, then systematically investigate the multiscale cross-correlation structure of the real traffic signals. We apply the MSDCCA and MS-EDXA methods to study the cross-correlations in three situations: velocity and volume on one lane, velocities on the present and the next moment and velocities on the adjacent lanes, and further compare their spectrums respectively. When the difference between the spectrums of MSDCCA and MS-EDXA becomes unobvious, there is a crossover which denotes the turning point of difference. The crossover results from the competition between the noise effects in the original signals and the intrinsic fluctuation of traffic signals and divides the plot of spectrums into two regions. In all the three case, MS-EDXA method makes the average of local scaling exponents increased and the standard deviation decreased and provides a relative stable persistent scaling cross-correlated behavior which gets the analysis more precise and more robust and improves the performance after noises being removed. Applying MS-EDXA method avoids the inaccurate characteristics of multiscale cross-correlation structure at the short scale including the spectrum minimum, the range for the spectrum fluctuation and general trend, which are caused by the noise in the original signals. We get the conclusions that the traffic velocity and volume are long-range cross-correlated, which is accordant to their actual evolution, while velocities on the present and the next moment and velocities on adjacent lanes reflect the strong cross-correlations both in temporal and
Selma, R.
2016-09-01
Paper describes comparison of cross-correlation computation speed of most commonly used computation platforms (CPU, GPU) with an FPGA-based design. It also describes the structure of cross-correlation unit implemented for testing purposes. Speedup of computations was achieved using FPGA-based design, varying between 16 and 5400 times compared to CPU computations and between 3 and 175 times compared to GPU computations.
An Analytic Model of Cross-correlation in a Bottom Bounce Environment
2016-06-07
default output device. Testing of the model was accomplished by comparison with results produced by the GSM . The GSM computes the cross-correlation...the receiver baseline, and receiver 2 is at the same depth as receiver 1. (The sample runstream required to run the GSM for this case is given in...841052 zero attenuation medium). Figure 3 presents for this case the cross-correlations obtained by both the analytic four path model and by the GSM
Cross-correlation of weak lensing and gamma rays: implications for the nature of dark matter
Tröster, Tilman; Camera, Stefano; Fornasa, Mattia; Regis, Marco; van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Ando, Shin'ichiro; Bilicki, Maciej; Erben, Thomas; Fornengo, Nicolao; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hoekstra, Henk; Kuijken, Konrad; Viola, Massimo
2017-05-01
We measure the cross-correlation between Fermi gamma-ray photons and over 1000 deg2 of weak lensing data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS), the Red Cluster Sequence Lensing Survey (RCSLenS), and the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS). We present the first measurement of tomographic weak lensing cross-correlations and the first application of spectral binning to cross-correlations between gamma rays and weak lensing. The measurements are performed using an angular power spectrum estimator while the covariance is estimated using an analytical prescription. We verify the accuracy of our covariance estimate by comparing it to two internal covariance estimators. Based on the non-detection of a cross-correlation signal, we derive constraints on weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter. We compute exclusion limits on the dark matter annihilation cross-section , decay rate Γdec and particle mass mDM. We find that in the absence of a cross-correlation signal, tomography does not significantly improve the constraining power of the analysis. Assuming a strong contribution to the gamma-ray flux due to small-scale clustering of dark matter and accounting for known astrophysical sources of gamma rays, we exclude the thermal relic cross-section for particle masses of mDM ≲ 20 GeV.
Fractal approach towards power-law coherency to measure cross-correlations between time series
Kristoufek, Ladislav
2017-09-01
We focus on power-law coherency as an alternative approach towards studying power-law cross-correlations between simultaneously recorded time series. To be able to study empirical data, we introduce three estimators of the power-law coherency parameter Hρ based on popular techniques usually utilized for studying power-law cross-correlations - detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA), detrending moving-average cross-correlation analysis (DMCA) and height cross-correlation analysis (HXA). In the finite sample properties study, we focus on the bias, variance and mean squared error of the estimators. We find that the DMCA-based method is the safest choice among the three. The HXA method is reasonable for long time series with at least 104 observations, which can be easily attainable in some disciplines but problematic in others. The DCCA-based method does not provide favorable properties which even deteriorate with an increasing time series length. The paper opens a new venue towards studying cross-correlations between time series.
A Model-Based Cross-Correlation Search for Gravitational Waves from Scorpius X-1
Whelan, John T; Zhang, Yuanhao; Peiris, Prabath
2015-01-01
We consider the cross-correlation search for periodic GWs and its potential application to the LMXB Sco X-1. This method coherently combines data from different detectors at the same time, as well as different times from the same or different detectors. By adjusting the maximum time offset between a pair of data segments to be coherently combined, one can tune the method to trade off sensitivity and computing costs. In particular, the detectable signal amplitude scales as the inverse fourth root of this coherence time. The improvement in amplitude sensitivity for a search with a coherence time of 1hr, compared with a directed stochastic background search with 0.25Hz wide bins is about a factor of 5.4. We show that a search of 1yr of data from Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo with a coherence time of 1hr would be able to detect GWs from Sco X-1 at the level predicted by torque balance over a range of signal frequencies from 30-300Hz; if the coherence time could be increased to 10hr, the range would be 20-500Hz...
Cross-Correlation-Function-Based Multipath Mitigation Method for Sine-BOC Signals
H. H. Chen
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS positioning accuracy indoor and urban canyons environments are greatly affected by multipath due to distortions in its autocorrelation function. In this paper, a cross-correlation function between the received sine phased Binary Offset Carrier (sine-BOC modulation signal and the local signal is studied firstly, and a new multipath mitigation method based on cross-correlation function for sine-BOC signal is proposed. This method is implemented to create a cross-correlation function by designing the modulated symbols of the local signal. The theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that the proposed method exhibits better multipath mitigation performance compared with the traditional Double Delta Correlator (DDC techniques, especially the medium/long delay multipath signals, and it is also convenient and flexible to implement by using only one correlator, which is the case of low-cost mass-market receivers.
Evaluation of cross correlation technique to measure flow in pipes of the oil industry
Avilan, Eddie J., E-mail: eddieavilan@gmail.com [Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV), Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Reis, Verginia, E-mail: verginia@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Barreira, Luis E.; Salgado, Cesar Marques, E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.br, E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (DIRA/IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Divisao de Radiofarmacos
2013-07-01
The present work is concerned with the use of the cross correlation technique to measure delay time between two simulated signals displaced with respect to time, in order to develop a cross correlator system that will be used to measure the water and oil pipes flowrate in which the detection system is composed by two external low intensity radiation sources located along the tube and two NaI(Tl) gamma-ray detectors. The final purpose of the correlator system is to use the natural disturbances, as the turbulence in the own flow rather than to inject radioactive tracers to the fluid flow as usually is carried out. In the design of this correlator is evaluated the point-by-point calculation method for the cross correlation function in order to produce a system accurate and fast. This method is divided at the same time in three modes of operation: direct, relay and polarity. (author)
Liu, X.; Beroza, G. C.; Ben-Zion, Y.
2016-12-01
We estimate the frequency-dependent amplitude error of ambient noise cross-correlations based on the method of Liu et al. (2016) for different normalizations. We compute the stacked cross spectrum of noise recorded at station pairs in southern California by averaging the cross spectrum of evenly spaced windows of the same length, but offset in time. Windows with signals (e.g. earthquakes) contaminating the ambient seismic noise are removed as statistical outliers. Standard errors of the real and imaginary parts of the stacked cross-spectrum are estimated assuming each window is independent. The autocorrelation of the sequence of cross-spectrum values at a given frequency obtained from different windows are used to test the independence of cross-spectrum values in neighboring time windows. For frequencies below 0.2 Hz, we find temporal correlation in the noise data. We account for temporal correlation in computation of errors using a block bootstrap resampling method. The stacked cross-spectrum and associated amplitude are computed under different normalization methods including deconvolution and whitening applied before or after ensemble average of cross-spectrum values. We estimate the amplitude errors based on error propagation from errors of stacked cross-spectrum and verified by bootstrap method. We propose to use this characterization of amplitude uncertainty to constrain uncertainties in ground motion predictions based on ambient-field observations.
Dynamic evolution of cross-correlations in the Chinese stock market.
Ren, Fei; Zhou, Wei-Xing
2014-01-01
The analysis of cross-correlations is extensively applied for the understanding of interconnections in stock markets and the portfolio risk estimation. Current studies of correlations in Chinese market mainly focus on the static correlations between return series, and this calls for an urgent need to investigate their dynamic correlations. Our study aims to reveal the dynamic evolution of cross-correlations in the Chinese stock market, and offer an exact interpretation for the evolution behavior. The correlation matrices constructed from the return series of 367 A-share stocks traded on the Shanghai Stock Exchange from January 4, 1999 to December 30, 2011 are calculated over a moving window with a size of 400 days. The evolutions of the statistical properties of the correlation coefficients, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors of the correlation matrices are carefully analyzed. We find that the stock correlations are significantly increased in the periods of two market crashes in 2001 and 2008, during which only five eigenvalues significantly deviate from the random correlation matrix, and the systemic risk is higher in these volatile periods than calm periods. By investigating the significant contributors of the deviating eigenvectors in different time periods, we observe a dynamic evolution behavior in business sectors such as IT, electronics, and real estate, which lead the rise (drop) before (after) the crashes. Our results provide new perspectives for the understanding of the dynamic evolution of cross-correlations in the Chines stock markets, and the result of risk estimation is valuable for the application of risk management.
Detrended fluctuation analysis made flexible to detect range of cross-correlated fluctuations
Kwapień, Jarosław; Oświecimka, Paweł; DroŻdŻ, Stanisław
2015-11-01
The detrended cross-correlation coefficient ρDCCA has recently been proposed to quantify the strength of cross-correlations on different temporal scales in bivariate, nonstationary time series. It is based on the detrended cross-correlation and detrended fluctuation analyses (DCCA and DFA, respectively) and can be viewed as an analog of the Pearson coefficient in the case of the fluctuation analysis. The coefficient ρDCCA works well in many practical situations but by construction its applicability is limited to detection of whether two signals are generally cross-correlated, without the possibility to obtain information on the amplitude of fluctuations that are responsible for those cross-correlations. In order to introduce some related flexibility, here we propose an extension of ρDCCA that exploits the multifractal versions of DFA and DCCA: multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis, respectively. The resulting new coefficient ρq not only is able to quantify the strength of correlations but also allows one to identify the range of detrended fluctuation amplitudes that are correlated in two signals under study. We show how the coefficient ρq works in practical situations by applying it to stochastic time series representing processes with long memory: autoregressive and multiplicative ones. Such processes are often used to model signals recorded from complex systems and complex physical phenomena like turbulence, so we are convinced that this new measure can successfully be applied in time-series analysis. In particular, we present an example of such application to highly complex empirical data from financial markets. The present formulation can straightforwardly be extended to multivariate data in terms of the q -dependent counterpart of the correlation matrices and then to the network representation.
Cross-correlation analysis of the AE index and the interplanetary magnetic field Bz component.
Meng, C.-I.; Tsurutani, B.; Kawasaki, K.; Akasofu, S.-I.
1973-01-01
A cross-correlation study between magnetospheric activity (the AE index) and the southward-directed component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is made for a total of 792 hours (33 days) with a time resolution of about 5.5 min. The peak correlation tends to occur when the interplanetary data are shifted approximately 40 min later with respect to the AE index data. Cross-correlation analysis is conducted on some idealized wave forms to illustrate that this delay between southward turning of the IMF and the AE index should not be interpreted as being the duration of the growth phase.
Long-range cross-correlation between urban impervious surfaces and land surface temperatures
Qin NIE; Jianhua XU; Wang MAN
2016-01-01
The thermal effect of urban impervious surfaces (UIS) is a complex problem.It is thus necessary to study the relationship between UIS and land surface temperatures (LST) using complexity science theory and methods.This paper investigates the long-range cross-correlation between UIS and LST with detrended cross-correlation analysis and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis,utilizing data from downtown Shanghai,China.UIS estimates were obtained from linear spectral mixture analysis,and LST was retrieved through application of the mono-window algorithm,using Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus data for 1997-2010.These results highlight a positive long-range cross-correlation between UIS and LST across People's Square in Shanghai.LST has a long memory for a certain spatial range of UIS values,such that a large increment in UIS is likely to be followed by a large increment in LST.While the multifractal long-range cross-correlation between UIS and LST was observed over a longer time period in the W-E direction (2002-2010) than in the N-S (2007-2010),these observed correlations show a weakening during the study period as urbanization increased.
Long-range cross-correlation between urban impervious surfaces and land surface temperatures
Nie, Qin; Xu, Jianhua; Man, Wang
2016-03-01
The thermal effect of urban impervious surfaces (UIS) is a complex problem. It is thus necessary to study the relationship between UIS and land surface temperatures (LST) using complexity science theory and methods. This paper investigates the long-range cross-correlation between UIS and LST with detrended cross-correlation analysis and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis, utilizing data from downtown Shanghai, China. UIS estimates were obtained from linear spectral mixture analysis, and LST was retrieved through application of the mono-window algorithm, using Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus data for 1997-2010. These results highlight a positive long-range cross-correlation between UIS and LST across People's Square in Shanghai. LST has a long memory for a certain spatial range of UIS values, such that a large increment in UIS is likely to be followed by a large increment in LST. While the multifractal long-range cross-correlation between UIS and LST was observed over a longer time period in the W-E direction (2002-2010) than in the N-S (2007-2010), these observed correlations show a weakening during the study period as urbanization increased.
A Halo Model Approach to the 21 cm and Lyα Cross-correlation
Feng, Chang; Cooray, Asantha; Keating, Brian
2017-09-01
We present a halo-model-based approach to calculate the cross-correlation between 21 {cm} H i intensity fluctuations and {Ly}α emitters (LAE) during the epoch of reionization (EoR). Ionizing radiation around dark matter halos are modeled as bubbles with the size and growth determined based on the reionization photon production, among other physical parameters. The cross-correlation shows a clear negative-to-positive transition, associated with transition from ionized to neutral hydrogen in the intergalactic medium during EoR. The cross-correlation is subject to several foreground contaminants, including foreground radio point sources important for 21 {cm} experiments and low-z interloper emission lines, such as {{H}}α , O iii, and O ii, for {Ly}α experiments. Our calculations show that by masking out high fluxes in the {Ly}α measurement, the correlated foreground contamination on the 21 {cm}–{Ly}α cross-correlation can be dramatically reduced. We forecast the detectability of 21 {cm}–{Ly}α cross-correlation at different redshifts and adopt a Fisher matrix approach to estimate uncertainties on the key EoR parameters that have not been well constrained by other observations of reionization. This halo-model-based approach enables us to explore the EoR parameter space rapidly for different 21 {cm} and {Ly}α experiments.
Detrended fluctuation analysis made flexible to detect range of cross-correlated fluctuations
Kwapien, Jaroslaw; Drozdz, Stanislaw
2015-01-01
The detrended cross-correlation coefficient $\\rho_{\\rm DCCA}$ has recently been proposed to quantify the strength of cross-correlations on different temporal scales in bivariate, non-stationary time series. It is based on the detrended cross-correlation and detrended fluctuation analyses (DCCA and DFA, respectively) and can be viewed as an analogue of the Pearson coefficient in the case of the fluctuation analysis. The coefficient $\\rho_{\\rm DCCA}$ works well in many practical situations but by construction its applicability is limited to detection of whether two signals are generally cross-correlated, without possibility to obtain information on the amplitude of fluctuations that are responsible for those cross-correlations. In order to introduce some related flexibility, here we propose an extension of $\\rho_{\\rm DCCA}$ that exploits the multifractal versions of DFA and DCCA: MFDFA and MFCCA, respectively. The resulting new coefficient $\\rho_q$ not only is able to quantify the strength of correlations, but ...
Measurement of 21 cm brightness fluctuations at z ~ 0.8 in cross-correlation
Masui, K W; Banavar, N; Bandura, K; Blake, C; Calin, L -M; Chang, T -C; Chen, X; Li, Y -C; Liao, Y -W; Natarajan, A; Pen, U -L; Peterson, J B; Shaw, J R; Voytek, T C
2012-01-01
In this letter, 21 cm intensity maps acquired at the Green Bank Telescope are cross-correlated with large-scale structure traced by galaxies in the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. The data span the redshift range 0.6 < z < 1 over two fields totaling ~41 deg. sq. and 190 hours of radio integration time. The cross-correlation constrains Omega_HI b_HI r = [0.43 \\pm 0.07 (stat.) \\pm 0.04(sys.)] x 10^-3, where Omega_HI is the neutral hydrogen HI fraction, r is the galaxy-hydrogen correlation coefficient, and b_HI is the HI bias parameter. This is the most precise constraint on neutral hydrogen density fluctuations in a challenging redshift range. Our measurement improves the previous 21 cm cross-correlation at z ~ 0.8 both in its precision and in the range of scales probed.
Ryabinin, G V; Polyakov, Yu S; Timashev, S F
2012-01-01
We propose a new type of earthquake precursor based on the analysis of correlation dynamics between geophysical signals of different nature. The precursor is found using a two-parameter cross-correlation function introduced within the framework of flicker-noise spectroscopy, a general statistical physics approach to the analysis of time series. We consider an example of cross-correlation analysis for water salinity time series, an integral characteristic of the chemical composition of groundwater, and geoacoustic emissions recorded at the G-1 borehole on the Kamchatka peninsula in the time frame from 2001 to 2003, which is characterized by a sequence of three groups of significant seismic events. We found that cross-correlation precursors took place 27, 31, and 35 days ahead of the strongest earthquakes for each group of seismic events, respectively. At the same time, precursory anomalies in the signals themselves were observed only in the geoacoustic emissions for one group of earthquakes.
Period-Different $m$-Sequences With At Most A Four-Valued Cross Correlation
Hu, Lei; Li, Nian; Jiang, Wenfeng
2008-01-01
In this paper, we follow the recent work of Helleseth, Kholosha, Johanssen and Ness to study the cross correlation between an $m$-sequence of period $2^m-1$ and the $d$-decimation of an $m$-sequence of shorter period $2^{n}-1$ for an even number $m=2n$. Assuming that $d$ satisfies $d(2^l+1)=2^i({\\rm mod} 2^n-1)$ for some $l$ and $i$, we prove the cross correlation takes exactly either three or four values, depending on ${\\rm gcd}(l,n)$ is equal to or larger than 1. The distribution of the correlation values is also completely determined. Our result confirms the numerical phenomenon Helleseth et al found. It is conjectured that there are no more other cases of $d$ that give at most a four-valued cross correlation apart from the ones proved here.
Error analysis in cross-correlation of sky maps: application to the ISW detection
Cabre, A; Manera, E G M; Cabre, Anna; Fosalba, Pablo; Manera, Enrique Gaztanaga & Marc
2007-01-01
Constraining cosmological parameters from measurements of the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect requires developing robust and accurate methods for computing statistical errors in the cross-correlation between maps. This paper presents a detailed comparison of such error estimation applied to the case of cross-correlation of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and large-scale structure data. We compare theoretical models for error estimation with montecarlo simulations where both the galaxy and the CMB maps vary around a fiducial auto-correlation and cross-correlation model which agrees well with the current concordance LCDM cosmology. Our analysis compares estimators both in harmonic and configuration (or real) space, quantifies the accuracy of the error analysis and discuss the impact of partial sky survey area and the choice of input fiducial model on dark-energy constraints. We show that purely analytic approaches yield accurate errors even in surveys that cover only 10% of the sky and that parameter constraint...
A quantitative correlation between the mobility and crystallinity of photo-cross-linkable P3HT
Woo, Claire
2012-04-10
The performance of polymer field effect transistors (FETs) can vary by orders of magnitude by applying different processing conditions. Although it is generally believed that a higher degree of crystallinity results in a higher mobility, the correlation is not straightforward. In addition, the effect of cross-linking on polymer thin film microstructural order is relatively unknown. This study investigates the effect of thermal annealing and UV-initiated photo-cross-linking on the FET performance and microstructural order of a photo-cross-linkable P3HT derivative. Our results demonstrate that while cross-linking did not disrupt the overall crystallinity of the polymer thin film, the photo-cross-linking process likely induced doping in the semiconductor layer, leading to the absence of saturation behavior in the FET. Annealing after cross-linking slightly improved the FET performance but only minimally affected the microstructural order of the polymer film since the 3D morphology had been "locked in" during the first cross-linking step. Importantly, annealing and cross-linking simultaneously was a successful method to preserve polymer crystallinity while also achieving effective cross-linking. Using newly developed quantitative X-ray analysis techniques, our study established a quantitative correlation between FET charge mobility and thin film crystallinity. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
Cao, Guangxi; Zhang, Minjia; Li, Qingchen
2017-04-01
This study focuses on multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis of the different volatility intervals of Mainland China, US, and Hong Kong stock markets. A volatility-constrained multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (VC-MF-DCCA) method is proposed to study the volatility conductivity of Mainland China, US, and Hong Kong stock markets. Empirical results indicate that fluctuation may be related to important activities in real markets. The Hang Seng Index (HSI) stock market is more influential than the Shanghai Composite Index (SCI) stock market. Furthermore, the SCI stock market is more influential than the Dow Jones Industrial Average stock market. The conductivity between the HSI and SCI stock markets is the strongest. HSI was the most influential market in the large fluctuation interval of 1991 to 2014. The autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average method is used to verify the validity of VC-MF-DCCA. Results show that VC-MF-DCCA is effective.
Reimus, Paul W [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2011-01-03
Transport parameter cross correlations are rarely considered in models used to predict radionuclide transport in natural systems. In this paper, it is shown that parameter cross correlations could have a significant impact on radionuclide transport predictions in saturated media. In fractured rock, the positive correlation between fracture apertures and groundwater residence times is shown to result in significantly less retardation due to matrix diffusion than is predicted without the correlation. The suppression of matrix diffusion is further amplified by a tendency toward larger apertures, smaller matrix diffusion coefficients, and less sorption capacity in rocks of lower matrix porosity. In a hypothetical example, strong cross correlations between these parameters result in a decrease in predicted radionuclide travel times of an order of magnitude or more relative to travel times calculated with uncorrelated parameters. In porous media, expected correlations between permeability, porosity, and sorption capacity also result in shorter predicted travel times than when the parameters are assumed to be uncorrelated. Individual parameter standard deviations can also have a significant influence on predicted radionuclide travel times, particularly when cross correlations are considered.
Cross-correlations between 21 cm,X-ray and infrared backgrounds
Huan-Yuan Shan; Bo Qin
2009-01-01
The history of the cosmological reionization is still unclear. Two ionizing sources, stars and QSOs, are believed to play important roles during this epoch. Besides the 21 cm signals, the infrared emission from Pop Ⅲ stars and X-ray photons from QSOs can be powerful probes of the reionization. Here we present a cross-correlation study of the 21 cm, infrared and X-ray backgrounds. The advantage of doing such cross-correlations is that we could highlight the correlated signals and eliminate irrelevant fore-grounds. We develop a shell model to describe the 21 cm signals and find that PopⅢ stars can provide higher 21 cm signals than QSOs. Using the ROSAT data for X-ray and AKARI data for infrared, we predict various cross power spectra analytically and dis-cuss prospects for detecting these cross-correlation signals in future low frequency radio surveys. We find that, although these cross-correlational signals have distinct features, so far, they have been difficult to detect due to the high noise of the soft X-ray and infrared backgrounds given by ROSAT and AKARI.
Cross-correlations between West Texas Intermediate crude oil and the stock markets of the BRIC
Ma, Feng; Wei, Yu; Huang, Dengshi; Zhao, Lin
2013-11-01
In this paper, we investigate the cross-correlation properties between West Texas Intermediate crude oil and the stock markets of the BRIC. We use not only the qualitative analysis of the cross-correlation test, but also take the quantitative analysis of the MF-DXA, confirming the cross-correlation relationship between West Texas Intermediate crude oil and the stock markets of the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) respectively, which have strongly multifractal features, and the cross-correlations are more strongly multifractal in the short term than in the long term. Furthermore, based on the multifractal spectrum, we also find the multifractality strength between the crude oil WTI and Chinese stock market is stronger than the multifractality strength of other pairs. Based on the Iraq war (Mar 20, 2003) and the Financial crisis in 2008, we divide sample period into four segments to research the degree of the multifractal (ΔH) and the market efficiency (and the risk). Finally, we employ the technique of the rolling window to calculate the time-varying EI (efficiency index) and dependent on the EI, we can easily observe the change of stock markets. Furthermore, we explore the relationship between bivariate cross-correlation exponents (Hxy(q)) and the generalized Hurst exponents.
Coda reconstruction from cross-correlation of a diffuse field on thin elastic plates
Hejazi Nooghabi, Aida; Boschi, Lapo; Roux, Philippe; de Rosny, Julien
2017-09-01
This study contributes to the evaluation of the robustness and accuracy of Green's function reconstruction from cross-correlation of strongly dispersed reverberated signals, with disentangling of the respective roles of ballistic and reverberated ("coda") contributions. We conduct a suite of experiments on a highly reverberating thin duralumin plate, where an approximately diffuse flexural wave field is generated by taking advantage of the plate reverberation and wave dispersion. A large number of impulsive sources that cover the whole surface of the plate are used to validate ambient-noise theory through comparison of the causal and anticausal (i.e., positive- and negative-time) terms of the cross-correlation to one another and to the directly measured Green's function. To quantify the contribution of the ballistic and coda signals, the cross-correlation integral is defined over different time windows of variable length, and the accuracy of the reconstructed Green's function is studied as a function of the initial and end times of the integral. We show that even cross-correlations measured over limited time windows converge to a significant part of the Green's function. Convergence is achieved over a wide time window, which includes not only direct flexural-wave arrivals, but also the multiply reverberated coda. We propose a model, based on normal-mode analysis, that relates the similarity between the cross-correlation and the Green's function to the statistical properties of the plate. We also determine quantitatively how incoherent noise degrades the estimation of the Green's function.
Battaglia, N.; Hill, J. C. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Murray, N. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St George, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)
2015-10-20
Recent first detections of the cross-correlation of the thermal Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (tSZ) signal in Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature maps with gravitational lensing maps inferred from the Planck CMB data and the CFHTLenS galaxy survey provide new probes of the relationship between baryons and dark matter. Using cosmological hydrodynamics simulations, we show that these cross-correlation signals are dominated by contributions from hot gas in the intracluster medium (ICM), rather than diffuse, unbound gas located beyond the virial radius (the “missing baryons”). Thus, these cross-correlations offer a tool with which to study the ICM over a wide range of halo masses and redshifts. In particular, we show that the tSZ—CMB lensing cross-correlation is more sensitive to gas in lower-mass, higher-redshift halos and gas at larger cluster-centric radii than the tSZ—galaxy lensing cross-correlation. Combining these measurements with primary CMB data will constrain feedback models through their signatures in the ICM pressure profile. We forecast the ability of ongoing and future experiments to constrain the parameters of a phenomenological ICM model, including the mean amplitude of the pressure–mass relation, the redshift evolution of this amplitude, and the mean outer logarithmic slope of the pressure profile. The results are promising, with ≈5%–20% precision constraints achievable with upcoming experiments, even after marginalizing over cosmological parameters.
Battaglia, N; Murray, N
2014-01-01
Recent first detections of the cross-correlation of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) signal in Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature maps with gravitational lensing maps inferred from the Planck CMB data and the CFHTLenS galaxy survey provide new probes of the relationship between baryons and dark matter. Using cosmological hydrodynamics simulations, we show that these cross-correlation signals are dominated by contributions from hot gas in the intracluster medium (ICM), rather than diffuse, unbound gas located beyond the virial radius (the "missing baryons"). Thus, these cross-correlations offer a tool with which to study the ICM over a wide range of halo masses and redshifts. In particular, we show that the tSZ - CMB lensing cross-correlation is more sensitive to gas in lower-mass, higher-redshift halos and gas at larger cluster-centric radii than the tSZ - galaxy lensing cross-correlation. Combining these measurements with primary CMB data will constrain feedback models through their sig...
The cross-correlation analysis of multi property of stock markets based on MM-DFA
Yang, Yujun; Li, Jianping; Yang, Yimei
2017-09-01
In this paper, we propose a new method called DH-MXA based on distribution histograms of Hurst surface and multiscale multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. The method allows us to investigate the cross-correlation characteristics among multiple properties of different stock time series. It may provide a new way of measuring the nonlinearity of several signals. It also can provide a more stable and faithful description of cross-correlation of multiple properties of stocks. The DH-MXA helps us to present much richer information than multifractal detrented cross-correlation analysis and allows us to assess many universal and subtle cross-correlation characteristics of stock markets. We show DH-MXA by selecting four artificial data sets and five properties of four stock time series from different countries. The results show that our proposed method can be adapted to investigate the cross-correlation of stock markets. In general, the American stock markets are more mature and less volatile than the Chinese stock markets.
Franks, Peter J; Drake, Paul L; Beerling, David J
2009-01-01
.... However, using basic equations for gas diffusion through stomata of different sizes, we show that a negative correlation between S and D offers several advantages, including plasticity in gwmax...
Does the Euro crisis change the cross-correlation pattern between bank shares and national indexes?
Ferreira, Paulo
2016-12-01
The objective of this paper is to analyze if the Euro crisis, which started in 2009, changes the cross-correlation pattern of bank shares with the national stock indexes in both in Eurozone and non-Eurozone countries. We study all banks listed in the main stock indexes of European Union countries, applying the detrended cross-correlation coefficient. An increase in the correlation indicates that the banking sector now has a greater influence in the national index, while a decrease in the correlation means the opposite. Our results show that 19 of the 39 banks analyzed in the Eurozone increased their correlation with national indexes, whilst in the non-Eurozone countries this happened with 14 of the 24 studied banks. While some authors argue that the crisis may have been aggravated by the weight of banks in the economy, Eurozone policy makers should pay attention to this feature.
Dissociative symptoms and interregional EEG cross-correlations in paranoid schizophrenia.
Bob, Petr; Susta, Marek; Glaslova, Katerina; Boutros, Nash N
2010-05-15
Recent findings indicate that binding and synchronization of distributed activities are crucial for the mechanism of consciousness, and there is increased evidence that disruptions in feature binding produce disintegration of consciousness in schizophrenia. These data suggest that the disrupted binding and disintegration of consciousness could be related to dissociation, which is historically linked to Bleuler's concept of splitting in schizophrenia. In the present study we aimed to investigate relations among electroencephalogram (EEG) activities of cortical sites and used psychometric measures of positive and negative schizophrenia symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale) and the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) in 58 patients with paranoid schizophrenia. The results show statistically significant Spearman correlations of the DES with cross-correlation function in nine (of 16) EEG pairs. Positive symptoms display significant Spearman correlation with mean of cross-correlation function in only one EEG pair (F4-C4). Results of the Mann-Whitney test between patients with higher (DES > or = 30) and lower dissociation show statistically significant differences between the groups for cross-correlations in nine EEG pairs. The results of this study provide the first supportive evidence for a negative relationship between cross-correlation indices and symptoms of dissociation in schizophrenia.
MEASURING SEA ICE DRIFT VIA CROSS-CORRELATION OF RADAR ICE IMAGES
SUN He-quan; SHEN Yong-ming; Qiu Da-hong
2004-01-01
The motion of sea ice has a great effect on winter navigation, and oil field exploration in the Bohai Sea. It is very important to measure the ice drift accurately and efficiently. As a practical technique, radar imagery has been used for sea ice monitoring and forecasting for a long time. Combining with the radar imagery and cross-correlation technique, a new measurement method based on the cross-correlation of radar ice images is specified in this paper to obtain full field measurement of sea ice drift. The theory and fast implementation of cross-correlation are presented briefly in the paper, including the filtering method to modify the invalid vectors. To show deeply the validity of the present method, the velocity maps of sea ice drift are provided in the paper, which are calculated from the radar images grabbed in the Liaodong Gulf. The comparison with the traditional tracing method is also conducted.
Cross-correlations between the US monetary policy, US dollar index and crude oil market
Sun, Xinxin; Lu, Xinsheng; Yue, Gongzheng; Li, Jianfeng
2017-02-01
This paper investigates the cross-correlations between the US monetary policy, US dollar index and WTI crude oil market, using a dataset covering a period from February 4, 1994 to February 29, 2016. Our study contributes to the literature by examining the effect of the US monetary policy on US dollar index and WTI crude oil through the MF-DCCA approach. The empirical results show that the cross-correlations between the three sets of time series exhibit strong multifractal features with the strength of multifractality increasing over the sample period. Employing a rolling window analysis, our empirical results show that the US monetary policy operations have clear influences on the cross-correlated behavior of the three time series covered by this study.
Cross-Correlation by Single-bit Signal Processing for Ultrasonic Distance Measurement
Hirata, Shinnosuke; Kurosawa, Minoru Kuribayashi; Katagiri, Takashi
Ultrasonic distance measurement using the pulse-echo method is based on the determination of the time of flight of ultrasonic waves. The pulse-compression technique, in which the cross-correlation function of a detected ultrasonic wave and a transmitted ultrasonic wave is obtained, is the conventional method used for improving the resolution of distance measurement. However, the calculation of a cross-correlation operation requires high-cost digital signal processing. This paper presents a new method of sensor signal processing within the pulse-compression technique using a delta-sigma modulated single-bit digital signal. The proposed sensor signal processing method consists of a cross-correlation operation employing single-bit signal processing and a smoothing operation involving a moving average filter. The proposed method reduces the calculation cost of the digital signal processing of the pulse-compression technique.
Pal, Mayukha; Kiran, V. Satya; Rao, P. Madhusudana; Manimaran, P.
2016-08-01
We characterized the multifractal nature and power law cross-correlation between any pair of genome sequence through an integrative approach combining 2D multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis and chaos game representation. In this paper, we have analyzed genomes of some prokaryotes and calculated fractal spectra h(q) and f(α) . From our analysis, we observed existence of multifractal nature and power law cross-correlation behavior between any pair of genome sequences. Cluster analysis was performed on the calculated scaling exponents to identify the class affiliation and the same is represented as a dendrogram. We suggest this approach may find applications in next generation sequence analysis, big data analytics etc.
Velocity Distribution Measurement Using Pixel-Pixel Cross Correlation of Electrical Tomography
DENGXiang; PENGLihui; YAODanya; ZHANGBaofen
2004-01-01
Electrical tomography (ET) provides a novel means of visualizing the internal behavior of twophase flow in industrial process. Using a dual-sensingplane Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) or Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) system, the raw data of two different section images can be acquired synchronously and the two images reflecting the inner medium distribution respectively can also be reconstructed by using imaging algorithm. Further, the analysis of pixel-pixel cross correlation is able to be setup and the measurement of velocity distribution of two-phase flow could be achieved. The principle is described in the paper. The FFT algorithm for gray value computation and cross correlation function calculation is also introduced. Some experimental results of velocity distribution measurement using pixelpixel cross correlation in vertical slug flow are presented.
Needlet estimation of cross-correlation between CMB lensing maps and LSS
Bianchini, Federico; Marinucci, Domenico
2016-01-01
In this paper we develop a novel needlet-based estimator to investigate the cross-correlation between cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing maps and large-scale structure (LSS) data. We compare this estimator with its harmonic counterpart and, in particular, we analyze the bias effects of different forms of masking. In order to address this bias, we also implement a MASTER-like technique in the needlet case. The resulting estimator turns out to have an extremely good signal-to-noise performance. Our analysis aims at expanding and optimizing the operating domains in CMB-LSS cross-correlation studies, similarly to CMB needlet data analysis. It is motivated especially by next generation experiments (such as Euclid) which will allow us to derive much tighter constraints on cosmological and astrophysical parameters through cross-correlation measurements between CMB and LSS.
Nonlinear Analysis on Cross-Correlation of Financial Time Series by Continuum Percolation System
Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun
We establish a financial price process by continuum percolation system, in which we attribute price fluctuations to the investors’ attitudes towards the financial market, and consider the clusters in continuum percolation as the investors share the same investment opinion. We investigate the cross-correlations in two return time series, and analyze the multifractal behaviors in this relationship. Further, we study the corresponding behaviors for the real stock indexes of SSE and HSI as well as the liquid stocks pair of SPD and PAB by comparison. To quantify the multifractality in cross-correlation relationship, we employ multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis method to perform an empirical research for the simulation data and the real markets data.
Cross-correlation of output fluctuation and system-balancing cost in photovoltaic integration
Yuichi Ikeda
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The authors analysed the cross-correlation of photovoltaic (PV output fluctuation for the actual PV output time series data in both the Tokyo area and the whole of Japan using the principal component analysis with the random matrix theory. Based on the obtained cross-correlation coefficients, the forecast error for PV output was estimated with/without considering the cross-correlations. Then the operation schedule of thermal plants is calculated to integrate PV output using the proposed unit commitment model with the estimated forecast error. The system-balancing cost of PV system was also estimated with or without demand response. Finally, validity of the concept of ‘local production for local consumption of renewable energy’ and alternative policy implications were discussed.
Wavelet entropy filter and cross-correlation of gravitational wave data
Terenziand, R
2009-01-01
We present a method for enhancing the cross-correlation of gravitational wave signals eventually present in data streams containing otherwise uncorrelated noise. Such method makes use of the wavelet decomposition to cast the cross-correlation time series in time-frequency space. Then an entropy criterion is applied to identify the best time frequency resolution, i.e. the resolution allowing to concentrate the signal in the smallest number of wavelet coefficients. By keeping only the coefficients above a certain threshold, it is possible to reconstruct a cross-correlation time series where the effect of common signal is stronger. We tested our method against signals injected over two data streams of uncorrelated white noise.
Implementation of ultrasound time-domain cross-correlation blood velocity estimators
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
1993-01-01
are used in the algorithm, imposing a heavy burden on the signal processing hardware. The algorithm is analyzed with regard to the high sampling frequency, and a method for performing real-time high-speed-movement and cross-correlation is suggested. Implementation schemes based on using the sign......The implementation of real-time blood velocity estimators using time-domain cross-correlation is investigated. The basic algorithm for stationary echo canceling, cross-correlation estimation and subsequent velocity estimation is presented. Sampled data acquired at rates of approximately 20 MHz...... of the data as well as the full precision are proposed. From an analysis of the process it is concluded that the sign data implementation can attain real-time processing. This can also be obtained for the full precision data, but at the expense of using a number of dedicated signal processing chips. Both...
Cross-correlation between thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect
Creque-Sarbinowski, Cyril; Bird, Simeon; Kamionkowski, Marc
2016-09-01
Large-angle fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background temperature induced by the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect and Compton-y distortions from the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect are both due to line-of-sight density perturbations. Here we calculate the cross-correlation between these two signals. Measurement of this cross-correlation can be used to test the redshift distribution of the tSZ distortion, which has implications for the redshift at which astrophysical processes in clusters begin to operate. We also evaluate the detectability of a y T cross-correlation from exotic early-Universe sources in the presence of this late-time effect.
On the reliability of direct Rayleigh-wave estimation from multicomponent cross-correlations
Xu, Zongbo; Mikesell, T. Dylan
2017-09-01
Seismic interferometry is routinely used to image and characterize underground geology. The vertical component cross-correlations (CZZ) are often analysed in this process; although one can also use radial component and multicomponent cross-correlations (CRR and CZR, respectively), which have been shown to provide a more accurate Rayleigh-wave Green's function than CZZ when sources are unevenly distributed. In this letter, we identify the relationship between the multicomponent cross-correlations (CZR and CRR) and the Rayleigh-wave Green's functions to show why CZR and CRR are less sensitive than CZZ to non-stationary phase source energy. We demonstrate the robustness of CRR with a synthetic seismic noise data example. These results provide a compelling reason as to why CRR should be used to estimate the dispersive characteristics of the direct Rayleigh wave with seismic interferometry when the signal-to-noise ratio is high.
Yang, Liansheng; Zhu, Yingming; Wang, Yudong; Wang, Yiqi
2016-11-01
Based on the daily price data of spot prices of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil and ten CSI300 sector indices in China, we apply multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) method to investigate the cross-correlations between crude oil and Chinese sector stock markets. We find that the strength of multifractality between WTI crude oil and energy sector stock market is the highest, followed by the strength of multifractality between WTI crude oil and financial sector market, which reflects a close connection between energy and financial market. Then we do vector autoregression (VAR) analysis to capture the interdependencies among the multiple time series. By comparing the strength of multifractality for original data and residual errors of VAR model, we get a conclusion that vector auto-regression (VAR) model could not be used to describe the dynamics of the cross-correlations between WTI crude oil and the ten sector stock markets.
Parker, Stephen R; Ivanov, Eugene N; Tobar, Michael E
2015-01-01
Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), such as axions, are highly motivated dark matter candidates. The most sensitive experimental searches for these particles exploit WISP-to-photon conversion mechanisms and use resonant cavity structures to enhance the resulting power signal. For WISPs to constitute Cold Dark Matter their required masses correspond to photons in the microwave spectrum. As such, searches for these types of WISPs are primarily limited by the thermal cavity noise and the broadband first-stage amplifier noise. In this work we propose and then verify two cross-correlation measurement techniques for cavity-based WISP searches. These are two channel measurement schemes where the cross-spectrum is computed, rejecting uncorrelated noise sources while still retaining correlated signals such as those generated by WISPs. The first technique allows for the cavity thermal spectrum to be observed with an enhanced resolution. The second technique cross-correlates two individual cavity/amplifier system...
Cross-correlation analysis of stock markets using EMD and EEMD
Xu, Mengjia; Shang, Pengjian; Lin, Aijing
2016-01-01
Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is a data-driven signal analysis method for nonlinear and nonstationary data. Since it is intuitive, direct, posterior and adaptive, EMD is widely applied to various fields of study. In this paper, EMD and ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), a modified method of EMD, are applied to financial time series. Through analyzing the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of EMD and EEMD, we find EEMD method performs better on the orthogonality of IMFs than EMD. With clustering the ordered frequencies of IMFs, the IMFs obtained from EEMD method are grouped into high-, medium-, and low-frequency components, representing the short-, medium-, and long-term volatilities of the index sequences, respectively. With the cross-correlation analysis of DCCA cross-correlation coefficient, our findings allow us to gain further and detailed insight into the cross-correlations of stock markets.
Intensity mapping cross-correlations: connecting the largest scales to galaxy evolution
Wolz, L.; Tonini, C.; Blake, C.; Wyithe, J. S. B.
2016-05-01
Intensity mapping of the neutral hydrogen (H I) is a new observational tool to efficiently map the large-scale structure over wide redshift ranges. The cross-correlation of intensity maps with galaxy surveys is a robust measure of the cosmological power spectrum and the H I content of galaxies which diminishes systematics caused by instrumental effects and foreground removal. We examine the cross-correlation signature at redshift 0.9 using a semi-analytical galaxy formation model in order to model the H I gas of galaxies as well as their optical magnitudes. We determine the scale-dependent clustering of the cross-correlation power for different types of galaxies determined by their colours, which act as a proxy for their star formation activity. We find that the cross-correlation coefficient with H I density for red quiescent galaxies falls off more quickly on smaller scales k > 0.2 h Mpc-1 than for blue star-forming galaxies. Additionally, we create a mock catalogue of highly star-forming galaxies to mimic the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey, and use this to predict existing and future measurements using data from the Green Bank telescope and Parkes telescope. We find that the cross-power of highly star-forming galaxies shows a higher clustering on small scales than any other galaxy type and that this significantly alters the power spectrum shape on scales k > 0.2 h Mpc-1. We show that the cross-correlation coefficient is not negligible when interpreting the cosmological cross-power spectrum and additionally contains information about the H I content of the optically selected galaxies.
Tal, Balazs; Bencze, Attila; Zoletnik, Sandor; Veres, Gabor [KFKI-Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Association EURATOM, PO Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Por, Gabor [Department of Nuclear Techniques, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Association EURATOM, Muegyetem rkp. 9., H-1111 Budapest (Hungary)
2011-12-15
Time delay estimation methods (TDE) are well-known techniques to investigate poloidal flows in hot magnetized plasmas through the propagation properties of turbulent structures in the medium. One of these methods is based on the estimation of the time lag at which the cross-correlation function (CCF) estimation reaches its maximum value. The uncertainty of the peak location refers to the smallest determinable flow velocity modulation, and therefore the standard deviation of the time delay imposes important limitation to the measurements. In this article, the relative standard deviation of the CCF estimation and the standard deviation of its peak location are calculated analytically using a simple model of turbulent signals. This model assumes independent (non interacting) overlapping events (coherent structures) with randomly distributed spatio-temporal origins moving with background flow. The result of our calculations is the derivation of a general formula for the CCF variance, which is valid not exclusively in the high event density limit, but also for arbitrary event densities. Our formula reproduces the well known expression for high event densities previously published in the literature. In this paper we also present a derivation of the variance of time delay estimation that turns out to be inversely proportional to the applied time window. The derived formulas were tested in real plasma measurements. The calculations are an extension of the earlier work of Bencze and Zoletnik [Phys. Plasmas 12, 052323 (2005)] where the autocorrelation-width technique was developed. Additionally, we show that velocities calculated by a TDE method possess a broadband noise which originates from this variance, its power spectral density cannot be decreased by worsening the time resolution and can be coherent with noises of other velocity measurements where the same turbulent structures are used. This noise should not be confused with the impact of zero mean frequency zonal flow
Takahiro eDoi
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Three-dimensional visual perception requires correct matching of images projected to the left and right eyes. The matching process is faced with an ambiguity: part of one eye’s image can be matched to multiple parts of the other eye’s image. This stereo correspondence problem is complicated for random-dot stereograms (RDSs, because dots with an identical appearance produce numerous potential matches. Despite such complexity, human subjects can perceive a coherent depth structure. A coherent solution to the correspondence problem does not exist for anticorrelated RDSs (aRDSs, in which luminance contrast is reversed in one eye. Neurons in the visual cortex reduce disparity selectivity for aRDSs progressively along the visual processing hierarchy. A disparity-energy model followed by threshold nonlinearity (threshold energy model can account for this reduction, providing a possible mechanism for the neural matching process. However, the essential computation underlying the threshold energy model is not clear. Here, we propose that a nonlinear modification of cross-correlation, which we term ‘cross-matching’, represents the essence of the threshold energy model. We placed half-wave rectification within the cross-correlation of the left-eye and right-eye images. The disparity tuning derived from cross-matching was attenuated for aRDSs. We simulated a psychometric curve as a function of graded anticorrelation (graded mixture of aRDS and normal RDS; this simulated curve reproduced the match-based psychometric function observed in human near/far discrimination. The dot density was 25% for both simulation and observation. We predicted that as the dot density increased, the performance for aRDSs should decrease below chance (i.e., reversed depth, and the level of anticorrelation that nullifies depth perception should also decrease. We suggest that cross-matching serves as a simple computation underlying the match-based disparity signals in
Cross-correlation of weak lensing and gamma rays: implications for the nature of dark matter
Tröster, Tilman; Fornasa, Mattia; Regis, Marco; van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Ando, Shin'ichiro; Bilicki, Maciej; Erben, Thomas; Fornengo, Nicolao; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hoekstra, Henk; Kuijken, Konrad; Viola, Massimo
2016-01-01
We measure the cross-correlation between Fermi-LAT gamma-ray photons and over 1000 deg$^2$ of weak lensing data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS), the Red Cluster Sequence Lensing Survey (RCSLenS), and the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS). We present the first measurement of tomographic weak lensing cross-correlations and the first application of spectral binning to cross-correlations between gamma rays and weak lensing. The measurements are performed using an angular power spectrum estimator while the covariance is estimated using an analytical prescription. We verify the accuracy of our covariance estimate by comparing it to two internal covariance estimators. Based on the non-detection of a cross-correlation signal, we derive constraints on weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter. We compute exclusion limits on the dark matter annihilation cross-section $\\langle\\sigma_\\rm{ann} v \\rangle$, decay rate $\\Gamma_\\rm{dec}$, and particle mass $m_\\rm{DM}$. We find that in th...
Dynamic evolution of cross-correlations in the Chinese stock market.
Fei Ren
Full Text Available The analysis of cross-correlations is extensively applied for the understanding of interconnections in stock markets and the portfolio risk estimation. Current studies of correlations in Chinese market mainly focus on the static correlations between return series, and this calls for an urgent need to investigate their dynamic correlations. Our study aims to reveal the dynamic evolution of cross-correlations in the Chinese stock market, and offer an exact interpretation for the evolution behavior. The correlation matrices constructed from the return series of 367 A-share stocks traded on the Shanghai Stock Exchange from January 4, 1999 to December 30, 2011 are calculated over a moving window with a size of 400 days. The evolutions of the statistical properties of the correlation coefficients, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors of the correlation matrices are carefully analyzed. We find that the stock correlations are significantly increased in the periods of two market crashes in 2001 and 2008, during which only five eigenvalues significantly deviate from the random correlation matrix, and the systemic risk is higher in these volatile periods than calm periods. By investigating the significant contributors of the deviating eigenvectors in different time periods, we observe a dynamic evolution behavior in business sectors such as IT, electronics, and real estate, which lead the rise (drop before (after the crashes. Our results provide new perspectives for the understanding of the dynamic evolution of cross-correlations in the Chines stock markets, and the result of risk estimation is valuable for the application of risk management.
AN IMPROVED CROSS-CORRELATION METHOD FOR (DIGITAL) PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY
翁文国; 范维澄; 廖光煊; 秦俊
2001-01-01
An improved method that brings enhancement in accuracy for the interrogation of (digital) PIV images is described in this paper. This method is based on cross-correlation with discrete window offset, which makes use of a translation of the second interrogation window and rebuilds it considering rotation and shear.The displacement extracted from PIV images is predicted and corrected by means of an iterative procedure. In addition, the displacement vectors are validated at each intermediate of the iteration process. The present improved cross-correlation method is compared with the conventional one in accuracy by interrogation of synthetic and real (digital) PIV images and the interrogation results are discussed.
Precise optical modeling for LED lighting verified by cross correlation in the midfield region.
Sun, Ching-Cherng; Lee, Tsung-Xian; Ma, Shih-Hsin; Lee, Ya-Luan; Huang, Shih-Ming
2006-07-15
A novel LED modeling algorithm for precise three-dimensional light pattern simulation is proposed and demonstrated. We propose to use normalized cross correlation to verify the validity of the simulation in one-dimensional intensity patterns as well as two-dimensional irradiance patterns in various midfield distances and to provide feedback to achieve a successful model. The model is demonstrated to obtain an average of 99% in normalized cross correlation between the simulation light pattern and experimental measurement for a truncated inverse pyramid LED.
Optical switching of cross intensity correlation in cavity electromagnetically induced transparency
Rao, Shi; Hu, Xiangming; Xu, Jun; Li, Lingchao
2017-03-01
We present optical switching of cross intensity correlation in the context of cavity electromagnetically induced transparency configuration. For symmetrical parameters, the cross intensity correlation switches from negative to positive as the atom–pump detunings change symmetrically from one case to the other. In terms of the dressed atomic states and the Bogoliubov modes we analyze the atom–photon interaction mechanism for the switching behavior, and present a numerical verification. As a by-product, we show noise squeezing of the sum or difference intensity in a limited region of parameters.
Versatile soft X-ray-optical cross-correlator for ultrafast applications
Daniel Schick
2016-09-01
eV up to the hard X-ray regime based on a molybdenum-silicon superlattice. The cross-correlation is done by probing intensity and position changes of superlattice Bragg peaks caused by photoexcitation of coherent phonons. This approach is applicable for a wide range of X-ray photon energies as well as for a broad range of excitation wavelengths and requires no external fields or changes of temperature. Moreover, the cross-correlator can be employed on a 10 ps or 100 fs time scale featuring up to 50% total X-ray reflectivity and transient signal changes of more than 20%.
Experience of application of clamp-on cross-correlation flow meter in nuclear industry
Gurevich, Y. [Daystar Technology Inc., Ontario (Canada); Ton, V.; Kotenyov, S.; Zhao, C. [Ontario Power Generation, Ontario (Canada); Sharp, B.; Lopez, A. [Advanced Measurements and Analysis Group Inc., Ontario (Canada)
2010-07-01
The cross-correlation clamp-on flow meter, CROSSFLOW, developed and manufactured by AMAG, has been used over the world for over 15 years for flow measurements in various systems in nuclear and fossil power plants. Prior that, OPG has used similar technology in Canadian nuclear power plants since 1980-ies. Two recent examples of the application of the clamp-on cross-correlation technology are presented in this paper. In first example OPG meter was used to verify accuracy of ASME nozzles installed in condensate flow lines. In second example AMAG meter was used to measure Diesel Cooling Water (DCW). (author)
Singh, Jaswinder
2013-12-01
The analysis of a three-dimensional (3-D) wavelength/time/space (W-T-S) asynchronous optical CDMA code family is presented considering MAI only under relaxed cross-correlation (λc ⩾ 1). Based on the code performance, it is shown that for code-limited systems (when W and/or T are non-prime), the number of generated codes and hence the supported users can be significantly increased by relaxing the cross-correlation constraint if a slight degradation in code performance can be tolerated.
Period-Different $m$-Sequences With At Most A Four-Valued Cross Correlation
Hu, Lei; Zeng, Xiangyong; Li, Nian; Jiang, Wenfeng
2008-01-01
In this paper, we follow the recent work of Helleseth, Kholosha, Johanssen and Ness to study the cross correlation between an $m$-sequence of period $2^m-1$ and the $d$-decimation of an $m$-sequence of shorter period $2^{n}-1$ for an even number $m=2n$. Assuming that $d$ satisfies $d(2^l+1)=2^i({\\rm mod} 2^n-1)$ for some $l$ and $i$, we prove the cross correlation takes exactly either three or four values, depending on ${\\rm gcd}(l,n)$ is equal to or larger than 1. The distribution of the cor...
Refinement of arrival-time picks using a cross-correlation based workflow
Akram, Jubran; Eaton, David W.
2016-12-01
We propose a new iterative workflow based on cross-correlation for improved arrival-time picking on microseismic data. In this workflow, signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and polarity weighted stacking are used to minimize the effect of S/N and polarity fluctuations on the pilot waveform computation. We use an exhaustive search technique for polarity estimation through stack power maximization. We use pseudo-synthetic and real microseismic data from western Canada in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed workflow relative to Akaike information criterion (AIC) and a previously published cross-correlation based method. The pseudo-synthetic microseismic waveforms are obtained by introducing Gaussian noise and polarity fluctuations into waveforms from a high S/N microseismic event. We find that the cross-correlation based approaches yield more accurate arrival-time picks as compared to AIC for low S/N waveforms. AIC is not affected by waveform polarities as it works on individual receiver levels whereas the accuracy of existing cross-correlation method decreases in spite of using envelope correlation. We show that our proposed workflow yields better and consistent arrival-time picks regardless of waveform amplitude and polarity variations within the receiver array. After refinement, the initial arrival-time picks are located closer to the best estimated manual picks.
Oil price and exchange rate co-movements in Asian countries: Detrended cross-correlation approach
Hussain, Muntazir; Zebende, Gilney Figueira; Bashir, Usman; Donghong, Ding
2017-01-01
Most empirical literature investigates the relation between oil prices and exchange rate through different models. These models measure this relationship on two time scales (long and short terms), and often fail to observe the co-movement of these variables at different time scales. We apply a detrended cross-correlation approach (DCCA) to investigate the co-movements of the oil price and exchange rate in 12 Asian countries. This model determines the co-movements of oil price and exchange rate at different time scale. The exchange rate and oil price time series indicate unit root problem. Their correlation and cross-correlation are very difficult to measure. The result becomes spurious when periodic trend or unit root problem occurs in these time series. This approach measures the possible cross-correlation at different time scale and controlling the unit root problem. Our empirical results support the co-movements of oil prices and exchange rate. Our results support a weak negative cross-correlation between oil price and exchange rate for most Asian countries included in our sample. The results have important monetary, fiscal, inflationary, and trade policy implications for these countries.
An Ultra-Wideband Cross-Correlation Radiometer for Mesoscopic Experiments
Toonen, Ryan; Haselby, Cyrus; Qin, Hua; Eriksson, Mark; Blick, Robert
2007-03-01
We have designed, built and tested a cross-correlation radiometer for detecting statistical order in the quantum fluctuations of mesoscopic experiments at sub-Kelvin temperatures. Our system utilizes a fully analog front-end--operating over the X- and Ku-bands (8 to 18 GHz)--for computing the cross-correlation function. Digital signal processing techniques are used to provide robustness against instrumentation drifts and offsets. The economized version of our instrument can measure, with sufficient correlation efficiency, noise signals having power levels as low as 10 fW. We show that, if desired, we can improve this performance by including cryogenic preamplifiers which boost the signal-to-noise ratio near the signal source. By adding a few extra components, we can measure both the real and imaginary parts of the cross-correlation function--improving the overall signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of sqrt[2]. We demonstrate the utility of our cross-correlator with noise power measurements from a quantum point contact.
The Cross-correlation of MgII Absorption and Galaxies in BOSS
Pérez-Ràfols, Ignasi; Lundgren, Britt; Ge, Jian; Petitjean, Patrick; Schneider, Donald P; York, Donald G; Weaver, Benjamin A
2014-01-01
We present a measurement of the cross-correlation of MgII absorption and massive galaxies, using the DR11 galaxy sample of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey of SDSS-III, and the DR7 quasar spectra of SDSS-II. The cross-correlation is measured by stacking quasar absorption spectra shifted to the redshift of galaxies that are within a certain impact parameter bin of the quasar, after dividing by a quasar continuum model. This results in an average MgII equivalent width as a function of impact parameter from a galaxy, ranging from 50 kpc to more than 10 Mpc in proper units, which includes all MgII absorbers. We show that special care needs to be taken to use an unbiased quasar continuum estimator, to avoid systematic errors in the measurement of the mean stacked MgII equivalent width. The measured cross-correlation follows the expected shape of the galaxy correlation function, although measurement errors are large. We use the cross-correlation amplitude to derive the bias factor of MgII absorbers, find...
Huang, Chang-Wei; Lien, Der-Hsien; Chen, Ben-Ting; Shieh, Jay; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Chen, Chuin-Shan; Chen, Wen-Shiang
2013-08-01
A hybrid method for estimating temperature with spatial mapping using diagnostic ultrasound, based on detection of echo shifts from tissue undergoing thermal treatment, is proposed. Cross-correlation and zero-crossing tracking are two conventional algorithms used for detecting echo shifts, but their practical applications are limited. The proposed hybrid method combines the advantages of both algorithms with improved accuracy in temperature estimation. In vitro experiments were performed on porcine muscle for preliminary validation and temperature calibration. In addition, thermal mapping of rabbit thigh muscle in vivo during high-intensity focused ultrasound heating was conducted. Results from the in vitro experiments indicated that the difference between the estimated temperature change by the proposed hybrid method and the actual temperature change measured by the thermocouple was generally less than 1 °C when the increase in temperature due to heating was less than 10 °C. For the in vivo study, the area predicted to experience the highest temperature coincided well with the focal point of the high-intensity focused ultrasound transducer. The computational efficiency of the hybrid algorithm was similar to that of the fast cross-correlation algorithm, but with an improved accuracy. The proposed hybrid method could provide an alternative means for non-invasive monitoring of limited temperature changes during hyperthermia therapy.
Interpreting Cross-correlations of One-bit Filtered Seismic Noise
Hanasoge, Shravan
2013-01-01
Seismic noise, generated by oceanic microseisms and other sources, illuminates the crust in a manner different from tectonic sources, and therefore provides independent information. The primary measurable is the two-point cross-correlation, evaluated using traces recorded at a pair of seismometers over a finite-time interval. However, raw seismic traces contain intermittent large-amplitude perturbations arising from tectonic activity and instrumental errors, which may corrupt the estimated cross-correlations of microseismic fluctuations. In order to diminish the impact of these perturbations, the recorded traces are filtered using the nonlinear one-bit digitizer, which replaces the measurement by its sign. Previous theory shows that for stationary Gaussian-distributed seismic noise fluctuations one-bit and raw correlation functions are related by a simple invertible transformation. Here we extend this to show that the simple correspondence between these two correlation techniques remains valid for {\\it non-st...
Cross-correlation function based multipath mitigation technique for cosine-BOC signals
Huihua Chen; Weimin Jia; Minli Yao
2013-01-01
We propose a new multipath mitigation technique based on cross-correlation function for the new cosine phased binary off-set carrier (cosine-BOC) modulated signals, which wil most likely be employed in both European Galileo system and Chinese Com-pass system. This technique is implemented to create an optimum cross-correlation function via designing the modulated symbols of the local signal. And the structure of the code tracking loop for cosine-BOC signals is quite simple including only two real correla-tors. Results demonstrate that the technique efficiently eliminates the ranging errors in the medium and long multipath regions with respect to the conventional receiver correlation techniques.
H-ATLAS High-Z Sources: An Optimal Sample for Cross-Correlation Analyses
González-Nuevo, J; Bianchini, F
2014-01-01
We report a highly signicant ( > 10 ) spatial correlation between galaxies with S 350 m 30 mJy detected in the equatorial elds of the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) with estimated redshifts & 1 : 5, and SDSS or GAMA galaxies at 0 : 2 z 0 : 6. The signicance of the cross-correlation is much higher than those reported so far for samples with non-overlapping redshift distributions selected in other wavebands.
High dynamic range multi-channel cross-correlator for single-shot temporal contrast measurement
Kon, A.; Nishiuchi, M.; Kiriyama, H.; Ogura, K.; Mori, M.; Sakaki, H.; Kando, M.; Kondo, K.
2016-05-01
We have developed a multi-channel cross-correlator for high dynamic range (>1010), single-shot temporal contrast measurements. The correlator utilizes a third-order crosscorrelation technique and has a reference channel, to be normalized by the measured peak intensity, and four independent optical delay lines. The measurement results of the shot-to-shot temporal contrast clearly show the intensity fluctuations of short pre-pulses at -4.5 ps and -26 ps before main pulse.
Inter-diffusion and its correlation with dynamical cross correlation in liquid Ce{sub 80}Ni{sub 20}
Hu, J.L.; Zhong, L.X.; Zhu, C.A.; Zhang, B. [Hefei University of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering and Anhui Provincial Key Lab of Functional Materials and Devices, Hefei (China)
2017-03-15
We reported the inter-diffusion coefficients in liquid Ce{sub 80}Ni{sub 20} measured by the sliding cell technique. Combined with the self-diffusion data of Ni measured by quasi-elastic neutron scattering in the literature, it was found that the relationship between inter-diffusion and self-diffusion in liquid Ce{sub 80}Ni{sub 20} was strongly deviated from the standard Darken equation with an abnormally small dynamical cross correlation factor S (the so called Manning factor) in a range of 0.6-0.8, less than unity in standard systems. Through the calculated distinct diffusion coefficient and its deviation from the standard one, it was discovered that the small S value was directly originated from enhanced distinct diffusion between Ce and Ni atoms and reduced distinct diffusion between Ni and Ni atoms. Because the inter-atomic interaction was not considered in the standard liquids, the present small S factor and intrinsic distinct diffusion coefficients were believed to be resulted from the chemical interaction between Ce and Ni in the liquid. The results provide new evidence of the dynamic cross correlation in liquid diffusion, and thus shed light on the understanding of the correlation between dynamics and structure in liquid alloys. (orig.)
van Geffen, Geert J; Moayeri, Nizar; Bruhn, Jörgen; Scheffer, Gert J; Chan, Vincent W; Groen, Gerbrand J
2009-01-01
The anatomy of the brachial plexus is complex. To facilitate the understanding of the ultrasound appearance of the brachial plexus, we present a review of important anatomic considerations. A detailed correlation of reconstructed, cross-sectional gross anatomy and histology with ultrasound sonoanatomy is provided.
Detectability of the 21-cm CMB cross-correlation from the epoch of reionization
Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Aghanim, Nabila; Langer, Mathieu; Douspis, Marian; Zaroubi, Saleem; Jelic, Vibor
2010-01-01
The 21-cm line fluctuations and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are powerful probes of the epoch of reionization of the Universe. We study the potential of the cross-correlation between 21-cm line fluctuations and CMB anisotropy to obtain further constraints on the reionization history. We ana
Cross-correlation between X-ray and optical/near-infrared background intensity fluctuations
Mitchell-Wynne, Ketron; Xue, Yongquan; Luo, Bin; Brandt, William; Koekemoer, Anton
2016-01-01
Angular power spectra of optical and infrared background anisotropies at wavelengths between 0.5 to 5 $\\mu$m are a useful probe of faint sources present during reionization, in addition to faint galaxies and diffuse signals at low redshift. The cross-correlation of these fluctuations with backgrounds at other wavelengths can be used to separate some of these signals. A previous study on the cross-correlation between X-ray and $Spitzer$ fluctuations at 3.6 $\\mu$m and 4.5 $\\mu$m has been interpreted as evidence for direct collapse blackholes (DCBHs) present at $z > 12$. Here we return to this cross-correlation and study its wavelength dependence from 0.5 to 4.5 $\\mu$m using $Hubble$ and $Spitzer$ data in combination with a subset of the 4 Ms $Chandra$ observations in GOODS-S/ECDFS. Our study involves five $Hubble$ bands at 0.6, 0.7, 0.85, 1.25 and 1.6 $\\mu$m, and two $Spitzer$-IRAC bands at 3.6 $\\mu$m and 4.5 $\\mu$m. We confirm the previously seen cross-correlation between 3.6 $\\mu$m (4.5 $\\mu$m) and X-rays wit...
Correlates of unsupervised bathing of infants: A cross-sectional study
M.E.J. van Scholing-van Beelen (Mirjam); E.F. van Beeck (Ed); P. den Hertog (Paul); T.M.J. Beirens (Tinneke); H. Raat (Hein)
2013-01-01
textabstractDrowning represents the third leading cause of fatal unintentional injury in infants (0-1 years). The aim of this study is to investigate correlates of unsupervised bathing. This cross-sectional study included 1,410 parents with an infant. Parents completed a questionnaire regarding supe
Lenses in the forest: cross--correlation of the Lyman-alpha flux with CMB lensing
Vallinotto, Alberto; /Paris, Inst. Astrophys. /Fermilab; Das, Sudeep; /Princeton U. Observ. /Princeton U.; Spergel, David N.; /Princeton U. Observ. /APC, Paris; Viel, Matteo; /Trieste Observ. /INFN, Trieste
2009-03-01
We present a theoretical estimate for a new observable: the cross-correlation between the Lyman-{alpha}-flux fluctuations in quasar (QSO) spectra and the convergence of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as measured along the same line-of-sight. As a first step toward the assessment of its detectability, we estimate the signal-to-noise ratio using linear theory. Although the signal-to-noise is small for a single line-of-sight and peaks at somewhat smaller redshifts than those probed by the Lyman-{alpha} forest, we estimate a total signal-to-noise of 9 for cross-correlating QSO spectra of SDSSIII with Planck and 20 for cross-correlating with a future polarization based CMB experiment. The detection of this effect would be a direct measure of the neutral hydrogen-matter cross-correlation and could provide important information on the growth of structures at large scales in a redshift range which is still poorly probed by observations.
van Geffen, Geert J.; Moayeri, Nizar; Bruhn, Joergen; Scheffer, Gert J.; Chan, Vincent W.; Groen, Gerbrand J.
2009-01-01
The anatomy of the brachial plexus is complex. To facilitate the understanding of the ultrasound appearance of the brachial plexus, we present a review of important anatomic considerations. A detailed correlation of reconstructed, cross-sectional gross anatomy and histology with ultrasound sonoanato
V. V. Tsyporenko
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Tо digital method of dispersion cross-correlation DF which differs of subsequent direct determination of delay and proper direction to the source of radio radiation is developed. The compare analyze of fast-acting and error of developed method is executed.
Fast 2D Convolutions and Cross-Correlations Using Scalable Architectures.
Carranza, Cesar; Llamocca, Daniel; Pattichis, Marios
2017-05-01
The manuscript describes fast and scalable architectures and associated algorithms for computing convolutions and cross-correlations. The basic idea is to map 2D convolutions and cross-correlations to a collection of 1D convolutions and cross-correlations in the transform domain. This is accomplished through the use of the discrete periodic radon transform for general kernels and the use of singular value decomposition -LU decompositions for low-rank kernels. The approach uses scalable architectures that can be fitted into modern FPGA and Zynq-SOC devices. Based on different types of available resources, for P×P blocks, 2D convolutions and cross-correlations can be computed in just O(P) clock cycles up to O(P(2)) clock cycles. Thus, there is a trade-off between performance and required numbers and types of resources. We provide implementations of the proposed architectures using modern programmable devices (Virtex-7 and Zynq-SOC). Based on the amounts and types of required resources, we show that the proposed approaches significantly outperform current methods.
NMR cross-correlated relaxation rates reveal ion coordination sites in DNA
Fiala, R.; Spackova, N.; Foldynová-Trantírková, S.; Sponer, J.; Sklenár, V.; Trantirek, L.
2011-01-01
In this work, a novel NMR method for the identification of preferential coordination sites between physiologically relevant counterions and nucleic acid bases is demonstrated. In this approach, the NMR cross-correlated relaxation rates between the aromatic carbon chemical shift anisotropy and the pr
Kahbasi, A.; Moradi, A.
2016-04-01
The presence of man-made explosions in a seismic catalogue leads to errors in statistical analyses of seismicity. Recently, the need to monitor man-made explosions used for mining, road excavating, and other constructional applications has been become a demanding challenge for the seismologists. In this way, we gain new insight into the cross-correlation technique and conduct this approach to discriminate explosions from seismic datasets. Following this, improved P-wave arrival times are used for more precise relocation. In this study, the waveform cross-correlation technique provides a reliable means for discriminating explosions which have cross-correlation coefficients (CC) of 0.6 or greater with their own corresponding stacked waveforms. The results illustrate that approximately 80 % of seismicity of southeast of Tehran, recorded by the Iranian Seismological Center (IRSC), includes events which have cross-correlation coefficients of ≥0.6 with their corresponding stacked waveforms. Furthermore, with improved P-wave arrival time, there is a better chance to relocate explosions precisely in the region under study.
Optimal cosmic microwave background map-making in the presence of cross-correlated noise
de Gasperis, G.; Buzzelli, A.; Cabella, P.; de Bernardis, P.; Vittorio, N.
2016-08-01
Aims: We present an extension of the ROMA map-making algorithm for the generation of optimal cosmic microwave background polarization maps. The new code allows for a possible cross-correlated noise component among the detectors of a CMB experiment. A promising application is the forthcoming LSPE balloon-borne experiment, which is devoted to the accurate observation of CMB polarization at large angular scales. Methods: We generalized the noise covariance matrix in time domain to account for all the off-diagonal terms due to the detector cross-talk. Hence, we performed preliminary forecasts of the LSPE-SWIPE instrument. Results: We found that considering the noise cross-correlation among the detectors results in a more realistic estimate of the angular power spectra. In particular, the extended ROMA algorithm has provided a considerable reduction of the spectra error bars. We expect that this improvement could be crucial in constraining the B-mode polarization at the largest scales.
A cross-layer adaptive transmission scheme over correlated fading channels
XIAO Junfeng; QIU Jing; CHENG Shiduan
2007-01-01
Conventional adaptive transmission schemes perform poorly in wireless correlated slow-fading channels.A cross-layer adaptive transmission scheme combined with selective repeat automatic repeat request(SR-ARQ)is proposed.We apply a multi-state Markov system model for analyzing the performance of systems and optimizing the selection of modulation levels and packet sizes in correlated fading channels,which is also described by a finite-state Markov chain.A general closed-form expression of the average throughput for our suggested scheme is presented.Numerical results show that our adaptive scheme combined with SR-ARQ can obtain good performance in correlated fading channels.
Asymmetry of cross-correlations between intra-day and overnight volatilities
Zadourian, Rubina; Grassberger, Peter
2017-04-01
We point out a stunning time asymmetry in the short-time cross-correlations between intra-day and overnight volatilities (absolute values of log-returns of stock prices). While overnight volatility is significantly (and positively) correlated with the intra-day volatility during the following day (allowing thus non-trivial predictions), it is much less correlated with the intra-day volatility during the preceding day. While the effect is not unexpected in view of previous observations, its robustness and extreme simplicity are remarkable.
Kirk, D.; Omori, Y.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Cawthon, R.; Chang, C.; Larsen, P.; Amara, A.; Bacon, D.; Crawford, T. M.; Dodelson, S.; Fosalba, P.; Giannantonio, T.; Holder, G.; Jain, B.; Kacprzak, T.; Lahav, O.; MacCrann, N.; Nicola, A.; Refregier, A.; Sheldon, E.; Story, K. T.; Troxel, M. A.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikram, V.; Zuntz, J.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Becker, M. R.; Benson, B. A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Bonnett, C.; Bridle, S. L.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kent, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lima, M.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Nichol, R. C.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reichardt, C. L.; Roodman, A.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Simard, G.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Wechsler, R. H.; Weller, J.
2016-06-01
We measure the cross-correlation between weak lensing of galaxy images and of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The effects of gravitational lensing on different sources will be correlated if the lensing is caused by the same mass fluctuations. We use galaxy shape measurements from 139 deg2 of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data and overlapping CMB lensing from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck. The DES source galaxies have a median redshift of zmed ˜ 0.7, while the CMB lensing kernel is broad and peaks at z ˜ 2. The resulting cross-correlation is maximally sensitive to mass fluctuations at z ˜ 0.44. Assuming the Planck 2015 best-fitting cosmology, the amplitude of the DES×SPT cross-power is found to be ASPT = 0.88 ± 0.30 and that from DES×Planck to be APlanck = 0.86 ± 0.39, where A = 1 corresponds to the theoretical prediction. These are consistent with the expected signal and correspond to significances of 2.9σ and 2.2σ, respectively. We demonstrate that our results are robust to a number of important systematic effects including the shear measurement method, estimator choice, photo-z uncertainty and CMB lensing systematics. We calculate a value of A = 1.08 ± 0.36 for DES×SPT when we correct the observations with a simple intrinsic alignment model. With three measurements of this cross-correlation now existing in the literature, there is not yet reliable evidence for any deviation from the expected LCDM level of cross-correlation. We provide forecasts for the expected signal-to-noise ratio of the combination of the five-year DES survey and SPT-3G.
Body Waves Revealed by Spatial Stacking on Long-Term Cross-Correlation of Ambient Noise
Kai Wang; Yinhe Luo; Kaifeng Zhao; Limeng Zhang
2014-01-01
ABSTRCT: Theoretical and experimental studies indicate that complete Green’s Function can be retrieved from cross-correlation in a diffuse field. High SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) surface waves have been extracted from cross-correlations of long-duration ambient noise across the globe. Body waves, not extracted in most of ambient noise studies, are thought to be more difficult to retrieve from regular ambient noise data processing. By stacking cross-correlations of ambient noise in 50 km inter-station distance bins in China, western United States and Europe, we observed coherent 20–100 s core phases (ScS, PKIKPPKIKP, PcPPKPPKP) and crustal-mantle phases (Pn, P, PL, Sn, S, SPL, SnSn, SS, SSPL) at distances ranging from 0 to 4 000 km. Our results show that these crustal-mantle phases show diverse characteristics due to different substructure and sources of body waves beneath different regions while the core phases are relatively robust and can be retrieved as long as stations are available. Further analysis indicates that the SNR of these body-wave phases depends on a compromise between stacking fold in spatial domain and the coherence of pre-stacked cross-correlations.Spatially stacked cross-correlations of seismic noise can provide new virtual seismograms for paths that complement earthquake data and that contain valuable information on the structure of the Earth. The extracted crustal-mantle phases can be used to study lithospheric heterogeneities and the robust core phases are significantly useful to study the deep structure of the Earth, such as detecting fine heterogeneities of the core-mantle boundary and constraining differential rotation of the inner core.
Cross-correlation of bio-signals using continuous wavelet transform and genetic algorithm.
Sukiennik, Piotr; Białasiewicz, Jan T
2015-05-30
Continuous wavelet transform allows to obtain time-frequency representation of a signal and analyze short-lived temporal interaction of concurrent processes. That offers good localization in both time and frequency domain. Scalogram and coscalogram analysis of two signal interaction dynamics gives an indication of the cross-correlation of analyzed signals in both domains. We have used genetic algorithm with a fitness function based on signals convolution to find time delay between investigated signals. Two methods of cross-correlation are proposed: one that finds single delay for analyzed signals, and one returns a vector of delay values for each of wavelet transform sub-band center frequencies. Algorithms were implemented using MATLAB. We have extracted the data of simultaneously recorded encephalogram and arterial blood pressure and have investigated their interaction dynamics. We found time delay whose value cannot be precisely determined by scalograms and coscalogram inspection. The biomedical signals used come from MIMIC database. Cross-correlation of two complex signals is commonly performed using fast Fourier transform. It works well for signals with invariant frequency content. We have determined the time delay between analyzed signals using wavelet scalograms and we have accordingly shifted one of them, aligning associated events. Their coscalogram indicates the cross-correlation of the associated events. Introducing new methods of wavelet transform in cross-correlation analysis has proven to be beneficial to the gain of the information about process interaction. Introduced solutions could be used to reason about causality between processes and gain bigger insight regarding analyzed systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Modeling Lyman-\\alpha\\ Forest Cross-Correlations with LyMAS
Lochhaas, Cassandra; Peirani, Sébastien; Dubois, Yohan; Colombi, Stéphane; Blaizot, Jérémy; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Pichon, Christophe; Devriendt, Julien
2015-01-01
We use the Ly-$\\alpha$ Mass Association Scheme (LyMAS; Peirani et al. 2014) to predict cross-correlations at z = 2.5 between dark matter halos and transmitted flux in the Ly-$\\alpha$ forest, and we compare these predictions to cross-correlations measured for quasars and damped Ly-$\\alpha$ systems (DLAs) from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) by Font-Ribera et al. (2012, 2013). We calibrate and test LyMAS using Horizon-AGN hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of a $(100\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Mpc})^3$ comoving volume with and without AGN feedback. We apply this calibration to a $(1\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Gpc})^3$ simulation realized with $2048^3$ dark matter particles for our primary predictions. In the $100\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Mpc}$ box, LyMAS reproduces the halo-flux correlations computed from the full hydrodynamic gas distribution essentially perfectly. In the $1\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Gpc}$ box, the amplitude of the cross-correlation tracks the halo bias as expected, and the correlation for a halo sample with a distributio...
Cross-correlation asymmetries and causal relationships between stock and market risk.
Borysov, Stanislav S; Balatsky, Alexander V
2014-01-01
We study historical correlations and lead-lag relationships between individual stock risk (volatility of daily stock returns) and market risk (volatility of daily returns of a market-representative portfolio) in the US stock market. We consider the cross-correlation functions averaged over all stocks, using 71 stock prices from the Standard & Poor's 500 index for 1994-2013. We focus on the behavior of the cross-correlations at the times of financial crises with significant jumps of market volatility. The observed historical dynamics showed that the dependence between the risks was almost linear during the US stock market downturn of 2002 and after the US housing bubble in 2007, remaining at that level until 2013. Moreover, the averaged cross-correlation function often had an asymmetric shape with respect to zero lag in the periods of high correlation. We develop the analysis by the application of the linear response formalism to study underlying causal relations. The calculated response functions suggest the presence of characteristic regimes near financial crashes, when the volatility of an individual stock follows the market volatility and vice versa.
Cross-correlation asymmetries and causal relationships between stock and market risk.
Stanislav S Borysov
Full Text Available We study historical correlations and lead-lag relationships between individual stock risk (volatility of daily stock returns and market risk (volatility of daily returns of a market-representative portfolio in the US stock market. We consider the cross-correlation functions averaged over all stocks, using 71 stock prices from the Standard & Poor's 500 index for 1994-2013. We focus on the behavior of the cross-correlations at the times of financial crises with significant jumps of market volatility. The observed historical dynamics showed that the dependence between the risks was almost linear during the US stock market downturn of 2002 and after the US housing bubble in 2007, remaining at that level until 2013. Moreover, the averaged cross-correlation function often had an asymmetric shape with respect to zero lag in the periods of high correlation. We develop the analysis by the application of the linear response formalism to study underlying causal relations. The calculated response functions suggest the presence of characteristic regimes near financial crashes, when the volatility of an individual stock follows the market volatility and vice versa.
Eigenvalue density of cross-correlations in Sri Lankan financial market
Nilantha, K. G. D. R.; Ranasinghe; Malmini, P. K. C.
2007-05-01
We apply the universal properties with Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) of random matrices namely spectral properties, distribution of eigenvalues, eigenvalue spacing predicted by random matrix theory (RMT) to compare cross-correlation matrix estimators from emerging market data. The daily stock prices of the Sri Lankan All share price index and Milanka price index from August 2004 to March 2005 were analyzed. Most eigenvalues in the spectrum of the cross-correlation matrix of stock price changes agree with the universal predictions of RMT. We find that the cross-correlation matrix satisfies the universal properties of the GOE of real symmetric random matrices. The eigen distribution follows the RMT predictions in the bulk but there are some deviations at the large eigenvalues. The nearest-neighbor spacing and the next nearest-neighbor spacing of the eigenvalues were examined and found that they follow the universality of GOE. RMT with deterministic correlations found that each eigenvalue from deterministic correlations is observed at values, which are repelled from the bulk distribution.
Falsone, G.; Settineri, D.
2011-06-01
A procedure for evaluating the response cross-correlation of a linear structural system subjected to the action of stationary random multi-correlated processes is presented in this work. It is based on the definition of the fourth-order differential equation governing the modal response cross-correlation and of the corresponding solution. This is expressed in terms of the corresponding fundamental matrix, whose expression is related to the fundamental matrices of the differential equations governing the modal responses. The properties of this matrix allows to define a particular unconditionally stable numerical integration approach, which is composed of two independent step-by-step procedures, a progressive one and a regressive one. The applications have shown a level of accuracy comparable to that corresponding to the numerical solution of the double convolution integral, but the presented approach is characterised by a reduced computational effort.
Spatial fluorescence cross correlation spectroscopy by means of a spatial light modulator
Blancquaert, Yoann; Derouard, Jacques; Delon, Antoine
2008-01-01
Spatial Fluorescence Cross Correlation Spectroscopy is a rarely investigated version of Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy, in which the fluorescence signals from differ-ent observation volumes are cross-correlated. In the reported experiments, two observation volumes, typically shifted by a few $\\mu$m, are produced, with a Spatial Light Modulator and two adjustable pinholes. We illustrated the feasibility and potentiality of this technique by: i) measuring molecular flows, in the range 0.2 - 1.5 $\\mu$m/ms, of solutions seeded with fluorescent nanobeads or rhodamine molecules (simulating active transport phenomenons); ii) investigating the perme-ability of phospholipidic membrane of Giant Unilamellar Vesicles versus hydrophilic or hydrophobic molecules (in that case the laser spots were set on both sides of the mem-brane). Theoretical descriptions are proposed together with a discussion about FCS based, alternative methods.
Yamanaka, Masanori
2013-08-01
We apply the random matrix theory to analyze the molecular dynamics simulation of macromolecules, such as proteins. The eigensystem of the cross-correlation matrix for the time series of the atomic coordinates is analyzed. We study a data set with seven different sampling intervals to observe the characteristic motion at each time scale. In all cases, the unfolded eigenvalue spacings are in agreement with the predictions of random matrix theory. In the short-time scale, the cross-correlation matrix has the universal properties of the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble. The eigenvalue distribution and inverse participation ratio have a crossover behavior between the universal and nonuniversal classes, which is distinct from the known results such as the financial time series. Analyzing the inverse participation ratio, we extract the correlated cluster of atoms and decompose it to subclusters.
Cao, Guangxi; He, Cuiting; Xu, Wei
2016-03-01
This study investigates the correlation between weather and agricultural futures markets on the basis of detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) cross-correlation coefficients and q-dependent cross-correlation coefficients. In addition, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is used to measure extreme weather and thus analyze further the effect of this condition on agricultural futures markets. Cross-correlation exists between weather and agricultural futures markets on certain time scales. There are some correlations between temperature and soybean return associated with medium amplitudes. Under extreme weather conditions, weather exerts different influences on different agricultural products; for instance, soybean return is greatly influenced by temperature, and weather variables exhibit no effect on corn return. Based on the detrending moving-average cross-correlation analysis (DMCA) coefficient and DFA regression results are similar to that of DCCA coefficient.
The CMBR ISW and HI 21-cm Cross-correlation Angular Power Spectrum
Sarkar, Tapomoy Guha; Bharadwaj, Somnath
2008-01-01
The late-time growth of large scale structures (LSS) is imprinted in the CMBR anisotropy through the Integrated Sachs Wolfe (ISW) effect. This is perceived to be a very important observational probe of dark energy. Future observations of redshifted 21-cm radiation from the cosmological neutral hydrogen (HI) distribution hold the potential of probing the LSS over a large redshift range. We have investigated the possibility of detecting the ISW through cross-correlations between the CMBR anisotropies and redshifted 21-cm observations. Assuming that the HI traces the dark matter, we find that the ISW-HI cross-correlation angular power spectrum at an angular multipole l is proportional to the dark matter power spectrum evaluated at the comoving wave number l/r, where r is the comoving distance to the redshift from which the HI signal originated. The amplitude of the cross-correlation signal depends on parameters related to the HI distribution and the growth of cosmological perturbations. However the cross-correla...
Determining the H i content of galaxies via intensity mapping cross-correlations
Wolz, L.; Blake, C.; Wyithe, J. S. B.
2017-09-01
We propose an innovative method for measuring the neutral hydrogen (HI) content of an optically-selected spectroscopic sample of galaxies through cross-correlation with HI intensity mapping measurements. We show that the HI-galaxy cross-power spectrum contains an additive shot noise term which scales with the average HI brightness temperature of the optically-selected galaxies, allowing constraints to be placed on the average HI mass per galaxy. This approach can estimate the HI content of populations too faint to directly observe through their 21cm emission over a wide range of redshifts. This cross-correlation, as a function of optical luminosity or colour, can be used to derive HI-scaling relations. We demonstrate that this signal will be detectable by cross-correlating upcoming Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) observations with existing optically-selected samples. We also use semi-analytic simulations to verify that the HI mass can be successfully recovered by our technique in the range M_HI > 10^8 M_solar, in a manner independent of the underlying power spectrum shape. We conclude that this method is a powerful tool to study galaxy evolution, which only requires a single intensity mapping dataset to infer complementary HI gas information from existing optical and infra-red observations.
Sodium boiling detection in LMFBRs by acoustic-neutronic cross correlation
Wright, S.A.
1977-01-01
The acoustic and neutronic noise signals caused by boiling are the signals primarily considered likely to detect sodium boiling in an LMFBR. Unfortunately, these signals may have serious signal-to-noise problems due to strong background noise sources. Neutronic-acoustic cross correlation techniques are expected to provide a means of improving the signal-to-noise ratio. This technique can improve the signal-to-noise ratio because the neutronic and acoustic signals due to boiling are highly correlated near the bubble repetition frequency, while the background noise sources are expected to be uncorrelated (or at most weakly correlated). An experiment was designed to show that the neutronic and acoustic noise signals are indeed highly correlated. The experiment consisted of simulating the void and pressure effects of local sodium boiling in the core of a zero-power reactor (ARK). The analysis showed that the neutronic and acoustic noise signals caused by boiling are almost perfectly correlated in a wide frequency band about the bubble repetition frequency. The results of the experiments were generalized to full-scale reactors to compare the inherent effectiveness of the methods which use the neutronic or acoustic signals alone with a hybrid method, which cross correlates the neutronic and acoustic signals. It was concluded that over a zone of the reactor where the void coefficient is sufficiently large (approximately 85 percent the core volume), the cross correlation method can provide a more rapid detection system for a given signal-to-noise ratio. However, where the void coefficient is small, one must probably rely on the acoustic method alone.
Cross-correlation of diffuse synchrotron and large-scale structures
Brown, Shea; Farnsworth, Damon; Rudnick, Lawrence
2010-02-01
We explore for the first time the method of cross-correlation of radio synchrotron emission and tracers of large-scale structure in order to detect the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). We performed a cross-correlation of a 34° × 34° area of Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) galaxies for two redshift slices (0.03 Bonn survey. For this analysis, we assumed that the synchrotron surface brightness is linearly proportional to surface density of galaxies. We also sampled the cross-correlation function (CCF) using 24 distant fields of the same size from the Bonn survey, to better assess the noise properties. Though we obtained a null result, we found that by adding a signal weighted by the 2MASS image with a filament (peak) surface brightness of 1 (7) and 7 (49) mK would produce a 3σ positive correlation for the 0.03 Bonn survey, and demonstrates the power of this technique and its utility for upcoming sensitive continuum surveys such as those planned with the Murchison Widefield Array.
MEASUREMENT OF 21 cm BRIGHTNESS FLUCTUATIONS AT z {approx} 0.8 IN CROSS-CORRELATION
Masui, K. W.; Switzer, E. R.; Calin, L.-M.; Pen, U.-L.; Shaw, J. R. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H8 (Canada); Banavar, N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George St., Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Bandura, K. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Blake, C. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Chang, T.-C.; Liao, Y.-W. [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, X.; Li, Y.-C. [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, 20A Datun Road, Beijing 100012 (China); Natarajan, A.; Peterson, J. B.; Voytek, T. C. [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Physics, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)
2013-01-20
In this Letter, 21 cm intensity maps acquired at the Green Bank Telescope are cross-correlated with large-scale structure traced by galaxies in the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. The data span the redshift range 0.6 < z < 1 over two fields totaling {approx}41 deg. sq. and 190 hr of radio integration time. The cross-correlation constrains {Omega}{sub HI} b{sub HI} r = [0.43 {+-} 0.07(stat.) {+-} 0.04(sys.)] Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}, where {Omega}{sub HI} is the neutral hydrogen (H I) fraction, r is the galaxy-hydrogen correlation coefficient, and b{sub HI} is the H I bias parameter. This is the most precise constraint on neutral hydrogen density fluctuations in a challenging redshift range. Our measurement improves the previous 21 cm cross-correlation at z {approx} 0.8 both in its precision and in the range of scales probed.
Effects of cross-correlated noises on the intensity fluctuation of the single-mode laser system
Bing Wang; Shuwen Dai; Shuping Ge
2006-01-01
@@ A single-mode laser model with cross-correlated additive and multiplicative noise terms is considered, and the effects of correlation between noises on the relaxation time and the intensity correlation function are studied. Using the projection operator method and taking into account the effects of the memory kernels of the intensity correlation function, the analytic expressions for the relaxation time and the correlation function are derived. Based on numerical computations, it is found that the self-correlation time and the cross-correlation time have the same effects on the single-mode laser system.
Cross-correlation of the cosmic 21-cm signal and Lyman α emitters during reionization
Sobacchi, Emanuele; Mesinger, Andrei; Greig, Bradley
2016-07-01
Interferometry of the cosmic 21-cm signal is set to revolutionize our understanding of the Epoch of Reionization (EoR), eventually providing 3D maps of the early Universe. Initial detections however will be low signal to noise, limited by systematics. To confirm a putative 21-cm detection, and check the accuracy of 21-cm data analysis pipelines, it would be very useful to cross-correlate against a genuine cosmological signal. The most promising cosmological signals are wide-field maps of Lyman α emitting galaxies (LAEs), expected from the Subaru Hyper-Suprime Cam ultradeep field (UDF). Here we present estimates of the correlation between LAE maps at z ˜ 7 and the 21-cm signal observed by both the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) and the planned Square Kilometre Array Phase 1 (SKA1). We adopt a systematic approach, varying both: (i) the prescription of assigning LAEs to host haloes; and (ii) the large-scale structure of neutral and ionized regions (i.e. EoR morphology). We find that the LAE-21cm cross-correlation is insensitive to (i), thus making it a robust probe of the EoR. A 1000 h observation with LOFAR would be sufficient to discriminate at ≳ 1σ a fully ionized Universe from one with a mean neutral fraction of bar{x}_{H I}≈ 0.50, using the LAE-21 cm cross-correlation function on scales of R ≈ 3-10 Mpc. Unlike LOFAR, whose detection of the LAE-21 cm cross-correlation is limited by noise, SKA1 is mostly limited by ignorance of the EoR morphology. However, the planned 100 h wide-field SKA1-Low survey will be sufficient to discriminate an ionized Universe from one with bar{x}_{H I}=0.25, even with maximally pessimistic assumptions.
Modelling Lyman α forest cross-correlations with LyMAS
Lochhaas, Cassandra; Weinberg, David H.; Peirani, Sébastien; Dubois, Yohan; Colombi, Stéphane; Blaizot, Jérémy; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Pichon, Christophe; Devriendt, Julien
2016-10-01
We use the Lyα Mass Association Scheme (LyMAS) to predict cross-correlations at z = 2.5 between dark matter haloes and transmitted flux in the Lyα forest, and compare to cross-correlations measured for quasars and damped Lyα systems (DLAs) from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) by Font-Ribera et al. We calibrate LyMAS using Horizon-AGN hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of a (100 h- 1 Mpc)3 comoving volume. We apply this calibration to a (1 h- 1 Gpc)3 simulation realized with 20483 dark matter particles. In the 100 h- 1 Mpc box, LyMAS reproduces the halo-flux correlations computed from the full hydrodynamic gas distribution very well. In the 1 h- 1 Gpc box, the amplitude of the large-scale cross-correlation tracks the halo bias bh as expected. We provide empirical fitting functions that describe our numerical results. In the transverse separation bins used for the BOSS analyses, LyMAS cross-correlation predictions follow linear theory accurately down to small scales. Fitting the BOSS measurements requires inclusion of random velocity errors; we find best-fitting rms velocity errors of 399 and 252 {km} {s}^{-1} for quasars and DLAs, respectively. We infer bias-weighted mean halo masses of M_h/10^{12} h^{-1} M_{⊙}=2.19^{+0.16}_{-0.15} and 0.69^{+0.16}_{-0.14} for the host haloes of quasars and DLAs, with ˜0.2 dex systematic uncertainty associated with redshift evolution, intergalactic medium parameters, and selection of data fitting range.
Kirk, D.; et al.
2015-12-14
We measure the cross-correlation between weak lensing of galaxy images and of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The effects of gravitational lensing on different sources will be correlated if the lensing is caused by the same mass fluctuations. We use galaxy shape measurements from 139 deg$^{2}$ of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data and overlapping CMB lensing from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck. The DES source galaxies have a median redshift of $z_{\\rm med} {\\sim} 0.7$, while the CMB lensing kernel is broad and peaks at $z{\\sim}2$. The resulting cross-correlation is maximally sensitive to mass fluctuations at $z{\\sim}0.44$. Assuming the Planck 2015 best-fit cosmology, the amplitude of the DES$\\times$SPT cross-power is found to be $A = 0.88 \\pm 0.30$ and that from DES$\\times$Planck to be $A = 0.86 \\pm 0.39$, where $A=1$ corresponds to the theoretical prediction. These are consistent with the expected signal and correspond to significances of $2.9 \\sigma$ and $2.2 \\sigma$ respectively. We demonstrate that our results are robust to a number of important systematic effects including the shear measurement method, estimator choice, photometric redshift uncertainty and CMB lensing systematics. Significant intrinsic alignment of galaxy shapes would increase the cross-correlation signal inferred from the data; we calculate a value of $A = 1.08 \\pm 0.36$ for DES$\\times$SPT when we correct the observations with a simple IA model. With three measurements of this cross-correlation now existing in the literature, there is not yet reliable evidence for any deviation from the expected LCDM level of cross-correlation, given the size of the statistical uncertainties and the significant impact of systematic errors, particularly IAs. We provide forecasts for the expected signal-to-noise of the combination of the five-year DES survey and SPT-3G.
Frequency domain analysis of errors in cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise
Liu, Xin; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Zigone, Dimitri
2016-12-01
We analyse random errors (variances) in cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise in the frequency domain, which differ from previous time domain methods. Extending previous theoretical results on ensemble averaged cross-spectrum, we estimate confidence interval of stacked cross-spectrum of finite amount of data at each frequency using non-overlapping windows with fixed length. The extended theory also connects amplitude and phase variances with the variance of each complex spectrum value. Analysis of synthetic stationary ambient noise is used to estimate the confidence interval of stacked cross-spectrum obtained with different length of noise data corresponding to different number of evenly spaced windows of the same duration. This method allows estimating Signal/Noise Ratio (SNR) of noise cross-correlation in the frequency domain, without specifying filter bandwidth or signal/noise windows that are needed for time domain SNR estimations. Based on synthetic ambient noise data, we also compare the probability distributions, causal part amplitude and SNR of stacked cross-spectrum function using one-bit normalization or pre-whitening with those obtained without these pre-processing steps. Natural continuous noise records contain both ambient noise and small earthquakes that are inseparable from the noise with the existing pre-processing steps. Using probability distributions of random cross-spectrum values based on the theoretical results provides an effective way to exclude such small earthquakes, and additional data segments (outliers) contaminated by signals of different statistics (e.g. rain, cultural noise), from continuous noise waveforms. This technique is applied to constrain values and uncertainties of amplitude and phase velocity of stacked noise cross-spectrum at different frequencies, using data from southern California at both regional scale (˜35 km) and dense linear array (˜20 m) across the plate-boundary faults. A block bootstrap resampling method
Crustal tomography of the Aegean-Anatolian domain using noise cross-correlations
Hubans, Fabien; Paul, Anne; Campillo, Michel; Karabulut, Hayrullah; Hatzidimitriou, Panagiotis
2010-05-01
Data of more than 150 temporary and permanent broadband seismological stations deployed in the Aegean-Anatolian domain between May 2007 and May 2009 are grouped in the SIMBAAD (Seismic Imaging of the Mantle Across the Anatolian Domain) dataset. We compute noise cross-correlations between all station pairs on a 1.5-yr duration. We obtain more than 11.000 correlations for each component of the cross-correlation tensor. We apply a MFA (Multiple Filter Analysis) method to measure group velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves on 4 components of the correlation tensor (ZZ, ZR, RZ, RR) and of Love waves on the TT component, both in positive and negative times. According to the theory, a noise cross-correlation converges to the Green function if noise sources are randomly distributed around the station pair. If this condition is fulfilled, the cross-correlation should be symmetrical in time. We compare group velocity measurements between positive and negative times to evaluate the convergence of each cross-correlation to the Green function. The quality of the symmetry is used to weight the time measurements in the inversion for group velocity maps. In the last step, Rayleigh wave group velocity data are inverted for a 3-D model of S-wave velocity. This processing gives an image of the crustal structure in the area [37-41°N ; 23-33°E] with a horizontal resolution of 60 to 200 km depending on depth and station coverage. The shallowest layers clearly display the present-day thick sedimentary basins (Axios, Thrace, Marmara, Bay of Antalya, ...) and older sedimentary nappes (Lycian nappes, Miocene sediments in the Kirsehir block) as strong low velocity anomalies. At larger depth, Southwestern Anatolia is characterized by a broad low velocity anomaly which contrasts with the higher velocities of the Aegean Sea. We clearly image a West to East increase of Moho depth from 20-25 km in the Aegean Sea to 35 km in the Anatolian plateau. This increase located between 27°E and
Measures of globalization based on cross-correlations of world financial indices
Maslov, Sergei
2001-12-01
The cross-correlation matrix of daily returns of stock market indices in a diverse set of 37 countries worldwide was analyzed. Comparison of the spectrum of this matrix with predictions of random matrix theory provides an empirical evidence of strong interactions between individual economies, as manifested by three largest eigenvalues and the corresponding set of stable, non-random eigenvectors. The observed correlation structure is robust with respect to changes in the time horizon of returns ranging from 1 to 10 trading days, and to replacing individual returns with just their signs. This last observation confirms that it is correlations between signs and not absolute values of fluctuations, which are mostly responsible for the observed effect. Negative changes in the index are somewhat more correlated than the positive ones. Also, in our data set the reaction of Asian stock indices to changes in European and American ones persists for about 3 days.
Nobi, Ashadun; Maeng, Seong Eun; Ha, Gyeong Gyun; Lee, Jae Woo
2013-02-01
We analyzed cross-correlations between price fluctuations of global financial indices (20 daily stock indices over the world) and local indices (daily indices of 200 companies in the Korean stock market) by using random matrix theory (RMT). We compared eigenvalues and components of the largest and the second largest eigenvectors of the cross-correlation matrix before, during, and after the global financial the crisis in the year 2008. We find that the majority of its eigenvalues fall within the RMT bounds [ λ -, λ +], where λ - and λ + are the lower and the upper bounds of the eigenvalues of random correlation matrices. The components of the eigenvectors for the largest positive eigenvalues indicate the identical financial market mode dominating the global and local indices. On the other hand, the components of the eigenvector corresponding to the second largest eigenvalue are positive and negative values alternatively. The components before the crisis change sign during the crisis, and those during the crisis change sign after the crisis. The largest inverse participation ratio (IPR) corresponding to the smallest eigenvector is higher after the crisis than during any other periods in the global and local indices. During the global financial the crisis, the correlations among the global indices and among the local stock indices are perturbed significantly. However, the correlations between indices quickly recover the trends before the crisis.
Challenges in LER/CDU metrology in DSA: placement error and cross-line correlations
Constantoudis, Vassilios; Kuppuswamy, Vijaya-Kumar M.; Gogolides, Evangelos; Pret, Alessandro V.; Pathangi, Hari; Gronheid, Roel
2016-03-01
DSA lithography poses new challenges in LER/LWR metrology due to its self-organized and pitch-based nature. To cope with these challenges, a novel characterization approach with new metrics and updating the older ones is required. To this end, we focus on two specific challenges of DSA line patterns: a) the large correlations between the left and right edges of a line (line wiggling, rms(LWR)
Firing statistics and correlations in spiking neurons: a level-crossing approach.
Badel, Laurent
2011-10-01
We present a time-dependent level-crossing theory for linear dynamical systems perturbed by colored Gaussian noise. We apply these results to approximate the firing statistics of conductance-based integrate-and-fire neurons receiving excitatory and inhibitory Poissonian inputs. Analytical expressions are obtained for three key quantities characterizing the neuronal response to time-varying inputs: the mean firing rate, the linear response to sinusoidally modulated inputs, and the pairwise spike correlation for neurons receiving correlated inputs. The theory yields tractable results that are shown to accurately match numerical simulations and provides useful tools for the analysis of interconnected neuronal populations.
Ma, Pengcheng; Li, Daye; Li, Shuo
2016-02-01
Using one minute high-frequency data of the Shanghai Composite Index (SHCI) and the Shenzhen Composite Index (SZCI) (2007-2008), we employ the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and the detrended cross correlation analysis (DCCA) with rolling window approach to observe the evolution of market efficiency and cross-correlation in pre-crisis and crisis period. Considering the fat-tail distribution of return time series, statistical test based on shuffling method is conducted to verify the null hypothesis of no long-term dependence. Our empirical research displays three main findings. First Shanghai equity market efficiency deteriorated while Shenzhen equity market efficiency improved with the advent of financial crisis. Second the highly positive dependence between SHCI and SZCI varies with time scale. Third financial crisis saw a significant increase of dependence between SHCI and SZCI at shorter time scales but a lack of significant change at longer time scales, providing evidence of contagion and absence of interdependence during crisis.
Bobrov, Dmitry; Rozhkov, Mikhail
2013-01-01
Waveform cross correlation is an efficient tool for detection and characterization of seismic signals. The efficiency critically depends on the availability of master events. For the purposes of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, cross correlation can globally reduce the threshold monitoring by 0.3 to 0.4 magnitude units. In seismically active regions, the optimal choice of master events is straightforward. There are two approaches to populate the global grid in aseismic areas: the replication of real masters and synthetic seismograms calculated for seismic arrays of the International Monitoring System. Synthetic templates depend on the accuracy of shape and amplitude predictions controlled by focal depth and mechanism, source function, velocity structure and attenuation along the master/station path. As in Part I, we test three focal mechanisms (explosion, thrust fault, and actual Harvard CMT solution for one of the April 11, 2012 Sumatera aftershocks) and two velocity structures (ak135 and CRUST 2.0...
Dynamical Analysis of Stock Market Instability by Cross-correlation Matrix
Takaishi, Tetsuya
2016-08-01
We study stock market instability by using cross-correlations constructed from the return time series of 366 stocks traded on the Tokyo Stock Exchange from January 5, 1998 to December 30, 2013. To investigate the dynamical evolution of the cross-correlations, crosscorrelation matrices are calculated with a rolling window of 400 days. To quantify the volatile market stages where the potential risk is high, we apply the principal components analysis and measure the cumulative risk fraction (CRF), which is the system variance associated with the first few principal components. From the CRF, we detected three volatile market stages corresponding to the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers, the 2011 Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake, and the FRB QE3 reduction observation in the study period. We further apply the random matrix theory for the risk analysis and find that the first eigenvector is more equally de-localized when the market is volatile.
Vibration measurement based on the optical cross-correlation technique with femtosecond pulsed laser
Han, Jibo; Wu, Tengfei; Zhao, Chunbo; Li, Shuyi
2016-10-01
Two vibration measurement methods with femtosecond pulsed laser based on the optical cross-correlation technique are presented independently in this paper. The balanced optical cross-correlation technique can reflect the time jitter between the reference pluses and measurement pluses by detecting second harmonic signals using type II phase-matched nonlinear crystal and balanced amplified photo-detectors. In the first method, with the purpose of attaining the vibration displacement, the time difference of the reference pulses relative to the measurement pluses can be measured using single femtosecond pulsed laser. In the second method, there are a couple of femtosecond pulsed lasers with high pulse repetition frequency. Vibration displacement associated with cavity length can be calculated by means of precisely measuring the pulse repetition frequency. The results show that the range of measurement attains ±150μm for a 500fs pulse. These methods will be suited for vibration displacement measurement, including laboratory use, field testing and industrial application.
Estimation of TOA based MUSIC algorithm and cross correlation algorithm of appropriate interval
Lin, Wei; Liu, Jun; Zhou, Yineng; Huang, Jiyan
2017-03-01
Localization of mobile station (MS) has now gained considerable attention due to its wide applications in military, environmental, health and commercial systems. Phrase angle and encode data of MSK system model are two critical parameters in time-of-arrival (TOA) localization technique; nevertheless, precise value of phrase angle and encode data are not easy to achieved in general. In order to meet the actual situation, we should consider the condition that phase angle and encode data is unknown. In this paper, a novel TOA localization method, which combine MUSIC algorithm and cross correlation algorithm in an appropriate interval, is proposed. Simulations show that the proposed method has better performance than music algorithm and cross correlation algorithm of the whole interval.
X-Ray Cross-Correlation Analysis of Disordered Ensembles of Particles: Potentials and Limitations
R. P. Kurta
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Angular X-ray cross-correlation analysis (XCCA is an approach to study the structure of disordered systems using the results of X-ray scattering experiments. In this paper we summarize recent theoretical developments related to the Fourier analysis of the cross-correlation functions. Results of our simulations demonstrate the application of XCCA to two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D disordered ensembles of particles. We show that the structure of a single particle can be recovered using X-ray data collected from a 2D disordered system of identical particles. We also demonstrate that valuable structural information about the local structure of 3D systems, inaccessible from a standard small-angle X-ray scattering experiment, can be resolved using XCCA.
A cross-correlation based fiber optic white-light interferometry with wavelet transform denoising
Wang, Zhen; Jiang, Yi; Ding, Wenhui; Gao, Ran
2013-09-01
A fiber optic white-light interferometry based on cross-correlation calculation is presented. The detected white-light spectrum signal of fiber optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) sensor is firstly decomposed by discrete wavelet transform for denoising before interrogating the cavity length of the EFPI sensor. In measurement experiment, the cross-correlation algorithm with multiple-level calculations is performed both for achieving the high measurement resolution and for improving the efficiency of the measurement. The experimental results show that the variation range of the measurement results was 1.265 nm, and the standard deviation of the measurement results can reach 0.375 nm when an EFPI sensor with cavity length of 1500 μm was interrogated.
High-dynamic-range cross-correlator for shot-to-shot measurement of temporal contrast
Kon, Akira; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Ogura, Koichi; Mori, Michiaki; Sakaki, Hironao; Kando, Masaki; Kondo, Kiminori
2017-01-01
The temporal contrast of an ultrahigh-intensity laser is a crucial parameter for laser plasma experiments. We have developed a multichannel cross-correlator (MCCC) for single-shot measurements of the temporal contrast in a high-power laser system. The MCCC is based on third-order cross-correlation, and has four channels and independent optical delay lines. We have experimentally demonstrated that the MCCC system achieves a high dynamic range of ˜1012 and a large temporal window of ˜1 ns. Moreover, we were able to measure the shot-to-shot fluctuations of a short-prepulse intensity at -26 ps and long-pulse (amplified spontaneous emission, ASE) intensities at -30, -450, and -950 ps before the arrival of the main pulse at the interaction point.
Kitov, Ivan; Turuntaev, Sergey; Konovalov, Alexei; Stepnov, Andrey
2016-04-01
Unusually long duration of seismic activity (more than 20 years) was observed in the aftershock area of the 1995 Neftegorsk, Sakhalin, Russia catastrophic earthquake (Ms=7.6). To study the phenomena, we have processed seismic data from 130 events occurred within that area as measured between 2006 and 2015. In order to improve the accuracy of relative location and magnitude estimation of these events we have applied new techniques based on waveform cross correlation. We use 7 three-component (3-C) seismic stations which detected most of these events. Three-component waveform templates were prepared for these stations from those events which had signals with SNR>5 at vertical channels. The events with 3 and more templates are used as master-events for waveform cross correlation. Overall, the re-estimated location and magnitudes demonstrate higher precisions and are used for the statistical analysis and numerical modelling of seismo-tectonic regime within the studied zone.
Analysis of Green functions obtained by cross-correlations for MASE stations
Padilla, G. V. Vera
2012-04-01
We used continuous records of broadband seismic stations of the MASE experiment to obtain observed Green's functions using the method of ambient noise cross-correlations. The experiment consisted of 100 stations distributed along a perpendicular line to the Mesoamerican trench across the Valley of Mexico. The stations recorded continuously at 100 sps for more than two years. The geometry of the array provide a good opportunity to study the attenuation effects along the coast-perpendicular structure. The method we used to compute Green functions involves a strong data pre-processing (temporal normalization and spectral whitening). However, our results show that the amplitude of the cross-correlations still contains information about the surface waves attenuation and probably local amplification effects. Records from two regional earthquakes located close to Acapulco were used for comparison.
Peri-event cross-correlation over time for analysis of interactions in neuronal firing.
Paiva, António R C; Park, Il; Sanchez, Justin C; Príncipe, José C
2008-01-01
Several methods have been described in the literature to verify the presence of couplings between neurons in the brain. In this paper we introduce the peri-event cross-correlation over time (PECCOT) to describe the interaction among the two neurons as a function of the event onset. Instead of averaging over time, the PECCOT averages the cross-correlation over instances of the event. As a consequence, the PECCOT is able to characterize with high temporal resolution the interactions over time among neurons. To illustrate the method, the PECCOT is applied to a simulated dataset and for analysis of synchrony in recordings of a rat performing a go/no go behavioral lever press task. We verify the presence of synchrony before the lever press time and its suppression afterwards.
Noise characterization of an Optical Frequency Comb using Offline Cross-Correlation
Khayatzadeh, Ramin; Guyomarc'h, Didier; Ferrand, Didier; Hagel, Gaëtan; Houssin, Marie; Morizot, Olivier; Champenois, Caroline; Knoop, Martina
2016-01-01
Using an offline cross-correlation technique, we have analyzed the noise behavior of a new type of optical frequency comb (OFC), which is carrier envelope offset (CEO) free by configuration, due to difference frequency generation. In order to evaluate the instrument's ultimate noise floor, the phase and amplitude noise of a stabilized OFC are measured simultaneously using two analog-to-digital converters. Carrier recovery and phase detection are done by post-processing, eliminating the need for external phase-locked loops and complex calibration techniques. In order to adapt the measurement noise floor and the number of averages used in cross correlation, an adaptive frequency resolution for noise measurement is applied. Phase noise results are in excellent agreement with measurements of the fluctuations of the repetition frequency of the OFC obtained from optical signal.
Stasyszyn, F; Dolag, K; Beck, R; Donnert, J
2010-01-01
Using cosmological MHD simulations of the magnetic field in galaxy clusters and filaments we evaluate the possibility to infer the magnetic field strength in filaments by measuring cross-correlation functions between Faraday Rotation Measures (RM) and the galaxy density field. We also test the reliability of recent estimates considering the problem of data quality and Galactic foreground (GF) removal in current datasets. Besides the two self-consistent simulations of cosmological magnetic fields based on primordial seed fields and galactic outflows analyzed here, we also explore a larger range of models scaling up the resulting magnetic fields of one of the simulations. We find that, if an unnormalized estimator for the cross-correlation functions and a GF removal procedure is used, the detectability of the cosmological signal is only possible for future instruments (e.g. SKA and ASKAP). However, mapping of the observed RM signal to the underlying magnetization of the Universe (both in space and time) is an e...
Li Yue; Yang Baojun; Lu Peng; Li Shizhe
2003-01-01
In this letter, with the synthesis of usual cross-correlation detecting method andchaotic detecting method, a new detecting system for the weak periodic pulse signal is constituted,in which the two methods can play respective preponderance. Theoretical analyses and simulationstudies have shown that the detecting system is very sensitive to the periodic pulse signal understrong noise background and has exceedingly powerful capability of suppressing complex noise.
The Dynamics of Nonequilibrium Transitions Induced By the Cross-Correlated Noises: Numerical Results
A.N. Vitrenko
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The dynamic system described by the Langevin equation with two cross-correlated Gaussian white noises is considered. The non-equilibrium probability distribution function of the system is calculated by the numerical methods. The time of change of the initially unimodal distribution to the bimodal one is determined for different values of the control parameter. A critical slowing down in the transition dynamics is demonstrated.
Scambos, Theodore A.; Dutkiewicz, Melanie J.; Wison, Jeremy C.; Bindschadler, Robert A.
1992-01-01
A high-resolution map of the velocity field of the central portion of Ice Stream E in West Antarctica, generated by the displacement-measuring technique, is presented. The use of cross-correlation software is found to be a significant improvement over previous manually based photogrammetric methods for velocity measurement, and is far more cost-effective than in situ methods in remote polar areas. A hue-intensity-saturation image of Ice Stream E and its velocity field is shown.
Phase cross-correlation of the WMAP ILC map and foregrounds
Naselsky, P D; Verkhodanov, O V
2003-01-01
We present a circular cross-correlation tests for the phases of the Internal Linear Combination Map (ILC) and {\\it WMAP}'s foregrounds for all K--W frequency bands at the range of multipoles $\\ell\\le 50$. We have found significant deviations from the expected Poissonian statistics for the ILC and the foregrounds phases. Our analysis shows that the low multipole range of the ILC power spectrum contains some of the foregrounds residues.
Pre-Processing Noise Cross-Correlations with Equalizing the Network Covariance Matrix Eigen-Spectrum
Seydoux, L.; de Rosny, J.; Shapiro, N.
2016-12-01
Theoretically, the extraction of Green functions from noise cross-correlation requires the ambient seismic wavefield to be generated by uncorrelated sources evenly distributed in the medium. Yet, this condition is often not verified. Strong events such as earthquakes often produce highly coherent transient signals. Also, the microseismic noise is generated at specific places on the Earth's surface with source regions often very localized in space. Different localized and persistent seismic sources may contaminate the cross-correlations of continuous records resulting in spurious arrivals or asymmetry and, finally, in biased travel-time measurements. Pre-processing techniques therefore must be applied to the seismic data in order to reduce the effect of noise anisotropy and the influence of strong localized events. Here we describe a pre-processing approach that uses the covariance matrix computed from signals recorded by a network of seismographs. We extend the widely used time and spectral equalization pre-processing to the equalization of the covariance matrix spectrum (i.e., its ordered eigenvalues). This approach can be considered as a spatial equalization. This method allows us to correct for the wavefield anisotropy in two ways: (1) the influence of strong directive sources is substantially attenuated, and (2) the weakly excited modes are reinforced, allowing to partially recover the conditions required for the Green's function retrieval. We also present an eigenvector-based spatial filter used to distinguish between surface and body waves. This last filter is used together with the equalization of the eigenvalue spectrum. We simulate two-dimensional wavefield in a heterogeneous medium with strongly dominating source. We show that our method greatly improves the travel-time measurements obtained from the inter-station cross-correlation functions. Also, we apply the developed method to the USArray data and pre-process the continuous records strongly influenced
Serial and cross-correlation in the Spanish Stock Market returns.
Peña, J.; L. A. GIL-ALANA
2007-01-01
In this paper, we test if stock index prices follow random walks in the Spanish Stock Market by means of variance ratios. We find strong evidence of positive autocorrelation for both IGBM and IBEX35 daily returns until 1977, but not after that date. Although weekly and monthly index positive autocorrelations are not significant during the years 1972-2002, there is significant positive monthly cross-correlation between portfolios based on size. In particular, large stock portfolios seem to lea...
Prevalence, patterns, and correlates of equestrian injuries in Malaysia: A cross-sectional study
Nizar A Majeedkutty; Nor A.B. Khairulanuar
2017-01-01
Background: Equestrian sport carries with it an implicit risk of injury. Despite the frequency of injuries in equestrian sports, there is no published study on injuries of equestrian athletes in Malaysia. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of injuries and its correlates among horseback riders. Subjects And Methods: A web-based standardized questionnaire was used to collect data for this cross-sectional survey. Horseback riders aged 18 years and abov...
Moro, Daniele; Valdrè, Giovanni; Mesto, Ernesto; Scordari, Fernando; Lacalamita, Maria; Ventura, Giancarlo Della; Bellatreccia, Fabio; Scirè, Salvatore; Schingaro, Emanuela
2017-01-01
This study presents a cross-correlated surface and near surface investigation of two phlogopite polytypes from Kasenyi kamafugitic rocks (SW Uganda) by means of advanced Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), confocal microscopy and Raman micro-spectroscopy. AFM revealed comparable nanomorphology and electrostatic surface potential for the two mica polytypes. A widespread presence of nano-protrusions located on the mica flake surface was also observed, with an aspect ratio (maximum height/maximum width) from 0.01 to 0.09. Confocal microscopy showed these features to range from few nm to several μm in dimension, and shapes from perfectly circular to ellipsoidic and strongly elongated. Raman spectra collected across the bubbles showed an intense and convolute absorption in the range 3000–2800 cm‑1, associated with weaker bands at 1655, 1438 and 1297 cm‑1, indicating the presence of fluid inclusions consisting of aliphatic hydrocarbons, alkanes and cycloalkanes, with minor amounts of oxygenated compounds, such as carboxylic acids. High-resolution Raman images provided evidence that these hydrocarbons are confined within the bubbles. This work represents the first direct evidence that phlogopite, a common rock-forming mineral, may be a possible reservoir for hydrocarbons.
Moro, Daniele; Valdrè, Giovanni; Mesto, Ernesto; Scordari, Fernando; Lacalamita, Maria; Ventura, Giancarlo Della; Bellatreccia, Fabio; Scirè, Salvatore; Schingaro, Emanuela
2017-01-01
This study presents a cross-correlated surface and near surface investigation of two phlogopite polytypes from Kasenyi kamafugitic rocks (SW Uganda) by means of advanced Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), confocal microscopy and Raman micro-spectroscopy. AFM revealed comparable nanomorphology and electrostatic surface potential for the two mica polytypes. A widespread presence of nano-protrusions located on the mica flake surface was also observed, with an aspect ratio (maximum height/maximum width) from 0.01 to 0.09. Confocal microscopy showed these features to range from few nm to several μm in dimension, and shapes from perfectly circular to ellipsoidic and strongly elongated. Raman spectra collected across the bubbles showed an intense and convolute absorption in the range 3000–2800 cm−1, associated with weaker bands at 1655, 1438 and 1297 cm−1, indicating the presence of fluid inclusions consisting of aliphatic hydrocarbons, alkanes and cycloalkanes, with minor amounts of oxygenated compounds, such as carboxylic acids. High-resolution Raman images provided evidence that these hydrocarbons are confined within the bubbles. This work represents the first direct evidence that phlogopite, a common rock-forming mineral, may be a possible reservoir for hydrocarbons. PMID:28098185
F2DPR: a fast and robust cross-correlation technique for volumetric PIV
Earl, Thomas; Jeon, Young Jin; Lecordier, Bertrand; David, Laurent
2016-08-01
The current state-of-the-art in cross-correlation based time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques are the fluid trajectory correlation, FTC (Lynch and Scarano 2013) and the fluid trajectory evaluation based on an ensemble-averaged cross-correlation, FTEE (Jeon et al 2014a). These techniques compute the velocity vector as a polynomial trajectory Γ in space and time, enabling the extraction of beneficial quantities such as material acceleration whilst significantly increasing the accuracy of the particle displacement prediction achieved by standard two-frame PIV. In the context of time-resolved volumetric PIV, the drawback of trajectory computation is the computational expense of the three-dimensional (3D) cross-correlation, exacerbated by the requirement to perform N - 1 cross-correlations, where N (for typically 5≤slant N≤slant 9 ) is the number of sequential particle volumes, for each velocity field. Therefore, the acceleration of this calculation is highly desirable. This paper re-examines the application of two-dimensional (2D) cross-correlation methods to three-dimensional (3D) datasets by Bilsky et al (2011) and the binning techniques of Discetti and Astarita (2012). A new and robust version of the 2D methods is proposed and described, called fast 2D projection—re-projection (f2dpr). Performance tests based on computational time and accuracy for both two-frame and multi-frame PIV are carried out on synthetically generated data. The cases presented herein include uniaxial uniform linear displacements and shear, and simulated turbulence data. The proposed algorithm is shown to be in the order of 10 times faster than a standard 3D FFT without loss of precision for a wide range of synthetic test cases, while combining with the binning technique can yield 50 times faster computation. The algorithm is also applied to reconstructed synthetic turbulent particle fields to investigate reconstruction noise on its performance and no
Neuronal Correlates of Cross-Modal Transfer in the Cerebellum and Pontine Nuclei
Campolattaro, Matthew M.; Kashef, Alireza; Lee, Inah; Freeman, John H.
2011-01-01
Cross-modal transfer occurs when learning established with a stimulus from one sensory modality facilitates subsequent learning with a new stimulus from a different sensory modality. The current study examined neuronal correlates of cross-modal transfer of Pavlovian eyeblink conditioning in rats. Neuronal activity was recorded from tetrodes within the anterior interpositus nucleus (IPN) of the cerebellum and basilar pontine nucleus (PN) during different phases of training. After stimulus pre-exposure and unpaired training sessions with a tone conditioned stimulus (CS), light CS, and periorbital stimulation unconditioned stimulus (US), rats received associative training with one of the CSs and the US (CS1-US). Training then continued on the same day with the other CS to assess cross-modal transfer (CS2-US). The final training session included associative training with both CSs on separate trials to establish stronger cross-modal transfer (CS1/CS2). Neurons in the IPN and PN showed primarily unimodal responses during pre-training sessions. Learning-related facilitation of activity correlated with the conditioned response (CR) developed in the IPN and PN during CS1-US training. Subsequent CS2-US training resulted in acquisition of CRs and learning-related neuronal activity in the IPN but substantially less little learning-related activity in the PN. Additional CS1/CS2 training increased CRs and learning-related activity in the IPN and PN during CS2-US trials. The findings suggest that cross-modal neuronal plasticity in the PN is driven by excitatory feedback from the IPN to the PN. Interacting plasticity mechanisms in the IPN and PN may underlie behavioral cross-modal transfer in eyeblink conditioning. PMID:21411647
Correlations and the Cross Section of Exclusive ($e,e'p$) Reactions for $^{16}$O
Amir-Azimi-Nili, K; Müther, H; Skouras, L D; Polls, A
1997-01-01
The reduced cross section for exclusive ($e,e'p$) reactions has been studied in DWIA for the example of the nucleus $^{16}$O using a spectral function containing effects of correlations. The spectral function is evaluated directly for the finite nucleus starting from a realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction within the framework of the Green's function approach. The emphasis is focused on the correlations induced by excitation modes at low energies described within a model-space of shell-model configurations including states up to the $sdg$ shell. Cross sections for the $p$-wave quasi-hole transitions at low missing energies are presented and compared with the most recent experimental data. In the case of the so-called perpendicular kinematics the reduced cross section derived in DWIA shows an enhancement at high missing momenta as compared to the PWIA result. Furthermore the cross sections for the $s$- and $d$-wave quasi-hole transitions are presented and compared to available data at low missing momenta. Also...
Measuring two phase flow parameters using impedance cross-correlation flow meter
Muhamedsalih, Y.; Lucas, G.
2012-03-01
This paper describes the design and implementation of an impedance cross correlation flow meter which can be used in solids-water pipe flows to measure the local solids volume fraction distribution and the local solids velocity distribution. The system is composed of two arrays of electrodes, separated by an axial distance of 50 mm and each array contains eights electrodes mounted over the internal circumference of the pipe carrying the flow. Furthermore every electrode in each array can be selected to be either"excitation", "measurement" or "earth". Changing the electrode configuration leads to a change in the electric field, and hence in the region of the flow cross section which is interrogated. The local flow velocity in the interrogated region is obtained by cross correlation between the two electrode arrays. Additionally, the local solids volume fraction can be obtained from the mean mixture conductivity in the region under interrogation. The system is being integrated with a microcontroller to measure the velocity distribution of the solids and the volume fraction distribution of the solids in order to create a portable flow meter capable of measuring the multi-phase flow parameters without the need of a PC to control it. Integration of the product of the local solids volume fraction and the local solids velocity in the flow cross section enables the solids volumetric flow rate to be determined.
International Data Centre: Reviewed Event Bulletin vs. Waveform Cross Correlation Bulletin
Bobrov, Dmitry; Given, Jeffrey; Khukhuudei, Urtnasan; Kitov, Ivan; Sitnikov, Kirill; Spiliopoulos, Spilio; Zerbo, Lassina
2012-01-01
Our objective is to assess the performance of waveform cross-correlation technique, as applied to automatic and interactive processing of the aftershock sequence of the 2012 Sumatera earthquake relative to the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) issued by the International Data Centre. The REB includes 1200 aftershocks between April 11 and May 25 with body wave magnitudes from 3.05 to 6.19. To automatically recover the sequence, we selected sixteen aftershocks with mb between 4.5 and 5.0. These events evenly but sparsely cover the area of the most intensive aftershock activity as recorded during the first two days after the main shock. In our study, waveform templates from only seven IMS array stations with the largest SNRs estimated for the signals from the main shock were used to calculate cross-correlation coefficients over the entire period of 44 days. Approximately 1000000 detections obtained using cross-correlation were then used to build events according to the IDC definition. After conflict resolution betwe...
Bobrov, Dmitry; Rozhkov, Mikhail
2013-01-01
Seismic monitoring of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty using waveform cross correlation requires a uniform coverage of the globe with master events well recorded at array stations of the International Monitoring System. The essence of cross correlation as a monitoring tool consists in a continuous comparison of digital waveforms at a given station with waveform templates from the global set of master events. At array stations, cross correlation demonstrates a higher resolution because the time delays at individual sensors from master and slave events are the same but they may differ from theoretical ones used in standard beamforming. In the regions where master events and thus waveform templates are available, one can reduce the amplitude threshold of signal detection by a factor of 2 to 3 relative to standard beamforming and STA/LTA detector used at the International Data Centre. The gain in sensitivity corresponds to a body wave magnitude reduction by 0.3 to 0.4 units and doubles the number of dete...
Cross Correlations of X-ray and Optically Selected Clusters With Near Infrared and Optical Galaxies
Sánchez, A G; Böhringer, H; Schücker, P; Sanchez, Ariel G.; Lambas, Diego G.; Boehringer, Hans; Schuecker, Peter
2005-01-01
We compute the real-space cluster-galaxy cross-correlation xi_cg(r) using the ROSAT-ESO Flux Limited X-ray (REFLEX) cluster survey, a group catalogue constructed from the final version of the 2dFGRS, and galaxies extracted from 2MASS and APM surveys. This first detailed calculation of the cross-correlation for X-ray clusters and groups, is consistent with previous works and shows that xi_cg(r) can not be described by a single power law. We analyse the clustering dependence on the cluster X-ray luminosity L_X and virial mass M_vir thresholds as well as on the galaxy limiting magnitude. We also make a comparison of our results with those obtained for the halo-mass cross-correlation function in a LambdaCDM N-body simulation to infer the scale dependence of galaxy bias around clusters. Our results indicate that the distribution of galaxies shows a significant anti-bias at highly non-linear small cluster-centric distances (b_cg(r) ~ 0.7), irrespective of the group/cluster virial mass or X-ray luminosity and galaxy...
Menon, Ravishankar; Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S
2012-11-01
Cross-correlations of diffuse noise fields can be used to extract environmental information. The influence of directional sources (usually ships) often results in a bias of the travel time estimates obtained from the cross-correlations. Using an array of sensors, insights from random matrix theory on the behavior of the eigenvalues of the sample covariance matrix (SCM) in an isotropic noise field are used to isolate the diffuse noise component from the directional sources. A sequential hypothesis testing of the eigenvalues of the SCM reveals eigenvalues dominated by loud sources that are statistical outliers for the assumed diffuse noise model. Travel times obtained from cross-correlations using only the diffuse noise component (i.e., by discarding or attenuating the outliers) converge to the predicted travel times based on the known array sensor spacing and measured sound speed at the site and are stable temporally (i.e., unbiased estimates). Data from the Shallow Water 2006 experiment demonstrates the effectiveness of this approach and that the signal-to-noise ratio builds up as the square root of time, as predicted by theory.
Measuring Distance Ratios with CMB-Galaxy Lensing Cross-correlations
Das, Sudeep; 10.1103/PhysRevD.79.043509
2009-01-01
We propose a method for cosmographic measurements by combining gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) with cosmic shear surveys. We cross-correlate the galaxy counts in the lens plane with two different source planes: the CMB at $z \\sim 1100$ and galaxies at an intermediate redshift. The ratio of the galaxy count/CMB lensing cross-correlation to the galaxy count/galaxy lensing cross correlation is shown to be a purely geometric quantity, depending only on the distribution function of the source galaxies. By combining Planck, ADEPT and LSST the ratio can be measured to $\\sim 4%$ accuracy, whereas a future polarization based experiment like CMBPOL can make a more precise ($\\sim 1%$) measurement. For cosmological models where the curvature and the equation of state parameter are allowed to vary, the direction of degeneracy defined by the measurement of this ratio is different from that traced out by Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) measurements. Combining this method with the stacked clu...
Jackson, Brian E; Christensen, Jordan J; Singh, Saransh; De Graef, Marc; Fullwood, David T; Homer, Eric R; Wagoner, Robert H
2016-08-01
High-resolution (or "cross-correlation") electron backscatter diffraction analysis (HR-EBSD) utilizes cross-correlation techniques to determine relative orientation and distortion of an experimental electron backscatter diffraction pattern with respect to a reference pattern. The integrity of absolute strain and tetragonality measurements of a standard Si/SiGe material have previously been analyzed using reference patterns produced by kinematical simulation. Although the results were promising, the noise levels were significantly higher for kinematically produced patterns, compared with real patterns taken from the Si region of the sample. This paper applies HR-EBSD techniques to analyze lattice distortion in an Si/SiGe sample, using recently developed dynamically simulated patterns. The results are compared with those from experimental and kinematically simulated patterns. Dynamical patterns provide significantly more precision than kinematical patterns. Dynamical patterns also provide better estimates of tetragonality at low levels of distortion relative to the reference pattern; kinematical patterns can perform better at large values of relative tetragonality due to the ability to rapidly generate patterns relating to a distorted lattice. A library of dynamically generated patterns with different lattice parameters might be used to achieve a similar advantage. The convergence of the cross-correlation approach is also assessed for the different reference pattern types.
Kirk, D; Benoit-Lévy, A; Cawthon, R; Chang, C; Larsen, P; Amara, A; Bacon, D; Crawford, T M; Dodelson, S; Fosalba, P; Giannantonio, T; Holder, G; Jain, B; Kacprzak, T; Lahav, O; MacCrann, N; Nicola, A; Refregier, A; Sheldon, E; Story, K T; Troxel, M A; Vieira, J D; Vikram, V; Zuntz, J; Abbott, T M C; Abdalla, F B; Becker, M R; Benson, B A; Bernstein, G M; Bernstein, R A; Bleem, L E; Bonnett, C; Bridle, S L; Brooks, D; Buckley-Geer, E; Burke, D L; Capozzi, D; Carlstrom, J E; Rosell, A Carnero; Kind, M Carrasco; Carretero, J; Crocce, M; Cunha, C E; D'Andrea, C B; da Costa, L N; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Dietrich, J P; Doel, P; Eifler, T F; Evrard, A E; Flaugher, B; Frieman, J; Gerdes, D W; Goldstein, D A; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Honscheid, K; James, D J; Jarvis, M; Kent, S; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lima, M; March, M; Martini, P; Melchior, P; Miller, C J; Miquel, R; Nichol, R C; Ogando, R; Plazas, A A; Reichardt, C L; Roodman, A; Rozo, E; Rykoff, E S; Sako, M; Sanchez, E; Scarpine, V; Schubnell, M; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Simard, G; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Suchyta, E; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Thomas, D; Wechsler, R H; Weller, J
2015-01-01
We measure the cross-correlation between weak lensing of galaxy images and of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The effects of gravitational lensing on different sources will be correlated if the lensing is caused by the same mass fluctuations. We use galaxy shape measurements from 139 deg$^{2}$ of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data and overlapping CMB lensing from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck. The DES source galaxies have a median redshift of $z_{\\rm med} {\\sim} 0.7$, while the CMB lensing kernel is broad and peaks at $z{\\sim}2$. The resulting cross-correlation is maximally sensitive to mass fluctuations at $z{\\sim}0.44$. Assuming the Planck 2015 best-fit cosmology, the amplitude of the DES$\\times$SPT cross-power is found to be $A = 0.88 \\pm 0.30$ and that from DES$\\times$Planck to be $A = 0.86 \\pm 0.39$, where $A=1$ corresponds to the theoretical prediction. These are consistent with the expected signal and correspond to significances of $2.9 \\sigma$ and $2.2 \\sigma$ re...
Intensity Mapping Cross-Correlations: Connecting the Largest Scales to Galaxy Evolution
Wolz, L; Blake, C; Wyithe, J S B
2015-01-01
Intensity mapping of the neutral hydrogen (HI) is a new observational tool that can be used to efficiently map the large-scale structure of the Universe over wide redshift ranges. The power spectrum of the intensity maps contains cosmological information on the matter distribution and probes galaxy evolution by tracing the HI content of galaxies at different redshifts and the scale-dependence of HI clustering. The cross-correlation of intensity maps with galaxy surveys is a robust measure of the power spectrum which diminishes systematics caused by instrumental effects and foreground removal. We examine the cross-correlation signature at redshift z=0.9 using a variant of the semi-analytical galaxy formation model SAGE (Croton et al. 2016) applied to the Millennium simulation in order to model the HI gas of galaxies as well as their optical magnitudes based on their star-formation history. We determine the clustering of the cross-correlation power for different types of galaxies determined by their colours, ac...
On the interplay between short and long term memory in the power-law cross-correlations setting
Kristoufek, Ladislav
2015-03-01
We focus on emergence of the power-law cross-correlations from processes with both short and long term memory properties. In the case of correlated error-terms, the power-law decay of the cross-correlation function comes automatically with the characteristics of separate processes. Bivariate Hurst exponent is then equal to an average of separate Hurst exponents of the analyzed processes. Strength of short term memory has no effect on these asymptotic properties. Implications of these findings for the power-law cross-correlations concept are further discussed.
Investigation of cosmic ray penetration with wavelet cross-correlation analysis
Yang, Rui-zhi
2016-01-01
Aims. We use Fermi and Planck data to calculate the cross correlation between gamma ray signal and gas distribution in different scales in giant molecular clouds (GMC). Then we investigate the cosmic rays (CRs) penetration in GMCs with these informations. Methods.We use the wavelet technique to decompose both the gamma ray and dust opacity maps in different scales, then we calculate the wavelet cross correlation functions in these scales. We also define wavelet response as an analog to the impulsive response in Fourier transform and calculate that in different scales down to Fermi angular resolution. Results. The gamma ray maps above 2 GeV show strong correlation with the dust opacity maps, the correlation coefficient is larger than 0.9 above a scale of 0.4 degree.The derived wavelet response is uniform in different scales. Conclusions. We argue that the CR above 10 GeV can penetrate the giant molecular cloud freely and the CRs distributions in the same energy range are uniform down to parsec scale.
Analysis of cross-correlations between financial markets after the 2008 crisis
Sensoy, A.; Yuksel, S.; Erturk, M.
2013-10-01
We analyze the cross-correlation matrix C of the index returns of the main financial markets after the 2008 crisis using methods of random matrix theory. We test the eigenvalues of C for universal properties of random matrices and find that the majority of the cross-correlation coefficients arise from randomness. We show that the eigenvector of the largest deviating eigenvalue of C represents a global market itself. We reveal that high volatility of financial markets is observed at the same times with high correlations between them which lowers the risk diversification potential even if one constructs a widely internationally diversified portfolio of stocks. We identify and compare the connection and cluster structure of markets before and after the crisis using minimal spanning and ultrametric hierarchical trees. We find that after the crisis, the co-movement degree of the markets increases. We also highlight the key financial markets of pre and post crisis using main centrality measures and analyze the changes. We repeat the study using rank correlation and compare the differences. Further implications are discussed.
Modak, Soumita; Chattopadhyay, Asis Kumar
2016-01-01
Formation mechanism of present day population of elliptical galaxies have been revisited in the context of hierarchical cosmological models accompanied by accretion and minor mergers through cross correlation function including spatial effect. The present work investigates the formation and evolution of several components of nearby massive early type galaxies (ETGs) through cross-correlation in the spatial coordinates, right ascension and declination (RA, DEC) and mass-size parameter space with high redshift $(0.5\\leq z\\leq2.7)$ ETGs. It is found that innermost components of nearby ETGs are highly correlated with ETGs in the redshift range $(2\\leq z\\leq2.7)$ known as 'red nuggets'. The intermediate and outermost parts have moderate correlations with ETGs in the redshift range $(0.5\\leq z\\leq0.75)$. The quantitative measures are highly consistent with the two phase formation scenario of massive nearby early type galaxies as suggested by various authors and resolves the conflict raised in a previous work sugges...
Multiple cross-correlation noise induced transition in a stochastic bistable system
Wang, Can-Jun; Yang, Ke-Li; Du, Chun-Yan
2017-03-01
Based on the stochastic equivalent rules, the Fokker-Planck Equation for a general one-dimensional nonlinear system subjected to N-component noises and cross-correlation noises is derived, and the greatest advantage of the method lies in its simplicity. Applying this method, the effects of multiple sources of noise and the correlation forms of noises among them (i.e., two multiplicative noises, an additive noise and the correlation between the three noises) on the steady-state properties and the mean first passage time (MFPT) of a stochastic bistable system are discussed in details. The results show rich transition phenomena, such as the reentrance-like noise-induced phenomenon and the switch between the bimodal and the unimodal structure for different noise intensities. Moreover, the effects of the cross-correlation among the three noise sources on the MFPT are also discussed, and the noise-enhanced stability phenomenon and the resonant activation phenomenon are observed. The numerical results are in basic agreement with the theoretical predictions.
Cross-cultural correlates of life satisfaction and self-esteem.
Diener, E; Diener, M
1995-04-01
College students in 31 nations (N = 13,118) completed measures of self-esteem, life satisfaction, and satisfaction with specific domains (friends, family, and finances). The authors assessed whether cross-cultural variations in the strength of associations were related to societal dimensions including income and individualism. At the national level, individualism correlated -.24 (ns) with heterogeneity and .71 (p life satisfaction were correlated .47 for the entire sample. This relation, however, was moderated by the individualism of the society. The associations of financial, friend, and family satisfactions with life satisfaction and with self-esteem also varied across nations. Financial satisfaction was a stronger correlate of life satisfaction in poorer countries. It was found that life satisfaction and self-esteem were clearly discriminable constructs. Satisfaction ratings, except for financial satisfaction, varied between slightly positive and fairly positive.
Chen, Yi-Hui; Tian, Hui-Lin; Li, Ji-Heng; Li, Guo-Ying
2012-06-01
The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and two dimensional correlation analysis method were applied to study a denaturing process of uncross-linked collagen and cross-linked collagen during varying temperature. It was found that the intensity of typically characteristic absorptions of collagen decreased and its peak shifted to low frequency, The amide II central absorbance peak moved to a lower frequency by about 10 cm(-1), which indicated that the inter-chain hydrogen bonds which stabilized the triple helix conformation of collagen were disrupted during thermal denaturation, resulting in a conformational change. The intensity of auto-peak at 1 515 cm(-1) was maximum, which suggested that the temperature had a big impact on amide II. In comparison with uncross-linked collagen, the intensity of cross-peaks of cross-linked collagen was weaker, which demonstrated that the effect of temperature on the structure of cross-linked collagen was smaller, and the thermal stability properties of collagen solution could be improved by cross-linking. While the order of second structure changes of cross-linked collagen was different. These fundamental data should provide available information for understanding the relationship between the structure and function of cross-linked collagen.
Saltos, Andrea
In efforts to perform accurate dosimetry, Oakes et al. [Nucl. Intrum. Mehods. (2013)] introduced a new portable solid state neutron rem meter based on an adaptation of the Bonner sphere and the position sensitive long counter. The system utilizes high thermal efficiency neutron detectors to generate a linear combination of measurement signals that are used to estimate the incident neutron spectra. The inversion problem associated to deduce dose from the counts in individual detector elements is addressed by applying a cross-correlation method which allows estimation of dose with average errors less than 15%. In this work, an evaluation of the performance of this system was extended to take into account new correlation techniques and neutron scattering contribution. To test the effectiveness of correlations, the Distance correlation, Pearson Product-Moment correlation, and their weighted versions were performed between measured spatial detector responses obtained from nine different test spectra, and the spatial response of Library functions generated by MCNPX. Results indicate that there is no advantage of using the Distance Correlation over the Pearson Correlation, and that weighted versions of these correlations do not increase their performance in evaluating dose. Both correlations were proven to work well even at low integrated doses measured for short periods of time. To evaluate the contribution produced by room-return neutrons on the dosimeter response, MCNPX was used to simulate dosimeter responses for five isotropic neutron sources placed inside different sizes of rectangular concrete rooms. Results show that the contribution of scattered neutrons to the response of the dosimeter can be significant, so that for most cases the dose is over predicted with errors as large as 500%. A possible method to correct for the contribution of room-return neutrons is also assessed and can be used as a good initial estimate on how to approach the problem.
Kokkevi, Anna; Richardson, Clive; Florescu, Silvia; Kuzman, Marina; Stergar, Eva
2007-01-05
To examine the psychosocial correlates of substance use among adolescents in six European countries. Cross-sectional school population survey (ESPAD) based on standardized methodological procedures. High schools in six European countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Romania, Slovenia and UK. Representative samples of a total sample of 16,445 high school students whose 16th birthday fell in the year of data collection. Anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Self-reported substance use was measured by core items on tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and any illegal drug use. Psychosocial correlates included scales of self-esteem, depression, anomie and antisocial behavior, and items pertaining to family, school and peers. Logistic regression analyses for each potential correlate adjusted for country, taking into account the clustered sample, showed statistically significant associations with each substance use variable separately, in almost every case. Particularly strong associations were found between smoking and going out most evenings and having many friends who smoke, while cannabis and illegal drugs were strongly correlated with having friends or older siblings who used these substances. The self-esteem scale score was not correlated with substance use. Anomie and antisocial behavior were more strongly associated than depression with substance use. In the case of depression, anomie and most of the other items examined, associations were stronger for girls than for boys. The present cross-national study identified correlates of legal and illegal substance use which extend outside specific countries, providing grounds to believe that they can be generalized. They provide evidence for the need to address both the use of the gateway drugs and deviant behavior in conjunction with environmental risk factors when designing and implementing preventive interventions in schools.
On the interplay between short and long term memory in the power-law cross-correlations setting
Kristoufek, Ladislav
2014-01-01
We focus on emergence of the power-law cross-correlations from processes with both short and long term memory properties. In the case of correlated error-terms, the power-law decay of the cross-correlation function comes automatically with the characteristics of the separate processes. The bivariate Hurst exponent is then equal to an average of the separate Hurst exponents of the analysed processes. Strength of the short term memory has no effect on these asymptotic properties.
Sürer Budak, Evrim; Toptaş, Tayfun; Aydın, Funda; Öner, Ali Ozan; Çevikol, Can; Şimşek, Tayup
2017-02-05
To explore the correlation of the primary tumor's maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmin) with clinicopathologic features, and to determine their predictive power in endometrial cancer (EC). A total of 45 patients who had undergone staging surgery after a preoperative evaluation with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) were included in a prospective case-series study with planned data collection. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the correlations between the study variables. The mean ADCmin and SUVmax values were determined as 0.72±0.22 and 16.54±8.73, respectively. A univariate analysis identified age, myometrial invasion (MI) and lymphovascular space involvement (LVSI) as the potential factors associated with ADCmin while it identified age, stage, tumor size, MI, LVSI and number of metastatic lymph nodes as the potential variables correlated to SUVmax. In multivariate analysis, on the other hand, MI was the only significant variable that correlated with ADCmin (p=0.007) and SUVmax (p=0.024). Deep MI was best predicted by an ADCmin cutoff value of ≤0.77 [93.7% sensitivity, 48.2% specificity, and 93.0% negative predictive value (NPV)] and SUVmax cutoff value of >20.5 (62.5% sensitivity, 86.2% specificity, and 81.0% NPV); however, the two diagnostic tests were not significantly different (p=0.266). Among clinicopathologic features, only MI was independently correlated with SUVmax and ADCmin. However, the routine use of (18)F-FDG PET/CT or DW-MRI cannot be recommended at the moment due to less than ideal predictive performances of both parameters.
Burkard, R.; Jones, S.; Jones, T.
1994-01-01
Rate-dependent changes in the chick brain-stem auditory evoked response (BAER) using conventional averaging and a cross-correlation technique were investigated. Five 15- to 19-day-old white leghorn chicks were anesthetized with Chloropent. In each chick, the left ear was acoustically stimulated. Electrical pulses of 0.1-ms duration were shaped, attenuated, and passed through a current driver to an Etymotic ER-2 which was sealed in the ear canal. Electrical activity from stainless-steel electrodes was amplified, filtered (300-3000 Hz) and digitized at 20 kHz. Click levels included 70 and 90 dB peSPL. In each animal, conventional BAERs were obtained at rates ranging from 5 to 90 Hz. BAERs were also obtained using a cross-correlation technique involving pseudorandom pulse sequences called maximum length sequences (MLSs). The minimum time between pulses, called the minimum pulse interval (MPI), ranged from 0.5 to 6 ms. Two BAERs were obtained for each condition. Dependent variables included the latency and amplitude of the cochlear microphonic (CM), wave 2 and wave 3. BAERs were observed in all chicks, for all level by rate combinations for both conventional and MLS BAERs. There was no effect of click level or rate on the latency of the CM. The latency of waves 2 and 3 increased with decreasing click level and increasing rate. CM amplitude decreased with decreasing click level, but was not influenced by click rate for the 70 dB peSPL condition. For the 90 dB peSPL click, CM amplitude was uninfluenced by click rate for conventional averaging. For MLS BAERs, CM amplitude was similar to conventional averaging for longer MPIs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).
Perspectives of cross correlation in seismic monitoring at the International Data Centre
Bobrov, Dmitry; Zerbo, Lassina
2011-01-01
We demonstrate that several techniques based on cross correlation are able to significantly reduce the detection threshold of seismic sources worldwide and to improve the reliability of IDC arrivals by a more accurate estimation of their defining parameters. More than ninety per cent of smaller REB events can be built in automatic processing while completely fitting the REB event definition criteria. The rate of false alarms, as compared to the events rejected from the SEL3 in the current interactive processing, has also been dramatically reduced by several powerful filters. The principal filter is the difference of arrival times between the master events and newly built events at three or more primary stations, which should lie in a narrow range of a few seconds. Two effective pre-filters are f-k analysis and Fprob based on correlation traces instead of original waveforms. As a result, cross correlation may reduce the overall workload related to IDC interactive analysis and provide a precise tool for quality...
Measurement of the dipole in the cross-correlation function of galaxies
Gaztanaga, Enrique; Hui, Lam
2017-01-01
It is usually assumed that in the linear regime the two-point correlation function of galaxies contains only a monopole, quadrupole and hexadecapole. Looking at cross-correlations between different populations of galaxies, this turns out not to be the case. In particular, the cross-correlations between a bright and a faint population of galaxies contain also a dipole. In this paper we present the first attempt to measure this dipole. We discuss the four types of effects that contribute to the dipole: relativistic distortions, evolution effect, wide-angle effect and large-angle effect. We show that the first three contributions are intrinsic anti-symmetric contributions that do not depend on the choice of angle used to measure the dipole. On the other hand the large-angle effect appears only if the angle chosen to extract the dipole breaks the symmetry of the problem. We show that the relativistic distortions, the evolution effect and the wide-angle effect are too small to be detected in the LOWz and CMASS sam...
Relative location using waveform cross correlation: comparison of the Aitik and Kiruna mines
Rozhkov, Mikhail; Bobrov, Dmitry; Kitov, Ivan; Yedlin, Matthew
2017-04-01
Waveform cross correlation (WCC) is a powerful tool of signal detection from repeated events like mining blasts. In this study, we use seismic data measured at four array stations (ARCES, FINES, NOA, and HFS) of the International Monitoring System (IMS) from two quarries in Sweden - the Aitik copper and Kiruna iron mines. Both mines are characterized by intensive blasting practice, with hundreds of blasts found by the International Data Centre and available in its Reviewed Events Bulletin. In our previous study, we applied the WCC method to these repeated signals and estimated the overall similarity of signals at one mine and between mines. In order to provide the best use of the whole multitude of historical events and to reduce the number of waveform templates needed for comprehensive signal detection and association, we applied several high-order factorization techniques to the tensor based representation of seismic array data, so the lower order tensor construction was used as synthetic waveform template set. As a result, we found that signals from two mines might correlate and the only reliable method to actually distinguish between blasts conducted at the Aitik and Kiruna mines is to locate them using arrival times obtained by cross correlation. Here, we present select results of detection, relative location and mine identification as obtained since the end of 2016. This is an out-of-sample test of the procedures related to the WCC method.
Herschel-ATLAS/GAMA: SDSS cross-correlation induced by weak lensing
González-Nuevo, J; Negrello, M; Danese, L; De Zotti, G; Amber, S; Baes, M; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Bourne, N; Brough, S; Bussmann, R S; Cai, Z -Y; Cooray, A; Dunne, L; Dye, S; Eales, S; Ibar, E; Ivison, R; Liske, J; Loveday, J; Maddox, S; Michałowski, M J; Schneider, M D; Scott, D; Smith, M W L; Valiante, E; Xia, J -Q
2014-01-01
We report a highly significant ($>10\\sigma$) spatial correlation between galaxies with $S_{350\\mu\\rm m}\\ge 30\\,$mJy detected in the equatorial fields of the \\textsl{Herschel} Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) with estimated redshifts $\\gtrsim 1.5$, and SDSS or GAMA galaxies at $0.2\\le z\\le 0.6$. The significance of the cross-correlation is much higher than those reported so far for samples with non-overlapping redshift distributions selected in other wavebands. Extensive, realistic simulations of clustered sub-mm galaxies amplified by foreground structures confirm that the cross-correlation is explained by weak gravitational lensing ($\\mu<2$). The simulations also show that the measured amplitude and range of angular scales of the signal are larger than can be accounted for by galaxy-galaxy weak lensing. However, for scales $\\lesssim 2\\,$arcmin, the signal can be reproduced if SDSS/GAMA galaxies act as signposts of galaxy groups/clusters with halo masses in the range ~$10^{13.2}$--$10^{14...
Hojjati, Alireza; Harnois-Deraps, Joachim; Ma, Yin-Zhe; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Hinshaw, Gary; Brun, Amandine M C Le
2014-01-01
We use the cosmo-OWLS suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, which includes different galactic feedback models, to predict the cross-correlation signal between weak gravitational lensing and the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) $y$-parameter. The predictions are compared to the recent detection reported by van Waerbeke and collaborators. The simulations reproduce the weak lensing-tSZ cross-correlation, $\\xi_{y\\kappa}(\\theta)$, well. The uncertainty arising from different possible feedback models appears to be important on small scales only ($\\theta \\lesssim 10$ arcmin), while the amplitude of the correlation on all scales is sensitive to cosmological parameters that control the growth rate of structure (such as $\\sigma_8$, $\\Omega_m$ and $\\Omega_b$). This study confirms our previous claim (in Ma et al.) that a significant proportion of the signal originates from the diffuse gas component in low-mass ($M_{\\rm{halo}} \\lesssim 10^{14} M_{\\odot}$) clusters as well as from the region beyond the virial ra...
Cross-correlation of the cosmic 21-cm signal and Lyman Alpha Emitters during reionization
Sobacchi, Emanuele; Greig, Bradley
2016-01-01
Interferometry of the cosmic 21-cm signal is set to revolutionize our understanding of the Epoch of Reionization (EoR), eventually providing 3D maps of the early Universe. Initial detections however will be low signal-to-noise, limited by systematics. To confirm a putative 21-cm detection, and check the accuracy of 21-cm data analysis pipelines, it would be very useful to cross-correlate against a genuine cosmological signal. The most promising cosmological signals are wide-field maps of Lyman alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs), expected from the Subaru Hyper-Suprime Cam (HSC) Ultra-Deep field. Here we present estimates of the correlation between LAE maps at z~7 and the 21-cm signal observed by both the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) and the planned Square Kilometer Array Phase 1 (SKA1). We adopt a systematic approach, varying both: (i) the prescription of assigning LAEs to host halos; and (ii) the large-scale structure of neutral and ionized regions (i.e. EoR morphology). We find that the LAE-21cm cross-correlation...
Detection of weak gravitational lensing magnification from Galaxy-QSO cross-correlation in the SDSS
Gaztañaga, E
2003-01-01
We report a detection of galaxy-QSO cross-correlation w_{GQ} in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Early Data Release (EDR) over 0.2-30 arc-minute scales. We cross-correlate galaxy samples of different mean depths r'=19-22 (z_G =0.15-0.35) with the main QSO population (i'_Q <19.2) at \\zbar_Q \\simeq 1.6. We find positive detection in most cases (except for the faintest QSOs as expeceted) with up to 8-sigma significance. The amplitude of the signal on arc-minute scales is about 20% at z_G=0.15 decreasing to 10% at z_G =0.35 This is a few times larger than currently expected from structure formation LCDM models o but confirms, at a higher significance, previous measurements by several groups. The shape and redshift evolution agrees well with being a lensing signal. We also find a 3-sigma detection for the (pseudo) skewness (galaxy-galaxy-QSO correlation): S_3 = 18.6 \\pm 5.7$ The data indicates very strong non-linear amplitude for the underlaying matter fluctuations scales of 0.2$ Mpc/h, in apparent contradic...
Iterative cross-correlation analysis of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data.
Liqin Yang
Full Text Available Seed-based cross-correlation analysis (sCCA and independent component analysis have been widely employed to extract functional networks from the resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. However, the results of sCCA, in terms of both connectivity strength and network topology, can be sensitive to seed selection variations. ICA avoids the potential problems due to seed selection, but choosing which component(s to represent the network of interest could be subjective and problematic. In this study, we proposed a seed-based iterative cross-correlation analysis (siCCA method for resting state brain network analysis. The method was applied to extract default mode network (DMN and stable task control network (STCN in two independent datasets acquired from normal adults. Compared with the networks obtained by traditional sCCA and ICA, the resting state networks produced by siCCA were found to be highly stable and independent on seed selection. siCCA was used to analyze DMN in first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD patients. It was found that, in the MDD patients, the volume of DMN negatively correlated with the patients' social disability screening schedule scores.
KiDS-450: tomographic cross-correlation of galaxy shear with Planck lensing
Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Tröster, Tilman; Chisari, Nora Elisa; Heymans, Catherine; van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Asgari, Marika; Bilicki, Maciej; Choi, Ami; Erben, Thomas; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hoekstra, Henk; Joudaki, Shahab; Kuijken, Konrad; Merten, Julian; Miller, Lance; Robertson, Naomi; Schneider, Peter; Viola, Massimo
2017-10-01
We present the tomographic cross-correlation between galaxy lensing measured in the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS-450) with overlapping lensing measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), as detected by Planck 2015. We compare our joint probe measurement to the theoretical expectation for a flat Λ cold dark matter cosmology, assuming the best-fitting cosmological parameters from the KiDS-450 cosmic shear and Planck CMB analyses. We find that our results are consistent within 1σ with the KiDS-450 cosmology, with an amplitude re-scaling parameter AKiDS = 0.86 ± 0.19. Adopting a Planck cosmology, we find our results are consistent within 2σ, with APlanck = 0.68 ± 0.15. We show that the agreement is improved in both cases when the contamination to the signal by intrinsic galaxy alignments is accounted for, increasing A by ∼0.1. This is the first tomographic analysis of the galaxy lensing - CMB lensing cross-correlation signal, and is based on five photometric redshift bins. We use this measurement as an independent validation of the multiplicative shear calibration and of the calibrated source redshift distribution at high redshifts. We find that constraints on these two quantities are strongly correlated when obtained from this technique, which should therefore not be considered as a stand-alone competitive calibration tool.
Liang, Yunyun; Liu, Sanyang; Zhang, Shengli
2016-12-01
Apoptosis, or programed cell death, plays a central role in the development and homeostasis of an organism. Obtaining information on subcellular location of apoptosis proteins is very helpful for understanding the apoptosis mechanism. The prediction of subcellular localization of an apoptosis protein is still a challenging task, and existing methods mainly based on protein primary sequences. In this paper, we introduce a new position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM)-based method by using detrended cross-correlation (DCCA) coefficient of non-overlapping windows. Then a 190-dimensional (190D) feature vector is constructed on two widely used datasets: CL317 and ZD98, and support vector machine is adopted as classifier. To evaluate the proposed method, objective and rigorous jackknife cross-validation tests are performed on the two datasets. The results show that our approach offers a novel and reliable PSSM-based tool for prediction of apoptosis protein subcellular localization.
Inclusive D* Meson Cross Sections and D* Jet Correlations in Photoproduction at HERA
Aktas, A; Anthonis, T; Antunovic, B; Aplin, S; Asmone, A; Astvatsatourov, A; Babaev, A; Backovic, S; Baghdasaryan, A; Baranov, P; Barrelet, E; Bartel, Wulfrin; Baudrand, S; Baumgartner, S; Beckingham, M; Behnke, O; Behrendt, O; Belousov, A; Berger, N; Bizot, J C; Boenig, M O; Boudry, V; Bracinik, J; Brandt, G; Brisson, V; Bruncko, D; Büsser, F W; Bunyatyan, A; Buschhorn, G; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Caron, S; Cassol-Brunner, F; Cerny, K; Cerny, V; Chekelian, V; Contreras, J G; Coughlan, J A; Cox, B E; Cozzika, G; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Dau, W D; Daum, K; De Boer, Y; Delcourt, B; Del Degan, M; de Roeck, A; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C; Dodonov, V; Dubak, A; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eichler, R; Eisele, F; Eliseev, A; Elsen, E; Essenov, S; Falkewicz, A; Faulkner, P J W; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Feltesse, J; Ferencei, J; Finke, L; Fleischer, M; Flucke, G; Fomenko, A; Franke, G; Frisson, T; Gabathuler, E; Garutti, E; Gayler, J; Gerlich, C; Ghazaryan, S; Ginzburgskaya, S; Glazov, A; Glushkov, I; Görlich, L; Goettlich, M; Gogitidze, N; Gorbounov, S; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T; Gregori, M; Grell, B R; Grindhammer, G; Gwilliam, C; Habib, S; Haidt, D; Hansson, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henderson, R C W; Henschel, H; Herrera-Corral, G; Hildebrandt, M; Hiller, K H; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R P; Hovhannisyan, A; Hreus, T; Hussain, S; Ibbotson, M; Ismail, M; Jacquet, M; Janssen, X; Jemanov, V; Jönsson, L B; Johnson, D P; Jung, A W; Jung, H; Kapichine, M; Katzy, J; Kenyon, I R; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Klimkovich, T; Kluge, T; Knies, G; Knutsson, A; Korbel, V; Kostka, P; Krastev, K; Kretzschmar, J; Kropivnitskaya, A; Krüger, K; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lastoviicka-Medin, G; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Leibenguth, G; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; Lindfeld, L; Lipka, K; Liptaj, A; List, B; List, J; Lobodzinska, E; Loktionova, N; López-Fernandez, R; Lubimov, V; Lucaci-Timoce, A I; Lüders, H; Lux, T; Lytkin, L; Makankine, A; Malden, N; Malinovskii, E I; Marage, P; Marshall, R; Marti, L; Martisikova, M; Martyn, H U; Maxfield, S J; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Michels, V; Mikocki, S; Milcewicz-Mika, I; Milstead, D; Mladenov, D; Mohamed, A; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morris, J V; Mozer, M U; Müller, K; Murn, P; Nankov, K; Naroska, B; Naumann, T; Newman, P R; Niebuhr, C; Nikiforov, A; Nowak, G; Nowak, K; Nozicka, M; Oganezov, R; Olivier, B; Olsson, J E; Osman, S; Ozerov, D; Palichik, V; Panagoulias, I; Papadopoulou, T D; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Peng, H; Pérez, E; Perez-Astudillo, D; Perieanu, A; Petrukhin, A; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Portheault, B; Povh, B; Prideaux, P; Rahmat, A J; Raicevic, N; Reimer, P; Rimmer, A; Risler, C; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roland, B; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A; Rurikova, Z; Rusakov, S; Salvaire, F; Sankey, D P C; Sauter, M; Sauvan, E; Schmidt, S; Schmitt, S; Schmitz, C; Schoeffel, L; Schöning, A; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Sefkow, F; Shaw-West, R N; Shevyakov, I; Shtarkov, L N; Sloan, T; Smirnov, P; Soloviev, Yu; South, D; Spaskov, V; Specka, A; Steder, M; Stella, B; Stiewe, J; Stoilov, A; Straumann, U; Sunar, D; Tchoulakov, V; Thompson, G; Thompson, P D; Toll, T; Tomasz, F; Traynor, D; Trinh, T N; Truöl, P; Tsakov, I; Tsipolitis, G; Tsurin, I; Turnau, J; Tzamariudaki, E; Urban, K; Urban, M; Usik, A; Utkin, D; Valkárová, A; Vallée, C; Van Mechelen, P; Vargas, A; Trevino; Vazdik, Ya A; Veelken, C; Vinokurova, S; Volchinski, V; Wacker, K; Weber, G; Weber, R; Wegener, D; Werner, C; Wessels, M; Wessling, B; Wissing, C; Wolf, R; Wünsch, E; Xella, S M; Yan, W; Yeganov, V; Zaicek, J; Zaleisak, J; Zhang, Z; Zhelezov, A; Zhokin, A; Zhu, Y C; Zimmermann, J; Zimmermann, T; Zohrabyan, H; Zomer, F
2007-01-01
Differential photoproduction cross sections are measured for events containing D* mesons. The data were taken with the H1 detector at the ep collider HERA and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 51.1 pb-1. The kinematic region covers small photon virtualities Q^2 < 0.01 GeV^2 and photon-proton centre-of-mass energies of 171 < W_gammap < 256 GeV. The details of the heavy quark production process are further investigated in events with one or two jets in addition to the D* meson. Differential cross sections for D* jet production are determined and the correlations between the D* meson and the jet(s) are studied. The results are compared with perturbative QCD predictions applying collinear- or kt -factorisation.
Cross-correlation of CMB with large-scale structure: weak gravitational lensing
Hirata, C M; Seljak, U; Schlegel, D J; Brinkmann, J; Hirata, Christopher M.; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Seljak, Uros; Schlegel, David; Brinkmann, Jonathan
2004-01-01
We present the results of a search for gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) in cross-correlation with the projected density of luminous red galaxies (LRGs). The CMB lensing reconstruction is performed using the first year of Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data, and the galaxy maps are obtained using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging data. We find no detection of lensing; our constraint on the galaxy bias derived from the galaxy-convergence cross-spectrum is $b_g=1.81\\pm 1.92$ ($1\\sigma$, statistical), as compared to the expected result of $b_g\\sim 1.7$ for this sample. We discuss possible instrument-related systematic errors and show that the Galactic foregrounds are not important. We do not find any evidence for point source or thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect contamination.
Kitov, Ivan; Sanina, Irina
2016-04-01
Using the waveform cross-correlation technique, we have re-estimated relative locations and magnitudes of 200 events detected by an array consisting of seven 3-C sensors. All these events were quarry blasts conducted at several local/regional mines, which were detected and identified in the course of regional seismotectonic monitoring. From all detected signals we selected those having the highest quality and created a set of three-component templates for further cross correlation study. By changing the length of correlation window and the frequency band of the templates we selected optimal parameters for robust estimates of cross correlation coefficients and relative amplitudes/magnitudes of all signals. The relative locations and magnitude estimates obtained by cross correlation are compared to those in the catalog created in standard interactive analysis.
Multifractal cross-correlations between crude oil and tanker freight rate
Chen, Feier; Miao, Yuqi; Tian, Kang; Ding, Xiaoxu; Li, Tingyi
2017-05-01
Analysis of crude oil price and tanker freight rate volatility attract more attention as the mechanism is not only the basis of industrialization but also a vital role in economics, especially after the year 2008 when financial crisis notably blew the maritime transportation. In this paper, we studied the cross-correlations between the West Texas International crude oil (WTI) and Baltic Exchange Dirty Tanker Index (BDTI) employing the Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (MF-DCCA). Empirical results show that the degree of short-term cross-correlation is higher than that in the long term and that the strength of multifractality after financial crisis is larger than that before. Moreover, the components of multifractal spectrum are quantified with the finite-size effect taken into consideration and an improved method in terms of constructing the surrogated time series provided. Numerical results show that the multifractality is generated mostly from the nonlinear and the fat-tailed probability distribution (PDF) part. Also, it is apparent that the PDF part changes a lot after the financial crisis. The research is contributory to risk management by providing various instructions for participants in shipping markets. Our main contribution is that we investigated both the multifractal features and the origin of multifractality and provided confirming evidence of multifractality through numerical results while applying quantitative analysis based on MF-DCCA; furthermore, the research is contributory to risk management since it provides instructions in both economic market and stock market simultaneously. However, constructing the surrogated series in order to obtain consistence seems less convincing which requires further discussion and attempts.
Method of Removing the Cross-correlation Noise for Dual-input and Dual-output SAR
Huang Ping-ping
2012-03-01
Full Text Available According to analysis of separating the mixed echo by suppressing the cross-correlation noise in dual-input and dual-output SAR system, a new method based on threshold filter and inverse filter was proposed. The method can eliminate the most energy of cross-correlation noise by threshold filter, which can suppress the cross-correlation noise well. The principle and implementation steps are presented in detail. The computer simulation and account for the integrated sidelobe ratio showed the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Xie Wen-Xian; Xu Wei; Cai Li
2007-01-01
This paper shows the Fokker-Planck equation of a dynamical system driven by coloured cross-correlated white noises in the absence and presence of a small external force. Based on the Fokker-Planck equation and the definition of Shannon's information entropy, the time dependence of entropy flux and entropy production can be calculated. The present results can be used to explain the extremal behaviour of time dependence of entropy flux and entropy production in view of the dissipative parameter γ of the system, coloured cross-correlation time τ and coloured cross-correlation strength λ.
Efficient focusing scheme for transverse velocity estimation using cross-correlation
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2001-01-01
The blood velocity can be estimated by cross-correlation of received RE signals, but only the velocity component along the beam direction is found. A previous paper showed that the complete velocity vector can be estimated, if received signals are focused along lines parallel to the direction...... simulations with Field II. A 64-elements, 5 MHz linear array was used. A parabolic velocity profile with a peak velocity of 0.5 m/s was considered for different angles between the flow and the ultrasound beam and for different emit foci. At 60 degrees the relative standard deviation was 0.58 % for a transmit...
The cross-correlation of signals and spatial impression in surround sound reproduction
无
2010-01-01
The relationship between the cross-correlation coefficients of feeding signals and auditory spatial impression(ASI) which are created by the left,right,left surround and right surround loudspeakers in 5.1 channel surround sound system is investigated by psychoacoustic experiments.The results show that for reproducing by the front left-right or left-right surround loudspeakers pair,the auditory source width(ASW) can be broadened by controlling the crosscorrelation coefficients of feeding signals to some e...
Cross-correlation of the CMB and foregrounds phases derived from the WMAP data
Naselsky, P D; Verkhodanov, O V
2004-01-01
We present circular and linear cross-correlation tests and the "friend-of-friend" analysis for phases of the Internal Linear Combination Map (ILC) and the WMAP foregrounds for all K--W frequency bands at the range of multipoles $\\ell\\le100$. We compare also Tegmark, de Oliveira-Costa and Hamilton (2003) and Naselsky et al. (2003) cleaned maps with corresponding foregrounds. We have found significant deviations from the expected Poissonian statistics for all the cleaned maps and foregrounds. Our analysis shows that, for a low multipole range of the cleaned maps, power spectra contains some of the foregrounds residuals mainly from the W band.
Superluminal neutrinos and quantum cross-correlation theory of neutrino source location
Rusov, V D; Tarasov, V A; Sharph, I V; Smolyar, V P; Zelentsova, T N; Merkotan, K K; Linnik, E P; Beglaryan, M E
2012-01-01
Based on the developed cross-correlation theory for remote location of neutrino source with two-detector setup for neutrino detection the modification of arrangement of the OPERA experiment is suggested. Within the framework of computing experiment based on the OPERA experimental data we show that the use of this theory makes it possible not only to determine with high accuracy the delay time between neutrino signals but to eliminate the errors of blind analysis by which all necessary time corrections for determination of signal "technologically unremovable" delay time between CERN and GSL are performed.
CHENG Qing-Hua; CAO Li; WANG Jun; WU Da-Jin
2004-01-01
We present an analytic investigation of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by studying a signal modulated model of a single-mode laser system driven by pump noise and quantum noise with correlated real and imaginary parts,and find there is a maximum in the curve of the dependence of SNR upon the cross-correlation coefficient λq between the real part and the imaginary part, i.e., stochastic resonance appears in the SNR vs. λq curve. Moreover, when the SNR is at the maximum, the cross-correlation coefficient λq = 0, which is coincidentally at the minimum of the mean normalized intensity fluctuation. The influences on stochastic resonance by the intensities of the pump and the quantum noise, the amplitude of the modulation signal, and the net gain of the laser are also studied. Furthermore, in order to ensure that the results obtained in this paper is reliable, the valid range for the linear approximation method is discussed.
CHENGQing-Hua; CAOLi; WANGJun; WUDa-Jin
2004-01-01
We present an analytic investigation of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by studying a signal modulated model of a single-mode laser system driven by pump noise and quantum noise with correlated real and imaginary parts,and find there is a maximum in the curve of the dependence of SNR upon the cross-correlation coefficient λq between the real part and the imaginary part, i.e., stochastic resonance appears in the SNR vs. λq curve. Moreover, when the SNR is at the maximum, the cross-correlation coefficient λq = O, which is coincidentally at the minimum of the mean normalized intensity fluctuation. The influences on stochastic resonance by the intensities of the pump and the quantum noise, the amplitude of the modulation signal, and the net gain of the laser are also studied. Furthermore, in order to ensure that the results obtained in this paper is reliable, the valid range for the linear approximation method is discussed.
Garrido, Nuno D; Silva, António J; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Barbosa, Tiago M; Costa, Aldo M; Marinho, Daniel A; Marques, Mário C
2012-06-01
The relationship between handgrip isometric strength and swimming performance was assessed in the four competitive swimming strokes in swimmers of different age groups and of both sexes. 78 national-level Portuguese swimmers (39 males, 39 females) were selected for this study. Grip strength, previously used as a marker of overall strength to predict future swimming performance, was measured using a hand dynamometer. The best competitive time at 100 and 200 m in all four swimming strokes were converted into 2010 FINA points. Non-parametric tests were used to evaluate differences between groups. Pearson product-moment correlations were computed to verify the association between variables. Handgrip maximum isometric strength was significantly correlated with swimming performance, particularly among female swimmers. Among female age group swimmers, the relationship between handgrip and 100-m freestyle was significant. Handgrip isometric strength seems to be related to swimming performance, especially to 100-m freestyle and in female swimmers. For all other distances and strokes, technique and training probably are more influential than semi-hereditary strength markers such as grip strength.
CMBR Weak Lensing and HI 21-cm Cross-correlation Angular Power Spectrum
Sarkar, Tapomoy Guha
2009-01-01
Weak gravitational lensing of the CMBR manifests as a secondary anisotropy in the temperature maps. The effect, quantified through the shear and convergence fields imprint the underlying large scale structure (LSS), geometry and evolution history of the Universe. It is hence perceived to be an important observational probe of cosmology. De-lensing the CMBR temperature maps is also crucial for detecting the gravitational wave generated B-modes. Future observations of redshifted 21-cm radiation from the cosmological neutral hydrogen (HI) distribution hold the potential of probing the LSS over a large redshift range. We have investigated the correlation between post-reionization HI signal and weak lensing convergence field. Assuming that the HI follows the dark matter distribution, the cross-correlation angular power spectrum at a multipole \\ell is found to be proportional to the cold dark matter power spectrum evaluated at \\ell/r, where r denotes the comoving distance to the redshift where the HI is located. Th...
Estimation of blood velocity vectors using transverse ultrasound beam focusing and cross-correlation
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Lacasa, Isabel Rodriguez
1999-01-01
Modern ultrasound scanners estimate the blood velocity by tracking the movement of the blood scatterers along the ultrasound beam. This is done by emitting pulsed ultrasound fields and finding the shift in position from pulse to pulse by correlating the received signals. Only the velocity component...... along the beam direction is found, and this is a serious limitation in the current scanners, since most blood vessels are parallel to the skin surface. A method to find the velocity across the vessel has been suggested by Bonnefous (1988). Here a number of parallel receive beams are measured and used...... or across it or in any direction to the beam. The focused lines, thus, follow the flow and a cross-correlation of lines from different pulses can find the movement of the blood particles between pulse emissions and, thus, the blood velocity. The new approach is investigated using the Field II simulation...
Network structure of cross-correlations among the world market indices
Eryiğit, Mehmet; Eryiğit, Resul
2009-09-01
We report the results of an investigation of the properties of the networks formed by the cross-correlations of the daily and weekly index changes of 143 stock market indices from 59 different countries. Analysis of the asset graphs, minimum spanning trees (MST) and planar maximally filtered graphs (PMFG) of the afermentioned networks confirms that globalization has been increasing in recent years. North American and European markets are observed to be much more strongly connected among themselves compared to the integration with the other geographical regions. Surprisingly, the integration of East Asian markets among themselves as well as to the Western markets is found to be rather weak. MST and PMFG of both daily and weekly return correlations indicates that the clustering of the indices is mostly geographical. The French fsbf250 index is found to be most important node of the MST and PMFG based on several graph centrality measures.
Fan, Xiaoqian; Yuan, Ying; Zhuang, Xintian; Jin, Xiu
2017-03-01
Taking Baidu Index as a proxy for abnormal investor attention (AIA), the long memory property in the AIA of Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE) 50 Index component stocks was empirically investigated using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method. The results show that abnormal investor attention is power-law correlated with Hurst exponents between 0.64 and 0.98. Furthermore, the cross-correlations between abnormal investor attention and trading volume, volatility respectively are studied using detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) and the DCCA cross-correlation coefficient (ρDCCA). The results suggest that there are positive correlations between AIA and trading volume, volatility respectively. In addition, the correlations for trading volume are in general higher than the ones for volatility. By carrying on rescaled range analysis (R/S) and rolling windows analysis, we find that the results mentioned above are effective and significant.
Charonko, John J.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.
2013-06-01
Numerous studies have established firmly that particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a robust method for non-invasive, quantitative measurements of fluid velocity, and that when carefully conducted, typical measurements can accurately detect displacements in digital images with a resolution well below a single pixel (in some cases well below a hundredth of a pixel). However, to date, these estimates have only been able to provide guidance on the expected error for an average measurement under specific image quality and flow conditions. This paper demonstrates a new method for estimating the uncertainty bounds to within a given confidence interval for a specific, individual measurement. Here, cross-correlation peak ratio, the ratio of primary to secondary peak height, is shown to correlate strongly with the range of observed error values for a given measurement, regardless of flow condition or image quality. This relationship is significantly stronger for phase-only generalized cross-correlation PIV processing, while the standard correlation approach showed weaker performance. Using an analytical model of the relationship derived from synthetic data sets, the uncertainty bounds at a 95% confidence interval are then computed for several artificial and experimental flow fields, and the resulting errors are shown to match closely to the predicted uncertainties. While this method stops short of being able to predict the true error for a given measurement, knowledge of the uncertainty level for a PIV experiment should provide great benefits when applying the results of PIV analysis to engineering design studies and computational fluid dynamics validation efforts. Moreover, this approach is exceptionally simple to implement and requires negligible additional computational cost.
Kristoufek, Ladislav
2015-06-01
We study power-law correlations properties of the Google search queries for Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) component stocks. Examining the daily data of the searched terms with a combination of the rescaled range and rescaled variance tests together with the detrended fluctuation analysis, we show that the searches are in fact power-law correlated with Hurst exponents between 0.8 and 1.1. The general interest in the DJIA stocks is thus strongly persistent. We further reinvestigate the cross-correlation structure between the searches, traded volume and volatility of the component stocks using the detrended cross-correlation and detrending moving-average cross-correlation coefficients. Contrary to the universal power-law correlations structure of the related Google searches, the results suggest that there is no universal relationship between the online search queries and the analyzed financial measures. Even though we confirm positive correlation for a majority of pairs, there are several pairs with insignificant or even negative correlations. In addition, the correlations vary quite strongly across scales.
Correlates of COPD and chronic bronchitis in nonsmokers: data from a cross-sectional study.
Waked, Mirna; Salame, Joseph; Khayat, Georges; Salameh, Pascale
2012-01-01
Our objective was to assess the prevalence of chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and their correlates among a Lebanese nonsmoker group. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2009 and September 2010, using a multistage cluster sample throughout Lebanon including Lebanese residents aged 40 years and above with no exclusion criteria. Pre- and postbronchodilator spirometry measurements were performed and carbon monoxide level was measured in exhaled air. COPD was defined and classified according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines or according to the lower limit of normal (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity postbronchodilator bronchitis was defined by the declaration of morning cough and expectorations for more than 3 months a year over more than 2 years in individuals with normal spirometry. Out of 2201 individuals, 732 were never-smokers: 25 (3.4%) of them had COPD, and 86 (11.75%) fulfilled the definition of chronic bronchitis. Correlates of COPD included a childhood respiratory disease, house heated by diesel, and older age. On the other hand, correlates of chronic bronchitis included childhood respiratory diseases, living in southern Lebanon versus other regions, heating home by gas, older age, number of smokers at work, and lower height. A substantial percentage of the nonsmoking population may exhibit chronic bronchitis or COPD. The significant correlates mentioned above should be taken into consideration in order to reduce the risk of developing such chronic and debilitating respiratory diseases.
Cross-correlation patterns in social opinion formation with sequential data
Chakrabarti, Anindya S.
2016-11-01
Recent research on large-scale internet data suggests existence of patterns in the collective behavior of billions of people even though each of them may pursue own activities. In this paper, we interpret online rating activity as a process of forming social opinion about individual items, where people sequentially choose a rating based on the current information set comprising all previous ratings and own preferences. We construct an opinion index from the sequence of ratings and we show that (1) movie-specific opinion converges much slower than an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) sequence of ratings, (2) rating sequence for individual movies shows lesser variation compared to an i.i.d. sequence of ratings, (3) the probability density function of the asymptotic opinions has more spread than that defined over opinion arising from i.i.d. sequence of ratings, (4) opinion sequences across movies are correlated with significantly higher and lower correlation compared to opinion constructed from i.i.d. sequence of ratings, creating a bimodal cross-correlation structure. By decomposing the temporal correlation structures from panel data of movie ratings, we show that the social effects are very prominent whereas group effects cannot be differentiated from those of surrogate data and individual effects are quite small. The former explains a large part of extreme positive or negative correlations between sequences of opinions. In general, this method can be applied to any rating data to extract social or group-specific effects in correlation structures. We conclude that in this particular case, social effects are important in opinion formation process.
S. Y. Ma
Full Text Available In this paper case studies of propagation characteristics of two TIDs are presented which are induced by atmospheric gravity waves in the auroral F-region on a magnetic quiet day. By means of maximum entropy cross-spectral analysis of EISCAT CP2 data, apparent full wave-number vectors of the TIDs are obtained as a function of height. The analysis results show that the two events considered can be classified as moderately large-scale TID and medium-scale TID, respectively. One exhibits a dominant period of about 72 min, a mean horizontal phase speed of about 180 m/s (corresponding to a horizontal wavelength of about 780 km directed south-eastwards and a vertical phase speed of 55 m/s for a height of about 300 km. The other example shows a dominant period of 44 min, a mean horizontal phase velocity of about 160 m/s (corresponding to a horizontal wavelength of about 420 km directed southwestwards, and a vertical phase velocity of about 50 m/s at 250 km altitude.
Key words. Ionosphere · Auroral ionosphere · Ionosphere-atmosphere interactions · Wave propagation
Méndez, Vicenç; Denisov, S I; Campos, Daniel; Horsthemke, Werner
2014-07-01
We derive the Fokker-Planck equation for multivariable Langevin equations with cross-correlated Gaussian white noises for an arbitrary interpretation of the stochastic differential equation. We formulate the conditions when the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation does not depend on which stochastic calculus is adopted. Further, we derive an equivalent multivariable Ito stochastic differential equation for each possible interpretation of the multivariable Langevin equation. To demonstrate the usefulness and significance of these general results, we consider the motion of Brownian particles. We study in detail the stability conditions for harmonic oscillators with two white noises, one of which is additive, random forcing, and the other, which accounts for fluctuations of either the damping or the spring coefficient, is multiplicative. We analyze the role of cross correlation in terms of the different noise interpretations and confirm the theoretical predictions via numerical simulations. We stress the interest of our results for numerical simulations of stochastic differential equations with an arbitrary interpretation of the stochastic integrals.
Time Reversal Mirrors and Cross Correlation Functions in Acoustic Wave Propagation
Fishman, Louis; Jonsson, B. Lars G.; de Hoop, Maarten V.
2009-03-01
In time reversal acoustics (TRA), a signal is recorded by an array of transducers, time reversed, and then retransmitted into the configuration. The retransmitted signal propagates back through the same medium and retrofocuses on the source that generated the signal. If the transducer array is a single, planar (flat) surface, then this configuration is referred to as a planar, one-sided, time reversal mirror (TRM). In signal processing, for example, in active-source seismic interferometry, the measurement of the wave field at two distinct receivers, generated by a common source, is considered. Cross correlating these two observations and integrating the result over the sources yield the cross correlation function (CCF). Adopting the TRM experiments as the basic starting point and identifying the kinematically correct correspondences, it is established that the associated CCF signal processing constructions follow in a specific, infinite recording time limit. This perspective also provides for a natural rationale for selecting the Green's function components in the TRM and CCF expressions. For a planar, one-sided, TRM experiment and the corresponding CCF signal processing construction, in a three-dimensional homogeneous medium, the exact expressions are explicitly calculated, and the connecting limiting relationship verified. Finally, the TRM and CCF results are understood in terms of the underlying, governing, two-way wave equation, its corresponding time reversal invariance (TRI) symmetry, and the absence of TRI symmetry in the associated one-way wave equations, highlighting the role played by the evanescent modal contributions.
A cross-correlation objective function for least-squares migration and visco-acoustic imaging
Dutta, Gaurav
2014-08-05
Conventional acoustic least-squares migration inverts for a reflectivity image that best matches the amplitudes of the observed data. However, for field data applications, it is not easy to match the recorded amplitudes because of the visco-elastic nature of the earth and inaccuracies in the estimation of source signature and strength at different shot locations. To relax the requirement for strong amplitude matching of least-squares migration, we use a normalized cross-correlation objective function that is only sensitive to the similarity between the predicted and the observed data. Such a normalized cross-correlation objective function is also equivalent to a time-domain phase inversion method where the main emphasis is only on matching the phase of the data rather than the amplitude. Numerical tests on synthetic and field data show that such an objective function can be used as an alternative to visco-acoustic least-squares reverse time migration (Qp-LSRTM) when there is strong attenuation in the subsurface and the estimation of the attenuation parameter Qp is insufficiently accurate.
Cross-correlation least-squares reverse time migration in the pseudo-time domain
Li, Qingyang; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhenchun
2017-08-01
The least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) method with higher image resolution and amplitude is becoming increasingly popular. However, the LSRTM is not widely used in field land data processing because of its sensitivity to the initial migration velocity model, large computational cost and mismatch of amplitudes between the synthetic and observed data. To overcome the shortcomings of the conventional LSRTM, we propose a cross-correlation least-squares reverse time migration algorithm in pseudo-time domain (PTCLSRTM). Our algorithm not only reduces the depth/velocity ambiguities, but also reduces the effect of velocity error on the imaging results. It relieves the accuracy requirements on the migration velocity model of least-squares migration (LSM). The pseudo-time domain algorithm eliminates the irregular wavelength sampling in the vertical direction, thus it can reduce the vertical grid points and memory requirements used during computation, which makes our method more computationally efficient than the standard implementation. Besides, for field data applications, matching the recorded amplitudes is a very difficult task because of the viscoelastic nature of the Earth and inaccuracies in the estimation of the source wavelet. To relax the requirement for strong amplitude matching of LSM, we extend the normalized cross-correlation objective function to the pseudo-time domain. Our method is only sensitive to the similarity between the predicted and the observed data. Numerical tests on synthetic and land field data confirm the effectiveness of our method and its adaptability for complex models.
Microevent Detection Based on Waveform Cross-correlation in the Dogye Mining Area, Korea
Son, M.; Shin, J. S.; Kim, G.
2015-12-01
We have studied induced seismicity associated with Dogye coal mine located in the eastern part of Korea. From May 2009 to March 2014, 222 events that occurred at the mining area were reported in our catalog with local magnitudes ranging from 0.6 to 2.4. For 67 events we can observe that the epicenters relocated by the double difference technique with Lg waveform cross-correlation image location of the six clusters classified according to waveform similarity. On May 2014 a broadband seismometer is installed in the mine office to understand seismicity of the mining area. We cross-correlate continuous data of the installed station recorded from May 2014 to April 2015 with a comb-like waveform observed regularly. The comb-like waveform with length of 30 to 60 minutes is a signal train composed of a blast every 30 seconds. We consider the comb-like signal related directly to mining activity from the fact that the signal train appears averagely four times a day on weekdays with its monotonic amplitude. Besides the comb-like signal, events with an irregular occurrence time and amplitude is detected from the one-year continuous record of the installed station. We suggests that most of the undefined events are formed from fracturing in response to stress-perturbation on an active mining face or represent slip in existing shear zones such as a fault or dike.
Nonclassical cross-correlations of transmitted and fluorescent fields in cavity QED systems
Leach, J [Department of Physics, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45013 (United States); Strimbu, C Elliot [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Rice, P R [Department of Physics, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45013 (United States)
2004-08-01
We investigate intensity cross-correlation functions for two cavity QED systems. These are a driven optical cavity containing a single two-level atom interacting with a single mode of the cavity field with quantized centre of mass motion, and a two-level atom in an optical parametric oscillator. We find analytic results in the weak driving field limit using quantum trajectory theory. We find large violations of inequalities that must be satisfied by classical fields. One of these inequalities is well known, g{sup 2}{sub ij}({tau}) {<=} {radical}g{sup 2}{sub ii}(0)g{sup 2}{sub jj}(0), where i and j denote two modes of the field. We also derive a new inequality that cross-correlations must satisfy, vertical bar g{sup 2}{sub ij}({tau})-1 vertical bar{sup 2} {<=} vertical bar (g{sup 2}{sub ii}(0)-1)(g{sup 2}{sub jj}(0)-1) vertical bar. Large violations of classical inequalities and asymmetrical behaviour in delay time {tau} are found in complimentary regimes for the cavity QED system with quantized centre of mass motion. They always exist for the two-level atom inside an optical parametric oscillator.
Quasar-Lyman $\\alpha$ Forest Cross-Correlation from BOSS DR11 : Baryon Acoustic Oscillations
Font-Ribera, Andreu; Busca, Nicolas; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Ross, Nicholas P; Slosar, Anže; Aubourg, Éric; Bailey, Stephen; Bhardwaj, Vaishali; Bautista, Julian; Beutler, Florian; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blomqvist, Michael; Brewington, Howard; Brinkmann, Jon; Brownstein, Joel R; Carithers, Bill; Dawson, Kyle S; Delubac, Timothée; Ebelke, Garrett; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Ge, Jian; Kinemuchi, Karen; Lee, Khee-Gan; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Marchante, Moses; Margala, Daniel; Muna, Demitri; Myers, Adam D; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Oravetz, Daniel; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pâris, Isabelle; Petitjean, Patrick; Pieri, Matthew M; Rossi, Graziano; Schneider, Donald P; Simmons, Audrey; Viel, Matteo; Yeche, Christophe; York, Donald G
2013-01-01
We measure the large-scale cross-correlation of quasars with the Lyman alpha forest absorption, using over 164,000 quasars from Data Release 11 of the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We extend the previous study of roughly 60,000 quasars from Data Release 9 to larger separations, allowing a measurement of the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) scale along the line of sight $c/(H(z=2.36) ~ r_s) = 9.0 \\pm 0.3$ and across the line of sight $D_A(z=2.36)~ / ~ r_s = 10.8 \\pm 0.4$, consistent with CMB and other BAO data. Using the best fit value of the sound horizon from Planck data ($r_s=147.49 Mpc$), we can translate these results to a measurement of the Hubble parameter of $H(z=2.36) = 226 \\pm 8 km/s$ and of the angular diameter distance of $D_A(z=2.36) = 1590 \\pm 60 Mpc$. The measured cross-correlation function and an update of the code to fit the BAO scale (baofit) are made publicly available.
Daniella Tambasco-Talhari
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Several studies have investigated the relationship between heterozygosity, genetic distance and production traits. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the degree of heterozygosity and genetic distance on growth, carcass and reproductive related features in F1 bovine crosses. We tested 10 polymorphic markers in 330 purebred cattle (Nelore, Canchim, Aberdeen Angus and Simental and 256 crossbred cattle belonging to four crossbred groups. Individual heterozygosities (Hi and multilocus genetic similarity (Dm were estimated and used in correlation analysis against individual phenotypic measurements. Significant (p < 0.05 Hi effects occurred for birth weight, 15 to 18 month weight, hot carcass weight and longissimus rib eye area. The extent to which increased heterozygosity (deltaH in F1 crosses can be predicted from the genetic distance of parental breeds was also investigated using Nei's standard genetic distance (Ds and standard heterozygosity (Hs. High correlations were found between deltaHi, deltaHs and the Ds of the parental breeds. Our results suggest that heterozygosity of the ten molecular markers used in this study may affect live weight during at least one growth phase. Parental genetic distance was a suitable predictor of the degree of progeny heterozygosity.
The cross-correlation between 3d cosmic shear and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect
Zieser, Britta
2016-01-01
We present the first calculation of the cross-correlation between three-dimensional cosmic shear and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (iSW) effect. Both signals are combined in a single formalism, which permits the computation of the full covariance matrix. In order to avoid the uncertainties presented by the non-linear evolution of the matter power spectrum and intrinsic alignments of galaxies, our analysis is restricted to large scales, i.e. multipoles below l=1000. We demonstrate in a Fisher analysis that this reduction compared to other studies of three-dimensional weak lensing extending to smaller scales is compensated by the information that is gained if the additional iSW signal and in particular its cross-correlation with lensing data are considered. Given the observational standards of upcoming weak lensing surveys like Euclid, marginal errors on cosmological parameters decrease by ten per cent compared to a cosmic shear experiment if both types of information are combined without a CMB prior. Once the con...
Development of OCDMA system based on Flexible Cross Correlation (FCC) code with OFDM modulation
Aldhaibani, A. O.; Aljunid, S. A.; Anuar, M. S.; Arief, A. R.; Rashidi, C. B. M.
2015-03-01
The performance of the OCDMA systems is governed by numerous quantitative parameters such as the data rate, simultaneous number of users, the powers of transmitter and receiver, and the type of codes. This paper analyzes the performance of the OCDMA system using OFDM technique to enhance the channel data rate, to save power and increase the number of user of OSCDMA systems compared with previous hybrid subcarrier multiplexing/optical spectrum code division multiplexing (SCM/OSCDM) system. The average received signal to noise ratio (SNR) with the nonlinearity of subcarriers is derived. The theoretical results have been evaluated based on BER and number of users as well as amount of power saved. The proposed system gave better performance and save around -6 dBm of the power as well as increase the number of users twice compare to SCM/OCDMA system. In addition it is robust against interference and much more spectrally efficient than SCM/OCDMA system. The system was designed based on Flexible Cross Correlation (FCC) code which is easier construction, less complexity of encoder/decoder design and flexible in-phase cross-correlation for uncomplicated to implement using Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) for the OCDMA systems for any number of users and weights. The OCDMA-FCC_OFDM improves the number of users (cardinality) 108% compare to SCM/ODCMA-FCC system.
Sherwin, Blake D; Das, Sudeep; Haijian, Amir; Addison, Graeme; Bond, Richard; Crichton, Devin; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunkley, Joanna; Gralla, Megan B.; Halpern, Mark;
2012-01-01
We measure the cross-correlation of Atacama cosmology telescope cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing convergence maps with quasar maps made from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR8 SDSS-XDQSO photometric catalog. The CMB lensing quasar cross-power spectrum is detected for the first time at a significance of 3.8 sigma, which directly confirms that the quasar distribution traces the mass distribution at high redshifts z > 1. Our detection passes a number of null tests and systematic checks. Using this cross-power spectrum, we measure the amplitude of the linear quasar bias assuming a template for its redshift dependence, and find the amplitude to be consistent with an earlier measurement from clustering; at redshift z ap 1.4, the peak of the distribution of quasars in our maps, our measurement corresponds to a bias of b = 2.5 +/- 0.6. With the signal-to-noise ratio on CMB lensing measurements likely to improve by an order of magnitude over the next few years, our results demonstrate the potential of CMB lensing crosscorrelations to probe astrophysics at high redshifts.
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: measuring radio galaxy bias through cross-correlation with lensing
Allison, Rupert; Sherwin, Blake D; de Bernardis, Francesco; Bond, J Richard; Calabrese, Erminia; Devlin, Mark J; Dunkley, Joanna; Gallardo, Patricio; Henderson, Shawn; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renee; Jarvis, Matt; Kosowsky, Arthur; Louis, Thibaut; Madhavacheril, Mathew; McMahon, Jeff; Moodley, Kavilan; Naess, Sigurd; Newburgh, Laura; Niemack, Michael D; Page, Lyman A; Partridge, Bruce; Sehgal, Neelima; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; van Engelen, Alexander; Wollack, Edward J
2015-01-01
We correlate the positions of radio galaxies in the FIRST survey with the CMB lensing convergence estimated from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope over 470 square degrees to determine the bias of these galaxies. We remove optically cross-matched sources below redshift $z=0.2$ to preferentially select Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). We measure the angular cross-power spectrum $C_l^{\\kappa g}$ at $4.4\\sigma$ significance in the multipole range $100
Pre-processing ambient noise cross-correlations with equalizing the covariance matrix eigenspectrum
Seydoux, Léonard; de Rosny, Julien; Shapiro, Nikolai M.
2017-09-01
Passive imaging techniques from ambient seismic noise requires a nearly isotropic distribution of the noise sources in order to ensure reliable traveltime measurements between seismic stations. However, real ambient seismic noise often partially fulfils this condition. It is generated in preferential areas (in deep ocean or near continental shores), and some highly coherent pulse-like signals may be present in the data such as those generated by earthquakes. Several pre-processing techniques have been developed in order to attenuate the directional and deterministic behaviour of this real ambient noise. Most of them are applied to individual seismograms before cross-correlation computation. The most widely used techniques are the spectral whitening and temporal smoothing of the individual seismic traces. We here propose an additional pre-processing to be used together with the classical ones, which is based on the spatial analysis of the seismic wavefield. We compute the cross-spectra between all available stations pairs in spectral domain, leading to the data covariance matrix. We apply a one-bit normalization to the covariance matrix eigenspectrum before extracting the cross-correlations in the time domain. The efficiency of the method is shown with several numerical tests. We apply the method to the data collected by the USArray, when the M8.8 Maule earthquake occurred on 2010 February 27. The method shows a clear improvement compared with the classical equalization to attenuate the highly energetic and coherent waves incoming from the earthquake, and allows to perform reliable traveltime measurement even in the presence of the earthquake.
Big Data solution for CTBT monitoring: CEA-IDC joint global cross correlation project
Bobrov, Dmitry; Bell, Randy; Brachet, Nicolas; Gaillard, Pierre; Kitov, Ivan; Rozhkov, Mikhail
2014-05-01
Waveform cross-correlation when applied to historical datasets of seismic records provides dramatic improvements in detection, location, and magnitude estimation of natural and manmade seismic events. With correlation techniques, the amplitude threshold of signal detection can be reduced globally by a factor of 2 to 3 relative to currently standard beamforming and STA/LTA detector. The gain in sensitivity corresponds to a body wave magnitude reduction by 0.3 to 0.4 units and doubles the number of events meeting high quality requirements (e.g. detected by three and more seismic stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). This gain is crucial for seismic monitoring under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The International Data Centre (IDC) dataset includes more than 450,000 seismic events, tens of millions of raw detections and continuous seismic data from the primary IMS stations since 2000. This high-quality dataset is a natural candidate for an extensive cross correlation study and the basis of further enhancements in monitoring capabilities. Without this historical dataset recorded by the permanent IMS Seismic Network any improvements would not be feasible. However, due to the mismatch between the volume of data and the performance of the standard Information Technology infrastructure, it becomes impossible to process all the data within tolerable elapsed time. To tackle this problem known as "BigData", the CEA/DASE is part of the French project "DataScale". One objective is to reanalyze 10 years of waveform data from the IMS network with the cross-correlation technique thanks to a dedicated High Performance Computer (HPC) infrastructure operated by the Centre de Calcul Recherche et Technologie (CCRT) at the CEA of Bruyères-le-Châtel. Within 2 years we are planning to enhance detection and phase association algorithms (also using machine learning and automatic classification) and process about 30 terabytes of data provided by the IDC to
Eckert, S., E-mail: sebastian.eckert@helmholtz-berlin.de, E-mail: martin.beye@helmholtz-berlin.de; Beye, M., E-mail: sebastian.eckert@helmholtz-berlin.de, E-mail: martin.beye@helmholtz-berlin.de; Pietzsch, A.; Quevedo, W.; Hantschmann, M. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation in Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Ochmann, M.; Huse, N. [Institute for Nanostructure and Solid State Physics, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstr. 11, 20355 Hamburg, Germany and Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Ross, M.; Khalil, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 351700, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Minitti, M. P.; Turner, J. J.; Moeller, S. P.; Schlotter, W. F.; Dakovski, G. L. [LCLS, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Föhlisch, A. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation in Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut für Physik und Astronomie, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24/25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)
2015-02-09
The discovery of ultrafast X-ray induced optical reflectivity changes enabled the development of X-ray/optical cross correlation techniques at X-ray free electron lasers worldwide. We have now linked through experiment and theory the fundamental excitation and relaxation steps with the transient optical properties in finite solid samples. Therefore, we gain a thorough interpretation and an optimized detection scheme of X-ray induced changes to the refractive index and the X-ray/optical cross correlation response.
Nollens, Hendrik H; Ruiz, Carolina; Walsh, Michael T; Gulland, Frances M D; Bossart, Gregory; Jensen, Eric D; McBain, James F; Wellehan, James F X
2008-10-01
Growing morphological and molecular evidence indicates that the porpoises, dolphins, and whales evolved within the even-toed ungulates, formerly known as Artiodactyla. These animals are now grouped in the Cetartiodactyla. We evaluated the antigenic similarity of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecules of 15 cetacean species and the domestic cow. The similarity was scored using three distinct antibodies raised against bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) IgG in a Western blot, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a competitive ELISA format. A score was generated for the genetic distance between each species and T. truncatus using the cytochrome b sequence. Each antibody displayed a distinct pattern of reactivity with the IgG antibodies of the various species. The monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific for the gamma heavy chain of T. truncatus was reactive with all monodontids, delphinids, and phocoenids. The light-chain-specific MAb reacted with IgG of delphinoid and phocoenid species and one of the two mysticete species tested. The polyclonal antibody was broadly cross-reactive across all cetaceans and the domestic cow. Using the MAb specific for the gamma heavy chain, the degree of IgG cross-reactivity ranged from less than 17% for the mysticetes to 106% for killer whale Orcinus orca. The IgG in beaked whale and baleen whale sera was significantly less cross-reactive with bottlenose dolphin IgG than sera from other toothed whales. A strong negative correlation was demonstrated between antigenic cross-reactivity of IgG molecules and the genetic distance of their hosts. The data generated will be useful for the development of clinical serodiagnostics in diverse cetacean species.
Mooney, Walter D.; Ritsema, Jeroen; Hwang, Yong Keun
2012-01-01
A joint analysis of global seismicity and seismic tomography indicates that the seismic potential of continental intraplate regions is correlated with the seismic properties of the lithosphere. Archean and Early Proterozoic cratons with cold, stable continental lithospheric roots have fewer crustal earthquakes and a lower maximum earthquake catalog moment magnitude (Mcmax). The geographic distribution of thick lithospheric roots is inferred from the global seismic model S40RTS that displays shear-velocity perturbations (δVS) relative to the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM). We compare δVS at a depth of 175 km with the locations and moment magnitudes (Mw) of intraplate earthquakes in the crust (Schulte and Mooney, 2005). Many intraplate earthquakes concentrate around the pronounced lateral gradients in lithospheric thickness that surround the cratons and few earthquakes occur within cratonic interiors. Globally, 27% of stable continental lithosphere is underlain by δVS≥3.0%, yet only 6.5% of crustal earthquakes with Mw>4.5 occur above these regions with thick lithosphere. No earthquakes in our catalog with Mw>6 have occurred above mantle lithosphere with δVS>3.5%, although such lithosphere comprises 19% of stable continental regions. Thus, for cratonic interiors with seismically determined thick lithosphere (1) there is a significant decrease in the number of crustal earthquakes, and (2) the maximum moment magnitude found in the earthquake catalog is Mcmax=6.0. We attribute these observations to higher lithospheric strength beneath cratonic interiors due to lower temperatures and dehydration in both the lower crust and the highly depleted lithospheric root.
Gang-Jin Wang
2013-05-01
Full Text Available We investigate the statistical properties of the foreign exchange (FX network at different time scales by two approaches, namely the methods of detrended cross-correlation coefficient (DCCA coefficient and minimum spanning tree (MST. The daily FX rates of 44 major currencies in the period of 2007–2012 are chosen as the empirical data. Based on the analysis of statistical properties of cross-correlation coefficients, we find that the cross-correlation coefficients of the FX market are fat-tailed. By examining three MSTs at three special time scales (i.e., the minimum, medium, and maximum scales, we come to some conclusions: USD and EUR are confirmed as the predominant world currencies; the Middle East cluster is very stable while the Asian cluster and the Latin America cluster are not stable in the MSTs; the Commonwealth cluster is also found in the MSTs. By studying four evaluation criteria, we find that the MSTs of the FX market present diverse topological and statistical properties at different time scales. The scale-free behavior is observed in the FX network at most of time scales. We also find that most of links in the FX network survive from one time scale to the next.
Timashev, Serge F.; Panischev, Oleg Yu.; Polyakov, Yuriy S.; Demin, Sergey A.; Kaplan, Alexander Ya.
2012-02-01
We apply flicker-noise spectroscopy (FNS), a time series analysis method operating on structure functions and power spectrum estimates, to study the clinical electroencephalogram (EEG) signals recorded in children/adolescents (11 to 14 years of age) with diagnosed schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms at the National Center for Psychiatric Health (NCPH) of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. The EEG signals for these subjects were compared with the signals for a control sample of chronically depressed children/adolescents. The purpose of the study is to look for diagnostic signs of subjects' susceptibility to schizophrenia in the FNS parameters for specific electrodes and cross-correlations between the signals simultaneously measured at different points on the scalp. Our analysis of EEG signals from scalp-mounted electrodes at locations F3 and F4, which are symmetrically positioned in the left and right frontal areas of cerebral cortex, respectively, demonstrates an essential role of frequency-phase synchronization, a phenomenon representing specific correlations between the characteristic frequencies and phases of excitations in the brain. We introduce quantitative measures of frequency-phase synchronization and systematize the values of FNS parameters for the EEG data. The comparison of our results with the medical diagnoses for 84 subjects performed at NCPH makes it possible to group the EEG signals into 4 categories corresponding to different risk levels of subjects' susceptibility to schizophrenia. We suggest that the introduced quantitative characteristics and classification of cross-correlations may be used for the diagnosis of schizophrenia at the early stages of its development.
Cross-correlating the γ-ray Sky with Catalogs of Galaxy Clusters
Branchini, Enzo; Camera, Stefano; Cuoco, Alessandro; Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco; Viel, Matteo; Xia, Jun-Qing
2017-01-01
We report the detection of a cross-correlation signal between Fermi Large Area Telescope diffuse γ-ray maps and catalogs of clusters. In our analysis, we considered three different catalogs: WHL12, redMaPPer, and PlanckSZ. They all show a positive correlation with different amplitudes, related to the average mass of the objects in each catalog, which also sets the catalog bias. The signal detection is confirmed by the results of a stacking analysis. The cross-correlation signal extends to rather large angular scales, around 1°, that correspond, at the typical redshift of the clusters in these catalogs, to a few to tens of megaparsecs, i.e., the typical scale-length of the large-scale structures in the universe. Most likely this signal is contributed by the cumulative emission from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) associated with the filamentary structures that converge toward the high peaks of the matter density field in which galaxy clusters reside. In addition, our analysis reveals the presence of a second component, more compact in size and compatible with a point-like emission from within individual clusters. At present, we cannot distinguish between the two most likely interpretations for such a signal, i.e., whether it is produced by AGNs inside clusters or if it is a diffuse γ-ray emission from the intracluster medium. We argue that this latter, intriguing, hypothesis might be tested by applying this technique to a low-redshift large-mass cluster sample.
Cross-cultural correlations of childhood growth and adult breast cancer.
Micozzi, M S
1987-08-01
International differences in breast cancer incidence and mortality, and studies on Japanese migrants to the United States, point to the importance of environmental factors, including diet and nutrition, in the etiology of breast cancer. Some studies have suggested that dietary patterns in early life are important to the long-term risk of breast cancer. Given that human growth is partially a function of early dietary intake, cross-cultural correlations between breast cancer rates and anthropometric variables measured at different times in childhood provide additional information about the association of early nutrition and cancer. In this study, the associations between food consumption and anthropometric variables, and childhood growth patterns (attained size at age) and adult breast cancer rates, were considered. Data from cross-sectional growth studies conducted during the years 1956-1971 on children aged 6-18 years were obtained for age-specific stature, sitting height, weight, triceps skinfold thickness, arm and chest circumferences, and biacromial and biiliac diameters. National food consumption data were obtained from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and socioeconomic status indicators from the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). Cancer incidence data for the years 1972-1977 were obtained from regional cancer registries reported by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and mortality data for 1978 were obtained from national cancer registries around the world. Significant correlations were seen between national food consumption data and childhood growth (attained size at age); between cancer incidence and age-specific stature (r = 0.68), weight (r = 0.59), triceps skinfold thickness (r = 0.78), and biacromial width (r = 0.84); and between mortality and age-specific stature (r = 0.77), weight (r = 0.75), and biacromial width (r = 0.78). In general, the correlation coefficients of the observed anthropometric
Tilmann H. Sander
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Neuronal and vascular responses due to finger movements were synchronously measured using dc-magnetoencephalography (dcMEG and time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (trNIRS. The finger movements were monitored with electromyography (EMG. Cortical responses related to the finger movement sequence were extracted by independent component analysis from both the dcMEG and the trNIRS data. The temporal relations between EMG rate, dcMEG, and trNIRS responses were assessed pairwise using the cross-correlation function (CCF, which does not require epoch averaging. A positive lag on a scale of seconds was found for the maximum of the CCF between dcMEG and trNIRS. A zero lag is observed for the CCF between dcMEG and EMG. Additionally this CCF exhibits oscillations at the frequency of individual finger movements. These findings show that the dcMEG with a bandwidth up to 8 Hz records both slow and faster neuronal responses, whereas the vascular response is confirmed to change on a scale of seconds.
Colunga, Eliana; Smith, Linda B; Gasser, Michael
2009-10-01
The ontological distinction between discrete individuated objects and continuous substances, and the way this distinction is expressed in different languages has been a fertile area for examining the relation between language and thought. In this paper we combine simulations and a cross-linguistic word learning task as a way to gain insight into the nature of the learning mechanisms involved in word learning. First, we look at the effect of the different correlational structures on novel generalizations with two kinds of learning tasks implemented in neural networks-prediction and correlation. Second, we look at English- and Spanish-speaking 2-3-year-olds' novel noun generalizations, and find that count/mass syntax has a stronger effect on Spanish- than on English-speaking children's novel noun generalizations, consistent with the predicting networks. The results suggest that it is not just the correlational structure of different linguistic cues that will determine how they are learned, but the specific learning mechanism and task in which they are involved.
Song, Ho Chun; Choi, In Sung; Heo, Young Jun; Min, Jeong Jun; Lee, Sam Gyu; Bom, Hee Seung [School of Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)
2004-07-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and to study the relationship between CCD and the severity and prognosis of stroke. Twenty-eight patients with first-ever unilateral stroke underwent brain perfusion SPECT with Tc-99m ECD. The existence of CCD was evaluated by visual inspection on SPECT images. The central motor conduction times were obtained from Abductor pollicis brevis and Abductor hallucis by recording MEPs. The National Institutes of Health stroke scale, the motricity Index (MI), and the functional outcome scales were measured. Fifteen of 28 patients (53.6%) had CCD. The presence of CCD was significantly correlated with 'not evoked' MEPs in the upper extremity (p<0.01). The existence of CCD was not associated with locations (p>0.05) and volume of brain lesion (p>0.05). There was a significant correlation between the presence of CCD and lower MI score of upper extremity (p<0.05). The presence of CCD would indicate the damage on the descending motor pathways and be associated with the severe motor impairment of the upper extremity in stroke patients.
A cross-correlation method to search for gravitational wave bursts with AURIGA and Virgo
Bignotto, M; Cerdonio, M; Conti, L; Drago, M; Liguori, N [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Bonaldi, M; Falferi, P; Vinante, A [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CNR-Fondazione Bruno Kessler, I-38050 Povo (Trento) (Italy); Camarda, M [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica, Universita di Padova, Via G. Gradenigo 6a, 35131 Padova (Italy); Longo, S; Ortolan, A [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Mezzena, R; Mion, A; Prodi, G A; Re, V; Salemi, F; Vitale, S [INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Sezione di Padova, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Taffarello, L; Vedovato, G; Zendri, J P [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)], E-mail: virginia.re@lnl.infn.it (and others)
2008-06-07
We present a method to search for transient gravitational waves using a network of detectors with different spectral and directional sensitivities: the interferometer Virgo and the bar detector AURIGA. The data analysis method is based on the measurements of the correlated energy in the network by means of a weighted cross-correlation. To limit the computational load, this coherent analysis step is performed around time-frequency coincident triggers selected by an excess power event trigger generator tuned at low thresholds. The final selection of gravitational wave candidates is performed by a combined cut on the correlated energy and on the significance as measured by the event trigger generator. The method has been tested on one day of data of AURIGA and Virgo during September 2005. The outcomes are compared to the results of a stand-alone time-frequency coincidence search. We discuss the advantages and the limits of this approach, in view of a possible future joint search between AURIGA and one interferometric detector.
Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jun
2017-09-01
In attempt to reproduce price dynamics of financial markets, a stochastic agent-based financial price model is proposed and investigated by stochastic exclusion process. The exclusion process, one of interacting particle systems, is usually thought of as modeling particle motion (with the conserved number of particles) in a continuous time Markov process. In this work, the process is utilized to imitate the trading interactions among the investing agents, in order to explain some stylized facts found in financial time series dynamics. To better understand the correlation behaviors of the proposed model, a new time-dependent intrinsic detrended cross-correlation (TDI-DCC) is introduced and performed, also, the autocorrelation analyses are applied in the empirical research. Furthermore, to verify the rationality of the financial price model, the actual return series are also considered to be comparatively studied with the simulation ones. The comparison results of return behaviors reveal that this financial price dynamics model can reproduce some correlation features of actual stock markets.
A Cross-correlation method to search for gravitational wave bursts with AURIGA and Virgo
Bignotto, M; Camarda, M; Cerdonio, M; Conti, L; Drago, M; Falferi, P; Liguori, N; Longo, S; Mezzena, R; Mion, A; Ortolan, A; Prodi, G A; Re, V; Salemi, F; Taffarello, L; Vedovato, G; Vinante, A; Vitale, S; Zendri, J P; Acernese, F; Alshourbagy, M; Amico, P; Antonucci, F; Aoudia, S; Astone, P; Avino, S; Baggio, L; Ballardin, G; Barone, F; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Bauer, T S; Bigotta, S; Birindelli, S; Boccara, C; Bondu, F; Bosi, L; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Brillet, A; Brisson, V; Buskulic, D; Cagnoli, G; Calloni, E; Campagna, E; Carbognani, F; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cesarini, E; Chassande-Mottin, E; Clapson, A C; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Corda, C; Corsi, A; Cottone, F; Coulon, J P; Cuoco, E; D'Antonio, S; Dari, A; Dattilo, V; Davier, M; De Rosa, R; Del Prete, M; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Paolo Emilio, M; Di Virgilio, A; Evans, M; Fafone, V; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Flaminio, R; Fournier, J D; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Gammaitoni, L; Garufi, F; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Giazotto, A; Giordano, L; Granata, V; Greverie, C; Grosjean, D; Guidi, G; Hamdani, S; Hebri, S; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Huet, D; Kreckelbergh, S; La Penna, P; Laval, M
2008-01-01
We present a method to search for transient GWs using a network of detectors with different spectral and directional sensitivities: the interferometer Virgo and the bar detector AURIGA. The data analysis method is based on the measurements of the correlated energy in the network by means of a weighted cross-correlation. To limit the computational load, this coherent analysis step is performed around time-frequency coincident triggers selected by an excess power event trigger generator tuned at low thresholds. The final selection of GW candidates is performed by a combined cut on the correlated energy and on the significance as measured by the event trigger generator. The method has been tested on one day of data of AURIGA and Virgo during September 2005. The outcomes are compared to the results of a stand-alone time-frequency coincidence search. We discuss the advantages and the limits of this approach, in view of a possible future joint search between AURIGA and one interferometric detector.
Natarajan, Aravind; Trac, Hy; Pen, Ue Li; Loeb, Abraham
2012-01-01
We investigate the effect of patchy reionization on the cosmic microwave background temperature. An anisotropic optical depth tau (theta) alters the TT power spectrum on small scales l > 2000. We make use of the correlation between the matter density and the reionization redshift fields to construct full sky maps of tau(theta). Patchy reionization transfers CMB power from large scales to small scales, resulting in a non-zero cross correlation between large and small angular scales. We show that the patchy tau correlator is sensitive to small root mean square values tau_rms ~ 0.003 seen in our maps. We include other secondary anisotropies such as CMB lensing, kinetic and thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich terms, as well as the infrared and point source background, and show that patchy reionization may be detected in the low frequency channels ~ 90 GHz, particularly for extended reionization histories. If frequency dependent secondaries can be minimized by a multi-frequency analysis, we show that even small degrees of ...
Experimental Study of the Convergence of Two-Point Cross-Correlation Toward the Green's Function
Gouedard, P.; Roux, P.; Campillo, M.; Verdel, A.; Campman, X.
2007-12-01
It has been shown theoretically by several authors that cross-correlation of the seismic motion recorded at two points could yield the Green's Function (GF) between these points. Convergence of cross-correlations toward the GF depends on sources positions and/or the nature of the wavefield. Direct waves from an even distribution of sources can be used to retrieve the GF. On the other hand, in an inhomogeneous medium, recording the diffuse field (coda) is theoretically sufficient to retrieve the GF whatever the sources distribution is. Since none of these two conditions (even distribution of sources or a perfectly diffuse field) is satisfied in practice, the question of convergence toward the GF has to be investigated with real data. A 3D exploration survey with sources and receivers on a dense grid offers such an opportunity. We used a high- resolution survey recorded by Petroleum Development Oman in North Oman. The data have been obtained in a 1x1~km area covered with 1600 geophones located on a 25x25~m-cell grid. Records are 4-seconds long. A unique feature of this survey is that vibrators (working in the [8-120~Hz] frequency band), were located on a similar grid shifted with respect to the receiver grid by half a cell (12.5~m) in both directions. This allows us to compare estimated GF's with measured direct waves (GF's) between the geophones. The shallow subsurface is highly heterogeneous and records include seismic coda. From this dataset, we selected two receiver locations (Ra and Rb) distant from d=158~m. We used both different sets of source locations and time windows to compute the cross-correlation between these two receivers. Then we compared the derivatives of correlation functions with the actual GF measured in Rb (resp.~Ra) for a source close to Ra (resp.~Rb). By doing so, we show the actual influence of source locations and scattering (governed by the records' selected time window) on the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of the reconstructed GF. When using
Reimus, P. W.
2010-12-01
A process-oriented modeling approach is implemented to examine the importance of parameter variances, correlation lengths, and especially cross-correlations in contaminant transport predictions over large scales. It is shown that the most important consideration is the correlation between flow rates and retardation processes (e.g., sorption, matrix diffusion) in the system. If flow rates are negatively correlated with retardation factors in systems containing multiple flow pathways, then characterizing these negative correlation(s) may have more impact on reactive transport modeling than microscale information. Such negative correlations are expected in porous-media systems where permeability is negatively correlated with clay content and rock alteration (which are usually associated with increased sorption). Likewise, negative correlations are expected in fractured rocks where permeability is positively correlated with fracture apertures, which in turn are negatively correlated with sorption and matrix diffusion. Parameter variances and correlation lengths are also shown to have important effects on reactive transport predictions, but they are less important than parameter cross-correlations. Microscale information pertaining to contaminant transport has become more readily available as characterization methods and spectroscopic instrumentation have achieved lower detection limits, greater resolution, and better precision. Obtaining detailed mechanistic insights into contaminant-rock-water interactions is becoming a routine practice in characterizing reactive transport processes in groundwater systems (almost necessary for high-profile publications). Unfortunately, a quantitative link between microscale information and flow and transport parameter distributions or cross-correlations has not yet been established. One reason for this is that quantitative microscale information is difficult to obtain in complex, heterogeneous systems, so simple systems that lack the
Kinkhabwala, Ali
2013-01-01
The most fundamental problem in statistics is the inference of an unknown probability distribution from a finite number of samples. For a specific observed data set, answers to the following questions would be desirable: (1) Estimation: Which candidate distribution provides the best fit to the observed data?, (2) Goodness-of-fit: How concordant is this distribution with the observed data?, and (3) Uncertainty: How concordant are other candidate distributions with the observed data? A simple unified approach for univariate data that addresses these traditionally distinct statistical notions is presented called "maximum fidelity". Maximum fidelity is a strict frequentist approach that is fundamentally based on model concordance with the observed data. The fidelity statistic is a general information measure based on the coordinate-independent cumulative distribution and critical yet previously neglected symmetry considerations. An approximation for the null distribution of the fidelity allows its direct conversi...
HAN Gui-hua; ZHANG Wei-gang
2007-01-01
A novel method of correlation function for analyzing cross-sensitivity between strain and temperature is reported for the first time in this paper. Using the new method, the correlative characteristics between strain and temperature of fiber Bragg grating sensors are studied both theoretically and experimentally The experimental results accord with the theoretical calculations.
Zens, Joerg; Krauß, Lydia; Römer, Wolfgang; Klasen, Nicole; Pirson, Stéphane; Schulte, Philipp; Zeeden, Christian; Sirocko, Frank; Lehmkuhl, Frank
2016-04-01
The D1 project of the CRC 806 "Our way to Europe" focusses on Central Europe as a destination of modern human dispersal out of Africa. The paleo-environmental conditions along the migration areas are reconstructed by loess-paleosol sequences and lacustrine sediments. Stratigraphy and luminescence dating provide the chronological framework for the correlation of grain size and geochemical data to large-scale climate proxies like isotope ratios and dust content of Greenland ice cores. The reliability of correlations is improved by the development of precise age models of specific marker beds. In this study, we focus on the (terrestrial) Last Glacial Maximum of the Weichselian Upper Pleniglacial which is supposed to be dominated by high wind speeds and an increasing aridity. Especially in the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE), this period is linked to an extensive erosion event. The disconformity is followed by an intensive cryosol formation. In order to support the stratigraphical observations from the field, luminescence dating and grain size analysis were applied on three loess-paleosol sequences along the northern European loess belt to develop a more reliable chronology and to reconstruct paleo-environmental dynamics. The loess sections were compared to newest results from heavy mineral and grain size analysis from the Dehner Maar core (Eifel Mountains) and correlated to NGRIP records. Volcanic minerals can be found in the Dehner Maar core from a visible tephra layer at 27.8 ka up to ~25 ka. They can be correlated to the Eltville Tephra found in loess section. New quartz luminescence ages from Romont (Belgium) surrounding the tephra dated the deposition between 25.0 + 2.3 ka and 25.8 + 2.4 ka. In the following, heavy minerals show an increasing importance of strong easterly winds during the second Greenland dust peak (~24 ka b2k) correlating with an extensive erosion event in the LRE. Luminescence dating on quartz bracketing the following soil formation yielded ages of
梁贵云; 曹力; 张莉; 吴大进
2003-01-01
We study a system for a single-mode laser driven by additive and multiplicative coloured noises with a coloured cross-correlation. The analytical expression of the stationary intensity distribution (SID) for the laser is derived in the case of three different correlation times. The influences of each stochastic parameter on the SID are discussed, the the skewness, λ3(O) of the single-mode laser are investigated. We find that there are colourful phase transitions for the SID above a threshold, and re-entrant transitions induced by the "colour" of the additive noises. Further research of the not only increases with the additive noise correlation time τ2 and the cross-correlation time τs, but also the quality of the output of laser beams is optimized.
Dihadron Production at LHC: BFKL Predictions for Cross Sections and Azimuthal Correlations
Celiberto, Francesco G; Murdaca, Beatrice; Papa, Alessandro
2016-01-01
A study of the inclusive production of a pair of hadrons (a "dihadron" system), having high transverse momenta and separated by a large interval of rapidity, is presented. This process has much in common with the widely discussed Mueller--Navelet jet production and can be also used to access the BFKL dynamics at proton colliders. Large contributions enhanced by logarithms of energy can be resummed in perturbation theory within the BFKL formalism in the next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy. The experimental study of dihadron production would provide with an additional clear channel to test the BFKL dynamics. The first theoretical predictions for cross sections and azimuthal angle correlations of the two hadrons produced with LHC kinematics are presented.
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Calibration with WMAP Using Cross-Correlations
Hajian, Amir; Ade, Peter A R; Aguirre, Paula; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John William; Barrientos, L Felipe; Battistelli, Elia S; Bond, J Richard; Brown, Ben; Burger, Bryce; Chervenak, Jay; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J; Dicker, Simon R; Doriese, W Bertrand; Dunkley, Joanna; Dunner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fisher, Ryan P; Fowler, Joseph W; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos; Hilton, Gene C; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renee; Huffenberger, Kevin M; Hughes, David H; Hughes, John P; Infante, Leopoldo; Irwin, Kent D; Juin, Jean Baptiste; Kaul, Madhuri; Klein, Jeff; Kosowsky, Arthur; Lau, Judy M; Limon, Michele; Lin, Yen-Ting; Lupton, Robert H; Marriage, Tobias A; Marsden, Danica; Mauskopf, Phil; Menanteau, Felipe; Moodley, Kavilan; Moseley, Harvey; Netterfield, Calvin B; Niemack, Michael D; Nolta, Michael R; Page, Lyman A; Parker, Lucas; Partridge, Bruce; Reid, Beth; Sehgal, Neelima; Sherwin, Blake D; Sievers, Jon; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Swetz, Daniel S; Switzer, Eric R; Thornton, Robert; Trac, Hy; Tucker, Carole; Warne, Ryan; Wollack, Ed; Zhao, Yue
2010-01-01
We present a new calibration method based on cross-correlations with WMAP and apply it to data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). ACT's observing strategy and map making procedure allows an unbiased reconstruction of the modes in the maps over a wide range of multipoles. By directly matching the ACT maps to WMAP observations in the multipole range of 400 < ell < 1000, we determine the absolute calibration with an uncertainty of 2% in temperature. The precise measurement of the calibration error directly impacts the uncertainties in the cosmological parameters estimated from the ACT power spectra. We also present a combined map based on ACT and WMAP data that has high signal-to-noise over a wide range of multipoles.
Timashev, Serge F; Polyakov, Yuriy S; Demin, Sergey A; Kaplan, Alexander Ya
2011-01-01
We apply flicker-noise spectroscopy (FNS), a time series analysis method operating on structure functions and power spectrum estimates, to study the clinical electroencephalogram (EEG) signals recorded in children/adolescents (11 to 14 years of age) with diagnosed schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms at the National Center for Psychiatric Health (NCPH) of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. The EEG signals for these subjects were compared with the signals for a control sample of chronically depressed children/adolescents. The purpose of the study is to look for diagnostic signs of subjects' susceptibility to schizophrenia in the FNS parameters for specific electrodes and cross-correlations between the signals simultaneously measured at different points on the scalp. Our analysis of EEG signals from scalp-mounted electrodes at locations F3 and F4, which are symmetrically positioned in the left and right frontal areas of cerebral cortex, respectively, demonstrates an essential role of frequency-phase synchroniz...
Hall, Alex
2016-01-01
We investigate the feasibility of measuring the effects of peculiar velocities in large-scale structure using the dipole of the redshift-space cross-correlation function. We combine number counts of galaxies with brightness-temperature fluctuations from 21cm intensity mapping, demonstrating that the dipole may be measured at modest significance ($\\lesssim 2\\sigma$) by combining the upcoming radio survey CHIME with the future redshift surveys of DESI and Euclid. More significant measurements ($\\lesssim~10\\sigma$) will be possible by combining intensity maps from the SKA with these of DESI or Euclid, and an even higher significance measurement ($\\lesssim 100\\sigma$) may be made by combining observables completely internally to the SKA. We account for effects such as contamination by wide-angle terms, interferometer noise and beams in the intensity maps, non-linear enhancements to the power spectrum, stacking multiple populations, sensitivity to the magnification slope, and the possibility that number counts and...
Liu, Xuan; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Huang, Yong; Guo, Yuan; Kang, Jin U
2013-01-01
In this study, we propose a generic speckle simulation for optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal, by convolving the point-spread function (PSF) of the OCT system with the numerically synthesized random sample field. We validate our model and use the simulation method to study the statistical properties of cross-correlation coefficients between A-scans, which have been recently applied in transverse motion analysis by our group. The results of simulation show that oversampling is essential for accurate motion tracking; exponential decay of OCT signal leads to an underestimate of motion that can be corrected; lateral heterogeneity of sample leads to an overestimate of motion for a few pixels corresponding to the structural boundary.
Zang, Xiaoqin; Brown, Michael G; Godin, Oleg A
2015-09-01
Theoretical studies have shown that cross-correlation functions (CFs) of time series of ambient noise measured at two locations yield approximations to the Green's functions (GFs) that describe propagation between those locations. Specifically, CFs are estimates of weighted GFs. In this paper, it is demonstrated that measured CFs in the 20-70 Hz band can be accurately modeled as weighted GFs using ambient noise data collected in the Florida Straits at ∼100 m depth with horizontal separations of 5 and 10 km. Two weighting functions are employed. These account for (1) the dipole radiation pattern produced by a near-surface source, and (2) coherence loss of surface-reflecting energy in time-averaged CFs resulting from tidal fluctuations. After describing the relationship between CFs and GFs, the inverse problem is considered and is shown to result in an environmental model for which agreement between computed and simulated CFs is good.
USING CROSS-CORRELATION THEORY TO EXTRACT MODAL PARAMETERS IN FREQUENCY-DOMAIN
无
2003-01-01
Conventional modal parameter identifications are usually based on frequency response functions, which require measurements of both the input force and the resulting response. However, in many cases, only response data are available while the actual excitations (such as wind/wave load) are not measurable. Modal parameters estimation must base itself on response-only data. Over the past years, many time-domain modal parameter identification techniques from output-only are proposed. A poly-reference frequency-domain modal identification scheme on response-only is presented. It is based on coupling the cross-correlation theory with conventional frequency-domain modal parameter extraction. An experiment using an airplane model is performed to verify the proposed method.
Changes in Cross-Correlations as an Indicator for Systemic Risk
Zheng, Zeyu; Podobnik, Boris; Feng, Ling; Li, Baowen
2012-11-01
The 2008-2012 global financial crisis began with the global recession in December 2007 and exacerbated in September 2008, during which the U.S. stock markets lost 20% of value from its October 11 2007 peak. Various studies reported that financial crisis are associated with increase in both cross-correlations among stocks and stock indices and the level of systemic risk. In this paper, we study 10 different Dow Jones economic sector indexes, and applying principle component analysis (PCA) we demonstrate that the rate of increase in principle components with short 12-month time windows can be effectively used as an indicator of systemic risk--the larger the change of PC1, the higher the increase of systemic risk. Clearly, the higher the level of systemic risk, the more likely a financial crisis would occur in the near future.
A study of meteorological variables in some extreme environments via cross correlations
Cruz-Kuri, L.; McKay, C. P.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.
Some of us have been studying soils in the Atacama Desert, Chile and in Pico de Orizaba, Mexico. The Atacama, is an extreme, arid, temperate desert that extends across 1000 km with monthly mean air temperatures between 16 to 14°C and is remarkably uniform throughout the year (±3°C). Pico de Orizaba (19° N) is a mountain that possesses a glacier and has tropical alpine environments. Both of such environments are of interest as models for Mars. Meteorological data for the Yungay area of the Atacama Desert, as well as meteorological data of the Northern and Southern faces of Pico de Orizaba have been collected. Both sets of data were analyzed using the cross correlation technique of multivariate time series. In this report we describe some of the patterns found for these statistics.
Phase noise characterization of sub-hertz linewidth lasers via digital cross correlation
Xie, Xiaopeng; Bouchand, Romain; Nicolodi, Daniele; Lours, Michel; Alexandre, Christophe; Le Coq, Yann
2017-04-01
Phase noise or frequency noise is a key metrics to evaluate the short term stability of a laser. This property is of a great interest for the applications but delicate to characterize, especially for narrow line-width lasers. In this letter, we demonstrate a digital cross correlation scheme to characterize the absolute phase noise of sub-hertz line-width lasers. Three 1,542 nm ultra-stable lasers are used in this approach. For each measurement two lasers act as references to characterize a third one. Phase noise power spectral density from 0.5 Hz to 0.8 MHz Fourier frequencies can be derived for each laser by a mere change in the configuration of the lasers. This is the first time showing the phase noise of sub-hertz line-width lasers with no reference limitation. We also present an analysis of the laser phase noise performance.
Cross-Correlation Detection of Point Sources in the WMAP First Year Data
Jian-Yin Nie; Shuang-Nan Zhang
2007-01-01
We apply a Cross-Correlation (CC) method developed previously for detecting gamma-ray point sources to the WMAP first year data by using the Point-Spread Function of WMAP and obtain a full sky CC coefficient map. We find that the CC method is a powerful tool to examine the WMAP foreground residuals which can be further cleaned accordingly. Evident foreground signals are found in the WMAP foreground cleaned maps and the Tegmark cleaned map. In this process 101 point sources are detected, and 26 of them are new sources additional to the originally listed WMAP 208 sources. We estimate the flux of these new sources and verify them by another method. As a result, a revised mask file based on the WMAP first year data is produced by including these new sources.
Towards a cross-correlation approach to strong-field dynamics in Black Hole spacetimes
Jaramillo, J L; Moesta, P; Rezzolla, L
2012-01-01
The qualitative and quantitative understanding of near-horizon gravitational dynamics in the strong-field regime represents a challenge both at a fundamental level and in astrophysical applications. Recent advances in numerical relativity and in the geometric characterization of black hole horizons open new conceptual and technical avenues into the problem. We discuss here a research methodology in which spacetime dynamics is probed through the cross-correlation of geometric quantities constructed on the black hole horizon and on null infinity. These two hypersurfaces respond to evolving gravitational fields in the bulk, providing canonical "test screens" in a "scattering"-like perspective onto spacetime dynamics. More specifically, we adopt a 3+1 Initial Value Problem approach to the construction of generic spacetimes and discuss the role and properties of dynamical trapping horizons as canonical inner "screens" in this context. We apply these ideas and techniques to the study of the recoil dynamics in post-...
Development of cross-correlation spectrometry and the coherent structures of maser sources
Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Sekido, Mamoru
2016-01-01
We have developed a new method of data processing for radio telescope observation data to measure time-dependent temporal coherence, and we named it cross-correlation spectrometry (XCS). XCS is an autocorrelation procedure that expands time lags over the integration time and is applied to data obtained from a single-dish observation. The temporal coherence property of received signals is enhanced by XCS. We tested the XCS technique using the data of strong H2O masers in W3 (H2O), W49N and W75N. We obtained the temporal coherent lengths of the maser emission to be 17.95 $\\pm$ 0.33 {\\mu}s, 26.89 $\\pm$ 0.49 {\\mu}s and 15.95 $\\pm$ 0.46 {\\mu}s for W3 (H2O), W49N and W75N, respectively. These results may indicate the existence of a coherent astrophysical maser.
Development of cross-correlation spectrometry and the coherent structures of maser sources
Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Imai, Hiroshi; Sekido, Mamoru
2016-10-01
We have developed a new method of data processing for radio telescope observation data to measure time-dependent temporal coherence, and we have named it "cross-correlation spectrometry" (XCS). XCS is an autocorrelation procedure that expands time lags over the integration time and is applied to data obtained from a single-dish observation. The temporal coherence property of received signals is enhanced by XCS. We tested the XCS technique using the data of strong H2O masers in W 3 (H2O), W 49 N, and W 75 N. We obtained the temporal coherent lengths of the maser emission to be 17.95 ± 0.33 μs, 26.89 ± 0.49 μs, and 15.95 ± 0.46 μs for W 3 (H2O), W 49 N, and W 75 N, respectively. These results may indicate the existence of a coherent astrophysical maser.
Sun, Xuelian; Liu, Zixian
2016-02-01
In this paper, a new estimator of correlation matrix is proposed, which is composed of the detrended cross-correlation coefficients (DCCA coefficients), to improve portfolio optimization. In contrast to Pearson's correlation coefficients (PCC), DCCA coefficients acquired by the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) method can describe the nonlinear correlation between assets, and can be decomposed in different time scales. These properties of DCCA make it possible to improve the investment effect and more valuable to investigate the scale behaviors of portfolios. The minimum variance portfolio (MVP) model and the Mean-Variance (MV) model are used to evaluate the effectiveness of this improvement. Stability analysis shows the effect of two kinds of correlation matrices on the estimation error of portfolio weights. The observed scale behaviors are significant to risk management and could be used to optimize the portfolio selection.
Yatan Pal Singh Balhara
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Alcohol use is a major risk factor for global disease burden, and excessive use leads to disability in the individual. This study aimed to assess the disability and its correlates among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs. In addition, it assessed the quality of life measures in this population group. Methodology: A cross-sectional study on a sample (N = 62 from among treatment seekers for alcohol dependence. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition (DSM-5 criteria were used to assess disorder severity. The WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0 and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF were used to assess disability and quality of life, respectively. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and linear regression analysis were used for comparative assessments. The level of statistical significance was kept at P < 0.05 for all the tests. Results: DSM-5 diagnosis of the individuals suggested a high severity of substance use disorder as an average of 8.8 (±1.8 criteria were fulfilled. WHODAS 2.0 revealed maximum disability in the domains of “participation in the society,” “household and work-related activities” and “cognitive functioning.” The quality of life measures indicate poor physical health, reduced work capacity, and cognitive dysfunction. A negative correlation was seen between the social dimensions of disability (getting along and quality of life measures of psychological health (P = 0.026 and social relationships (P = 0.046, work domain of disability schedule and physical health score on quality of life evaluation (P = 0.001. Older age had greater impairment in the work domain (P = 0.040, and unemployment was associated with higher disability (P = 0.001. Unemployment and duration of alcohol use were the independent predictors of greater disability. Conclusions: Disability assessment using WHODAS 2.0 shows significant impairment in individuals with AUDs that is
Multi-channel analysis of passive surface waves based on cross-correlations
Cheng, F.; Xia, J.; Xu, Z.; Hu, Y.
2015-12-01
Traditional active seismic survey can no longer be properly applied in highly populated urban areas due to restrictions in modern civilian life styles. Passive seismic methods, however, have gained much more attention from the engineering geophysics community because of their environmental friendly and deeper investigation depth. Due to extracting signal from noise has never been as comfortable as that in active seismic survey, how to make it more efficiently and accurately has been emphasized. We propose a multi-channel analysis of passive surface waves (MAPW) based on long noise sequences cross-correlations to meet the demand for increasing investigation depth by acquiring surface-wave data at a relative low-frequency range (1 Hz ≤ f ≤ 10 Hz) in urban areas. We utilize seismic interferometry to produce common virtual source gathers from one-hour-long noise records and do dispersion measurements by using the classic passive multi-channel analysis of surface waves (PMASW). We used synthetic tests to demonstrate the advantages of MAPW for various noise distributions. Results show that our method has the superiority of maximizing the analysis accuracy. Finally, we used two field data applications to demonstrate the advantages of our MAPW over the classic PMASW on isolating azimuth of the predominant noise sources and the effectivity of combined survey of active multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and MAPW. We suggest, for the field operation using MAPW, that a parallel receiver line which is close to a main road or river, if any, with one or two hours noise observation will be an effective means for an unbiased dispersion image. Keywords: passive seismic method, MAPW, MASW, cross-correlation, directional noise source, spatial-aliasing effects, inversion
Piano, Carla; Losurdo, Anna; Della Marca, Giacomo; Solito, Marcella; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Provini, Federica; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Cortelli, Pietro
2015-01-01
Study Objectives: To evaluate the sleep pattern and the motor activity during sleep in a cohort of patients affected by Huntington disease (HD). Design: Cross-sectional cohort study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients: Thirty HD patients, 16 women and 14 men (mean age 57.3 ± 12.2 y); 30 matched healthy controls (mean age 56.5 ± 11.8 y). Interventions: Subjective sleep evaluation: Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS); Berlin's Questionnaire, interview for restless legs syndrome (RLS), questionnaire for REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Clinical evaluation: disease duration, clinical severity (unified Huntington disease motor rating scale [UHDMRS]), genetic tests. Laboratory-based full-night attended video-polysomnography (V-PSG). Measurements and Results: The duration of the disease was 9.4 ± 4.4 y, UHMDRS score was 55.5 ± 23.4, CAG repeats were 44.3 ± 4.1. Body mass index was 21.9 ± 4.0 kg/m2. No patients or caregivers reported poor sleep quality. Two patients reported symptoms of RLS. Eight patients had an ESS score ≥ 9. Eight patients had high risk of obstructive sleep apnea. At the RBD questionnaire, two patients had a pathological score. HD patients, compared to controls, showed shorter sleep, reduced sleep efficiency index, and increased arousals and awakenings. Four patients presented with sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Periodic limb movements (PLMs) during wake and sleep were observed in all patients. No episode of RBD was observed in the V-PSG recordings, and no patients showed rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia. The disease duration correlated with ESS score (P Marca G, Solito M, Calandra-Buonaura G, Provini F, Bentivoglio AR, Cortelli P. Polysomnographic findings and clinical correlates in Huntington disease: a cross-sectional cohort study. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1489–1495. PMID:25845698
Nepomuceno, A.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Zanatta, R. [Universidade de Cuiaba, MT (Brazil); Chung, D.G.; Costa, P.F.; Feliciano, M.A.R.; Avante, M.L.; Canola, J.C., E-mail: marcusfeliciano@yahoo.com.br [Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil); Lopes, L.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)
2016-09-15
Computed tomography of the brain is necessary as part of the diagnosis of lesions of the central nervous system. In this study we used six domestic cats, male or female, aged between one and five years, evaluated by Computed Tomography (CT) examination without clinical signs of central nervous system disorders. Two euthanized animals stating a condition unrelated to the nervous system were incorporated into this study. The proposal consisted in establishing detailed anatomical description of tomographic images of normal brain of cats, using as reference anatomical images of cross sections of the stained brain and cranial part, with thicknesses similar to the planes of the CT images. CT examinations were performed with and without intravenous iodinated contrast media for live animals. With one euthanized animal, the brain was removed and immediately preserved in 10% formalin for later achievement in cross-sectional thickness of approximately 4mm and staining technique of Barnard, and Robert Brown. The head of another animal was disarticulated in the Atlanto-occipital region and frozen at -20 deg C then sliced to a thickness of about 5mm. The description of visualized anatomical structures using tomography is useful as a guide and allows transcribing with relative accuracy the brain region affected by an injury, and thus correlating it with the clinical symptoms of the patient, providing additional information and consequent improvement to veterinarians during the course of surgical clinic in this species. (author)
A.C. Nepomuceno
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Computed tomography of the brain is necessary as part of the diagnosis of lesions of the central nervous system. In this study we used six domestic cats, male or female, aged between one and five years, evaluated by Computed Tomography (CT examination without clinical signs of central nervous system disorders. Two euthanized animals stating a condition unrelated to the nervous system were incorporated into this study. The proposal consisted in establishing detailed anatomical description of tomographic images of normal brain of cats, using as reference anatomical images of cross sections of the stained brain and cranial part, with thicknesses similar to the planes of the CT images. CT examinations were performed with and without intravenous iodinated contrast media for live animals. With one euthanized animal, the brain was removed and immediately preserved in 10% formalin for later achievement in cross-sectional thickness of approximately 4mm and staining technique of Barnard, and Robert Brown. The head of another animal was disarticulated in the Atlanto-occipital region and frozen at -20ºC then sliced to a thickness of about 5mm. The description of visualized anatomical structures using tomography is useful as a guide and allows transcribing with relative accuracy the brain region affected by an injury, and thus correlating it with the clinical symptoms of the patient, providing additional information and consequent improvement to veterinarians during the course of surgical clinic in this species.
Wang, Fang
2016-06-01
In order to detect and quantify asymmetry of two time series, a novel cross-correlation coefficient is proposed based on recent asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis (A-DXA), which we called A-DXA coefficient. The A-DXA coefficient, as an important extension of DXA coefficient ρDXA, contains two directional asymmetric cross-correlated indexes, describing upwards and downwards asymmetric cross-correlations, respectively. By using the information of directional covariance function of two time series and directional variance function of each series itself instead of power-law between the covariance function and time scale, the proposed A-DXA coefficient can well detect asymmetry between the two series no matter whether the cross-correlation is significant or not. By means of the proposed A-DXA coefficient conducted over the asymmetry for California electricity market, we found that the asymmetry between the prices and loads is not significant for daily average data in 1999 yr market (before electricity crisis) but extremely significant for those in 2000 yr market (during the crisis). To further uncover the difference of asymmetry between the years 1999 and 2000, a modified H statistic (MH) and ΔMH statistic are proposed. One of the present contributions is that the high MH values calculated for hourly data exist in majority months in 2000 market. Another important conclusion is that the cross-correlation with downwards dominates over the whole 1999 yr in contrast to the cross-correlation with upwards dominates over the 2000 yr.
Wang, Duan; Podobnik, Boris; Horvatić, Davor; Stanley, H Eugene
2011-04-01
We propose a modified time lag random matrix theory in order to study time-lag cross correlations in multiple time series. We apply the method to 48 world indices, one for each of 48 different countries. We find long-range power-law cross correlations in the absolute values of returns that quantify risk, and find that they decay much more slowly than cross correlations between the returns. The magnitude of the cross correlations constitutes "bad news" for international investment managers who may believe that risk is reduced by diversifying across countries. We find that when a market shock is transmitted around the world, the risk decays very slowly. We explain these time-lag cross correlations by introducing a global factor model (GFM) in which all index returns fluctuate in response to a single global factor. For each pair of individual time series of returns, the cross correlations between returns (or magnitudes) can be modeled with the autocorrelations of the global factor returns (or magnitudes). We estimate the global factor using principal component analysis, which minimizes the variance of the residuals after removing the global trend. Using random matrix theory, a significant fraction of the world index cross correlations can be explained by the global factor, which supports the utility of the GFM. We demonstrate applications of the GFM in forecasting risks at the world level, and in finding uncorrelated individual indices. We find ten indices that are practically uncorrelated with the global factor and with the remainder of the world indices, which is relevant information for world managers in reducing their portfolio risk. Finally, we argue that this general method can be applied to a wide range of phenomena in which time series are measured, ranging from seismology and physiology to atmospheric geophysics.
Wang, Fang
2016-06-01
In order to detect and quantify asymmetry of two time series, a novel cross-correlation coefficient is proposed based on recent asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis (A-DXA), which we called A-DXA coefficient. The A-DXA coefficient, as an important extension of DXA coefficient ρ D X A , contains two directional asymmetric cross-correlated indexes, describing upwards and downwards asymmetric cross-correlations, respectively. By using the information of directional covariance function of two time series and directional variance function of each series itself instead of power-law between the covariance function and time scale, the proposed A-DXA coefficient can well detect asymmetry between the two series no matter whether the cross-correlation is significant or not. By means of the proposed A-DXA coefficient conducted over the asymmetry for California electricity market, we found that the asymmetry between the prices and loads is not significant for daily average data in 1999 yr market (before electricity crisis) but extremely significant for those in 2000 yr market (during the crisis). To further uncover the difference of asymmetry between the years 1999 and 2000, a modified H statistic (MH) and ΔMH statistic are proposed. One of the present contributions is that the high MH values calculated for hourly data exist in majority months in 2000 market. Another important conclusion is that the cross-correlation with downwards dominates over the whole 1999 yr in contrast to the cross-correlation with upwards dominates over the 2000 yr.
Wang, Duan; Podobnik, Boris; Horvatić, Davor; Stanley, H. Eugene
2011-04-01
We propose a modified time lag random matrix theory in order to study time-lag cross correlations in multiple time series. We apply the method to 48 world indices, one for each of 48 different countries. We find long-range power-law cross correlations in the absolute values of returns that quantify risk, and find that they decay much more slowly than cross correlations between the returns. The magnitude of the cross correlations constitutes “bad news” for international investment managers who may believe that risk is reduced by diversifying across countries. We find that when a market shock is transmitted around the world, the risk decays very slowly. We explain these time-lag cross correlations by introducing a global factor model (GFM) in which all index returns fluctuate in response to a single global factor. For each pair of individual time series of returns, the cross correlations between returns (or magnitudes) can be modeled with the autocorrelations of the global factor returns (or magnitudes). We estimate the global factor using principal component analysis, which minimizes the variance of the residuals after removing the global trend. Using random matrix theory, a significant fraction of the world index cross correlations can be explained by the global factor, which supports the utility of the GFM. We demonstrate applications of the GFM in forecasting risks at the world level, and in finding uncorrelated individual indices. We find ten indices that are practically uncorrelated with the global factor and with the remainder of the world indices, which is relevant information for world managers in reducing their portfolio risk. Finally, we argue that this general method can be applied to a wide range of phenomena in which time series are measured, ranging from seismology and physiology to atmospheric geophysics.
Fluid trajectory evaluation based on an ensemble-averaged cross-correlation in time-resolved PIV
Jeon, Young Jin; Chatellier, Ludovic; David, Laurent
2014-07-01
A novel multi-frame particle image velocimetry (PIV) method, able to evaluate a fluid trajectory by means of an ensemble-averaged cross-correlation, is introduced. The method integrates the advantages of the state-of-art time-resolved PIV (TR-PIV) methods to further enhance both robustness and dynamic range. The fluid trajectory follows a polynomial model with a prescribed order. A set of polynomial coefficients, which maximizes the ensemble-averaged cross-correlation value across the frames, is regarded as the most appropriate solution. To achieve a convergence of the trajectory in terms of polynomial coefficients, an ensemble-averaged cross-correlation map is constructed by sampling cross-correlation values near the predictor trajectory with respect to an imposed change of each polynomial coefficient. A relation between the given change and corresponding cross-correlation maps, which could be calculated from the ordinary cross-correlation, is derived. A disagreement between computational domain and corresponding physical domain is compensated by introducing the Jacobian matrix based on the image deformation scheme in accordance with the trajectory. An increased cost of the convergence calculation, associated with the nonlinearity of the fluid trajectory, is moderated by means of a V-cycle iteration. To validate enhancements of the present method, quantitative comparisons with the state-of-arts TR-PIV methods, e.g., the adaptive temporal interval, the multi-frame pyramid correlation and the fluid trajectory correlation, were carried out by using synthetically generated particle image sequences. The performances of the tested methods are discussed in algorithmic terms. A high-rate TR-PIV experiment of a flow over an airfoil demonstrates the effectiveness of the present method. It is shown that the present method is capable of reducing random errors in both velocity and material acceleration while suppressing spurious temporal fluctuations due to measurement noise.
Mazzotta, Cosimo; Caporossi, Tomaso; Denaro, Rosario; Bovone, Cristina; Sparano, Caterina; Paradiso, Anna; Baiocchi, Stefano; Caporossi, Aldo
2012-05-01
To investigate the correlations between corneal structural modifications assessed by in vivo corneal confocal microscopy with visual function [uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA)] and morphological data (corneal topography, pachymetry, elevation analysis) after riboflavin UV A corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) for the stabilization of progressive keratoconus. Forty-four eyes with progressive keratoconus were enrolled in the Siena Eye Cross Study (prospective nonrandomized phase II open trial). All eyes underwent Riboflavin UV A CXL. Preoperative and postoperative evaluation comprised: UCVA, BSCVA, optical pachymetry (Visante OCT, Zeiss, Germany), corneal topography (CSO, Florence, Italy) and tomography (Orbscan IIz; B&L, Rochester, NY, USA) and in vivo confocal microscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II; Rostock, Heidelberg Gmbh, Germany). Examinations were performed preoperatively 6 months and one day before treatment and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of follow-up. In vivo corneal confocal microscopy showed time-dependent postoperative epithelial and stromal modifications after cross-linking. Epithelial thinning associated with stromal oedema and keratocytes apoptosis explained initial tendency towards slightly reduced VA and more glare one month postoperatively in 70% of eyes. Furthermore, a statistically not significant early worsening of topographic mean K values was observed. Orbscan II analysis significantly underestimated pachymetric values after treatment. Pachymetric underestimation was rectified by high-resolution optical pachymetry provided by the Visante OCT system. After the third post-CXL month, epithelial thickening, disappearance of oedema and new collagen compaction recorded by in vivo corneal confocal microscopy explained the improvements in visual performance during the follow-up. Changes in stromal reflectivity and collagen compaction observed by in vivo confocal microscopy were associated with corneal
Cross-correlation Weak Lensing of SDSS Galaxy Clusters I: Measurements
Sheldon, Erin S.; Johnston, David E.; Scranton, Ryan; Koester, Ben P.; McKay, Timothy A.; Oyaizu, Hiroaki; Cunha, Carlos; Lima, Marcos; Lin, Huan; Frieman, Joshua A.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Annis, James; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Bahcall, Neta A.; Fukugita, Masataka
2007-09-28
This is the first in a series of papers on the weak lensing effect caused by clusters of galaxies in Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The photometrically selected cluster sample, known as MaxBCG, includes {approx}130,000 objects between redshift 0.1 and 0.3, ranging in size from small groups to massive clusters. We split the clusters into bins of richness and luminosity and stack the surface density contrast to produce mean radial profiles. The mean profiles are detected over a range of scales, from the inner halo (25 kpc/h) well into the surrounding large scale structure (30 Mpc/h), with a significance of 15 to 20 in each bin. The signal over this large range of scales is best interpreted in terms of the cluster-mass cross-correlation function. We pay careful attention to sources of systematic error, correcting for them where possible and bounding them where not. We find that the profiles scale strongly with richness and luminosity. We find the signal within a given richness bin depends upon luminosity, suggesting that luminosity is more closely correlated with mass than galaxy counts. We split the samples by redshift but detect no significant evolution. The profiles are not well described by power laws. In a subsequent series of papers we invert the profiles to three-dimensional mass profiles, show that they are well fit by a halo model description, measure mass-to-light ratios and provide a cosmological interpretation.
Unified Green's function retrieval by cross-correlation; connection with energy principles.
Snieder, Roel; Wapenaar, Kees; Wegler, Ulrich
2007-03-01
It has been shown theoretically and observationally that the Green's function for acoustic and elastic waves can be retrieved by cross-correlating fluctuations recorded at two locations. We extend the concept of the extraction of the Green's function to a wide class of scalar linear systems. For systems that are not invariant under time reversal, the fluctuations must be excited by volume sources in order to satisfy the energy balance (equipartitioning) that is needed to extract the Green's function. The general theory for retrieving the Green's function is illustrated with examples that include the diffusion equation, Schrödinger's equation, a vibrating string, the acoustic wave equation, a vibrating beam, and the advection equation. Examples are also shown of situations where the Green's function cannot be extracted from ambient fluctuations. The general theory opens up new applications for the extraction of the Green's function from field correlations that include flow in porous media, quantum mechanics, and the extraction of the response of mechanical structures such as bridges.
Bailoni, Alberto; Amendola, Luca
2016-01-01
The Fisher matrix is a widely used tool to forecast the performance of future experiments and approximate the likelihood of large data sets. Most of the forecasts for cosmological parameters in galaxy clustering studies rely on the Fisher matrix approach for large-scale experiments like DES, Euclid, or SKA. Here we improve upon the standard method by taking into account three effects: the finite window function, the correlation between redshift bins, and the uncertainty on the bin redshift. The first two effects are negligible only in the limit of infinite surveys. The third effect, on the contrary, is negligible for infinitely small bins. Here we show how to take into account these effects and what the impact on forecasts of a Euclid-type experiment will be. The main result of this article is that the windowing and the bin cross-correlation induce a considerable change in the forecasted errors, of the order of 10-30% for most cosmological parameters, while the redshift bin uncertainty can be neglected for bi...
Pipeline Implementation of Real Time Event Cross Correlation for Nuclear Treaty Monitoring
Junek, W. N.; Wehlen, J. A., III
2014-12-01
The United States National Data Center (US NDC) is responsible for monitoring international compliance to nuclear test ban treaties. This mission is performed through real time acquisition, processing, and evaluation of data acquired by a global network of seismic, hydroacoustic, and infrasonic sensors. Automatic and human reviewed event solutions are stored in a data warehouse which contains over 15 years of alphanumeric information and waveform data. A significant effort is underway to employ the data warehouse in real time processing to improve the quality of automatic event solutions, reduce analyst burden, and supply decision makers with information regarding relevant historic events. To this end, the US NDC processing pipeline has been modified to automatically recognize events built in the past. Event similarity information and the most relevant historic solution are passed to the human analyst to assist their evaluation of automatically formed events. This is achieved through real time cross correlation of selected seismograms from automatically formed events against those stored in the data warehouse. Historic events used in correlation analysis are selected based on a set of user defined parameters, which are tuned to maintain pipeline timeliness requirements. Software architecture and database infrastructure were modified using a multithreaded design for increased processing speed, database connection pools for parallel queries, and Oracle spatial indexing to enhance query efficiency. This functionality allows the human analyst to spend more time studying anomalous events and less time rebuilding routine events.
Foreground Analysis Using Cross-Correlations of External Templates on the 7-year WMAP data
Ghosh, Tuhin; Jaffe, Tess; Dickinson, Clive; Davies, Rod; Davis, Richard; Gorski, Krzysztof
2012-01-01
WMAP data when combined with ancillary data on free-free, synchrotron and dust allow an improved understanding of the spectrum of emission from each of these components. Here we examine the sky variation at intermediate and high latitudes using a cross-correlation technique. In particular, we compare the observed emission in several large partitions of the sky plus 33 selected sky regions to three "standard" templates. The regions are selected using a criterion based on the morphology of these template maps. The synchrotron emission shows evidence of steepening between GHz frequencies and the \\emph{WMAP} bands. There are indications of spectral index variations across the sky but the current data are not precise enough to accurately quantify this from region-to-region. The emission correlated with the $H_{\\alpha}$ template shows clear evidence of deviation from a free-free spectrum. The emission can be decomposed into a contribution from both free-free and spinning dust in the warm ionised medium of the Galax...
A Bayesian estimate of the CMB-large scale structure cross-correlation
Santos, E Moura; Penna-Lima, M; Novaes, C P; Wuensche, C A
2015-01-01
Evidences for late-time acceleration of the Universe are provided by multiple complementary probes, such as observations of distant Type Ia supernovae (SNIa), cosmic microwave background (CMB), baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), large scale structure (LSS), and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect. In this work we shall focus on the ISW effect, which consists of small secondary fluctuations in the CMB produced whenever the gravitational potentials evolve due to transitions between dominating fluids, e.g., matter to dark energy dominated phase. Therefore, if we assume a flat universe, as supported by primary CMB data, then a detection of the ISW effect can be correlated to a measurement of dark energy and its properties. In this work, we present a Bayesian estimate of the CMB-LSS cross-correlation signal. As local tracers of the matter distribution at large scales we have used the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) galaxy catalog and, for the CMB temperature fluctuations, the nine-year data release of the W...
Increasing the computational efficient of digital cross correlation by a vectorization method
Chang, Ching-Yuan; Ma, Chien-Ching
2017-08-01
This study presents a vectorization method for use in MATLAB programming aimed at increasing the computational efficiency of digital cross correlation in sound and images, resulting in a speedup of 6.387 and 36.044 times compared with performance values obtained from looped expression. This work bridges the gap between matrix operations and loop iteration, preserving flexibility and efficiency in program testing. This paper uses numerical simulation to verify the speedup of the proposed vectorization method as well as experiments to measure the quantitative transient displacement response subjected to dynamic impact loading. The experiment involved the use of a high speed camera as well as a fiber optic system to measure the transient displacement in a cantilever beam under impact from a steel ball. Experimental measurement data obtained from the two methods are in excellent agreement in both the time and frequency domain, with discrepancies of only 0.68%. Numerical and experiment results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed vectorization method with regard to computational speed in signal processing and high precision in the correlation algorithm. We also present the source code with which to build MATLAB-executable functions on Windows as well as Linux platforms, and provide a series of examples to demonstrate the application of the proposed vectorization method.
Prevalence, patterns, and correlates of equestrian injuries in Malaysia: A cross-sectional study
Nizar A Majeedkutty
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Equestrian sport carries with it an implicit risk of injury. Despite the frequency of injuries in equestrian sports, there is no published study on injuries of equestrian athletes in Malaysia. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of injuries and its correlates among horseback riders. Subjects And Methods: A web-based standardized questionnaire was used to collect data for this cross-sectional survey. Horseback riders aged 18 years and above were included in the study. Out of 169 participants, 93 were females and 76 were males. The correlation of injuries to gender, age, level of experience, exercise habits, use of safety measures, and type of equestrian sport were determined. Chi-square test was performed to test for statistical significance. Results: The prevalence was high with 85.8% of the participants reporting symptoms and characteristics of injuries in the past 12 months. The most frequently perceived symptoms reported were in the upper extremities (43.4% followed by lower extremities (40.7%, head injury (8.3% and injuries of upper and lower back (3.4%. There was a higher prevalence of injury among female participants (55.03% than males (42.60%. A significant correlation was found between gender and prevalence of injuries. About 70% of the riders sustained soft tissue injuries. Fifty-five percent of the injured were involved in recreational riding. The most common mechanism of injury was a fall from a horse. Sixty percent of the injured riders did not seek medical attention after being injured, and physiotherapy consultation was even lower with 10.3%. Conclusions: The high prevalence of injuries and low rate of medical consultation emphasize the need for education programs on safety in Malaysia. Sessions should be held to improve coaching for riders and instructors, and their knowledge of the nature of the horse, mechanisms of injuries, horse handling, and riding skills to help them host safe
Prevalence, patterns, and correlates of equestrian injuries in Malaysia: A cross-sectional study
Majeedkutty, Nizar A.; Khairulanuar, Nor A.B.
2017-01-01
BACKGROUND: Equestrian sport carries with it an implicit risk of injury. Despite the frequency of injuries in equestrian sports, there is no published study on injuries of equestrian athletes in Malaysia. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of injuries and its correlates among horseback riders. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A web-based standardized questionnaire was used to collect data for this cross-sectional survey. Horseback riders aged 18 years and above were included in the study. Out of 169 participants, 93 were females and 76 were males. The correlation of injuries to gender, age, level of experience, exercise habits, use of safety measures, and type of equestrian sport were determined. Chi-square test was performed to test for statistical significance. RESULTS: The prevalence was high with 85.8% of the participants reporting symptoms and characteristics of injuries in the past 12 months. The most frequently perceived symptoms reported were in the upper extremities (43.4%) followed by lower extremities (40.7%), head injury (8.3%) and injuries of upper and lower back (3.4%). There was a higher prevalence of injury among female participants (55.03%) than males (42.60%). A significant correlation was found between gender and prevalence of injuries. About 70% of the riders sustained soft tissue injuries. Fifty-five percent of the injured were involved in recreational riding. The most common mechanism of injury was a fall from a horse. Sixty percent of the injured riders did not seek medical attention after being injured, and physiotherapy consultation was even lower with 10.3%. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of injuries and low rate of medical consultation emphasize the need for education programs on safety in Malaysia. Sessions should be held to improve coaching for riders and instructors, and their knowledge of the nature of the horse, mechanisms of injuries, horse handling, and riding skills to help them host safe equestrian
Sanyal, Shankha; Banerjee, Archi; Patranabis, Anirban; Banerjee, Kaushik; Sengupta, Ranjan; Ghosh, Dipak
2016-11-01
MFDFA (the most rigorous technique to assess multifractality) was performed on four Hindustani music samples played on same 'raga' sung by the same performer. Each music sample was divided into six parts and 'multifractal spectral width' was determined for each part corresponding to the four samples. The results obtained reveal that different parts of all the four sound signals possess spectral width of widely varying values. This gives a cue of the so called 'musical improvisation' in all music samples, keeping in mind they belong to the bandish part of the same raga. Formal compositions in Hindustani raga are juxtaposed with the improvised portions, where an artist manoeuvers his/her own creativity to bring out a mood that is specific for that particular performance, which is known as 'improvisation'. Further, this observation hints at the association of different emotions even in the same bandish of the same raga performed by the same artist, this interesting observation cannot be revealed unless rigorous non-linear technique explores the nature of musical structure. In the second part, we applied MFDXA technique to explore more in-depth about 'improvisation' and association with emotion. This technique is applied to find the degree of cross-correlation (γx) between the different parts of the samples. Pronounced correlation has been observed in the middle parts of the all the four samples evident from higher values of γx whereas the other parts show weak correlation. This gets further support from the values of spectral width from different parts of the sample - width of those parts is significantly different from other parts. This observation is extremely new both in respect of musical structure of so called improvisation and associated emotion. The importance of this study in application area of cognitive music therapy is immense.
Xi, Caiping; Zhang, Shuning; Xiong, Gang; Zhao, Huichang; Yang, Yonghong
2017-02-01
Many complex systems generate multifractal time series which are long-range cross-correlated. This paper introduces three multifractal cross-correlation analysis methods, such as multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the partition function approach (MFXPF), multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MFDCCA) methods based on detrended fluctuation analysis (MFXDFA) and detrended moving average analysis (MFXDMA), which only consider one moment order. We do comparative analysis of the artificial time series (binomial multiplicative cascades and Cantor sets with different probabilities) by these methods. Then we do a feasibility test of the fixed threshold target detection within sea clutter by applying the multifractal cross-correlation analysis methods to the IPIX radar sea clutter data. The results show that it is feasible to use the method of the fixed threshold based on the multifractal feature parameter Δf(α) by the MFXPF and MFXDFA-1 methods. At last, we give the main conclusions and provide a valuable reference on how to choose the multifractal algorithms, the detection parameters and the target detection methods within sea clutter in practice.
Keller, C H; Takahashi, T T
1996-07-01
Summing localization describes the perceptions of human listeners to two identical sounds from different locations presented with delays of 0-1 msec. Usually a single source is perceived to be located between the two actual source locations, biased toward the earlier source. We studied neuronal responses within the space map of the barn owl to sounds presented with this same paradigm. The owl's primary cue for localization along the azimuth, interaural time difference (ITD), is based on a cross-correlation-like treatment of the signals arriving at each ear. The output of this cross-correlation is displayed as neural activity across the auditory space map in the external nucleus of the owl's inferior colliculus. Because the ear input signals reflect the physical summing of the signals generated by each speaker, we first recorded the sounds at each ear and computed their cross-correlations at various interstimulus delays. The resulting binaural cross-correlation surface strongly resembles the pattern of activity across the space map inferred from recordings of single space-specific neurons. Four peaks are observed in the cross-correlation surface for any nonzero delay. One peak occurs at the correlation delay equal to the ITD of each speaker. Two additional peaks reflect "phantom sources" occurring at correlation delays that match the signal of the left speaker in one ear with the signal of the right speaker in the other ear. At zero delay, the two phantom peaks coincide. The surface features are complicated further by the interactions of the various correlation peaks.
Ade, P A R; Akiba, Y; Anthony, A E; Arnold, K; Atlas, M; Barron, D; Boettger, D; Borrill, J; Borys, C; Chapman, S; Chinone, Y; Dobbs, M; Elleflot, T; Errard, J; Fabbian, G; Feng, C; Flanigan, D; Gilbert, A; Grainger, W; Halverson, N W; Hasegawa, M; Hattori, K; Hazumi, M; Holzapfel, W L; Hori, Y; Howard, J; Hyland, P; Inoue, Y; Jaehnig, G C; Jaffe, A; Keating, B; Kermish, Z; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T; Le Jeune, M; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Linder, E; Lungu, M; Matsuda, F; Matsumura, T; Meng, X; Miller, N J; Morii, H; Moyerman, S; Myers, M J; Navaroli, M; Nishino, H; Paar, H; Peloton, J; Poletti, D; Quealy, E; Rebeiz, G; Reichardt, C L; Richards, P L; Ross, C; Rotermund, K; Schanning, I; Schenck, D E; Sherwin, B D; Shimizu, A; Shimmin, C; Shimon, M; Siritanasak, P; Smecher, G; Spieler, H; Stebor, N; Steinbach, B; Stompor, R; Suzuki, A; Takakura, S; Tikhomirov, A; Tomaru, T; Wilson, B; Yadav, A; Zahn, O
2014-04-04
We reconstruct the gravitational lensing convergence signal from cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization data taken by the Polarbear experiment and cross-correlate it with cosmic infrared background maps from the Herschel satellite. From the cross spectra, we obtain evidence for gravitational lensing of the CMB polarization at a statistical significance of 4.0σ and indication of the presence of a lensing B-mode signal at a significance of 2.3σ. We demonstrate that our results are not biased by instrumental and astrophysical systematic errors by performing null tests, checks with simulated and real data, and analytical calculations. This measurement of polarization lensing, made via the robust cross-correlation channel, not only reinforces POLARBEAR auto-correlation measurements, but also represents one of the early steps towards establishing CMB polarization lensing as a powerful new probe of cosmology and astrophysics.
Ade, P A R; Anthony, A E; Arnold, K; Barron, D; Boettger, D; Borrill, J; Borys, C; Chapman, S; Chinone, Y; Dobbs, M; Elleflot, T; Errard, J; Fabbian, G; Feng, C; Flanigan, D; Gilbert, A; Grainger, W; Halverson, N W; Hasegawa, M; Hattori, K; Hazumi, M; Holzapfel, W L; Hori, Y; Howard, J; Hyland, P; Inoue, Y; Jaehnig, G C; Jaffe, A; Keating, B; Kermish, Z; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T; Jeune, M Le; Lee, A T; Linder, E; Lungu, M; Matsuda, F; Matsumura, T; Meng, X; Miller, N J; Morii, H; Moyerman, S; Myers, M J; Navaroli, M; Nishino, H; Paar, H; Peloton, J; Quealy, E; Rebeiz, G; Reichardt, C L; Richards, P L; Ross, C; Rotermund, K; Schanning, I; Schenck, D E; Sherwin, B D; Shimizu, A; Shimmin, C; Shimon, M; Siritanasak, P; Smecher, G; Spieler, H; Stebor, N; Steinbach, B; Stompor, R; Suzuki, A; Takakura, S; Tikhomirov, A; Tomaru, T; Wilson, B; Yadav, A; Zahn, O
2013-01-01
We reconstruct the gravitational lensing convergence signal from Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization data taken by the POLARBEAR experiment and cross-correlate it with Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) maps from the Herschel satellite. From the cross-spectra, we obtain evidence for gravitational lensing of the CMB polarization at a statistical significance of 4.0$\\sigma$ and evidence for the presence of a lensing $B$-mode signal at a significance of 2.3$\\sigma$. We demonstrate that our results are not biased by instrumental and astrophysical systematic errors by performing null-tests, checks with simulated and real data, and analytical calculations. This measurement of polarization lensing, made via the robust cross-correlation channel, not only reinforces POLARBEAR auto-correlation measurements, but also represents one of the early steps towards establishing CMB polarization lensing as a powerful new probe of cosmology and astrophysics.
Dong, Keqiang; Zhang, Hong; Gao, You
2017-01-01
Identifying the mutual interaction in aero-engine gas path system is a crucial problem that facilitates the understanding of emerging structures in complex system. By employing the multiscale multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis method to aero-engine gas path system, the cross-correlation characteristics between gas path system parameters are established. Further, we apply multiscale multifractal detrended cross-correlation distance matrix and minimum spanning tree to investigate the mutual interactions of gas path variables. The results can infer that the low-spool rotor speed (N1) and engine pressure ratio (EPR) are main gas path parameters. The application of proposed method contributes to promote our understanding of the internal mechanisms and structures of aero-engine dynamics.
Contribution of Cross-Correlations to the 21cm Angular Power Spectrum in the Epoch of Reionization
Zheng, Qian
2009-01-01
Measurement of the 21cm hyperfine transition of neutral hydrogen provides a unique probe of the epoch of reionization and the Dark Ages. Three major mechanisms are believed to dominate the radiation process: emission from neutral hydrogen surrounding the ionized bubbles of first galaxies and/or quasars, emission from neutral hydrogen inside minihalos, and absorption of diffuse neutral hydrogen against the cosmic microwave background. In the present work, by simply combining the existing analytic models for the three mechanisms, we investigate the contribution of cross-correlation between these three components to the total 21cm angular power spectrum, in the sense that neutral hydrogen associated with different radiation processes traces the large-scale structures of underlying density perturbations. While the overall 21cm power spectrum remains almost unchanged with the inclusion of the cross-correlations, the cross-correlation may play a key role in the determination of the 21cm power spectrum during the tr...
DCCA cross-correlation in blue-chips companies: A view of the 2008 financial crisis in the Eurozone
Guedes, E.; Dionísio, A.; Ferreira, P. J.; Zebende, G. F.
2017-08-01
In this paper we analyze the blue-chips (up to 50% of the total index) companies in the Eurozone. Our motivation being analysis of the effect of the 2008 financial crisis. For this purpose, we apply the DCCA cross-correlation coefficient (ρDCCA) between the country stock market index and their respective blue-chips. Then, with the cross-correlation coefficient, we qualify and quantify how each blue-chip is adherent to its country index, evaluating the type of cross-correlation among them. Subsequently, for each blue-chip, we propose to study the 2008 financial crisis by measuring the adherence between post and pre-crisis. From this analysis, we can construct an adhesion map of each company with respect to the global index. Our database is formed of 12 Eurozone countries.
Eckert, S.; Beye, M.; Schlotter, W. F.; Dakovski, G. L.; Khalil, M.; Huse, N.; Föhlisch, A.; Pietzsch, A.; Quevedo, W.; Hantschmann, M.; Ochmann, M.; Ross, M.; Minitti, M. P.; Turner, J. J.; Moeller, S. P.
2015-01-01
The discovery of ultrafast X-ray induced optical reflectivity changes enabled the development of X-ray/optical cross correlation techniques at X-ray free electron lasers worldwide. We have now linked through experiment and theory the fundamental excitation and relaxation steps with the transient optical properties in finite solid samples. Therefore, we gain a thorough interpretation and an optimized detection scheme of X-ray induced changes to the refractive index and the X-ray/optical cross ...
Cross-correlative 3D micro-structural investigation of human bone processed into bone allografts
Singh, Atul Kumar [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo [Tissue Bank, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400012 (India); Rai, Ratan Kumar [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Khan, Mohd Parvez [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Singh, Chandan [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Barbhuyan, Tarun [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Vijayalakshmi, S. [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Chattopadhyay, Naibedya [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Sinha, Neeraj, E-mail: neerajcbmr@gmail.com [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Kumar, Ashutosh, E-mail: ashutoshk@iitb.ac.in [Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Bellare, Jayesh R., E-mail: jb@iitb.ac.in [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)
2016-05-01
Bone allografts (BA) are a cost-effective and sustainable alternative in orthopedic practice as they provide a permanent solution for preserving skeletal architecture and function. Such BA however, must be processed to be disease free and immunologically safe as well as biologically and clinically useful. Here, we have demonstrated a processing protocol for bone allografts and investigated the micro-structural properties of bone collected from osteoporotic and normal human donor samples. In order to characterize BA at different microscopic levels, a combination of techniques such as Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), micro-computed tomography (μCT) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used for delineating the ultra-structural property of bone. ssNMR revealed the extent of water, collagen fine structure and crystalline order in the bone. These were greatly perturbed in the bone taken from osteoporotic bone donor. Among the processing methods analyzed, pasteurization at 60 °C and radiation treatment appeared to substantially alter the bone integrity. SEM study showed a reduction in Ca/P ratio and non-uniform distribution of elements in osteoporotic bones. μ-CT and MIMICS® (Materialize Interactive Medical Image Control System) demonstrated that pasteurization and radiation treatment affects the BA morphology and cause a shift in the HU unit. However, the combination of all these processes restored all-important parameters that are critical for BA integrity and sustainability. Cross-correlation between the various probes we used quantitatively demonstrated differences in morphological and micro-structural properties between BA taken from normal and osteoporotic human donor. Such details could also be instrumental in designing an appropriate bone scaffold. For the best restoration of bone microstructure and to be used as a biomaterial allograft, a step-wise processing method is recommended that preserves all
Ambient Noise Cross-Correlation in the Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone (United States)
Kuponiyi, A. P.; Arroucau, P.; Vlahovic, G.; Yongan, T.; Vlahovic, B.
2011-12-01
The Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone (ETSZ) is an intraplate seismic region characterized by frequent but low magnitude earthquakes and is the second most active seismic area in the United States east of the Rocky Mountains. Since the middle of the seventies, the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) has installed and maintained several seismic networks in central and eastern United States. In this work, we use the continuous waveforms recorded at 24 short-period stations located in the vicinity of the eastern Tennessee seismic zone (ETSZ) and compute the cross-correlation function of the vertical component of the ambient noise wavefield for simultaneously recording station pairs. The resulting cross-correlograms are analysed by means of frequency-time analysis to extract Rayleigh wave group velocities that we subsequently use to compute Rayleigh wave tomographic maps of the region for periods ranging between 2 and 10 s, i.e. for periods sensitive to the structure of the upper crust. One key question in the ETSZ is the actual relationship between earthquake distribution and geological structure at depth. Seismicity is mostly confined in the Precambrian basement, below the Paleozoic cover of the southern Appalachian fold-and-thrust belt and shows little to no correlation with surface geological features. On the other hand, the earthquakes of the ETSZ clearly follow the trend of a feature observed on magnetic data: the New York-Alabama magnetic lineament (NYAL), a 1600-km long, northeast trending feature that is thought to be the expression of a major strike-slip fault affecting the Precambrian basement from the Mississippi embayment to the Green Mountains (northeast US). The actual extent at depth of this feature is not well established and is of primary interest to understand the seismicity of the ETSZ. By providing new information about the upper crustal structure of this region, this work is a contribution to the understanding of the seismic
González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.
2003-06-01
We apply the two-dimensional cross-correlation technique TODCOR to derive spectroscopic orbits for the two B-type double-lined spectroscopic binaries HD 66066A and HD 315031, previously mentioned as blue straggler candidates of the open clusters NGC 2516 and NGC 6530, respectively. Reliable radial velocities for both components are measured even for orbital phases for which the separation between the spectral lines are about 0.5 times the quadratic sum of the full-width at half-maximum of the lines. Both binaries have circular orbits and the orbital periods are 1.67 and 1.38 days for HD 66066A and HD 315031, respectively. We calculate minimum masses with errors of 3-5% and obtain the projected radii from the line widths. We derive absolute stellar parameters which are consistent with the age and distance of the clusters. Both binary systems are formed by main-sequence stars and it is expected that they will experience mass-transfer between their components before the end of the core H-burning stage. HD 315031 is likely a triple system as suggested by the variation of the center-of-mass velocity. The observations presented here were obtained at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina (CONICET) and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan.
Soldati, Gaia; Zaccarelli, Lucia; Faenza, Licia; Michelini, Alberto
2015-07-01
The relative seismic velocity variations possibly associated to large earthquakes can be readily monitored via cross-correlation of seismic noise. In a recently published study, more than 2 yr of continuous seismic records have been analysed from three stations surrounding the epicentre of the 2009 April 6, Mw 6.1 L'Aquila earthquake, observing a clear decrease of seismic velocities likely corresponding to the co-seismic shaking. Here, we extend the analysis in space, including seismic stations within a radius of 60 km from the main shock epicentre, and in time, collecting 5 yr of data for the six stations within 40 km of it. Our aim is to investigate how far the crustal damage is visible through this technique, and to detect a potential post-seismic recovery of velocity variations. We find that the co-seismic drop in velocity variations extends up to 40 km from the epicentre, with spatial distribution (maximum around the fault and in the north-east direction from it) in agreement with the horizontal co-seismic displacement detected by global positioning system (GPS). In the first few months after L'Aquila earthquake, the crust's perturbation in terms of velocity variations displays a very unstable behaviour, followed by a slow linear recovery towards pre-earthquake conditions; by almost 4 yr after the event, the co-seismic drop of seismic velocity is not yet fully recovered. The strong oscillations of the velocity changes in the first months after the earthquake prevent to detect the fast exponential recovery seen by GPS data. A test of differently parametrized fitting curves demonstrate that the post-seismic recovery is best explained by a sum of a logarithmic and a linear term, suggesting that processes like viscoelastic relaxation, frictional afterlip and poroelastic rebound may be acting concurrently.
Edo-Gual, Montserrat; Monforte-Royo, Cristina; Aradilla-Herrero, Amor; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín
2015-09-01
To analyse the relationship between death attitudes, emotional intelligence, resilience and self-esteem in a sample of nursing undergraduates. The death attitudes held by nursing students may influence the care they offer to end-of-life patients and their families. Emotional intelligence, resilience and self-esteem are important social and emotional competencies for coping positively with death and dying. Cross-sectional and correlational study. Participants were 760 nursing undergraduates from four nursing schools in Spain. Data were collected in 2013-2014. The students responded anonymously to a self-report questionnaire that gathered socio-demographic data and which assessed the following aspects: fear of death (Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale), death anxiety (Death Anxiety Inventory-Revised), perceived emotional intelligence (Trait Meta-Mood Scale, with its three dimensions: attention, clarity and repair), resilience (Brief Resilient Coping Scale) and self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). In addition to descriptive statistics, analyses of variance, mean differences, correlations and regression analyses were computed. Linear regression analysis indicated that attention to feelings, resilience and self-esteem are the significant predictors of death anxiety. The results show that death anxiety and fear of death are modulated by social and emotional competencies associated with positive coping. The training offered to future nurses should include not only scientific knowledge and technical skills but also strategies for developing social and emotional competencies. In this way, they will be better equipped to cope positively and constructively with the suffering and death they encounter at work, thus helping them to offer compassionate patient-centred care and minimising the distress they experience in the process. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Correlates of Unsupervised Bathing of Infants: A Cross-Sectional Study
Tinneke M. J. Beirens
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Drowning represents the third leading cause of fatal unintentional injury in infants (0–1 years. The aim of this study is to investigate correlates of unsupervised bathing. This cross-sectional study included 1,410 parents with an infant. Parents completed a questionnaire regarding supervision during bathing, socio-demographic factors, and Protection Motivation Theory-constructs. To determine correlates of parents who leave their infant unsupervised, logistic regression analyses were performed. Of the parents, 6.2% left their child unsupervised in the bathtub. Parents with older children (OR 1.24; 95%CI 1.00–1.54 were more likely to leave their child unsupervised in the bathtub. First-time parents (OR 0.59; 95%CI 0.36–0.97 and non-Western migrant fathers (OR 0.18; 95%CI 0.05–0.63 were less likely to leave their child unsupervised in the bathtub. Furthermore, parents who perceived higher self-efficacy (OR 0.57; 95%CI 0.47–0.69, higher response efficacy (OR 0.34; 95%CI 0.24–0.48, and higher severity (OR 0.74; 95%CI 0.58–0.93 were less likely to leave their child unsupervised. Since young children are at great risk of drowning if supervision is absent, effective strategies for drowning prevention should be developed and evaluated. In the meantime, health care professionals should inform parents with regard to the importance of supervision during bathing.
Munoz-Diosdado, A [Department of Mathematics, Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Biotecnologia, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. Acueducto s/n, 07340, Mexico City (Mexico)
2005-01-01
We analyzed databases with gait time series of adults and persons with Parkinson, Huntington and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) diseases. We obtained the staircase graphs of accumulated events that can be bounded by a straight line whose slope can be used to distinguish between gait time series from healthy and ill persons. The global Hurst exponent of these series do not show tendencies, we intend that this is because some gait time series have monofractal behavior and others have multifractal behavior so they cannot be characterized with a single Hurst exponent. We calculated the multifractal spectra, obtained the spectra width and found that the spectra of the healthy young persons are almost monofractal. The spectra of ill persons are wider than the spectra of healthy persons. In opposition to the interbeat time series where the pathology implies loss of multifractality, in the gait time series the multifractal behavior emerges with the pathology. Data were collected from healthy and ill subjects as they walked in a roughly circular path and they have sensors in both feet, so we have one time series for the left foot and other for the right foot. First, we analyzed these time series separately, and then we compared both results, with direct comparison and with a cross correlation analysis. We tried to find differences in both time series that can be used as indicators of equilibrium problems.
Cross-correlation Weak Lensing of SDSS Galaxy Clusters III: Mass-to-light Ratios
Sheldon, Erin S; Masjedi, Morad; McKay, Timothy A; Blanton, Michael R; Scranton, Ryan; Wechsler, Risa H; Koester, Ben P; Hansen, Sarah M; Frieman, Joshua A; Annis, James
2007-01-01
We present measurements of the excess mass-to-light ratio (M/L) measured around MaxBCG galaxy clusters observed in the SDSS. Using cross-correlation weak lensing, we measure the excess mass density profile above the universal mean \\Delta \\rho(r) = \\rho(r) - \\bar{\\rho} for clusters in bins of richness and optical luminosity. We also measure the excess ^{0.25}i-band luminosity density \\Delta l(r) = l(r) - \\bar{l}. For both mass and light, we de-project the profiles to produce 3D mass and light profiles over scales from 25 kpc/h to 22 Mpc/h. From these profiles we calculate the cumulative excess mass \\Delta M(r) and excess light \\Delta L(r) as a function of separation from the BCG. On small scales, where \\rho(r) >> \\bar{\\rho}, the integrated M/L profile may be interpreted as the cluster M/L. We find the (\\Delta M/\\Delta L)_{200}, the M/L within r_{200}, scales with cluster mass as a power law with index 0.33+/-0.02. On large scales, where \\rho(r) . We find /b^2_{ml} = 362+/-54 h measured in the ^{0.25}i-bandpass...
Cross-correlation Weak Lensing of SDSS Galaxy Clusters I: Measurements
Sheldon, Erin S; Scranton, Ryan; Koester, Ben P; McKay, Timothy A; Oyaizu, Hiroaki; Cunha, Carlos; Lima, Marcos; Lin, Huan; Frieman, Joshua A; Wechsler, Risa H; Annis, James; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Bahcall, Neta A; Fukugita, Masataka
2007-01-01
This is the first in a series of papers on the weak lensing effect caused by clusters of galaxies in Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The photometrically selected cluster sample, known as MaxBCG, includes ~130,000 objects between redshift 0.1 and 0.3, ranging in size from small groups to massive clusters. We split the clusters into bins of richness and luminosity and stack the surface density contrast to produce mean radial profiles. The mean profiles are detected over a range of scales, from the inner halo (25 kpc/h) well into the surrounding large scale structure (30 Mpc/h), with a significance of 15 to 20 in each bin. The signal over this large range of scales is best interpreted in terms of the cluster-mass cross-correlation function. We pay careful attention to sources of systematic error, correcting for them where possible and bounding them where not. We find that the profiles scale strongly with richness and luminosity. We find the signal within a given richness bin depends upon luminosity, suggesting that lu...
Tomographic Imaging of Jakarta Area from Cross-correlation of Seismic Ambient Noise
Pranata, B.; Saygin, E.; Cummins, P. R.; Widiyantoro, S.; Nugraha, A. D.; Harjadi, P.; Suhardjono, S.
2012-12-01
Seismic imaging of sediment thickness of Jakarta is crucial where Jakarta city is currently being rapidly developed with major installations and high-rise structures being constructed at a fast pace. Therefore, information of surface geology and surface sediment thickness for Jakarta city is urgently required in order to mitigate the effects of earthquake hazards in the future. Because of this need, we deployed 36 broadband and shortperiod stations across Jakarta to record seismic ambient noise. We apply cross-correlation method to the simultaneously recorded data to retrieve interstation Green's functions. We measure group velocity dispersion of the retrieved Green's functions by applying narrowband filters. Dispersion measurements are then inverted with a nonlinear tomographic technique to image the shallow structure of Jakarta and its surrounding regions. Preliminary results from tomographic maps show low velocities dominantly located in central, west and north Jakarta. While the highest rate obtained is between stations in South Jakarta. This conforms with the known geological conditions in which the structure of sedimentary cover in northern Jakarta is thicker than the southern part.
Dependence of Adaptive Cross-correlation Algorithm Performance on the Extended Scene Image Quality
Sidick, Erkin
2008-01-01
Recently, we reported an adaptive cross-correlation (ACC) algorithm to estimate with high accuracy the shift as large as several pixels between two extended-scene sub-images captured by a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. It determines the positions of all extended-scene image cells relative to a reference cell in the same frame using an FFT-based iterative image-shifting algorithm. It works with both point-source spot images as well as extended scene images. We have demonstrated previously based on some measured images that the ACC algorithm can determine image shifts with as high an accuracy as 0.01 pixel for shifts as large 3 pixels, and yield similar results for both point source spot images and extended scene images. The shift estimate accuracy of the ACC algorithm depends on illumination level, background, and scene content in addition to the amount of the shift between two image cells. In this paper we investigate how the performance of the ACC algorithm depends on the quality and the frequency content of extended scene images captured by a Shack-Hatmann camera. We also compare the performance of the ACC algorithm with those of several other approaches, and introduce a failsafe criterion for the ACC algorithm-based extended scene Shack-Hatmann sensors.
A Joint Analysis for Cosmology and Photometric Redshift Calculation Using Cross Correlations
McLeod, Michael; Abdalla, Filipe B
2016-01-01
We present a method of calibrating the properties of photometric redshift bins as part of a larger Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis for the inference of cosmological parameters. The redshift bins are characterised by their mean and variance, which are varied as free parameters and marginalised over when obtaining the cosmological parameters. We demonstrate that the likelihood function for cross-correlations in an angular power spectrum framework tightly constrains the properties of bins such that they may be well determined, reducing their influence on cosmological parameters and avoiding the bias from poorly estimated redshift distributions. We demonstrate that even with only three photometric and three spectroscopic bins, we can recover accurate estimates of the mean redshift of a bin to within $\\Delta\\mu \\approx 3-4 \\times10^{-3}$ and the width of the bin to $\\Delta\\sigma \\approx 1\\times10^{-3}$ for galaxies near $z = 1$. This indicates that we may be able to bring down the photometric redshift err...
Eriksen, Martin
2015-01-01
In the first paper of this series, we studied the effect of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), redshift space distortions (RSD) and weak lensing (WL) on measurements of angular cross-correlations in narrow redshift bins. Paper-II presented a multitracer forecast as Figures of Merit (FoM), combining a photometric and spectroscopic stage-IV survey. The uncertainties from galaxy bias, the way light traces mass, is an important ingredient in the forecast. Fixing the bias would increase our FoM equivalent to 3.3 times larger area for the combined constraints. This paper focus on how the modelling of bias affect these results. In the combined forecast, lensing both help and benefit from the improved bias measurements in overlapping surveys after marginalizing over the cosmological parameters. Adding a second lens population in counts-shear does not have a large impact on bias error, but removing all counts-shear information increases the bias error in a significant way. We also discuss the relative impact of WL, m...
Pack, Chan-Gi, E-mail: changipack@amc.seoul.kr [Asan Institute for Life Sciences, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang-Gun [Dept. of Pathology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-07-31
The cellular response to stress is primarily controlled in cells via transcriptional activation by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). HSF1 is well-known to form homotrimers for activation upon heat shock and subsequently bind to target DNAs, such as heat-shock elements, by forming stress granules. A previous study demonstrated that nuclear HSF1 and HSF2 molecules in live cells interacted with target DNAs on the stress granules. However, the process underlying the binding interactions of HSF family in cells upon heat shock remains unclear. This study demonstrate for the first time that the interaction kinetics among nuclear HSF1, HSF2, and HSF4 upon heat shock can be detected directly in live cells using dual color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS). FCCS analyses indicated that the binding between HSFs was dramatically changed by heat shock. Interestingly, the recovery kinetics of interaction between HSF1 molecules after heat shock could be represented by changes in the relative interaction amplitude and mobility. - Highlights: • The binding interactions among nuclear HSFs were successfully detected. • The binding kinetics between HSF1s during recovery was quantified. • HSF2 and HSF4 strongly formed hetero-complex, even before heat shock. • Nuclear HSF2 and HSF4 bound to HSF1 only after heat shock.
Cross-correlation spectroscopy study of the transient spark discharge in atmospheric pressure air
Janda, Mário; Hoder, Tomáš; Sarani, Abdollah; Brandenburg, Ronny; Machala, Zdenko
2017-05-01
A streamer-to-spark transition in a self-pulsing transient spark (TS) discharge of positive polarity in air was investigated using cross-correlation spectroscopy. The entire temporal evolution of the TS was recorded for several spectral bands and lines: the second positive system of N2 (337.1 nm), the first negative system of {{{{N}}}2}+ (391.4 nm), and atomic oxygen (777.1 nm). The results enable the visualization of the different phases of discharge development including the primary streamer, the secondary streamer, and the transition to the spark. The spatio-temporal distribution of the reduced electric field strength during the primary streamer phase of the TS was determined and discussed. The transition from the streamer to the spark proceeds very fast within about 10 ns for the TS with a current pulse repetition rate in the range 8-10 kHz. This is attributed to memory effects, leading to a low net electron attachment rate and faster propagation of the secondary streamer. Gas heating, accumulation of species such as oxygen atoms from the previous TS pulses, as well as generation of charged particles by stepwise ionization seem to play important roles contributing to this fast streamer-to-spark transition.
Cross-correlation cosmography with intensity mapping of the neutral hydrogen 21 cm emission
Pourtsidou, A.; Bacon, D.; Crittenden, R.
2015-11-01
The cross-correlation of a foreground density field with two different background convergence fields can be used to measure cosmographic distance ratios and constrain dark energy parameters. We investigate the possibility of performing such measurements using a combination of optical galaxy surveys and neutral hydrogen (HI) intensity mapping surveys, with emphasis on the performance of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Using HI intensity mapping to probe the foreground density tracer field and/or the background source fields has the advantage of excellent redshift resolution and a longer lever arm achieved by using the lensing signal from high redshift background sources. Our results show that, for our best SKA-optical configuration of surveys, a constant equation of state for dark energy can be constrained to ≃8 % for a sky coverage fsky=0.5 and assuming a σ (ΩDE)=0.03 prior for the dark energy density parameter. We also show that using the cosmic microwave background as the second source plane is not competitive, even when considering a COrE-like satellite.
Karanikola, Maria Nk; Giannakopoulou, Margarita; Kalafati, Maria; Kaite, Charis P; Patiraki, Elisabeth; Mpouzika, Meropi; Papathanassoglou, Elisabeth E D; Middleton, Nicos
2016-01-01
To explore the severity of Anxiety Symptoms (AS) among Greek oncology nursing personnel, the degree of satisfaction from professional relationships, and potential association between them. A descriptive cross-sectional correlational study was performed in 2 Greek Oncology Hospitals, in 72 members of nursing personnel. Hamilton Anxiety Scale was used for the assessment of AS severity and the Index of Work Satisfaction subscale "Satisfaction from Interaction" for the degree of satisfaction from professional relationships among nursing personnel (NN) and between nursing personnel and physicians (NP). 11% of the sample reported clinical AS [≥26, scale range (SR): 0-52]. Satisfaction from NN [5.10 (SD: 1.04), SR: 1-7], and NP [4.21 (SD: 0.77), SR: 1-7] professional interaction were both moderate. Statistically significantly associations were observed between clinical AS and satisfaction from NN (p=0.014) and NP (p=0.013) professional interaction. Anxiety reduction interventions and improvement of professional relationships are essentials in order to reduce oncology nurses' psychological distress.
Quality of Life for Saudi Patients With Heart Failure: A Cross-Sectional Correlational Study.
AbuRuz, Mohannad Eid; Alaloul, Fawwaz; Saifan, Ahmed; Masa'deh, Rami; Abusalem, Said
2015-06-25
Heart failure is a major public health issue and a growing concern in developing countries, including Saudi Arabia. Most related research was conducted in Western cultures and may have limited applicability for individuals in Saudi Arabia. Thus, this study assesses the quality of life of Saudi patients with heart failure. A cross-sectional correlational design was used on a convenient sample of 103 patients with heart failure. Data were collected using the Short Form-36 and the Medical Outcomes Study-Social Support Survey. Overall, the patients' scores were low for all domains of Quality of Life. The Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary mean scores and SDs were (36.7±12.4, 48.8±6.5) respectively, indicating poor Quality of Life. Left ventricular ejection fraction was the strongest predictor of both physical and mental summaries. Identifying factors that impact quality of life for Saudi heart failure patients is important in identifying and meeting their physical and psychosocial needs.
Quality estimation of the electrocardiogram using cross-correlation among leads.
Morgado, Eduardo; Alonso-Atienza, Felipe; Santiago-Mozos, Ricardo; Barquero-Pérez, Óscar; Silva, Ikaro; Ramos, Javier; Mark, Roger
2015-06-20
Fast and accurate quality estimation of the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is a relevant research topic that has attracted considerable interest in the scientific community, particularly due to its impact on tele-medicine monitoring systems, where the ECG is collected by untrained technicians. In recent years, a number of studies have addressed this topic, showing poor performance in discriminating between clinically acceptable and unacceptable ECG records. This paper presents a novel, simple and accurate algorithm to estimate the quality of the 12-lead ECG by exploiting the structure of the cross-covariance matrix among different leads. Ideally, ECG signals from different leads should be highly correlated since they capture the same electrical activation process of the heart. However, in the presence of noise or artifacts the covariance among these signals will be affected. Eigenvalues of the ECG signals covariance matrix are fed into three different supervised binary classifiers. The performance of these classifiers were evaluated using PhysioNet/CinC Challenge 2011 data. Our best quality classifier achieved an accuracy of 0.898 in the test set, while having a complexity well below the results of contestants who participated in the Challenge, thus making it suitable for implementation in current cellular devices.
Lin-sheng Huo
2016-01-01
Full Text Available An effective method for the damage detection of skeletal structures which combines the cross correlation function amplitude (CCFA with the support vector machine (SVM is presented in this paper. The proposed method consists of two stages. Firstly, the data features are extracted from the CCFA, which, calculated from dynamic responses and as a representation of the modal shapes of the structure, changes when damage occurs on the structure. The data features are then input into the SVM with the one-against-one (OAO algorithm to classify the damage status of the structure. The simulation data of IASC-ASCE benchmark model and a vibration experiment of truss structure are adopted to verify the feasibility of proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is suitable for the damage identification of skeletal structures with the limited sensors subjected to ambient excitation. As the CCFA based data features are sensitive to damage, the proposed method demonstrates its reliability in the diagnosis of structures with damage, especially for those with minor damage. In addition, the proposed method shows better noise robustness and is more suitable for noisy environments.
Jammazi, Rania; Aloui, Chaker
2015-10-01
This paper analyzes the interactive linkages between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, energy consumption (EC) and economic growth (EG) using a novel approach namely wavelet windowed cross correlation (WWCC) for six oil-exporting countries from the GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) region over the period 1980-2012. Our empirical results show that there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between EC and EG. However, the results support the occurrence of unidirectional causality from EC to CO2 emissions without any feedback effects, and there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between EG and CO2 emissions for the region as a whole. The study suggests that environmental and energy policies should recognize the differences in the nexus between EC and EG in order to maintain sustainable EG in the GCC region. Our findings will be useful for GCC countries to better evaluate its situation in the future climate negotiations. The overall findings will help GCC countries assess its position better in future climate change negotiations.
A cross-correlation search for intermediate-duration gravitational waves from GRB magnetars
Coyne, Robert
2015-04-01
Since the discovery of the afterglow in 1997, the progress made in our understanding of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has been spectacular. Yet a direct proof of GRB progenitors is still missing. In the last few years, evidence for a long-lived and sustained central engine in GRBs has mounted. This has called attention to the so-called millisecond-magnetar model, which proposes that a highly magnetized, rapidly-rotating neutron star may exist at the heart of some of these events. The advent of advanced gravitational wave detectors such as LIGO and Virgo may enable us to probe directly, for the first time, the nature of GRB progenitors and their byproducts. In this context, we describe a novel application of a generalized cross-correlation technique optimized for the detection of long-duration gravitational wave signals that may be associated with bar-like deformations of GRB magnetars. The detection of these signals would allow us to answer some of the most intriguing questions on the nature of GRB progenitors, and serve as a starting point for a new class of intermediate-duration gravitational wave searches.
Experimental cross-correlation nitrogen Q-branch CARS thermometry in a spark ignition engine
Lockett, R. D.; Ball, D.; Robertson, G. N.
2013-07-01
A purely experimental technique was employed to derive temperatures from nitrogen Q-branch Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) spectra, obtained in a high pressure, high temperature environment (spark ignition Otto engine). This was in order to obviate any errors arising from deficiencies in the spectral scaling laws which are commonly used to represent nitrogen Q-branch CARS spectra at high pressure. The spectra obtained in the engine were compared with spectra obtained in a calibrated high pressure, high temperature cell, using direct cross-correlation in place of the minimisation of sums of squares of residuals. The technique is demonstrated through the measurement of air temperature as a function of crankshaft angle inside the cylinder of a motored single-cylinder Ricardo E6 research engine, followed by the measurement of fuel-air mixture temperatures obtained during the compression stroke in a knocking Ricardo E6 engine. A standard CARS programme (SANDIA's CARSFIT) was employed to calibrate the altered non-resonant background contribution to the CARS spectra that was caused by the alteration to the mole fraction of nitrogen in the unburned fuel-air mixture. The compression temperature profiles were extrapolated in order to predict the auto-ignition temperatures.
SKA Weak Lensing I: Cosmological Forecasts and the Power of Radio-Optical Cross-Correlations
Harrison, Ian; Camera, Stefano; Zuntz, Joe; Brown, L.
2016-09-01
We construct forecasts for cosmological parameter constraints from weak gravitational lensing surveys involving the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Considering matter content, dark energy and modified gravity parameters, we show that the first phase of the SKA (SKA1) can be competitive with other Stage III experiments such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and that the full SKA (SKA2) can potentially form tighter constraints than Stage IV optical weak lensing experiments, such as those that will be conducted with LSST, WFIRST-AFTA or Euclid-like facilities. Using weak lensing alone, going from SKA1 to SKA2 represents improvements by factors of ˜10 in matter, ˜10 in dark energy and ˜5 in modified gravity parameters. We also show, for the first time, the powerful result that comparably tight constraints (within ˜5%) for both Stage III and Stage IV experiments, can be gained from cross-correlating shear maps between the optical and radio wavebands, a process which can also eliminate a number of potential sources of systematic errors which can otherwise limit the utility of weak lensing cosmology.
Neural correlates of cross-modal affective priming by music in Williams syndrome.
Lense, Miriam D; Gordon, Reyna L; Key, Alexandra P F; Dykens, Elisabeth M
2014-04-01
Emotional connection is the main reason people engage with music, and the emotional features of music can influence processing in other domains. Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder where musicality and sociability are prominent aspects of the phenotype. This study examined oscillatory brain activity during a musical affective priming paradigm. Participants with WS and age-matched typically developing controls heard brief emotional musical excerpts or emotionally neutral sounds and then reported the emotional valence (happy/sad) of subsequently presented faces. Participants with WS demonstrated greater evoked fronto-central alpha activity to the happy vs sad musical excerpts. The size of these alpha effects correlated with parent-reported emotional reactivity to music. Although participant groups did not differ in accuracy of identifying facial emotions, reaction time data revealed a music priming effect only in persons with WS, who responded faster when the face matched the emotional valence of the preceding musical excerpt vs when the valence differed. Matching emotional valence was also associated with greater evoked gamma activity thought to reflect cross-modal integration. This effect was not present in controls. The results suggest a specific connection between music and socioemotional processing and have implications for clinical and educational approaches for WS.
Dissecting the high-z interstellar medium through intensity mapping cross-correlations
Serra, Paolo; Lagache, Guilaine
2016-01-01
We explore the detection, with upcoming spectroscopic surveys, of three-dimensional power spectra of emission line fluctuations produced in different phases of the Interstellar Medium (ISM) by ionized carbon, ionized nitrogen and neutral oxygen at redshift z>4. The emission line [CII] from ionized carbon at 157.7 micron, and multiple emission lines from carbon monoxide, are the main targets of planned ground-based surveys, and an important foreground for future space-based surveys like the Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE). However, the oxygen [OI] (145.5 micron) line, and the nitrogen [NII] (121.9 micron and 205.2 micron) lines, might be detected in correlation with [CII] with reasonable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). These lines are important coolants of both the neutral and the ionized medium, and probe multiple phases of the ISM. We compute predictions of the three-dimensional power spectra for two surveys designed to target the [CII] line, showing that they have the required sensitivity to detect cross...
A joint analysis for cosmology and photometric redshift calibration using cross-correlations
McLeod, Michael; Balan, Sreekumar T.; Abdalla, Filipe B.
2017-04-01
We present a method of calibrating the properties of photometric redshift bins as part of a larger nested sampling analysis for the inference of cosmological parameters. The redshift bins are characterized by their mean and variance, which are varied as free parameters and marginalized over when obtaining the cosmological parameters. We demonstrate that the likelihood function for cross-correlations in an angular power spectrum framework tightly constrains the properties of bins such that they may be well determined, reducing their influence on cosmological parameters and avoiding the bias from poorly estimated redshift distributions. We demonstrate that even with only three photometric and three spectroscopic bins, we can recover accurate estimates of the mean redshift of a bin to within Δμ ≈ 3-4 × 10-3 and the width of the bin to Δσ ≈ 1 × 10-3 for galaxies near z = 1. This indicates that we may be able to bring down the photometric redshift errors to a level which is in line with the requirements for the next generation of cosmological experiments.
Environmental Quenching and Galactic Conformity in the Galaxy Cross-Correlation Signal
Hatfield, P W
2016-01-01
It has long been known that environment has a large effect on star formation in galaxies. There are several known plausible mechanisms to remove the cool gas needed for star formation, such as strangulation, harassment and ram-pressure stripping. It is unclear which process is dominant, and over what range of stellar mass. In this paper, we find evidence for suppression of the cross-correlation function between massive galaxies and less massive star-forming galaxies, giving a measure of how less likely a galaxy is to be star-forming in the vicinity of a more massive galaxy. We develop a formalism for modelling environmental quenching mechanisms within the Halo Occupation Distribution formalism. We find that at $z \\sim 2$ environment is not a significant factor in determining quenching of star-forming galaxies, and that galaxies are quenched with similar probabilities in group environments as they are globally. However, by $z \\sim 0.5$ galaxies are much less likely to be star forming when in a group environmen...
Alejos, Ana Vazques; Dawood, Muhammad
2012-06-01
In this contribution we examine the propagation of an ultrawideband (UWB) random noise signal through dispersive media such as soil, vegetation, and water, using Fourier-based analysis. For such media, the propagated signal undergoes medium-specific impairments which degrade the received signal in a different way than the non-dispersive propagation media. Theoretically, larger penetration depths into a dispersive medium can be achieved by identifying and detecting the precursors, thereby offering significantly better signal-to-noise ratio and enhanced imaging. For a random noise signal, well defined precursors in term of peak-amplitude don't occur. The phenomenon must therefore be studied in terms of energy evolution. Additionally, the distortion undergone by the UWB random noise signal through a dispersive medium can introduce frequency-dependent uncertainty or noise in the received signal. This leads to larger degradation of the cross-correlation function (CCF), mainly in terms of sidelobe levels and main peak deformation, and consequently making the information retrieval difficult. We would further analyze one method to restore the shape and carrier frequency of the input UWB random noise signal, thereby, improving the CCF estimation.
Statistical Study of 2XMMi-DR3/SDSS-DR8 Cross-correlation Sample
Yan-Xia, Zhang; Yong-Heng, Zhao; Xue-Bing, Wu; 10.1088/0004-6256/145/2/42
2013-01-01
Cross-correlating the XMM-Newton 2XMMi-DR3 catalog with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8, we obtain one of the largest X-ray/optical catalogs and explore the distribution of various classes of X-ray emitters in the multidimensional photometric parameter space. Quasars and galaxies occupy different zones while stars scatter in them. However, X-ray active stars have a certain distributing rule according to spectral types. The earlier the type of stars, the stronger X-ray emitting. X-ray active stars have a similar distribution to most of stars in the g-r versus r-i diagram. Based on the identified samples with SDSS spectral classification, a random forest algorithm for automatic classification is performed. The result shows that the classification accuracy of quasars and galaxies adds up to more than 93.0% while that of X-ray emitting stars only amounts to 45.3%. In other words, it is easy to separate quasars and galaxies, but it is difficult to discriminate X-ray active stars from quasars and...
Correlates of local safety-related concerns in a Swedish Community: a cross-sectional study
Timpka Toomas
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Crime in a neighbourhood has been recognized as a key stressor in the residential environment. Fear of crime is related to risk assessment, which depends on the concentration of objective risk in time and space, and on the presence of subjective perceived early signs of imminent hazard. The aim of the study was to examine environmental, socio-demographic, and personal correlates of safety-related concerns at the local level in urban communities. The specific aim was to investigate such correlates in contiguous neighbourhoods in a Swedish urban municipality. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used to investigate three neighbourhood settings with two pair-wise conterminous but socially contrasting areas within each setting. Crime data were retrieved from police records. Study data were collected through a postal questionnaire distributed to adult residents (n = 2476 (response rate 56%. Composite dimensions of perceived residential safety were derived through a factor analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between high-level scores of the three safety-related dimensions and area-level crime rate, being a victim of crime, area reputation, gender, age, education, country of birth, household civil status and type of housing. Results Three composite dimensions of perceived residential safety were identified: (I structural indicators of social disorder; (II contact with disorderly behavior; and (III existential insecurity. We found that area-level crime rates and individual-level variables were associated with the dimensions structural indicators of social disorder and existential insecurity, but only individual-level variables were associated with the dimension contact with disorderly behavior. Self-assessed less favorable area reputation was found to be strongly associated with all three factors. Being female accorded existential insecurity more than being a victim of crime. Conclusion We
A detrended cross correlation analysis for stock markets of the United States, Japan, and the Europe
Ikeda, Taro
2017-10-01
This paper investigates the long range cross covariances among the stock price returns for the United States, Japan, and the Europe. Empirical results suggest that the stock price returns of these regions have cross covariances of slow moving fluctuations.
Bashir, Usman; Yu, Yugang; Hussain, Muntazir; Zebende, Gilney F.
2016-11-01
This paper investigates the dynamics of the relationship between foreign exchange markets and stock markets through time varying co-movements. In this sense, we analyzed the time series monthly of Latin American countries for the period from 1991 to 2015. Furthermore, we apply Granger causality to verify the direction of causality between foreign exchange and stock market and detrended cross-correlation approach (ρDCCA) for any co-movements at different time scales. Our empirical results suggest a positive cross correlation between exchange rate and stock price for all Latin American countries. The findings reveal two clear patterns of correlation. First, Brazil and Argentina have positive correlation in both short and long time frames. Second, the remaining countries are negatively correlated in shorter time scale, gradually moving to positive. This paper contributes to the field in three ways. First, we verified the co-movements of exchange rate and stock prices that were rarely discussed in previous empirical studies. Second, ρDCCA coefficient is a robust and powerful methodology to measure the cross correlation when dealing with non stationarity of time series. Third, most of the studies employed one or two time scales using co-integration and vector autoregressive approaches. Not much is known about the co-movements at varying time scales between foreign exchange and stock markets. ρDCCA coefficient facilitates the understanding of its explanatory depth.
Park, Hyojin; Kang, Eunjoo; Kang, Hyejin; Kim, June Sic; Jensen, Ole; Chung, Chun Kee; Lee, Dong Soo
2011-01-01
In the present study, we characterized within- and cross-frequency power correlations from magnetoencephalography (MEG) data in order to understand how different brain regions cooperate as a network to maintain working memory representations with several features. The working memory items were composed of spatially arranged dots supposedly requiring both the dorsal and the ventral stream to be engaged during maintenance. Using a beamforming technique, we localized memory-dependent sources in the alpha, beta, and gamma bands. After the single-trial power values were extracted from these frequency bands with respect to each source, we calculated the correlations within- and cross-frequency bands. The following general picture emerged: gamma power in right superior temporal gyrus (STG) during working memory maintenance was correlated with numerous other sources in the alpha band in prefrontal, parietal, and posterior regions. In addition, the power correlations within the alpha band showed correlations across posterior-parietal-frontal regions. From these findings, we suggest that the STG dominated by gamma activity serves as a hub region for the network nodes responsible for the retention of the stimulus used in this study, which is likely to depend on both the "where-" and the "what-" visual system simultaneously. The present study demonstrates how oscillatory dynamics reflecting the interaction between cortical areas can be investigated by means of cross-frequency power correlations in source space. This methodological framework could be of general utility when studying functional network properties of the working brain.
Ganga, Ken; Cheng, ED; Meyer, Stephan; Page, Lyman
1993-01-01
This letter describes results of a cross-correlation between the 170 GHz partial-sky survey, made with a 3.8 deg beam balloon-borne instrument, and the COBE DMR 'Fit Technique' reduced galaxy all-sky map with a beam of 7 deg. The strong correlation between the data sets implies that the observed structure is consistent with thermal variations in a 2.7 K emitter. A chi-square analysis applied to the correlation function rules out the assumption that there is no structure in either of the two maps. A second test shows that if the DMR map has structure but the 170 GHz map does not, the probability of obtaining the observed correlation is small. Further analyses support the assumption that both maps have structure and that the 170 GHz-DMR cross-correlation is consistent with the analogous DMR correlation function. Maps containing various combinations of noise and Harrison-Zel'dovich power spectra are simulated and correlated to reinforce the result. The correlation provides compelling evidence that both instruments have observed fluctuations consistent with anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background.
Robust Cross-correlation-based Measurement of Clump Sizes in Galaxies
Ali, Kamran; Obreschkow, Danail; Fisher, David B.; Glazebrook, Karl; Damjanov, Ivana; Abraham, Roberto G.; Bassett, Robert
2017-08-01
Stars form in molecular complexes that are visible as giant clouds (˜ {10}5-6 {M}⊙ ) in nearby galaxies and as giant clumps (˜ {10}8-9 {M}⊙ ) in galaxies at redshifts z≈ 1-3. Theoretical inferences on the origin and evolution of these complexes often require robust measurements of their characteristic size, which is hard to measure at limited resolution and often ill-defined due to overlap and quasi-fractal substructure. We show that maximum and luminosity-weighted sizes of clumps seen in star formation maps (e.g., Hα) can be recovered statistically using the two-point correlation function (2PCF) if an approximate stellar surface density map is taken as the normalizing random field. After clarifying the link between Gaussian clumps and the 2PCF analytically, we design a method for measuring the diameters of Gaussian clumps with realistic quasi-fractal substructure. This method is tested using mock images of clumpy disk galaxies at different spatial resolutions and perturbed by Gaussian white noise. We find that the 2PCF can recover the input clump scale at ˜ 20 % accuracy, as long as this scale is larger than the spatial resolution. We apply this method to the local spiral galaxy NGC 5194, as well as to three clumpy turbulent galaxies from the DYNAMO-HST sample. In both cases, our statistical measurements of Hα clump size agree with previous measurements and with the estimated Jeans lengths. However, the new measurements are free from subjective choices when fitting individual clumps.
KERNEL FEATURE CROSS-CORRELATION FOR UNSUPERVISED QUANTIFICATION OF DAMAGE FROM WINDTHROW IN FORESTS
F. Pirotti
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this study estimation of tree damage from a windthrow event using feature detection on RGB high resolution imagery is assessed. An accurate quantitative assessment of the damage in terms of volume is important and can be done by ground sampling, which is notably expensive and time-consuming, or by manual interpretation and analyses of aerial images. This latter manual method also requires an expert operator investing time to manually detect damaged trees and apply relation functions between measures and volume which are also error-prone. In the proposed method RGB images with 0.2 m ground sample distance are analysed using an adaptive template matching method. Ten images corresponding to ten separate study areas are tested. A 13x13 pixels kernel with a simplified linear-feature representation of a cylinder is applied at different rotation angles (from 0° to 170° at 10° steps. The higher values of the normalized cross-correlation (NCC of all angles are recorded for each pixel for each image. Several features are tested: percentiles (75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 99, max and sum and number of pixels with NCC above 0.55. Three regression methods are tested, multiple regression (mr, support vector machines (svm with linear kernel and random forests. The first two methods gave the best results. The ground-truth was acquired by ground sampling, and total volumes of damaged trees are estimated for each of the 10 areas. Damaged volumes in the ten areas range from ~1.8 x102 m3 to ~1.2x104 m3. Regression results show that smv regression method over the sum gives an R-squared of 0.92, a mean of absolute errors (MAE of 255 m3 and a relative absolute error (RAE of 34% using leave-one-out cross validation from the 10 observations. These initial results are encouraging and support further investigations on more finely tuned kernel template metrics to define an unsupervised image analysis process to automatically assess forest damage from windthrow.
Optimization of Ambient Noise Cross-Correlation Imaging Across Large Dense Array
Sufri, O.; Xie, Y.; Lin, F. C.; Song, W.
2015-12-01
Ambient Noise Tomography is currently one of the most studied topics of seismology. It gives possibility of studying physical properties of rocks from the depths of subsurface to the upper mantle depths using recorded noise sources. A network of new seismic sensors, which are capable of recording continuous seismic noise and doing the processing at the same time on-site, could help to assess possible risk of volcanic activity on a volcano and help to understand the changes in physical properties of a fault before and after an earthquake occurs. This new seismic sensor technology could also be used in oil and gas industry to figure out depletion rate of a reservoir and help to improve velocity models for obtaining better seismic reflection cross-sections. Our recent NSF funded project is bringing seismologists, signal processors, and computer scientists together to develop a new ambient noise seismic imaging system which could record continuous seismic noise and process it on-site and send Green's functions and/or tomography images to the network. Such an imaging system requires optimum amount of sensors, sensor communication, and processing of the recorded data. In order to solve these problems, we first started working on the problem of optimum amount of sensors and the communication between these sensors by using small aperture dense network called Sweetwater Array, deployed by Nodal Seismic in 2014. We downloaded ~17 day of continuous data from 2268 one-component stations between March 30-April 16 2015 from IRIS DMC and performed cross-correlation to determine the lag times between station pairs. The lag times were then entered in matrix form. Our goal is to selecting random lag time values in the matrix and assuming all other elements of the matrix either missing or unknown and performing matrix completion technique to find out how close the results from matrix completion technique would be close to the real calculated values. This would give us better idea
Kernel Feature Cross-Correlation for Unsupervised Quantification of Damage from Windthrow in Forests
Pirotti, F.; Travaglini, D.; Giannetti, F.; Kutchartt, E.; Bottalico, F.; Chirici, G.
2016-06-01
In this study estimation of tree damage from a windthrow event using feature detection on RGB high resolution imagery is assessed. An accurate quantitative assessment of the damage in terms of volume is important and can be done by ground sampling, which is notably expensive and time-consuming, or by manual interpretation and analyses of aerial images. This latter manual method also requires an expert operator investing time to manually detect damaged trees and apply relation functions between measures and volume which are also error-prone. In the proposed method RGB images with 0.2 m ground sample distance are analysed using an adaptive template matching method. Ten images corresponding to ten separate study areas are tested. A 13x13 pixels kernel with a simplified linear-feature representation of a cylinder is applied at different rotation angles (from 0° to 170° at 10° steps). The higher values of the normalized cross-correlation (NCC) of all angles are recorded for each pixel for each image. Several features are tested: percentiles (75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 99, max) and sum and number of pixels with NCC above 0.55. Three regression methods are tested, multiple regression (mr), support vector machines (svm) with linear kernel and random forests. The first two methods gave the best results. The ground-truth was acquired by ground sampling, and total volumes of damaged trees are estimated for each of the 10 areas. Damaged volumes in the ten areas range from ~1.8 x102 m3 to ~1.2x104 m3. Regression results show that smv regression method over the sum gives an R-squared of 0.92, a mean of absolute errors (MAE) of 255 m3 and a relative absolute error (RAE) of 34% using leave-one-out cross validation from the 10 observations. These initial results are encouraging and support further investigations on more finely tuned kernel template metrics to define an unsupervised image analysis process to automatically assess forest damage from windthrow.
Smedstad, LM; Moum, T; Guillemin, F; Kvien, TK; Finch, MB; Suurmeijer, TPBM; vandenHeuvel, WJA
1996-01-01
In this cross-sectional study of 706 European patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of less than or equal to 4 yr duration, we examined possible correlates of functional disability assessed by the Health Assessment Questionnaire. First, we examined a subsample of 237 Norwegian patients. The Ritchi
Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Aghanim, Nabila; Langer, Mathieu; Douspis, Marian; Zaroubi, Saleem
2008-01-01
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization and the 21-cm line fluctuations are powerful probes of cosmological reionization. We study how the cross-correlation between the CMB polarization (E modes) and the 21-cm line fluctuations can be used to gain further understanding of the reionization
Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Fokkema, J.; Snieder, R.
2005-01-01
We compare two approaches for deriving the fact that the Green’s function in an arbitrary inhomogeneous open system can be obtained by cross correlating recordings of the wave field at two positions. One approach is based on physical arguments, exploiting the principle of time-reversal invariance of
Max-Moerbeck, W; Hovatta, T; Pavlidou, V; Pearson, T J; Readhead, A C S
2014-01-01
We present a practical implementation of a Monte Carlo method to estimate the significance of cross-correlations in unevenly sampled time series of data, whose statistical properties are modeled with a simple power-law power spectral density. This implementation builds on published methods, we introduce a number of improvements in the normalization of the cross-correlation function estimate and a bootstrap method for estimating the significance of the cross-correlations. A closely related matter is the estimation of a model for the light curves, which is critical for the significance estimates. We present a graphical and quantitative demonstration that uses simulations to show how common it is to get high cross-correlations for unrelated light curves with steep power spectral densities. This demonstration highlights the dangers of interpreting them as signs of a physical connection. We show that by using interpolation and the Hanning sampling window function we are able to reduce the effects of red-noise leak...
Huang, Jing; Ma, Jian-hua; Liu, Nan; Qian, Shan-shan
2010-10-01
We designed a weighted cross-correlation coefficient considering the "anchor" of the T cell epitopes, and used an evolutionary algorithm to search for an optimal weight vector. A SVM model with this new peptide similarity kernel was evaluated on a T-cell data set. The results demonstrated a good performance of this method.
Harrewijn, A.; Van, der Molen M.J.W.; Westenberg, P.M.
2016-01-01
The goal of the present study was to examine whether frontal alpha asymmetry and delta-beta cross-frequency correlation during resting state, anticipation, and recovery are electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of social anxiety. For the first time, we jointly examined frontal alpha asymmetry and
Honschoten, van J.W.; Druyvesteyn, W.F.; Kuipers, H.; Raangs, R.; Krijnen, G.J.M.
2004-01-01
In this paper a method is presented to reduce the noise level of a particle velocity sensor, a thermal two-wire sensor sensitive to acoustic particle velocities, which yields a reduction of the noise of 30 dB. The method is based on utilisation of cross- instead of auto-correlation spectra of two of
Harrewijn, A.; Van, der Molen M.J.W.; Westenberg, P.M.
2016-01-01
The goal of the present study was to examine whether frontal alpha asymmetry and delta-beta cross-frequency correlation during resting state, anticipation, and recovery are electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of social anxiety. For the first time, we jointly examined frontal alpha asymmetry and d
Kuntz, Adrien
2015-01-01
I cross-correlate the galaxy counts from the Canada-France Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) galaxy catalogue and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) convergence from the Planck data release 1 (2013) and 2 (2015), following the work of Omori & Holder (2015). I improve their study by computing an analytic covariance from the Halo Model, implementing simulations to validate the theoretically estimated error bars and the reconstruction method, fitting both a galaxy bias and a cross-correlation amplitude using the joint cross and galaxy auto-correlation, and performing a series of null tests. Using a bayesian analysis, I find a galaxy bias $b=0.92_{-0.02}^{+0.02}$ and a cross-correlation amplitude $A=0.85_{-0.16}^{+0.15}$ for the 2015 release, whereas for the 2013 release I find $b=0.93_{-0.02}^{+0.02}$ and $A=1.05_{-0.15}^{+0.15}$. I thus confirm the difference between the two releases found by Omori & Holder (2015), although both values of the amplitude now appear to be compatible with the fiduci...
Zhang, Mingjing; Wen, Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Lu, Hongmei; Liang, Yizeng; Zhan, Dejian
2015-03-01
Retention time shift is one of the most challenging problems during the preprocessing of massive chromatographic datasets. Here, an improved version of the moving window fast Fourier transform cross-correlation algorithm is presented to perform nonlinear and robust alignment of chromatograms by analyzing the shifts matrix generated by moving window procedure. The shifts matrix in retention time can be estimated by fast Fourier transform cross-correlation with a moving window procedure. The refined shift of each scan point can be obtained by calculating the mode of corresponding column of the shifts matrix. This version is simple, but more effective and robust than the previously published moving window fast Fourier transform cross-correlation method. It can handle nonlinear retention time shift robustly if proper window size has been selected. The window size is the only one parameter needed to adjust and optimize. The properties of the proposed method are investigated by comparison with the previous moving window fast Fourier transform cross-correlation and recursive alignment by fast Fourier transform using chromatographic datasets. The pattern recognition results of a gas chromatography mass spectrometry dataset of metabolic syndrome can be improved significantly after preprocessing by this method. Furthermore, the proposed method is available as an open source package at https://github.com/zmzhang/MWFFT2.
Sabita Singh
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Placenta “the vital organ” for maintaining healthy pregnancy is unique in its development, being derived from both mother and fetus. Thus hypertensive disorder affecting mother has a deleterious impact on placenta which may lead to poor fetal outcome. Aim: A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken to analyze and assess the morphological changes in hypertensive placentae and to clinically correlate it with fetal and maternal parameters. Materials and Methods: 50 placentae were freshly collected from pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH cases (study group and 50 from normal pregnancy (control group. Study group was divided into three categories depending upon severity of the disease. Observations and Results: 70% in study group were primigravida and were from rural area.46% were in age group of 15 – 20yrs.50% under low socio-economic status and 60% were without any regular antenatal checkup. Preterm, IUGR, still birth and neonatal death accounted to 10%, 12%, 18% and 10% respectively in study group. The average diameter, thickness, volume and number of cotyledons in study group were 15.91±2.11cm, 2.39±.54cm, 297.64±67.90ml and 10.02±4.13respectively. Mean placental weight was 376.41±17.198gm (mild PIH, 330.72±2.90gm (severe PIH, 329.73±3.19gm (eclampsia and mean birth weight was 2680.29±198.46gm (mild PIH, 2212.06±36.41gm (severe PIH and 2073.60±9.47gm (eclampsia respectively in study group. Various pathological changes like retro placental hematoma, infarction and calcification had been noticed. Conclusion: Placental morphometric parameters were significantly reduced (<.001 in study group as compared to control group. Decreased placental weight was associated with reduced birth weight and feto-placental ratio with increase in severity of hypertension significantly (<.001. A significant increase (<.05 in incidence of preterm, IUGR, still birth and neonatal death were found in study group. Assessment of