WorldWideScience

Sample records for maximum cooling rate

  1. Thermoelectric cooler concepts and the limit for maximum cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, W; Hinsche, N F; Pluschke, V

    2014-01-01

    The conventional analysis of a Peltier cooler approximates the material properties as independent of temperature using a constant properties model (CPM). Alternative concepts have been published by Bian and Shakouri (2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 212101), Bian (et al 2007 Phys. Rev. B 75 245208) and Snyder et al (2012 Phys. Rev. B 86 045202). While Snyder's Thomson cooler concept results from a consideration of compatibility, the method of Bian et al focuses on the redistribution of heat. Thus, both approaches are based on different principles. In this paper we compare the new concepts to CPM and we reconsider the limit for maximum cooling. The results provide a new perspective on maximum cooling. (paper)

  2. Cooling Rates of Lunar Volcanic Glass Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Hejiu; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Zhang, Youxue; Peslier, Anne; Lange, Rebecca; Dingwell, Donald; Neal, Clive

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the Apollo 15 green and Apollo 17 orange glass beads are of volcanic origin. The diffusion profiles of volatiles in these glass beads are believed to be due to degassing during eruption (Saal et al., 2008). The degree of degassing depends on the initial temperature and cooling rate. Therefore, the estimations of volatiles in parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits depend on melt cooling rates. Furthermore, lunar glass beads may have cooled in volcanic environments on the moon. Therefore, the cooling rates may be used to assess the atmospheric condition in an early moon, when volcanic activities were common. The cooling rates of glasses can be inferred from direct heat capacity measurements on the glasses themselves (Wilding et al., 1995, 1996a,b). This method does not require knowledge of glass cooling environments and has been applied to calculate the cooling rates of natural silicate glasses formed in different terrestrial environments. We have carried out heat capacity measurements on hand-picked lunar glass beads using a Netzsch DSC 404C Pegasus differential scanning calorimeter at University of Munich. Our preliminary results suggest that the cooling rate of Apollo 17 orange glass beads may be 12 K/min, based on the correlation between temperature of the heat capacity curve peak in the glass transition range and glass cooling rate. The results imply that the parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits may have contained more water initially than the early estimations (Saal et al., 2008), which used higher cooling rates, 60-180 K/min in the modeling. Furthermore, lunar volcanic glass beads could have been cooled in a hot gaseous medium released from volcanic eruptions, not during free flight. Therefore, our results may shed light on atmospheric condition in an early moon.

  3. Maximum entropy production rate in quantum thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beretta, Gian Paolo, E-mail: beretta@ing.unibs.i [Universita di Brescia, via Branze 38, 25123 Brescia (Italy)

    2010-06-01

    In the framework of the recent quest for well-behaved nonlinear extensions of the traditional Schroedinger-von Neumann unitary dynamics that could provide fundamental explanations of recent experimental evidence of loss of quantum coherence at the microscopic level, a recent paper [Gheorghiu-Svirschevski 2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 054102] reproposes the nonlinear equation of motion proposed by the present author [see Beretta G P 1987 Found. Phys. 17 365 and references therein] for quantum (thermo)dynamics of a single isolated indivisible constituent system, such as a single particle, qubit, qudit, spin or atomic system, or a Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac field. As already proved, such nonlinear dynamics entails a fundamental unifying microscopic proof and extension of Onsager's reciprocity and Callen's fluctuation-dissipation relations to all nonequilibrium states, close and far from thermodynamic equilibrium. In this paper we propose a brief but self-contained review of the main results already proved, including the explicit geometrical construction of the equation of motion from the steepest-entropy-ascent ansatz and its exact mathematical and conceptual equivalence with the maximal-entropy-generation variational-principle formulation presented in Gheorghiu-Svirschevski S 2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 022105. Moreover, we show how it can be extended to the case of a composite system to obtain the general form of the equation of motion, consistent with the demanding requirements of strong separability and of compatibility with general thermodynamics principles. The irreversible term in the equation of motion describes the spontaneous attraction of the state operator in the direction of steepest entropy ascent, thus implementing the maximum entropy production principle in quantum theory. The time rate at which the path of steepest entropy ascent is followed has so far been left unspecified. As a step towards the identification of such rate, here we propose a possible

  4. 7 CFR 3565.210 - Maximum interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum interest rate. 3565.210 Section 3565.210... AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Loan Requirements § 3565.210 Maximum interest rate. The interest rate for a guaranteed loan must not exceed the maximum allowable rate specified by the Agency in...

  5. 5 CFR 531.221 - Maximum payable rate rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... before the reassignment. (ii) If the rate resulting from the geographic conversion under paragraph (c)(2... previous rate (i.e., the former special rate after the geographic conversion) with the rates on the current... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum payable rate rule. 531.221...

  6. Maximum organic carbon limits at different melter feed rates (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents the results of a study to assess the impact of varying melter feed rates on the maximum total organic carbon (TOC) limits allowable in the DWPF melter feed. Topics discussed include: carbon content; feed rate; feed composition; melter vapor space temperature; combustion and dilution air; off-gas surges; earlier work on maximum TOC; overview of models; and the results of the work completed

  7. Dinosaur Metabolism and the Allometry of Maximum Growth Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Myhrvold, Nathan P.

    2016-01-01

    The allometry of maximum somatic growth rate has been used in prior studies to classify the metabolic state of both extant vertebrates and dinosaurs. The most recent such studies are reviewed, and their data is reanalyzed. The results of allometric regressions on growth rate are shown to depend on the choice of independent variable; the typical choice used in prior studies introduces a geometric shear transformation that exaggerates the statistical power of the regressions. The maximum growth...

  8. DKDP crystal growth controlled by cooling rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoyi; Qi, Hongji; Shao, Jianda

    2017-08-01

    The performance of deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystal directly affects beam quality, energy and conversion efficiency in the Inertial Confinement Fusion(ICF)facility, which is related with the initial saturation temperature of solution and the real-time supersaturation during the crystal growth. However, traditional method to measure the saturation temperature is neither efficient nor accurate enough. Besides, the supersaturation is often controlled by experience, which yields the higher error and leads to the instability during the crystal growth. In this paper, DKDP solution with 78% deuteration concentration is crystallized in different temperatures. We study the relation between solubility and temperature of DKDP and fit a theoretical curve with a parabola model. With the model, the measurement of saturation temperature is simplified and the control precision of the cooling rate is improved during the crystal growth, which is beneficial for optimizing the crystal growth process.

  9. 44 CFR 208.12 - Maximum Pay Rate Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Physicians. DHS uses the latest Special Salary Rate Table Number 0290 for Medical Officers (Clinical... Personnel, in which case the Maximum Pay Rate Table would not apply. (3) Compensation for Sponsoring Agency... organizations, e.g., HMOs or medical or engineering professional associations, under the revised definition of...

  10. Dinosaur Metabolism and the Allometry of Maximum Growth Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhrvold, Nathan P

    2016-01-01

    The allometry of maximum somatic growth rate has been used in prior studies to classify the metabolic state of both extant vertebrates and dinosaurs. The most recent such studies are reviewed, and their data is reanalyzed. The results of allometric regressions on growth rate are shown to depend on the choice of independent variable; the typical choice used in prior studies introduces a geometric shear transformation that exaggerates the statistical power of the regressions. The maximum growth rates of extant groups are found to have a great deal of overlap, including between groups with endothermic and ectothermic metabolism. Dinosaur growth rates show similar overlap, matching the rates found for mammals, reptiles and fish. The allometric scaling of growth rate with mass is found to have curvature (on a log-log scale) for many groups, contradicting the prevailing view that growth rate allometry follows a simple power law. Reanalysis shows that no correlation between growth rate and basal metabolic rate (BMR) has been demonstrated. These findings drive a conclusion that growth rate allometry studies to date cannot be used to determine dinosaur metabolism as has been previously argued.

  11. Dinosaur Metabolism and the Allometry of Maximum Growth Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhrvold, Nathan P.

    2016-01-01

    The allometry of maximum somatic growth rate has been used in prior studies to classify the metabolic state of both extant vertebrates and dinosaurs. The most recent such studies are reviewed, and their data is reanalyzed. The results of allometric regressions on growth rate are shown to depend on the choice of independent variable; the typical choice used in prior studies introduces a geometric shear transformation that exaggerates the statistical power of the regressions. The maximum growth rates of extant groups are found to have a great deal of overlap, including between groups with endothermic and ectothermic metabolism. Dinosaur growth rates show similar overlap, matching the rates found for mammals, reptiles and fish. The allometric scaling of growth rate with mass is found to have curvature (on a log-log scale) for many groups, contradicting the prevailing view that growth rate allometry follows a simple power law. Reanalysis shows that no correlation between growth rate and basal metabolic rate (BMR) has been demonstrated. These findings drive a conclusion that growth rate allometry studies to date cannot be used to determine dinosaur metabolism as has been previously argued. PMID:27828977

  12. EFFECT OF COOLING RATES ON THE MICROSTRUCTURE AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... eutectic under three cooling conditions were proposed. In the DTA mode (slow cooling), the relationship between the two phases was stable. However as the cooling rates increased ( quenching and meltspun modes), the relationship tended towards metastability. KEY WORDS: alloy, solidification, microstructure, eutectic, ...

  13. Maximum discharge rate of liquid-vapor mixtures from vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, F.J.

    1975-09-01

    A discrepancy exists in theoretical predictions of the two-phase equilibrium discharge rate from pipes attached to vessels. Theory which predicts critical flow data in terms of pipe exit pressure and quality severely overpredicts flow rates in terms of vessel fluid properties. This study shows that the discrepancy is explained by the flow pattern. Due to decompression and flashing as fluid accelerates into the pipe entrance, the maximum discharge rate from a vessel is limited by choking of a homogeneous bubbly mixture. The mixture tends toward a slip flow pattern as it travels through the pipe, finally reaching a different choked condition at the pipe exit

  14. Calculation and experimental study of the RBMK-1500 reactor emergency cooling at maximum designed accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkashov, Yu.M.; Vasilevskij, V.P.; Labazov, V.H.; Loninov, A.Ya.; Molochnikov, Yu.S.; Novosel'skij, O.Yu.; Podlazov, L.N.; Pavlov, V.B.; Pushkarev, V.I.

    1981-01-01

    The analysis of thermohydraulic and neutron-physical processes occurring in the RBMK-1500 reactor during the reactor emergency cooling system triggering (RECS) after the maximum designed accident (MDA) is conducted. The MDA means hypothetical instant hilliotine break of the main circulating pump head collector. During the whole cooling down period the RECS should provide the temperature level of the fuel elements not exceeding 1200 deg C and the channel pipe temperature - 600 deg C. The principal flowsheet of the balloon type RECS is described. Calculations of the valve fast response effect on the RECS productivity are carried out. It is concluded that the chosen balloon RECS provides reliable temperature modes of fuel elements naand channel pipes under the MDA conditions. At the same time a momentary splash of neutron power by the value not more than 10% can take place [ru

  15. Fumigant dosages below maximum label rate control some soilborne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shachaf Triky-Dotan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The activity of commercial soil fumigants on some key soilborne pathogens was assessed in sandy loam soil under controlled conditions. Seven soil fumigants that are registered in California or are being or have been considered for registration were used in this study: dimethyl disulfide (DMDS mixed with chloropicrin (Pic (79% DMDS and 21% Pic, Tri-Con (50% methyl bromide and 50% Pic, Midas Gold (33% methyl iodide [MI] and 67% Pic, Midas Bronze (50% MI and 50% Pic, Midas (MI, active ingredient [a.i.] 97.8%, Pic (a.i. 99% trichloronitromethane and Pic-Clor 60 (57% Pic and 37% 1,3-dichloropropene [1–3,D]. Dose-response models were calculated for pathogen mortality after 24 hours of exposure to fumigants. Overall, the tested fumigants achieved good efficacy with dosages below the maximum label rate against the tested pathogens. In this study, Pythium ultimum and citrus nematode were sensitive to all the fumigants and Verticillium dahliae was resistant. For most fumigants, California regulations restrict application rates to less than the maximum (federal label rate, meaning that it is possible that the fumigants may not control major plant pathogens. This research provides information on the effectiveness of these alternatives at these lower application rates. The results from this study will help growers optimize application rates for registered fumigants (such as Pic and 1,3-D and will help accelerate the adoption of new fumigants (such as DMDS if they are registered in California.

  16. Effect of cooling rate on crystallization in an aluminophosphosilicate melt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, S. J.; Zhang, Yanfei; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2011-01-01

    The effect of cooling rate on spontaneous crystallization behavior of an alumino-phospho-silicate melt is studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and viscometry. The cooling rates of 160, 2100 and 12000 K/s are attained by subjecting ......, the opalescence of the glass can be tuned by adjusting the cooling rate. This makes the production of opal glasses or transparent glass ceramics more efficient and energy saving, since the conventional isothermal treatment procedure can be left out....

  17. Analysis of reaction schemes using maximum rates of constituent steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motagamwala, Ali Hussain; Dumesic, James A.

    2016-01-01

    We show that the steady-state kinetics of a chemical reaction can be analyzed analytically in terms of proposed reaction schemes composed of series of steps with stoichiometric numbers equal to unity by calculating the maximum rates of the constituent steps, rmax,i, assuming that all of the remaining steps are quasi-equilibrated. Analytical expressions can be derived in terms of rmax,i to calculate degrees of rate control for each step to determine the extent to which each step controls the rate of the overall stoichiometric reaction. The values of rmax,i can be used to predict the rate of the overall stoichiometric reaction, making it possible to estimate the observed reaction kinetics. This approach can be used for catalytic reactions to identify transition states and adsorbed species that are important in controlling catalyst performance, such that detailed calculations using electronic structure calculations (e.g., density functional theory) can be carried out for these species, whereas more approximate methods (e.g., scaling relations) are used for the remaining species. This approach to assess the feasibility of proposed reaction schemes is exact for reaction schemes where the stoichiometric coefficients of the constituent steps are equal to unity and the most abundant adsorbed species are in quasi-equilibrium with the gas phase and can be used in an approximate manner to probe the performance of more general reaction schemes, followed by more detailed analyses using full microkinetic models to determine the surface coverages by adsorbed species and the degrees of rate control of the elementary steps. PMID:27162366

  18. Heating and cooling rates and their effects upon heart rate in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The heating and cooling rates of adult Chersina angulata were investigated to ascertain whether these tortoises can physiologically alter their rates of heat exchange. In addition, heart rates were recorded to provide an insight into the control of heat exchange. C. angulata heats significantly faster than it cools. Heart rates ...

  19. Increasing the maximum daily operation time of MNSR reactor by modifying its cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.; Hainoun, A.; Al Halbi, W.; Al Isa, S.

    2006-08-01

    thermal-hydraulic natural convection correlations have been formulated based on a thorough analysis and modeling of the MNSR reactor. The model considers detailed description of the thermal and hydraulic aspects of cooling in the core and vessel. In addition, determination of pressure drop was made through an elaborate balancing of the overall pressure drop in the core against the sum of all individual channel pressure drops employing an iterative scheme. Using this model, an accurate estimation of various timely core-averaged hydraulic parameters such as generated power, hydraulic diameters, flow cross area, ... etc. for each one of the ten-fuel circles in the core can be made. Furthermore, distribution of coolant and fuel temperatures, including maximum fuel temperature and its location in the core, can now be determined. Correlation among core-coolant average temperature, reactor power, and core-coolant inlet temperature, during both steady and transient cases, have been established and verified against experimental data. Simulating various operating condition of MNSR, good agreement is obtained for at different power levels. Various schemes of cooling have been investigated for the purpose of assessing potential benefits on the operational characteristics of the syrian MNSR reactor. A detailed thermal hydraulic model for the analysis of MNSR has been developed. The analysis shows that an auxiliary cooling system, for the reactor vessel or installed in the pool which surrounds the lower section of the reactor vessel, will significantly offset the consumption of excess reactivity due to the negative reactivity temperature coefficient. Hence, the maximum operating time of the reactor is extended. The model considers detailed description of the thermal and hydraulic aspects of cooling the core and its surrounding vessel. Natural convection correlations have been formulated based on a thorough analysis and modeling of the MNSR reactor. The suggested 'micro model

  20. Cation ordering in orthopyroxenes and cooling rates of meteorites: Low temperature cooling rates of Estherville, Bondoc and Shaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, J.; Yang, H.; Ghose, S.

    1993-01-01

    The cooling rates of meteorites provide important constraints on the size of their parent bodies, and their accretionary and evolutionary histories. However, the cooling rates obtained so far from the commonly used metallographic, radiometric and fission-track methods have been sometimes quite controversial, such as in the case of the mesosiderites and the meteorite Shaw. We have undertaken a systematic study of the cooling rates of meteorites using a different approach, which involves single crystal x-ray determination of Fe(2+)-Mg ordering in orthopyroxenes (OP(x)) in meteorites, subject to bulk compositional constraints, and numerical simulation of the evolution of the ordering state as a function of cooling rate, within the framework of the thermodynamic and kinetic principles governing cation ordering. We report the results obtained for OP(x) crystals from Shaw and two mesosiderites, Estherville and Bondoc.

  1. Mass-loss rates of cool stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrien Els Decin, Leen

    2015-08-01

    Over much of the initial mass function, stars lose a significant fraction of their mass through a stellar wind during the late stages of their evolution when being a (super)giant star. As of today, we can not yet predict the mass-loss rate during the (super)giant phase for a given star with specific stellar parameters from first principles. This uncertainty directly impacts the accuracy of current stellar evolution and population synthesis models that predict the enrichment of the interstellar medium by these stellar winds. Efforts to establish the link between the initial physical and chemical conditions at stellar birth and the mass-loss rate during the (super)giant phase have proceeded on two separate tracks: (1) more detailed studies of the chemical and morpho-kinematical structure of the stellar winds of (super)giant stars in our own Milky Way by virtue of the proximity, and (2) large scale and statistical studies of a (large) sample of stars in other galaxies (such as the LMC and SMC) and globular clusters eliminating the uncertainty on the distance estimate and providing insight into the dependence of the mass-loss rate on the metallicity. In this review, I will present recent results of both tracks, will show how recent measurements confirm (some) theoretical predictions, but also how results from the first track admonish of common misconceptions inherent in the often more simplified analysis used to analyse the large samples from track 2.

  2. Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by the fractal ... rate scaling is that exercise-induced maximum aerobic metabolic rate (MMR) is ... muscle stress limitation, and maximized oxygen delivery and metabolic rates.

  3. The mechanics of granitoid systems and maximum entropy production rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Bruce E; Ord, Alison

    2010-01-13

    A model for the formation of granitoid systems is developed involving melt production spatially below a rising isotherm that defines melt initiation. Production of the melt volumes necessary to form granitoid complexes within 10(4)-10(7) years demands control of the isotherm velocity by melt advection. This velocity is one control on the melt flux generated spatially just above the melt isotherm, which is the control valve for the behaviour of the complete granitoid system. Melt transport occurs in conduits initiated as sheets or tubes comprising melt inclusions arising from Gurson-Tvergaard constitutive behaviour. Such conduits appear as leucosomes parallel to lineations and foliations, and ductile and brittle dykes. The melt flux generated at the melt isotherm controls the position of the melt solidus isotherm and hence the physical height of the Transport/Emplacement Zone. A conduit width-selection process, driven by changes in melt viscosity and constitutive behaviour, operates within the Transport Zone to progressively increase the width of apertures upwards. Melt can also be driven horizontally by gradients in topography; these horizontal fluxes can be similar in magnitude to vertical fluxes. Fluxes induced by deformation can compete with both buoyancy and topographic-driven flow over all length scales and results locally in transient 'ponds' of melt. Pluton emplacement is controlled by the transition in constitutive behaviour of the melt/magma from elastic-viscous at high temperatures to elastic-plastic-viscous approaching the melt solidus enabling finite thickness plutons to develop. The system involves coupled feedback processes that grow at the expense of heat supplied to the system and compete with melt advection. The result is that limits are placed on the size and time scale of the system. Optimal characteristics of the system coincide with a state of maximum entropy production rate. This journal is © 2010 The Royal Society

  4. Controlled rate cooling of fungi using a stirling cycle freezer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Matthew J; Kasulyte-Creasey, Daiva; Kermode, Anthony; San, Shwe Phue; Buddie, Alan G

    2014-01-01

    The use of a Stirling cycle freezer for cryopreservation is considered to have significant advantages over traditional methodologies including N2 free operation, application of low cooling rates, reduction of sample contamination risks and control of ice nucleation. The study assesses the suitability of an 'N2-free' Stirling Cycle controlled rate freezer for fungi cryopreservation. In total, 77 fungi representing a broad taxonomic coverage were cooled using the N2 free cooler following a cooling rate of -1 degrees C min(-1). Of these, 15 strains were also cryopreserved using a traditional 'N2 gas chamber' controlled rate cooler and a comparison of culture morphology and genomic stability against non-cryopreserved starter cultures was undertaken. In total of 75 fungi survived cryopreservation, only a recalcitrant Basidiomycete and filamentous Chromist failed to survive. No changes were detected in genomic profile after preservation, suggesting that genomic function is not adversely compromised as a result of using 'N2 free' cooling. The results demonstrate the potential of 'N2-free' cooling for the routine cryopreservation of fungi in Biological Resource Centres.

  5. 78 FR 13999 - Maximum Interest Rates on Guaranteed Farm Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ..., cost-plus, flat-rate, or market based) to price guaranteed loans, provided the rates do not exceed the... (LIBOR) or the 5-year Treasury note rate, unless the lender uses a formal written risk-based pricing... cost in the form of a lower interest rate than the borrower would otherwise receive. Therefore, the FSA...

  6. MEASURING THE EVOLUTIONARY RATE OF COOLING OF ZZ Ceti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukadam, Anjum S.; Fraser, Oliver; Riecken, T. S.; Kronberg, M. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Bischoff-Kim, Agnes [Georgia College and State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061 (United States); Corsico, A. H. [Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina); Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Hermes, J. J.; Winget, K. I.; Falcon, Ross E.; Reaves, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78759 (United States); Kepler, S. O.; Romero, A. D. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre 91501-970, RS (Brazil); Chandler, D. W. [Meyer Observatory, Central Texas Astronomical Society, 3409 Whispering Oaks, Temple, TX 76504 (United States); Kuehne, J. W. [McDonald Observatory, Fort Davis, TX 79734 (United States); Sullivan, D. J. [Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington (New Zealand); Von Hippel, T. [Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, 600 South Clyde Morris Boulevard, Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States); Mullally, F. [SETI Institute, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 244-30, Moffet Field, CA 94035 (United States); Shipman, H. [Delaware Asteroseismic Research Center, Mt. Cuba Observatory, Greenville, DE 19807 (United States); and others

    2013-07-01

    We have finally measured the evolutionary rate of cooling of the pulsating hydrogen atmosphere (DA) white dwarf ZZ Ceti (Ross 548), as reflected by the drift rate of the 213.13260694 s period. Using 41 yr of time-series photometry from 1970 November to 2012 January, we determine the rate of change of this period with time to be dP/dt = (5.2 {+-} 1.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} s s{sup -1} employing the O - C method and (5.45 {+-} 0.79) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} s s{sup -1} using a direct nonlinear least squares fit to the entire lightcurve. We adopt the dP/dt obtained from the nonlinear least squares program as our final determination, but augment the corresponding uncertainty to a more realistic value, ultimately arriving at the measurement of dP/dt = (5.5 {+-} 1.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} s s{sup -1}. After correcting for proper motion, the evolutionary rate of cooling of ZZ Ceti is computed to be (3.3 {+-} 1.1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} s s{sup -1}. This value is consistent within uncertainties with the measurement of (4.19 {+-} 0.73) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} s s{sup -1} for another similar pulsating DA white dwarf, G 117-B15A. Measuring the cooling rate of ZZ Ceti helps us refine our stellar structure and evolutionary models, as cooling depends mainly on the core composition and stellar mass. Calibrating white dwarf cooling curves with this measurement will reduce the theoretical uncertainties involved in white dwarf cosmochronometry. Should the 213.13 s period be trapped in the hydrogen envelope, then our determination of its drift rate compared to the expected evolutionary rate suggests an additional source of stellar cooling. Attributing the excess cooling to the emission of axions imposes a constraint on the mass of the hypothetical axion particle.

  7. Effect of local cooling on sweating rate and cold sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, L. I.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Stamford, B. A.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects resting in a 39 C environment were stimulated in different skin regions with a water-cooled thermode. Results indicate that cooling different body regions produces generally equivalent decreases in sweating rate and increases in cold sensation, with the forehead showing a much greater sensitivity per unit area and temperature decrease than other areas. The high thermal sensitivity of the face may have evolved when it was the thinnest-furred area of the body; today's clothing habits have reestablished the importance of the face in the regulation of body temperature.

  8. The tropical lapse rate steepened during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomis, S.E.; Russell, J.M.; Verschuren, D.; Morrill, C.; De Cort, G.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Olago, D.; Eggermont, H.; Street-Perrott, F.A.; Kelly, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    The gradient of air temperature with elevation (the temperature lapse rate) in the tropics is predicted to become lesssteep during the coming century as surface temperature rises, enhancing the threat of warming in high-mountainenvironments. However, the sensitivity of the lapse rate to climate

  9. The tropical lapse rate steepened during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomis, Shannon E; Russell, James M; Verschuren, Dirk; Morrill, Carrie; De Cort, Gijs; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Olago, Daniel; Eggermont, Hilde; Street-Perrott, F Alayne; Kelly, Meredith A

    The gradient of air temperature with elevation (the temperature lapse rate) in the tropics is predicted to become less steep during the coming century as surface temperature rises, enhancing the threat of warming in high-mountain environments. However, the sensitivity of the lapse rate to climate

  10. Cooling rate effects on structure of amorphous graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoang, Vo

    2015-01-01

    Simple monatomic amorphous 2D models with Honeycomb structure are obtained from 2D simple monatomic liquids with Honeycomb interaction potential (Rechtsman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 228301 (2005)) via molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Models are observed by cooling from the melt at various cooling rates. Temperature dependence of thermodynamic and structural properties including total energy, mean ring size, mean coordination number is studied in order to show evolution of structure and thermodynamics upon cooling from the melt. Structural properties of the amorphous Honeycomb structures are studied via radial distribution function (RDF), coordination number and ring distributions together with 2D visualization of the atomic configurations. Amorphous Honeycomb structures contain a large amount of structural defects including new ones which have not been previously reported yet. Cooling rate dependence of structural properties of the obtained amorphous Honeycomb structures is analyzed. Although amorphous graphene has been proposed theoretically and/or recently obtained by the experiments, our understanding of structural properties of the system is still poor. Therefore, our simulations highlight the situation and give deeper understanding of structure and thermodynamics of the glassy state of this novel 2D material

  11. Atomic size effect on critical cooling rate and glass formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalali, Payman; Li Mo

    2005-01-01

    Atomic size effect on critical cooling rate and glass formability in a model binary system is investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. To isolate atomic size effect from the rest of the factors that critically influence the glass formation, a hard sphere model is employed in conjunction with a newly developed densification method. The glass formability is defined as a set of optimal conditions that result in the slowest cooling rate of the glass-forming liquid. Critical cooling rates are identified from extensive molecular dynamics simulations. A kinetic glass-forming diagram is mapped out that marks the boundary between the glass-forming regions and competing crystalline phases in terms of the parameters of the atomic size ratio and alloy concentration. It is found that the potency of the atomic size difference on glass formation is influenced greatly by the competing metastable and equilibrium crystalline phases in the system, and the kinetic processes leading to the formation of these phases. The mechanisms of the atomic size effect on topological instability of crystal packing and glass formation are discussed

  12. Maximum Exergetic Efficiency Operation of a Solar Powered H2O-LiBr Absorption Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Stanciu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A solar driven cooling system consisting of a single effect H2O-LiBr absorbtion cooling module (ACS, a parabolic trough collector (PTC, and a storage tank (ST module is analyzed during one full day operation. The pressurized water is used to transfer heat from PTC to ST and to feed the ACS desorber. The system is constrained to operate at the maximum ACS exergetic efficiency, under a time dependent cooling load computed on 15 July for a one storey house located near Bucharest, Romania. To set up the solar assembly, two commercial PTCs were selected, namely PT1-IST and PTC 1800 Solitem, and a single unit ST was initially considered. The mathematical model, relying on the energy balance equations, was coded under Engineering Equation Solver (EES environment. The solar data were obtained from the Meteonorm database. The numerical simulations proved that the system cannot cover the imposed cooling load all day long, due to the large variation of water temperature inside the ST. By splitting the ST into two units, the results revealed that the PT1-IST collector only drives the ACS between 9 am and 4:30 pm, while the PTC 1800 one covers the entire cooling period (9 am–6 pm for optimum ST capacities of 90 kg/90 kg and 90 kg/140 kg, respectively.

  13. Determination Of Maximum Power Of The RSG-Gas At Power Operation Mode Using One Line Cooling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastuti, Endiah Puji; Kuntoro, Iman; Darwis Isnaini, M.

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of minimizing the operation-cost, operation mode using one line cooling system is being evaluated. Maximum reactor power shall be determined to assure that the existing safety criteria are not violated. The analysis was done by means of a core thermal hydraulic code, COOLOD-N. The code solves core thermal hydraulic equation at steady state conditions. By varying the reactor power as the input, thermal hydraulic parameters such as fuel cladding and fuel meat temperatures as well as safety margin against flow instability were calculated. Imposing the safety criteria to the results, maximum permissible power for this operation was obtained as much as 17.1 MW. Nevertheless, for operation the maximum power is limited to 15MW

  14. Allometries of Maximum Growth Rate versus Body Mass at Maximum Growth Indicate That Non-Avian Dinosaurs Had Growth Rates Typical of Fast Growing Ectothermic Sauropsids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jan; Griebeler, Eva Maria

    2014-01-01

    We tested if growth rates of recent taxa are unequivocally separated between endotherms and ectotherms, and compared these to dinosaurian growth rates. We therefore performed linear regression analyses on the log-transformed maximum growth rate against log-transformed body mass at maximum growth for extant altricial birds, precocial birds, eutherians, marsupials, reptiles, fishes and dinosaurs. Regression models of precocial birds (and fishes) strongly differed from Case’s study (1978), which is often used to compare dinosaurian growth rates to those of extant vertebrates. For all taxonomic groups, the slope of 0.75 expected from the Metabolic Theory of Ecology was statistically supported. To compare growth rates between taxonomic groups we therefore used regressions with this fixed slope and group-specific intercepts. On average, maximum growth rates of ectotherms were about 10 (reptiles) to 20 (fishes) times (in comparison to mammals) or even 45 (reptiles) to 100 (fishes) times (in comparison to birds) lower than in endotherms. While on average all taxa were clearly separated from each other, individual growth rates overlapped between several taxa and even between endotherms and ectotherms. Dinosaurs had growth rates intermediate between similar sized/scaled-up reptiles and mammals, but a much lower rate than scaled-up birds. All dinosaurian growth rates were within the range of extant reptiles and mammals, and were lower than those of birds. Under the assumption that growth rate and metabolic rate are indeed linked, our results suggest two alternative interpretations. Compared to other sauropsids, the growth rates of studied dinosaurs clearly indicate that they had an ectothermic rather than an endothermic metabolic rate. Compared to other vertebrate growth rates, the overall high variability in growth rates of extant groups and the high overlap between individual growth rates of endothermic and ectothermic extant species make it impossible to rule out either

  15. Allometries of maximum growth rate versus body mass at maximum growth indicate that non-avian dinosaurs had growth rates typical of fast growing ectothermic sauropsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jan; Griebeler, Eva Maria

    2014-01-01

    We tested if growth rates of recent taxa are unequivocally separated between endotherms and ectotherms, and compared these to dinosaurian growth rates. We therefore performed linear regression analyses on the log-transformed maximum growth rate against log-transformed body mass at maximum growth for extant altricial birds, precocial birds, eutherians, marsupials, reptiles, fishes and dinosaurs. Regression models of precocial birds (and fishes) strongly differed from Case's study (1978), which is often used to compare dinosaurian growth rates to those of extant vertebrates. For all taxonomic groups, the slope of 0.75 expected from the Metabolic Theory of Ecology was statistically supported. To compare growth rates between taxonomic groups we therefore used regressions with this fixed slope and group-specific intercepts. On average, maximum growth rates of ectotherms were about 10 (reptiles) to 20 (fishes) times (in comparison to mammals) or even 45 (reptiles) to 100 (fishes) times (in comparison to birds) lower than in endotherms. While on average all taxa were clearly separated from each other, individual growth rates overlapped between several taxa and even between endotherms and ectotherms. Dinosaurs had growth rates intermediate between similar sized/scaled-up reptiles and mammals, but a much lower rate than scaled-up birds. All dinosaurian growth rates were within the range of extant reptiles and mammals, and were lower than those of birds. Under the assumption that growth rate and metabolic rate are indeed linked, our results suggest two alternative interpretations. Compared to other sauropsids, the growth rates of studied dinosaurs clearly indicate that they had an ectothermic rather than an endothermic metabolic rate. Compared to other vertebrate growth rates, the overall high variability in growth rates of extant groups and the high overlap between individual growth rates of endothermic and ectothermic extant species make it impossible to rule out either of

  16. Allometries of maximum growth rate versus body mass at maximum growth indicate that non-avian dinosaurs had growth rates typical of fast growing ectothermic sauropsids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Werner

    Full Text Available We tested if growth rates of recent taxa are unequivocally separated between endotherms and ectotherms, and compared these to dinosaurian growth rates. We therefore performed linear regression analyses on the log-transformed maximum growth rate against log-transformed body mass at maximum growth for extant altricial birds, precocial birds, eutherians, marsupials, reptiles, fishes and dinosaurs. Regression models of precocial birds (and fishes strongly differed from Case's study (1978, which is often used to compare dinosaurian growth rates to those of extant vertebrates. For all taxonomic groups, the slope of 0.75 expected from the Metabolic Theory of Ecology was statistically supported. To compare growth rates between taxonomic groups we therefore used regressions with this fixed slope and group-specific intercepts. On average, maximum growth rates of ectotherms were about 10 (reptiles to 20 (fishes times (in comparison to mammals or even 45 (reptiles to 100 (fishes times (in comparison to birds lower than in endotherms. While on average all taxa were clearly separated from each other, individual growth rates overlapped between several taxa and even between endotherms and ectotherms. Dinosaurs had growth rates intermediate between similar sized/scaled-up reptiles and mammals, but a much lower rate than scaled-up birds. All dinosaurian growth rates were within the range of extant reptiles and mammals, and were lower than those of birds. Under the assumption that growth rate and metabolic rate are indeed linked, our results suggest two alternative interpretations. Compared to other sauropsids, the growth rates of studied dinosaurs clearly indicate that they had an ectothermic rather than an endothermic metabolic rate. Compared to other vertebrate growth rates, the overall high variability in growth rates of extant groups and the high overlap between individual growth rates of endothermic and ectothermic extant species make it impossible to rule

  17. 5 CFR 9901.312 - Maximum rates of base salary and adjusted salary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum rates of base salary and adjusted salary. 9901.312 Section 9901.312 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES....312 Maximum rates of base salary and adjusted salary. (a) Subject to § 9901.105, the Secretary may...

  18. 47 CFR 1.1507 - Rulemaking on maximum rates for attorney fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rulemaking on maximum rates for attorney fees... § 1.1507 Rulemaking on maximum rates for attorney fees. (a) If warranted by an increase in the cost of... types of proceedings), the Commission may adopt regulations providing that attorney fees may be awarded...

  19. Influence of different cooling rates on the microstructure of the HAZ and welding CCT diagram of CLAM steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Shuhui, E-mail: shzheng@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Wu Qingsheng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Huang Qunying [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); Liu Shaojun; Han Yangyang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China)

    2011-10-15

    The evolution of microstructure in the weld HAZ (Heat Affected Zone) under welding thermal cycle was simulated by Gleeble-1500. The microstructures and properties of HAZ at different cooling rates were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microhardness test. The results showed that when the cooling rates ranged from 3600 K/min to 60 K/min, fully martensitic transformations were achieved, and the cooling rates had little influence on the microstructure and microhardness of martensite. The maximum cooling rate to form ferrite was 60 K/min. When the cooling rates ranged from 60 K/min to 1 K/min, the microhardness of the HAZ began to decrease due to the presence of ferrite, and the lath sizes grew up to 0.13-0.15 {mu}m. The critical cooling rate to gain fully ferrite was found to be slower than 1 K/min. The welding CCT diagram of CLAM steel was constructed and it showed that there were ferrite and martensite transformation regions only. The diagram made it possible to predict the microstructures and properties of HAZ and became an important tool to evaluate weldability of CLAM steel.

  20. Influence of different cooling rates on the microstructure of the HAZ and welding CCT diagram of CLAM steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Shuhui; Wu Qingsheng; Huang Qunying; Liu Shaojun; Han Yangyang

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of microstructure in the weld HAZ (Heat Affected Zone) under welding thermal cycle was simulated by Gleeble-1500. The microstructures and properties of HAZ at different cooling rates were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microhardness test. The results showed that when the cooling rates ranged from 3600 K/min to 60 K/min, fully martensitic transformations were achieved, and the cooling rates had little influence on the microstructure and microhardness of martensite. The maximum cooling rate to form ferrite was 60 K/min. When the cooling rates ranged from 60 K/min to 1 K/min, the microhardness of the HAZ began to decrease due to the presence of ferrite, and the lath sizes grew up to 0.13-0.15 μm. The critical cooling rate to gain fully ferrite was found to be slower than 1 K/min. The welding CCT diagram of CLAM steel was constructed and it showed that there were ferrite and martensite transformation regions only. The diagram made it possible to predict the microstructures and properties of HAZ and became an important tool to evaluate weldability of CLAM steel.

  1. Treatment of cooling appliances. Interrelations between environmental protection, resource conservation, and recovery rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    The treatment of cooling appliances in Austria is primarily influenced by two factors. On the one hand is their changing composition and on the other hand the ordinance on Waste Prevention, Collection and Treatment of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE ordinance), which stipulates a minimum recycling rate of 75% for cooling appliances. This paper investigates whether this recycling rate leads to optimal treatment practices for cooling appliances with respect to resource conservation and environmental protection. Two different treatment technologies which achieve recycling rates between 50-60% and 80-90%, respectively, are compared both for cooling appliances containing Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and for appliances containing Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC). Materials and energy balances are developed for each model. To evaluate resource consumption, expenditures as well as savings of energy and materials are incorporated via the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED). In order to analyse the environmental impact of the different practices, balances for CFC, CO 2 , HF, HCl and solid residues are established. The results show that the treatment type aiming for a maximum of materials recycling contributes more to resource conservation than the other treatment type. But for CFC appliances the former is associated with substantial CFC emissions, which turn out to be most relevant when treating these appliances. Generally, it is found that the optimum recycling rate is a function of the composition of the appliance and the technologies applied, both in recycling and in primary production. A high recycling rate per se does not automatically result in an optimal solution with regard to resource conservation and environmental protection. (author)

  2. The scaling of maximum and basal metabolic rates of mammals and birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Lauro A.; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; da Silva, Jafferson K. L.

    2006-01-01

    Allometric scaling is one of the most pervasive laws in biology. Its origin, however, is still a matter of dispute. Recent studies have established that maximum metabolic rate scales with an exponent larger than that found for basal metabolism. This unpredicted result sets a challenge that can decide which of the concurrent hypotheses is the correct theory. Here, we show that both scaling laws can be deduced from a single network model. Besides the 3/4-law for basal metabolism, the model predicts that maximum metabolic rate scales as M, maximum heart rate as M, and muscular capillary density as M, in agreement with data.

  3. 13 CFR 107.845 - Maximum rate of amortization on Loans and Debt Securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Financing of Small Businesses by Licensees Structuring Licensee's Financing of An Eligible Small Business: Terms and Conditions of Financing § 107.845 Maximum... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum rate of amortization on...

  4. [The maximum heart rate in the exercise test: the 220-age formula or Sheffield's table?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, A; Trabulo, M; Mendes, M; Viana, J F; Seabra-Gomes, R

    1996-02-01

    To determine in the maximum cardiac rate in exercise test of apparently healthy individuals may be more properly estimated through 220-age formula (Astrand) or the Sheffield table. Retrospective analysis of clinical history and exercises test of apparently healthy individuals submitted to cardiac check-up. Sequential sampling of 170 healthy individuals submitted to cardiac check-up between April 1988 and September 1992. Comparison of maximum cardiac rate of individuals studied by the protocols of Bruce and modified Bruce, in interrupted exercise test by fatigue, and with the estimated values by the formulae: 220-age versus Sheffield table. The maximum cardiac heart rate is similar with both protocols. This parameter in normal individuals is better predicted by the 220-age formula. The theoretic maximum cardiac heart rate determined by 220-age formula should be recommended for a healthy, and for this reason the Sheffield table has been excluded from our clinical practice.

  5. New England observed and predicted August stream/river temperature maximum daily rate of change points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted August stream/river temperature maximum negative rate of change in New England based on a...

  6. Impact of irrigation flow rate and intrapericardial fluid on cooled-tip epicardial radiofrequency ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryana, Arash; O'Neill, Padraig Gearoid; Pujara, Deep K; Singh, Steve K; Bowers, Mark R; Allen, Shelley L; d'Avila, André

    2016-08-01

    The optimal irrigation flow rate (IFR) during epicardial radiofrequency (RF) ablation has not been established. This study specifically examined the impact of IFR and intrapericardial fluid (IPF) accumulation during epicardial RF ablation. Altogether, 452 ex vivo RF applications (10 g for 60 seconds) delivered to the epicardial surface of bovine myocardium using 3 open-irrigated ablation catheters (ThermoCool SmartTouch, ThermoCool SmartTouch-SF, and FlexAbility) and 50 in vivo RF applications delivered (ThermoCool SmartTouch-SF) in 4 healthy adult swine in the presence or absence of IPF were examined. Ex vivo, RF was delivered at low (≤3 mL/min), reduced (5-7 mL/min), and high (≥10 mL/min) IFRs using intermediate (25-35 W) and high (35-45 W) power. In vivo, applications were delivered (at 9.3 ± 2.2 g for 60 seconds at 39 W) using reduced (5 mL/min) and high (15 mL/min) IFRs. Ex vivo, surface lesion diameter inversely correlated with IFR, whereas maximum lesion diameter and depth did not differ. While steam pops occurred more frequently at low IFR using high power (ThermoCool SmartTouch and ThermoCool SmartTouch-SF), tissue disruption was rare and did not vary with IFR. In vivo, charring/steam pop was not detected. Although there were no discernible differences in lesion size with IFR, surface lesion diameter, maximum diameter, depth, and volume were all smaller in the presence of IPF at both IFRs. Cooled-tip epicardial RF ablation created using reduced IFRs (5-7 mL/min) yields lesion sizes similar to those created using high IFRs (≥10 mL/min) without an increase in steam pop/tissue disruption, whereas the presence of IPF significantly reduces the lesion size. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cooling rates and intensity limitations for laser-cooled ions at relativistic energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidam, Lewin; Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver; Winters, Danyal

    2018-04-01

    The ability of laser cooling for relativistic ion beams is investigated. For this purpose, the excitation of relativistic ions with a continuous wave and a pulsed laser is analyzed, utilizing the optical Bloch equations. The laser cooling force is derived in detail and its scaling with the relativistic factor γ is discussed. The cooling processes with a continuous wave and a pulsed laser system are investigated. Optimized cooling scenarios and times are obtained in order to determine the required properties of the laser and the ion beam for the planed experiments. The impact of beam intensity effects, like intrabeam scattering and space charge are analyzed. Predictions from simplified models are compared to particle-in-cell simulations and are found to be in good agreement. Finally two realistic example cases of Carbon ions in the ESR and relativistic Titanium ions in SIS100 are compared in order to discuss prospects for future laser cooling experiments.

  8. Maximum production rate optimization for sulphuric acid decomposition process in tubular plug-flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Lingen; Xia, Shaojun; Sun, Fengrui

    2016-01-01

    A sulphuric acid decomposition process in a tubular plug-flow reactor with fixed inlet flow rate and completely controllable exterior wall temperature profile and reactants pressure profile is studied in this paper by using finite-time thermodynamics. The maximum production rate of the aimed product SO 2 and the optimal exterior wall temperature profile and reactants pressure profile are obtained by using nonlinear programming method. Then the optimal reactor with the maximum production rate is compared with the reference reactor with linear exterior wall temperature profile and the optimal reactor with minimum entropy generation rate. The result shows that the production rate of SO 2 of optimal reactor with the maximum production rate has an increase of more than 7%. The optimization of temperature profile has little influence on the production rate while the optimization of reactants pressure profile can significantly increase the production rate. The results obtained may provide some guidelines for the design of real tubular reactors. - Highlights: • Sulphuric acid decomposition process in tubular plug-flow reactor is studied. • Fixed inlet flow rate and controllable temperature and pressure profiles are set. • Maximum production rate of aimed product SO 2 is obtained. • Corresponding optimal temperature and pressure profiles are derived. • Production rate of SO 2 of optimal reactor increases by 7%.

  9. Preliminary calculations on the cooling rate of the Renca batholit, Sierra de San Luis, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez de Luchi, M.G.; Ostera, H.A.; Linares, E; Rosello, E.A

    2001-01-01

    Cooling rates can be used to constrain the unroofing history of plutonic-metamorphic system. Geocronological cooling rates (Spear and Parrish, 1996) can be unravelled using age calculations on minerals that were open systems and subsequently passed through their closure temperatures (Dodson, 1973) during cooling. Several age determinations on different minerals are needed in order to accurately constrain the cooling path of a pluton (Hodges 1991, Spear and Parrish, 1996 and references therein). Isotopic open-system behaviour in minerals can be modelled as volume diffusion process (Hodges, 1991 and references therein), which depends on the cooling rate of the whole system. We present the first results on the calculation of the cooling rate of the Renca batholith on the basis of the combination of both thermometric calculations and available crystallization and cooling ages (au)

  10. LASER: A Maximum Likelihood Toolkit for Detecting Temporal Shifts in Diversification Rates From Molecular Phylogenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Rabosky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rates of species origination and extinction can vary over time during evolutionary radiations, and it is possible to reconstruct the history of diversification using molecular phylogenies of extant taxa only. Maximum likelihood methods provide a useful framework for inferring temporal variation in diversification rates. LASER is a package for the R programming environment that implements maximum likelihood methods based on the birth-death process to test whether diversification rates have changed over time. LASER contrasts the likelihood of phylogenetic data under models where diversification rates have changed over time to alternative models where rates have remained constant over time. Major strengths of the package include the ability to detect temporal increases in diversification rates and the inference of diversification parameters under multiple rate-variable models of diversification. The program and associated documentation are freely available from the R package archive at http://cran.r-project.org.

  11. Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-10-27

    Oct 27, 2016 ... maximum aerobic metabolic rate (MMR) is proportional to the fractal extent ... metabolic rate with body mass can be obtained by taking body .... blood takes place. ..... MMR and BMR is that MMR is owing mainly to respiration in skeletal .... the spectra of surface area scaling strategies of cells and organisms:.

  12. Estimation of maximum credible atmospheric radioactivity concentrations and dose rates from nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegadas, K.

    1979-01-01

    A simple technique is presented for estimating maximum credible gross beta air concentrations from nuclear detonations in the atmosphere, based on aircraft sampling of radioactivity following each Chinese nuclear test from 1964 to 1976. The calculated concentration is a function of the total yield and fission yield, initial vertical radioactivity distribution, time after detonation, and rate of horizontal spread of the debris with time. calculated maximum credible concentrations are compared with the highest concentrations measured during aircraft sampling. The technique provides a reasonable estimate of maximum air concentrations from 1 to 10 days after a detonation. An estimate of the whole-body external gamma dose rate corresponding to the maximum credible gross beta concentration is also given. (author)

  13. Effects of cooling rate on particle rearrangement statistics: Rapidly cooled glasses are more ductile and less reversible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Meng; Wang, Minglei; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Yanhui; Schroers, Jan; Shattuck, Mark D; O'Hern, Corey S

    2017-02-01

    Amorphous solids, such as metallic, polymeric, and colloidal glasses, display complex spatiotemporal response to applied deformations. In contrast to crystalline solids, during loading, amorphous solids exhibit a smooth crossover from elastic response to plastic flow. In this study, we investigate the mechanical response of binary Lennard-Jones glasses to athermal, quasistatic pure shear as a function of the cooling rate used to prepare them. We find several key results concerning the connection between strain-induced particle rearrangements and mechanical response. We show that the energy loss per strain dU_{loss}/dγ caused by particle rearrangements for more rapidly cooled glasses is larger than that for slowly cooled glasses. We also find that the cumulative energy loss U_{loss} can be used to predict the ductility of glasses even in the putative linear regime of stress versus strain. U_{loss} increases (and the ratio of shear to bulk moduli decreases) with increasing cooling rate, indicating enhanced ductility. In addition, we characterized the degree of reversibility of particle motion during a single shear cycle. We find that irreversible particle motion occurs even in the linear regime of stress versus strain. However, slowly cooled glasses, which undergo smaller rearrangements, are more reversible during a single shear cycle than rapidly cooled glasses. Thus, we show that more ductile glasses are also less reversible.

  14. Effect of cooling rate on the microstructure and properties of FeCrVC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleckmann, M.; Gleinig, J.; Hufenbach, J.; Wendrock, H.; Giebeler, L.; Zeisig, J.; Diekmann, U.; Eckert, J.; Kühn, U.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of cooling rate on microstructure and microhardness of newly developed steel. • Intensive study of DSC measurements was done including different cooling rates. • Examinations by XRD, EDS and EBSD as well as microhardness on the DSC samples. • Matrix phase changes with cooling rates from ferrit to martensite. • Thermodynamic calculations of solidification process shows good agreement. - Abstract: In this work a systematic investigation of the influence of the cooling rate on the microstructure and properties of a newly developed Fe92.7Cr4.2V2.1C1 (FeCrVC) tool steel is presented. By applying a tailored casting process and sufficiently high cooling rates excellent mechanical properties are obtained for the presented alloy already in the as-cast state. Since no subsequent heat treatment is required, the cooling parameters applied during the casting process play a key role with respect to the evolving microstructure and resulting properties. In the present publication the effect of the cooling rate on the microstructure and properties of as-solidified FeCrVC was investigated. By using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), several samples were heated up and cooled with continuous rates of 3–50 K/min. The received DSC data was used to investigate the alloy’s solidification and phase transformation behavior. Subsequently, these samples were studied regarding their properties and microstructure by different analysis methods (EDX/WDX, EBSD, XRD). With increasing cooling rates the liquidus and solidus temperature are lowered, whereas the solidification interval is enlarged. A higher cooling rate is accompanied by a lower solidification time which results in a refinement of the dendritic microstructure. Furthermore, with rising cooling rates the microhardness increased. This provides the opportunity to make predictions from the applied cooling parameters upon the hardness and vice versa and enables one to draw first conclusions on the

  15. Effect of cooling rates on the weld heat affected zone coarse grain microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Celin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a cooling rate on the S690Q quenched and tempered steel welded joint coarse grain heat affected zone microstructure was investigated using a dilatometer with controlled heating and cooling fixture. Steel samples were heated to a peak temperature of 1350 °C and cooled at the different cooling time Dt8/5. A dilatometric analysis and hardness measurements of the simulated thermal cycle coarse grain samples were done. Transformation start and finish temperature were determined using dilatation vs. temperature data analysis. The microstructure of the sample with a cooling time 5 s consists of martensite, whereas at cooling time 80 s a bainitic microstructure was observed. The investigated steel cooling cycle using simulation approach makes possible to determine the range of an optimum CG HAZ cooling time for the welding.

  16. Maximum Acceptable Vibrato Excursion as a Function of Vibrato Rate in Musicians and Non-musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatti, Marianna; Santurette, Sébastien; Pontoppidan, Niels H.

    2014-01-01

    and, in most listeners, exhibited a peak at medium vibrato rates (5–7 Hz). Large across-subject variability was observed, and no significant effect of musical experience was found. Overall, most listeners were not solely sensitive to the vibrato excursion and there was a listener-dependent rate...... for which larger vibrato excursions were favored. The observed interaction between maximum excursion thresholds and vibrato rate may be due to the listeners’ judgments relying on cues provided by the rate of frequency changes (RFC) rather than excursion per se. Further studies are needed to evaluate......Human vibrato is mainly characterized by two parameters: vibrato extent and vibrato rate. These parameters have been found to exhibit an interaction both in physical recordings of singers’ voices and in listener’s preference ratings. This study was concerned with the way in which the maximum...

  17. Effect of cooling rate on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Nb-microalloyed steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugam, S.; Ramisetti, N.K.; Misra, R.D.K.; Mannering, T.; Panda, D.; Jansto, S.

    2007-01-01

    We describe here the effect of cooling rate on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Nb-microalloyed steels that were processed as structural beams at three different cooling rates. Nb-microalloyed steels exhibited increase in yield strength with increase in cooling rate during processing. However, the increase in the yield strength was not accompanied by loss in toughness. The microstructure at conventional cooling rate, primarily consisted of polygonal ferrite-pearlite microconstituents, while at intermediate cooling rate besides polygonal ferrite and pearlite contained significant fraction of degenerated pearlite and lath-type ferrite. At higher cooling rate, predominantly, lath-type (acicular) or bainitic ferrite was obtained. The precipitation characteristics were similar at the three cooling rates investigated with precipitation occurring at grain boundaries, on dislocations, and in the ferrite matrix. The fine scale (∼8-12 nm) precipitates in the ferrite matrix were MC type of niobium carbides. The microstructural studies suggest that the increase in toughness of Nb-microalloyed steels with increase in cooling rate is related to the change in the microstructure from predominantly ferrite-pearlite to predominantly bainitic ferrite

  18. Effect of cooling rate on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Nb-microalloyed steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugam, S. [Center for Structural and Functional Materials, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA 70504-4130 (United States); Ramisetti, N.K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA 70504-4130 (United States); Misra, R.D.K. [Center for Structural and Functional Materials, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA 70504-4130 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA 70504-4130 (United States)], E-mail: dmisra@louisiana.edu; Mannering, T. [Nucor-Yamato Steel, P.O. Box 1228, 5929 East State Highway 18, Blytheville, AR 72316 (United States); Panda, D. [Nucor-Yamato Steel, P.O. Box 1228, 5929 East State Highway 18, Blytheville, AR 72316 (United States); Jansto, S. [Reference Metals, 1000 Old Pond Road, Bridgeville, PA 15017 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    We describe here the effect of cooling rate on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Nb-microalloyed steels that were processed as structural beams at three different cooling rates. Nb-microalloyed steels exhibited increase in yield strength with increase in cooling rate during processing. However, the increase in the yield strength was not accompanied by loss in toughness. The microstructure at conventional cooling rate, primarily consisted of polygonal ferrite-pearlite microconstituents, while at intermediate cooling rate besides polygonal ferrite and pearlite contained significant fraction of degenerated pearlite and lath-type ferrite. At higher cooling rate, predominantly, lath-type (acicular) or bainitic ferrite was obtained. The precipitation characteristics were similar at the three cooling rates investigated with precipitation occurring at grain boundaries, on dislocations, and in the ferrite matrix. The fine scale ({approx}8-12 nm) precipitates in the ferrite matrix were MC type of niobium carbides. The microstructural studies suggest that the increase in toughness of Nb-microalloyed steels with increase in cooling rate is related to the change in the microstructure from predominantly ferrite-pearlite to predominantly bainitic ferrite.

  19. On the equivalence between the minimum entropy generation rate and the maximum conversion rate for a reactive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bispo, Heleno; Silva, Nilton; Brito, Romildo; Manzi, João

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Minimum entropy generation (MEG) principle improved the reaction performance. • MEG rate and the maximum conversion equivalence have been analyzed. • Temperature and residence time are used to the domain establishment of MEG. • Satisfying the temperature and residence time relationship results a optimal performance. - Abstract: The analysis of the equivalence between the minimum entropy generation (MEG) rate and the maximum conversion rate for a reactive system is the main purpose of this paper. While being used as a strategy of optimization, the minimum entropy production was applied to the production of propylene glycol in a Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor (CSTR) with a view to determining the best operating conditions, and under such conditions, a high conversion rate was found. The effects of the key variables and restrictions on the validity domain of MEG were investigated, which raises issues that are included within a broad discussion. The results from simulations indicate that from the chemical reaction standpoint a maximum conversion rate can be considered as equivalent to MEG. Such a result can be clearly explained by examining the classical Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, where the molecules of the reactive system under the condition of the MEG rate present a distribution of energy with reduced dispersion resulting in a better quality of collision between molecules with a higher conversion rate

  20. Cool-down flow-rate limits imposed by thermal stresses in LNG pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, J. K.; Edeskuty, F. J.; Bartlit, J. R.

    Warm cryogenic pipelines are usually cooled to operating temperature by a small, steady flow of the liquid cryogen. If this flow rate is too high or too low, undesirable stresses will be produced. Low flow-rate limits based on avoidance of stratified two-phase flow were calculated for pipelines cooled with liquid hydrogen or nitrogen. High flow-rate limits for stainless steel and aluminum pipelines cooled by liquid hydrogen or nitrogen were determined by calculating thermal stress in thick components vs flow rate and then selecting some reasonable stress limits. The present work extends these calculations to pipelines made of AISI 304 stainless steel, 6061 aluminum, or ASTM A420 9% nickel steel cooled by liquid methane or a typical natural gas. Results indicate that aluminum and 9% nickel steel components can tolerate very high cool-down flow rates, based on not exceeding the material yield strength.

  1. Injection molding of ceramic filled polypropylene: The effect of thermal conductivity and cooling rate on crystallinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suplicz, A.; Szabo, F.; Kovacs, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • BN, talc and TiO 2 in 30 vol% were compounded with polypropylene matrix. • According to the DSC measurements, the fillers are good nucleating agents. • The thermal conductivity of the fillers influences the cooling rate of the melt. • The higher the cooling rate is, the lower the crystallinity in the polymer matrix. - Abstract: Three different nano- and micro-sized ceramic powders (boron-nitride (BN), talc and titanium-dioxide (TiO 2 )) in 30 vol% have been compounded with a polypropylene (PP) matrix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the particles are dispersed smoothly in the matrix and larger aggregates cannot be discovered. The cooling gradients and the cooling rate in the injection-molded samples were estimated with numerical simulations and finite element analysis software. It was proved with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements that the cooling rate has significant influence on the crystallinity of the compounds. At a low cooling rate BN works as a nucleating agent so the crystallinity of the compound is higher than that of unfilled PP. On the other hand, at a high cooling rate, the crystallinity of the compound is lower than that of unfilled PP because of its higher thermal conductivity. The higher the thermal conductivity is, the higher the real cooling rate in the material, which influences the crystallization kinetics significantly

  2. Low reproducibility of maximum urinary flow rate determined by portable flowmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonke, G. S.; Kiemeney, L. A.; Verbeek, A. L.; Kortmann, B. B.; Debruyne, F. M.; de la Rosette, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the reproducibility in maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) and to determine the number of flows needed to obtain a specified reliability in mean Qmax, 212 patients with LUTSs (mean age, 62 years) referred to the University Hospital Nijmegen,

  3. 19 CFR 212.07 - Rulemaking on maximum rates for attorney fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rulemaking on maximum rates for attorney fees. 212.07 Section 212.07 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT General Provisions...

  4. 7 CFR 4290.845 - Maximum rate of amortization on Loans and Debt Securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financing of Enterprises by RBICs Structuring Rbic Financing of Eligible Enterprises-Types of Financings § 4290.845 Maximum rate of amortization on Loans and Debt Securities. The...

  5. 30 CFR 75.601-3 - Short circuit protection; dual element fuses; current ratings; maximum values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short circuit protection; dual element fuses... Trailing Cables § 75.601-3 Short circuit protection; dual element fuses; current ratings; maximum values. Dual element fuses having adequate current-interrupting capacity shall meet the requirements for short...

  6. Effect of cooling rate on achieving thermodynamic equilibrium in uranium-plutonium mixed oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauchy, Romain; Belin, Renaud C.; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Hodaj, Fiqiri

    2016-02-01

    In situ X-ray diffraction was used to study the structural changes occurring in uranium-plutonium mixed oxides U1-yPuyO2-x with y = 0.15; 0.28 and 0.45 during cooling from 1773 K to room-temperature under He + 5% H2 atmosphere. We compare the fastest and slowest cooling rates allowed by our apparatus i.e. 2 K s-1 and 0.005 K s-1, respectively. The promptly cooled samples evidenced a phase separation whereas samples cooled slowly did not due to their complete oxidation in contact with the atmosphere during cooling. Besides the composition of the annealing gas mixture, the cooling rate plays a major role on the control of the Oxygen/Metal ratio (O/M) and then on the crystallographic properties of the U1-yPuyO2-x uranium-plutonium mixed oxides.

  7. Thermal shock resistance behavior of a functionally graded ceramic: Effects of finite cooling rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihe Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a semi-analytical model to explore the effects of cooling rate on the thermal shock resistance behavior of a functionally graded ceramic (FGC plate with a periodic array of edge cracks. The FGC is assumed to be a thermally heterogeneous material with constant elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio. The cooling rate applied at the FGC surface is modeled using a linear ramp function. An integral equation method and a closed form asymptotic temperature solution are employed to compute the thermal stress intensity factor (TSIF. The thermal shock residual strength and critical thermal shock of the FGC plate are obtained using the SIF criterion. Thermal shock simulations for an Al2O3/Si3N4 FGC indicate that a finite cooling rate leads to a significantly higher critical thermal shock than that under the sudden cooling condition. The residual strength, however, is relatively insensitive to the cooling rate.

  8. Disentangling the effects of alternation rate and maximum run length on judgments of randomness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine G. Scholl

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Binary sequences are characterized by various features. Two of these characteristics---alternation rate and run length---have repeatedly been shown to influence judgments of randomness. The two characteristics, however, have usually been investigated separately, without controlling for the other feature. Because the two features are correlated but not identical, it seems critical to analyze their unique impact, as well as their interaction, so as to understand more clearly what influences judgments of randomness. To this end, two experiments on the perception of binary sequences orthogonally manipulated alternation rate and maximum run length (i.e., length of the longest run within the sequence. Results show that alternation rate consistently exerts a unique effect on judgments of randomness, but that the effect of alternation rate is contingent on the length of the longest run within the sequence. The effect of maximum run length was found to be small and less consistent. Together, these findings extend prior randomness research by integrating literature from the realms of perception, categorization, and prediction, as well as by showing the unique and joint effects of alternation rate and maximum run length on judgments of randomness.

  9. Conifers in cold environments synchronize maximum growth rate of tree-ring formation with day length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Sergio; Deslauriers, Annie; Anfodillo, Tommaso; Morin, Hubert; Saracino, Antonio; Motta, Renzo; Borghetti, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Intra-annual radial growth rates and durations in trees are reported to differ greatly in relation to species, site and environmental conditions. However, very similar dynamics of cambial activity and wood formation are observed in temperate and boreal zones. Here, we compared weekly xylem cell production and variation in stem circumference in the main northern hemisphere conifer species (genera Picea, Pinus, Abies and Larix) from 1996 to 2003. Dynamics of radial growth were modeled with a Gompertz function, defining the upper asymptote (A), x-axis placement (beta) and rate of change (kappa). A strong linear relationship was found between the constants beta and kappa for both types of analysis. The slope of the linear regression, which corresponds to the time at which maximum growth rate occurred, appeared to converge towards the summer solstice. The maximum growth rate occurred around the time of maximum day length, and not during the warmest period of the year as previously suggested. The achievements of photoperiod could act as a growth constraint or a limit after which the rate of tree-ring formation tends to decrease, thus allowing plants to safely complete secondary cell wall lignification before winter.

  10. Rate maximum calculation of Dpa in CNA-II pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascitti, J. A

    2012-01-01

    The maximum dpa rate was calculated for the reactor in the following state: fresh fuel, no Xenon, a Boron concentration of 15.3 ppm, critical state, its control rods in the criticality position, hot, at full power (2160 MW). It was determined that the maximum dpa rate under such conditions is 3.54(2)x10 12 s -1 and it is located in the positions corresponding to θ=210 o in the azimuthal direction, and z=20 cm and -60 cm respectively in the axial direction, considering the calculation mesh centered at half height of the fuel element (FE) active length. The dpa rate spectrum was determined as well as the contribution to it for 4 energy groups: a thermal group, two epithermal groups and a fast one. The maximum dpa rate considering the photo-neutrons production from (γ, n) reaction in the heavy water of coolant and moderator was 3.93(4)x10 12 s -1 that is 11% greater than the obtained without photo-neutrons. This verified significant difference between both cases, suggest that photo-neutrons in large heavy water reactors such as CNA-II should not be ignored. The maximum DPA rate in the first mm of the reactor pressure vessel was calculated too and it was obtained a value of 4.22(6)x10 12 s -1 . It should be added that the calculation was carried out with the reactor complete accurate model, with no approximations in spatial or energy variables. Each value has, between parentheses, a percentage relative error representing the statistical uncertainty due to the probabilistic Monte Carlo method used to estimate it. More representative values may be obtained with this method if equilibrium burn-up distribution is used (author)

  11. Influence of the cooling rate on the ageing of lead-calcium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, F.; Lambertin, M. [LaBoMaP, Arts et Metiers ParisTech, Rue porte de Paris, 71250 Cluny (France); Delfaut-Durut, L. [CEA, centre de Valduc [SEMP, LECM], 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Maitre, A. [SPCTS, UFR Sciences et Techniques, 87060 Limoges (France); Vilasi, M. [LCSM, Universite Nancy I, 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2009-03-01

    Cast lead-calcium alloys were known to be sensitive to experimental parameters, which cause large variations on the ageing and overageing behaviour. From the study of these parameters, the quenching rate was the only significant parameter. A critical cooling rate was defined based on hardness, electrical resistivity and metallographical observations. The inconsistencies in the literature noticed on the evolutions of lead-calcium alloys can now be explained by whether or not this critical cooling rate was respected. (author)

  12. The maximum temperature of a thermodynamic cycle effect on weight-dimensional characteristics of the NPP energy blocks with air cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezborodov, Yu.A.; Bubnov, V.P.; Nesterenko, V.B.

    1982-01-01

    The cycle maximum temperature effect on the properties of individual apparatuses and total NPP energy blocks characteristics has been investigated. Air, nitrogen, helium and chemically reacting system N 2 O 4 +2NO+O 2 have been considered as coolants. The conducted investigations have shown that maximum temperature of thermodynamical cycle affects considerably both the weight-dimensional characteristics of individual elements of NPP and total characteristics of NPP energy block. Energy blocks of NPP with air cooling wherein dissociating nitrogen tetroxide is used as working body, have better indexes on the majority of characteristics in comparison with blocks with air, nitrogen and helium cooling. If technical restrictions are to be taken into account (thermal resistance of metals, coolant decomposition under high temperatures, etc.) then dissociating nitrogen tetroxide should be recommended as working body and maximum cycle temperature in the range from 500 up to 600 deg C

  13. Fast maximum likelihood estimation of mutation rates using a birth-death process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaowei; Zhu, Hongxiao

    2015-02-07

    Since fluctuation analysis was first introduced by Luria and Delbrück in 1943, it has been widely used to make inference about spontaneous mutation rates in cultured cells. Under certain model assumptions, the probability distribution of the number of mutants that appear in a fluctuation experiment can be derived explicitly, which provides the basis of mutation rate estimation. It has been shown that, among various existing estimators, the maximum likelihood estimator usually demonstrates some desirable properties such as consistency and lower mean squared error. However, its application in real experimental data is often hindered by slow computation of likelihood due to the recursive form of the mutant-count distribution. We propose a fast maximum likelihood estimator of mutation rates, MLE-BD, based on a birth-death process model with non-differential growth assumption. Simulation studies demonstrate that, compared with the conventional maximum likelihood estimator derived from the Luria-Delbrück distribution, MLE-BD achieves substantial improvement on computational speed and is applicable to arbitrarily large number of mutants. In addition, it still retains good accuracy on point estimation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Methodological aspects of crossover and maximum fat-oxidation rate point determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michallet, A-S; Tonini, J; Regnier, J; Guinot, M; Favre-Juvin, A; Bricout, V; Halimi, S; Wuyam, B; Flore, P

    2008-11-01

    Indirect calorimetry during exercise provides two metabolic indices of substrate oxidation balance: the crossover point (COP) and maximum fat oxidation rate (LIPOXmax). We aimed to study the effects of the analytical device, protocol type and ventilatory response on variability of these indices, and the relationship with lactate and ventilation thresholds. After maximum exercise testing, 14 relatively fit subjects (aged 32+/-10 years; nine men, five women) performed three submaximum graded tests: one was based on a theoretical maximum power (tMAP) reference; and two were based on the true maximum aerobic power (MAP). Gas exchange was measured concomitantly using a Douglas bag (D) and an ergospirometer (E). All metabolic indices were interpretable only when obtained by the D reference method and MAP protocol. Bland and Altman analysis showed overestimation of both indices with E versus D. Despite no mean differences between COP and LIPOXmax whether tMAP or MAP was used, the individual data clearly showed disagreement between the two protocols. Ventilation explained 10-16% of the metabolic index variations. COP was correlated with ventilation (r=0.96, P<0.01) and the rate of increase in blood lactate (r=0.79, P<0.01), and LIPOXmax correlated with the ventilation threshold (r=0.95, P<0.01). This study shows that, in fit healthy subjects, the analytical device, reference used to build the protocol and ventilation responses affect metabolic indices. In this population, and particularly to obtain interpretable metabolic indices, we recommend a protocol based on the true MAP or one adapted to include the transition from fat to carbohydrate. The correlation between metabolic indices and lactate/ventilation thresholds suggests that shorter, classical maximum progressive exercise testing may be an alternative means of estimating these indices in relatively fit subjects. However, this needs to be confirmed in patients who have metabolic defects.

  15. Thermal History of CBb Chondrules and Cooling Rate Distributions of Ejecta Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewins, R. H.; Condie, C.; Morris, M.; Richardson, M. L. A.; Ouellette, N.; Metcalf, M.

    2018-03-01

    It has been proposed that some meteorites, CB and CH chondrites, contain material formed as a result of a protoplanetary collision during accretion. Their melt droplets (chondrules) and FeNi metal are proposed to have formed by evaporation and condensation in the resulting impact plume. We observe that the skeletal olivine (SO) chondrules in CBb chondrites have a blebby texture and an enrichment in refractory elements not found in normal chondrules. Because the texture requires complete melting, their maximum liquidus temperature of 1928 K represents a minimum temperature for the putative plume. Dynamic crystallization experiments show that the SO texture can be created only by brief reheating episodes during crystallization, giving a partial dissolution of olivine. The ejecta plume formed in a smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation served as the basis for 3D modeling with the adaptive mesh refinement code FLASH4.3. Tracer particles that move with the fluid cells are used to measure the in situ cooling rates. Their cooling rates are ∼10,000 K hr‑1 briefly at peak temperature and, in the densest regions of the plume, ∼100 K hr‑1 for 1400–1600 K. A small fraction of cells is seen to be heating at any one time, with heating spikes explained by the compression of parcels of gas in a heterogeneous patchy plume. These temperature fluctuations are comparable to those required in crystallization experiments. For the first time, we find an agreement between experiments and models that supports the plume model specifically for the formation of CBb chondrules.

  16. The influence of cooling rate from annealing temperature on the microstructure of Haynes 230

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, Injin; Hong, Sunghoon; Jang, Changheui

    2015-01-01

    The effects of cooling rate from annealing temperature, which simulated the diffusion bonding process, on the microstructure of Haynes 230 (Ni-22Cr-14W-5Co) were investigated. While the grain boundaries are slightly covered with Cr-rich M 23 C 6 carbides for the diffusion-bonded and quenched condition, precipitates were extensively present on/near the grain boundaries for the furnace-cooled specimens. For the furnace-cooled specimens, lamellar precipitates were extensively formed near the grain boundaries below 1 000 deg. C, with intervals of a few hundred nanometers. Also, grain boundaries were severely serrated for the furnace-cooled specimens. Through electron probe micro analysis and transmission electron microscope, the lamellar precipitates were identified as (Cr,W)-rich M 23 C 6 -type lamellar carbides. Despite the differences in microstructure, tensile properties were not much affected by the cooling rate. Creep tests are underway and results will be presented. (authors)

  17. Dynamic crystallization of a eucrite basalt. [achondrite textural features produced by superheating and differing cooling rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.; Powell, M. A.; Hays, J. F.; Lofgren, G. E.

    1978-01-01

    The textural features produced in Stannern, a non-porpyritic representative of the eucrite basaltic achondrite class of meteorite, at differing cooling rates and various degrees of initial superheating were studied. Textures produced from mildly superheated melts were found to be fasciculate rather than porphyritic as the result of the cosaturated bulk chemistry of Stannern. The qualitative type of texture apparently depends mainly on the degree of initial superheating, whereas cooling rate exerts a strong influence on the coarseness of texture. Increasing the degree of superheating produces textures from intergranular/subophitic to fasciculate/porphyritic. With initial superheating to 1200 deg C the transition to quasi-porphyritic is controlled by cooling rate, but the development of phenocrysts is merely an overprint on the fasciculate background texture of the groundmass. The suppression of fasciculate texture is completed by a decrease of the degree of initial superheating below the plagioclast entry and suppression of quasi-porphyritic texture is completed by decrease of the degree of initial superheating below pyroxene entry; these qualitative changes do not seem to be produced by changes of cooling rate. A grain size/cooling rate dependence has been used to deduce the cooling rate of fasciculate-textured Stannern clasts (10.1 to 100 deg C/hr).

  18. Can reptile embryos influence their own rates of heating and cooling?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Guo Du

    Full Text Available Previous investigations have assumed that embryos lack the capacity of physiological thermoregulation until they are large enough for their own metabolic heat production to influence nest temperatures. Contrary to intuition, reptile embryos may be capable of physiological thermoregulation. In our experiments, egg-sized objects (dead or infertile eggs, water-filled balloons, glass jars cooled down more rapidly than they heated up, whereas live snake eggs heated more rapidly than they cooled. In a nest with diel thermal fluctuations, that hysteresis could increase the embryo's effective incubation temperature. The mechanisms for controlling rates of thermal exchange are unclear, but may involve facultative adjustment of blood flow. Heart rates of snake embryos were higher during cooling than during heating, the opposite pattern to that seen in adult reptiles. Our data challenge the view of reptile eggs as thermally passive, and suggest that embryos of reptile species with large eggs can influence their own rates of heating and cooling.

  19. Influence of cooling rate on the microstructure and corrosion behavior of Al–Fe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorin, T.; Stanford, N.; Birbilis, N.; Gupta, R.K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Increasing the cooling rate from 0.1 to 500 °C/s, mass loss rate decreased by 6 times. • Increase in corrosion resistance was attributed to the refined Fe-intermetallics. • Increased cooling rate resulted in increased Fe content in solid solution. • Direct strip casting can produce alloys with higher acceptable content of impurities. • Direct Strip Casting is a potential candidate to improve recyclability of Al alloys - Abstract: The effect of Fe in Al is technologically important for commercial Al-alloys, and in recycled Al. This work explores the use of the novel rapid solidification technology, known as direct strip casting, to improve the recyclability of Al-alloys. We provide a comparison between the corrosion and microstructure of Al–Fe alloys prepared with wide-ranging cooling rates (0.1 °C/s to 500 °C/s). Rapid cooling was achieved via direct strip casting, while slow cooling was achieved using sand casting. Corrosion was studied via polarisation and immersion tests, followed by surface analysis using scanning electron microscopy and optical profilometry. It was shown that the corrosion resistance of Al–Fe alloys is improved with increased cooling rates, attributed to the reduced size and number of Fe-containing intermetallics.

  20. Radiative losses and electron cooling rates for carbon and oxygen plasma impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchand, R.; Bonnin, X.

    1992-01-01

    Radiative losses and electron cooling rates are calculated for carbon and oxygen ions under conditions relevant to fusion plasmas. Both rates are calculated with the most recent recommended atomic data. A modified coronal model which includes the effects of metastable states is described and used to calculate the rates. Comparisons with other approaches are also discussed. (author). 36 ref, figs

  1. The Influence of Cooling Rates on Paleointensity of Volcanic Glasses: an Experimental Approach on Synthetic Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Aulock, F. W.; Ferk, A.; Leonhardt, R.; Hess, K.-U.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2009-04-01

    The suitability of volcanic glass for paleointensity determinations has been proposed in many studies throughout the last years. Besides the mainly single domain magnetic remanence carriers and the pristine character of the volcanic glass, this was also reasoned by the possibility to correct paleointensity data for cooling rate dependency using relaxation geospeedometry. This method gives the cooling rate of a glass at the glass transition interval which marks the change of a ductile supercooled liquid to a brittle glass. In this study the cooling rate correction as carried out for example by Leonhardt et al. 2006 is tested on synthetic volcanic glass. In order to obtain a stable multicomponent glass with ideal magnetic properties, a natural phonolithic glass from Tenerife (Spain) was melted to avoid heterogeneity and degassing. Further it was tempered for 5 hours at 900 °C to yield a sufficient concentration of magnetic remanence carriers. To exclude nucleation or crystallisation 7 samples were then heated to about 50 °C above the glass transition temperature at around 720 °C and quenched at different rates from 0.1 to 15 K/min. After carrying out a paleointensity experiment using a modified Thellier method, which incorporated alteration, additivity and tail checks, the dependence of the thermoremance on cooling rate was investigated. Using the original cooling rates we corrected the data and obtained paleointensities of around 46 T, which is a good approximation of the ambient field of 48 T. Taking into account that the uncorrected mean paleointensity is about 57 T, this suggests that cooling rate correction is not only working, but also a necessary tool to yield the true field value. R. Leonhardt , J. Matzka, A.R.L. Nichols , D.B. Dingwell Cooling rate correction of paleointensity determination for volcanic glasses by relaxation geospeedometry; Earth and Planetary Science Letters 243 (2006) 282-292

  2. Clinical evaluation of a simple uroflowmeter for categorization of maximum urinary flow rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Pridgeon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the accuracy and diagnostic usefulness of a disposable flowmeter consisting of a plastic funnel with a spout divided into three chambers. Materials and Methods: Men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS voided sequentially into a standard flowmeter and the funnel device recording maximum flow rate (Q max and voided volume (V void . The device was precalibrated such that filling of the bottom, middle and top chambers categorized maximum input flows as 15 ml s -1 respectively. Subjects who agreed to use the funnel device at home obtained readings of flow category and V void twice daily for seven days. Results: A single office reading in 46 men using the device showed good agreement with standard measurement of Q max for V void > 150 ml (Kappa = 0.68. All 14 men whose void reached the top chamber had standard Q max > 15 ml s -1 (PPV = 100%, NPV = 72% whilst eight of 12 men whose void remained in the bottom chamber had standard Q max < 10 ml s -1 (PPV = 70%, NPV = 94%. During multiple home use by 14 men the device showed moderate repeatability (Kappa = 0.58 and correctly categorized Q max in comparison to standard measurement for 12 (87% men. Conclusions: This study suggests that the device has sufficient accuracy and reliability for initial flow rate assessment in men with LUTS. The device can provide a single measurement or alternatively multiple home measurements to categorize men with Q max < 15 ml s -1 .

  3. The Impact of Cooling Rate on the Safety of Food Products as Affected by Food Containers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coorey, Ranil; Ng, Denise Sze Hu; Jayamanne, Vijith S.

    2018-01-01

    In recent decades, the demand for ready‐to‐eat (RTE) food items prepared by the food catering sector has increased together with the value of cook‐serve, cook‐chill, and cook‐freeze food products. The technologies by which foods are cooked, chilled, refrigerated for storage, and reheated before...... serving are of prime importance to maintain safety. Packaging materials and food containers play an important role in influencing the cooling rate of RTE foods. Food items that are prepared using improper technologies and inappropriate packaging materials may be contaminated with foodborne pathogens....... Numerous research studies have shown the impact of deficient cooling technologies on the survival and growth of foodborne pathogens, which may subsequently pose a threat to public health. The operating temperatures and cooling rates of the cooling techniques applied must be appropriate to inhibit...

  4. Maximum heart rate in brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) is not limited by firing rate of pacemaker cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverinen, Jaakko; Abramochkin, Denis V; Kamkin, Andre; Vornanen, Matti

    2017-02-01

    Temperature-induced changes in cardiac output (Q̇) in fish are largely dependent on thermal modulation of heart rate (f H ), and at high temperatures Q̇ collapses due to heat-dependent depression of f H This study tests the hypothesis that firing rate of sinoatrial pacemaker cells sets the upper thermal limit of f H in vivo. To this end, temperature dependence of action potential (AP) frequency of enzymatically isolated pacemaker cells (pacemaker rate, f PM ), spontaneous beating rate of isolated sinoatrial preparations (f SA ), and in vivo f H of the cold-acclimated (4°C) brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) were compared under acute thermal challenges. With rising temperature, f PM steadily increased because of the acceleration of diastolic depolarization and shortening of AP duration up to the break point temperature (T BP ) of 24.0 ± 0.37°C, at which point the electrical activity abruptly ceased. The maximum f PM at T BP was much higher [193 ± 21.0 beats per minute (bpm)] than the peak f SA (94.3 ± 6.0 bpm at 24.1°C) or peak f H (76.7 ± 2.4 at 15.7 ± 0.82°C) (P brown trout in vivo. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. On the cooling rate of strip cast ingots for sintered NdFeB magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, L.Q. [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yan, M. [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)]. E-mail: mse_yanmi@dial.zju.edu.cn; Wu, J.M. [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Luo, W. [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Cui, X.G. [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Ying, H.G. [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2007-04-30

    Effects of the cooling rate of strip cast ingots on magnetic properties of sintered NdFeB magnets were studied. It is found that the magnetic properties greatly depend on wheel speed due to different alloy microstructures, which affect readily the particle size distribution of powders obtained after the subsequent jet milling. At higher cooling rate, interlamellar spacing between Nd-rich platelets of the alloy was small, resulting in a lower saturated magnetization due to increased amounts of small particles after jet milling. With further decreasing cooling rate, the resultant larger interlamellar spacing led to too large particle sizes as well as a more irregular shape; thus deteriorated the magnetic properties of the final magnet. A model was developed to disclose the effects of particle sizes on the magnetic alignment process. In the current investigation, optimum magnetic properties of the final magnets were obtained with a cooling rate of 2.6 m/s for preparing the strip. The magnets made by conventionally cast ingot technique exhibited the lowest magnetic properties because of the slowest cooling rate.

  6. Predicting temperature drop rate of mass concrete during an initial cooling period using genetic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Santosh; Zhou, Yihong; Zhao, Chunju; Zhou, Huawei

    2018-02-01

    Thermal cracking on concrete dams depends upon the rate at which the concrete is cooled (temperature drop rate per day) within an initial cooling period during the construction phase. Thus, in order to control the thermal cracking of such structure, temperature development due to heat of hydration of cement should be dropped at suitable rate. In this study, an attempt have been made to formulate the relation between cooling rate of mass concrete with passage of time (age of concrete) and water cooling parameters: flow rate and inlet temperature of cooling water. Data measured at summer season (April-August from 2009 to 2012) from recently constructed high concrete dam were used to derive a prediction model with the help of Genetic Programming (GP) software “Eureqa”. Coefficient of Determination (R) and Mean Square Error (MSE) were used to evaluate the performance of the model. The value of R and MSE is 0.8855 and 0.002961 respectively. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the relative impact on the target parameter due to input parameters. Further, testing the proposed model with an independent dataset those not included during analysis, results obtained from the proposed GP model are close enough to the real field data.

  7. A dilatometer to measure the influence of cooling rate and melt shearing on specific volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Beek, M.H.E.; Peters, G.W.M.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    2005-01-01

    We developed a dilatometer to investigate the specific volume of polymers as a function of pressure (to 100 MPa), temperature (to 260 oC), cooling rate (to 80 C/s), and shear rate (to 77 1/s). The dilatometeris based on the principle of con¯ned compression and comprises of a pressure cell used in

  8. Improving Bayesian credibility intervals for classifier error rates using maximum entropy empirical priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Mats G; Wallman, Mikael; Wickenberg Bolin, Ulrika; Göransson, Hanna; Fryknäs, M; Andersson, Claes R; Isaksson, Anders

    2010-06-01

    Successful use of classifiers that learn to make decisions from a set of patient examples require robust methods for performance estimation. Recently many promising approaches for determination of an upper bound for the error rate of a single classifier have been reported but the Bayesian credibility interval (CI) obtained from a conventional holdout test still delivers one of the tightest bounds. The conventional Bayesian CI becomes unacceptably large in real world applications where the test set sizes are less than a few hundred. The source of this problem is that fact that the CI is determined exclusively by the result on the test examples. In other words, there is no information at all provided by the uniform prior density distribution employed which reflects complete lack of prior knowledge about the unknown error rate. Therefore, the aim of the study reported here was to study a maximum entropy (ME) based approach to improved prior knowledge and Bayesian CIs, demonstrating its relevance for biomedical research and clinical practice. It is demonstrated how a refined non-uniform prior density distribution can be obtained by means of the ME principle using empirical results from a few designs and tests using non-overlapping sets of examples. Experimental results show that ME based priors improve the CIs when employed to four quite different simulated and two real world data sets. An empirically derived ME prior seems promising for improving the Bayesian CI for the unknown error rate of a designed classifier. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Maximum type 1 error rate inflation in multiarmed clinical trials with adaptive interim sample size modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Alexandra C; Bauer, Peter; Glimm, Ekkehard; Koenig, Franz

    2014-07-01

    Sample size modifications in the interim analyses of an adaptive design can inflate the type 1 error rate, if test statistics and critical boundaries are used in the final analysis as if no modification had been made. While this is already true for designs with an overall change of the sample size in a balanced treatment-control comparison, the inflation can be much larger if in addition a modification of allocation ratios is allowed as well. In this paper, we investigate adaptive designs with several treatment arms compared to a single common control group. Regarding modifications, we consider treatment arm selection as well as modifications of overall sample size and allocation ratios. The inflation is quantified for two approaches: a naive procedure that ignores not only all modifications, but also the multiplicity issue arising from the many-to-one comparison, and a Dunnett procedure that ignores modifications, but adjusts for the initially started multiple treatments. The maximum inflation of the type 1 error rate for such types of design can be calculated by searching for the "worst case" scenarios, that are sample size adaptation rules in the interim analysis that lead to the largest conditional type 1 error rate in any point of the sample space. To show the most extreme inflation, we initially assume unconstrained second stage sample size modifications leading to a large inflation of the type 1 error rate. Furthermore, we investigate the inflation when putting constraints on the second stage sample sizes. It turns out that, for example fixing the sample size of the control group, leads to designs controlling the type 1 error rate. © 2014 The Author. Biometrical Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Effect of cooling rate on achieving thermodynamic equilibrium in uranium–plutonium mixed oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vauchy, Romain, E-mail: romain.vauchy@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTEC, Marcoule, 30207, Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); CEA, DEN, DEC, Cadarache, 13108, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Belin, Renaud C.; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte [CEA, DEN, DEC, Cadarache, 13108, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Hodaj, Fiqiri [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, SIMAP, F-38000, Grenoble (France); CNRS, Grenoble INP, SIMAP, F-38000, Grenoble (France)

    2016-02-15

    In situ X-ray diffraction was used to study the structural changes occurring in uranium–plutonium mixed oxides U{sub 1−y}Pu{sub y}O{sub 2−x} with y = 0.15; 0.28 and 0.45 during cooling from 1773 K to room-temperature under He + 5% H{sub 2} atmosphere. We compare the fastest and slowest cooling rates allowed by our apparatus i.e. 2 K s{sup −1} and 0.005 K s{sup −1}, respectively. The promptly cooled samples evidenced a phase separation whereas samples cooled slowly did not due to their complete oxidation in contact with the atmosphere during cooling. Besides the composition of the annealing gas mixture, the cooling rate plays a major role on the control of the Oxygen/Metal ratio (O/M) and then on the crystallographic properties of the U{sub 1−y}Pu{sub y}O{sub 2−x} uranium–plutonium mixed oxides.

  11. The influence of cooling rate on the microstructure of stainless steel alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmer, J.W.

    1988-09-01

    The emergence of high energy density welding, laser surface modification and rapid solidification as commonly used metallurgical processing techniques has greatly increased the range of cooling rates that can be accessed during the solidification of metals and alloys. The microstructures which develop during these rapid cooling conditions may be significantly different from those which develop during low cooling rate conditions as the result of access to new metastable phases with the additional kinetic limitations that accompany rapid solidification. This investigation explores the influence of cooling rate on a series of seven ternary alloys which span the line of two-fold saturation in the Fe-Ni-Cr system. High speed electron beam surface melting was used to resolidify these alloys at scan speeds up to 5 m/s. The resulting cooling rates were estimated from dendrite arm spacing measurements and were confirmed by heat flow modeling to vary from 7 /times/ 10/sup 0/ /degree/C/s to 8 /times/ 10/sup 6/ /degree/C/s. The microstructures that developed from each solidification condition were examined using optical metallography, electron microprobe analysis, scanning electron microscopy and a vibrating sample magnetometer. These results were used to create diagrams to predict the primary mode of solidification, the ferrite content and the complex microstructural morphologies which develop as a function of interface velocity and composition. 158 refs., 90 figs., 45 tabs.

  12. Vaporization Rate Analysis of Primary Cooling Water from Reactor PUSPATI TRIGA (RTP) Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonny Anak Lanyau; Mohd Fazli Zakaria; Yahya Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Primary cooling system consists of pumps, heat exchangers, probes, a nitrogen-16 diffuser and associated valves is connected to the reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) tank by aluminium pipes. Both the primary cooling system and the reactor tank is filled with demineralized light water (H 2 O), which serves as a coolant, moderator as well as shielding. During reactor operation, vaporization in the reactor tank will reduce the primary water and contribute to the formation of vapor in the reactor hall. The vaporization may influence the function of the water subsequently may affect the safety of the reactor operation. It is essential to know the vaporization rate of the primary water to ensure its functionality. This paper will present the vaporization rate of the primary cooling water from the reactor tank and the influence of temperature of the water in the reactor tank to the vaporization rate. (author)

  13. Evaporation Loss of Light Elements as a Function of Cooling Rate: Logarithmic Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yong-Liang; Hewins, Roger H.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge about the evaporation loss of light elements is important to our understanding of chondrule formation processes. The evaporative loss of light elements (such as B and Li) as a function of cooling rate is of special interest because recent investigations of the distribution of Li, Be and B in meteoritic chondrules have revealed that Li varies by 25 times, and B and Be varies by about 10 times. Therefore, if we can extrapolate and interpolate with confidence the evaporation loss of B and Li (and other light elements such as K, Na) at a wide range of cooling rates of interest based upon limited experimental data, we would be able to assess the full range of scenarios relating to chondrule formation processes. Here, we propose that evaporation loss of light elements as a function of cooling rate should obey the logarithmic law.

  14. Theoretical prediction of the effect of heat transfer parameters on cooling rates of liquid-filled plastic straws used for cryopreservation of spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansinen, M; Santos, M V; Zaritzky, N; Baez, R; Chirife, J

    2010-01-01

    Heat transfer plays a key role in cryopreservation of liquid semen in plastic straws. The effect of several parameters on the cooling rate of a liquid-filled polypropylene straw when plunged into liquid nitrogen was investigated using a theoretical model. The geometry of the straw containing the liquid was assimilated as two concentric finite cylinders of different materials: the fluid and the straw; the unsteady-state heat conduction equation for concentric cylinders was numerically solved. Parameters studied include external (convection) heat transfer coefficient (h), the thermal properties of straw manufacturing material and wall thickness. It was concluded that the single most important parameter affecting the cooling rate of a liquid column contained in a straw is the external heat transfer coefficient in LN2. Consequently, in order to attain maximum cooling rates, conditions have to be designed to obtain the highest possible heat transfer coefficient when the plastic straw is plunged in liquid nitrogen.

  15. Effect of cooling rates on bare bulk and silver wrapped pellets of Bi-2223 superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzioglu, C.; Oztuerk, O.; Kilic, A.; Gencer, A.; Belenli, I.

    2006-01-01

    We have examined the effect of cooling rates on oxygen content of Bi-2223 phase samples with and without silver sheating. Two sets of samples with and without silver sheating were annealed under identical conditions and cooled with rates of 10 deg. C/h, 25 deg. C/h, 50 deg. C/h, 75 deg. C/h, and 100 deg. C/h. XRD examination of the samples showed that a high percentage of Bi-2223 was obtained. Microstructure examinations were performed by scanning electron microscopy. Resistive and magnetic transitions of the samples were studied. All the reported data were discussed and related

  16. Influence of cooling rate on microstructure of NdFeB strip casting flakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binglin Guo; Bo Li; Dongling Wang; Xiaojun Yu [Central Iron and Steel Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China); Jifan Hu [Shandong Univ., Jinan (China)

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, flakes of NdFeB cast alloys were prepared by using the strip casting technique. Microstructure and composition of phases in NdFeB SC flakes were studied by SEM and energy spectra. Especially, the influences of cooling rate on the microstructure of SC flakes were discussed, helping us to master strip casting technology. The results show that the cooling rate plays an important role in obtaining the perfect microstructure of SC flakes, which thickness is supposed not less than 0.32mm in these studies. (orig.)

  17. Petroleum production at Maximum Efficient Rate Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This document provides an analysis of the potential impacts associated with the proposed action, which is continued operation of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. I (NPR-1) at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER) as authorized by Public law 94-258, the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976 (Act). The document also provides a similar analysis of alternatives to the proposed action, which also involve continued operations, but under lower development scenarios and lower rates of production. NPR-1 is a large oil and gas field jointly owned and operated by the federal government and Chevron U.SA Inc. (CUSA) pursuant to a Unit Plan Contract that became effective in 1944; the government's interest is approximately 78% and CUSA's interest is approximately 22%. The government's interest is under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The facility is approximately 17,409 acres (74 square miles), and it is located in Kern County, California, about 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield and 100 miles north of Los Angeles in the south central portion of the state. The environmental analysis presented herein is a supplement to the NPR-1 Final Environmental Impact Statement of that was issued by DOE in 1979 (1979 EIS). As such, this document is a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS)

  18. Probing polymer crystallization at processing-relevant cooling rates with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallo, Dario, E-mail: Dario.cavallo@unige.it [University of Genoa, Dept. of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genoa (Italy); Portale, Giuseppe [ESRF, Dubble CRG, Netherlands Organization of Scientific Research (NWO), 38043 Grenoble (France); Androsch, René [Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Center of Engineering Sciences, D-06099 Halle/S. (Germany)

    2015-12-17

    Processing of polymeric materials to produce any kind of goods, from films to complex objects, involves application of flow fields on the polymer melt, accompanied or followed by its rapid cooling. Typically, polymers solidify at cooling rates which span over a wide range, from a few to hundreds of °C/s. A novel method to probe polymer crystallization at processing-relevant cooling rates is proposed. Using a custom-built quenching device, thin polymer films are ballistically cooled from the melt at rates between approximately 10 and 200 °C/s. Thanks to highly brilliant synchrotron radiation and to state-of-the-art X-ray detectors, the crystallization process is followed in real-time, recording about 20 wide angle X-ray diffraction patterns per second while monitoring the instantaneous sample temperature. The method is applied to a series of industrially relevant polymers, such as isotactic polypropylene, its copolymers and virgin and nucleated polyamide-6. Their crystallization behaviour during rapid cooling is discussed, with particular attention to the occurrence of polymorphism, which deeply impact material’s properties.

  19. Assessment of external heat transfer coefficient during oocyte vitrification in liquid and slush nitrogen using numerical simulations to determine cooling rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M V; Sansinena, M; Zaritzky, N; Chirife, J

    2012-01-01

    In oocyte vitrification, plunging directly into liquid nitrogen favor film boiling and strong nitrogen vaporization. A survey of literature values of heat transfer coefficients (h) for film boiling of small metal objects with different geometries plunged in liquid nitrogen revealed values between 125 to 1000 W per per square m per K. These h values were used in a numerical simulation of cooling rates of two oocyte vitrification devices (open-pulled straw and Cryotop), plunged in liquid and slush nitrogen conditions. Heat conduction equation with convective boundary condition was considered a linear mathematical problem and was solved using the finite element method applying the variational formulation. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to simulate the cooling process of the systems. Predicted cooling rates for OPS and Cryotop when cooled at -196 degree C (liquid nitrogen) or -207 degree C (average for slush nitrogen) for heat transfer coefficients estimated to be representative of film boiling, indicated lowering the cooling temperature produces only a maximum 10 percent increase in cooling rates; confirming the main benefit of plunging in slush over liquid nitrogen does not arise from their temperature difference. Numerical simulations also demonstrated that a hypothetical four-fold increase in the cooling rate of vitrification devices when plunging in slush nitrogen would be explained by an increase in heat transfer coefficient. This improvement in heat transfer (i.e., high cooling rates) in slush nitrogen is attributed to less or null film boiling when a sample is placed in slush (mixture of liquid and solid nitrogen) because it first melts the solid nitrogen before causing the liquid to boil and form a film.

  20. High and highly variable cooling rates during pyroclastic eruptions on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helo, Christoph; Clague, David A.; Dingwell, Donald B.; Stix, John

    2013-03-01

    We present a calorimetric analysis of pyroclastic glasses and glassy sheet lava flow crusts collected on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge, NE Pacific Ocean, at a water depth of about 1400 m. The pyroclastic glasses, subdivided into thin limu o Pele fragments and angular, blocky clasts, were retrieved from various stratigraphic horizons of volcaniclastic deposits on the upper flanks of the volcanic edifice. Each analysed pyroclastic sample consists of a single type of fragment from one individual horizon. The heat capacity (cp) was measured via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and analysed using relaxation geospeedometry to obtain the natural cooling rate across the glass transition. The limu o Pele samples (1 mm grain size fraction) and angular fragments (0.5 mm grain size fraction) exhibit cooling rates of 104.3 to 106.0 K s- 1 and 103.9 to 105.1 K s- 1, respectively. A coarser grain size fraction, 2 mm for limu o Pele and 1 mm for the angular clasts yields cooling rates at the order of 103.7 K s- 1. The range of cooling rates determined for the different pyroclastic deposits presumably relates to the size or intensity of the individual eruptions. The outer glassy crusts of the sheet lava flows were naturally quenched at rates between 63 K s- 1 and 103 K s- 1. By comparing our results with published data on the very slow quenching of lava flow crusts, we suggest that (1) fragmentation and cooling appear to be coupled dynamically and (2) ductile deformation upon the onset of cooling is restricted due to the rapid increase in viscosity. Lastly, we suggest that thermally buoyant plumes that may arise from rapid heat transfer efficiently separate clasts based on their capability to rise within the plume and as they subsequently settle from it.

  1. Warming by immersion or exercise affects initial cooling rate during subsequent cold water immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Chris G; Ducharme, Michel B; Haman, François; Kenny, Glen P

    2004-11-01

    We examined the effect of prior heating, by exercise and warm-water immersion, on core cooling rates in individuals rendered mildly hypothermic by immersion in cold water. There were seven male subjects who were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1) seated rest for 15 min (control); 2) cycling ergometry for 15 min at 70% Vo2 peak (active warming); or 3) immersion in a circulated bath at 40 degrees C to an esophageal temperature (Tes) similar to that at the end of exercise (passive warming). Subjects were then immersed in 7 degrees C water to a Tes of 34.5 degrees C. Initial Tes cooling rates (initial approximately 6 min cooling) differed significantly among the treatment conditions (0.074 +/- 0.045, 0.129 +/- 0.076, and 0.348 +/- 0.117 degrees C x min(-1) for control, active, and passive warming conditions, respectively); however, secondary cooling rates (rates following initial approximately 6 min cooling to the end of immersion) were not different between treatments (average of 0.102 +/- 0.085 degrees C x min(-1)). Overall Tes cooling rates during the full immersion period differed significantly and were 0.067 +/- 0.047, 0.085 +/- 0.045, and 0.209 +/- 0.131 degrees C x min(-1) for control, active, and passive warming, respectively. These results suggest that prior warming by both active and, to a greater extent, passive warming, may predispose a person to greater heat loss and to experience a larger decline in core temperature when subsequently exposed to cold water. Thus, functional time and possibly survival time could be reduced when cold water immersion is preceded by whole-body passive warming, and to a lesser degree by active warming.

  2. Maximum Evaporation Rates of Water Droplets Approaching Obstacles in the Atmosphere Under Icing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, H. H.

    1953-01-01

    When a closed body or a duct envelope moves through the atmosphere, air pressure and temperature rises occur ahead of the body or, under ram conditions, within the duct. If cloud water droplets are encountered, droplet evaporation will result because of the air-temperature rise and the relative velocity between the droplet and stagnating air. It is shown that the solution of the steady-state psychrometric equation provides evaporation rates which are the maximum possible when droplets are entrained in air moving along stagnation lines under such conditions. Calculations are made for a wide variety of water droplet diameters, ambient conditions, and flight Mach numbers. Droplet diameter, body size, and Mach number effects are found to predominate, whereas wide variation in ambient conditions are of relatively small significance in the determination of evaporation rates. The results are essentially exact for the case of movement of droplets having diameters smaller than about 30 microns along relatively long ducts (length at least several feet) or toward large obstacles (wings), since disequilibrium effects are then of little significance. Mass losses in the case of movement within ducts will often be significant fractions (one-fifth to one-half) of original droplet masses, while very small droplets within ducts will often disappear even though the entraining air is not fully stagnated. Wing-approach evaporation losses will usually be of the order of several percent of original droplet masses. Two numerical examples are given of the determination of local evaporation rates and total mass losses in cases involving cloud droplets approaching circular cylinders along stagnation lines. The cylinders chosen were of 3.95-inch (10.0+ cm) diameter and 39.5-inch 100+ cm) diameter. The smaller is representative of icing-rate measurement cylinders, while with the larger will be associated an air-flow field similar to that ahead of an airfoil having a leading-edge radius

  3. Effect of Cooling Rates on Shape and Crystal Size Distributions of Mefenamic Acid Polymorph in Ethyl Acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudalip, S. K. Abdul; Adam, F.; Parveen, J.; Abu Bakar, M. R.; Amran, N.; Sulaiman, S. Z.; Che Man, R.; Arshad, Z. I. Mohd; Shaarani, S. Md.

    2017-06-01

    This study investigate the effect of cooling rates on mefenamic acid crystallisation in ethyl acetate. The cooling rate was varied from 0.2 to 5 °C/min. The in-line conductivity system and turbidity system were employed to detect the onset of the crystallization process. The crystals produced were analysed using optical microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It was found that the crystals produced at different cooling rates were needle-like and exhibit polymorphic form type I. However, the aspect ratio and crystal size distributions were varied with the increased of cooling rate. A high crystals aspect ratio and narrower CSD (100-900 μm) was obtained at cooling rate of 0.5 °C/min. Thus, can be suggested as the most suitable cooling rate for crystallization of mefenamic acid in ethyl acetate.

  4. Rapid cooling rates at an active mid-ocean ridge from zircon thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Axel K.; Perfit, Michael R.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Smith, Matthew C.; Cotsonika, Laurie A.; Zellmer, Georg F.; Ridley, W. Ian

    2011-01-01

    Oceanic spreading ridges are Earth's most productive crust generating environment, but mechanisms and rates of crustal accretion and heat loss are debated. Existing observations on cooling rates are ambiguous regarding the prevalence of conductive vs. convective cooling of lower oceanic crust. Here, we report the discovery and dating of zircon in mid-ocean ridge dacite lavas that constrain magmatic differentiation and cooling rates at an active spreading center. Dacitic lavas erupted on the southern Cleft segment of the Juan de Fuca ridge, an intermediate-rate spreading center, near the intersection with the Blanco transform fault. Their U–Th zircon crystallization ages (29.3-4.6+4.8 ka; 1δ standard error s.e.) overlap with the (U–Th)/He zircon eruption age (32.7 ± 1.6 ka) within uncertainty. Based on similar 238U-230Th disequilibria between southern Cleft dacite glass separates and young mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) erupted nearby, differentiation must have occurred rapidly, within ~ 10–20 ka at most. Ti-in-zircon thermometry indicates crystallization at 850–900 °C and pressures > 70–150 MPa are calculated from H2O solubility models. These time-temperature constraints translate into a magma cooling rate of ~ 2 × 10-2 °C/a. This rate is at least one order-of-magnitude faster than those calculated for zircon-bearing plutonic rocks from slow spreading ridges. Such short intervals for differentiation and cooling can only be resolved through uranium-series (238U–230Th) decay in young lavas, and are best explained by dissipating heat convectively at high crustal permeability.

  5. Effects of Cooling Rate on 6.5% Silicon Steel Ordering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Jun [Ames Lab. and Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Macziewski, Chad [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Jensen, Brandt [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Ouyang, Gaoyuan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Zhou, Lin [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Dennis, Kevin [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Zarkevich, Nikolai [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Jiang, Xiujuan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tang, Wei [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Zhou, Shihuai [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Simsek, Emrah [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Napolitano, Ralph [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Kramer, Matt [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States)

    2017-03-02

    Increasing Si content improves magnetic and electrical properties of electrical steel, with 6.5% Si as the optimum. Unfortunately, when Si content approaches 5.7%, the Fe-Si alloy becomes brittle. At 6.5%, the steel conventional cold rolling process is no longer applicable. The heterogeneous formation of B2 and D03 ordered phases is responsible for the embrittlement. The formation of these ordered phases can be impeded by rapid cooling. However, only the cooling rates of water and brine water were investigated. A comprehensive study of the effect of rapid cooling rate on the formation of the ordered phases was carried out by varying wheel speed and melt-injection rate. Thermal imaging employed to measure cooling rates while microstructures of the obtained ribbons are characterized using X-ray diffraction and TEM. The electrical, magnetic and mechanical properties are characterized using 4-pt probe, VSM, and macro-indentation methods. The relations between physical properties and ordered phases are established.

  6. AN EMPIRICAL MEASURE OF THE RATE OF WHITE DWARF COOLING IN 47 TUCANAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsbury, R.; Heyl, J.; Richer, H. B.; Woodley, K. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present an empirical determination of the white dwarf cooling sequence in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. Using spectral models, we determine temperatures for 887 objects from Wide Field Camera 3 data, as well as 292 objects from data taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys. We make the assumption that the rate of white dwarf formation in the cluster is constant. Stellar evolution models are then used to determine the rate at which objects are leaving the main sequence, which must be the same as the rate at which objects are arriving on the white dwarf sequence in our field. The result is an empirically derived relation between temperature (T eff ) and time (t) on the white dwarf cooling sequence. Comparing this result to theoretical cooling models, we find general agreement with the expected slopes between 20,000 K and 30,000 K and between 6000 K and 20,000 K, but the transition to the Mestel cooling rate of T eff ∝t –0.4 is found to occur at hotter temperatures, and more abruptly than is predicted by any of these models.

  7. New England observed and predicted August stream/river temperature maximum positive daily rate of change points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted August stream/river temperature maximum positive daily rate of change in New England based on a...

  8. New England observed and predicted July stream/river temperature maximum positive daily rate of change points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted July stream/river temperature maximum positive daily rate of change in New England based on a...

  9. New England observed and predicted July maximum negative stream/river temperature daily rate of change points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted July stream/river temperature maximum negative daily rate of change in New England based on a...

  10. Study of cooling rates during metallic glass formation in a hammer and anvil apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, D.M.; Coghlan, W.A.; Easton, D.S.; Koch, C.C.; Scarbrough, J.O.

    1982-01-01

    A model is presented of the simultaneous spreading and cooling of the liquid drop in a hammer and anvil apparatus for rapid quenching of liquid metals. The viscosity of the melt is permitted to vary with temperature, and to avoid mathematical complications which would be associated with spatial variation of the viscosity, Newtonian cooling is assumed. From an expression for the force required to spread the specimen, coupled equations for the mechanical energy balance for the system and the heat transfer from the sample to the hearth and hammer were obtained, and solved numerically. The sample reaches its final thickness when the force required to deform it becomes greater than the force exerted on it by the decelerating hammer. The model was fit to measurements of sample thickness versus hammer speed, using the interface heat transfer coefficient, h, as an adjustable parameter. The values of h so obtained vary somewhat with the melt alloy/substrate metal combination. From predicted cooling curves, the effects of hammer speed, sample size, and initial melt temperature on the cooling rate and the efficiency of glass formation can be assessed. Addition of sample superheat shifts the cooling curve relative to the expected position of the time-temperature-transformation curve for formation of crystalline material from the melt, and thus is an effective means of increasing the probability of glass formation in this type of apparatus

  11. Study on influence of flow rates on voids in waxy crude oil subjected to dynamic and static cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girma T. Chala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The assumption of constant yield stress in the conventional restart pressure equation neglects the effects of thermal shrinkage and gas voids formation, which in turn resulted in an over-designed production piping systems. This paper presents a study on the effects of flow rates on the formation of voids in gelled waxy crude oil. A flow loop rig simulating offshore waxy crude oil transportation was used to produce a gel. A Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI was used to scan the gelled crude oil over the three planes. Waxy crude oil underwent both dynamic and static cooling to observe the effects of volume flow rates on the voids formed in wax-oil gel. Volume flow rate was found to have different influences on the intra-gel voids in the pipeline. A volume flow rate of 5 L/min resulted in a maximum total voids volume of 6.98% while 20 L/min produced a minimum total voids volume of 5.67% in the entire pipe. Slow flow rates resulted in a larger voids volume near the pipe wall. In contrast, faster flow rates produced insignificantly higher voids volume around pipe core. Generally, slower flow rates favoured the formation of higher total voids volume following sufficient steady time of wax crystal formation, producing larger voids areas in gelled waxy crude oil.

  12. Influence of cooling rate on residual stress profile in veneering ceramic: measurement by hole-drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, Amélie K; Schajer, Gary S; Vanheusden, Alain J; Sadoun, Michaël J

    2011-09-01

    The manufacture of dental crowns and bridges generates residual stresses within the veneering ceramic and framework during the cooling process. Residual stress is an important factor that control the mechanical behavior of restorations. Knowing the stress distribution within the veneering ceramic as a function of depth can help the understanding of failures, particularly chipping, a well-known problem with Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal based fixed partial dentures. The objective of this study is to investigate the cooling rate dependence of the stress profile in veneering ceramic layered on metal and zirconia frameworks. The hole-drilling method, often used for engineering measurements, was adapted for use with veneering ceramic. The stress profile was measured in bilayered disc samples 20 mm in diameter, with a 0.7 mm thick metal or Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal framework and a 1.5mm thick veneering ceramic. Three different cooling procedures were investigated. The magnitude of the stresses in the surface of the veneering ceramic was found to increase with cooling rate, while the interior stresses decreased. At the surface, compressive stresses were observed in all samples. In the interior, compressive stresses were observed in metal samples and tensile in zirconia samples. Cooling rate influences the magnitude of residual stresses. These can significantly influence the mechanical behavior of metal-and zirconia-based bilayered systems. The framework material influenced the nature of the interior stresses, with zirconia samples showing a less favorable stress profile than metal. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of the cooling rate on the shear behavior of continuous glass fiber/impact polypropylene composites (GF-IPP)

    KAUST Repository

    Wafai, Husam; Lubineau, Gilles; Yudhanto, Arief; Mulle, Matthieu; Schijve, W.; Verghese, N.

    2016-01-01

    ) are particularly attractive to the automotive industry due to their low cost and good impact resistance. In such composites, the cooling rate varies depending on processing techniques and manufacturing choices. Here, we study the effects of the cooling rate of GF

  14. Effects of Cooling Rates on Hydride Reorientation and Mechanical Properties of Zirconium Alloy Claddings under Interim Dry Storage Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Su-Jeong; Kim, Myeong-Su; Won, Chu-chin; Kim, Kyu-Tae

    2013-01-01

    As-received Zr-Nb cladding tubes and 600 ppm hydrogen-charged tubes were employed to evaluate the effects of cladding cooling rates on the extent of hydride reorientation from circumferential hydrides to radial ones and mechanical property degradations with the use of cooling rates of 2, 4 and 15 °C/min from 400 °C to room temperature simulating cladding cooling under interim dry storage conditions. The as-received cladding tubes generated nearly the same ultimate tensile strengths and plastic elongations, regardless of the cooling rates, because of a negligible hydrogen content in the cladding. The 600 ppm-H cladding tubes indicate that the slower cooling rate generated the larger radial hydride fraction and the longer radial hydrides, which resulted in greater mechanical performance degradations. The cooling rate of 2 °C/min generates an ultimate tensile strength of 758 MPa and a plastic elongation of 1.0%, whereas the cooling rate of 15 °C/min generates an ultimate tensile strength of 825 MPa and a plastic elongation of 15.0%. These remarkable mechanical property degradations of the 600 ppm-H cladding tubes with the slowest cooling rate may be characterized by cleavage fracture surface appearance enhanced by longer radial hydrides and their higher fraction that have been precipitated through a relatively larger nucleation and growth rate.

  15. The influence of various cooling rates during laser alloying on nodular iron surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczkowska, Marta; Makuch, Natalia; Kulka, Michał

    2018-06-01

    The results of research referring to modification of the nodular iron surface layer by laser alloying with cobalt were presented. The aim of this study was to analyze the possibilities of cobalt implementation into the surface layer of nodular iron in various laser heat treatment conditions (by generating different cooling rates of melted surface layer). The modified surface layer of nodular iron was analyzed with OM, SEM, TEM, XRD, EDS and Vickers microhardness tester. The modified surface layer of nodular iron after laser alloying consisted of: the alloyed zone (melted with cobalt), the transition zone and the hardened zone from solid state. The alloyed zone was characterized by higher microstructure homogeneity - in contrast to the transition and the hardened zones. All the alloyed zones contained a dendritic microstructure. Dendrites consisted of martensite needles and retained austenite. Cementite was also detected. It was stated, that due to similar dimension of iron and cobalt atoms, their mutual replacement in the crystal lattice could occur. Thus, formation of phases based on α solution: Co-Fe (44-1433) could not be excluded. Although cobalt should be mostly diluted in solid solutions (because of its content in the alloyed zone), the other newly formed phases as Co (ε-hex.), FeC and cobalt carbides: Co3C, CoC0.25 could be present in the alloyed zones as a result of unique microstructure creation during laser treatment. Pearlite grains were observed in the zone, formed using lower power density of the laser beam and its longer exposition time. Simply, such conditions resulted in the cooling rate which was lower than critical cooling rate. The alloyed zones, produced at a higher cooling rate, were characterized by better microstructure homogeneity. Dendrites were finer in this case. This could result from a greater amount of crystal nuclei appearing at higher cooling rate. Simultaneously, the increased amount of γ-Fe and Fe3C precipitates was expected in

  16. The Effect of Wind Velocity on the Cooling Rate of Water

    OpenAIRE

    Shrey Aryan

    2016-01-01

    The effect of wind velocity on the cooling rate of water was investigated by blowing air horizontally over the surface of water contained in a plastic water-bottle cap. The time taken for the temperature to fall to the average of the surrounding and initial temperatures was recorded at different values of wind velocity. It was observed that on increasing the wind velocity, the time taken to achieve average temperature not only decreased but also remained the same after a certain point.

  17. Stabilization of iron and molybdenum amorphous state with interstitials under high rates of cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barmin, Yu.V.; Vavilova, V.V.; Verevkin, A.G.; Gertsen, A.T.; Kovneristyj, Yu.K.; Kotyurgin, E.A.; Mirkin, B.V.; Palij, N.A.

    1993-01-01

    Amorphous solidification of iron and molybdenum is investigated in thin films and on surface laser irradiated on air at 10 12 and 10 8 /Ks cooling rates correspondingly. Amorphous solidification occurs during ion plasma spraying in thin films of 50 nm at saturation of carbon and oxygen atoms in the ratio of C:0=2.3, but amorphous state is absent at room temperature. Metastable fcc phase, among bcc, is formed by crystallization

  18. Quantitative theoretical analysis of lifetimes and decay rates relevant in laser cooling BaH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Keith; Lane, Ian C.

    2018-05-01

    Tiny radiative losses below the 0.1% level can prove ruinous to the effective laser cooling of a molecule. In this paper the laser cooling of a hydride is studied with rovibronic detail using ab initio quantum chemistry in order to document the decays to all possible electronic states (not just the vibrational branching within a single electronic transition) and to identify the most populated final quantum states. The effect of spin-orbit and associated couplings on the properties of the lowest excited states of BaH are analysed in detail. The lifetimes of the A2Π1/2, H2Δ3/2 and E2Π1/2 states are calculated (136 ns, 5.8 μs and 46 ns respectively) for the first time, while the theoretical value for B2 Σ1/2+ is in good agreement with experiments. Using a simple rate model the numbers of absorption-emission cycles possible for both one- and two-colour cooling on the competing electronic transitions are determined, and it is clearly demonstrated that the A2Π - X2Σ+ transition is superior to B2Σ+ - X2Σ+ , where multiple tiny decay channels degrade its efficiency. Further possible improvements to the cooling method are proposed.

  19. Study of the Al-Si-X system by different cooling rates and heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Suarez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The solidification behavior of the Al-12.6% Si (A1, the hypereutectic Al-20%Si (A2 and the Al-20%Si-1.5% Fe-0.5%Mn (A3 (in wt. (% alloys, at different cooling rates is reported and discussed. The cooling rates ranged between 0.93 °C/s and 190 °C/s when cast in sand and copper wedge-shaped molds, respectively. A spheroidization heat treatment was carried out to the alloys in the as-cast condition at 540 °C for 11 hours and quench in water with a subsequent heat treatment at 170 °C for 5 hours with the purpose of improving the mechanical properties. The samples were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and mechanically by tensile test, in order to evaluate the response of the heat treatment on the different starting microstructures and mechanical properties. It was found that alloys cooled at rates greater than 10.8 °C/s had a smaller particle size and better distribution, also showed a greater response to spheroidization heat treatment of all silicon (Si phases. The spheroidization heat treatment caused an increase in the ultimate tensile stress (UTS and elongation when compared with the alloys in the as-cast condition. The highest UTS value of 174 MPa was obtained for the (A1 alloy.

  20. Influence of the post-annealing cooling rate on the superconducting and mechanical properties of LFZ textured Bi-2212 rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natividad, E; Gomez, J A; Angurel, L A; Salazar, A; Pastor, J Y; Llorca, J

    2002-01-01

    Laser floating zone textured Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ (Bi-2212) thin rods were manufactured and subjected to a two-step annealing process at 870 deg C and 801 deg C in air. It was found that the subsequent cooling process led to marked changes in electrical properties. Three cooling rates were tested: (i) quenching in liquid nitrogen, (ii) cooling in air inside an alumina tube and (iii) cooling inside the furnace. The results showed that the faster the cooling rate, the higher the normal state resistivity. The T c distribution across the rods was also affected by the cooling rate, but no large differences were observed in the magnitude of the critical current at 77 K since the homogeneity of furnace-cooled samples compensated for the higher outer J c values of fast-cooled ones. The mechanical properties (elastic modulus and flexure strength) were not influenced by the cooling rate, but the samples quenched in liquid nitrogen were often cracked by thermal shock. The elastic modulus and the flexure strength of the rods were deteriorated by the existence of an outer ring of compact, poorly textured material and by the large bubbles found in the central region of the rod. Samples processed by a two-step texturing process which reduced the thickness of the outer ring and eliminated the bubbles had better electrical and mechanical properties

  1. Influence of the post-annealing cooling rate on the superconducting and mechanical properties of LFZ textured Bi-2212 rods

    CERN Document Server

    Natividad, E; Angurel, L A; Salazar, A; Pastor, J Y; Llorca, J

    2002-01-01

    Laser floating zone textured Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub 8 sub + subdelta (Bi-2212) thin rods were manufactured and subjected to a two-step annealing process at 870 deg C and 801 deg C in air. It was found that the subsequent cooling process led to marked changes in electrical properties. Three cooling rates were tested: (i) quenching in liquid nitrogen, (ii) cooling in air inside an alumina tube and (iii) cooling inside the furnace. The results showed that the faster the cooling rate, the higher the normal state resistivity. The T sub c distribution across the rods was also affected by the cooling rate, but no large differences were observed in the magnitude of the critical current at 77 K since the homogeneity of furnace-cooled samples compensated for the higher outer J sub c values of fast-cooled ones. The mechanical properties (elastic modulus and flexure strength) were not influenced by the cooling rate, but the samples quenched in liquid nitrogen were often cracked by thermal shock. The elastic m...

  2. Performance of highly rated UO2 fuel in the WR-1 organic-cooled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schankula, M. H.; Hastings, I. J.

    1977-07-15

    Information on oxide fuel behaviour in organic coolant was required as part of the organic-cooled power reactor (OCR) study. Of major interest were data on the release of fission gases from fuel operating at high fuel surface temperatures and low external restraint; features which are peculiar to the OCR. To provide these and other data, UO2 fuel with cold-worked Zr-2.5wt%Nb sheathing was irradiated in the WR-1 organic-cooled reactor to burnups of 135-154 MWh/kgU at a time-averaged linear power of 60-63 kW/m. Elements with 0.38 and 0.69 mm thick sheathing showed maximum diametral increases averaging 3.7 and 1.7% respectively at pellet mid-planes. Reduced fuel/sheath heat transfer resulting from a difference between internal gas pressure and coolant pressure produced high operating temperatures, and there was evidence of central melting in some elements. Fission gas releases were 30-60%. In the heat affected zone adjacent to brazed appendages, the diametral increases were lower, averaging 0.9 and 0.5% for 0.38 and 0.69 mm thick sheathing respectively. Heat treatment during the brazing process produced a local improvement in sheath creep strength. Highly rated oxide fuel irradiated in organic coolant will require sheathing with improved high temperature creep properties; heat-treated Zr-2.5 wt% Nb may provide this improvement.

  3. Effect of solution cooling rate on the γ' precipitation behaviors of a Ni-base P/M superalloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The effect of cooling rate on the cooling "/' precipitation behaviors was investigated in a Ni-base powder/metallurgy (P/M)superalioy (FGH4096).The empirical equations were established between the cooling rate and the average sizes of secondary and tertiary γ' precipitates within grains and tertiary γ' precipitates at grain boundaries,as well as the apparent width of grain boundaries.The results show that the average sizes of secondary or tertiary γ' precipitates are inversely correlated with the cooling rate.The shape of secondary γ' precipitates within grains changes from butterfly-like to spherical with the increase of cooling rate,but all the tertiary γ' precipitates formed are spherical in shape.It is also found that tertiary γ' may be precipitated in the latter part of the cooling cycle only if the cooling rate is not faster than 4.3℃/s,and the apparent width of grain boundaries decreases linearly with the increase of cooling rate.

  4. 75 FR 52947 - Maximum Per Diem Rates for the Continental United States (CONUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... per diem rate setting process enhances the government's ability to obtain policy-compliant lodging where it is needed. In conjunction with the annual lodging study, GSA identified five new non-standard... diem localities and updates the standard CONUS rate. The CONUS per diem rates prescribed in Bulletin 11...

  5. Tolerance of brown bear spermatozoa to conditions of pre-freezing cooling rate and equilibration time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Urueña, E; Alvarez, M; Gomes-Alves, S; Martínez-Rodríguez, C; Borragan, S; Anel-López, L; de Paz, P; Anel, L

    2014-06-01

    Specific protocols for the cryopreservation of endangered Cantabrian brown bear spermatozoa are critical to create a genetic resource bank. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cooling rates and equilibration time before freezing on post-thawed brown bear spermatozoa quality. Electroejaculates from 11 mature bears were extended to 100 × 10(6) spermatozoa/mL in a TES-Tris-Fructose-based extender, cryopreserved following performance of the respective cooling/equilibration protocol each sample was assigned to, and stored at -196 °C for further assessment. Before freezing, after thawing, and after 1 hour's incubation post-thawing at 37 °C (thermal stress test), the quality of the samples was assessed for motility by computer-assisted semen analysis, and for viability (SYBR-14/propidium iodide), acrosomal status (peanut agglutinin-fluorescein isothiocyanate /propidium iodide), and sperm chromatin stability (SCSA) by flow cytometry. In experiment 1, three cooling rates (0.25 °C/min, 1 °C/min, and 4 °C/min) to 5 °C were assessed. After thawing, total motility (%TM) was higher and percentage of damaged acrosomes (%dACR) was lower (P bear sperm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Helium release rates and ODH calculations from RHIC magnet cooling line failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaw, C.J.; Than, Y.; Tuozzolo, J.

    2011-03-28

    A catastrophic failure of the magnet cooling lines, similar to the LHC superconducting bus failure incident, could discharge cold helium into the RHIC tunnel and cause an Oxygen Deficiency Hazard (ODH) problem. A SINDA/FLUINT{reg_sign} model, which simulated the 4.5K/4 atm helium flowing through the magnet cooling system distribution lines, then through a line break into the insulating vacuum volumes and discharging via the reliefs into the RHIC tunnel, had been developed. Arc flash energy deposition and heat load from the ambient temperature cryostat surfaces are included in the simulations. Three typical areas: the sextant arc, the Triplet/DX/D0 magnets, and the injection area, had been analyzed. Results, including helium discharge rates, helium inventory loss, and the resulting oxygen concentration in the RHIC tunnel area, are reported. Good agreement had been achieved when comparing the simulation results, a RHIC sector depressurization test measurement, and some simple analytical calculations.

  7. Effects of Nb Modification and Cooling Rate on the Microstructure in an Ultrahigh Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Matthew D.; Webler, Bryan A.; Picard, Yoosuf N.

    2018-06-01

    In this study, two different melting methods were used to investigate effects of Nb modification on microstructure in ultrahigh carbon steel (UHCS). Nb-free and Nb-modified UHCS samples were produced by melting and resolidifying an industrially produced base UHCS with and without addition of Nb powder. Microstructure was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electron dispersive spectroscopy. Equilibrium computations of phase fractions and compositions were utilized to help describe microstructural changes caused by the Nb additions. Nb combined with C to form NbC structures before and during austenite solidification, reducing the effective amount of carbon available for the other phases. Cementite network spacing in the Nb-free samples was controlled by the cooling rate during solidification (faster cooling led to a more refined network). Network spacing in the Nb-modified UHCS could be enlarged by NbC structures that formed cooperatively with austenite.

  8. Correlation of Mechanical Properties with Diameter and Cooling Rate of 1080 Wire-Rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, A.; Poirier, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    More than 540 heats of 1080 wire-rod were statistically analyzed by regression analyses to see whether tensile strength and percent reduction in area (%RA) relate to wire-rod diameter and composition. As diameter increases from 5.6 to 12.7 mm, the trend in %RA shows a decrease with negligible effect on the trend of the tensile strength. It was found that the estimated cooling rate at 700 °C during controlled cooling is responsible for the "diameter effect." The effect of composition on %RA is minor when contrasted to the "diameter effect." In particular, the effect of the concentrations of the residual elements on %RA within the compositional range studied is negligible.

  9. Influence of cooling rate and antimony addition content on graphite morphology and mechanical properties of a ductile iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooling rate and inoculation practice can greatly affect the graphite morphology of ductile irons. In the present research, the effects of the cooling rate and antimony addition on the graphite morphology and mechanical properties of ductile irons have been studied. Three ductile iron castings were prepared through solidification under cooling conditions S (slow, M (medium and F (fast. The cooling rates around the equilibrium eutectic temperature (1,150 ℃ for these cooling conditions (S, M and F were set at 0.21 ℃·min-1, 0.32 ℃·min-1 and 0.37 ℃·min-1, respectively. In addition, four ductile iron castings were prepared by adding 0.01%, 0.02%, 0.03% and 0.04% (by weight antimony, respectively under the slow cooling condition. The results show that the nodularity index, tensile strength and hardness of the ductile iron castings without antimony addition are all improved with the increase of cooling rate, while the ductile iron casting solidified under the medium cooling rate possesses the largest number of graphite nodules. Furthermore, for the four antimony containing castings, the graphite morphology and tensile strength are also improved by the antimony additions, and the effect of antimony addition is intensified when the addition increases from 0.01% to 0.03%. Moreover, the rare earth elements (REE/antimony ratio of 2 appears to be the most effective for fine nodular graphite formation in ductile iron.

  10. Effectiveness of Ti-micro alloying in relation to cooling rate on corrosion of AZ91 Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candan, S.; Celik, M.; Candan, E.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, micro Ti-alloyed AZ91 Mg alloys (AZ91 + 0.5wt.%Ti) have been investigated in order to clarify effectiveness of micro alloying and/or cooling rate on their corrosion properties. Molten alloys were solidified under various cooling rates by using four stage step mold. The microstructural investigations were carried out by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Corrosion behaviors of the alloys were evaluated by means of immersion and electrochemical polarization tests in 3.5% NaCl solution. Results showed that the Mg 17 Al 12 (β) intermetallic phase in the microstructure of AZ91 Mg alloy formed as a net-like structure. The Ti addition has reduced the distribution and continuity of β intermetallic phase and its morphology has emerged as fully divorced eutectic. Compared to AZ91 alloy, the effect of the cooling rate in Ti-added alloy on the grain size was less pronounced. When AZ91 and its Ti-added alloys were compared under the same cooling conditions, the Ti addition showed notably high corrosion resistance. Electrochemical test results showed that while I corr values of AZ91 decrease with the increase in the cooling rate, the effect of the cooling rate on I corr values was much lower in the Ti-added alloy. The corrosion resistance of AZ91 Mg alloy was sensitive towards the cooling rates while Ti-added alloy was not affected much from the cooling conditions. - Highlights: • Effect the cooling rate on grain size was less pronounced in the Ti-added alloy. • The morphology of the β phase transformed into fully divorced eutectics. • Ti addition exhibited significantly higher corrosion resistance. • Ti micro alloying is more effective than faster cooling of the alloy on corrosion.

  11. Cooling curve analysis in binary Al-Cu alloys: Part II- Effect of Cooling Rate and Grain Refinement on The Thermal and Thermodynamic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dehnavi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Al-Cu alloys have been widely used in aerospace, automobile, and airplane applications. Generally Al–Ti and Al–Ti–B master alloys are added to the aluminium alloys for grain refinement. The cooling curve analysis (CCA has been used extensively in metal casting industry to predict microstructure constituents, grain refinement and to calculate the latent heat of solidification. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of cooling rate and grain refinement on the thermal and thermodynamic characteristics of Al-Cu alloys by cooling curve analysis. To do this, Al-Cu alloys containing 3.7, and 4.8 wt.% Cu were melted and solidified with 0.04, 0.19, 0.42, and 1.08 K/s cooling rates. The temperature of the samples was recorded using a K thermocouple and a data acquisition system connected to a PC. Some samples were Grain refined by Al-5Ti-1B to see the effect of grain refinement on the aforementioned properties. The results show that, in a well refined alloy, nucleation will occur in a shorter time, and a undercooling approximately decreases to zero. The other results show that, with considering the cooling rate being around 0.1 °C/s, the Newtonian method is efficient in calculating the latent heat of solidification.

  12. AEROSOL NUCLEATION AND GROWTH DURING LAMINAR TUBE FLOW: MAXIMUM SATURATIONS AND NUCLEATION RATES. (R827354C008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An approximate method of estimating the maximum saturation, the nucleation rate, and the total number nucleated per second during the laminar flow of a hot vapour–gas mixture along a tube with cold walls is described. The basis of the approach is that the temperature an...

  13. Maximum rates of climate change are systematically underestimated in the geological record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, David B; Eichenseer, Kilian; Kiessling, Wolfgang

    2015-11-10

    Recently observed rates of environmental change are typically much higher than those inferred for the geological past. At the same time, the magnitudes of ancient changes were often substantially greater than those established in recent history. The most pertinent disparity, however, between recent and geological rates is the timespan over which the rates are measured, which typically differ by several orders of magnitude. Here we show that rates of marked temperature changes inferred from proxy data in Earth history scale with measurement timespan as an approximate power law across nearly six orders of magnitude (10(2) to >10(7) years). This scaling reveals how climate signals measured in the geological record alias transient variability, even during the most pronounced climatic perturbations of the Phanerozoic. Our findings indicate that the true attainable pace of climate change on timescales of greatest societal relevance is underestimated in geological archives.

  14. Survival of mouse embryos after vitrification depending on the cooling rate of the cryoprotectant solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hredzák, R; Ostró, A; Zdilová, Viera; Maracek, I; Kacmárik, J

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the rate of cooling of eight-cell mouse embryos to the temperature of liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C) and their developmental capacity after thawing on the basis of their ability to leave the zona pellucida ('hatching') during in vitro culturing. Eight-cell embryos were obtained from superovulated female mice and divided into three experimental and one control group. Embryos from the experimental groups were cryopreserved by the vitrification method using ethylene glycol as cryoprotectant. The vitrification protocols used in the study differed in the rate of cooling of the cryoprotectant solution. Embryos from the first group were frozen in conventional 0.25-ml plastic straws, those from the second group in pipetting 'tips', and embryos from the third group, placed in vitrification solution, were introduced dropwise directly into liquid nitrogen. The control group of embryos was cultured in vitro without freezing in a culturing medium in an environment consisting of 95% air and 5% CO2. The developmental capacity of thawed embryos was assessed on the basis of their ability to leave the zona pellucida ('hatching') after three days of in vitro culturing. In the control group 95.1% of embryos 'hatched'. A significantly higher number of embryos that 'hatched' after thawing was observed in the group introduced dropwise directly into liquid nitrogen (60.0%) compared to the group frozen in pipetting 'tips' (37.9%). The group frozen in straws yielded significantly the lowest proportion of 'hatching' embryos (8.1%). These results showed that increasing cooling rates during vitrification of embryos improved their survival.

  15. Effects of the cooling rate on the shear behavior of continuous glass fiber/impact polypropylene composites (GF-IPP)

    KAUST Repository

    Wafai, Husam

    2016-09-20

    Fiber-reinforced composites with improved dissipation of energy during impact loading have recently been developed based on a polypropylene copolymer commonly called impact polypropylene (IPP). Composites made of IPP reinforced with glass fibers (GF) are particularly attractive to the automotive industry due to their low cost and good impact resistance. In such composites, the cooling rate varies depending on processing techniques and manufacturing choices. Here, we study the effects of the cooling rate of GF-IPP composites on shear behavior, which is critical in impact applications, using [±45]s monotonic and cyclic (load/unload) tensile specimens. The specimens were manufactured under a wide range of cooling rates (3 °C/min, 22 °C/min, 500–1000 °C/min). Mainly dominated by the properties of the matrix, the global shear behavior of GF-IPP composites differed considerably with respect to the cooling rate. However, the performance of the fiber-matrix interface (chemically modified) appeared to be unaffected by the range of cooling rates used in this study. We found that the cooling rate has a minor effect on the rate of damage accumulation, while it strongly modifies the shear-activated rate-dependant viscoelastic behavior. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  16. The Effect of Wind Velocity on the Cooling Rate of Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrey Aryan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of wind velocity on the cooling rate of water was investigated by blowing air horizontally over the surface of water contained in a plastic water-bottle cap. The time taken for the temperature to fall to the average of the surrounding and initial temperatures was recorded at different values of wind velocity. It was observed that on increasing the wind velocity, the time taken to achieve average temperature not only decreased but also remained the same after a certain point.

  17. Heat generation and cooling of SSC magnets at high ramp rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snitchler, G.; Capone, D.; Kovachev, V.; Schermer, R.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation will address a summary of AC loss calculations (SSCL), experimental results on cable samples (Westinghouse STC), short model magnets test results (FNAL, KEK-Japan), and recent full length magnets test data on AC losses and quench current ramp rate sensitivity (FNAL, BNL). Possible sources of the observed enhanced heat generation and quench sensitivity for some magnets will be discussed. A model for cooling conditions of magnet coils considering heat generation distribution and specific anisotropy of the heat transfer will be presented. The crossover contact resistance in cables and curing procedure influence on resistivity, currently under study, will be briefly discussed. (author)

  18. Allometric equations for maximum filtration rate in blue mussels Mytilus edulis and importance of condition index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Pleissner, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    rate (F, l h-1), W (g), and L (mm) as described by the equations: FW = aWb and FL = cLd, respectively. This is done by using available and new experimental laboratory data on M. edulis obtained by members of the same research team using different methods and controlled diets of cultivated algal cells...

  19. 76 FR 53134 - Maximum Per Diem Rates for the Continental United States (CONUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... in the per diem rate setting process enhances the Government's ability to obtain policy-compliant...-standard area (NSA): Alexandria/Leesville/Natchitoches, Louisiana (Allen, Jefferson Davis, Natchitoches... the standard CONUS designation in FY 2011. Of those locations, the following areas will once again...

  20. Maximum inflation of the type 1 error rate when sample size and allocation rate are adapted in a pre-planned interim look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Alexandra C; Bauer, Peter

    2011-06-30

    We calculate the maximum type 1 error rate of the pre-planned conventional fixed sample size test for comparing the means of independent normal distributions (with common known variance) which can be yielded when sample size and allocation rate to the treatment arms can be modified in an interim analysis. Thereby it is assumed that the experimenter fully exploits knowledge of the unblinded interim estimates of the treatment effects in order to maximize the conditional type 1 error rate. The 'worst-case' strategies require knowledge of the unknown common treatment effect under the null hypothesis. Although this is a rather hypothetical scenario it may be approached in practice when using a standard control treatment for which precise estimates are available from historical data. The maximum inflation of the type 1 error rate is substantially larger than derived by Proschan and Hunsberger (Biometrics 1995; 51:1315-1324) for design modifications applying balanced samples before and after the interim analysis. Corresponding upper limits for the maximum type 1 error rate are calculated for a number of situations arising from practical considerations (e.g. restricting the maximum sample size, not allowing sample size to decrease, allowing only increase in the sample size in the experimental treatment). The application is discussed for a motivating example. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Simulation of Cooling Rate Effects on Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb Crack Formation in Direct Laser Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lei; Li, Wei; Chen, Xueyang; Zhang, Yunlu; Newkirk, Joe; Liou, Frank; Dietrich, David

    2017-03-01

    Transient temperature history is vital in direct laser deposition (DLD) as it reveals the cooling rate at specific temperatures. Cooling rate directly relates to phase transformation and types of microstructure formed in deposits. In this paper, finite element analysis simulation was employed to study the transient temperature history and cooling rate at different experimental setups in the Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb DLD process. An innovative prediction strategy was developed to model with a moving Gaussian distribution heat source and element birth and death technology in ANSYS®, and fabricate crack-free deposits. This approach helps to understand and analyze the impact of cooling rate and also explain phase information gathered from x-ray diffraction.

  2. Rate dependency and role of nitric oxide in the vascular response to direct cooling in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Sone, Ryoko; Zhao, Kun; Alvarez, Guy E; Kosiba, Wojciech A; Johnson, John M

    2006-01-01

    Local cooling of nonglabrous skin without functional sympathetic nerves causes an initial vasodilation followed by vasoconstriction. To further characterize these responses to local cooling, we examined the importance of the rate of local cooling and the effect of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition in intact skin and in skin with vasoconstrictor function inhibited. Release of norepinephrine was blocked locally (iontophoresis) with bretylium tosylate (BT). Skin blood flow was monitored from the forearm by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as the ratio of LDF to blood pressure. Local temperature was controlled over 6.3 cm2 around the sites of LDF measurement. Local cooling was applied at -0.33 or -4 degrees C/min. At -4 degrees C/min, CVC increased (P cooling (-4 degrees C/min) to 24 degrees C decreased (P cooling, CVC decreased at BT + saline sites relative to the precooling levels (P cooling, but not functional NOS, is an important determinant of the early non-adrenergic vasodilator response to local cooling and that functional NOS, adrenergic nerves, as well as other mechanisms play roles in vasoconstriction during prolonged local cooling of skin.

  3. Parametrization of the average ionization and radiative cooling rates of carbon plasmas in a wide range of density and temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Gil de la Fe, Juan Miguel; Rodriguez Perez, Rafael; Florido, Ricardo; Garcia Rubiano, Jesus; Mendoza, M.A.; Nuez, A. de la; Espinosa, G.; Martel Escobar, Carlos; Mínguez Torres, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present an analysis of the influence of the thermodynamic regime on the monochromatic emissivity, the radiative power loss and the radiative cooling rate for optically thin carbon plasmas over a wide range of electron temperature and density assuming steady state situations. Furthermore, we propose analytical expressions depending on the electron density and temperature for the average ionization and cooling rate based on polynomial fittings which are valid for the whole range...

  4. Influence of cooling rate on phase formation in spray-formed H13 tool steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, K.M. [Industrial Technology Department, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2050 (United States)], E-mail: kevin.mchugh@inl.gov; Lin, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Lavernia, E.J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2008-03-25

    Spray forming is an effective way to process many tool steels into near-net-shape molds, dies, and related tooling. The general approach involves depositing atomized droplets onto a refractory pattern in order to image the pattern's features. The pattern is removed and the die insert is mounted in a standard mold base or holding block. This approach results in significant cost and lead-time savings compared to conventional machining. Spray-formed dies perform well in many industrial forming operations, oftentimes exhibiting extended die life compared to conventional dies of the same material and design. Care must be exercised when spray forming tool steel dies to minimize porosity and control the nature and distribution of phases and residual stresses. Selection of post-deposition heat treatment is important to tailor the die's properties (hardness, strength, impact energy, etc.) for a particular application. This paper examines how the cooling rate during spray processing and heat treatment of H13 tool steel influences phase formation. Porosity and hardness were evaluated over a range of deposit cooling rates and residual stresses were evaluated for a die in the as-deposited condition. Finally, the performance of spray-formed dies during production runs in forging, extrusion, and die casting is described.

  5. Diffusively cooled thin-sheath high-repetition-rate TEA and TEMA lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsiv, Shaul; Gabay, Amnon; Sintov, Yoav

    1993-05-01

    Transverse electric atmospheric (TEA), or multi atmospheric (TEMA) lasers deliver intense short laser pulses of considerable energies. Recurrent high repetition rate pulse trains afford substantial average power levels. In a high rep-rate operation the gas flows across the cavity and is externally cooled to maintain a reasonably low temperature. The gas flow gear and heat exchanger are bulky and costly. In this work we present a repetitively pulsed TEA or TEMA laser that combines energy and peak power features in an individual pulse with the substantial average power levels of a pulse train in a thin layer of gas. Excess heat is disposed of, by conduction through the gas, to cooled enclosing walls. The gas does not flow. The method applies to vibrational transition molecular lasers in the infrared, where elevated temperatures are deleterious to the laser operation. The gist of the method draws on the law that heat conductivity in gases does not depend on their pressure. The fact lends unique operational flexibility and compactness, desirable for industrial and research purposes.

  6. Influence of cooling rate on phase formation in spray-formed H13 tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, K.M.; Lin, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Lavernia, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    Spray forming is an effective way to process many tool steels into near-net-shape molds, dies, and related tooling. The general approach involves depositing atomized droplets onto a refractory pattern in order to image the pattern's features. The pattern is removed and the die insert is mounted in a standard mold base or holding block. This approach results in significant cost and lead-time savings compared to conventional machining. Spray-formed dies perform well in many industrial forming operations, oftentimes exhibiting extended die life compared to conventional dies of the same material and design. Care must be exercised when spray forming tool steel dies to minimize porosity and control the nature and distribution of phases and residual stresses. Selection of post-deposition heat treatment is important to tailor the die's properties (hardness, strength, impact energy, etc.) for a particular application. This paper examines how the cooling rate during spray processing and heat treatment of H13 tool steel influences phase formation. Porosity and hardness were evaluated over a range of deposit cooling rates and residual stresses were evaluated for a die in the as-deposited condition. Finally, the performance of spray-formed dies during production runs in forging, extrusion, and die casting is described

  7. The rate of diffusion into advanced gas cooled reactor moderator bricks: an equivalent cylinder model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyte, W.S.

    1980-01-01

    The graphite moderator bricks which make up the moderator of an advanced gas-cooled nuclear reactor (AGR) are of many different and complex shapes. Many physico-chemical processes that occur within these porous bricks include a diffusional step and thus to model these processes it is necessary to solve the diffusion equation (with chemical reaction) in a porous medium of complex shape. A finite element technique is applied to calculating the rate at which nitrogen diffuses into and out of the porous moderator graphite during operation of a shutdown procedure for an AGR. However, the finite element method suffers from several disadvantages that undermine its general usefulness for calculating rates of diffusion in AGR moderator cores. A model which overcomes some of these disadvantages is presented (the equivalent cylinder model) and it is shown that this gives good results for a variety of different boundary and initial conditions

  8. Maximum Likelihood based comparison of the specific growth rates for P. aeruginosa and four mutator strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Kirsten Riber; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Mandsberg, Lotte Frigaard

    2008-01-01

    with an exponentially decaying function of the time between observations is suggested. A model with a full covariance structure containing OD-dependent variance and an autocorrelation structure is compared to a model with variance only and with no variance or correlation implemented. It is shown that the model...... are used for parameter estimation. The data is log-transformed such that a linear model can be applied. The transformation changes the variance structure, and hence an OD-dependent variance is implemented in the model. The autocorrelation in the data is demonstrated, and a correlation model...... that best describes data is a model taking into account the full covariance structure. An inference study is made in order to determine whether the growth rate of the five bacteria strains is the same. After applying a likelihood-ratio test to models with a full covariance structure, it is concluded...

  9. Influence of cooling rates on the transformation behaviour of 9Cr-1Mo-0.07C steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saroja, S.; Vijayalakshmi, M.; Raghunathan, V.S.

    1992-01-01

    The choice of various decomposition mechanisms of austenite in a 9Cr-1 Mo-0.07C steel under different rates of cooling has been studied. The techniques employed were electron probe micro-analysis, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The observed morphological features may be explained based on the predominance of the two types of transformation, austenite → martensite and austenite → ferrite during cooling. In the steel used in this study, decomposition of austenite to proeutectoid ferrite was favoured at cooling rates less than about 2 Ks -1 . The mechanism by which the supersaturated proeutectoid ferrite relieves its excess solute concentration was also studied. A ''microstructural map'' has been proposed to predict the constitution at the end of any given cooling rate for 9Cr-1 Mo-0.07C steel. The choice of commercial treatment has been rationalized with respect to the resultant microstructural constituents. (Author)

  10. Effect of cooling rate on the properties of high density polyethylene/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Dong; Harkin-Jones, Eileen [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Queen’s University Belfast, BT9 5AH (United Kingdom); Linton, David [School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Queen’s University Belfast, BT9 5AH (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-22

    High density polyethylene (HDPE)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposites were prepared by melt mixing using twin-screw extrusion. The extruded pellets were compression moulded at 200°C for 5min followed by cooling at different cooling rates (20°C/min and 300°C/min respectively) to produce sheets for characterization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the MWCNTs are uniformly dispersed in the HDPE. At 4 wt% addition of MWCNTs composite modulus increased by over 110% compared with the unfilled HDPE (regardless of the cooling rate). The yield strength of both unfilled and filled HDPE decreased after rapid cooling by about 10% due to a lower crystallinity and imperfect crystallites. The electrical percolation threshold of composites, irrespective of the cooling rate, is between a MWCNT concentration of 1∼2 wt%. Interestingly, the electrical resistivity of the rapidly cooled composite with 2 wt% MWCNTs is lower than that of the slowly cooled composites with the same MWCNT loading. This may be due to the lower crystallinity and smaller crystallites facilitating the formation of conductive pathways. This result may have significant implications for both process control and the tailoring of electrical conductivity in the manufacture of conductive HDPE/MWCNT nanocomposites.

  11. Effect of cooling rate on the properties of high density polyethylene/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Dong; Harkin-Jones, Eileen; Linton, David

    2015-01-01

    High density polyethylene (HDPE)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposites were prepared by melt mixing using twin-screw extrusion. The extruded pellets were compression moulded at 200°C for 5min followed by cooling at different cooling rates (20°C/min and 300°C/min respectively) to produce sheets for characterization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the MWCNTs are uniformly dispersed in the HDPE. At 4 wt% addition of MWCNTs composite modulus increased by over 110% compared with the unfilled HDPE (regardless of the cooling rate). The yield strength of both unfilled and filled HDPE decreased after rapid cooling by about 10% due to a lower crystallinity and imperfect crystallites. The electrical percolation threshold of composites, irrespective of the cooling rate, is between a MWCNT concentration of 1∼2 wt%. Interestingly, the electrical resistivity of the rapidly cooled composite with 2 wt% MWCNTs is lower than that of the slowly cooled composites with the same MWCNT loading. This may be due to the lower crystallinity and smaller crystallites facilitating the formation of conductive pathways. This result may have significant implications for both process control and the tailoring of electrical conductivity in the manufacture of conductive HDPE/MWCNT nanocomposites

  12. Analysis of isothermal and cooling rate dependent immersion freezing by a unifying stochastic ice nucleation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, P. A.; Knopf, D. A.

    2015-05-01

    Immersion freezing is an important ice nucleation pathway involved in the formation of cirrus and mixed-phase clouds. Laboratory immersion freezing experiments are necessary to determine the range in temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) at which ice nucleation occurs and to quantify the associated nucleation kinetics. Typically, isothermal (applying a constant temperature) and cooling rate dependent immersion freezing experiments are conducted. In these experiments it is usually assumed that the droplets containing ice nuclei (IN) all have the same IN surface area (ISA), however the validity of this assumption or the impact it may have on analysis and interpretation of the experimental data is rarely questioned. A stochastic immersion freezing model based on first principles of statistics is presented, which accounts for variable ISA per droplet and uses physically observable parameters including the total number of droplets (Ntot) and the heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficient, Jhet(T). This model is applied to address if (i) a time and ISA dependent stochastic immersion freezing process can explain laboratory immersion freezing data for different experimental methods and (ii) the assumption that all droplets contain identical ISA is a valid conjecture with subsequent consequences for analysis and interpretation of immersion freezing. The simple stochastic model can reproduce the observed time and surface area dependence in immersion freezing experiments for a variety of methods such as: droplets on a cold-stage exposed to air or surrounded by an oil matrix, wind and acoustically levitated droplets, droplets in a continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC), the Leipzig aerosol cloud interaction simulator (LACIS), and the aerosol interaction and dynamics in the atmosphere (AIDA) cloud chamber. Observed time dependent isothermal frozen fractions exhibiting non-exponential behavior with time can be readily explained by this model considering varying ISA. An

  13. A rotation-symmetric, position-sensitive annular detector for maximum counting rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igel, S.

    1993-12-01

    The Germanium Wall is a semiconductor detector system containing up to four annular position sensitive ΔE-detectors from high purity germanium (HPGe) planned to complement the BIG KARL spectrometer in COSY experiments. The first diode of the system, the Quirl-detector, has a two dimensional position sensitive structure defined by 200 Archimedes' spirals on each side with opposite orientation. In this way about 40000 pixels are defined. Since each spiral element detects almost the same number of events in an experiment the whole system can be optimized for maximal counting rates. This paper describes a test setup for a first prototype of the Quirl-detector and the results of test measurements with an α-source. The detector current and the electrical separation of the spiral elements were measured. The splitting of signals due to the spread of charge carriers produced by an incident ionizing particle on several adjacent elements was investigated in detail and found to be twice as high as expected from calculations. Its influence on energy and position resolution is discussed. Electronic crosstalk via signal wires and the influence of noise from the magnetic spectrometer has been tested under experimental conditions. Additionally, vacuum feedthroughs based on printed Kapton foils pressed between Viton seals were fabricated and tested successfully concerning their vacuum and thermal properties. (orig.)

  14. Late development of homoeothermy in mink (Mustela vison) kits - a strategy for maximum survival rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, A-H; Chwalibog, André; Tygesen, M P

    2006-01-01

    and after the experiments and evaporative water losses (EWL) were calculated. When exposed to L temperature, single kits responded with a very low HE until 29 days of age, and groups of kits until 14 days of age. It was not until they reached an age of approximately 6 weeks that single kits showed a clear...... thermoregulatory response to the L temperature by increased HE, whereas groups of kits showed increased HE from 29th day onwards. When kept at H temperature, HE was low initially, but all kits showed elevated HE at 8 days of age, and the metabolic rate was similar for single kits and kits huddling in groups....... Evaporative water losses was higher among single than among groups of kits and slightly lower but more variable for animals at L than at H temperature. It was concluded that mink kits develop functional homoeothermy at an age of close to 6 weeks and that the failure of very young kits to thermoregulate...

  15. Is there a maximum star formation rate in high-redshift galaxies? , , ,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barger, A. J.; Cowie, L. L.; Chen, C.-C.; Casey, C. M.; Lee, N.; Sanders, D. B.; Williams, J. P.; Owen, F. N.; Wang, W.-H.

    2014-01-01

    We use the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope's SCUBA-2 camera to image a 400 arcmin 2 area surrounding the GOODS-N field. The 850 μm rms noise ranges from a value of 0.49 mJy in the central region to 3.5 mJy at the outside edge. From these data, we construct an 850 μm source catalog to 2 mJy containing 49 sources detected above the 4σ level. We use an ultradeep (11.5 μJy at 5σ) 1.4 GHz image obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array together with observations made with the Submillimeter Array to identify counterparts to the submillimeter galaxies. For most cases of multiple radio counterparts, we can identify the correct counterpart from new and existing Submillimeter Array data. We have spectroscopic redshifts for 62% of the radio sources in the 9' radius highest sensitivity region (556/894) and 67% of the radio sources in the GOODS-N region (367/543). We supplement these with a modest number of additional photometric redshifts in the GOODS-N region (30). We measure millimetric redshifts from the radio to submillimeter flux ratios for the unidentified submillimeter sample, assuming an Arp 220 spectral energy distribution. We find a radio-flux-dependent K – z relation for the radio sources, which we use to estimate redshifts for the remaining radio sources. We determine the star formation rates (SFRs) of the submillimeter sources based on their radio powers and their submillimeter fluxes and find that they agree well. The radio data are deep enough to detect star-forming galaxies with SFRs >2000 M ☉ yr –1 to z ∼ 6. We find galaxies with SFRs up to ∼6000 M ☉ yr –1 over the redshift range z = 1.5-6, but we see evidence for a turn-down in the SFR distribution function above 2000 M ☉ yr –1 .

  16. Is There a Maximum Star Formation Rate in High-redshift Galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, A. J.; Cowie, L. L.; Chen, C.-C.; Owen, F. N.; Wang, W.-H.; Casey, C. M.; Lee, N.; Sanders, D. B.; Williams, J. P.

    2014-03-01

    We use the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope's SCUBA-2 camera to image a 400 arcmin2 area surrounding the GOODS-N field. The 850 μm rms noise ranges from a value of 0.49 mJy in the central region to 3.5 mJy at the outside edge. From these data, we construct an 850 μm source catalog to 2 mJy containing 49 sources detected above the 4σ level. We use an ultradeep (11.5 μJy at 5σ) 1.4 GHz image obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array together with observations made with the Submillimeter Array to identify counterparts to the submillimeter galaxies. For most cases of multiple radio counterparts, we can identify the correct counterpart from new and existing Submillimeter Array data. We have spectroscopic redshifts for 62% of the radio sources in the 9' radius highest sensitivity region (556/894) and 67% of the radio sources in the GOODS-N region (367/543). We supplement these with a modest number of additional photometric redshifts in the GOODS-N region (30). We measure millimetric redshifts from the radio to submillimeter flux ratios for the unidentified submillimeter sample, assuming an Arp 220 spectral energy distribution. We find a radio-flux-dependent K - z relation for the radio sources, which we use to estimate redshifts for the remaining radio sources. We determine the star formation rates (SFRs) of the submillimeter sources based on their radio powers and their submillimeter fluxes and find that they agree well. The radio data are deep enough to detect star-forming galaxies with SFRs >2000 M ⊙ yr-1 to z ~ 6. We find galaxies with SFRs up to ~6000 M ⊙ yr-1 over the redshift range z = 1.5-6, but we see evidence for a turn-down in the SFR distribution function above 2000 M ⊙ yr-1. The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope is operated by the Joint Astronomy Centre on behalf of the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the United Kingdom, the National Research Council of Canada, and (until 2013 March 31) the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific

  17. The effects of radiant cooling versus convective cooling on human eye tear film stability and blinking rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Linette; Uth, Simon C.; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov

    2014-01-01

    The effect of indoor temperature, radiant and convective cooling on tear film stability and eye blink frequency was examined. 24 human subjects were exposed to the non-uniform environment generated by localised chilled beam and a chilled ceiling combined with overhead mixing ventilation. The subj......The effect of indoor temperature, radiant and convective cooling on tear film stability and eye blink frequency was examined. 24 human subjects were exposed to the non-uniform environment generated by localised chilled beam and a chilled ceiling combined with overhead mixing ventilation....... The subjects participated in four two-hour experiments. The room air temperature was kept at 26 °C or 28 °C. Tear film samples were collected after 30 min of acclimatisation and at the end of the exposures. Eye blinking frequency was analysed for the first and last 15 min of each exposure. The tear film...... stability decreased as the temperature increased. The highest number of subjects with unchanged or improved tear film quality was observed with the localised chilled beam at 26 °C. A trend was found between subjects who reported eye irritation and had a bad tear film quality....

  18. A novel optical freezing array for the examination of cooling rate dependence in heterogeneous ice nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budke, Carsten; Dreischmeier, Katharina; Koop, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Homogeneous ice nucleation is a stochastic process, implying that it is not only temperature but also time dependent. For heterogeneous ice nucleation it is still under debate whether there is a significant time dependence or not. In case of minor time dependence it is probably sufficient to use a singular or slightly modified singular approach, which mainly supposes temperature dependence and just small stochastic variations. We contribute to this discussion using a novel optical freezing array termed BINARY (Bielefeld Ice Nucleation ARraY). The setup consists of an array of microliter-sized droplets on a Peltier cooling stage. The droplets are separated from each other with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) spacer to prevent a Bergeron-Findeisen process, in which the first freezing droplets grow at the expense of the remaining liquid ones due to their vapor pressure differences. An automatic detection of nucleation events is realized optically by the change in brightness during freezing. Different types of ice nucleating agents were tested with the presented setup, e. g. pollen and clay mineral dust. Exemplarily, cooling rate dependent measurements are shown for the heterogeneous ice nucleation induced by Snomax®. The authors gratefully acknowledge funding by the German Research Foundation (DFG) through the project BIOCLOUDS (KO 2944/1-1) and through the research unit INUIT (FOR 1525) under KO 2944/2-1. We particularly thank our INUIT partners for fruitful collaboration and sharing of ideas and IN samples.

  19. Late Paleozoic-Middle Mesozoic uplift rate, cooling rate and geothermal gradient for south-central New York state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsson, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Apatite and zircon crystals were recovered from the Tioga metabentonite (Middle Devonian) at Cherry Valley, New York and from a metabentonite at the top of the Black River Group (Middle Ordovician) at Middleville, New York. Fission-track ages obtained from these minerals are younger than the stratigraphic ages of the units, indicating total or partial resetting of the mineral ages due to thermal annealing of fission-tracks. The age data allow for calculation of a mean uplift rate of 0.019 +- 0.009 mm/yr for the interval 193 to 155 Myr, and a mean cooling rate of 0.38 +- 0.11 0 C/Myr for the interval 354 to 155 Myr. An average geothermal gradient for the interval 354 to 155 Myr is 20 +- 11 C/km. The partially reset zircon age from the Black River metabentonite indicates that the Middle Ordovician rocks of south-central New York have been exposed to temperatures approaching approx. 175 C. This temperature, in conjunction with the calculated geothermal gradient, implies burial of these units to depths approaching 8 km. Such burial suggests that extensive Carboniferous sediments once covered southern New York, and that the Alleghenian Orogeny had a stronger sedimentalogical influence in the northern portion of the Appalachian Basin than has been previously recognized. (author)

  20. Cooling Rates of Mantle Peridotites Estimated from Lithophile Trace Element Diffusion in Orthopyroxene

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Handt, A.; Hellebrand, E.; Snow, J. E.

    2007-12-01

    Cooling rates of ocean floor mantle rocks from mid-ocean ridges can potentially provide important information about ridge dynamics, emplacement mechanisms and mantle uplift. There are a growing number of geospeedometric methods to retrieve such cooling rates in various settings. However, few exist for typical four- phase mantle peridotites and they only cover temperatures below 800° C. The down-temperature lithophile trace element exchange between clinopyroxene (cpx) and orthopyroxene (opx) can provide such a high- temperature spinel peridotite geospeedometer. Orthopyroxenes studied by SIMS from two fresh Gakkel Ridge peridotites are zoned in all trace elements while clinopyroxenes are homogeneous. This allows the calculation of equilibrium temperatures [1]. Several profiles in opx cover a range of 1250° C (opx core) to 800° C (opx rim) and are in agreement with straightforward diffusion and closure temperature models. The systematics of REE diffusion in opx deviate from the results of a recent experimental study [2]. The data allow us to estimate diffusion systematics of 16 elements (REE and TE) and their cation distributions in orthopyroxene. The data set is internally coherent as all elements were subjected to the same extrinsic parameters. 1. Decreasing ionic radius increases REE diffusion in opx (as it does in cpx). 2. M2-site diffusion is controlled more by ionic radius than by cationic charge. 3. M1-site diffusion is controlled by both ionic radius and cationic charge. 4. M1-site diffusion is generally slower than M2-site diffusion for isovalent cations, most likely because of higher M1- site energies compared to M2-site. The advantages of this geospeedometer should be its relatively good precision, use of standard analytical methods and its coverage of the important range between solidus temperatures and 800° C. In combination with other geospeedometers it will be possible to retrieve the continuous cooling history of a mantle rock from its solidus down

  1. ReplacementMatrix: a web server for maximum-likelihood estimation of amino acid replacement rate matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Cuong Cao; Lefort, Vincent; Le, Vinh Sy; Le, Quang Si; Gascuel, Olivier

    2011-10-01

    Amino acid replacement rate matrices are an essential basis of protein studies (e.g. in phylogenetics and alignment). A number of general purpose matrices have been proposed (e.g. JTT, WAG, LG) since the seminal work of Margaret Dayhoff and co-workers. However, it has been shown that matrices specific to certain protein groups (e.g. mitochondrial) or life domains (e.g. viruses) differ significantly from general average matrices, and thus perform better when applied to the data to which they are dedicated. This Web server implements the maximum-likelihood estimation procedure that was used to estimate LG, and provides a number of tools and facilities. Users upload a set of multiple protein alignments from their domain of interest and receive the resulting matrix by email, along with statistics and comparisons with other matrices. A non-parametric bootstrap is performed optionally to assess the variability of replacement rate estimates. Maximum-likelihood trees, inferred using the estimated rate matrix, are also computed optionally for each input alignment. Finely tuned procedures and up-to-date ML software (PhyML 3.0, XRATE) are combined to perform all these heavy calculations on our clusters. http://www.atgc-montpellier.fr/ReplacementMatrix/ olivier.gascuel@lirmm.fr Supplementary data are available at http://www.atgc-montpellier.fr/ReplacementMatrix/

  2. Measurement of the radiative cooling rates for high-ionization species of krypton using an electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, R.; Biedermann, C.; Fuchs, T.; Fussmann, G.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a measurement of the radiative cooling rate for krypton made at the Berlin electron beam ion trap (EBIT). The EBIT was tuned to a charge-state distribution approaching the ionization balance of a plasma at a temperature of about 5 keV. To determine the cooling rate, we made use of EBIT's capabilities to sample a wide range of electron-beam energies and distinguish between different radiation channels. We have measured the x-ray emission from bremsstrahlung, radiative recombination, dielectronic recombination, and line radiation following electron-impact excitation. The dominant contribution to the cooling rate is made by the n=3-2, n=4-2,... x rays of the L-shell spectra of krypton, which produce more than 75% of the total radiation loss. A difference with theoretical calculations is noted for the measured total cooling rate. The predicted values are lower by a factor of 1.5-2, depending on the theoretical model. For our measurement of the cooling rate, we estimate an uncertainty interval of 22-30 %. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  3. ITER FW cooling by a flat channel, adapted to low flow rate and high pressure drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovchinnikov, I.B.; Bondarchuk, D.E.; Gervash, A.A.; Glazunov, D.A.; Komarov, A.O.; Kuznetsov, V.E.; Mazul, I.V.; Rulev, R.V.; Yablokov, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► ITER FW cooling: pressure drop quotation must be assigned according to thermal load. ► Flat channel solutions with wide range (1:500) of hydraulic resistivity are presented. ► Simulations in Ansys CFX were carried out for presented designs. ► Usage of pressure drop quotation significantly reduces surface temperature. ► Experiments in TSEFEY-M facility confirm simulations. - Abstract: Application of hypervapotron (HV) to cool in-vessel components of ITER – divertor and first wall (FW) – is characterized by the same design load (5 MW/m 2 ) but water flow rate for FW is 8–9 times (almost by order!) less for parallel feeding elements so it seems it would be better to use other design. Several variants of a flat channel design different from HV are suggested that enable to adapt a channel to pressure quota up to 1 MPa and higher. A main feature of the suggested variants is a spiral or multi-spiral stream (flat multi spiral––FMS) that improves heat rejection and can be obtained both by exciting of such mode and forced by channel geometry. Comparison of the variants was carried out in simulations (Ansys CFX) as well as in experiments on the TSEFEY-M facility with electron-beam gun. It is shown that excitation of a spiral stream in a channel significantly reduces a temperature of a loaded surface of a channel. Miniature thermocouples were used to measure temperature near the surface.

  4. The effect of primary copper slag cooling rate on the copper valorization in the flotation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Mihajlović

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Technological procedure of slow cooling slag from primary copper production is applied in the purpose of copper recovery in the level of 98.5% to blister. This technological procedure is divided into two phases, first slow cooling of slag on the air for 24 hours, and then accelerated cooling with water for 48 hours. Within the research following methods were used: calculation of nonstationary slag cooling, verification of the calculation using computer simulation of slag cooling in the software package COMSOL Multiphysics and experimental verification of simulation results. After testing of the experimentally gained samples of slowly cooled slag it was found that this technological procedure gives the best results in promoting growth or coagulation of dispersed particles of copper sulfide and copper in the slag, thereby increasing the utilization of the flotation process with a decrease of copper losses through very fine particles.

  5. Effect of Cooling Rate on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties in SA508 Gr4N High Strength Low Alloy Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minchul; Park, Sanggyu; Choi, Kwonjae; Lee, Bongsang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The microstructure of Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel is a mixture of tempered martensite and tempered lower bainite and that of Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel is predominantly tempered upper bainite. Higher strength and toughness steels are very attractive as an eligible RPV steel, so several researchers have studied to use the Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel for the NPP application. Because of the thickness of reactor vessel, there are large differences in austenitizing cooling rates between the surface and the center locations of thickness in RPV. Because the cooling rates after austenitization determine the microstructure, it would affect the mechanical properties in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel, and it may lead to inhomogeneous characteristics when the commercial scale of RPV is fabricated. In order to apply the Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel to RPV, it is necessary to evaluate the changes of microstructure and mechanical properties with varying phase fractions in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel. In this study, the effects of martensite and bainite fractions on mechanical properties in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel were examined by controlling the cooling rate after austenitization. First of all, continuous cooling transformation(CCT) diagram was established from the dilatometric analyses. Then, the phase fractions at each cooling rate were quantitatively evaluated. Finally, the mechanical properties were correlated with the phase fraction, especially fraction of martensite in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel.

  6. Maximum permissible continuous release rates of phosphorus-32 and sulphur-35 to atmosphere in a milk producing area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, P M

    1963-01-01

    A method is given for calculating, for design purposes, the maximum permissible continuous release rates of phosphorus-32 and sulphur-35 to atmosphere with respect to milk contamination. In the absence of authoritative advice from the Medical Research Council, provisional working levels for the concentration of phosphorus-32 and sulphur-35 in milk are derived, and details are given of the agricultural assumptions involved in the calculation of the relationship between the amount of the nuclide deposited on grassland and that to be found in milk. The agricultural and meteorological conditions assumed are applicable as an annual average to England and Wales. The results (in mc/day) for phosphorus-32 and sulphur-35 for a number of stack heights and distances are shown graphically; typical values, quoted in a table, include 20 mc/day of phosphorus-32 and 30 mc/day of sulfur-35 as the maximum permissible continuous release rates with respect to ground level releases at a distance of 200 metres from pastureland.

  7. Evaluation of tritium production rate in a gas-cooled reactor with continuous tritium recovery system for fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Hideaki, E-mail: mat@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Nakaya, Hiroyuki; Nakao, Yasuyuki [Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Shimakawa, Satoshi; Goto, Minoru; Nakagawa, Shigeaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Nishikawa, Masabumi [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The performance of a gas-cooled reactor as a tritium production system was studied. • A continuous tritium recovery using helium gas was considered. • Gas-cooled reactors with 3 GW output in all can produce ∼6 kg of tritium in a year • Performance of the system was examined for Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and LiAlO{sub 2} compounds. -- Abstract: The performance of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor as a tritium production with continuous tritium recovery system is examined. A gas turbine high-temperature reactor of 300-MWe (600 MW) nominal capacity (GTHTR300) is assumed as the calculation target, and using the continuous-energy Monte Carlo transport code MVP-BURN, burn-up simulations for the three-dimensional entire-core region of the GTHTR300 were performed. A Li loading pattern for the continuous tritium recovery system in the gas-cooled reactor is presented. It is shown that module gas-cooled reactors with a total thermal output power of 3 GW in all can produce ∼6 kg of tritium maximum in a year.

  8. Maximum type I error rate inflation from sample size reassessment when investigators are blind to treatment labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żebrowska, Magdalena; Posch, Martin; Magirr, Dominic

    2016-05-30

    Consider a parallel group trial for the comparison of an experimental treatment to a control, where the second-stage sample size may depend on the blinded primary endpoint data as well as on additional blinded data from a secondary endpoint. For the setting of normally distributed endpoints, we demonstrate that this may lead to an inflation of the type I error rate if the null hypothesis holds for the primary but not the secondary endpoint. We derive upper bounds for the inflation of the type I error rate, both for trials that employ random allocation and for those that use block randomization. We illustrate the worst-case sample size reassessment rule in a case study. For both randomization strategies, the maximum type I error rate increases with the effect size in the secondary endpoint and the correlation between endpoints. The maximum inflation increases with smaller block sizes if information on the block size is used in the reassessment rule. Based on our findings, we do not question the well-established use of blinded sample size reassessment methods with nuisance parameter estimates computed from the blinded interim data of the primary endpoint. However, we demonstrate that the type I error rate control of these methods relies on the application of specific, binding, pre-planned and fully algorithmic sample size reassessment rules and does not extend to general or unplanned sample size adjustments based on blinded data. © 2015 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2015 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Parametrization of the average ionization and radiative cooling rates of carbon plasmas in a wide range of density and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, J.M.; Rodriguez, R.; Florido, R.; Rubiano, J.G.; Mendoza, M.A.; Nuez, A. de la; Espinosa, G.; Martel, P.; Minguez, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present an analysis of the influence of the thermodynamic regime on the monochromatic emissivity, the radiative power loss and the radiative cooling rate for optically thin carbon plasmas over a wide range of electron temperature and density assuming steady state situations. Furthermore, we propose analytical expressions depending on the electron density and temperature for the average ionization and cooling rate based on polynomial fittings which are valid for the whole range of plasma conditions considered in this work. -- Highlights: ► We compute the average ionization, cooling rates and emissivities of carbon plasmas. ► We compare LTE and NLTE calculations of these magnitudes. ► We perform a parametrization of these magnitudes in a wide range of plasma conditions. ► We provide information about where LTE regime assumption is accurate

  10. Effect of cooling rate during solidification of Sn-9Zn lead-free solder alloy on its microstructure, tensile strength and ductile-brittle transition temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhu, K.N., E-mail: prabhukn_2002@yahoo.co.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Mangalore 575 025 (India); Deshapande, Parashuram; Satyanarayan [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Mangalore 575 025 (India)

    2012-01-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of cooling rate on tensile and impact properties of Sn-9Zn alloy was assessed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both DBTT and UTS of the solder alloy increased with increase in cooling rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An optimum cooling rate during solidification would minimize DBTT and maximize UTS. - Abstract: Solidification rate is an important variable during processing of materials, including soldering, involving solidification. The rate of solidification controls the metallurgical microstructure at the solder joint and hence the mechanical properties. A high tensile strength and a lower ductile-brittle transition temperature are necessary for reliability of solder joints in electronic circuits. Hence in the present work, the effect of cooling rate during solidification on microstructure, impact and tensile properties of Sn-9Zn lead-free solder alloy was investigated. Four different cooling media (copper and stainless steel moulds, air and furnace cooling) were used for solidification to achieve different cooling rates. Solder alloy solidified in copper mould exhibited higher cooling rate as compared to other cooling media. The microstructure is refined as the cooling rate was increased from 0.03 to 25 Degree-Sign C/s. With increase in cooling rate it was observed that the size of Zn flakes became finer and distributed uniformly throughout the matrix. Ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of the solder alloy increased with increase in cooling rate. Fractured surfaces of impact test specimens showed cleavage like appearance and river like pattern at very low temperatures and dimple like appearance at higher temperatures. The tensile strength of the solder alloy solidified in Cu and stainless moulds were higher as compared to air and furnace cooled samples. It is therefore suggested that the cooling rate during solidification of the solder alloy should be optimum to maximize the strength and minimize the

  11. Effect of cooling rate during solidification of Sn–9Zn lead-free solder alloy on its microstructure, tensile strength and ductile–brittle transition temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhu, K.N.; Deshapande, Parashuram; Satyanarayan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of cooling rate on tensile and impact properties of Sn–9Zn alloy was assessed. ► Both DBTT and UTS of the solder alloy increased with increase in cooling rate. ► An optimum cooling rate during solidification would minimize DBTT and maximize UTS. - Abstract: Solidification rate is an important variable during processing of materials, including soldering, involving solidification. The rate of solidification controls the metallurgical microstructure at the solder joint and hence the mechanical properties. A high tensile strength and a lower ductile–brittle transition temperature are necessary for reliability of solder joints in electronic circuits. Hence in the present work, the effect of cooling rate during solidification on microstructure, impact and tensile properties of Sn–9Zn lead-free solder alloy was investigated. Four different cooling media (copper and stainless steel moulds, air and furnace cooling) were used for solidification to achieve different cooling rates. Solder alloy solidified in copper mould exhibited higher cooling rate as compared to other cooling media. The microstructure is refined as the cooling rate was increased from 0.03 to 25 °C/s. With increase in cooling rate it was observed that the size of Zn flakes became finer and distributed uniformly throughout the matrix. Ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of the solder alloy increased with increase in cooling rate. Fractured surfaces of impact test specimens showed cleavage like appearance and river like pattern at very low temperatures and dimple like appearance at higher temperatures. The tensile strength of the solder alloy solidified in Cu and stainless moulds were higher as compared to air and furnace cooled samples. It is therefore suggested that the cooling rate during solidification of the solder alloy should be optimum to maximize the strength and minimize the DBTT.

  12. Influence of quenching cooling rate on residual stress and tensile properties of 2A14 aluminum alloy forgings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu-xun, E-mail: zhangyuxun198@163.com; Yi, You-ping, E-mail: yyp@csu.edu.cn; Huang, Shi-quan, E-mail: huangsqcsu@sina.com; Dong, Fei

    2016-09-30

    To balance the quenching residual stress and the mechanical properties of aluminum alloys, the influence of cooling rate on the residual stress and tensile properties was investigated by numerical simulation and quenching experiments. During the quenching experiments, 2A14 aluminum alloy samples were treated with different water temperatures (20 °C, 70 °C, 100 °C) and a step quenching process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to measure the residual stress. Prior to them, the quenching sensitivity was studied. For this purpose, the time-temperature-properties (TTP) curves were measured and the alloy microstructure was observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated that the mechanical properties of 2A14 aluminum alloys were mainly determined by the cooling rate within the quenching sensitive temperature range from 300 to 400 °C. Lower cooling rates reduced the tensile strength and yield strength due to a decrease amount of fine precipitates, and reduced the residual stress with the reduction of plastic strain and the degree of inhomogeneous plastic deformation. In addition, the residual stress changed faster than the tensile properties with decreasing cooling rate. Therefore, warm water (70 °C) was used to balance the residual stress and tensile properties of 140-mm-thick 2A14 aluminum alloy forgings, since it can achieve low cooling rates. Furthermore, by combining this characteristic and the material quenching sensitivity, step quenching produced similar tensile properties and lower residual stress, compared with the sample quenched in warm water (70 °C), by increasing cooling rate within quenching sensitivity range and reducing it in other ranges.

  13. Influence of quenching cooling rate on residual stress and tensile properties of 2A14 aluminum alloy forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yu-xun; Yi, You-ping; Huang, Shi-quan; Dong, Fei

    2016-01-01

    To balance the quenching residual stress and the mechanical properties of aluminum alloys, the influence of cooling rate on the residual stress and tensile properties was investigated by numerical simulation and quenching experiments. During the quenching experiments, 2A14 aluminum alloy samples were treated with different water temperatures (20 °C, 70 °C, 100 °C) and a step quenching process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to measure the residual stress. Prior to them, the quenching sensitivity was studied. For this purpose, the time-temperature-properties (TTP) curves were measured and the alloy microstructure was observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated that the mechanical properties of 2A14 aluminum alloys were mainly determined by the cooling rate within the quenching sensitive temperature range from 300 to 400 °C. Lower cooling rates reduced the tensile strength and yield strength due to a decrease amount of fine precipitates, and reduced the residual stress with the reduction of plastic strain and the degree of inhomogeneous plastic deformation. In addition, the residual stress changed faster than the tensile properties with decreasing cooling rate. Therefore, warm water (70 °C) was used to balance the residual stress and tensile properties of 140-mm-thick 2A14 aluminum alloy forgings, since it can achieve low cooling rates. Furthermore, by combining this characteristic and the material quenching sensitivity, step quenching produced similar tensile properties and lower residual stress, compared with the sample quenched in warm water (70 °C), by increasing cooling rate within quenching sensitivity range and reducing it in other ranges.

  14. Effect of Cooling Rate on Phase Transformations in a High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel Studied from the Liquid Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, Thomas; Stanford, Nicole; Taylor, Adam; Hodgson, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The phase transformation and precipitation in a high-strength low-alloy steel have been studied over a large range of cooling rates, and a continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram has been produced. These experiments are unique because the measurements were made from samples cooled directly from the melt, rather than in homogenized and re-heated billets. The purpose of this experimental design was to examine conditions pertinent to direct strip casting. At the highest cooling rates which simulate strip casting, the microstructure was fully bainitic with small regions of pearlite. At lower cooling rates, the fraction of polygonal ferrite increased and the pearlite regions became larger. The CCT diagram and the microstructural analysis showed that the precipitation of NbC is suppressed at high cooling rates, and is likely to be incomplete at intermediate cooling rates.

  15. Prediction of mechanical properties of Al alloys with change of cooling rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan-Zhi Dong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The solidification process significantly affects the mechanical properties and there are lots of factors that affect the solidification process. Much progress has been made in the research on the effect of solidification on mechanical properties. Among them, the PF (Phase Field model and CA (Cellular Automata model are widely used as simulation methods which can predict nucleation and its growth, and the size and morphology of the grains during solidification. Although they can give accurate calculation results, it needs too much computational memory and calculation time. So it is difficult to apply the simulation to the real production process. In this study, a more practical simulation approach which can predict the mechanical properties of real aluminum alloys is proposed, by identifying through experiment the relationship between cooling rate and SDAS (Secondary Dendrite Arm Spacing and mechanical properties. The experimentally measured values and the values predicted by simulation have relatively small differences and the mechanical properties of a variety of Al alloys are expected to be predicted before casting through use of the simulation.

  16. Palaeointensity determination on an early medieval kiln from Switzerland and the effect of cooling rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadini, F.; Kovacheva, M.; Kostadinova, M.; Hedley, I. G.; Pesonen, L. J.

    The archaeomagnetic intensity reference curve for Western Europe lacks data during the period from 600 to 1000 AD. Baked clay from the walls of a pottery kiln at Reinach (Switzerland), archaeologically dated to the beginning of the 9th century AD, and having a 14C date of 1250 ± 50 BP, was investigated in order to refine the ancient geomagnetic field intensity during this period. A previous study to test the suitability of the material has shown that the magnetic properties of the baked clay from this Reinach kiln are appropriate for an archaeomagnetic study, and furthermore an archaeomagnetic directional date agrees well with the 14C date. A series of palaeointensity measurements was carried out in Sofia (Bulgaria). Here we present the results obtained from the same material, as performed in Helsinki (Finland) using different techniques. The comparison of the results shows significant differences between the two datasets. Based on the literature data, the discrepancy can be explained in terms of the different cooling rates of the samples used during the experiments in the two laboratories. Nevertheless, the results show that the geomagnetic field intensity had a high mean value of 86.85 ± 1.49 μT when the kiln was last used. This observation is consistent with recent studies from France covering the period during which the Reinach kiln functioned.

  17. Releasable activity and maximum permissible leakage rate within a transport cask of Tehran Research Reactor fuel samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaeian Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Containment of a transport cask during both normal and accident conditions is important to the health and safety of the public and of the operators. Based on IAEA regulations, releasable activity and maximum permissible volumetric leakage rate within the cask containing fuel samples of Tehran Research Reactor enclosed in an irradiated capsule are calculated. The contributions to the total activity from the four sources of gas, volatile, fines, and corrosion products are treated separately. These calculations are necessary to identify an appropriate leak test that must be performed on the cask and the results can be utilized as the source term for dose evaluation in the safety assessment of the cask.

  18. Fertile assembly for a fast neutron nuclear reactor cooled by liquid sodium, with regulation of the cooling rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradal, L.; Berte, M.; Chiarelli, C.

    1985-01-01

    The assembly has a casing in which are arranged the fertile elements, the liquid sodium flowing through the casing along these elements. It includes several apertured diaphragms transverse to the rods to regulate the liquid sodium flow rate. At least one diaphragm, in its central part around its aperture, of a material soluble in liquid sodium, such as copper. The invention applies, more particularly, to fast neutron nuclear reactor having a heterogeneous core. The coolant flow can increase with time to match the increased power generated by the fertile assembly along its life [fr

  19. Effects of adipose tissue distribution on maximum lipid oxidation rate during exercise in normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isacco, L; Thivel, D; Duclos, M; Aucouturier, J; Boisseau, N

    2014-06-01

    Fat mass localization affects lipid metabolism differently at rest and during exercise in overweight and normal-weight subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a low vs high ratio of abdominal to lower-body fat mass (index of adipose tissue distribution) on the exercise intensity (Lipox(max)) that elicits the maximum lipid oxidation rate in normal-weight women. Twenty-one normal-weight women (22.0 ± 0.6 years, 22.3 ± 0.1 kg.m(-2)) were separated into two groups of either a low or high abdominal to lower-body fat mass ratio [L-A/LB (n = 11) or H-A/LB (n = 10), respectively]. Lipox(max) and maximum lipid oxidation rate (MLOR) were determined during a submaximum incremental exercise test. Abdominal and lower-body fat mass were determined from DXA scans. The two groups did not differ in aerobic fitness, total fat mass, or total and localized fat-free mass. Lipox(max) and MLOR were significantly lower in H-A/LB vs L-A/LB women (43 ± 3% VO(2max) vs 54 ± 4% VO(2max), and 4.8 ± 0.6 mg min(-1)kg FFM(-1)vs 8.4 ± 0.9 mg min(-1)kg FFM(-1), respectively; P normal-weight women, a predominantly abdominal fat mass distribution compared with a predominantly peripheral fat mass distribution is associated with a lower capacity to maximize lipid oxidation during exercise, as evidenced by their lower Lipox(max) and MLOR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of fan flow and water rate adjustment for off-design cooling tower tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, J.M.

    1984-02-01

    The determination of the performance of a mechanical draft cooling tower requires that the air mass flow through the tower be known. Since this flow is not measured, it has been customary to use the manufacturer's design air flow and adjust it by the one-third power of the ratio of the design to test fan horsepower. The most nearly correct approximation of air flow through a tower can be obtained by incrementally moving through the tower from air inlet to outlet while calculating mass flows, energy balances, and pressure drops for each increment and then utilizing fan curves to determine volumetric and mass flows. This procedure would account for changes in air humidity and density through the tower, evaporation of water, effect of water rate on air pressure drop, and changes in fan characteristics. These type calculations may be within the capabilities of all in the near future, but for the interim, it is recommended that a more elementary approach be used which can be handled with a good calculator and without any proprietary data. This approach depends on certain assumptions which are acceptable if the tower test is conducted within CTI code requirements. The fan must be considered a constant suction volume blower for a given blade pitch. The total pressure at the fan, a function of volumetric flow and wet air density, must be assumed to be unaffected by other considerations, and the fan horsepower must be assumed to change only as volumetric flow and wet air density changes. Given these assumptions, along with design information normally provided with a tower, the determination of air flow through a tower in a test can be made from CTI test data. The air flow, and consequently the water rate adjustment and corrected water to air ratio, are derived and found to be direct functions of horsepower and density and an inverse function of wet air humidities

  1. TU-FG-209-03: Exploring the Maximum Count Rate Capabilities of Photon Counting Arrays Based On Polycrystalline Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, A K; Koniczek, M; Antonuk, L E; El-Mohri, Y; Zhao, Q [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Photon counting arrays (PCAs) offer several advantages over conventional, fluence-integrating x-ray imagers, such as improved contrast by means of energy windowing. For that reason, we are exploring the feasibility and performance of PCA pixel circuitry based on polycrystalline silicon. This material, unlike the crystalline silicon commonly used in photon counting detectors, lends itself toward the economic manufacture of radiation tolerant, monolithic large area (e.g., ∼43×43 cm2) devices. In this presentation, exploration of maximum count rate, a critical performance parameter for such devices, is reported. Methods: Count rate performance for a variety of pixel circuit designs was explored through detailed circuit simulations over a wide range of parameters (including pixel pitch and operating conditions) with the additional goal of preserving good energy resolution. The count rate simulations assume input events corresponding to a 72 kVp x-ray spectrum with 20 mm Al filtration interacting with a CZT detector at various input flux rates. Output count rates are determined at various photon energy threshold levels, and the percentage of counts lost (e.g., due to deadtime or pile-up) is calculated from the ratio of output to input counts. The energy resolution simulations involve thermal and flicker noise originating from each circuit element in a design. Results: Circuit designs compatible with pixel pitches ranging from 250 to 1000 µm that allow count rates over a megacount per second per pixel appear feasible. Such rates are expected to be suitable for radiographic and fluoroscopic imaging. Results for the analog front-end circuitry of the pixels show that acceptable energy resolution can also be achieved. Conclusion: PCAs created using polycrystalline silicon have the potential to offer monolithic large-area detectors with count rate performance comparable to those of crystalline silicon detectors. Further improvement through detailed circuit

  2. Effect of Cooling Rate and Chemical Modification on the Tensile Properties of Mg-5wt% Si Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshahi, Farshid; Meratian, Mahmood; Zahrani, Mohsen Mohammadi; Zahrani, Ehsan Mohammadi

    Hypereutectic Mg-Si alloys are a new class of light materials usable for aerospace and other advanced engineering applications. In this study, the effects of both cooling rate and bismuth modification on the micro structure and tensile properties of hypereutectic Mg-5wt% Si alloy were investigated. It was found that the addition of 0.5% Bi, altered the morphology of primary Mg2Si particles from bulky to polygonal shape and reduced their mean size from more than 70 μm to about 30 (am. Also, the tensile strength and elongation of the modified alloy increased about 10% and 20%, respectively, which should be ascribed to the modification of Mg2Si morphology and more uniform distribution of the primary particles. Moreover, an increase in tensile strength value with increase in cooling rate were observed which is attributed to finer micro structure of alloy in higher cooling rates. It was observed that Bi addition is significantly more effective in refining the morphology of primary Mg2Si particles than applying faster cooling rates.

  3. Influence of Cooling Rate in High-Temperature Area on Hardening of Deposited High-Cutting Chrome-Tungsten Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malushin, N N; Valuev, D V; Valueva, A V; Serikbol, A; Borovikov, I F

    2015-01-01

    The authors study the influence of cooling rate in high-temperature area for thermal cycle of high-cutting chrome-tungsten metal weld deposit on the processes of carbide phase merging and austenite grain growth for the purpose of providing high hardness of deposited metal (HRC 64-66). (paper)

  4. Influence of Cooling Rate in High-Temperature Area on Hardening of Deposited High-Cutting Chrome-Tungsten Metal

    OpenAIRE

    Malushin, N. N.; Valuev, Denis Viktorovich; Valueva, Anna Vladimirovna; Serikbol, A.; Borovikov, I. F.

    2015-01-01

    The authors study the influence of cooling rate in high-temperature area for thermal cycle of high-cutting chrome-tungsten metal weld deposit on the processes of carbide phase merging and austenite grain growth for the purpose of providing high hardness of deposited metal (HRC 64-66).

  5. Effects of system size and cooling rate on the structure and properties of sodium borosilicate glasses from molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lu; Du, Jincheng

    2018-01-14

    Borosilicate glasses form an important glass forming system in both glass science and technologies. The structure and property changes of borosilicate glasses as a function of thermal history in terms of cooling rate during glass formation and simulation system sizes used in classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation were investigated with recently developed composition dependent partial charge potentials. Short and medium range structural features such as boron coordination, Si and B Q n distributions, and ring size distributions were analyzed to elucidate the effects of cooling rate and simulation system size on these structure features and selected glass properties such as glass transition temperature, vibration density of states, and mechanical properties. Neutron structure factors, neutron broadened pair distribution functions, and vibrational density of states were calculated and compared with results from experiments as well as ab initio calculations to validate the structure models. The results clearly indicate that both cooling rate and system size play an important role on the structures of these glasses, mainly by affecting the 3 B and 4 B distributions and consequently properties of the glasses. It was also found that different structure features and properties converge at different sizes or cooling rates; thus convergence tests are needed in simulations of the borosilicate glasses depending on the targeted properties. The results also shed light on the complex thermal history dependence on structure and properties in borosilicate glasses and the protocols in MD simulations of these and other glass materials.

  6. Effects of system size and cooling rate on the structure and properties of sodium borosilicate glasses from molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lu; Du, Jincheng

    2018-01-01

    Borosilicate glasses form an important glass forming system in both glass science and technologies. The structure and property changes of borosilicate glasses as a function of thermal history in terms of cooling rate during glass formation and simulation system sizes used in classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation were investigated with recently developed composition dependent partial charge potentials. Short and medium range structural features such as boron coordination, Si and B Qn distributions, and ring size distributions were analyzed to elucidate the effects of cooling rate and simulation system size on these structure features and selected glass properties such as glass transition temperature, vibration density of states, and mechanical properties. Neutron structure factors, neutron broadened pair distribution functions, and vibrational density of states were calculated and compared with results from experiments as well as ab initio calculations to validate the structure models. The results clearly indicate that both cooling rate and system size play an important role on the structures of these glasses, mainly by affecting the 3B and 4B distributions and consequently properties of the glasses. It was also found that different structure features and properties converge at different sizes or cooling rates; thus convergence tests are needed in simulations of the borosilicate glasses depending on the targeted properties. The results also shed light on the complex thermal history dependence on structure and properties in borosilicate glasses and the protocols in MD simulations of these and other glass materials.

  7. Modification of n-Si Characteristics by Annealing and Cooling at Different Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhi K. Salih

    2003-01-01

    for samples annealed at lower than 550°C. For samples annealed at higher temperatures, quenching gave better dark-current density vs. potential plots. SEM measurements showed parallel results to these findings. Enhanced surface textures were observed for slowly cooled wafers from temperatures below 550°C. Samples quenched from temperatures above 550°C showed better surfaces than slowly cooled counterparts.

  8. Employment of neural networks for analysis of chemical composition and cooling rate effect on CCT diagrams shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzanski, L.A.; Trzaska, J.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents possibility of employment of the original supercooled austenite transformation anisothermic diagrams forecasting method for analysis of the chemical composition effect on the CCT diagrams shape. The developed model makes it possible to substitute computer simulation for the costly and time consuming experiments. The information derived from calculations make it possible to plot diagrams illustrating the effects of the particular elements or pairs of elements, as well as cooling rate and/or austenitizing temperature, on any temperature or time describing transformations in steel during its continuous cooling. Evaluation is also possible of the effect of the aforementioned factors on hardness and fractions of the particular structural constituents. (author)

  9. Maximum standard metabolic rate corresponds with the salinity of maximum growth in hatchlings of the estuarine northern diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin terrapin): Implications for habitat conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Christopher L.

    2018-01-01

    I evaluated standard metabolic rates (SMR) of hatchling northern diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin terrapin) across a range of salinities (salinity = 1.5, 4, 8, 12, and 16 psu) that they may encounter in brackish habitats such as those in the Maryland portion of the Chesapeake Bay, U.S.A. Consumption of O2 and production of CO2 by resting, unfed animals served as estimates of SMR. A peak in SMR occurred at 8 psu which corresponds closely with the salinity at which hatchling growth was previously shown to be maximized (salinity ∼ 9 psu). It appears that SMR is influenced by growth, perhaps reflecting investments in catabolic pathways that fuel anabolism. This ecophysiological information can inform environmental conservation and management activities by identifying portions of the estuary that are bioenergetically optimal for growth of hatchling terrapins. I suggest that conservation and restoration efforts to protect terrapin populations in oligo-to mesohaline habitats should prioritize protection or creation of habitats in regions where average salinity is near 8 psu and energetic investments in growth appear to be maximized.

  10. To the elementary theory of critical (maximum) flow rate of two-phase mixture in channels with various sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigmatulin, B.I.; Soplenkov, K.I.

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of the concepts of two-phase dispersive flow with various structures (bubble, vapour-drop etc) in the framework of the two-speed and two-temperature one-dimension stationary model of the current with provision for phase transitions the conditions, under which a critical (maximum) flow rate of two-phase mixture is achieved during its outflowing from a channel with the pre-set geometry, have been determined. It is shown, that for the choosen set of two-phase flow equations with the known parameters of deceleration and structure one of the critical conditions is satisfied: either solution of the set of equations corresponding a critical flow rate is a special one, i.e. passes through a special point locating between minimum and outlet channel sections where the carrying phase velocity approaches the value of decelerated sound speed in the mixture or the determinator of the initial set of equations equals zero for the outlet channel sections, i.e. gradients of the main flow parameters tend to +-infinity in this section, and carrying phase velocity also approaches the value of the decelerated sound velocity in the mixture

  11. Estimation of the players maximum heart rate in real game situations in team sports: a practical propose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cuadrado Reyes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   This  research developed a logarithms  for calculating the maximum heart rate (max. HR for players in team sports in  game situations. The sample was made of  thirteen players (aged 24 ± 3   to a  Division Two Handball team. HR was initially measured by Course Navette test.  Later, twenty one training sessions were conducted  in which HR and Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE, were  continuously monitored, in each task. A lineal regression analysis was done  to help find a max. HR prediction equation from the max. HR of the three highest intensity sessions. Results from  this equation correlate significantly with data obtained in the Course Navette test and with those obtained by other indirect methods. The conclusion of this research is that this equation provides a very useful and easy way to measure the max. HR in real game situations, avoiding non-specific analytical tests and, therefore laboratory testing..   Key words: workout control, functional evaluation, prediction equation.

  12. Effects of Undercooling and Cooling Rate on Peritectic Phase Crystallization Within Ni-Zr Alloy Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, P.; Wang, H. P.

    2018-04-01

    The liquid Ni-16.75 at. pct Zr peritectic alloy was substantially undercooled and containerlessly solidified by an electromagnetic levitator and a drop tube. The dependence of the peritectic solidification mode on undercooling was established based on the results of the solidified microstructures, crystal growth velocity, as well as X-ray diffraction patterns. Below a critical undercooling of 124 K, the primary Ni7Zr2 phase preferentially nucleates and grows from the undercooled liquid, which is followed by a peritectic reaction of Ni7Zr2+L → Ni5Zr. The corresponding microstructure is composed of the Ni7Zr2 dendrites, peritectic Ni5Zr phase, and inter-dendritic eutectic. Nevertheless, once the liquid undercooling exceeds the critical undercooling, the peritectic Ni5Zr phase directly precipitates from this undercooled liquid. However, a negligible amount of residual Ni7Zr2 phase still appears in the microstructure, indicating that nucleation and growth of the Ni7Zr2 phase are not completely suppressed. The micromechanical property of the peritectic Ni5Zr phase in terms of the Vickers microhardness is enhanced, which is ascribed to the transition of the peritectic solidification mode. To suppress the formation of the primary phase completely, this alloy was also containerlessly solidified in free fall experiments. Typical peritectic solidified microstructure forms in large droplets, while only the peritectic Ni5Zr phase appears in smaller droplets, which gives an indication that the peritectic Ni5Zr phase directly precipitates from the undercooled liquid by completely suppressing the growth of the primary Ni7Zr2 phase and the peritectic reaction due to the combined effects of the large undercooling and high cooling rate.

  13. Effect of solution treatment temperature and cooling rate on the mechanical properties of tungsten heavy alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumari, Anjali, E-mail: anjalikumari1261@gmail.com; Prabhu, G.; Sankaranarayana, M.; Nandy, T.K.

    2017-03-14

    The present study investigates the effect of solution treatment temperature and cooling rate on mechanical properties of a tungsten heavy alloy (89.6W-6.2Ni-1.8Fe-2.4Co). In addition to water quenching, rapid argon quenching has been attempted in this study since it is a relatively cleaner process and it can be used in conjunction with vacuum treatment. Since in these alloys, there is a possibility of incomplete dissolution of intermetallics or segregation of impurities during heat treatment, which results in scatter in the mechanical properties, it was decided that the solution treatment temperature for both water and argon quenching would be varied from 1100 to 1250 °C in order to see its effect on the microstructure and mechanical properties. Solution treatment at varying temperatures followed by water quenching resulted in tensile strength ranging from 908 to 921 MPa and % elongation varied from 19% to 26%. On the other hand, the argon quenching heat treatment resulted in tensile strength in the range of 871–955 MPa and % elongation from 9% to 25%. No significant trend with respect to solution treatment temperature on tensile properties was seen in both argon and water quenched samples. % elongation to failure and impact values of water quenched specimens were better than those of argon quenched specimens for a given solution treatment temperature. The impact values appeared to improve with increasing solution treatment temperature in water quenched condition. The properties were correlated with underlying microstructure and fractographs of the failed specimens. The study showed the argon quenching may not be appropriate for the heat treatment of heavy alloys since it results in inferior mechanical properties as compared to water quenching.

  14. Test-Retest Reliability of Rating of Perceived Exertion and Agreement With 1-Repetition Maximum in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Allyn M; Lynch, Andrew D; DePaul, Samantha M; Terhorst, Lauren; Irrgang, James J; Fitzgerald, G Kelley

    2016-09-01

    Study Design Clinical measurement. Background It has been suggested that rating of perceived exertion (RPE) may be a useful alternative to 1-repetition maximum (1RM) to determine proper resistance exercise dosage. However, the test-retest reliability of RPE for resistance exercise has not been determined. Additionally, prior research regarding the relationship between 1RM and RPE is conflicting. Objectives The purpose of this study was to (1) determine test-retest reliability of RPE related to resistance exercise and (2) assess agreement between percentages of 1RM and RPE during quadriceps resistance exercise. Methods A sample of participants with and without knee pathology completed a series of knee extension exercises and rated the perceived difficulty of each exercise on a 0-to-10 RPE scale, then repeated the procedure 1 to 2 weeks later for test-retest reliability. To determine agreement between RPE and 1RM, participants completed knee extension exercises at various percentages of their 1RM (10% to 130% of predicted 1RM) and rated the perceived difficulty of each exercise on a 0-to-10 RPE scale. Percent agreement was calculated between the 1RM and RPE at each resistance interval. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient indicated excellent test-retest reliability of RPE for quadriceps resistance exercises (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.895; 95% confidence interval: 0.866, 0.918). Overall percent agreement between RPE and 1RM was 60%, but agreement was poor within the ranges that would typically be used for training (50% 1RM for muscle endurance, 70% 1RM and greater for strength). Conclusion Test-retest reliability of perceived exertion during quadriceps resistance exercise was excellent. However, agreement between the RPE and 1RM was poor, especially in common training zones for knee extensor strengthening. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(9):768-774. Epub 5 Aug 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6498.

  15. Effect of Grain Refinement and Cooling Rate on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Secondary Al-Si-Cu Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timelli, Giulio; Camicia, Giordano; Ferraro, Stefano

    2014-02-01

    The effect of AlTi5B1 grain refinement and different solidification rates on metallurgical and mechanical properties of a secondary AlSi7Cu3Mg alloy is reported. While the Ti content ranges from 0.04 up to 0.225 wt.%, the cooling rate varies between 0.1 and 5.5 °C/s. Metallographic and thermal analysis techniques have been used to quantitatively examine the macro- and microstructural changes occurring with grain refiner addition at various cooling rates. The results indicate that a small AlTi5B1 addition produces the greatest refinement, while no significant reduction of grain size is obtained with a great amount of grain refiner. On increasing the cooling rate, a lower amount of AlTi5B1 master alloy is necessary to produce a uniform grain size throughout the casting. The combined addition of AlTi5B1 and Sr does not produce any reciprocal interaction or effect on primary α-Al and eutectic solidification. The grain refinement improves the plastic behavior of the alloy and increases the reliability of castings, as evidenced by the Weibull statistics.

  16. More accurate determination of the quantity of ice crystallized at low cooling rates in the glycerol and 1,2-propanediol aqueous solutions: comparison with equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutron, P

    1984-04-01

    It is generally assumed that when cells are cooled at rates close to those corresponding to the maximum of survival, once supercooling has ceased, above the eutectic melting temperature the extracellular ice is in equilibrium with the residual solution. This did not seem evident to us due to the difficulty of ice crystallization in cryoprotective solutions. The maximum quantities of ice crystallized in glycerol and 1,2-propanediol solutions have been calculated from the area of the solidification and fusion peaks obtained with a Perkin-Elmer DSC-2 differential scanning calorimeter. The accuracy has been improved by several corrections: better defined baseline, thermal variation of the heat of fusion of the ice, heat of solution of the water from its melting with the residual solution. More ice crystallizes in the glycerol than in the 1,2-propanediol solutions, of which the amorphous residue contains about 40 to 55% 1,2-propanediol. The equilibrium values are unknown in the presence of 1,2-propanediol. With glycerol, in our experiments, the maximum is first lower than the equilibrium but approaches it as the concentration increases. It is not completely determined by the colligative properties of the solutes.

  17. Safety actuator of the Cabri reactor as a function of its power and cooling fluid flow rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, Jean; Da Costa Vieira, David; Tattegrain, Alain

    1969-04-01

    This report present a device which is to provide a stop command to the Cabri reactor when the rate of its power to the cooling fluid rate reaches a value determined with respect to water temperature in the circuit. The stop command is delivered by an actuator which opens a relay contact when the power reaches a specific value. The authors present the device, its characteristics, and principle. They also present the different amplifier circuits, the input and output circuits (flow rate input, temperature input, and output circuit), the energy supply, and the various adjustments

  18. Effect Of Cooling Rate On Thermal And Mechanical Properties Of Cu-%24.2Mn Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, H.

    2010-01-01

    In this research, different heat and mechanical treatments have been applied to the Cu-%24.2Mn and some samples have been obtained from this alloy. On these samples, phase transformations have been formed by thermal and mechanical effect. Morphological, mechanical and crystallographic properties of the phase transformations have been examined by using different physical methods. Austenite phase has been obtained in the samples which have been applied slow and rapid cooling according to the SEM analysis. It has been observed that the grain size obtained by the rapid cooling is smaller than the grain size obtained by the slow cooling. Therefore, it has been concluded that the cooling process differences, changes the grain size of the alloy. Compression stress has been applied to the alloy in order to search the deformation effect on the austenite phase transformation. The structural features of the phase transformations have been examined. Slip lines and martensite structural were observed on the surface of the alloys after the deformation. Changes in phase structure of the alloy are also examined by means of XRD technique.

  19. Water supply rates for recirculating evaporative cooling systems in poultry housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaporative cooling (EC) is an important tool to reduce heat stress in animal housing systems. Expansion of ventilation capacity in tunnel ventilated poultry facilities has resulted in increased water demand for EC systems. As water resources become more limited and costly, proper planning and des...

  20. Effect of heating and cooling rate on the kinetics of allotropic phase changes in uranium: A differential scanning calorimetry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Arun Kumar; Raju, S.; Jeyaganesh, B.; Mohandas, E.; Sudha, R.; Ganesan, V.

    2009-01-01

    The kinetic aspects of allotropic phase changes in uranium are studied as a function of heating/cooling rate in the range 10 0 -10 2 K min -1 by isochronal differential scanning calorimetry. The transformation arrest temperatures revealed a remarkable degree of sensitivity to variations of heating and cooling rate, and this is especially more so for the transformation finish (T f ) temperatures. The results obtained for the α → β and β → γ transformations during heating confirm to the standard Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (KJMA) model for a nucleation and growth mediated process. The apparent activation energy Q eff for the overall transformation showed a mild increase with increasing heating rate. In fact, the heating rate normalised Arrhenius rate constant, k/β reveals a smooth power law decay with increasing heating rate (β). For the α → β phase change, the observed DSC peak profile for slower heating rates contained a distinct shoulder like feature, which however is absent in the corresponding profiles found for higher heating rates. The kinetics of γ → β phase change on the other hand, is best described by the two-parameter Koistinen-Marburger empirical relation for the martensitic transformation

  1. The effects of annealing temperature and cooling rate on carbide precipitation behavior in H13 hot-work tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Minwoo; Park, Gyujin; Jung, Jae-Gil; Kim, Byung-Hoon; Lee, Young-Kook

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Unexpected Mo carbides formed during slow cooling from low annealing temperatures. • Mo carbides formed during the migration of Mo for a transition of Cr-rich carbide. • Mo carbides were precipitated at the boundaries of M 7 C 3 carbides and ferrite grains. • Annealing conditions for the precipitation of Mo carbides were discussed. - Abstract: The precipitation behavior of H13 hot-work tool steel was investigated as a function of both annealing temperature and cooling rate through thermodynamic calculations and microstructural analyses using transmission and scanning electron microscope and a dilatometer. The V-rich MC carbide and Cr-rich M 7 C 3 and M 23 C 6 carbides were observed in all annealed specimens regardless of annealing and cooling conditions, as expected from an equilibrium phase diagram of the steel used. However, Mo-rich M 2 C and M 6 C carbides were unexpectedly precipitated at a temperature between 675 °C and 700 °C during slow cooling at a rate of below 0.01 °C/s from the annealing temperatures of 830 °C and below. The solubility of Mo in both M 7 C 3 and ferrite reduces with decreasing temperature during cooling. Mo atoms diffuse out of both M 7 C 3 and ferrite, and accumulate locally at the interface between M 7 C 3 and ferrite. Mo carbides were form at the interface of M 7 C 3 carbides during the transition of Cr-rich M 7 C 3 to stable M 23 C 6

  2. Theoretical assessment of evaporation rate of isolated water drop under the conditions of cooling tower of thermal power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevelev Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is numerical modelling of heat and mass transfer at evaporation of water drops under the conditions which are typical for a modern chimney-type cooling tower of a thermal power plant. The dual task of heat and mass transfer with movable boundary at convective cooling and evaporation for a ‘drop–humid air’ system in a spherical coordinate system has been solved. It has been shown that there is a rapid decline of water evaporation rate at the initial stage of the process according to temperature decrease of its surface. It has been stated that the effect of evaporation rate decrease appears greatly in the area of small radiuses.

  3. Pressure and cooling rate effect on polyhedron clusters in Cu-Al alloy by using molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Fatih Ahmet

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the microstructural evolution of crystal-type and icosahedral (icos)-type polyhedrons in Cu-50 at%Al alloy based on the embedded atom method (EAM) model is studied at two cooling rates under normal and high pressures by using the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method. The cluster-type index method (CTIM) which describes icos and defective icos polyhedrons and the new cluster-type index method (CTIM-2) which describes crystal-type polyhedrons have been used to perform polyhedron analysis in the model alloy system. The results of our simulations demonstrate that the effects of the cooling rate and pressure play an important role in the numbers of polyhedrons and their structures in the system.

  4. Pressure and cooling rate effect on polyhedron clusters in Cu–Al alloy by using molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celik, Fatih Ahmet, E-mail: facelik@beu.edu.tr

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the microstructural evolution of crystal-type and icosahedral (icos)-type polyhedrons in Cu–50 at%Al alloy based on the embedded atom method (EAM) model is studied at two cooling rates under normal and high pressures by using the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method. The cluster-type index method (CTIM) which describes icos and defective icos polyhedrons and the new cluster-type index method (CTIM-2) which describes crystal-type polyhedrons have been used to perform polyhedron analysis in the model alloy system. The results of our simulations demonstrate that the effects of the cooling rate and pressure play an important role in the numbers of polyhedrons and their structures in the system.

  5. The effect of ultrasound irradiation on the convective heat transfer rate during immersion cooling of a stationary sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Hossein; Sun, Da-Wen; Zhang, Zhihang

    2012-11-01

    It has been proven that ultrasound irradiation can enhance the rate of heat transfer processes. The objective of this work was to study the heat transfer phenomenon, mainly the heat exchange at the surface, as affected by ultrasound irradiation around a stationary copper sphere (k=386W m(-1)K(-1), C(p)=384J kg(-1)K(-1), ρ=8660kg m(-3)) during cooling. The sphere (0.01m in diameter) was immersed in an ethylene glycol-water mixture (-10°C) in an ultrasonic cooling system that included a refrigerated circulator, a flow meter, an ultrasound generator and an ultrasonic bath. The temperature of the sphere was recorded using a data logger equipped with a T-type thermocouple in the center of the sphere. The temperature of the cooling medium was also monitored by four thermocouples situated at different places in the bath. The sphere was located at different positions (0.02, 0.04 and 0.06m) above the transducer surface of the bath calculated considering the center of the sphere as the center of the reference system and was exposed to different intensities of ultrasound (0, 120, 190, 450, 890, 1800, 2800, 3400 and 4100W m(-2)) during cooling. The frequency of the ultrasound was 25kHz. It was demonstrated that ultrasound irradiation can increase the rate of heat transfer significantly, resulting in considerably shorter cooling times. Higher intensities caused higher cooling rates, and Nu values were increased from about 23-27 to 25-108 depending on the intensity of ultrasound and the position of the sphere. However, high intensities of ultrasound led to the generation of heat at the surface of the sphere, thus limiting the lowest final temperature achieved. An analytical solution was developed considering the heat generation and was fitted to the experimental data with R(2) values in the range of 0.910-0.998. Visual observations revealed that both cavitation and acoustic streaming were important for heat transfer phenomenon. Cavitation clouds at the surface of the sphere

  6. Effect of Cooling Rate on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of C-Mn-Al-Si-Nb Hot-Rolled TRIP Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, B.; Y Lu, M.; Y Yang, W.; Li, L. F.; Y Zhao, Z.

    2017-12-01

    A novel thermomechanical process to manufacture hot-rolled TRIP steels has been proposed based on dynamic transformation of undercooled austenite (DTUA). The cooling rate between DTUA and isothermal bainitic treatment in the novel process is important. In the present study, effect of this cooling rate on the final microstructures and mechanical properties of a C-Mn-Al-Si-Nb TRIP steel was investigated. The results showed that the volume fractions of acicular ferrite and retained austenite were increased with the increment of cooling rate. As a consequence, higher yield strength and larger total elongation were obtained for the investigated steel with higher cooling rate. In addition, a value of 30.24 GPa% for the product of tensile strength and total elongation was acquired when the cooling rate was 25 K/s. This value has met the standard of the “Third Generation” of advanced high strength sheet steels.

  7. Relationship between visual prostate score (VPSS and maximum flow rate (Qmax in men with urinary tract symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar A. Memon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate correlation between visual prostate score (VPSS and maximum flow rate (Qmax in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. Material and Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted at a university Hospital. Sixty-seven adult male patients>50 years of age were enrolled in the study after signing an informed consent. Qmax and voided volume recorded at uroflowmetry graph and at the same time VPSS were assessed. The education level was assessed in various defined groups. Pearson correlation coefficient was computed for VPSS and Qmax. Results: Mean age was 66.1±10.1 years (median 68. The mean voided volume on uroflowmetry was 268±160mL (median 208 and the mean Qmax was 9.6±4.96mLs/sec (median 9.0. The mean VPSS score was 11.4±2.72 (11.0. In the univariate linear regression analysis there was strong negative (Pearson's correlation between VPSS and Qmax (r=848, p<0.001. In the multiple linear regression analyses there was a significant correlation between VPSS and Qmax (β-http://www.blogapaixonadosporviagens.com.br/p/caribe.html after adjusting the effect of age, voided volume (V.V and level of education. Multiple linear regression analysis done for independent variables and results showed that there was no significant correlation between the VPSS and independent factors including age (p=0.27, LOE (p=0.941 and V.V (p=0.082. Conclusion: There is a significant negative correlation between VPSS and Qmax. The VPSS can be used in lieu of IPSS score. Men even with limited educational background can complete VPSS without assistance.

  8. Cooled Water Production System,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invention refers to the field of air conditioning and regards an apparatus for obtaining cooled water . The purpose of the invention is to develop...such a system for obtaining cooled water which would permit the maximum use of the cooling effect of the water -cooling tower.

  9. INFLUENCE OF THE COOLING RATE AND THE BLEND RATIO ON THE PHYSICAL STABILTIY OF CO-AMORPHOUS NAPROXEN/INDOMETHACIN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Andreas; Grohganz, Holger; Löbmann, Korbinian

    2016-01-01

    Co-amorphisation represents a promising approach to increase the physical stability and dissolution rate of amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) as an alternative to polymer glass solutions. For amorphous and co-amorphous systems, it is reported that the preparation method and the b......Co-amorphisation represents a promising approach to increase the physical stability and dissolution rate of amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) as an alternative to polymer glass solutions. For amorphous and co-amorphous systems, it is reported that the preparation method...... and the blend ratio play major roles with regard to the resulting physical stability. Therefore, in the present study, co-amorphous naproxen-indomethacin (NAP/IND) was prepared by melt-quenching at three different cooling rates and at ten different NAP/IND blend ratios. The samples were analyzed using XRPD...... and FTIR, both directly after preparation and during storage to investigate their physical stabilities. All cooling methods led to fully amorphous samples, but with significantly different physical stabilities. Samples prepared by fast cooling had a higher degree of crystallinity after 300 d of storage...

  10. A method for measuring the corrosion rate of materials in spallation neutron source target/blanket cooling loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillard, R.S.; Butt, D.P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the ongoing evaluation of the susceptibility of materials in accelerator target/blanket cooling loops to corrosion. To simulate the exposure environment in a target/blanket cooling loop, samples were irradiated by an 800 MeV proton beam at the A6 Target Station of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). To accomplish this, a cooling water loop capable of exposing corrosion samples to an 800 MeV proton beam at currents upwards of 1 mA was constructed. This loop allowed control and evaluation hydrogen water chemistry, water conductivity, and solution pH. Specially designed ceramic sealed samples were used to measure the real-time corrosion rates of materials placed directly in the proton beam using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). EIS was also used to measure real-time corrosion rates of samples that were out of the proton beam and downstream from the in-beam samples. These out-of-beam probes primarily examined the effects of long lived water radiolysis products from proton irradiation on corrosion rates. An overview of the LANSCE corrosion loop, the corrosion probes, and data from an in-beam alloy 718 probe are presented

  11. Wind dependence on the flow rate in a natural draught cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, E.; Ernst, G.; Wurz, D.

    1981-01-01

    The efficiency of a natural draught cooling tower depends, among other things, on the effect of the wind on the flow in the tower stack. Determinations were made on a natural draught wet cooling tower 100 metres high, for the purpose of studying this effects. As characteristic quantity, a typical height was determined, the values of which were worked out from the results of the measurements. The efficiency of the stack is affected the most in the case of average wind velocities (when the velocity of the wind is about equal to the mean velocity of the plume). This effect diminishes when the velocity of the wind increases. In the case of average wind velocities, the direction of the wind has an effect, owing to the neighbouring buildings; for slightly greater wind velocities, no effect could be found [fr

  12. Effects of cooling rate, austenitizing temperature and austenite deformation on the transformation behavior of high-strength boron steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Dong Jun; Shin, Eun Joo; Choi, Young Won; Lee, Jae Sang; Koo, Yang Mo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Non-equilibrium segregation of B in steel depends strongly on the cooling rate. ► A higher austenitization temperature reduced the B hardenability effect. ► An increase in B concentration at γ grain boundaries accelerates the B precipitation. ► The loss of B hardenability effect is due to intragranular borocarbide precipitation. ► The controlled cooling after hot deformation increased the B hardenability effect. - Abstract: The phase transformation behavior of high-strength boron steel was studied considering the segregation and precipitation behavior of boron (B). The effects of cooling rate, austenitizing temperature and austenite deformation on the transformation behavior of B-bearing steel as compared with B-free steel were investigated by using dilatometry, microstructural observations and analysis of B distribution. The effects of these variables on hardenability were discussed in terms of non-equilibrium segregation mechanism and precipitation behavior of B. The retardation of austenite-to-ferrite transformation by B addition depends strongly on cooling rate (CR); this is mainly due to the phenomenon of non-equilibrium grain boundary segregation of B. The hardenability effect of B-bearing steel decreased at higher austenitizing temperature due to the precipitation of borocarbide along austenite grain boundaries. Analysis of B distribution by second ion mass spectroscopy confirmed that the grain boundary segregation of B occurred at low austenitizing temperature of 900 °C, whereas B precipitates were observed along austenite grain boundaries at high austenitizing temperature of 1200 °C. The significant increase in B concentration at austenite grain boundaries due to grain coarsening and a non-equilibrium segregation mechanism may lead to the B precipitation. In contrast, solute B segregated to austenite grain boundaries during cooling after heavy deformation became more stable because the increase in boundary area by grain

  13. Cooling rate dependence of simulated Cu{sub 64.5}Zr{sub 35.5} metallic glass structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryltsev, R. E. [Institute of Metallurgy, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 101 Amundsen Str., 620016 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University, 19 Mira Str., 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2 Kosygina Str., 119334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Klumov, B. A. [L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2 Kosygina Str., 119334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Aix-Marseille-Université, CNRS, Laboratoire PIIM, UMR 7345, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); High Temperature Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 13/2 Izhorskaya Str., 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Chtchelkatchev, N. M. [Institute of Metallurgy, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 101 Amundsen Str., 620016 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2 Kosygina Str., 119334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Institutskiy Per., Dolgoprudny, 141700 Moscow Region (Russian Federation); All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics, 22 Sushchevskaya, 127055 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shunyaev, K. Yu. [Institute of Metallurgy, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 101 Amundsen Str., 620016 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University, 19 Mira Str., 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-21

    Using molecular dynamics simulations with embedded atom model potential, we study structural evolution of Cu{sub 64.5}Zr{sub 35.5} alloy during the cooling in a wide range of cooling rates γ ∈ (1.5 ⋅ 10{sup 9}, 10{sup 13}) K/s. Investigating short- and medium-range orders, we show that the structure of Cu{sub 64.5}Zr{sub 35.5} metallic glass essentially depends on cooling rate. In particular, a decrease of the cooling rate leads to an increase of abundances of both the icosahedral-like clusters and Frank-Kasper Z16 polyhedra. The amounts of these clusters in the glassy state drastically increase at the γ{sub min} = 1.5 ⋅ 10{sup 9} K/s. Analysing the structure of the glass at γ{sub min}, we observe the formation of nano-sized crystalline grain of Cu{sub 2}Zr intermetallic compound with the structure of Cu{sub 2}Mg Laves phase. The structure of this compound is isomorphous with that for Cu{sub 5}Zr intermetallic compound. Both crystal lattices consist of two types of clusters: Cu-centered 13-atom icosahedral-like cluster and Zr-centered 17-atom Frank-Kasper polyhedron Z16. That suggests the same structural motifs for the metallic glass and intermetallic compounds of Cu–Zr system and explains the drastic increase of the abundances of these clusters observed at γ{sub min}.

  14. Expanded calculation of weak-interaction-mediated neutrino cooling rates due to 56Ni in stellar matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabi, Jameel-Un

    2010-01-01

    An accurate estimate of the neutrino cooling rates is required in order to study the various stages of stellar evolution of massive stars. Neutrino losses from proto-neutron stars play a crucial role in deciding whether these stars would be crushed into black holes or explode as supernovae. Both pure leptonic and weak-interaction processes contribute to the neutrino energy losses in stellar matter. At low temperatures and densities, the characteristics of the early phase of presupernova evolution, cooling through neutrinos produced via the weak interaction, are important. Proton-neutron quasi-particle random phase approximation (pn-QRPA) theory has recently been used with success for the calculation of stellar weak-interaction rates of fp-shell nuclide. The lepton-to-baryon ratio (Y e ) during early phases of stellar evolution of massive stars changes substantially, mainly due to electron captures on 56 Ni. The stellar matter is transparent to the neutrinos produced during the presupernova evolution of massive stars. These neutrinos escape the site and assist the stellar core in maintaining a lower entropy. Here, an expanded calculation of weak-interaction-mediated neutrino and antineutrino cooling rates due to 56 Ni in stellar matter using the pn-QRPA theory is presented. This detailed scale is appropriate for interpolation purposes and is of greater utility for simulation codes. The calculated rates are compared with earlier calculations. During the relevant temperature and density regions of stellar matter the reported rates show few differences compared with the shell model rates and might contribute in fine-tuning of the lepton-to-baryon ratio during the presupernova phases of stellar evolution of massive stars.

  15. Cooling rate and size effects on the medium-range structure of multicomponent oxide glasses simulated by molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilocca, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    A set of molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect of cooling rate and system size on the medium-range structure of melt-derived multicomponent silicate glasses, represented by the quaternary 45S5 Bioglass composition. Given the significant impact of the glass degradation on applications of these materials in biomedicine and nuclear waste disposal, bulk structural features which directly affect the glass dissolution process are of particular interest. Connectivity of the silicate matrix, ion clustering and nanosegregation, distribution of ring and chain structural patterns represent critical features in this context, which can be directly extracted from the models. A key issue is represented by the effect of the computational approach on the corresponding glass models, especially in light of recent indications questioning the suitability of conventional MD approaches (that is, involving melt-and-quench of systems containing ∼10 3 atoms at cooling rates of 5-10 K/ps) when applied to model these glasses. The analysis presented here compares MD models obtained with conventional and nonconventional cooling rates and system sizes, highlighting the trend and range of convergence of specific structural features in the medium range. The present results show that time-consuming computational approaches involving much lower cooling rates and/or significantly larger system sizes are in most cases not necessary in order to obtain a reliable description of the medium-range structure of multicomponent glasses. We identify the convergence range for specific properties and use them to discuss models of several glass compositions for which a possible influence of cooling-rate or size effects had been previously hypothesized. The trends highlighted here represent an important reference to obtain reliable models of multicomponent glasses and extract converged medium-range structural features which affect the glass degradation and thus their application

  16. Effect of Fe content, cooling rate and porosity on the tensile properties of cast 319 and 356 aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Z.; Samuel, A.M.; Samuel, F.H.; Doty, H.W.; Valtierra, S.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of Fe content, cooling rate and porosity on the tensile properties of cast 319 and 356 alloys. Both experimental and industrial 319 alloys (containing 0.1 and 0.4 wt% Mg) and industrial 356 alloys were used, with 200-300 ppm strontium additions to study the modification effect. The Fe content was varied from 0.2 to 0.8 wt% in the 319 alloys, and from 0.1 to 0.6 wt% in the 356 alloy in keeping with Fe levels observed in industry. An end-chilled mold was employed to obtain directionally solidified castings, where the cooling rate varied with the height of the casting. Tensile and microstructural samples were sectioned at heights corresponding to dendrite arm spacings of ∼23 to ∼83 μm. The microstructures were examined using optical- and scanning electron microscopy. The effect of Fe content and cooling rate was investigated through measurements of the β-Al 5 FeSi platelets, using image analysis. Porosity measurements were also made. Phase identification was done using EPMA, EDX and XRD. The results show that the β-Al 5 FeSi platelet size has a significant effect on ductility and tensile strength up to sizes of ∼100 μm in the 319 alloys and ∼70 μm in the 356 alloy, but has no significant effect on the yield strength. While tensile properties are interpreted by means of UTS vs. log Elongation plots (after the Quality index concept of Drouzy et al. (5)), in the present study, the properties for all sample conditions were best interpreted by means of log UTS vs. log Elongation plots, where the properties increased linearly within low cooling rate-high Fe and high cooling rate-low Fe condition extremities. The results are explained in terms of the β-Al 5 FeSi platelet size and porosity values obtained. (author)

  17. Cooling rate and size effects on the medium-range structure of multicomponent oxide glasses simulated by molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilocca, Antonio [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-21

    A set of molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect of cooling rate and system size on the medium-range structure of melt-derived multicomponent silicate glasses, represented by the quaternary 45S5 Bioglass composition. Given the significant impact of the glass degradation on applications of these materials in biomedicine and nuclear waste disposal, bulk structural features which directly affect the glass dissolution process are of particular interest. Connectivity of the silicate matrix, ion clustering and nanosegregation, distribution of ring and chain structural patterns represent critical features in this context, which can be directly extracted from the models. A key issue is represented by the effect of the computational approach on the corresponding glass models, especially in light of recent indications questioning the suitability of conventional MD approaches (that is, involving melt-and-quench of systems containing ∼10{sup 3} atoms at cooling rates of 5-10 K/ps) when applied to model these glasses. The analysis presented here compares MD models obtained with conventional and nonconventional cooling rates and system sizes, highlighting the trend and range of convergence of specific structural features in the medium range. The present results show that time-consuming computational approaches involving much lower cooling rates and/or significantly larger system sizes are in most cases not necessary in order to obtain a reliable description of the medium-range structure of multicomponent glasses. We identify the convergence range for specific properties and use them to discuss models of several glass compositions for which a possible influence of cooling-rate or size effects had been previously hypothesized. The trends highlighted here represent an important reference to obtain reliable models of multicomponent glasses and extract converged medium-range structural features which affect the glass degradation and thus their

  18. Cooling rate and microstructure of surface layers of 5KhNM steel, machined by electroerosion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foteev, N.K.; Ploshkin, V.V.; Lyakishev, V.A.; Shirokov, S.V.

    1982-01-01

    The cooling rate and microstructure of surface layers of steel 5KhNM machined by electroerosion method have been studied. It is shown that the difference in heating rate of the surface layers with electric discharge over the 5KhNM steel samples depth results in the intensive size reduction of the microstructure. In the surface layer alongside with martensite residual austenite is present, the lattice period of which increases with the increase of pulse duration, carbide phase of complex composition appears, and concentrational heterogeneity in alloying elements (except carbon) is absent

  19. Cooling rate and microstructure of surface layers of 5KhNM steel, machined by electroerosion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foteev, N.K.; Ploshkin, V.V.; Lyakishev, V.A.; Shirokov, S.V.

    1982-01-01

    The cooling rate and microstructure of surface layers of steel 5KhNM machined by electroerosion method have been studied. It is shown that the difference in heating rate of the surface layers with electric discharge over the 5KhNM steel samples depth results in the intensive size reduction of the microstructure. In the surface layer alongside with martensite residual austenite is present, the lattice period of which increases with the increase of pulse duration, carbide phase of complex composition appears, and concentrational heterogeneity in alloying elements (except carbon) is absent.

  20. Outpacing the Anthropocene: New Constraints for the Rate of Carbon Release at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. D.; Schaller, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    The Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE) is linked to benthic foraminiferal extinction and excursion taxa in planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils. Previous studies have used integrated bio-magneto-stratigraphies, cycle counting, and extraterrestrial 3He accumulation rates to produce a range of estimates for the duration of the initial onset of the PETM CIE between 750 years to 30 kyr. Durations for the total release time (onset to initiation of recovery) range from 45 to 95 kyr. Uncertainty in the timing of the onset of the PETM CIE prevents the identification of a causal mechanism, and hence understanding the biological responses. Recent work on the Paleocene/Eocene Marlboro Clay has unveiled the presence of regular couplets (~2 cm) expressed in multiple cores and exposures throughout the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Specifically, the Millville and newly recovered Wilson Lake B cores contain 750 and 660 layers through the CIE, respectively. These couplets have corresponding oxygen stable isotope cycles, arguing for a climatic origin. Orbital and millennial periodicities are far too long to explain the ~750 layers identified in the Millville core. Seasonal insolation is the only regular climate cycle that can plausibly account for the observed δ18O amplitudes (~1‰, with some cycles up to 2‰) and layer counts. Seasonal freshwater input can also augment the cyclic oscillations in δ18O, but the majority of the variability is most plausibly ascribed to temperature. Wilson Lake B and Millville have total δ13C excursions of -5 and -4.5‰ respectively, as well as highly expanded sections of the PETM CIE. In the Millville core, high-resolution, bulk stable isotope records show a 3.5‰ δ13C decrease over 12 layers across the PETM CIE onset. Concomitant with this δ13C decrease is a sharp drop in CaCO3. Decreases in both proxies require a large, sudden release of isotopically light carbon. The couplet chronology indicates

  1. The effect of the melting spinning cooling rate on transformation temperatures in ribbons Ti-Ni-Cu shape memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, A.P.; Castro, W.B.; Anselmo, G.C. dos S.

    2014-01-01

    Ti-Ni-Cu alloys have been attracting attention by their high performance of shape memory effect and decrease of thermal and stress hysteresis in comparison with Ti-Ni binary alloys. One important challenge of microsystems design is the implementation of miniaturized actuation principles efficient at the micro-scale. Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have early on been considered as a potential solution to this problem as these materials offer attractive properties like a high-power to weight ratio, large deformation and the capability to be processed at the micro-scale. Shape memory characteristics of Ti-37,8Cu-18,7Ni alloy ribbons prepared by melt spinning were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. In these experiments particular attention has been paid to change of the velocity of cooling wheel from 21 to 63 m/s. Then the cooling rates of ribbons were controlled. The effect of this cooling rate on austenitic and martensitic transformations behaviors is discussed. (author)

  2. Effect of Cooling Rates on the Transformation Behavior and Mechanical Properties of a Ni-Rich NiTi Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, Stephen; Shamimi, Ali; Duerig, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    Slightly nickel-rich Ni-Ti alloys (typically 50.5-51% atomic percent nickel) are commonly used to produce devices that are superelastic at body temperature. This excess nickel can be tolerated in the NiTi matrix when its temperature is above the solvus of about 600 °C, but will precipitate out during lower temperatures. Recent work has been done on exploring the effect lower temperatures have on the material properties of NiTi. Findings showed that properties begin to change at temperatures as low as 100 °C. It is because of these results that it was deemed important to better understand what may be happening during the quenching process itself. Through running a combination of DSC and tensile tests on samples cooled at varying rates, it was found that the cooling rate has an effect on properties when heat treated above a specific temperature. Understanding how quickly the alloy must be cooled to fully retain the supersaturated NiTi matrix is important to optimizing processes and anticipating material properties after a heat treatment.

  3. Influence of hot plastic deformation and cooling rate on martensite and bainite start temperatures in 22MnB5 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikravesh, M.; Naderi, M.; Akbari, G.H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Reduction of cooling rate, can cause to increase or decrease M s and M f . ► 40% hot plastic deformation hindered the martensitic transformation. ► Hot plastic deformation, caused to decrease M f and M s , while B s increased. ► The critical cooling rate increased 40 °C/s due to apply 40% hot deformation. - Abstract: During hot stamping process, hot forming, cooling and phase transformations are performed in a single step. As a matter of fact, multifunctional phenomena happen and affect each other. Among these phenomena, martensitic and bainitic transformations have the greatest importance. In the current research, the start temperatures of martensite and bainite of 22MnB5 boron steel have been measured in undeformed and 40% deformed conditions, and in various cooling rates from 0.4 °C/s to 100 °C/s by means of deformation dilatometer. It is concluded that, reduction of cooling rate, could bring about an increase or decrease in M s and M f , depending on other phases formation before martensite. Also, hot plastic deformation, hindered the martensitic transformation and decreased M f and M s especially at lower cooling rates, while B s increased. Furthermore, the critical cooling rate, increased about 40 °C/s by applying 40% hot plastic deformation.

  4. Continuous cooling transformation behaviors of CLAM steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qing-sheng; Zheng, Shu-hui; Huang, Qun-ying; Liu, Shao-jun; Han, Yang-yang

    2013-01-01

    The continuous cooling transformation (CCT) behaviors of CLAM (China Low Activation Martensitic) steel were studied, the CCT diagram was constructed, and the influence of cooling rates on the microstructures was also investigated. The microstructures were investigated using optical microscopy (OM) and microhardness tests were also carried out. The results showed that CLAM steel possessed high hardenability and there were ferrite and martensite transformation regions only. The maximum cooling rate to form ferrite microstructure was found to be 10–12 K/min. In order to obtain fully ferrite microstructure, the cooling rate should be lower than 1 K/min. The CCT diagram also gave relevant parameters such as the transformation temperatures, i.e., A c1 , A c3 , M s and M f were 1124 K, 1193 K, 705 K and 593 K, respectively. The diagram made it possible to predict the microstructures and properties of CLAM steel with different cooling rates

  5. Influence of phase separation on the anaerobic digestion of glucose: maximum COD turnover rate during continuous operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, A; Van Andel, J G; Breure, A M; Van Deursen, A

    1980-01-01

    A mineral medium containing 1% of glucose as the main carbon source was subjected to one-phase and two-phase anaerobic digestion processes under comparable conditions. The one-phase system combined acidogenic and methanogenic populations allowing a complete conversion of the carbon source into gaseous end products and biomass. The two-phase system consists of an acid reactor and a methane reactor connected in series allowing sequential acidogenesis and methanogenesis. Performance of the one-phase system is compared with that of the two-phase system. Maximum turnover of COD was determined for each system. Maximum specific sludge loading of the two-phase system was more than three times higher than that of the one-phase system. Effects of overloading each system were determined. The eco-physiological significance of phase separation is discussed briefly. (2 diagrams, 5 graphs, 41 references, 5 tables)

  6. Production of bovine cloned embryos with donor cells frozen at a slow cooling rate in a conventional freezer (20 C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, L.; Gomez, M.C.; Jenkins, J.A.; Leibo, S.P.; Wirtu, G.; Dresser, B.L.; Pope, C.E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Usually, fibroblasts are frozen in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO, 10% v/v) at a cooling rate of 1 C/min in a low-temperature (80 C) freezer (LTF) before storage in liquid nitrogen (LN2); however, a LTF is not always available. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate apoptosis and viability of bovine fibroblasts frozen in a LTF or conventional freezer (CF; 20 C) and their subsequent ability for development to blastocyst stage after fusion with enucleated bovine oocytes. Percentages of live cells frozen in LTF (49.5%) and CF (50.6%) were similar, but significantly less than non-frozen control (88%). In both CF and LTF, percentages of live apoptotic cells exposed to LN2 after freezing were lower (4% and 5%, respectively) as compared with unexposed cells (10% and 18%, respectively). Cells frozen in a CF had fewer cell doublings/24 h (0.45) and required more days (9.1) to reach 100% confluence at the first passage (P) after thawing and plating as compared with cells frozen in a LTF (0.96 and 4.0 days, respectively). Hypoploidy at P12 was higher than at P4 in cells frozen in either a CF (37.5% vs. 19.2%) or in a LTF (30.0% vs. 15.4%). A second-generation cryo-solution reduced the incidence of necrosis (29.4%) at 0 h after thawing as compared with that of a first generation cryo-solution (DMEM + DMSO, 60.2%). The percentage of apoptosis in live cells was affected by cooling rate (CF = 1.9% vs. LFT = 0.7%). Development of bovine cloned embryos to the blastocyst stage was not affected by cooling rate or freezer type. ?? 2009 Cambridge University Press.

  7. Effect of cooling rate on the structure and properties of thick films of YBa2Cu3O7-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S.R.; Oleinikov, N.N.; Gas'kov, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    A problem associated with the production of quality films is chemical interaction of the HTSC material with the substrate. This leads to a considerable worsening or complete loss of the superconducting properties of a functional material. A second problem is selection of a substrate whose thermal expansion coefficient (TCE) is as close as possible to the TCE of the superconducting material. Omission of this condition leads to production of a HTSC material which is subject to perturbing mechanical stresses (compressive or tensile stress), and this is a potential cause of the reduction of the functional parameters of the material. The authors note that other substrate requirements should be considered only during production of thin films. Unfortunately, the production of quality thick films is apparently not worked out with resolution of the latter two problems. It is very important in production of HTSC materials to consider the rate of cooling at the moment of formation of the orthorhombic phase (in the following, the tetragonal-orthorhombic transition). Undesirable relaxation can be avoided if the cooling rate is lowered below some critical value. According to the computations, this problem is solved most successfully in HTSC materials of the composition YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x if their ceramic structure consists of crystallites whose size does not exceed 1-2 μm. The goal of this work is to elucidate the effect of the cooling rate of thick films of composition YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x in the temperature range corresponding to transition of the tetragonal to the orthorhombic phase on their structure and properties

  8. Effects of short immersion time and cooling rates of copperizing process to the evolution of microstructures and copper behavior in the dead mild steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatimurti, Wikan; Sutarsis, Cunika, Aprida Ulya

    2017-01-01

    In a dead mild steel with maximum carbon content of 0.15%, carbon does not contribute much to its strength. By adding copper as an alloying element, a balance between strength and ductility could be obtained through grain refining, solid solution, or Cu precipitation. This research aimed to analyse the changes in microstructures and copper behaviour on AISI 1006, including the phases formed, composition, and Cu dispersion. The addition of cooper was done by immersing steel into molten copper or so we called, copperizing using the principles of diffusion. Specimens were cut with 6 × 3 × 0.3 cm measurement then preheated to 900°C and melting the copper at 1100°C. Subsequently, the immersion of the specimens into molten copper varied to 5 and 7 minutes, and also varying the cooling rate to annealing, normalizing, and quenching. A series of test being conduct were optical microscope test, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), optical emission spectroscopy (OES), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the longer the immersion time and slower cooling rate, the more Cu diffused causing smaller grain size with the highest Cu diffused recorded was 0.277% in the copperized AISI 1006 steel with 7 minutes of immersion and was annealed. The grain size reduced to 23041.5404 µm2. The annealed specimens show ferrite phase, the normalized ones show polygonal ferrite phase, while the quenched ones show granular bainite phase. The phase formed is single phase Cu. In addition, the normalized and quenched specimens show that Cu dissolved in Fe crystal forming solid solution.

  9. The effect of cooling rate and austenite grain size on the austenite to ferrite transformation temperature and different ferrite morphologies in microalloyed steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmailian, M.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of different austenite grain size and different cooling rates on the austenite to ferrite transformation temperature and different ferrite morphologies in one Nb-microalloyed high strength low alloy steel has been investigated. Three different austenite grain sizes were selected and cooled at two different cooling rates for obtaining austenite to ferrite transformation temperature. Moreover, samples with specific austenite grain size have been quenched, partially, for investigation on the microstructural evolution. In order to assess the influence of austenite grain size on the ferrite transformation temperature, a temperature differences method is established and found to be a good way for detection of austenite to ferrite, pearlite and sometimes other ferrite morphologies transformation temperatures. The results obtained in this way show that increasing of austenite grain size and cooling rate has a significant influence on decreasing of the ferrite transformation temperature. Micrographs of different ferrite morphologies show that at high temperatures, where diffusion rates are higher, grain boundary ferrite nucleates. As the temperature is lowered and the driving force for ferrite formation increases, intragranular sites inside the austenite grains become operative as nucleation sites and suppress the grain boundary ferrite growth. The results indicate that increasing the austenite grain size increases the rate and volume fraction of intragranular ferrite in two different cooling rates. Moreover, by increasing of cooling rate, the austenite to ferrite transformation temperature decreases and volume fraction of intragranular ferrite increases.

  10. The influence of cooling rate and Fe/Cr content on the evolution of Fe-rich compounds in a secondary Al-Si-Cu diecasting alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, A.; Timelli, G.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the morphological evolution of primary α-Al(Fe,Mn,Cr)Si phase in a secondary Al-Si-Cu alloy with respect to the initial Fe and Cr contents as well as to the cooling rate. The solidification experiments have been designed in order to cover a wide range of cooling rates, and the Fe and Cr contents have been varied over two levels. Metallographic and image analysis techniques have been used to quantitatively examine the microstructural changes occurring at different experimental conditions. The morphological evolution of the α-Fe phase has been also analysed by observing deep etched samples. By changing the cooling rate, α-Al15(Fe,Mn,Cr)3Si2 dodecahedron crystals, as well as Chinese- script, branched structures and dendrites form, while primary coarse β-Al5(Fe,Mn)Si needles appear in the alloy with the highest Fe content at low cooling rates.

  11. The influence of cooling rate and Fe/Cr content on the evolution of Fe-rich compounds in a secondary Al-Si-Cu diecasting alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrizi, A; Timelli, G

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the morphological evolution of primary α-Al(Fe,Mn,Cr)Si phase in a secondary Al-Si-Cu alloy with respect to the initial Fe and Cr contents as well as to the cooling rate. The solidification experiments have been designed in order to cover a wide range of cooling rates, and the Fe and Cr contents have been varied over two levels. Metallographic and image analysis techniques have been used to quantitatively examine the microstructural changes occurring at different experimental conditions. The morphological evolution of the α-Fe phase has been also analysed by observing deep etched samples. By changing the cooling rate, α-Al 15 (Fe,Mn,Cr) 3 Si 2 dodecahedron crystals, as well as Chinese- script, branched structures and dendrites form, while primary coarse β-Al 5 (Fe,Mn)Si needles appear in the alloy with the highest Fe content at low cooling rates. (paper)

  12. Cold-Water Immersion Cooling Rates in Football Linemen and Cross-Country Runners With Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godek, Sandra Fowkes; Morrison, Katherine E; Scullin, Gregory

    2017-10-01

      Ideal and acceptable cooling rates in hyperthermic athletes have been established in average-sized participants. Football linemen (FBs) have a small body surface area (BSA)-to-mass ratio compared with smaller athletes, which hinders heat dissipation.   To determine cooling rates using cold-water immersion in hyperthermic FBs and cross-country runners (CCs).   Cohort study.   Controlled university laboratory.   Nine FBs (age = 21.7 ± 1.7 years, height = 188.7 ± 4 cm, mass = 128.1 ± 18 kg, body fat = 28.9% ± 7.1%, lean body mass [LBM] = 86.9 ± 19 kg, BSA = 2.54 ± 0.13 m 2 , BSA/mass = 201 ± 21.3 cm 2 /kg, and BSA/LBM = 276.4 ± 19.7 cm 2 /kg) and 7 CCs (age = 20 ± 1.8 years, height = 176 ± 4.1 cm, mass = 68.7 ± 6.5 kg, body fat = 10.2% ± 1.6%, LBM = 61.7 ± 5.3 kg, BSA = 1.84 ± 0.1 m 2 , BSA/mass = 268.3 ± 11.7 cm 2 /kg, and BSA/LBM = 298.4 ± 11.7 cm 2 /kg).   Participants ingested an intestinal sensor, exercised in a climatic chamber (39°C, 40% relative humidity) until either target core temperature (T gi ) was 39.5°C or volitional exhaustion was reached, and were immediately immersed in a 10°C circulated bath until T gi declined to 37.5°C. A general linear model repeated-measures analysis of variance and independent t tests were calculated, with P LBM/mass (r = 0.72, P LBM (r = -0.72, P 11 minutes) than smaller, leaner athletes (7.7 minutes). Cooling rates varied widely from 0.332°C·min -1 in a small runner to only 0.101°C·min -1 in a lineman, supporting the use of rectal temperature for monitoring during cooling.

  13. Altering the cooling rate dependence of phase formation during rapid solidification in the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branagan, D.J. [USDOE, Ames, IA (United States). Ames Lab.]|[Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; McCallum, R.W. [USDOE, Ames, IA (United States). Ames Lab.]|[Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-04-26

    In order to evaluate the effects of additions on the solidification behavior of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B, a stoichiometric alloy was modified with elemental additions of Ti or C and a compound addition of Ti with C. For each alloy, a series of wheel speed runs was undertaken, from which the optimum wheel speeds and optimum energy products were determined. On the BH{sub max} versus wheel speed plots, regions were identified in order to analyze the changes with cooling rates leading to phase formation brought about by the alloy modifications. The compilation of the regional data of the modified alloys showed their effects on altering the cooling rate dependence of phase formation. It was found that the regions of properitectic iron formation, glass formation, and the optimum cooling rate can be changed by more than a factor of two through appropriate alloying additions. The effects of the alloy modifications can be visualized in a convenient fashion through the use of a model continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram which represents phase formation during the solidification process under continuous cooling conditions for a wide range of cooling rates from rapid solidification to equilibrium cooling. ((orig.)).

  14. Effect of cooled hyperbaric bupivacaine on unilateral spinal anesthesia success rate and hemodynamic complications in inguinal hernia surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomak, Yakup; Erdivanli, Basar; Sen, Ahmet; Bostan, Habib; Budak, Ersel Tan; Pergel, Ahmet

    2016-02-01

    We hypothesized that cooling hyperbaric bupivacaine from 23 to 5 °C may limit the intrathecal spread of bupivacaine and therefore increase the success rate of unilateral spinal anesthesia and decrease the rate of hemodynamic complications. A hundred patients scheduled for elective unilateral inguinal hernia surgery were randomly allocated to receive 1.8 ml of 0.5 % hyperbaric bupivacaine intrathecally at either 5 °C (group I, n = 50) or at 23 °C (group II, n = 50). Following spinal block at the L2-3 interspace, the lateral decubitus position was maintained for 15 min. Unilateral spinal anesthesia was assessed and confirmed at 15 and 30 min. The levels of sensory and motor block on the operative side were evaluated until complete resolution. The rate of unilateral spinal anesthesia at 15 and 30 min was significantly higher in group I (p = 0.015 and 0.028, respectively). Hypotensive events and bradycardia were significantly rarer in group I (p = 0.014 and 0.037, respectively). The density and viscosity of the solution at 5 °C was significantly higher than at 23 °C (p < 0.0001). Compared with group II, sensory block peaked later in group I (17.4 vs 12.6 min) and at a lower level (T9 vs T7), and two-segment regression of sensory block (76.4 vs 84.3 min) and motor block recovery was shorter (157.6 vs 193.4 min) (p < 0.0001). Cooling of hyperbaric bupivacaine to 5 °C increased the density and viscosity of the solution and the success rate of unilateral spinal anesthesia, and decreased the hemodynamic complication rate.

  15. Rotational Laser Cooling of MgH+ Ions and Rotational Rate Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Kragh; Staanum, Peter; Højbjerre, Klaus

    by varying a delay between two such pairs of firings and measuring the yield of the second pair obtain the refilling rates. These rotational transition rate measurements are not only of direct interest for us to understand our rotational state preparation schemes, but will be important input to quantum...

  16. Numerical studies of fast ion slowing down rates in cool magnetized plasma using LSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Eugene S.; Kolmes, Elijah; Cohen, Samuel A.; Rognlien, Tom; Cohen, Bruce; Meier, Eric; Welch, Dale R.

    2016-10-01

    In MFE devices, rapid transport of fusion products from the core into the scrape-off layer (SOL) could perform the dual roles of energy and ash removal. The first-orbit trajectories of most fusion products from small field-reversed configuration (FRC) devices will traverse the SOL, allowing those particles to deposit their energy in the SOL and be exhausted along the open field lines. Thus, the fast ion slowing-down time should affect the energy balance of an FRC reactor and its neutron emissions. However, the dynamics of fast ion energy loss processes under the conditions expected in the FRC SOL (with ρe code, to examine the effects of SOL density and background B-field on the slowing-down time of fast ions in a cool plasma. As we use explicit algorithms, these simulations must spatially resolve both ρe and λDe, as well as temporally resolve both Ωe and ωpe, increasing computation time. Scaling studies of the fast ion charge (Z) and background plasma density are in good agreement with unmagnetized slowing down theory. Notably, Z-scaling represents a viable way to dramatically reduce the required CPU time for each simulation. This work was supported, in part, by DOE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  17. Effect of cooling rate on the transition temperature in Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yugui; Wang Jinsong; Wang Nanlin; Jiao Xinping; Han Guchang; Chen Zhaojia; Wang Keqin; Wu Xiaoguang

    1989-12-01

    The resistance and a.c. susceptibility measurement show that cooling rate of the cast-annealing samples in heat treatment process has some effect on the 110K superconducting phase in Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. Rapid quenching of the sample in air from 845 deg C causes oxygen deficiency in lattice and brings about a trifling change of unit cell size along c-axis direction. The d.c. magnetization and specific heat anomaly Δc measurements demostrate that fast cooling rate can reduce the transition temperature of high-T c phase and the lower critical field, and weaken the pinning forces for vertex lines. The peak value of specific heat anomaly of the sample with nominal composition of Bi 1.7 Pb 0.3 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 4.5 O v is still small in comparison with YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 . From the magnetization curve the authors estimate that the superconducting volume fraction is about 20%

  18. The relationship between the parameters (Heart rate, Ejection fraction and BMI) and the maximum enhancement time of ascending aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Young Ill; June, Woon Kwan; Dong, Kyeong Rae

    2007-01-01

    In this study, Bolus Tracking method was used to investigate the parameters affecting the time when contrast media is reached at 100 HU (T 100 ) and studied the relationship between parameters and T 100 because the time which is reached at aorta through antecubital vein after injecting contrast media is different from person to person. Using 64 MDCT, Cadiac CT, the data were obtained from 100 patients (male: 50, female: 50, age distribution: 21⁓81, average age: 57.5) during July and September, 2007 by injecting the contrast media at 4 ml∙sec -1 through their antecubital vein except having difficulties in stopping their breath and having arrhythmia. Using Somatom Sensation Cardiac 64 Siemens, patients’ height and weight were measured to know their mean Heart rate and BMI. Ejection Fraction was measured using Argus Program at Wizard Workstation. Variances of each parameter were analyzed depending on T 100 ’s variation with multiple comparison and the correlation of Heart rate, Ejection Fraction and BMI were analyzed, as well. According to T 100 ’s variation caused by Heart rate, Ejection Fraction and BMI variations, the higher patients’ Heart Rate and Ejection Fraction were, the faster T 100 ’s variations caused by Heart Rate and Ejection Fraction were. The lower their Heart Rate and Ejection Fraction were, the slower T 100 ’s variations were, but T 100 ’s variations caused by BMI were not affected. In the correlation between T 100 and parameters, Heart Rate (p⁄0.01) and Ejection Fraction (p⁄0.05) were significant, but BMI was not significant (p¤0.05). In the Heart Rate, Ejection Fraction and BMI depending on Fast (17 sec and less), Medium (18⁓21 sec), Slow (22 sec and over) Heart Rate was significant at Fast and Slow and Ejection Fraction was significant Fast and Slow as well as Medium and Slow (p⁄0.05), but BMI was not statistically significant. Of the parameters (Heart Rate, Ejection Fraction and BMI) which would affect T 100 , Heart

  19. Optimized mass flow rate distribution analysis for cooling the ITER Blanket System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, Germán, E-mail: German.Perez@iter.org; Mitteau, Raphaël; Furmanek, Andreas; Martin, Alex; Raffray, René; Merola, Mario; Sabourin, Flavien

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Optimized water distribution in ITER blanket modules is presented. • All key challenging constraints are included. • The methodology and the successful result are presented. - Abstract: This paper presents the rationale to the optimization of water distribution in ITER blanket modules, meeting both Blanket System requirements and interface compliance requirements. The key challenging constraints include to: be compatible with the overall water allocation (3140 kg/s for 440 wall mounted BMs); meet the critical heat flux margin of 1.4 in the plasma facing units; meet a maximum temperature increase of 70 °C at the outlet of each single BM; and ensure that water velocity is less than 7 m/s in all manifolds, and that the pressure drops of all BMs can be equilibrated. The methodology and the successful result are presented.

  20. Optimized mass flow rate distribution analysis for cooling the ITER Blanket System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez, Germán; Mitteau, Raphaël; Furmanek, Andreas; Martin, Alex; Raffray, René; Merola, Mario; Sabourin, Flavien

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimized water distribution in ITER blanket modules is presented. • All key challenging constraints are included. • The methodology and the successful result are presented. - Abstract: This paper presents the rationale to the optimization of water distribution in ITER blanket modules, meeting both Blanket System requirements and interface compliance requirements. The key challenging constraints include to: be compatible with the overall water allocation (3140 kg/s for 440 wall mounted BMs); meet the critical heat flux margin of 1.4 in the plasma facing units; meet a maximum temperature increase of 70 °C at the outlet of each single BM; and ensure that water velocity is less than 7 m/s in all manifolds, and that the pressure drops of all BMs can be equilibrated. The methodology and the successful result are presented

  1. Effect of Salted Ice Bags on Surface and Intramuscular Tissue Cooling and Rewarming Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Eric J; Ostrowski, Jennifer; Donahue, Matthew; Crowley, Caitlyn; Herzog, Valerie

    2016-02-01

    Many researchers have investigated the effectiveness of different cryotherapy agents at decreasing intramuscular tissue temperatures. However, no one has looked at the effectiveness of adding salt to an ice bag. To compare the cooling effectiveness of different ice bags (wetted, salted cubed, and salted crushed) on cutaneous and intramuscular temperatures. Repeated-measures counterbalanced design. University research laboratory. 24 healthy participants (13 men, 11 women; age 22.46 ± 2.33 y, height 173.25 ± 9.78 cm, mass 74.51 ± 17.32 kg, subcutaneous thickness 0.63 ± 0.27 cm) with no lower-leg injuries, vascular diseases, sensitivity to cold, compromised circulation, or chronic use of NSAIDs. Ice bags made of wetted ice (2000 mL ice and 300 mL water), salted cubed ice (intervention A; 2000 mL of cubed ice and 1/2 tablespoon of salt), and salted crushed ice (intervention B; 2000 mL of crushed ice and 1/2 tablespoon of salt) were applied to the posterior gastrocnemius for 30 min. Each participant received all conditions with at least 4 d between treatments. Cutaneous and intramuscular (2 cm plus adipose thickness) temperatures of nondominant gastrocnemius were measured during a 10-min baseline period, a 30-min treatment period, and a 45-min rewarming period. Differences from baseline were observed for all treatments. The wetted-ice and salted-cubed-ice bags produced significantly lower intramuscular temperatures than the salted-crushed-ice bag. Wetted-ice bags produced the greatest temperature change for cutaneous tissues. Wetted- and salted-cubed-ice bags were equally effective at decreasing intramuscular temperature at 2 cm subadipose. Clinical practicality may favor salted-ice bags over wetted-ice bags.

  2. Investigation of the Maximum Spin-Up Coefficients of Friction Obtained During Tests of a Landing Gear Having a Static-Load Rating of 20,000 Pounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterson, Sidney A.

    1959-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made at the Langley landing loads track to obtain data on the maximum spin-up coefficients of friction developed by a landing gear having a static-load rating of 20,000 pounds. The forward speeds ranged from 0 to approximately 180 feet per second and the sinking speeds, from 2.7 feet per second to 9.4 feet per second. The results indicated the variation of the maximum spin-up coefficient of friction with forward speed and vertical load. Data obtained during this investigation are also compared with some results previously obtained for nonrolling tires to show the effect of forward speed.

  3. Analysis of isothermal and cooling-rate-dependent immersion freezing by a unifying stochastic ice nucleation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Peter A.; Knopf, Daniel A.

    2016-02-01

    Immersion freezing is an important ice nucleation pathway involved in the formation of cirrus and mixed-phase clouds. Laboratory immersion freezing experiments are necessary to determine the range in temperature, T, and relative humidity, RH, at which ice nucleation occurs and to quantify the associated nucleation kinetics. Typically, isothermal (applying a constant temperature) and cooling-rate-dependent immersion freezing experiments are conducted. In these experiments it is usually assumed that the droplets containing ice nucleating particles (INPs) all have the same INP surface area (ISA); however, the validity of this assumption or the impact it may have on analysis and interpretation of the experimental data is rarely questioned. Descriptions of ice active sites and variability of contact angles have been successfully formulated to describe ice nucleation experimental data in previous research; however, we consider the ability of a stochastic freezing model founded on classical nucleation theory to reproduce previous results and to explain experimental uncertainties and data scatter. A stochastic immersion freezing model based on first principles of statistics is presented, which accounts for variable ISA per droplet and uses parameters including the total number of droplets, Ntot, and the heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficient, Jhet(T). This model is applied to address if (i) a time and ISA-dependent stochastic immersion freezing process can explain laboratory immersion freezing data for different experimental methods and (ii) the assumption that all droplets contain identical ISA is a valid conjecture with subsequent consequences for analysis and interpretation of immersion freezing. The simple stochastic model can reproduce the observed time and surface area dependence in immersion freezing experiments for a variety of methods such as: droplets on a cold-stage exposed to air or surrounded by an oil matrix, wind and acoustically levitated droplets

  4. Analysis of isothermal and cooling-rate-dependent immersion freezing by a unifying stochastic ice nucleation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Alpert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Immersion freezing is an important ice nucleation pathway involved in the formation of cirrus and mixed-phase clouds. Laboratory immersion freezing experiments are necessary to determine the range in temperature, T, and relative humidity, RH, at which ice nucleation occurs and to quantify the associated nucleation kinetics. Typically, isothermal (applying a constant temperature and cooling-rate-dependent immersion freezing experiments are conducted. In these experiments it is usually assumed that the droplets containing ice nucleating particles (INPs all have the same INP surface area (ISA; however, the validity of this assumption or the impact it may have on analysis and interpretation of the experimental data is rarely questioned. Descriptions of ice active sites and variability of contact angles have been successfully formulated to describe ice nucleation experimental data in previous research; however, we consider the ability of a stochastic freezing model founded on classical nucleation theory to reproduce previous results and to explain experimental uncertainties and data scatter. A stochastic immersion freezing model based on first principles of statistics is presented, which accounts for variable ISA per droplet and uses parameters including the total number of droplets, Ntot, and the heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficient, Jhet(T. This model is applied to address if (i a time and ISA-dependent stochastic immersion freezing process can explain laboratory immersion freezing data for different experimental methods and (ii the assumption that all droplets contain identical ISA is a valid conjecture with subsequent consequences for analysis and interpretation of immersion freezing. The simple stochastic model can reproduce the observed time and surface area dependence in immersion freezing experiments for a variety of methods such as: droplets on a cold-stage exposed to air or surrounded by an oil matrix, wind and

  5. Effect of cooling rate on tetragonal to monoclinic transformation in hot pressed ZrO2(Y2O3) ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, W.Z.; Ding, Z.S.; Lei, T.C.; Zhou, Y.

    1995-01-01

    It is well documented that the tetragonal (T) to monoclinic (M) transition in either pure zirconia or partially stabilized zirconia is the origin of toughening in that resistance to the propagation of cracks can be greatly enhanced by the concurrent appearance of the stress field of the transformation. In the present paper, the effect of cooling rate on the T → M phase transformation in yttria-containing zirconia and its resultant mechanical properties have been studied by means of thermal expansion analysis. Both the T → M and M → T transformations are affected by the cooling and heating rates, respectively. The amount of M-phase decreases with increasing cooling rate. T → M transition occurring within the interior part of specimen can be completely inhibited by the cooling rate of 100 C/min for ZrO 2 (2mol% Y 2 O 3 ) ceramic sintered at 1,600 C. The start point and end point of the T → M transformation decreases and increases, respectively, with increasing cooling rate. Both the start point and end point of the M → T transformation increase with increasing cooling rate. The divergence between the results of X-ray diffraction and the thermal expansion analysis has been rationalized in terms of the both internal and external factors, namely, preferential sites of surface for the formation of the M-phase and limited sensitivity of measurement of the thermal expansion apparatus. Both the water-cooled and air-cooled specimens show much improved mechanical properties regardless of the sintering temperatures or yttria content because of the relatively higher T-phase fraction retained to room temperature

  6. 9 CFR 381.67 - Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums under traditional inspection procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Young chicken and squab slaughter... INSPECTION REGULATIONS Operating Procedures § 381.67 Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate... inspector per minute under the traditional inspection procedure for the different young chicken and squab...

  7. Effects of different cooling rates during two casting processes on the microstructures and mechanical properties of extruded Mg–Al–Ca–Mn alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, S.W.; Oh-ishi, K.; Kamado, S.; Takahashi, H.; Homma, T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ordered monolayer GP zone was formed by increasing cooling rate. ► Finer extruded microstructure was obtained by increasing cooling rate. ► Higher number density precipitates was obtained by increasing cooling rate. ► Tensile 0.2% proof stress was increased by 105 MPa by increasing cooling rate. ► Extruded DC-cast alloy shows higher tensile 0.2% proof stress of 409 MPa. - Abstract: In this study, Mg–3.6Al–3.4Ca–0.3Mn (wt.%) (which is denoted AXM4303) alloy ingots were prepared by two casting processes with different cooling rates: permanent mold (PM) casting, which has a lower cooling rate of 10–20 °C/s and direct chill (DC) casting, which has a higher cooling rate of 100–110 °C/s. Then, these two types of AXM4303 alloy ingots were hot extruded at 400 °C under the same conditions. The microstructures of the as-cast and extruded alloy samples were systematically investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) systems. The effects of the different cooling rates during the casting process on the microstructures and mechanical properties of the extruded AXM4303 alloy samples were evaluated. The results show that the strength of the extruded Mg–Al–Ca–Mn alloy can be substantially increased by microstructural control during the casting process. Because the cooling rate of the DC casting process is much faster than the cooling rate of PM casting, the DC-cast AXM4303 has the following properties: (i) the lamellar eutectic structure and dendrite cell size are significantly refined, (ii) the ordered monolayer GP zones enriched with Al and Ca nucleate with no growth, and (iii) most of the Mn remains in solution in the matrix. Thus, after hot extrusion, the DC-cast AXM4303 has finer dynamically recrystallized (DRXed) grain size, finer and more uniformly distributed fragmented eutectic particles, finer planar Al 2 Ca precipitates

  8. An Advanced Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Core Concept Using Uranium-Free Metallic Fuels for Maximizing TRU Burning Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuseong You

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we designed and analyzed advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor cores using uranium-free metallic fuels for maximizing burning rate of transuranics (TRU nuclides from PWR spent fuels. It is well known that the removal of fertile nuclides such as 238U from fuels in liquid metal cooled fast reactor leads to the degradation of important safety parameters such as the Doppler coefficient, coolant void worth, and delayed neutron fraction. To resolve the degradation of the Doppler coefficient, we considered adding resonant nuclides to the uranium-free metallic fuels. The analysis results showed that the cores using uranium-free fuels loaded with tungsten instead of uranium have a significantly lower burnup reactivity swing and more negative Doppler coefficients than the core using uranium-free fuels without resonant nuclides. In addition, we considered the use of axially central B4C absorber region and moderator rods to further improve safety parameters such as sodium void worth, burnup reactivity swing, and the Doppler coefficient. The results of the analysis showed that the final design core can consume ~353 kg per cycle and satisfies self-controllability under unprotected accidents. The fuel cycle analysis showed that the PWR–SFR coupling fuel cycle option drastically reduces the amount of waste going to repository and the SFR burner can consume the amount of TRUs discharged from 3.72 PWRs generating the same electricity.

  9. Extracting information on the spatial variability in erosion rate stored in detrital cooling age distributions in river sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jean; Gemignani, Lorenzo; van der Beek, Peter

    2018-03-01

    One of the main purposes of detrital thermochronology is to provide constraints on the regional-scale exhumation rate and its spatial variability in actively eroding mountain ranges. Procedures that use cooling age distributions coupled with hypsometry and thermal models have been developed in order to extract quantitative estimates of erosion rate and its spatial distribution, assuming steady state between tectonic uplift and erosion. This hypothesis precludes the use of these procedures to assess the likely transient response of mountain belts to changes in tectonic or climatic forcing. Other methods are based on an a priori knowledge of the in situ distribution of ages to interpret the detrital age distributions. In this paper, we describe a simple method that, using the observed detrital mineral age distributions collected along a river, allows us to extract information about the relative distribution of erosion rates in an eroding catchment without relying on a steady-state assumption, the value of thermal parameters or an a priori knowledge of in situ age distributions. The model is based on a relatively low number of parameters describing lithological variability among the various sub-catchments and their sizes and only uses the raw ages. The method we propose is tested against synthetic age distributions to demonstrate its accuracy and the optimum conditions for it use. In order to illustrate the method, we invert age distributions collected along the main trunk of the Tsangpo-Siang-Brahmaputra river system in the eastern Himalaya. From the inversion of the cooling age distributions we predict present-day erosion rates of the catchments along the Tsangpo-Siang-Brahmaputra river system, as well as some of its tributaries. We show that detrital age distributions contain dual information about present-day erosion rate, i.e., from the predicted distribution of surface ages within each catchment and from the relative contribution of any given catchment to the

  10. Extracting information on the spatial variability in erosion rate stored in detrital cooling age distributions in river sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Braun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the main purposes of detrital thermochronology is to provide constraints on the regional-scale exhumation rate and its spatial variability in actively eroding mountain ranges. Procedures that use cooling age distributions coupled with hypsometry and thermal models have been developed in order to extract quantitative estimates of erosion rate and its spatial distribution, assuming steady state between tectonic uplift and erosion. This hypothesis precludes the use of these procedures to assess the likely transient response of mountain belts to changes in tectonic or climatic forcing. Other methods are based on an a priori knowledge of the in situ distribution of ages to interpret the detrital age distributions. In this paper, we describe a simple method that, using the observed detrital mineral age distributions collected along a river, allows us to extract information about the relative distribution of erosion rates in an eroding catchment without relying on a steady-state assumption, the value of thermal parameters or an a priori knowledge of in situ age distributions. The model is based on a relatively low number of parameters describing lithological variability among the various sub-catchments and their sizes and only uses the raw ages. The method we propose is tested against synthetic age distributions to demonstrate its accuracy and the optimum conditions for it use. In order to illustrate the method, we invert age distributions collected along the main trunk of the Tsangpo–Siang–Brahmaputra river system in the eastern Himalaya. From the inversion of the cooling age distributions we predict present-day erosion rates of the catchments along the Tsangpo–Siang–Brahmaputra river system, as well as some of its tributaries. We show that detrital age distributions contain dual information about present-day erosion rate, i.e., from the predicted distribution of surface ages within each catchment and from the relative contribution of

  11. Late Quaternary cooling rate constrained by multiple IRSL thermochronometers of potassium feldspars for granites from Kongur Shan, Chinese Pamir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jintang; Chen, Jie; Valla, Pierre; Herman, Frédéric

    2015-04-01

    The Kongur Shan (East Pamir), located at the northwestern Tibetan Plateau, is one of the most active orogens on Earth, where both tectonic processes along major active faults and climatic forcing (extensive glaciers coverage) are contributing to the regional landscape evolution. The exhumation rates since late Miocene was constrained to be ~6.5 - 4.2 mm/yr. However, it is still debated whether the exhumation rate accelerated since the Quaternary, of which the climate was featured by the cyclic glaciations with periods of 100 ka and 40 ka. In this study, we tried to employ luminescence thermochronology, which is a still in developing method, to resolve the impact of glacial cycles on exhumation rate. Our study site is located ~10 km to the east of the active Kongur normal fault, along the major valley of Gez river. We sampled three granite rocks from a sub-horizontal tunnel across the granite massif; one was from the entrance of the tunnel, and other two samples were from inside of the tunnel, where the measured ambient temperature is as high as 60-70 ° C. The distances of these samples are within 2 km. Four types of IRSL signals extracted from potassium feldspars (K-feldspars) were measured for each individual sample, and the results of isothermal decay experiments indicated these signals were of different thermal stabilities. Therefore, they may serve as four thermochronometers with different closure temperature. We employ these multiple thermochronometers together for each single sample to constrain their cooling rates. Our preliminary results, which are based on the simplified luminescence model of K-feldspars, suggest that the averaged cooling rate of the last 200 ka is as high as 1.4 oC/ka, which corresponds to an exhumation rate of ~ 2.3 to 0.9 cm/yr with the geothermal gradient assumed to be 60 to 150 oC/km. It seems to imply that the glacial cycles during the Quaternary substantially accelerated the exhumation rate of granite massif of Kongur Shan.

  12. Nucleation behavior of melted Bi films at cooling rates from 101 to 104 K/s studied by combining scanning AC and DC nano-calorimetry techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Kechao; Vlassak, Joost J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We proposed a general data reduction scheme that combines scanning AC and DC calorimetry results for the study of reaction kinetics. • Calorimetry measurements at cooling rates ranging from 30 K/s to 20,000 K/s were achieved. • Upon initial melting, the Bi thin-film sample breaks up into thousands of isolated islands, and highly repeatable nucleation behavior is observed. • The nucleation rate of melted Bi is calculated, which can be well described by classical nucleation theory over a wide range of cooling rates. - Abstract: We study the nucleation behavior of undercooled liquid Bi at cooling rates ranging from 10 1 to 10 4 K/s using a combination of scanning DC and AC nano-calorimetry techniques. Upon initial melting, the Bi thin-film sample breaks up into silicon nitride-coated isolated islands. The number of islands in a typical sample is sufficiently large that highly repeatable nucleation behavior is observed, despite the stochastic nature of the nucleation process. We establish a data reduction technique to evaluate the nucleation rate from DC and AC calorimetry results. The results show that the driving force for the nucleation of melted Bi is well described by classical nucleation theory over a wide range of cooling rates. The proposed technique provides a unique and efficient way to examine nucleation kinetics with cooling rates over several orders of magnitude. The technique is quite general and can be used to evaluate reaction kinetics in other materials

  13. Experimental constraints on heating and cooling rates of refractory inclusions in the early solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boynton, W.V.

    1987-01-01

    The refractory inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites were the subject of considerable interest since their discovery. These inclusions contain minerals that are predicted to be some of the earliest condensates from the solar nebula, and contain a plethora of isotopic anomalies of unknown origin. Of particular interest are those coarse-grained inclusions that contain refractory metal particles (Fe, Ni, Pt, Ru, Os Ir). Experimental studies of these inclusions in terrestrial laboratories are, however, complicated because the dense particles tend to settle out of a molten or partially molten silicate material. Heating experiments in the Space Station technology and microgravity in order to observe the effects of metal nuggets (which may act as heterogeneous nucleation sites) on nucleation rates in silicate systems and to measure simultaneously the relative volatilization rate of siderophile and lithophile species. Neither experiment is possible in the terrestrial environment

  14. Influence of Cooling on the Glycolysis Rate and Development of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayka Reghiany Pedrão

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate pH values fall rate in chicken breast meat under commercial refrigeration processing conditions and the development of PSE (pale, soft, exudative meat. Broiler breast samples from the Cobb breed, both genders, at 47 days of age (n = 100 were taken from refrigerated carcasses (RS immersed in water and ice in a tank chilled at 0°C (±2. pH and temperature (T values were recorded at several periods throughout refrigeration in comparison to samples left at room T as control (CS. The ultimate pH (pHu value of 5.86 for RS carcasses were only reached at 11°C after 8.35 h post mortem (PM while, for CS samples, pHu value was 5.94 at 22°C after 4.08 h PM. Thus, under commercial refrigeration conditions, the glycolysis rate was retarded by over 4.0 h PM and the breast meat color was affected. At 24.02 h PM, PSE meat incidence was 30% while for CS, meat remained dark and PSE meat was not detected. Results show retardation in the glycolysis rate and PSE meat development was promoted by the refrigeration treatment when compared with samples stored at processing room temperature.

  15. THE EFFECT OF HYPOXIA ON THE MAXIMUM MATABOLIC RATE AND SPECIFIC DYNAMIC ACTION IN ATLANTIC COD Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2010-01-01

    John Fleng Steffensen' and Anders Drud Jordan Aquaculture 2010 - San Diego - Physiological Insights Towards Improving Fish Culture. Hypoxia is an increasing problem in coastal near areas and estuaries. Hypoxia can also be a problem in aquaculture systems with a high degree of recirculating water...... reduced the Scope for Activity by 55 % in nonnoxia. In hypoxia the effect was more pronounced with a 69 % reduction of the scope for activity. In conclusion hypoxia prolong the postabsorptive state of fi sh by limiting the peak metabolic rate, causing that less food is assimilated over a certain period...

  16. Effect of cooling rate on the phase transformation behavior and mechanical properties of Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motemani, Y. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Nili-Ahmadabadi, M. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, 14395-731 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tan, M.J. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)], E-mail: mmjtan@ntu.edu.sg; Bornapour, M.; Rayagan, Sh. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, 14395-731 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-02-05

    TiNi alloy is a well-known shape memory alloy and has been widely used for bio-medical, mechanical and electrical applications. In this study, a Ni-rich NiTi alloy was prepared by vacuum arc melting in a water-cooled copper crucible. Three samples of this alloy were heated to 1000 deg. C and cooled in three media: furnace, water, and dry-ice bath. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), hardness measurement and tensile test were carried out to investigate the effect of cooling rate on transformation temperature and mechanical properties. The results show that Ni{sub 3}Ti intermetallic compounds have a great influence on martensitic phase transformation temperature. These tests clearly showed the correlation between cooling rate and properties of the alloy.

  17. Effect of cooling rate on microstructure and deformation behavior of Ti-based metallic glassy/crystalline powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.J. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Huang, Y.J. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Shen, J., E-mail: junshen@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wu, Y.Q.; Huang, H. [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Zou, J., E-mail: j.zou@uq.edu.au [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2010-08-20

    The microstructures and deformation behavior of Ti-based metallic powders were comprehensively investigated. It has been found that, with increasing the powder size, the phase constituent alters from pure glassy to glassy with crystalline phases (face centered cubic structured NiSnZr and hexagonal structured Ti{sub 3}Sn phases). Our results suggest that the synergetic effect of the thermodynamics and kinetics determines the subsequent characteristics of the crystalline precipitations. Through comparative nanoindentation tests, it was found that the small powders exhibit more pop-in events and a larger pile-up ratio, suggesting that the plastic deformation of the metallic powders is governed by the combined effects of the free volume and the crystallization, which are determined by the cooling rate.

  18. Effects of grain size on the corrosion resistance of pure magnesium by cooling rate-controlled solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yichi; Liu, Debao; You, Chen; Chen, Minfang

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of grain size on the corrosion resistance of pure magnesium developed for biomedical applications. High-purity magnesium samples with different grain size were prepared by the cooling rate-controlled solidification. Electrochemical and immersion tests were employed to measure the corrosion resistance of pure magnesium with different grain size. The electrochemical polarization curves indicated that the corrosion susceptibility increased as the grain size decrease. However, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and immersion tests indicated that the corrosion resistance of pure magnesium is improved as the grain size decreases. The improvement in the corrosion resistance is attributed to refine grain can produce more uniform and density film on the surface of sample.

  19. Thermal expansion and cooling rate dependence of transition temperature in ZrTiO4 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Thermal expansion in ZrTiO 4 single crystal was investigated in the temperature range covering the normal, incommensurate, and commensurate phases. Remarkable change was found at the normal-incommensurate phase transition (T I ) in all thermal expansion coefficients a, b, and c. The spontaneous strains χ as and χ bs along the a and b axes show linear temperature dependence, while the spontaneous strain χ cs along the c axis shows a nonlinear temperature dependence. Small discontinuity along the c direction was observed at the incommensurate-commensurate transition temperature, T c = 845 C. dT I /dP and dT c /dP depend on the cooling rate

  20. The effect of cooling rate from the γ-phase on the strain-rate sensitivity of a uranium 2 sup(w)/o molybdenum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, G.A.C.; Harding, J.

    1983-01-01

    Tensile tests have been performed at strain rates from 10 -4 to about 2000/s and temperatures from -150 deg C to +250 deg C on a uranium 2 w/o molybdenum alloy which had been aged for 2 hours at 500 deg C after a fast gas cool from the γ-phase at a controlled rate of 40 deg C/minute. The results are compared with those for standard as-extruded material which had received the same aging treatment. Stress-strain curves are presented and the effect of strain rate and temperature on the flow stress, the ultimate tensile stress and the elongation to fracture is determined. A thorough structural characterisation of the specimen materials, using X-ray analysis and scanning and transmission electron microscopy, allows the different mechanical responses to be related to the corresponding microstructural state of the material. Flow stress data at different temperatures and strain rates are analysed in terms of the theory of thermally-activated flow and estimates made of the various activation parameters. (author)

  1. Influence of hot plastic deformation and cooling rate on martensite and bainite start temperatures in 22MnB5 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikravesh, M., E-mail: nikravesh@yahoo.com [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naderi, M. [Department of Mining and Metallurgy, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akbari, G.H. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-04-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduction of cooling rate, can cause to increase or decrease M{sub s} and M{sub f}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 40% hot plastic deformation hindered the martensitic transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hot plastic deformation, caused to decrease M{sub f} and M{sub s}, while B{sub s} increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The critical cooling rate increased 40 Degree-Sign C/s due to apply 40% hot deformation. - Abstract: During hot stamping process, hot forming, cooling and phase transformations are performed in a single step. As a matter of fact, multifunctional phenomena happen and affect each other. Among these phenomena, martensitic and bainitic transformations have the greatest importance. In the current research, the start temperatures of martensite and bainite of 22MnB5 boron steel have been measured in undeformed and 40% deformed conditions, and in various cooling rates from 0.4 Degree-Sign C/s to 100 Degree-Sign C/s by means of deformation dilatometer. It is concluded that, reduction of cooling rate, could bring about an increase or decrease in M{sub s} and M{sub f}, depending on other phases formation before martensite. Also, hot plastic deformation, hindered the martensitic transformation and decreased M{sub f} and M{sub s} especially at lower cooling rates, while B{sub s} increased. Furthermore, the critical cooling rate, increased about 40 Degree-Sign C/s by applying 40% hot plastic deformation.

  2. Effects of the Cooling Rate After Annealing Treatment on the Microstructure and the Mechanical Properties of Super-Duplex Stainless Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Gi-Hyoun; Park, Yong-Ho; Na, Young-Sang; Yoo, Wee-Do; Lee, Jong-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the cooling rate after heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 2507 duplex stainless steels. Heat treatment was carried out at 1050°C for 1 hr, followed by controlled cooling. The cooling rates were 175.6 × 10 - 3°C/s, 47.8 × 10 - 3°C/s, 33.3 × 10 - 3°C/s, 16.7 × 10 - 3°C/s, 11.7 × 10 - 3°C/s, 5.8 × 10 - 3°C/s and 2.8 × 10 - 3°C/s, which resulted in variations of the microstructure, such as the fractional change of the ferrite phase and sigma phase formation. Fatigue, hardness, impact and tensile tests were performed on the specimens with different cooling rates. The precipitation of the σ phase caused a hardness increase and a sharp decrease of toughness and tensile elongation. The fatigue limit of the sample with a cooling rate of 5.8 × 10 - 3°C/s was 26 MPa higher than that of the sample with a cooling rate of 175.6 × 10 - 3°C/s. Our observations of the fracture surface confirmed that the higher fatigue resistance of the specimen with a cooling rate of 5.8 × 10 - 3°C/s was caused by the delay of the fatigue crack growth, in addition to higher yield strength.

  3. Effects of the Cooling Rate After Annealing Treatment on the Microstructure and the Mechanical Properties of Super-Duplex Stainless Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Gi-Hyoun; Park, Yong-Ho [Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Na, Young-Sang; Yoo, Wee-Do; Lee, Jong-Hoon [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the cooling rate after heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 2507 duplex stainless steels. Heat treatment was carried out at 1050°C for 1 hr, followed by controlled cooling. The cooling rates were 175.6 × 10{sup -}3°C/s, 47.8 × 10{sup -}3°C/s, 33.3 × 10{sup -}3°C/s, 16.7 × 10{sup -}3°C/s, 11.7 × 10{sup -}3°C/s, 5.8 × 10{sup -}3°C/s and 2.8 × 10{sup -}3°C/s, which resulted in variations of the microstructure, such as the fractional change of the ferrite phase and sigma phase formation. Fatigue, hardness, impact and tensile tests were performed on the specimens with different cooling rates. The precipitation of the σ phase caused a hardness increase and a sharp decrease of toughness and tensile elongation. The fatigue limit of the sample with a cooling rate of 5.8 × 10{sup -}3°C/s was 26 MPa higher than that of the sample with a cooling rate of 175.6 × 10{sup -}3°C/s. Our observations of the fracture surface confirmed that the higher fatigue resistance of the specimen with a cooling rate of 5.8 × 10{sup -}3°C/s was caused by the delay of the fatigue crack growth, in addition to higher yield strength.

  4. Implications for Metallographic Cooling Rates, Derived from Fine-Scale Analytical Traverses Across Kamacite, Taenite, and Tetrataenite in the Butler Iron Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. H.; Ross, D. K.; Chabot, N. L.; Keller, L. P.

    2016-01-01

    The "M-shaped" Ni concentrations across Widmanstatten patterns in iron meteorites, mesosiderites, and ordinary chondrites are commonly used to calculate cooling rates. As Ni-poor kamacite exolves from Ni-rich taenite, Ni concentrations build up at the kamacite-taenite interface because of the sluggish diffusivity of Ni. Quantitative knowledge of experimentally-determined Ni diffusivities, coupled with the shape of the M-profile, have been used to allow calculation of cooling rates that pertained at low temperatures, less than or equal to 500 C. However, determining Ni metallographic cooling rates are challenging, due to the sluggish diffusivity of Ni at low temperatures. There are three potential difficulties in using Ni cooling rates at low temperatures: (i) Ni diffusivities are typically extrapolated from higher-temperature measurements; (ii) Phase changes occur at low temperatures that may be difficult to take into account; and (iii) It appears that Ge in kamacite and taenite has continued to equilibrate (or attempted to equilibrate) at temperatures below those that formed the M-shaped Ni profile. Combining Ni measurements with those of other elements has the potential to provide a way to confirm or challenge Ni-determined cooling rates, as well as provide insight into the partitioning behaviors of elements during the cooling of iron meteorites. Despite these benefits, studies that examine elemental profiles of Ni along with other elements in iron meteorites are limited, often due to the low concentration levels of the other elements and associated analytical challenges. The Butler iron meteorite provides a good opportunity to conduct a multi-element analytical study, due to the higher concentration levels of key elements in addition to Fe and Ni. In this work, we perform combined analysis for six elements in the Butler iron to determine the relative behaviors of these elements during the evolution of iron meteorites, with implications for metallographic cooling

  5. High cloud variations with surface temperature from 2002 to 2015: Contributions to atmospheric radiative cooling rate and precipitation changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Run; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Su, Hui; Gu, Yu; Zhao, Bin; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Liu, Shaw Chen

    2017-05-01

    The global mean precipitation is largely constrained by atmospheric radiative cooling rates (Qr), which are sensitive to changes in high cloud fraction. We investigate variations of high cloud fraction with surface temperature (Ts) from July 2002 to June 2015 and compute their radiative effects on Qr using the Fu-Liou-Gu plane-parallel radiation model. We find that the tropical mean (30°S-30°N) high cloud fraction decreases with increasing Ts at a rate of about -1.0 ± 0.34% K-1 from 2002 to 2015, which leads to an enhanced atmospheric cooling around 0.86 W m-2 K-1. On the other hand, the northern midlatitudes (30°N-60°N) high cloud fraction increases with surface warming at a rate of 1.85 ± 0.65% K-1 and the near-global mean (60°S-60°N) high cloud fraction shows a statistically insignificant decreasing trend with increasing Ts over the analysis period. Dividing high clouds into cirrus, cirrostratus, and deep convective clouds, we find that cirrus cloud fraction increases with surface warming at a rate of 0.32 ± 0.11% K-1 (0.01 ± 0.17% K-1) for the near-global mean (tropical mean), while cirrostratus and deep convective clouds decrease with surface warming at a rate of -0.02 ± 0.18% K-1 and -0.33 ± 0.18% K-1 for the near-global mean and -0.64 ± 0.23% K-1 and -0.37 ± 0.13% K-1 for the tropical mean, respectively. High cloud fraction response to feedback to Ts accounts for approximately 1.9 ± 0.7% and 16.0 ± 6.1% of the increase in precipitation per unit surface warming over the period of 2002-2015 for the near-global mean and the tropical mean, respectively.

  6. Should measurement of maximum urinary flow rate and residual urine volume be a part of a "minimal care" assessment programme in female incontinence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Pia; Mouritsen, L; Andersen, J Thorup

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of routine measurements of urinary flow rate and residual urine volume as a part of a "minimal care" assessment programme for women with urinary incontinence in detecting clinical significant bladder emptying problems. MATERIAL AND METHODS....... Twenty-six per cent had a maximum flow rate less than 15 ml/s, but only 4% at a voided volume > or =200 ml. Residual urine more than 149 ml was found in 6%. Two women had chronic retention with overflow incontinence. Both had typical symptoms with continuous leakage, stranguria and chronic cystitis...

  7. Comparison of heat transfer in liquid and slush nitrogen by numerical simulation of cooling rates for French straws used for sperm cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansinena, M; Santos, M V; Zaritzky, N; Chirife, J

    2012-05-01

    Slush nitrogen (SN(2)) is a mixture of solid nitrogen and liquid nitrogen, with an average temperature of -207 °C. To investigate whether plunging a French plastic straw (commonly used for sperm cryopreservation) in SN(2) substantially increases cooling rates with respect to liquid nitrogen (LN(2)), a numerical simulation of the heat conduction equation with convective boundary condition was used to predict cooling rates. Calculations performed using heat transfer coefficients in the range of film boiling confirmed the main benefit of plunging a straw in slush over LN(2) did not arise from their temperature difference (-207 vs. -196 °C), but rather from an increase in the external heat transfer coefficient. Numerical simulations using high heat transfer (h) coefficients (assumed to prevail in SN(2)) suggested that plunging in SN(2) would increase cooling rates of French straw. This increase of cooling rates was attributed to a less or null film boiling responsible for low heat transfer coefficients in liquid nitrogen when the straw is placed in the solid-liquid mixture or slush. In addition, predicted cooling rates of French straws in SN(2) tended to level-off for high h values, suggesting heat transfer was dictated by heat conduction within the liquid filled plastic straw. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Formal comment on: Myhrvold (2016) Dinosaur metabolism and the allometry of maximum growth rate. PLoS ONE; 11(11): e0163205.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebeler, Eva Maria; Werner, Jan

    2018-01-01

    In his 2016 paper, Myhrvold criticized ours from 2014 on maximum growth rates (Gmax, maximum gain in body mass observed within a time unit throughout an individual's ontogeny) and thermoregulation strategies (ectothermy, endothermy) of 17 dinosaurs. In our paper, we showed that Gmax values of similar-sized extant ectothermic and endothermic vertebrates overlap. This strongly questions a correct assignment of a thermoregulation strategy to a dinosaur only based on its Gmax and (adult) body mass (M). Contrary, Gmax separated similar-sized extant reptiles and birds (Sauropsida) and Gmax values of our studied dinosaurs were similar to those seen in extant similar-sized (if necessary scaled-up) fast growing ectothermic reptiles. Myhrvold examined two hypotheses (H1 and H2) regarding our study. However, we did neither infer dinosaurian thermoregulation strategies from group-wide averages (H1) nor were our results based on that Gmax and metabolic rate (MR) are related (H2). In order to assess whether single dinosaurian Gmax values fit to those of extant endotherms (birds) or of ectotherms (reptiles), we already used a method suggested by Myhrvold to avoid H1, and we only discussed pros and cons of a relation between Gmax and MR and did not apply it (H2). We appreciate Myhrvold's efforts in eliminating the correlation between Gmax and M in order to statistically improve vertebrate scaling regressions on maximum gain in body mass. However, we show here that his mass-specific maximum growth rate (kC) replacing Gmax (= MkC) does not model the expected higher mass gain in larger than in smaller species for any set of species. We also comment on, why we considered extant reptiles and birds as reference models for extinct dinosaurs and why we used phylogenetically-informed regression analysis throughout our study. Finally, we question several arguments given in Myhrvold in order to support his results.

  9. Multi-rate Poisson tree processes for single-locus species delimitation under maximum likelihood and Markov chain Monte Carlo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapli, P; Lutteropp, S; Zhang, J; Kobert, K; Pavlidis, P; Stamatakis, A; Flouri, T

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, molecular species delimitation has become a routine approach for quantifying and classifying biodiversity. Barcoding methods are of particular importance in large-scale surveys as they promote fast species discovery and biodiversity estimates. Among those, distance-based methods are the most common choice as they scale well with large datasets; however, they are sensitive to similarity threshold parameters and they ignore evolutionary relationships. The recently introduced "Poisson Tree Processes" (PTP) method is a phylogeny-aware approach that does not rely on such thresholds. Yet, two weaknesses of PTP impact its accuracy and practicality when applied to large datasets; it does not account for divergent intraspecific variation and is slow for a large number of sequences. We introduce the multi-rate PTP (mPTP), an improved method that alleviates the theoretical and technical shortcomings of PTP. It incorporates different levels of intraspecific genetic diversity deriving from differences in either the evolutionary history or sampling of each species. Results on empirical data suggest that mPTP is superior to PTP and popular distance-based methods as it, consistently yields more accurate delimitations with respect to the taxonomy (i.e., identifies more taxonomic species, infers species numbers closer to the taxonomy). Moreover, mPTP does not require any similarity threshold as input. The novel dynamic programming algorithm attains a speedup of at least five orders of magnitude compared to PTP, allowing it to delimit species in large (meta-) barcoding data. In addition, Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling provides a comprehensive evaluation of the inferred delimitation in just a few seconds for millions of steps, independently of tree size. mPTP is implemented in C and is available for download at http://github.com/Pas-Kapli/mptp under the GNU Affero 3 license. A web-service is available at http://mptp.h-its.org . : paschalia.kapli@h-its.org or

  10. High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Critical Experiment and its Application to Thorium Absorption Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardes, R.G.; Brown, J.R.; Drake, M.K.; Fischer, P.U.; Pound, D.C.; Sampson, J.B.; Stewart, H.B.

    1964-01-01

    In developing the concept of the HTGR and its first prototype at Peach Bottom, General Atomic made the decision that a critical experiment was required to provide adequately certain necessary input data for the nuclear analysis. The specific needs of the nuclear design theory for input data relating to thorium absorptions led to an experimental design consisting of a central lattice-type critical assembly with surrounding buffer and driver regions. This type of assembly, in which the spectrum of interest can be established in the relatively small central lattice having a desired geometry, provides a useful tool for obtaining a variety of input data for nuclear analysis surveys of new concepts. The particular advantages of this approach over that of constructing a mock-up assembly will be discussed, as well as the role of the theory in determining what experiments are most useful and how these experiments are then used in verifying design techniques. Two relatively new techniques were developed for use in the lattice assembly. These were a reactivity oscillation technique for determining the thorium Doppler coefficient, and an activation technique for determining both the resonance integral of thorium dispersed in graphite and its temperature dependence (activation Doppler coefficient). The Doppler coefficient measurement by reactivity oscillation utilized the entire central fuel element in a technique which permitted heating this fuel element to 800°F and accurately subtracting experimentally the thermal-base effects, that is, those effects not contributing to the thorium resonance capture. Comparison of results with theory for a range of conditions shows excellent agreement. The measurement of the thorium resonance integral and its temperature dependence will be described. The technique developed for measuring resonance capture makes use of gold as the standard and vanadium as die material giving the 1/v absorption rate. This technique is dictated by the fact

  11. Background and anthropogenic radionuclide derived dose rates to freshwater ecosystem - Nuclear power plant cooling pond - Reference organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedveckaite, T.; Filistovic, V.; Marciulioniene, D.; Prokoptchuk, N.; Plukiene, R.; Gudelis, A.; Remeikis, V.; Yankovich, T.; Beresford, N.-A.

    2011-01-01

    The radiological assessment of non-human biota to demonstrate protection is now accepted by a number of international and national bodies. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a scientific basis to assess and evaluate exposure of biota to ionizing radiation. Radionuclides from the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (Lithuania) were discharged into Lake Druksiai cooling pond. Additional radionuclide migration and recharge to this lake from a hypothetical near-surface, low-level radioactive waste disposal, to be situated 1.5 km from the lake, had been simulated using RESRAD-OFFSITE code. This paper uses ERICA Integrated Approach with associated tools and databases to compare the radiological dose to freshwater reference organisms. Based on these data, it can be concluded that background dose rates to non-human biota in Lake Druksiai far exceed those attributable to anthropogenic radionuclides. With respect the fishery and corresponding annual committed effective human dose as a result of this fish consumption Lake Druksiai continues to be a high-productivity water body with intensive angling and possible commercial fishing. - Highlights: → Dose rates to the reference organisms are lower than expected from the background radioactivity. → Pelagic fish part of adult human annual committed effective dose would be as small as a few μSv y -1 . → With respect the fishery Lake Druksiai continues to be a high-productivity water body.

  12. Analysis of transient and hysteresis behavior of cross-flow heat exchangers under variable fluid mass flow rate for data center cooling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Tianyi; Murray, Bruce; Sammakia, Bahgat

    2015-01-01

    Effective thermal management of data centers is an important aspect of reducing the energy required for the reliable operation of data processing and communications equipment. Liquid and hybrid (air/liquid) cooling approaches are becoming more widely used in today's large and complex data center facilities. Examples of these approaches include rear door heat exchangers, in-row and overhead coolers and direct liquid cooled servers. Heat exchangers are primary components of liquid and hybrid cooling systems, and the effectiveness of a heat exchanger strongly influences the thermal performance of a cooling system. Characterizing and modeling the dynamic behavior of heat exchangers is important for the design of cooling systems, especially for control strategies to improve energy efficiency. In this study, a dynamic thermal model is solved numerically in order to predict the transient response of an unmixed–unmixed crossflow heat exchanger, of the type that is widely used in data center cooling equipment. The transient response to step and ramp changes in the mass flow rate of both the hot and cold fluid is investigated. Five model parameters are varied over specific ranges to characterize the transient performance. The parameter range investigated is based on available heat exchanger data. The thermal response to the magnitude, time period and initial and final conditions of the transient input functions is studied in detail. Also, the hysteresis associated with the fluid mass flow rate variation is investigated. The modeling results and performance data are used to analyze specific dynamic performance of heat exchangers used in practical data center cooling applications. - Highlights: • The transient performance of a crossflow heat exchanger was modeled and studied. • This study provides design information for data center thermal management. • The time constant metric was used to study the impacts of many variable inputs. • The hysteresis behavior

  13. Effect of HIP temperature and cooling rate on microstructure and hardness of joints for ODS-RAFM steels and JLF-1 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Haiying; Nagasaka, Takuya; Muroga, Takeo; Kimura, Akihiko; Ukai, Shigeharu

    2016-01-01

    Dissimilar-metal joints between ODS-RAFM (oxide-dispersion-strengthened reduced activation ferritic/martensitic) steels and JLF-1 steel were fabricated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 1000 - 1100degC with a cooling rate of 5degC/min. After the HIP, it was always quenched martensite for JLF-1 steel. However, coarse precipitates were found in 9Cr-ODS. Additional annealing experiments to simulate HIP conditions were conducted for 9Cr-ODS with cooling rate ranged from 0.5 to 36degC/min at 800 - 1100degC. The results showed that, to form quenched martensite for 9Cr-ODS, the HIP temperature should be above 1000degC with cooling rate no less than 25dgeC/min. When the cooling rate is increased to 36degC/min, the microstructure of 9Cr-ODS is quenched martensite with precipitate size similar as that before HIP. If the limitation of precipitate size in 9Cr-ODS is 0.2 µm, HIP temperature above 1050degC with cooling rate no less than 30degC/min is needed. In this case, post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) with only tempering is necessary to recover the microstructure of 9Cr-ODS to tempered martensite. For 12Cr-ODS, the HIP temperature and cooling rate has no effect on hardness and precipitate size. PWHT is not necessary for the single-metal joint of 12Cr-ODS from the view point of precipitation control. However, for the dissimilar-metal joints between ODS-RAFM steels and JLF-1 steel, the PWHT condition should be comprehensively determined by considering microstructural evolution of each part in the joints after HIP. (author)

  14. STEADY-STATE HEAT REJECTION RATES FOR A COAXIAL BOREHOLE HEAT EXCHANGER DURING PASSIVE AND ACTIVE COOLING DETERMINED WITH THE NOVEL STEP THERMAL RESPONSE TEST METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Macenić

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available At three locations in Zagreb, classical and extended thermal response test (TRT was conducted on installed coaxial heat exchangers. With classic TR test, thermogeological properties of the ground and thermal resistance of the borehole were determined at each location. It is seen that thermal conductivity of the ground varies, due to difference in geological profile of the sites. In addition, experimental research of steady-state thermal response step test (SSTRST was carried out to determine heat rejection rates for passive and active cooling in steady state regime. Results showed that heat rejection rate is only between 8-11 W/m, which indicates that coaxial system is not suitable for passive cooling demands. Furthermore, the heat pump in passive cooling mode uses additional plate heat exchanger where there is additional temperature drop of working fluid by approximately 1,5 °C. Therefore, steady-state rejection rate for passive cooling is even lower for a real case project. Coaxial heat exchanger should be always designed for an active cooling regime with an operation of a heat pump compressor in a classical vapour compression refrigeration cycle.

  15. Investigation of the effects of cooling rate on the microstructure of investment cast biomedical grade Co alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, R; Browne, D J; Williamson, K

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the microstructural characteristics of investment cast cobalt alloy as the cross-sectional area is varied, thus changing the local effective cooling rates and solidification times. The extent of published work on the as-cast properties of cobalt alloys is minimal. The primary aim of this work is therefore to extend knowledge of the behaviour of such alloys as they solidify, which will influence the design of new products as well as the industrial optimisation of the casting process. Wedge-shaped parts were cast from a biomedical grade cobalt alloy employing the method of lost wax investment casting. Analytical techniques such as optical microscopy, image analysis and microhardness testing were used to characterise the as-cast parts. Parameters studied include variations in grain structure, nature of the columnar and equiaxed zones and the spread of porosity (both shrinkage and gas). Changes in microstructure were compared to microhardness values obtained. The solidification profile of the alloy through the prototype cast component was investigated based on measurement of the dendrite arm spacings. A discussion on the physical phenomena controlling the microstructural variations is presented.

  16. Effect of Cooling Rate on the Microstructure of Al-Zn Alloys with Addition of Silicon as Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. García-Villarreal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Al-43.5Zn-1.5Si (wt% alloys are widely used as coatings on steel substrates. This kind of coatings is manufactured by hot-dip process, in which Si is added as solid particles or master alloy. The role of Si during formation of the coating is to control the metallurgical reactions between solid steel and liquid Al-Zn-Si alloy initially forming an AlZnFeSi intermetallic layer and next the excess of Si forms intermetallic compounds, which grows over this alloy layer, segregates into the Zn rich interdendritic regions, and solidifies as eutectic reaction product as massive particles with needle like morphology. Therefore, during the experimental procedure is very difficult to control the final morphology and distribution of the silicon phase. The acicular morphology of this phase greatly affects the mechanical properties of the alloy because it acts as stress concentrators. When the coated steel sheet is subjected to bending, the coating presents huge cracks due to the presence of silicon phase. Therefore, the aim of the paper was to propose a new methodology to control the silicon phase through its addition to Al-Zn alloy as nanocomposite and additionally determine the effect of cooling rate (between 10 and 50°Cs−1 on the solidification microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Zn alloy.

  17. The influences of anneal temperature and cooling rate on microstructure and tensile properties of laser deposited Ti–4Al–1.5Mn titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, X.J.; Zhang, S.Q.; Wang, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the heat treatment parameters of laser deposited near-α titanium alloy. • Microstructure/tensile property relationships are demonstrated and discussed. • Higher cooling rate leads to finer microstructure and higher strength. • Higher anneal temperature promotes strength without ductility obviously decreased. - Abstract: As a metal near-net-shape manufacturing technology, direct laser fabrication has a great potential to reduce costs and delivery time and received an intense attention in the field of titanium alloy aerospace components fabrications. However, the laser deposited titanium alloys usually have equivalent strength and lower ductility compared to the wrought counterparts due to their lamellar microstructure. To investigate the responses of laser deposit titanium alloy Ti–4Al–1.5Mn to anneal parameters, various anneal temperatures and cooling rates were applied in this study. Microstructures were examined by Optical Microscope (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Microhardness test and room temperature tensile tests were employed to evaluate the tensile properties of the as-deposited and annealed specimens. Results show that air cooling from the α + β phase region generates a microstructure composed of coarse primary α plates and fine lamellar transformed β, while water quenching produces similar but much finer microstructure. Moreover, higher cooling rate generates more area fraction of fine transformed β. With increasing anneal temperature, the ultimate tensile strength and yield strength increase for both cooling methods. Moreover, higher cooling rate leads to higher strength as expected. It is worth noting that both the strength and ductility of the laser deposited alloy improved by water quenched from the α + β duplex phase region. The improved tensile properties were mainly owing to the fine lamellar transformed β in the special bimodal microstructure

  18. Energy and water management in evaporative cooling systems in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, Abdel-wahab S. (Agricultural and Veterinary Training and Research Station, King Faisal University, Al-Hassa (Saudi Arabia))

    1994-11-01

    A mathematical model was developed to estimate water evaporation rate, airflow rate and cooling effect in an evaporative cooling system for farm structures. The model was only applied to evaporative cooling systems for greenhouses. The effect of ambient air temperature, solar radiation and system efficiency on water evaporation rate, airflow rate and the resulting cooling effect were studied. Generally, water flow rate and air flow rate are adjusted based on daily maximum temperature. However, a substantial saving in energy and water consumption in the cooling system would be achieved by regulating water flow rate and air flow rate to follow the diurnal variation on temperature. Improving the cooling efficiency and covering the roof of the greenhouse with an external shading would save an appreciable amount of energy and water consumption. The model could also be applied to other farm structures such as animal shelters

  19. Critical heat flux analysis on change of plate temperature and cooling water flow rate for rectangular narrow gap with bilateral-heated cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M Hadi Kusuma; Mulya Juarsa; Anhar Riza Antariksawan

    2013-01-01

    Boiling heat transfer phenomena on rectangular narrow gap was related to the safety of nuclear reactors. Research done in order to study the safety of nuclear reactors in particular relating to boiling heat transfer and useful on the improvement of next-generation reactor designs. The research focused on calculation of the heat flux during the cooling process in rectangular narrow gap size 1.0 mm. with initial temperatures 200°C. 400°C, and 600°C, also the flow rates of cooling water 0,1 liters/second. 0,2 liters/second. and 0,3 liters/second. Experiments carried out by injecting water at a certain flow rate with the water temperature 85°C. Transient temperature measurement data recorded by the data acquisition system. Transient temperature measurement data is used to calculate the flux of heat gain is then used to obtain the heat transfer coefficient. This research aimed to obtain the correlation between critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficient to changes in temperatures and water flow rates for bilaterally-heated cases on rectangular narrow gap. The results obtained for a constant cooling water flow rate, critical heat flux will increase when hot plate temperature also increased. While on a constant hot plate temperature, coefficient heat transfer will increase when cooling water flow rate also increased. Thus it can be said that the cooling water flow rate and temperature of the hot plate has a significant effect on the critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficient resulted in quenching process of vertical rectangular narrow gap with double-heated cases. (author)

  20. Liquid-liquid phase separation and solidification behavior of Al55Bi36Cu9 monotectic alloy with different cooling rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Lin; Li, Shanshan; Wang, Lin; Wu, Di; Zuo, Min; Zhao, Degang

    2018-03-01

    The cooling rate has a significant effect on the solidification behavior and microstructure of monotectic alloy. In this study, different cooling rate was designed through casting in the copper mold with different bore diameters. The effects of different cooling rate on the solidification behavior of Al55Bi36Cu9 (at.%) immiscible alloy have been investigated. The liquid-liquid phase separation of Al55Bi36Cu9 immiscible alloy melt was investigated by resistivity test. The solidification microstructure and phase analysis of Al55Bi36Cu9 immiscible alloy were performed by the SEM and XRD, respectively. The results showed that the liquid-liquid phase separation occurred in the solidification of Al55Bi36Cu9 monotectic melt from 917 °C to 653 °C. The monotectic temperature, liquid phase separation temperature and immiscibility zone of Al55Bi36Cu9 monotectic alloy was lower than those of Al-Bi binary monotectic alloy. The solidification morphology of Al55Bi36Cu9 monotectic alloy was very sensitive to the cooling rate. The Al/Bi core-shell structure formed when Al55Bi36Cu9 melt was cast in the copper mold with a 8 mm bore diameter.

  1. Influence of cooling rate on growth of Bacillus cereus from spore inocula in cooked rice, beans, pasta, and combination products containing meat or poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to assess the ability of B. cereus spores to germinate and grow in order to determine a safe cooling rate for cooked rice, beans, and pasta, rice/chicken (4:1), rice/chicken/vegetables (3:1:1), rice/beef (4:1), and rice/beef/vegetables (3:1:1). Samples were inoculate...

  2. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of a novel FeCrNiBSi advanced high-strength steel: Slow, accelerated and fast casting cooling rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askari-Paykani, Mohsen; Shahverdi, Hamid Reza, E-mail: shahverdi@modares.ac.ir; Miresmaeili, Reza

    2016-06-21

    In the current work, three different solidification routes and a two-step heat treatment process were applied to a novel FeCrNiBSi alloy system to introduce a new candidate for advanced high-strength steels. The evolution of the microstructure after solidification, heat treatment, and tensile deformation was characterized using optical and electron microscopy techniques, as well as hardness and room temperature uniaxial tensile tests. The effects of the different solidification routes and heat treatment parameters on the deformation and fracture mechanisms of this steel are discussed. Grain refinement, precipitation hardening, and solid solution as a result of the fast casting cooling rate led to an increase in strength at improved ductility. This result can be explained partly by the less severe stress/strain partitioning at the matrix grain/M{sub 2}B interfaces and better interface cohesion. Moreover, the stress/strain partitioning characteristics between the matrix grains and M{sub 2}B led to a higher initial strain hardening rate. The fast casting cooling rate further promoted ductile fracture mechanisms, which is a result of increased cleavage fracture stress. The higher casting cooling rate and two-step heat treatment resulted in a strong increase in formability index, from 8 GPa% to 24 GPa%, at which the mechanical properties occupy the TRIP envelope. Heat treatment of the fast-cooling specimens led to a small reduction in yield and tensile strength and 22% total elongation percentage improvement (from 10% to 32%).

  3. Effects of different casting mould cooling rates on microstructure and properties of sand-cast Al-7.5Si-4Cu alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Guanglei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Al-7.5Si-4Cu alloy melt modified by Al-10Sr, RE and Al-5Ti-B master alloys was poured into multi-step moulds made from three moulding sands, including quartz, alumina and chromite, to investigate comparatively the effects of different cooling rates of the casting mould on the alloy's microstructures and mechanical properties. The results show that with an increase in wall thickness, the cooling rate decreases, the dendrite arm spacing (DAS increases significantly and the mechanical properties decrease steadily. The elongation is more sensitive to the cooling rate than the tensile strength. No obvious trend of the effect of wall thickness on hardness of the alloy was found. When the cooling rate is at its greatest, the microstructures and mechanical properties are the best when using chromite sand. The improvement of the properties is mainly attributed to the decrease of the DAS, the grain refinement and the metamorphic effect. Each of the three has a strong impact on the microstructures. Furthermore, a series of fitting models was established based on the data of the DAS to predict the mechanical properties of the multivariate sand-cast Al-7.5Si-4Cu alloy.

  4. A simulation study of Linsley's approach to infer elongation rate and fluctuations of the EAS maximum depth from muon arrival time distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badea, A.F.; Brancus, I.M.; Rebel, H.; Haungs, A.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Zazyan, M.

    1999-01-01

    The average depth of the maximum X m of the EAS (Extensive Air Shower) development depends on the energy E 0 and the mass of the primary particle, and its dependence from the energy is traditionally expressed by the so-called elongation rate D e defined as change in the average depth of the maximum per decade of E 0 i.e. D e = dX m /dlog 10 E 0 . Invoking the superposition model approximation i.e. assuming that a heavy primary (A) has the same shower elongation rate like a proton, but scaled with energies E 0 /A, one can write X m = X init + D e log 10 (E 0 /A). In 1977 an indirect approach studying D e has been suggested by Linsley. This approach can be applied to shower parameters which do not depend explicitly on the energy of the primary particle, but do depend on the depth of observation X and on the depth X m of shower maximum. The distribution of the EAS muon arrival times, measured at a certain observation level relatively to the arrival time of the shower core reflect the pathlength distribution of the muon travel from locus of production (near the axis) to the observation locus. The basic a priori assumption is that we can associate the mean value or median T of the time distribution to the height of the EAS maximum X m , and that we can express T = f(X,X m ). In order to derive from the energy variation of the arrival time quantities information about elongation rate, some knowledge is required about F i.e. F = - ∂ T/∂X m ) X /∂(T/∂X) X m , in addition to the variations with the depth of observation and the zenith-angle (θ) dependence, respectively. Thus ∂T/∂log 10 E 0 | X = - F·D e ·1/X v ·∂T/∂secθ| E 0 . In a similar way the fluctuations σ(X m ) of X m may be related to the fluctuations σ(T) of T i.e. σ(T) = - σ(X m )· F σ ·1/X v ·∂T/∂secθ| E 0 , with F σ being the corresponding scaling factor for the fluctuation of F. By simulations of the EAS development using the Monte Carlo code CORSIKA the energy and angle

  5. Influence of the cooling rate on the main factors affecting current-carrying ability in pure and SiC-doped MgB2 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakova, O V; Pan, A V; Soltanian, S; Dou, S X; Wexler, D

    2007-01-01

    We have systematically studied and compared the effect of cooling rate on microstructure, critical current density, upper critical field and irreversibility field in pure and 10 wt% SiC-added MgB 2 superconductors. The sintering process was carried out on the samples at a temperature of 750 deg. C for 1 h followed by quenching or cooling to room temperature in 0.3 h (2433 deg. C h -1 ), 14 h (52 deg. C h -1 ) and 25 h (30 deg. C h -1 ). Changes in the microstructure due to variations in cooling rate have been studied with the help of scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Correlations between microstructure and superconducting properties have been observed, identified and explained for both pure and SiC-added MgB 2 samples. Modifications to the pinning environment and grain boundary transparency are considered to be responsible for variations in the current-carrying ability. The dominant pinning on grain boundaries in the pure MgB 2 samples and on nano-inclusions (inducing accompanying defects) in the SiC-doped samples is clearly distinguished. On the basis of our experimental results, we have concluded that the cooling rate can be an important parameter influencing the superconducting properties of MgB 2 samples

  6. Influence of cooling rate on the development of multiple generations of {gamma}' precipitates in a commercial nickel base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.R.P. [Center for Advanced Research and Technology and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Nag, S., E-mail: nag.soumya@gmail.com [Center for Advanced Research and Technology and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Hwang, J.Y. [Center for Advanced Research and Technology and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Viswanathan, G.B.; Tiley, J. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Dayton, OH (United States); Srinivasan, R. [ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, NJ (United States); Fraser, H.L. [Center for the Accelerated Maturation of Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Banerjee, R. [Center for Advanced Research and Technology and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States)

    2011-09-15

    The compositional and microstructural evolution of different generations of {gamma}' precipitates during the continuous cooling of a commercial nickel base superalloy, Rene88DT, has been characterized by three dimensional atom probe tomography coupled with energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy studies. After solutionizing in the single {gamma} phase field, continuous cooling at a very high rate results in a monomodal size distribution of {gamma}' precipitates with a high nucleation density and non-equilibrium compositions. In contrast, a relatively slower cooling rate ({approx} 24 deg. C/min) results in a multi-modal size distribution of {gamma}' precipitates with the larger first generation primary precipitates exhibiting close to equilibrium composition, along with the smaller scale secondary {gamma}' precipitates, exhibiting non-equilibrium composition (excess of Co and Cr, depleted in Al and Ti). The composition of the {gamma} matrix near these precipitates also exhibits similar trends with the composition being closer to equilibrium near the primary precipitates as compared to the secondary precipitates. - Highlights: {yields} Effect of cooling rate on the precipitation of {gamma}' particles in commercial nickel base superalloy. {yields} Couples EFTEM and 3DAP studies to determine the composition and morphology of {gamma}' precipitates. {yields} Determination of near and far field compositional variations within the gamma matrix leading to subsequent precipitation.

  7. Measuring maximum and standard metabolic rates using intermittent-flow respirometry: a student laboratory investigation of aerobic metabolic scope and environmental hypoxia in aquatic breathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosewarne, P J; Wilson, J M; Svendsen, J C

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic rate is one of the most widely measured physiological traits in animals and may be influenced by both endogenous (e.g. body mass) and exogenous factors (e.g. oxygen availability and temperature). Standard metabolic rate (SMR) and maximum metabolic rate (MMR) are two fundamental physiological variables providing the floor and ceiling in aerobic energy metabolism. The total amount of energy available between these two variables constitutes the aerobic metabolic scope (AMS). A laboratory exercise aimed at an undergraduate level physiology class, which details the appropriate data acquisition methods and calculations to measure oxygen consumption rates in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, is presented here. Specifically, the teaching exercise employs intermittent flow respirometry to measure SMR and MMR, derives AMS from the measurements and demonstrates how AMS is affected by environmental oxygen. Students' results typically reveal a decline in AMS in response to environmental hypoxia. The same techniques can be applied to investigate the influence of other key factors on metabolic rate (e.g. temperature and body mass). Discussion of the results develops students' understanding of the mechanisms underlying these fundamental physiological traits and the influence of exogenous factors. More generally, the teaching exercise outlines essential laboratory concepts in addition to metabolic rate calculations, data acquisition and unit conversions that enhance competency in quantitative analysis and reasoning. Finally, the described procedures are generally applicable to other fish species or aquatic breathers such as crustaceans (e.g. crayfish) and provide an alternative to using higher (or more derived) animals to investigate questions related to metabolic physiology. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Modeling the effects of cooling rate, hydrogen content, grain refiner and modifier on microporosity formation in Al A356 alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conley, J.G.; Huang, J.; Asada, J.; Akiba, K. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2000-06-15

    Cast Aluminum-Silicon alloys are used in numerous automotive and industrial weight sensitive applications because of their low density and excellent castability. The presence of trapped gas and or shrinkage pores in certain locations within castings has been shown to influence fatigue life. These micromechanical defects can be found most anywhere in a casting depending on processing conditions. A large amount of porosity located in the center of the cast material thickness may have no effect on mechanical properties or fatigue performance. A smaller, isolated pore near a surface may have a significant impact on mechanical properties. Hence, it is important to develop a comprehensive model to predict the size, location and distribution of microporosity in castings. In this work, we model the effect of various casting process parameters on microporosity formation for aluminum A356 alloy castings. The process parameters include cooling rate, hydrogen content, grain refiner and modifier. The proposed two-dimensional model predicts the size, morphology and distribution of microporosity at a given location in the casting. The method couples a mathematical model of porosity evolution with a probabilistic grain structure prediction model. The porosity evolution model is based on the simultaneous solution of the continuity and momentum equations for the metal and the mass conservation equation for the dissolved gas. The nucleation and growth of grains are simulated with a probabilistic method that uses the information from a heat transfer simulation, i.e. temperature and solid fraction, to determine the transition rules for grain evolution. The simulation results correlate well with experimental observation of porosity in cast structures. (orig.)

  9. A simplified model of a mechanical cooling tower with both a fill pack and a coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Riet, Freek; Steenackers, Gunther; Verhaert, Ivan

    2017-11-01

    Cooling accounts for a large amount of the global primary energy consumption in buildings and industrial processes. A substantial part of this cooling demand is produced by mechanical cooling towers. Simulations benefit the sizing and integration of cooling towers in overall cooling networks. However, for these simulations fast-to-calculate and easy-to-parametrize models are required. In this paper, a new model is developed for a mechanical draught cooling tower with both a cooling coil and a fill pack. The model needs manufacturers' performance data at only three operational states (at varying air and water flow rates) to be parametrized. The model predicts the cooled, outgoing water temperature. These predictions were compared with experimental data for a wide range of operational states. The model was able to predict the temperature with a maximum absolute error of 0.59°C. The relative error of cooling capacity was mostly between ±5%.

  10. Cooling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    After an introduction to the general concepts of cooling of charged particle beams, some specific cooling methods are discussed, namely stochastic, electron and laser cooling. The treatment concentrates on the physical ideas of the cooling methods and only very crude derivations of cooling times are given. At the end three other proposed cooling schemes are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  11. Effects of Cooling Rate on Precipitate Evolution and Residual Stresses in Al-Si-Mn-Mg Casting Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunkyung; Walde, Caitlin; Mishra, Brajendra

    2018-03-01

    The residual stresses with different heat treatment conditions have been measured and correlated with the microstructural behavior of AA365. 30 and 100 K/min cooling of AA365 inhibited the transformation of precipitates under 773 K, respectively. The alloy cooled at 30 and 100 K/min exhibited tensile residual stresses of 6.2 and 5.4 MPa, respectively, while the alloy cooled at 1 and 10 K/min showed compressive stresses of - 12.8 and - 10.3 MPa, respectively. The formation β', β″, and other intermetallic compounds affected the compressive residual stresses, and that the fracture of the brittle intermetallic phases could reduce the extent of residual stresses in the lattice through plastic deformation.

  12. n-Order and maximum fuzzy similarity entropy for discrimination of signals of different complexity: Application to fetal heart rate signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaylaa, Amira; Oudjemia, Souad; Charara, Jamal; Girault, Jean-Marc

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents two new concepts for discrimination of signals of different complexity. The first focused initially on solving the problem of setting entropy descriptors by varying the pattern size instead of the tolerance. This led to the search for the optimal pattern size that maximized the similarity entropy. The second paradigm was based on the n-order similarity entropy that encompasses the 1-order similarity entropy. To improve the statistical stability, n-order fuzzy similarity entropy was proposed. Fractional Brownian motion was simulated to validate the different methods proposed, and fetal heart rate signals were used to discriminate normal from abnormal fetuses. In all cases, it was found that it was possible to discriminate time series of different complexity such as fractional Brownian motion and fetal heart rate signals. The best levels of performance in terms of sensitivity (90%) and specificity (90%) were obtained with the n-order fuzzy similarity entropy. However, it was shown that the optimal pattern size and the maximum similarity measurement were related to intrinsic features of the time series. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Petroleum production at Maximum Efficient Rate Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California. Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This document provides an analysis of the potential impacts associated with the proposed action, which is continued operation of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. I (NPR-1) at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER) as authorized by Public law 94-258, the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976 (Act). The document also provides a similar analysis of alternatives to the proposed action, which also involve continued operations, but under lower development scenarios and lower rates of production. NPR-1 is a large oil and gas field jointly owned and operated by the federal government and Chevron U.SA Inc. (CUSA) pursuant to a Unit Plan Contract that became effective in 1944; the government`s interest is approximately 78% and CUSA`s interest is approximately 22%. The government`s interest is under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The facility is approximately 17,409 acres (74 square miles), and it is located in Kern County, California, about 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield and 100 miles north of Los Angeles in the south central portion of the state. The environmental analysis presented herein is a supplement to the NPR-1 Final Environmental Impact Statement of that was issued by DOE in 1979 (1979 EIS). As such, this document is a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS).

  14. Palm-based diacylglycerol fat dry fractionation: effect of crystallisation temperature, cooling rate and agitation speed on physical and chemical properties of fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razam Ab Latip

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fractionation which separates the olein (liquid and stearin (solid fractions of oil is used to modify the physicochemical properties of fats in order to extend its applications. Studies showed that the properties of fractionated end products can be affected by fractionation processing conditions. In the present study, dry fractionation of palm-based diacylglycerol (PDAG was performed at different: cooling rates (0.05, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0°C/min, end-crystallisation temperatures (30, 35, 40, 45 and 50°C and agitation speeds (30, 50, 70, 90 and 110 rpm to determine the effect of these parameters on the properties and yield of the solid and liquid portions. To determine the physicochemical properties of olein and stearin fraction: Iodine value (IV, fatty acid composition (FAC, acylglycerol composition, slip melting point (SMP, solid fat content (SFC, thermal behaviour tests were carried out. Fractionation of PDAG fat changes the chemical composition of liquid and solid fractions. In terms of FAC, the major fatty acid in olein and stearin fractions were oleic (C18:1 and palmitic (C16:0 respectively. Acylglycerol composition showed that olein and stearin fractions is concentrated with TAG and DAG respectively. Crystallization temperature, cooling rate and agitation speed does not affect the IV, SFC, melting and cooling properties of the stearin fraction. The stearin fraction was only affected by cooling rate which changes its SMP. On the other hand, olein fraction was affected by crystallization temperature and cooling rate but not agitation speed which caused changes in IV, SMP, SFC, melting and crystallization behavior. Increase in both the crystallization temperature and cooling rate caused a reduction of IV, increment of the SFC, SMP, melting and crystallization behaviour of olein fraction and vice versa. The fractionated stearin part melted above 65°C while the olein melted at 40°C. SMP in olein fraction also reduced to a range of

  15. Evidence of refilled chamber gas pressure enhancing cooling rate during melt spinning of a Zr50Cu40Al10 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-wang Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the refilled gas pressure on the glass forming behaviour of one of the best ternary glass forming alloys Zr50Cu40Al10 was studied for the melt spinning process. The amorphicity of as-quenched ribbons was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The refilled chamber atmospheric pressure is crucial to the cooling rate of melt spinning. At high vacuum, at pressure less than 0.0001 atm, fully crystalline fragments are obtained. Monolithic amorphous ribbons were only obtained at a gas pressure of 0.1 atm or higher. The extended contact length between thecribbons and the copper wheel contributes to the high cooling rate of melt spinning. Higher chamber gas pressure leads to more turbulence of liquid metal beneath the nozzle; therefore, lower pressure is preferable at practical melt spinning processes once glass forming conditions are fulfilled.

  16. Impact toughness and microstructure relationship in niobium- and vanadium-microalloyed steels processed with varied cooling rates to similar yield strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugam, S. [Center for Structural and Functional Materials and Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, LA 70504-4130 (United States); Misra, R.D.K. [Center for Structural and Functional Materials and Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, LA 70504-4130 (United States)]. E-mail: dmisra@louisiana.edu; Mannering, T. [Nucor-Yamato Steel, P.O. Box 1228, 5929 East State Highway 18, Blytheville, AR 72316 (United States); Panda, D. [Nucor-Yamato Steel, P.O. Box 1228, 5929 East State Highway 18, Blytheville, AR 72316 (United States); Jansto, S.G. [Reference Metals, 1000 Old Pond Road, Bridgeville, PA 15017 (United States)

    2006-11-15

    We describe here the relationship between microstructure and impact toughness behavior as a function of cooling rate for industrially processed Nb- and V-microalloyed steels of almost similar yield strength ({approx}60 ksi). Both Nb- and V-microalloyed steels exhibited increase in toughness with increase in cooling rates during processing. However, Nb-microalloyed steels were characterized by relatively higher toughness than the V-microalloyed steels under identical processing conditions. The microstructure of Nb- and V-microalloyed steels processed at conventional cooling rate, primarily consisted of polygonal ferrite-pearlite microconstituents, while Nb-microalloyed steels besides polygonal ferrite and pearlite contained significant fraction of degenerated pearlite. The microstructure of Nb- and V-microalloyed steels processed at relatively higher cooling rate contained degenerated pearlite and lath-type (acicular) ferrite in addition to the primary ferrite-pearlite constituents. The fraction of degenerated pearlite was higher in Nb-microalloyed steels than in the V-microalloyed steels. In both Nb- and V-microalloyed steels the precipitation characteristics were similar with precipitation occurring at grain boundaries, dislocations, and in the ferrite matrix. Fine-scale ({approx}5-10 nm) precipitation was observed in the ferrite matrix of both the steels. The selected area diffraction (SAD) pattern analysis revealed that these fine precipitates were MC type of niobium and vanadium carbides in the respective steels and followed Baker-Nutting orientation relationship with the ferrite matrix. The microstructural studies suggest that the increase in toughness of Nb-microalloyed steels is attributed to higher fraction of degenerated pearlite in the steel.

  17. Impact toughness and microstructure relationship in niobium- and vanadium-microalloyed steels processed with varied cooling rates to similar yield strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugam, S.; Misra, R.D.K.; Mannering, T.; Panda, D.; Jansto, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    We describe here the relationship between microstructure and impact toughness behavior as a function of cooling rate for industrially processed Nb- and V-microalloyed steels of almost similar yield strength (∼60 ksi). Both Nb- and V-microalloyed steels exhibited increase in toughness with increase in cooling rates during processing. However, Nb-microalloyed steels were characterized by relatively higher toughness than the V-microalloyed steels under identical processing conditions. The microstructure of Nb- and V-microalloyed steels processed at conventional cooling rate, primarily consisted of polygonal ferrite-pearlite microconstituents, while Nb-microalloyed steels besides polygonal ferrite and pearlite contained significant fraction of degenerated pearlite. The microstructure of Nb- and V-microalloyed steels processed at relatively higher cooling rate contained degenerated pearlite and lath-type (acicular) ferrite in addition to the primary ferrite-pearlite constituents. The fraction of degenerated pearlite was higher in Nb-microalloyed steels than in the V-microalloyed steels. In both Nb- and V-microalloyed steels the precipitation characteristics were similar with precipitation occurring at grain boundaries, dislocations, and in the ferrite matrix. Fine-scale (∼5-10 nm) precipitation was observed in the ferrite matrix of both the steels. The selected area diffraction (SAD) pattern analysis revealed that these fine precipitates were MC type of niobium and vanadium carbides in the respective steels and followed Baker-Nutting orientation relationship with the ferrite matrix. The microstructural studies suggest that the increase in toughness of Nb-microalloyed steels is attributed to higher fraction of degenerated pearlite in the steel

  18. Cooling rate and starvation affect supercooling point and cold tolerance of the Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts fourth instar larvae (Coleoptera: Dermestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, M; Izadi, H

    2018-01-01

    Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) is an important insect pest of stored products. In this study, the survival strategies of T. granarium fourth instar larvae were investigated at different sub-zero temperatures following different cooling rates, acclimation to different relative humidity (RH) and different starvation times. Our results show that larvae of T. granarium are freeze-intolerant. There was a strong link between cooling rates and supercooling point, which means the slower the decrease in temperature, the lower the supercooling point. Trehalose content was greater in insects cooled at a rate of 0.5°C/min. According to results, the RH did not affect supercooling point. However, acclimation to an RH of 25% increased mortality following exposure to - 10°C/24h. The time necessary to reach 95% mortality was 1737h and 428h at - 5°C and - 10°C. The lowest lipid and trehalose content was detected in insects acclimated to 25% RH, although, the different RH treatments did not significantly affect glycogen content of T. granarium larvae. The supercooling point of larvae was gradually increased following starvation. By contrast, fed larvae had the greatest lipid, glycogen, and trehalose content, and insects starved for eight days had the lowest energy contents. There was a sharp decline in the survival of larvae between - 11 and - 18°C after 1h exposure. Our results indicate the effects of cooling rate and starvation on energy reserves and survival of T. granarium. We conclude that T. granarium may not survive under similar stress conditions of the stored products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of cooling rate in planar thermally assisted magnetic random access memory: Improved writeability due to spin-transfer-torque influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavent, A.; Ducruet, C.; Portemont, C.; Creuzet, C.; Alvarez-Hérault, J.; Vila, L.; Sousa, R. C.; Prejbeanu, I. L.; Dieny, B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of a controlled cooling rate on magnetic field reversal assisted by spin transfer torque (STT) in thermally assisted magnetic random access memory. By using a gradual linear decrease of the voltage at the end of the write pulse, the STT decays more slowly or at least at the same rate as the temperature. This condition is necessary to make sure that the storage layer magnetization remains in the desired written direction during cooling of the cell. The influence of the write current pulse decay rate was investigated on two exchange biased synthetic ferrimagnet (SyF) electrodes. For a NiFe based electrode, a significant improvement in writing reproducibility was observed using a gradual linear voltage transition. The write error rate decreases by a factor of 10 when increasing the write pulse fall-time from ∼3 ns to 70 ns. For comparison, a second CoFe/NiFe based electrode was also reversed by magnetic field assisted by STT. In this case, no difference between sharp and linear write pulse fall shape was observed. We attribute this observation to the higher thermal stability of the CoFe/NiFe electrode during cooling. In real-time measurements of the magnetization reversal, it was found that Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) coupling in the SyF electrode vanishes for the highest pulse voltages that were used due to the high temperature reached during write. As a result, during the cooling phase, the final state is reached through a spin-flop transition of the SyF storage layer

  20. Effect of cooling rate and Mg addition on the structural evaluation of rapidly solidified Al-20wt%Cu-12wt%Fe alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaköse, Ercan, E-mail: ekarakose@karatekin.edu.tr [Çankırı Karatekin University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, 18100 Çankırı (Turkey); Çolak, Hakan [Çankırı Karatekin University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 18100 Çankırı (Turkey)

    2016-11-15

    The present work examines the effect of Mg contents and cooling rate on the morphology and mechanical properties of Al{sub 20}Cu{sub 12}Fe quasicrystalline alloy. The microstructure of the alloys was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and the phase composition was identified by X-ray diffractometry. The melting characteristics were studied by differential thermal analysis under an Ar atmosphere. The mechanical features of the melt-spun and conventionally solidified alloys were tested by tensile-strength test and Vickers micro-hardness test. It was found that the final microstructure of the Al{sub 20}Cu{sub 12}Fe samples mainly depends on the cooling rate and Mg contents, which suggests that different cooling rates and Mg contents produce different microstructures and properties. The average grain sizes of the melt spun samples were about 100–300 nm at 35 m/s. The nanosize, dispersed, different shaped quasicrystal particles possessed a remarkable effect to the mechanical characteristics of the rapidly solidified ribbons. The microhardness values of the melt spun samples were approximately 18% higher than those of the conventionally counterparts. - Highlights: •Quasicrystal-creating materials have high potential for applications. •Different shaped nanosize quasicrystal particles were observed. •The addition of Mg has an important impact on the mechanical properties. •H{sub V} values of the MS0, MS3 and MS5 samples at 35 m/s were 8.56, 8.66 and 8.80 GPa. •The volume fraction of IQC increases with increasing cooling rates.

  1. Maximum Plant Uptakes for Water, Nutrients, and Oxygen Are Not Always Met by Irrigation Rate and Distribution in Water-based Cultivation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, Chris; Jackson, Brian E; Guo, Xianfeng; de Visser, Pieter H B; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2017-01-01

    Growing on rooting media other than soils in situ -i.e., substrate-based growing- allows for higher yields than soil-based growing as transport rates of water, nutrients, and oxygen in substrate surpass those in soil. Possibly water-based growing allows for even higher yields as transport rates of water and nutrients in water surpass those in substrate, even though the transport of oxygen may be more complex. Transport rates can only limit growth when they are below a rate corresponding to maximum plant uptake. Our first objective was to compare Chrysanthemum growth performance for three water-based growing systems with different irrigation. We compared; multi-point irrigation into a pond (DeepFlow); one-point irrigation resulting in a thin film of running water (NutrientFlow) and multi-point irrigation as droplets through air (Aeroponic). Second objective was to compare press pots as propagation medium with nutrient solution as propagation medium. The comparison included DeepFlow water-rooted cuttings with either the stem 1 cm into the nutrient solution or with the stem 1 cm above the nutrient solution. Measurements included fresh weight, dry weight, length, water supply, nutrient supply, and oxygen levels. To account for differences in radiation sum received, crop performance was evaluated with Radiation Use Efficiency (RUE) expressed as dry weight over sum of Photosynthetically Active Radiation. The reference, DeepFlow with substrate-based propagation, showed the highest RUE, even while the oxygen supply provided by irrigation was potentially growth limiting. DeepFlow with water-based propagation showed 15-17% lower RUEs than the reference. NutrientFlow showed 8% lower RUE than the reference, in combination with potentially limiting irrigation supply of nutrients and oxygen. Aeroponic showed RUE levels similar to the reference and Aeroponic had non-limiting irrigation supply of water, nutrients, and oxygen. Water-based propagation affected the subsequent

  2. GAS SURFACE DENSITY, STAR FORMATION RATE SURFACE DENSITY, AND THE MAXIMUM MASS OF YOUNG STAR CLUSTERS IN A DISK GALAXY. II. THE GRAND-DESIGN GALAXY M51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Lópezlira, Rosa A.; Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan; Kroupa, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between maximum cluster mass and surface densities of total gas (Σ gas ), molecular gas (Σ H 2 ), neutral gas (Σ H I ), and star formation rate (Σ SFR ) in the grand-design galaxy M51, using published gas data and a catalog of masses, ages, and reddenings of more than 1800 star clusters in its disk, of which 223 are above the cluster mass distribution function completeness limit. By comparing the two-dimensional distribution of cluster masses and gas surface densities, we find for clusters older than 25 Myr that M 3rd ∝Σ H I 0.4±0.2 , whereM 3rd is the median of the five most massive clusters. There is no correlation withΣ gas ,Σ H2 , orΣ SFR . For clusters younger than 10 Myr, M 3rd ∝Σ H I 0.6±0.1 and M 3rd ∝Σ gas 0.5±0.2 ; there is no correlation with either Σ H 2 orΣ SFR . The results could hardly be more different from those found for clusters younger than 25 Myr in M33. For the flocculent galaxy M33, there is no correlation between maximum cluster mass and neutral gas, but we have determined M 3rd ∝Σ gas 3.8±0.3 , M 3rd ∝Σ H 2 1.2±0.1 , and M 3rd ∝Σ SFR 0.9±0.1 . For the older sample in M51, the lack of tight correlations is probably due to the combination of strong azimuthal variations in the surface densities of gas and star formation rate, and the cluster ages. These two facts mean that neither the azimuthal average of the surface densities at a given radius nor the surface densities at the present-day location of a stellar cluster represent the true surface densities at the place and time of cluster formation. In the case of the younger sample, even if the clusters have not yet traveled too far from their birth sites, the poor resolution of the radio data compared to the physical sizes of the clusters results in measuredΣ that are likely quite diluted compared to the actual densities relevant for the formation of the clusters.

  3. Cooling rate dependence of structural order in Al{sub 90}Sm{sub 10} metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yang [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Ames Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Feng, E-mail: fzhang@ameslab.gov; Ye, Zhuo [Ames Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Ding, Zejun [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Wang, Cai-Zhuang [Ames Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Physics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Ho, Kai-Ming [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Ames Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Physics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); International Center for Quantum Design of Functional Materials (ICQD), and Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2016-07-07

    The atomic structure of Al{sub 90}Sm{sub 10} metallic glass is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. By performing a long sub-T{sub g} annealing, we developed a glass model closer to the experiments than the models prepared by continuous cooling. Using the cluster alignment method, we found that “3661” cluster is the dominating short-range order in the glass samples. The connection and arrangement of “3661” clusters, which define the medium-range order in the system, are enhanced significantly in the sub-T{sub g} annealed sample as compared with the fast cooled glass samples. Unlike some strong binary glass formers such as Cu{sub 64.5}Zr{sub 35.5}, the clusters representing the short-range order do not form an interconnected interpenetrating network in Al{sub 90}Sm{sub 10,} which has only marginal glass formability.

  4. Fragile-to-fragile liquid transition at Tg and stable-glass phase nucleation rate maximum at the Kauzmann temperature TK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournier, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    An undercooled liquid is unstable. The driving force of the glass transition at T g is a change of the undercooled-liquid Gibbs free energy. The classical Gibbs free energy change for a crystal formation is completed including an enthalpy saving. The crystal growth critical nucleus is used as a probe to observe the Laplace pressure change Δp accompanying the enthalpy change −V m ×Δp at T g where V m is the molar volume. A stable glass–liquid transition model predicts the specific heat jump of fragile liquids at T≤T g , the Kauzmann temperature T K where the liquid entropy excess with regard to crystal goes to zero, the equilibrium enthalpy between T K and T g , the maximum nucleation rate at T K of superclusters containing magic atom numbers, and the equilibrium latent heats at T g and T K . Strong-to-fragile and strong-to-strong liquid transitions at T g are also described and all their thermodynamic parameters are determined from their specific heat jumps. The existence of fragile liquids quenched in the amorphous state, which do not undergo liquid–liquid transition during heating preceding their crystallization, is predicted. Long ageing times leading to the formation at T K of a stable glass composed of superclusters containing up to 147 atom, touching and interpenetrating, are evaluated from nucleation rates. A fragile-to-fragile liquid transition occurs at T g without stable-glass formation while a strong glass is stable after transition

  5. Influence of the quenching rate and step-wise cooling temperatures on microstructural and tensile properties of PER72 ® Ni-based superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Baillif Paul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The PER72® grade is used as a wrought engine turbine disk, which is a critical high temperature component. During the heat treatment process, residual stresses are generated during the quench, which may lead to irreversible damages on the workpiece. The aim of this study is to better understand the mechanisms involved in the residual stress generation. Therefore, the influence of quenching conditions on the high temperature tensile properties and the multi-scale microstructure evolutions are investigated after cooling. PER72® specimens are annealed above the solvus temperature, directly on the servo-hydraulic testing machine. Three quenching rates are used: 30 ∘C/min, 120 ∘C/min, and 300 ∘C/min. For each condition, the cooling is interrupted at 1000 ∘C, 850 ∘C, 600 ∘C and 20 ∘C to perform isothermal tensile test. Specimens are post-mortem analysed. On one hand the fracture surface is investigated using SEM. On the other hand the microstructure evolution was observed and quantified at different scales using SEM directly on the bulk or after the chemical extraction of precipitation. The precipitation size and volume fraction statistics, X-Ray diffraction for the crystallography and composition of the different phases are investigated. It was shown that the testing temperature does not significantly influence the γ′ distribution of particles. Conversely, the γ′ precipitation is strongly influenced by the cooling rate. Notably, the average size, the distance between particles as well as the number density of γ′ precipitates are significantly modified by the cooling rate. Changes in tensile properties are related to microstructural.

  6. Optimization of cooling tower performance analysis using Taguchi method

    OpenAIRE

    Ramkumar Ramakrishnan; Ragupathy Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    This study discuss the application of Taguchi method in assessing maximum cooling tower effectiveness for the counter flow cooling tower using expanded wire mesh packing. The experiments were planned based on Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array .The trail was performed under different inlet conditions of flow rate of water, air and water temperature. Signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression were carried out in order to determine the effects of process...

  7. Influence of cooling rate on the structure and mechanical properties of G17CrMoV5 – 10 cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Golański

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on the influence of cooling rate on the structure and properties of G17CrMoV5 – 10 (L17HMF cast steel. The material for research was a section taken out from an outer cylinder of a steam turbine body after about 250 000 hours of operation at the temperature of 535°C and pressure 9 MPa. The investigated cast steel was subjected to heat treatment which consisted in cooling at the rates corresponding to the processes, such as: bainitic hardening, normalizing and full annealing. Tempering after the process of cooling from austenitizing temperature was carried out at the temperatures of: 700, 720 and 740°C. Performed research has proved that structures obtained after bainitic hardening and normalizing are characterized by a large strength margin which allows to apply high temperatures of tempering. It has been shown that the cast steel of bainitic structure, with similar mechanical properties as the cast steel of bainitic – ferritic structure, is characterized by almost twice as high impact energy. Full annealing and tempering of the examined cast steel ensures only the required impact strength, with mechanical properties comparable to those after service.

  8. Effect of Cooling Rate on the Longitudinal Modulus of Cu3Sn Phase of Ag-Sn-Cu Amalgam Alloy (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Rusli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of cooling rate (at the time of solidification on the elastic constants of Cu3Sn phase of Ag-Sn-Cu dental amalgam alloy were studied. In this study, three types of alloys were made, with the composition Cu-38-37 wt% Sn by means of casting, where each alloy was subjected to different cooling rate, such as cooling on the air (AC, air blown (AB, and quenched in the water (WQ. X-ray diffraction, metallography, and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy studies of three alloys indicated the existence of Cu3Sn phase. Determination of the modulus of elasticity of Cu3Sn (ε phase was carried out by the measurement of longitudinal and transversal waves velocity using ultrasonic technique. The result shows that Cu3Sn (ε phase on AC gives higher modulus of elasticity values than those of Cu3Sn (ε on AB and WQ. The high modulus of elasticity value will produce a strong Ag-Sn-Cu dental amalagam alloy.

  9. Microbial analysis of meatballs cooled with vacuum and conventional cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Hande Mutlu; Ozturk, Harun Kemal; Koçar, Gunnur

    2017-08-01

    Vacuum cooling is a rapid evaporative cooling technique and can be used for pre-cooling of leafy vegetables, mushroom, bakery, fishery, sauces, cooked food, meat and particulate foods. The aim of this study was to apply the vacuum cooling and the conventional cooling techniques for the cooling of the meatball and to show the vacuum pressure effect on the cooling time, the temperature decrease and microbial growth rate. The results of the vacuum cooling and the conventional cooling (cooling in the refrigerator) were compared with each other for different temperatures. The study shows that the conventional cooling was much slower than the vacuum cooling. Moreover, the microbial growth rate of the vacuum cooling was extremely low compared with the conventional cooling. Thus, the lowest microbial growth occurred at 0.7 kPa and the highest microbial growth was observed at 1.5 kPa for the vacuum cooling. The mass loss ratio for the conventional cooling and vacuum cooling was about 5 and 9% respectively.

  10. Cooling tower calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonkova, J.

    1988-01-01

    The problems are summed up of the dynamic calculation of cooling towers with forced and natural air draft. The quantities and relations are given characterizing the simultaneous exchange of momentum, heat and mass in evaporative water cooling by atmospheric air in the packings of cooling towers. The method of solution is clarified in the calculation of evaporation criteria and thermal characteristics of countercurrent and cross current cooling systems. The procedure is demonstrated of the calculation of cooling towers, and correction curves and the effect assessed of the operating mode at constant air number or constant outlet air volume flow on their course in ventilator cooling towers. In cooling towers with the natural air draft the flow unevenness is assessed of water and air relative to its effect on the resulting cooling efficiency of the towers. The calculation is demonstrated of thermal and resistance response curves and cooling curves of hydraulically unevenly loaded towers owing to the water flow rate parameter graded radially by 20% along the cross-section of the packing. Flow rate unevenness of air due to wind impact on the outlet air flow from the tower significantly affects the temperatures of cooled water in natural air draft cooling towers of a design with lower demands on aerodynamics, as early as at wind velocity of 2 m.s -1 as was demonstrated on a concrete example. (author). 11 figs., 10 refs

  11. Evaluation of adaptation to visually induced motion sickness based on the maximum cross-correlation between pulse transmission time and heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiba Shigeru

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer graphics and virtual reality techniques are useful to develop automatic and effective rehabilitation systems. However, a kind of virtual environment including unstable visual images presented to wide field screen or a head mounted display tends to induce motion sickness. The motion sickness induced in using a rehabilitation system not only inhibits effective training but also may harm patients' health. There are few studies that have objectively evaluated the effects of the repetitive exposures to these stimuli on humans. The purpose of this study is to investigate the adaptation to visually induced motion sickness by physiological data. Methods An experiment was carried out in which the same video image was presented to human subjects three times. We evaluated changes of the intensity of motion sickness they suffered from by a subjective score and the physiological index ρmax, which is defined as the maximum cross-correlation coefficient between heart rate and pulse wave transmission time and is considered to reflect the autonomic nervous activity. Results The results showed adaptation to visually-induced motion sickness by the repetitive presentation of the same image both in the subjective and the objective indices. However, there were some subjects whose intensity of sickness increased. Thus, it was possible to know the part in the video image which related to motion sickness by analyzing changes in ρmax with time. Conclusion The physiological index, ρmax, will be a good index for assessing the adaptation process to visually induced motion sickness and may be useful in checking the safety of rehabilitation systems with new image technologies.

  12. Regional Inversion of the Maximum Carboxylation Rate (Vcmax) through the Sunlit Light Use Efficiency Estimated Using the Corrected Photochemical Reflectance Ratio Derived from MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, T.; Chen, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax), despite its importance in terrestrial carbon cycle modelling, remains challenging to obtain for large scales. In this study, an attempt has been made to invert the Vcmax using the gross primary productivity from sunlit leaves (GPPsun) with the physiological basis that the photosynthesis rate for leaves exposed to high solar radiation is mainly determined by the Vcmax. Since the GPPsun can be calculated through the sunlit light use efficiency (ɛsun), the main focus becomes the acquisition of ɛsun. Previous studies using site level reflectance observations have shown the ability of the photochemical reflectance ratio (PRR, defined as the ratio between the reflectance from an effective band centered around 531nm and a reference band) in tracking the variation of ɛsun for an evergreen coniferous stand and a deciduous broadleaf stand separately and the potential of a NDVI corrected PRR (NPRR, defined as the product of NDVI and PRR) in producing a general expression to describe the NPRR-ɛsun relationship across different plant function types. In this study, a significant correlation (R2 = 0.67, p<0.001) between the MODIS derived NPRR and the site level ɛsun calculated using flux data for four Canadian flux sites has been found for the year 2010. For validation purpose, the ɛsun in 2009 for the same sites are calculated using the MODIS NPRR and the expression from 2010. The MODIS derived ɛsun matches well with the flux calculated ɛsun (R2 = 0.57, p<0.001). Same expression has then been applied over a 217 × 193 km area in Saskatchewan, Canada to obtain the ɛsun and thus GPPsun for the region during the growing season in 2008 (day 150 to day 260). The Vcmax for the region is inverted using the GPPsun and the result is validated at three flux sites inside the area. The results show that the approach is able to obtain good estimations of Vcmax values with R2 = 0.68 and RMSE = 8.8 μmol m-2 s-1.

  13. Cryopreservation of boar semen. II: Effect of cooling rate and duration of freezing point plateau on boar semen frozen in mini- and maxi-straws and plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwanga, C O; Einarsson, S; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    1991-01-01

    The post-thaw motility and the acrosome integrity of semen from 4 boars frozen with a programmable freezing machine, in mini (0.25 ml) and maxi (5 ml) plastic straws and in 10 x 5 cm Teflon FEP-plastic bags (0.12 mm thick, 5 ml), were compared. The freezing of the semen was monitored by way of thermo-couples placed in the straws and the bags. Three freezing programmes were used, namely A: from +5 degrees C, at a rate of 3 degrees C/min, to -6 degrees C, held for 1 min at -6 degrees C, and followed by a cooling rate of 20 degrees C/min to -100 degrees C; B: a similar curve except that there was no holding time at -6 degrees C and that the cooling rate was 30 degrees C/min, and C: from +5 degrees C to -100 degrees C, with a cooling rate of 35 degrees C/min, followed by storage in liquid N2. Despite the freezing curve assayed, both the mini-straws and the bags depicted much shorter freezing point plateaus as compared to the maxi-straws. Post-thaw sperm motility as well as the amount of normal apical ridges were equally significantly higher when semen was frozen in mini-straws or in bags than in maxi-straws. Significant differences in these post-thawing parameters were obtained between the freezing curves used. The stepwise freezing procedure A appeared as the best alternative for boar semen, considering this in vitro evaluation.

  14. Continuous cooling transformation behaviors of CLAM steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qing-sheng, E-mail: qingsheng.wu@fds.org.cn; Zheng, Shu-hui; Huang, Qun-ying; Liu, Shao-jun; Han, Yang-yang

    2013-11-15

    The continuous cooling transformation (CCT) behaviors of CLAM (China Low Activation Martensitic) steel were studied, the CCT diagram was constructed, and the influence of cooling rates on the microstructures was also investigated. The microstructures were investigated using optical microscopy (OM) and microhardness tests were also carried out. The results showed that CLAM steel possessed high hardenability and there were ferrite and martensite transformation regions only. The maximum cooling rate to form ferrite microstructure was found to be 10–12 K/min. In order to obtain fully ferrite microstructure, the cooling rate should be lower than 1 K/min. The CCT diagram also gave relevant parameters such as the transformation temperatures, i.e., A{sub c1}, A{sub c3}, M{sub s} and M{sub f} were 1124 K, 1193 K, 705 K and 593 K, respectively. The diagram made it possible to predict the microstructures and properties of CLAM steel with different cooling rates.

  15. Influence of Cooling Rate on Growth of Bacillus cereus from Spore Inocula in Cooked Rice, Beans, Pasta, and Combination Products Containing Meat or Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Mohr, Tim B; Silverman, Meryl; Snyder, O Peter

    2018-02-23

    The objective of this study was to assess the ability of Bacillus cereus spores to germinate and grow in order to determine a safe cooling rate for cooked rice, beans, and pasta, rice-chicken (4:1), rice-chicken-vegetables (3:1:1), rice-beef (4:1), and rice-beef-vegetables (3:1:1). Samples were inoculated with a cocktail of four strains of heat-shocked (80°C for 10 min) B. cereus spores (NCTC 11143, 935A/74, Brad 1, and Mac 1) to obtain a final spore concentration of approximately 2 log CFU/g. Thereafter, samples were exponentially cooled through the temperature range of 54.5 to 7.2°C in 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21 h. At the end of the cooling period, samples were removed and plated on mannitol egg yolk polymyxin agar. The plates were incubated at 30°C for 24 h. The net B. cereus growth from spores in beans was beans, pasta, rice-chicken, rice-chicken-vegetables, rice-beef, and rice-beef-vegetables to guard against the hazards associated with B. cereus.

  16. Performance Evaluation of an In-Wheel Motor Cooling System in an Electric Vehicle/Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun Lim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available High power and miniaturization of motors in an in-wheel drive system, which is installed inside the wheels of a vehicle, are required for directly driving the wheels. In addition, an efficient cooling system is required to ensure high driving performance and durability. This study experimentally evaluated the heat dissipation performance of a 35-kW-class large-capacity in-wheel motor equipped with an internal-circulation-type oil-cooling system that exhibits high cooling performance and can be easily miniaturized to this motor. Temperatures of the coil and stator core of cooling systems with and without a radiator were measured in real time under in-wheel motor driving conditions. It was found that operating the cooling system at a continuous-rating maximum speed without the radiator was difficult. We confirmed that under continuous-rating base speed and continuous-rating maximum speed driving conditions, the cooling system with the radiator showed thermally stable operation. Furthermore, under maximum-rating base speed and maximum-rating maximum speed driving conditions, the cooling system with the radiator provided additional driving times of approximately 22 s and 2 s, respectively.

  17. Formation of perched lava ponds on basaltic volcanoes: Interaction between cooling rate and flow geometry allows estimation of lava effusion rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L.; Parfitt, E. A.

    1993-01-01

    Perched lava ponds are infrequent but distinctive topographic features formed during some basaltic eruptions. Two such ponds, each approximately 150 m in diameter, formed during the 1968 eruption at Napau Crater and the 1974 eruption of Mauna Ulu, both on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Each one formed where a channelized, high volume flux lava flow encountered a sharp reduction of slope: the flow spread out radially and stalled, forming a well-defined terminal levee enclosing a nearly circular lava pond. We describe a model of how cooling limits the motion of lava spreading radially into a pond and compare this with the case of a channelized flow. The difference in geometry has a major effect, such that the size of a pond is a good indicator of the volume flux of the lava forming it. Lateral spreading on distal shallow slopes is a major factor limiting the lengths of lava flows.

  18. Cooling rates and the depth of detachment faulting at oceanic core complexes: Evidence from zircon Pb/U and (U-Th)/He ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Craig B.; Cheadle, Michael J.; John, Barbara E.; Reiners, P.W.; Wooden, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Oceanic detachment faulting represents a distinct mode of seafloor spreading at slow spreading mid-ocean ridges, but many questions persist about the thermal evolution and depth of faulting. We present new Pb/U and (U-Th)/He zircon ages and combine them with magnetic anomaly ages to define the cooling histories of gabbroic crust exposed by oceanic detachment faults at three sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) holes 1270D and 1275D near the 15??20???N Transform, and Atlantis Massif at 30??N). Closure temperatures for the Pb/U (???800??C-850??C) and (U-Th)/He (???210??C) isotopic systems in zircon bracket acquisition of magnetic remanence, collectively providing a temperature-time history during faulting. Results indicate cooling to ???200??C in 0.3-0.5 Myr after zircon crystallization, recording time-averaged cooling rates of ???1000??C- 2000??C/Myr. Assuming the footwalls were denuded along single continuous faults, differences in Pb/U and (U-Th)/He zircon ages together with independently determined slip rates allow the distance between the ???850??C and ???200??C isotherms along the fault plane to be estimated. Calculated distances are 8.4 ?? 4.2 km and 5.0 2.1 km from holes 1275D and 1270D and 8.4 ?? 1.4 km at Atlantis Massif. Estimating an initial subsurface fault dip of 50 and a depth of 1.5 km to the 200??C isotherm leads to the prediction that the ???850??C isotherm lies ???5-7 km below seafloor at the time of faulting. These depth estimates for active fault systems are consistent with depths of microseismicity observed beneath the hypothesized detachment fault at the TAG hydrothermal field and high-temperature fault rocks recovered from many oceanic detachment faults. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Effect of closed loop cooling water transit time on containment cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.P.; Vossahlik, J.E.; Goodwin, E.F.

    1996-01-01

    Long term containment cooling analyses in nuclear plant systems are usually conducted assuming a quasi steady-state process, that is, a steady state evaluation of the cooling system is completed for each calculational step. In reality, fluid transport in the system, and heat addition to system components may affect the heat removal rate of the system. Transient effects occurring during system startup may affect the maximum temperatures experienced in the system. It is important to ensure that such transient effects do not affect operation of the system (e.g., cause a high temperature trip). To evaluate the effect of fluid transit delays, a closed loop cooling water system model has been developed that incorporates the fluid transport times when determining the closed loop cooling system performance. This paper describes the closed loop cooling system model as implemented in the CONTEMPT-LT/028 code. The evaluation of the transient temperature response of the closed loop cooling system using the model is described. The paper also describes the effect of fluid transit time on the overall containment cooling performance

  20. Experimental Investigation of Double Effect Evaporative Cooling Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abd Mohammad Saleh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the experimental investigation of double effect evaporative cooling unit with approximate capacity 7 kW. The unit consisted of two stages, the sensible heat exchanger and the cooling tower composing the external indirect regenerative evaporative cooling stage where a direct evaporative cooler represent the second stage. Testing results showed a maximum capacity and lowest supplied air temperature when the water flow rate in heat exchanger was 0.1 L/s. The experiment recorded the unit daily readings at two airflow rates (0.425 m3/s, 0.48 m3/s. The reading shows that unit inlet DBT is effect positively on unit wet bulb effectiveness and unit COP at constant humidity ratio. The air extraction ratio effected positively on the unit wet bulb effectiveness within a certain limit where maximum COP recorded 11.4 when the extraction ratio equal to 40%.

  1. Cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boernke, F.

    1975-01-01

    The need for the use of cooling systems in power plant engineering is dealt with from the point of view of a non-polluting form of energy production. The various cooling system concepts up to the modern natural-draught cooling towers are illustrated by examples. (TK/AK) [de

  2. Influence of cooling rate on the precipitation microstructure in a medium strength Al-Zn-Mg alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschamps, A. [SIMAP, INPGrenoble-CNRS-UJF BP 75, 38402 St Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)], E-mail: alexis.deschamps@simap.grenoble-inp.fr; Texier, G.; Ringeval, S. [CEA-DAM centre de Valduc, 21120 Is-Sur-Tille (France); SIMAP, INPGrenoble-CNRS-UJF BP 75, 38402 St Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Delfaut-Durut, L. [CEA-DAM centre de Valduc, 21120 Is-Sur-Tille (France)

    2009-02-15

    Medium strength Al-Zn-Mg age hardening alloys are widely used when a low quench sensitivity is required, such as in welding applications. In this work we present a detailed characterization of the precipitate microstructures resulting from different quench rates from the solution treatment, and from the subsequent artificial ageing to the T6 state, in an Al-4.5Zn-1Mg (wt%) alloy. This work is carried out using differential scanning calorimetry, transmission electron microscopy and in situ small-angle X-ray scattering. It is shown that for quench rate between 5 and 200 deg. C/min substantial heterogeneous precipitation is observed, nucleated on dispersoids and on grain boundaries, the former being of much larger size than the latter. During subsequent ageing, it is shown that the precipitation kinetics in the material unaffected by the quench-induced precipitates is independent on the quench rate used.

  3. Predictive analysis of the radiation exposure for the primary cooling system of the rated power operation of MONJU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuo, Youichirou; Miyahara, Shinya; Hasegawa, Masanori; Maegawa, Yoshiharu

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive corrosion products (CP) are main source of personal radiation exposure during maintenance without fuel-failure accident in the Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) plants. In order to establish the techniques of radiation dose estimation for personnel, program system 'DORE' has been developed. The DORE system is constructed by PSYCHE code and QAD code system. The density of each deposited CP of primary coolant system in MONJU was estimated by using the PSYCHE. Moreover, the QAD-CGGP2R code is applied to dose rate calculations for the primary coolant system in MONJU. The dose rate around primary piping system was visualized using AVS software. The predicted values were estimated to be saturated at 2-3 mSv/h in twenty years after the start of operation, and the dose rate reaches 4 mSv/h in domains near the IHX and the cold-leg piping. It has been assumed that the main radiation source is 54 Mn in the IHX, primary pump and cold-leg piping region. On the other hand, it was indicated that the contribution to dose rate of the 60 Co accounted for approximately 23% in the hot-leg piping region. (author)

  4. The preparation of particle beams for experiments of hadron physics: Slow extraction at ELFE rate at DESY and ELSA, as well as beam cooling at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentner, M.

    1999-02-01

    Various complementary experimental approaches are possible to study hadron physics, all of which require dedicated accelerator facilities. One approach, known as the ELFE rate at DESY project, makes use of a continuous electron beam with an energy of 15 to 25 GeV, a current of at least 30 μA and very small emittance, for fixed target experiments. The formation of such a beam by stretching a pulsed LINAC beam with the help of the HERA electron ring has been studied. At lower beam energies and currents this concept is already being used at the ELSA facility of Bonn University. Here the extraction process has been studied intensively and has been compared with measurements. Another approach to study hadron physics is the use of an electron - ion collider. To achieve high integrated luminosities cooling of the ion beam is necessary, especially in the case of heavy ions. For HERA high energy beam cooling with the help of an electron storage ring has been studied. (orig.)

  5. Maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enslin, J.H.R.

    1990-01-01

    A well engineered renewable remote energy system, utilizing the principal of Maximum Power Point Tracking can be m ore cost effective, has a higher reliability and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. This paper reports that a high-efficient power electronic converter, for converting the output voltage of a solar panel, or wind generator, to the required DC battery bus voltage has been realized. The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the input source under varying input and output parameters. Maximum power point tracking for relative small systems is achieved by maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor based algorithm. Through practical field measurements it is shown that a minimum input source saving of 15% on 3-5 kWh/day systems can easily be achieved. A total cost saving of at least 10-15% on the capital cost of these systems are achievable for relative small rating Remote Area Power Supply systems. The advantages at larger temperature variations and larger power rated systems are much higher. Other advantages include optimal sizing and system monitor and control

  6. Maximum Plant Uptakes for Water, Nutrients, and Oxygen Are Not Always Met by Irrigation Rate and Distribution in Water-based Cultivation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Chris; Jackson, Brian E.; Guo, Xianfeng; Visser, De Pieter H.B.; Marcelis, Leo F.M.

    2017-01-01

    Growing on rooting media other than soils in situ -i.e., substrate-based growing- allows for higher yields than soil-based growing as transport rates of water, nutrients, and oxygen in substrate surpass those in soil. Possibly water-based growing allows for even higher yields as transport rates of

  7. High energy resolution and high count rate gamma spectrometry measurement of primary coolant of generation 4 sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, R.

    2010-01-01

    Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors are under development for the fourth generation of nuclear reactor. Breeders reactors could gives solutions for the need of energy and the preservation of uranium resources. An other purpose is the radioactive wastes production reduction by transmutation and the control of non-proliferation using a closed-cycle. These thesis shows safety and profit advantages that could be obtained by a new generation of gamma spectrometry system for SFR. Now, the high count rate abilities, allow us to study new methods of accurate power measurement and fast clad failure detection. Simulations have been done and an experimental test has been performed at the French Phenix SFR of the CEA Marcoule showing promising results for these new measurements. (author) [fr

  8. The effect of annealing temperatures and cooling rates on microstructure and mechanical properties of investment cast Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, M.T.; Tadic, S.; Zec, S.; Miskovic, Z.; Bobic, I.

    2006-01-01

    Production of investment castings of titanium alloys was considerably increased during last years due to the significant cost savings compared to complicated machined parts. However, the disadvantage of as-cast titanium alloys is that the heat-treatment remains only a limited option for improvement of their properties. The object of this paper was to study the effect of heat-treatment of investment cast Ti-6Al-4V alloy performing X-ray diffraction analysis, light microscopy and quantitative metallography together with hardness and room temperature tensile tests. The effect of annealing temperatures (above and below β transus temperature) and cooling rates on microstructure and mechanical properties was discussed in terms of the β → α transformation. The results of this paper also show that, besides heat treatment parameters, melting and casting practice together with mold technology strongly influence the properties of castings

  9. Pressure loss coefficient and flow rate of side hole in a lower end plug for dual-cooled annular nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chang-Hwan, E-mail: shinch@kaeri.re.kr; Park, Ju-Yong, E-mail: juyong@kaeri.re.kr; In, Wang-Kee, E-mail: wkin@kaeri.re.kr

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • A lower end plug with side flow holes is suggested to provide alternative flow paths of the inner channel. • The inlet loss coefficient of the lower end plug is estimated from the experiment. • The flow rate through the side holes is estimated in a complete entrance blockage of inner channel. • The consequence in the reactor core condition is evaluated with a subchannel analysis code. - Abstract: Dual-cooled annular nuclear fuel for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) has been introduced for a significant increase in reactor power. KAERI has been developing a dual-cooled annular fuel for a power uprate of 20% in an optimized PWR in Korea, the OPR1000. This annular fuel can help decrease the fuel temperature substantially relative to conventional cylindrical fuel at a power uprate. Annular fuel has dual flow channels around itself; however, the inner flow channel has a weakness in that it is isolated unlike the outer flow channel, which is open to other neighbouring outer channels for a coolant exchange in the reactor core. If the entrance of the inner channel is, as a hypothetical event, completely blocked by debris, the inner channel will then experience a rapid increase in coolant temperature such that a departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) may occur. Therefore, a remedy to avoid such a postulated accident is indispensable for the safety of annular fuel. A lower end plug with side flow holes was suggested to provide alternative flow paths in addition to the central entrance of the inner channel. In this paper, the inlet loss coefficient of the lower end plug and the flow rate through the side holes were estimated from the experimental results even in a complete entrance blockage of the inner channel. An optimization for the side hole was also performed, and the results are applied to a subchannel analysis to evaluate the consequence in the reactor core condition.

  10. Modelling of flow and heat transfer in PV cooling channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diarra, D.C.; Harrison, S.J. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering Solar Calorimetry Lab; Akuffo, F.O. [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    Under sunny conditions, the temperature of photovoltaic (PV) modules can be 20 to 30 degrees C above the ambient air temperature. This affects the performance of PV modules, particularly in regions with hot climates. For silicon solar cells, the maximum power decreases between 0.4 and 0.5 per cent for every degree C of temperature increase above a reference value. In an effort to address this issue, this experimental and numerical study examined an active PV panel evaporative cooling scheme that is typically used in hot arid climates. The cooling system circulated cool air behind the PV modules, extracting heat and lowering solar cell temperature. A fluid dynamic and thermal model of the combined system was developed using the EES program in order to study the configuration of the cooling channel and the characteristics of the cooling flow. Heat transfer and flow characteristics in the cooling channel were then calculated along with pressure drop and fan power associated with the air-circulation. The net power output was also calculated. The objective was to design a cost efficient cooling system and to optimize its flow and pressure drop in order to maximize power output. The study demonstrated how the performance of the PV panel is influenced by the geometry of the cooling channel, the inlet air temperature and the air flow rate. 2 refs.

  11. Spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollin, Philippe.

    1975-01-01

    Spray cooling - using water spraying in air - is surveyed as a possible system for make-up (peak clipping in open circuit) or major cooling (in closed circuit) of the cooling water of the condensers in thermal power plants. Indications are given on the experiments made in France and the systems recently developed in USA, questions relating to performance, cost and environmental effects of spray devices are then dealt with [fr

  12. Particle-in-cell studies of fast-ion slowing-down rates in cool tenuous magnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Eugene S.; Cohen, Samuel A.; Welch, Dale R.

    2018-04-01

    We report on 3D-3V particle-in-cell simulations of fast-ion energy-loss rates in a cold, weakly-magnetized, weakly-coupled plasma where the electron gyroradius, ρe, is comparable to or less than the Debye length, λDe, and the fast-ion velocity exceeds the electron thermal velocity, a regime in which the electron response may be impeded. These simulations use explicit algorithms, spatially resolve ρe and λDe, and temporally resolve the electron cyclotron and plasma frequencies. For mono-energetic dilute fast ions with isotropic velocity distributions, these scaling studies of the slowing-down time, τs, versus fast-ion charge are in agreement with unmagnetized slowing-down theory; with an applied magnetic field, no consistent anisotropy between τs in the cross-field and field-parallel directions could be resolved. Scaling the fast-ion charge is confirmed as a viable way to reduce the required computational time for each simulation. The implications of these slowing down processes are described for one magnetic-confinement fusion concept, the small, advanced-fuel, field-reversed configuration device.

  13. Computation of single- and two-phase heat transfer rates suitable for water-cooled tubes and subchannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeneveld, D.C.; Leung, L.K.H.; Cheng, S.C.; Nguyen, C.

    1989-01-01

    A computational method for predicting heat transfer, valid for a wide range of flow conditions (from pool boiling and laminar flow conditions to highly turbulent flow), has been developed. It correctly identifies the heat transfer modes and predicts the heat transfer rates as well as transition points (such as the critical heat flux point) on the boiling curve. The computational heat transfer method consists of a combination of carefully chosen heat transfer equations for each heat transfer mode. Each of these equations has been selected because of their accuracy, wide range of application, and correct asymptotic trends. Using a mechanistically-based heat transfer logic, these equations have been combined in a convenient software package suitable for PC or mainframe application. The computational method has been thoroughly tested against many sets of experimental data. The parametric and asymptotic trends of the prediction method have been examined in detail. Correction factors are proposed for extending the use of individual predictive techniques to various geometric configurations and upstream conditions. (orig.)

  14. Effect of contraction mode of slow-speed resistance training on the maximum rate of force development in the human quadriceps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blazevich, Anthony J; Horne, Sara; Cannavan, Dale

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of slow-speed resistance training involving concentric (CON, n = 10) versus eccentric (ECC, n = 11) single-joint muscle contractions on contractile rate of force development (RFD) and neuromuscular activity (EMG), and its maintenance through detraining. Isokinetic...

  15. Voluntary drive-dependent changes in vastus lateralis motor unit firing rates during a sustained isometric contraction at 50% of maximum knee extension force.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.J.; Elzinga, M.J.; Verdijk, PW; van Mechelen, W.; de Haan, A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to relate the expected inter-subject variability in voluntary drive of the knee extensor muscles during a sustained isometric contraction to the changes in firing rates of single motor units. Voluntary activation, as established with super-imposed electrical

  16. Task 08/41, Low temperature loop at the RA reactor, Review IV - Maximum temperature values in the samples without forced cooling; Zadatak 08/41, Niskotemperaturna petlja u reaktoru 'RA', Pregled IV - Maksimalne temperature u uzorcima bez prinudnog hladjenja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaric, Z [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1961-12-15

    The quantity of heat generated in the sample was calculated in the Review III. In stationary regime the heat is transferred through the air layer between the sample and the wall of the channel to the heavy water of graphite. Certain value of maximum temperature t{sub 0} is achieved in the sample. The objective of this review is determination of this temperature. [Serbo-Croat] Kolicina toplote generisana u uzorku, izracunata u pregledu III, u ravnoteznom stanju odvodi se kroz vazdusni sloj izmedju uzorka i zida kanala na tesku vodu odnosno grafit, pri cemu se u uzorku dostize izvesna maksimalna temperatura t{sub 0}. Odredjivanje ove temperature je predmet ovog pregleda.

  17. Irradiated target cooling using circular air jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvaraj, P.; Natesan, K.; Velusamy, K.; Baskaran, V.; Sundararajan, T.

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of irradiation on materials, sample coupons are irradiated in cyclotron facilities. During the irradiation process, these samples produce significant heat. This heat needs to be continuously removed from the samples in order to avoid melting of the samples as well as to keep the samples at a particular temperature during irradiation. The area available for heat transfer is limited due to the small size of the samples. To increase the heat transfer rate, jet cooling is used as it provides large heat transfer co-efficient. To understand the heat transfer characteristics of jet cooling under these conditions, experiments have been carried out. Electric Joule heating is adopted to simulate irradiation heat in stainless steel samples. An array of circular nozzles is used to create air jet. From the study the values of the parameters correspond to the maximum heat removal rate are found out. The results are also compared with an empirical correlation from the literature. (author)

  18. Optimization of cooling tower performance analysis using Taguchi method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar Ramakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study discuss the application of Taguchi method in assessing maximum cooling tower effectiveness for the counter flow cooling tower using expanded wire mesh packing. The experiments were planned based on Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array .The trail was performed under different inlet conditions of flow rate of water, air and water temperature. Signal-to-noise ratio (S/N analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA and regression were carried out in order to determine the effects of process parameters on cooling tower effectiveness and to identity optimal factor settings. Finally confirmation tests verified this reliability of Taguchi method for optimization of counter flow cooling tower performance with sufficient accuracy.

  19. Adsorption Cooling System Using Metal-Impregnated Zeolite-4A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsuk Trisupakitti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption cooling systems have been developed to replace vapor compression due to their benefits of being environmentally friendly and energy saving. We prepared zeolite-4A and experimental cooling performance test of zeolite-water adsorption system. The adsorption cooling test-rig includes adsorber, evaporator, and condenser which perform in vacuum atmosphere. The maximum and minimum water adsorption capacity of different zeolites and COP were used to assess the performance of the adsorption cooling system. We found that loading zeolite-4A with higher levels of silver and copper increased COP. The Cu6%/zeolite-4A had the highest COP at 0.56 while COP of zeolite-4A alone was 0.38. Calculating the acceleration rate of zeolite-4A when adding 6% of copper would accelerate the COP at 46%.

  20. Effect of Cooling Units on the Performance of an Automotive Exhaust-Based Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, C. Q.; Zhu, D. C.; Deng, Y. D.; Wang, Y. P.; Liu, X.

    2017-05-01

    Currently, automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generators (AETEGs) are a hot topic in energy recovery. In order to investigate the influence of coolant flow rate, coolant flow direction and cooling unit arrangement in the AETEG, a thermoelectric generator (TEG) model and a related test bench are constructed. Water cooling is adopted in this study. Due to the non-uniformity of the surface temperature of the heat source, the coolant flow direction would affect the output performance of the TEG. Changing the volumetric flow rate of coolant can increase the output power of multi-modules connected in series or/and parallel as it can improve the temperature uniformity of the cooling unit. Since the temperature uniformity of the cooling unit has a strong influence on the output power, two cooling units are connected in series or parallel to research the effect of cooling unit arrangements on the maximum output power of the TEG. Experimental and theoretical analyses reveal that the net output power is generally higher with cooling units connected in parallel than cooling units connected in series in the cooling system with two cooling units.

  1. Citywide Impacts of Cool Roof and Rooftop Solar Photovoltaic Deployment on Near-Surface Air Temperature and Cooling Energy Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, F.; Georgescu, M.; Mahalov, A.; Moustaoui, M.; Martilli, A.

    2016-10-01

    Assessment of mitigation strategies that combat global warming, urban heat islands (UHIs), and urban energy demand can be crucial for urban planners and energy providers, especially for hot, semi-arid urban environments where summertime cooling demands are excessive. Within this context, summertime regional impacts of cool roof and rooftop solar photovoltaic deployment on near-surface air temperature and cooling energy demand are examined for the two major USA cities of Arizona: Phoenix and Tucson. A detailed physics-based parametrization of solar photovoltaic panels is developed and implemented in a multilayer building energy model that is fully coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting mesoscale numerical model. We conduct a suite of sensitivity experiments (with different coverage rates of cool roof and rooftop solar photovoltaic deployment) for a 10-day clear-sky extreme heat period over the Phoenix and Tucson metropolitan areas at high spatial resolution (1-km horizontal grid spacing). Results show that deployment of cool roofs and rooftop solar photovoltaic panels reduce near-surface air temperature across the diurnal cycle and decrease daily citywide cooling energy demand. During the day, cool roofs are more effective at cooling than rooftop solar photovoltaic systems, but during the night, solar panels are more efficient at reducing the UHI effect. For the maximum coverage rate deployment, cool roofs reduced daily citywide cooling energy demand by 13-14 %, while rooftop solar photovoltaic panels by 8-11 % (without considering the additional savings derived from their electricity production). The results presented here demonstrate that deployment of both roofing technologies have multiple benefits for the urban environment, while solar photovoltaic panels add additional value because they reduce the dependence on fossil fuel consumption for electricity generation.

  2. Electronic cooling using thermoelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebarjadi, M., E-mail: m.zebarjadi@rutgers.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Institute of Advanced Materials, Devices, and Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    Thermoelectric coolers or Peltier coolers are used to pump heat in the opposite direction of the natural heat flux. These coolers have also been proposed for electronic cooling, wherein the aim is to pump heat in the natural heat flux direction and from hot spots to the colder ambient temperature. In this manuscript, we show that for such applications, one needs to use thermoelectric materials with large thermal conductivity and large power factor, instead of the traditionally used high ZT thermoelectric materials. We further show that with the known thermoelectric materials, the active cooling cannot compete with passive cooling, and one needs to explore a new set of materials to provide a cooling solution better than a regular copper heat sink. We propose a set of materials and directions for exploring possible materials candidates suitable for electronic cooling. Finally, to achieve maximum cooling, we propose to use thermoelectric elements as fins attached to copper blocks.

  3. Fast reactor cooled by supercritical light water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiwatari, Yuki; Mukouhara, Tami; Koshizuka, Seiichi; Oka, Yoshiaki [Tokyo Univ., Nuclear Engineering Research Lab., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    This report introduces the result of a feasibility study of a fast reactor cooled by supercritical light water (SCFR) with once-through cooling system. It is characterized by (1) no need of steam separator, recirculation system, or steam generator, (2) 1/7 of core flow rate compared with BWR or PWR, (3) high temperature and high pressure permits small turbine and high efficiency exceeding 44%, (4) structure and operation of major components are already experienced by LWRs or thermal power plants. Modification such as reducing blanket fuels and increasing seed fuels are made to achieve highly economic utilization of Pu and high power (2 GWe). The following restrictions were satisfied. (1) Maximum linear heat rate 39 kW/m, (2) Maximum surface temperature of Inconel cladding 620degC, (3) Negative void reactivity coefficient, (4) Fast neutron irradiation rate at the inner surface of pressure vessel less than 2.0x10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2}. Thus the high power density of 167 MW/m{sup 3} including blanket is thought to contributes economy. The high conversion is attained to be 0.99 Pu fission residual rate by the outer radius of fuel rod of 0.88 mm. The breeding of 1.034 by Pu fission residual rate can be achieved by using briquette (tube-in-shell) type fuel structure. (K. Tsuchihashi)

  4. Maximum Urine Flow Rate of Less than 15ml/Sec Increasing Risk of Urine Retention and Prostate Surgery among Patients with Alpha-1 Blockers: A 10-Year Follow Up Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ho Liu

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the subsequent risk of acute urine retention and prostate surgery in patients receiving alpha-1 blockers treatment and having a maximum urinary flow rate of less than 15ml/sec.We identified patients who were diagnosed with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH and had a maximum uroflow rate of less than 15ml/sec between 1 January, 2002 to 31 December, 2011 from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database into study group (n = 303. The control cohort included four BPH/LUTS patients without 5ARI used for each study group, randomly selected from the same dataset (n = 1,212. Each patient was monitored to identify those who subsequently developed prostate surgery and acute urine retention.Prostate surgery and acute urine retention are detected in 5.9% of control group and 8.3% of study group during 10-year follow up. Compared with the control group, there was increase in the risk of prostate surgery and acute urine retention in the study group (HR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.16 to 2.91 after adjusting for age, comorbidities, geographic region and socioeconomic status.Maximum urine flow rate of less than 15ml/sec is a risk factor of urinary retention and subsequent prostate surgery in BPH patients receiving alpha-1 blocker therapy. This result can provide a reference for clinicians.

  5. Mechanical response of local rapid cooling by spray water on constrained steel frame structure at high temperature in fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Yunchun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Locally rapid cooling of spray water had strong impact on high temperature steel structure. When temperature of beam reached 600°C and cooling rate was more than 20°C/s, the maximum axial tension could reach more than 5 times of the originally compressive force. The compressive bending moment at joint of beam-to-column changed to tensile bending moment, and the maximum bending moment could reach above 4 times as that when heated. After rapid cooling by spray water, deflection at mid-span increased slightly.

  6. Characterization of the heart rate curve during a maximum incremental test on a treadmill. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n4p285

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Marcel Fernandes Nascimento

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the heart rate (HR profile plotted against incremental workloads (IWL during a treadmill test using three mathematical models [linear, linear with 2 segments (Lin2, and sigmoidal], and to determine the best model for the identification of the HR threshold that could be used as a predictor of ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2. Twenty-two men underwent a treadmill incremental test (retest group: n=12 at an initial speed of 5.5 km.h-1, with increments of 0.5 km.h-1 at 1-min intervals until exhaustion. HR and gas exchange were continuously measured and subsequently converted to 5-s and 20-s averages, respectively. The best model was chosen based on residual sum of squares and mean square error. The HR/IWL ratio was better fitted with the Lin2 model in the test and retest groups (p0.05. During a treadmill incremental test, the HR/IWL ratio seems to be better fitted with a Lin2 model, which permits to determine the HR threshold that coincides with VT1.

  7. Clear as Mud: Changes in Paleoshelf Environments and Deposition Rates at Medford, New Jersey during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podrecca, L.; Miller, K. G.; Wright, J. D.; Browning, J. V.; Emge, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene boundary marks a time of swift global climatic change. Constraining the timeframe of this event is a first order question necessary for ascertaining the origin of the event and the potential for its use as an analog for modern climate change. The New Jersey shelf sediments of the Marlboro Formation records this time period with exceptionally thick (5-15m) records of the period of global low carbon isotopic values ("the core") which requires minimum sedimentation rates of 10's cm/kyr. Rhythmic layers have been previously reported from Wilson Lake & Millville, NJ (IODP Leg 174AX). These structures coined "laminae couplets" consist of semi-periodic 1-2mm thick raised laminations separated by matrix of varying width (averaging 1.8cm). These have been dismissed as artifacts of drilling "biscuits". We report here on a series of shallow auger cores drilled on a transect at Medford, NJ, without using drilling fluid. These cores also show a similar set of structures on the 2cm scale verifying that they are primary depositional features. The mm width laminae in the auger core show remarkable swelling within minutes of splitting. XRD, XRF, bulk carbonate geochemistry, and grain size analysis have been determined at regular depth intervals throughout the core. We have analyzed differences in these parameters between the laminae and interbedded matrix material, as well as across the transect as a whole. In general, the Marlboro formation at this updip location consists of micaceous, lignitic, very clayey silt (mean size 6 micrometers) with occasional organic debris indicating proximal deposition from a fluvial system. Paleodepth of 40m and normal marine salinities are estimated using a paleoslope model and the presence of common though not abundant planktonic foraminifera. We discuss a model of deposition for the Marlboro Formation as fluid mud (nearbed suspension flows) associated with the "Appalachian Amazon" alluding toward the finer grained inter

  8. Ventilative Cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Kolokotroni, Maria

    This report, by venticool, summarises the outcome of the work of the initial working phase of IEA ECB Annex 62 Ventilative Cooling and is based on the findings in the participating countries. It presents a summary of the first official Annex 62 report that describes the state-of-the-art of ventil......This report, by venticool, summarises the outcome of the work of the initial working phase of IEA ECB Annex 62 Ventilative Cooling and is based on the findings in the participating countries. It presents a summary of the first official Annex 62 report that describes the state......-of-the-art of ventilative cooling potentials and limitations, its consideration in current energy performance regulations, available building components and control strategies and analysis methods and tools. In addition, the report provides twenty six examples of operational buildings using ventilative cooling ranging from...

  9. Development of a higher power cooling system for lithium targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, B; Green, S; Scott, M C; Bennett, J R J; Edgecock, T R

    2015-12-01

    The accelerator based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy beam at the University of Birmingham is based around a solid thick lithium target cooled by heavy water. Significant upgrades to Birmingham's Dynamitron accelerator are planned prior to commencing a clinical trial. These upgrades will result in an increase in maximum achievable beam current to at least 3 mA. Various upgrades to the target cooling system to cope with this increased power have been investigated. Tests of a phase change coolant known as "binary ice" have been carried out using an induction heater to provide a comparable power input to the Dynamitron beam. The experimental data shows no improvement over chilled water in the submerged jet system, with both systems exhibiting the same heat input to target temperature relation for a given flow rate. The relationship between the cooling circuit pumping rate and the target temperature in the submerged jet system has also been tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effects of Cooling Rate on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti{sub 4}0Zr{sub 1}0Cu{sub 3}6Pd{sub 1}4 Metallic Glass Matrix Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seon Yong; Lim, Ka Ram; Na, Young Sang; Kim, Seong Eon [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Youn Suk [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In this paper, we demonstrate that the microstructure and mechanical properties in the Ti{sub 4}0Zr{sub 1}0Cu{sub 3}6Pd{sub 1}4 alloy can be tailored by controlling the cooling rate during solidification. A lower cooling rate increases the volume fraction of crystalline phase such as B2 but decreases the free volume of the glassy matrix. The increase of the B2 volume fraction can dramatically enhance the toughness of the composites, since the B2 phase is relatively ductile compared to the glassy matrix and seems to have good interface stability with the matrix. From the experimental results, it was found that there is a transition point in the plasticity of the composites depending on the cooling rate. Here, we explain how the toughness of the composites varies in accordance with the cooling rate in the Ti{sub 4}0Zr{sub 1}0Cu{sub 3}6Pd{sub 1}4 alloy system.

  11. Approximate maximum parsimony and ancestral maximum likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Noga; Chor, Benny; Pardi, Fabio; Rapoport, Anat

    2010-01-01

    We explore the maximum parsimony (MP) and ancestral maximum likelihood (AML) criteria in phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Both problems are NP-hard, so we seek approximate solutions. We formulate the two problems as Steiner tree problems under appropriate distances. The gist of our approach is the succinct characterization of Steiner trees for a small number of leaves for the two distances. This enables the use of known Steiner tree approximation algorithms. The approach leads to a 16/9 approximation ratio for AML and asymptotically to a 1.55 approximation ratio for MP.

  12. Maximum permissible dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This chapter presents a historic overview of the establishment of radiation guidelines by various national and international agencies. The use of maximum permissible dose and maximum permissible body burden limits to derive working standards is discussed

  13. Active cooling of a mobile phone handset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, Ronan; Walsh, Ed; Walsh, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Power dissipation levels in mobile phones continue to increase due to gaming, higher power applications, and increased functionality associated with the internet. The current cooling methodologies of natural convection and radiation limit the power dissipation within a mobile phone to between 1-2 W depending on size. As power dissipation levels increase, products such as mobile phones will require active cooling to ensure that the devices operate within an acceptable temperature envelop from both user comfort and reliability perspectives. In this paper, we focus on the applied thermal engineering problem of an active cooling solution within a typical mobile phone architecture by implementing a custom centrifugal fan within the mobile phone. Its performance is compared in terms of flow rates and pressure drops, allowable phone heat dissipation and maximum phone surface temperature as this is the user constraint for a variety of simulated PCB architectures in the mobile phone. Perforated plates with varying porosity through different size orifices are used to simulate these architectures. The results show that the power level dissipated by a phone for a constant surface temperature may be increased by ∼50 - 75% depending on pressure drop induced by the internal phone architecture. Hence for successful implementation and efficient utilization of active cooling will require chip layout to be considered at the design stage.

  14. Stacking with stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspers, Fritz E-mail: Fritz.Caspers@cern.ch; Moehl, Dieter

    2004-10-11

    Accumulation of large stacks of antiprotons or ions with the aid of stochastic cooling is more delicate than cooling a constant intensity beam. Basically the difficulty stems from the fact that the optimized gain and the cooling rate are inversely proportional to the number of particles 'seen' by the cooling system. Therefore, to maintain fast stacking, the newly injected batch has to be strongly 'protected' from the Schottky noise of the stack. Vice versa the stack has to be efficiently 'shielded' against the high gain cooling system for the injected beam. In the antiproton accumulators with stacking ratios up to 10{sup 5} the problem is solved by radial separation of the injection and the stack orbits in a region of large dispersion. An array of several tapered cooling systems with a matched gain profile provides a continuous particle flux towards the high-density stack core. Shielding of the different systems from each other is obtained both through the spatial separation and via the revolution frequencies (filters). In the 'old AA', where the antiproton collection and stacking was done in one single ring, the injected beam was further shielded during cooling by means of a movable shutter. The complexity of these systems is very high. For more modest stacking ratios, one might use azimuthal rather than radial separation of stack and injected beam. Schematically half of the circumference would be used to accept and cool new beam and the remainder to house the stack. Fast gating is then required between the high gain cooling of the injected beam and the low gain stack cooling. RF-gymnastics are used to merge the pre-cooled batch with the stack, to re-create free space for the next injection, and to capture the new batch. This scheme is less demanding for the storage ring lattice, but at the expense of some reduction in stacking rate. The talk reviews the 'radial' separation schemes and also gives some

  15. Effects of Cooling Fluid Flow Rate on the Critical Heat Flux and Flow Stability in the Plate Fuel Type 2 MW TRIGA Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    H. P. Rahardjo; V. I. Sri Wardhani

    2017-01-01

    The conversion program of the 2 MW TRIGA reactor in Bandung consisted of the replacement of cylindrical fuel (produced by General Atomic) with plate fuel (produced by BATAN). The replacement led into the change of core cooling process from upward natural convection type to downward forced convection type, and resulted in different thermohydraulic safety criteria, such as critical heat flux (CHF) limit, boiling limit, and cooling fluid flow stability. In this paper, a thermohydraulic safety an...

  16. Evaporative cooling in polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimotori, S; Sonai, A [Toshiba Corp. Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-05

    The concept of the evaporative cooling for the internally humidified PEFC was confirmed by the experiment. The evaporative cooling rates at the anode and the cathode were mastered under the various temperatures and air utilizations. At a high temperature the proportion of the evaporative cooling rate to the heat generation rate got higher, the possibility of the evaporative cooling was demonstrated. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Design Optimization of a Thermoelectric Cooling Module Using Finite Element Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Muhammad; Somdalen, Ragnar; Rodrigo, Marina Sancho

    2018-05-01

    The thermoelectric industry is concerned about the size reduction, cooling performance and, ultimately, the production cost of thermoelectric modules. Optimization of the size and performance of a commercially available thermoelectric cooling module is considered using finite element simulations. Numerical simulations are performed on eight different three-dimensional geometries of a single thermocouple, and the results are further extended for a whole module as well. The maximum temperature rise at the hot and cold sides of a thermocouple is determined by altering its height and cross-sectional area. The influence of the soldering layer is analyzed numerically using temperature dependent and temperature independent thermoelectric properties of the solder material and the semiconductor pellets. Experiments are conducted to test the cooling performance of the thermoelectric module and the results are compared with the results obtained through simulations. Finally, cooling rate and maximum coefficient of performance (COPmax) are computed using convective and non-convective boundary conditions.

  18. Cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korik, L.; Burger, R.

    1992-01-01

    What is the effect of 0.6C (1F) temperature rise across turbines, compressors, or evaporators? Enthalpy charts indicate for every 0.6C (1F) hotter water off the cooling tower will require an additional 2 1/2% more energy cost. Therefore, running 2.2C (4F) warmer due to substandard cooling towers could result in a 10% penalty for overcoming high heads and temperatures. If it costs $1,250,000.00 a year to operate the system, $125,000.00 is the energy penalty for hotter water. This paper investigates extra fuel costs involved in maintaining design electric production with cooling water 0.6C (1F) to 3C (5.5F) hotter than design. If design KWH cannot be maintained, paper will calculate dollar loss of saleable electricity. The presentation will conclude with examining the main causes of deficient cold water production. State-of-the-art upgrading and methodology available to retrofit existing cooling towers to optimize lower cooling water temperatures will be discussed

  19. Cooling tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norbaeck, P; Heneby, H

    1976-01-22

    Cooling towers to be transported on road vehicles as a unit are not allowed to exceed certain dimensions. In order to improve the efficiency of such a cooling tower (of cross-flow design and box-type body) with given dimensions, it is proposed to arrange at least one of the scrubbing bodies displaceable within a module or box. Then it can be moved out of the casing into working position, thereby increasing the front surface available for the inlet of air (and with it the efficiency) by nearly a factor of two.

  20. Development of continuous cooling precipitation diagrams for aluminium alloys AA7150 and AA7020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y., E-mail: yong.zhang@outlook.com [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); Milkereit, B. [University of Rostock, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Chair of Materials Science, 18051 Rostock (Germany); University of Rostock, Institute of Physics, Polymer Physics Group, 18051 Rostock (Germany); Kessler, O. [University of Rostock, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Chair of Materials Science, 18051 Rostock (Germany); Schick, C. [University of Rostock, Institute of Physics, Polymer Physics Group, 18051 Rostock (Germany); Rometsch, P.A. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2014-01-25

    Highlights: • The DSC method was used for developing continuous cooling precipitation diagrams. • The quench-induced particles were observed by SEM for alloys AA7150 and AA7020. • There were more quench-induced particles in alloy AA7150. • Quench sensitivity of Al alloys can be evaluated by using the CCP diagrams. -- Abstract: Two commercial 7xxx series aluminium alloys with different solute contents and different quench-induced precipitation behaviour have been investigated by using a specialised differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique to record exothermal heat outputs during continuous cooling. Together with hardness testing and microstructural analysis, this DSC method was used to develop continuous cooling precipitation (CCP) diagrams for alloys AA7150 and AA7020. The results show that the total precipitation heat for each alloy decreases with increasing cooling rate. However, the excess specific heat at a given cooling rate in alloy AA7150 is much higher than that in alloy AA7020. It is evident that there are atleast three different quench-induced reactions in different temperature regimes for alloy AA7150 cooled at various linear cooling rates, but only equilibrium MgZn{sub 2} (η-phase) and Al{sub 2}CuMg (S-phase) particles were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There are at least two main precipitation peaks that can be found for alloy AA7020, which correspond to Mg{sub 2}Si and MgZn{sub 2} (η-phase). Furthermore, a method is developed to evaluate the quench sensitivity of an alloy based on a determination of the critical cooling rate. The maximum hardness values are reached at cooling rates that are faster than or similar to the critical cooling rate.

  1. Modelization of cooling system components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copete, Monica; Ortega, Silvia; Vaquero, Jose Carlos; Cervantes, Eva [Westinghouse Electric (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    results in relatively low water withdrawal. Typical heat sink options for closed-cycle systems are wet cooling system (mechanical or natural draft cooling towers, and cooling ponds). When water availability is low, a dry cooling system may be utilized. Dry cooling can be either direct or indirect and in each case uses convective heat transfer to provide cooling, eliminating evaporation losses. An innovative indirect dry cooling system is the Heller{sup R} System. The Heller{sup R} System air moving equipment can be either a natural draft or a mechanical draft. The Heller{sup R} System design concepts and equipment provides the maximum possible availability and minimum maintenance. Also, it is totally environmental-friend as saves water equivalent to the consumption of a town of 50,000 inhabitants for each 100 MWe facilitating the licensing of power projects. (authors)

  2. Operational Characteristics of Four Commercially Available Personal Cooling Vests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Lee, Hank C.; Webbon, Bruce W.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Personal thermoregulatory systems which provide chest cooling are used in the industrial and aerospace environments to alleviate thermal stress. However, little information is available regarding the physiologic and circulatory changes produced by routine operation of these systems. The objectives of this study were to compare the effectiveness of two passive and two active cooling vests, and to measure the body temperature and circulatory changes produced by each cooling vest configuration. The MicroClimate Systems and the Life Enhancement Tech(LET) lightweight liquid cooling vests, the Steele Vest and LET's Zipper Front Garment were used to cool the chest region of 11 male and 10 female subjects (25 to 55 yr.) in this study. Calf, forearm and finger blood flows were measured using a tetrapolar impedance rheograph. The subjects, seated in an upright position at normal room temperature (approx.21 C), were tested for 60 min. with the cooling system operated at its maximum cooling capacity. Blood flows were recorded continuously using a computer data acquisition system with a sampling frequency of 250 Hz. Oral, right and left ear temperatures and cooling system parameters were logged manually every 5 min. Arm, leg, chest and rectal temperatures; heart rate; respiration; and an activity index were recorded continuously on a URI Inc. Biolog ambulatory monitor. In general, the male and female subjects' rectal and ear temperature responses to cooling were similar for all vest configurations tested. Oral temperatures during the recovery period were significantly (Pcooling and recovery periods. These results show that all vest configurations elicit a similar thermal response in both male and female subject groups. However, subject population variance was rather large and may have masked differences between the vests. One vest may prove more effective than another for a given individual, and experience is the only means of determining this.

  3. On the possibility of a ''dry'' cooling tower application for the APS condensators with a dissociating coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhalevich, A.A.; Nesterenko, V.B.; Peslyak, V.I.

    1975-01-01

    Calculations have been carried out for a Geller cooling tower of a 1000 MW nuclear power plant aimed at investigating the possibility of using ''dry'' cooling towers to cool condensers of nuclear power plants with N 2 O 4 as coolant, and at estimating specific charges on the process water supply system. Taking into consideration commercialy produced equipment, air condenser plants are assumed to operate with an ordinary surface condenser. The main dimensional and cost parameters of a ''dry'' cooling tower for a thermal cycle version with the maximum temperature of 450 deg C are calculated using the Transelectro (Hungary) nomograms for average annual air temperature. The calculation results show the Geller cooling towers for 1000 MW nuclear power plants to be economically competitive with evaporating cooling towers; and more; besides, is this case atmosphere pollution is avoided and water flow rate for making-up the water supply system is reduced

  4. Stochastic cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisognano, J.; Leemann, C.

    1982-03-01

    Stochastic cooling is the damping of betatron oscillations and momentum spread of a particle beam by a feedback system. In its simplest form, a pickup electrode detects the transverse positions or momenta of particles in a storage ring, and the signal produced is amplified and applied downstream to a kicker. The time delay of the cable and electronics is designed to match the transit time of particles along the arc of the storage ring between the pickup and kicker so that an individual particle receives the amplified version of the signal it produced at the pick-up. If there were only a single particle in the ring, it is obvious that betatron oscillations and momentum offset could be damped. However, in addition to its own signal, a particle receives signals from other beam particles. In the limit of an infinite number of particles, no damping could be achieved; we have Liouville's theorem with constant density of the phase space fluid. For a finite, albeit large number of particles, there remains a residue of the single particle damping which is of practical use in accumulating low phase space density beams of particles such as antiprotons. It was the realization of this fact that led to the invention of stochastic cooling by S. van der Meer in 1968. Since its conception, stochastic cooling has been the subject of much theoretical and experimental work. The earliest experiments were performed at the ISR in 1974, with the subsequent ICE studies firmly establishing the stochastic cooling technique. This work directly led to the design and construction of the Antiproton Accumulator at CERN and the beginnings of p anti p colliding beam physics at the SPS. Experiments in stochastic cooling have been performed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBL, and a design is currently under development for a anti p accumulator for the Tevatron

  5. Theory of tapered laser cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Hiromi; Wei, J.

    1998-01-01

    A theory of tapered laser cooling for fast circulating ion beams in a storage ring is constructed. The authors describe the fundamentals of this new cooling scheme, emphasizing that it might be the most promising way to beam crystallization. The cooling rates are analytically evaluated to study the ideal operating condition. They discuss the physical implication of the tapering factor of cooling laser, and show how to determine its optimum value. Molecular dynamics method is employed to demonstrate the validity of the present theory

  6. A very cool cooling system

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The NA62 Gigatracker is a jewel of technology: its sensor, which delivers the time of the crossing particles with a precision of less than 200 picoseconds (better than similar LHC detectors), has a cooling system that might become the precursor to a completely new detector technique.   The 115 metre long vacuum tank of the NA62 experiment. The NA62 Gigatracker (GTK) is composed of a set of three innovative silicon pixel detectors, whose job is to measure the arrival time and the position of the incoming beam particles. Installed in the heart of the NA62 detector, the silicon sensors are cooled down (to about -20 degrees Celsius) by a microfluidic silicon device. “The cooling system is needed to remove the heat produced by the readout chips the silicon sensor is bonded to,” explains Alessandro Mapelli, microsystems engineer working in the Physics department. “For the NA62 Gigatracker we have designed a cooling plate on top of which both the silicon sensor and the...

  7. Cooling pancakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, J.R.; Wilson, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    In theories of galaxy formation with a damping cut-off in the density fluctuation spectrum, the first non-linear structures to form are Zeldovich pancakes in which dissipation separates gas from any collisionless dark matter then present. One-dimensional numerical simulations of the collapse, shock heating, and subsequent thermal evolution of pancakes are described. Neutrinos (or any other cool collisionless particles) are followed by direct N-body methods and the gas by Eulerian hydrodynamics with conduction as well as cooling included. It is found that the pressure is relatively uniform within the shocked region and approximately equals the instantaneous ram pressure acting at the shock front. An analytic theory based upon this result accurately describes the numerical calculations. (author)

  8. Cool Sportswear

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    New athletic wear design based on the circulating liquid cooling system used in the astronaut's space suits, allows athletes to perform more strenuous activity without becoming overheated. Techni-Clothes gear incorporates packets containing a heat-absorbing gel that slips into an insulated pocket of the athletic garment and is positioned near parts of the body where heat transfer is most efficient. A gel packet is good for about one hour. Easily replaced from a supply of spares in an insulated container worn on the belt. The products, targeted primarily for runners and joggers and any other athlete whose performance may be affected by hot weather, include cooling headbands, wrist bands and running shorts with gel-pack pockets.

  9. Cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    Progress on the thermal effects project is reported with regard to physiology and distribution of Corbicula; power plant effects studies on burrowing mayfly populations; comparative thermal responses of largemouth bass from northern and southern populations; temperature selection by striped bass in Cherokee Reservoir; fish population studies; and predictive thermoregulation by fishes. Progress is also reported on the following; cause and ecological ramifications of threadfin shad impingement; entrainment project; aquaculture project; pathogenic amoeba project; and cooling tower drift project

  10. Simulations of floor cooling system capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odyjas, Andrzej; Górka, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Floor cooling system capacity depends on its physical and operative parameters. Using numerical simulations, it appears that cooling capacity of the system largely depends on the type of cooling loads occurring in the room. In the case of convective cooling loads capacity of the system is small. However, when radiation flux falls directly on the floor the system significantly increases productivity. The article describes the results of numerical simulations which allow to determine system capacity in steady thermal conditions, depending on the type of physical parameters of the system and the type of cooling load occurring in the room. Moreover, the paper sets out the limits of system capacity while maintaining a minimum temperature of the floor surface equal to 20 °C. The results are helpful for designing system capacity in different type of cooling loads and show maximum system capacity in acceptable thermal comfort condition. -- Highlights: ► We have developed numerical model for simulation of floor cooling system. ► We have described floor system capacity depending on its physical parameters. ► We have described floor system capacity depending on type of cooling loads. ► The most important in the obtained cooling capacities is the type of cooling loads. ► The paper sets out the possible maximum cooling floor system capacity

  11. Maximum Acceleration Recording Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Coarsely digitized maximum levels recorded in blown fuses. Circuit feeds power to accelerometer and makes nonvolatile record of maximum level to which output of accelerometer rises during measurement interval. In comparison with inertia-type single-preset-trip-point mechanical maximum-acceleration-recording devices, circuit weighs less, occupies less space, and records accelerations within narrower bands of uncertainty. In comparison with prior electronic data-acquisition systems designed for same purpose, circuit simpler, less bulky, consumes less power, costs and analysis of data recorded in magnetic or electronic memory devices. Circuit used, for example, to record accelerations to which commodities subjected during transportation on trucks.

  12. Influence of Ultrasonic Melt Treatment and Cooling Rates on the Microstructural Development and Elevated Temperature Mechanical Properties of a Hypereutectic Al-18Si-4Cu-3Ni Piston Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jea-Hee; Cho, Young-Hee; Jung, Jae-Gil; Lee, Jung-Moo [Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ik Min [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The influence of ultrasonic melt treatment (UST) combined with a change in cooling rates on the microstructure and elevated temperature mechanical properties of a hypereutectic Al-18Si-4Cu-3Ni piston alloy was investigated. Microstructural observation confirmed that UST effectively refined the sizes of primary Si and intermetallic compounds (e.g. ε-Al{sub 3}Ni) while promoting their homogeneous distribution. Besides the refinement of the constituent phases, the size of the dendrite arm spacing (DAS), which was hardly affected by UST, significantly deceased with increasing cooling rates. The refinement of the solidification structure in the alloy achieved through both UST and increased cooling rates resulted in an improvement in tensile properties, ultimate tensile strength and elongation in particular, after T5 heat treatment followed by overaging at 350 ℃. However, the elevated temperature yield strength of the alloy was not associated with the refinement, but was rather correlated with the 3-D interconnectivity, morphology and volume fraction of the primary Si.

  13. Maximum Quantum Entropy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Jae-Hoon; Han, Myung Joon

    2018-01-01

    Maximum entropy method for analytic continuation is extended by introducing quantum relative entropy. This new method is formulated in terms of matrix-valued functions and therefore invariant under arbitrary unitary transformation of input matrix. As a result, the continuation of off-diagonal elements becomes straightforward. Without introducing any further ambiguity, the Bayesian probabilistic interpretation is maintained just as in the conventional maximum entropy method. The applications o...

  14. Maximum power demand cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.

    1998-01-01

    The charging for a service is a supplier's remuneration for the expenses incurred in providing it. There are currently two charges for electricity: consumption and maximum demand. While no problem arises about the former, the issue is more complicated for the latter and the analysis in this article tends to show that the annual charge for maximum demand arbitrarily discriminates among consumer groups, to the disadvantage of some [it

  15. Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yuan Tseng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.

  16. An experimental study on the design, performance and suitability of evaporative cooling system using different indigenous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md. Ferdous; Sazidy, Ahmad Sharif; Kabir, Asif; Mridha, Gowtam; Litu, Nazmul Alam; Rahman, Md. Ashiqur

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of coconut coir pads, jute fiber pads and sackcloth pads as alternative pad materials. Experimental measurements were conducted and the experimental data were quantitative. The experimental work mainly focused on the effects of different types and thicknesses of evaporative cooling pads by using forced draft fan while changing the environmental conditions. Experiments are conducted in a specifically constructed test chamber having dimensions of 12'X8'X8', using a number of cooling pads (36"X26") with a variable thickness parameters of the evaporative cooling pads i.e., 50, 75 and 100 mm. Moreover, the experimental work involved the measurement of environmental parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, water mass flow rate and pressure drops at different times during the day. Experiments were conducted at three different water mass flow rates (0.25 kgs-1, 0.40 kgs-1 & 0.55 kgs-1) and three different air velocities (3.6 ms-1, 4.6 ms-1& 5.6 ms-1). There was a significant difference between evaporative cooling pad types and cooling efficiency. The coconut coir pads yielded maximum cooling efficiency of 85%, whereas other pads yielded the following maximum cooling efficiency: jute fiber pads 78% and sackcloth 69% for higher air velocity and minimum mass flow rate. It is found that the maximum reduction in temperature between cooling pad inlet and outlet is 4°C with a considerable increase in humidity. With the increase of pad thickness there was an increment of cooling efficiency. The results obtained for environmental factors, indicated that there was a significant difference between environmental factors and cooling efficiency. In terms of the effect of air velocity on saturation efficiency and pressure drop, higher air velocity decreases saturation efficiency and increases pressure drop across the wetted pad for maximum flow rate. Convective heat transfer co-efficient has an almost linear

  17. Thermal performance of mini-channel liquid cooled cylinder based battery thermal management for cylindrical lithium-ion power battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jiateng; Rao, Zhonghao; Li, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new kind of cooling method for cylindrical batteries based on mini-channel liquid cooled cylinder (LCC) is proposed. • The capacity of reducing the T max is limited through increasing the mass flow rate. • The capability of heat dissipation is enhanced first and then weaken along with the rising of entrance size. - Abstract: Battery thermal management is a very active research focus in recent years because of its great essentiality for electric vehicles. In order to maintain the maximum temperature and local temperature difference in appropriate range, a new kind of cooling method for cylindrical batteries which is based on mini-channel liquid cooled cylinder is proposed in this paper. The effects of channel quantity, mass flow rate, flow direction and entrance size on the heat dissipation performance were investigated numerically. The results showed that the maximum temperature can be controlled under 40 °C for 42,110 cylindrical batteries when the number of mini-channel is no less than four and the inlet mass flow rate is 1 × 10 −3 kg/s. Considering both the maximum temperature and local temperature difference, the cooling style by liquid cooled cylinder can demonstrate advantages compared to natural convection cooling only when the channel number is larger than eight. The capability of reducing the maximum temperature is limited through increasing the mass flow rate. The capacity of heat dissipation is enhanced first and then weakened along with the rising of entrance size, when the inlet mass flow rate is constant

  18. Proton-antiproton colliding beam electron cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenev, Ya.S.; Skrinskij, A.N.

    1981-01-01

    A possibility of effective cooling of high-energy pp tilde beams (E=10 2 -10 3 GeV) in the colliding mode by accompanying radiationally cooled electron beam circulating in an adjacent storage ring is studied. The cooling rate restrictions by the pp tilde beam interaction effects while colliding and the beam self-heating effect due to multiple internal scattering are considered. Some techniques permitting to avoid self-heating of a cooling electron beam or suppress its harmful effect on a heavy particle beam cooling are proposed. According to the estimations the cooling time of 10 2 -10 3 s order can be attained [ru

  19. A vascular mechanism to explain thermally mediated variations in deep-body cooling rates during the immersion of profoundly hyperthermic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Joanne N; van den Heuvel, Anne M J; Kerry, Pete; Clark, Mitchell J; Peoples, Gregory E; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2018-04-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does the cold-water immersion (14°C) of profoundly hyperthermic individuals induce reductions in cutaneous and limb blood flow of sufficient magnitude to impair heat loss relative to the size of the thermal gradient? What is the main finding and its importance? The temperate-water cooling (26°C) of profoundly hyperthermic individuals was found to be rapid and reproducible. A vascular mechanism accounted for that outcome, with temperature-dependent differences in cutaneous and limb blood flows observed during cooling. Decisions relating to cooling strategies must be based upon deep-body temperature measurements that have response dynamics consistent with the urgency for cooling. Physiologically trivial time differences for cooling the intrathoracic viscera of hyperthermic individuals have been reported between cold- and temperate-water immersion treatments. One explanation for that observation is reduced convective heat delivery to the skin during cold immersion, and this study was designed to test both the validity of that observation, and its underlying hypothesis. Eight healthy men participated in four head-out water immersions: two when normothermic, and two after exercise-induced, moderate-to-profound hyperthermia. Two water temperatures were used within each thermal state: temperate (26°C) and cold (14°C). Tissue temperatures were measured at three deep-body sites (oesophagus, auditory canal and rectum) and eight skin surfaces, with cutaneous vascular responses simultaneously evaluated from both forearms (laser-Doppler flowmetry and venous-occlusion plethysmography). During the cold immersion of normothermic individuals, oesophageal temperature decreased relative to baseline (-0.31°C over 20 min; P immersed in cold rather than in temperate water (P immersion, whereas pronounced constriction was evident during both immersions when subjects were hyperthermic, with the colder water eliciting a greater vascular

  20. Electron Cooling of RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Barton, Donald; Beavis, Dana; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruhwiler, David L; Burger, Al; Burov, Alexey; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Derbenev, Yaroslav S; Eidelman, Yury I; Favale, Anthony; Fedotov, Alexei V; Fischer, Wolfram; Funk, L W; Gassner, David M; Hahn, Harald; Harrison, Michael; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Koop, Ivan; Lambiase, Robert; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; MacKay, William W; Mahler, George; Malitsky, Nikolay; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Merminga, Lia; Meshkov, Igor; Mirabella, Kerry; Montag, Christoph; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Parkhomchuk, Vasily; Parzen, George; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Shatunov, Yuri; Sidorin, Anatoly O; Skrinsky, Aleksander Nikolayevich; Smirnov, Alexander V; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Trbojevic, Dejan; Troubnikov, Grigory; Wang, Gang; Wei, Jie; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang; ain, Animesh K

    2005-01-01

    We report progress on the R&D program for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This electron cooler is designed to cool 100 GeV/nucleon at storage energy using 54 MeV electrons. The electron source will be a superconducting RF photocathode gun. The accelerator will be a superconducting energy recovery linac. The frequency of the accelerator is set at 703.75 MHz. The maximum electron bunch frequency is 9.38 MHz, with bunch charge of 20 nC. The R&D program has the following components: The photoinjector and its photocathode, the superconducting linac cavity, start-to-end beam dynamics with magnetized electrons, electron cooling calculations including benchmarking experiments and development of a large superconducting solenoid. The photoinjector and linac cavity are being incorporated into an energy recovery linac aimed at demonstrating ampere class current at about 20 MeV. A Zeroth Order Design Report is in an advanced draft state, and can be found on the web at http://www.ags...

  1. Thermoregulatory responses of Holstein and Brown Swiss Heat-Stressed dairy cows to two different cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Calderon, Abelardo; Armstrong, Dennis; Ray, Donald; DeNise, Sue; Enns, Mark; Howison, Christine

    . Thirty-seven Holstein and 26 Brown Swiss dairy cows were used to evaluate the effect of two different cooling systems on physiological and hormonal responses during the summer. A control group of cows had access only to shade (C). A second group was cooled with spray and fans (S/F) and the third group was under an evaporative cooling system called Korral Kool (KK). The maximum temperature humidity index during the trial was from 73 to 85. Rectal temperatures and respiration rates of the C group were higher (P cows. Triiodothyronine levels in milk were higher (P cows during summer in hot, dry climates.

  2. Boosted Fast Flux Loop Alternative Cooling Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glen R. Longhurst; Donna Post Guillen; James R. Parry; Douglas L. Porter; Bruce W. Wallace

    2007-08-01

    Al-Hf alloy heat sink system is capable of maintaining all system components below their maximum temperature limits. The maximum temperature of this conduction cooling system, 224.2°C (435.6 °F) occurs in a small, localized region in the heat sink structure near the core mid-plane. The total coolant flow rate requirement for this configuration is 207 L/min (54.7 gpm). The calculated Flow Instability Ratio and Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio for this configuration under nominal conditions are 6.5 and 8.0, respectively, which safely exceed the minimum values of 2.0. Materials and fabrication issues inspection revealed that the neutron absorber would probably best be made from powdered Al3Hf mixed with aluminum powder and extruded or hot isostatically pressed. Although Al3Hf has not been specifically studied extensively, its mechanical and chemical properties should be very much like Al3Zr, which has been studied. Its behavior under irradiation should be very satisfactory, and resistance to corrosion will be investigated to a limited extent in planned miniplate irradiation tests in ATR. Pressurized water systems needed to effect heat removal are already available in the ATR complex, and mixed gas temperature control systems needed to trim experiment temperatures have been engineered and need only be fabricated and installed. In sum, it appears the alternately cooled configuration arrived at can be very successful. The cost estimate for this configuration indicates to

  3. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Ken.

    1989-01-01

    In PWR type reactors, a cooling water spray portion of emergency core cooling pipelines incorporated into pipelines on high temperature side is protruded to the inside of an upper plenum. Upon rupture of primary pipelines, pressure in a pressure vessel is abruptly reduced to generate a great amount of steams in the reactor core, which are discharged at a high flow rate into the primary pipelines on high temperature side. However, since the inside of the upper plenum has a larger area and the steam flow is slow, as compared with that of the pipelines on the high temperature side, ECCS water can surely be supplied into the reactor core to promote the re-flooding of the reactor core and effectively cool the reactor. Since the nuclear reactor can effectively be cooled to enable the promotion of pressure reduction and effective supply of coolants during the period of pressure reduction upon LOCA, the capacity of the pressure accumulation vessel can be decreased. Further, the re-flooding time for the reactor is shortened to provide an effect contributing to the improvement of the safety and the reduction of the cost. (N.H.)

  4. Maximum likely scale estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...

  5. Robust Maximum Association Estimators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Alfons (Andreas); C. Croux (Christophe); P. Filzmoser (Peter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe maximum association between two multivariate variables X and Y is defined as the maximal value that a bivariate association measure between one-dimensional projections αX and αY can attain. Taking the Pearson correlation as projection index results in the first canonical correlation

  6. Cool snacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Brock, Steen; Brunsø, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Young people snack and their snacking habits are not always healthy. We address the questions whether it is possible to develop a new snack product that adolescents will find attractive, even though it is based on ingredients as healthy as fruits and vegetables, and we argue that developing...... such a product requires an interdisciplinary effort where researchers with backgrounds in psychology, anthropology, media science, philosophy, sensory science and food science join forces. We present the COOL SNACKS project, where such a blend of competences was used first to obtain thorough insight into young...... people's snacking behaviour and then to develop and test new, healthier snacking solutions. These new snacking solutions were tested and found to be favourably accepted by young people. The paper therefore provides a proof of principle that the development of snacks that are both healthy and attractive...

  7. Cool visitors

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Pictured, from left to right: Tim Izo (saxophone, flute, guitar), Bobby Grant (tour manager), George Pajon (guitar). What do the LHC and a world-famous hip-hop group have in common? They are cool! On Saturday, 1st July, before their appearance at the Montreux Jazz Festival, three members of the 'Black Eyed Peas' came on a surprise visit to CERN, inspired by Dan Brown's Angels and Demons. At short notice, Connie Potter (Head of the ATLAS secretariat) organized a guided tour of ATLAS and the AD 'antimatter factory'. Still curious, lead vocalist Will.I.Am met CERN physicist Rolf Landua after the concert to ask many more questions on particles, CERN, and the origin of the Universe.

  8. Core cooling system for reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Ryoichi; Amada, Tatsuo.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the function of residual heat dissipation from the reactor core in case of emergency by providing a secondary cooling system flow channel, through which fluid having been subjected to heat exchange with the fluid flowing in a primary cooling system flow channel flows, with a core residual heat removal system in parallel with a main cooling system provided with a steam generator. Constitution: Heat generated in the core during normal reactor operation is transferred from a primary cooling system flow channel to a secondary cooling system flow channel through a main heat exchanger and then transferred through a steam generator to a water-steam system flow channel. In the event if removal of heat from the core by the main cooling system becomes impossible due to such cause as breakage of the duct line of the primary cooling system flow channel or a trouble in a primary cooling system pump, a flow control valve is opened, and steam generator inlet and outlet valves are closed, thus increasing the flow rate in the core residual heat removal system. Thereafter, a blower is started to cause dissipation of the core residual heat from the flow channel of a system for heat dissipation to atmosphere. (Seki, T.)

  9. Beam Dynamics With Electron Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Uesugi, T; Noda, K; Shibuya, S; Syresin, E M

    2004-01-01

    Electron cooling experiments have been carried out at HIMAC in order to develop new technologies in heavy-ion therapy and related researches. The cool-stacking method, in particular, has been studied to increase the intensity of heavy-ions. The maximum stack intensity was 2 mA, above which a fast ion losses occurred simulatneously with the vertical coherent oscillations. The instability depends on the working point, the stacked ion-density and the electron-beam density. The instability was suppressed by reducing the peak ion-density with RF-knockout heating.

  10. A Hubble Space Telescope Survey for Novae in M87. II. Snuffing out the Maximum Magnitude–Rate of Decline Relation for Novae as a Non-standard Candle, and a Prediction of the Existence of Ultrafast Novae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shara, Michael M.; Doyle, Trisha; Zurek, David [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West and 79th Street, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States); Lauer, Tod R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Baltz, Edward A. [KIPAC, SLAC, 2575 Sand Hill Road, M/S 29, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Kovetz, Attay [School of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Madrid, Juan P. [CSIRO, Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Mikołajewska, Joanna [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bartycka 18, PL 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Neill, J. D. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 278-17, Pasadena CA 91125 (United States); Prialnik, Dina [Department of Geosciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Welch, D. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, L8S 4M1, Ontario (Canada); Yaron, Ofer [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel)

    2017-04-20

    The extensive grid of numerical simulations of nova eruptions from the work of Yaron et al. first predicted that some classical novae might significantly deviate from the Maximum Magnitude–Rate of Decline (MMRD) relation, which purports to characterize novae as standard candles. Kasliwal et al. have announced the observational detection of a new class of faint, fast classical novae in the Andromeda galaxy. These objects deviate strongly from the MMRD relationship, as predicted by Yaron et al. Recently, Shara et al. reported the first detections of faint, fast novae in M87. These previously overlooked objects are as common in the giant elliptical galaxy M87 as they are in the giant spiral M31; they comprise about 40% of all classical nova eruptions and greatly increase the observational scatter in the MMRD relation. We use the extensive grid of the nova simulations of Yaron et al. to identify the underlying causes of the existence of faint, fast novae. These are systems that have accreted, and can thus eject, only very low-mass envelopes, of the order of 10{sup −7}–10{sup −8} M {sub ⊙}, on massive white dwarfs. Such binaries include, but are not limited to, the recurrent novae. These same models predict the existence of ultrafast novae that display decline times, t {sub 2,} to be as short as five hours. We outline a strategy for their future detection.

  11. Habitat reclamation plan to mitigate for the loss of habitat due to oil and gas production activities under maximum efficient rate, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.C.

    1994-11-01

    Activities associated with oil and gas development under the Maximum Efficiency Rate (MER) from 1975 to 2025 will disturb approximately 3,354 acres. Based on 1976 aerial photographs and using a dot grid methodology, the amount of land disturbed prior to MER is estimated to be 3,603 acres. Disturbances on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) were mapped using 1988 aerial photography and a geographical information system. A total of 6,079 acres were classified as disturbed as of June, 1988. The overall objective of this document is to provide specific information relating to the on-site habitat restoration program at NPRC. The specific objectives, which relate to the terms and conditions that must be met by DOE as a means of protecting the San Joaquin kit fox from incidental take are to: (1) determine the amount and location of disturbed lands on NPR-1 and the number of acres disturbed as a result of MER activities, (2) develop a long term (10 year) program to restore an equivalent on-site acres to that lost from prior project-related actions, and (3) examine alternative means to offset kit fox habitat loss

  12. Divertor cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Tadakazu; Hayashi, Katsumi; Handa, Hiroyuki

    1993-01-01

    Cooling water for a divertor cooling system cools the divertor, thereafter, passes through pipelines connecting the exit pipelines of the divertor cooling system and the inlet pipelines of a blanket cooling system and is introduced to the blanket cooling system in a vacuum vessel. It undergoes emission of neutrons, and cooling water in the divertor cooling system containing a great amount of N-16 which is generated by radioactivation of O-16 is introduced to the blanket cooling system in the vacuum vessel by way of pipelines, and after cooling, passes through exit pipelines of the blanket cooling system and is introduced to the outside of the vacuum vessel. Radiation of N-16 in the cooling water is decayed sufficiently with passage of time during cooling of the blanket, thereby enabling to decrease the amount of shielding materials such as facilities and pipelines, and ensure spaces. (N.H.)

  13. The microstructure and magnetic properties of Nd8.5Tb1.5Fe83Zr1B6 ribbons obtained at various cooling rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dośpiał Marcin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of microstructure and magnetic properties studies of Nd8.5Tb1.5Fe83Zr1B6 ribbons obtained by melt-spinning technique. The samples were produced using the rapid cooling of liquid alloy on the copper wheel, by applying three different linear velocities 20, 30, and 35 m/s. The microstructure of obtained ribbons was examined using X-ray diffractometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Magnetic measurements were performed using LakeShore vibrating sample magnetometer. The microstructure measurements were used for quantitative and qualitative analysis of phase composition. Basing on results of structure studies combined with magnetic measurements, the influence of phase composition on hysteresis loop behavior was described.

  14. Load calculations of radiant cooling systems for sizing the plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was, by using a building simulation software, to prove that a radiant cooling system should not be sized based on the maximum cooling load but at a lower value. For that reason six radiant cooling models were simulated with two control principles using 100%, 70% and 50......% of the maximum cooling load. It was concluded that all tested systems were able to provide an acceptable thermal environment even when the 50% of the maximum cooling load was used. From all the simulated systems the one that performed the best under both control principles was the ESCS ceiling system. Finally...... it was proved that ventilation systems should be sized based on the maximum cooling load....

  15. WORKSHOP: Beam cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Cooling - the control of unruly particles to provide well-behaved beams - has become a major new tool in accelerator physics. The main approaches of electron cooling pioneered by Gersh Budker at Novosibirsk and stochastic cooling by Simon van der Meer at CERN, are now complemented by additional ideas, such as laser cooling of ions and ionization cooling of muons

  16. Modelling maximum canopy conductance and transpiration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is much current interest in predicting the maximum amount of water that can be transpired by Eucalyptus trees. It is possible that industrial waste water may be applied as irrigation water to eucalypts and it is important to predict the maximum transpiration rates of these plantations in an attempt to dispose of this ...

  17. Cooling many particles at once

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitiello, G.; Knight, P.; Beige, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We propose a mechanism for the collective cooling of a large number N of trapped particles to very low temperatures by applying red-detuned laser fields and coupling them to the quantized field inside an optical resonator. The dynamics is described by what appear to be rate equations but where some of the major quantities are coherences and not populations. It is shown that the cooperative behaviour of the system provides cooling rates of the same order of magnitude as the cavity decay rate. This constitutes a significant speed-up compared to other cooling mechanisms since this rate can, in principle, be as large as the square root of N times the single-particle cavity or laser coupling constants. (author)

  18. Maximum entropy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponman, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    For some years now two different expressions have been in use for maximum entropy image restoration and there has been some controversy over which one is appropriate for a given problem. Here two further entropies are presented and it is argued that there is no single correct algorithm. The properties of the four different methods are compared using simple 1D simulations with a view to showing how they can be used together to gain as much information as possible about the original object. (orig.)

  19. Freqüência cardíaca máxima em idosas brasileiras: uma comparação entre valores medidos e previstos Maximum heart rate in Brazilian elderly women: comparing measured and predicted values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Abrantes Pereira da Silva

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O presente estudo objetivou comparar os valores de freqüência cardíaca máxima (FCmáx medidos durante um teste de esforço progressivo (TEP, com os obtidos através de equações de predição, em idosas brasileiras. MÉTODOS: Um TEP máximo sob o protocolo modificado de Bruce, realizado em esteira, foi utilizado para obtenção dos valores de referência da freqüência cardíaca máxima (FCmáx, em 93 mulheres idosas (67,1±5,16 anos. Os valores obtidos foram comparados aos estimados pelas equações "220 - idade" e a de Tanaka e cols., através da ANOVA, para amostras repetidas. A correlação e a concordância entre os valores medidos e os estimados foram testadas. Adicionalmente, a correlação entre os valores de FCmáx medidos e a idade das voluntárias foi examinada. RESULTADOS: Os resultados foram os seguintes: 1 a média da FCmáx atingida no TEP foi de 145,5±12,5 batimentos por minuto (bpm; 2 as equações "220 - idade" e a de Tanaka e cols. (2001 superestimaram significativamente (p OBJECTIVE: This study sought to compare maximum heart rate (HRmax values measured during a graded exercise test (GXT with those calculated from prediction equations in Brazilian elderly women. METHODS: A treadmill maximal graded exercise test in accordance with the modified Bruce protocol was used to obtain reference values for maximum heart rate (HRmax in 93 elderly women (mean age 67.1 ± 5.16. Measured values were compared with those estimated from the "220 - age" and Tanaka et al formulas using repeated-measures ANOVA. Correlation and agreement between measured and estimated values were tested. Also evaluated was the correlation between measured HRmax and volunteers’ age. RESULTS: Results were as follows: 1 mean HRmax reached during GXT was 145.5 ± 12,5 beats per minute (bpm; 2 both the "220 - age" and Tanaka et al (2001 equations significantly overestimated (p < 0.001 HRmax by a mean difference of 7.4 and 15.5 bpm, respectively; 3

  20. Renewable Heating And Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable heating and cooling is a set of alternative resources and technologies that can be used in place of conventional heating and cooling technologies for common applications such as water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat.

  1. The last glacial maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P.U.; Dyke, A.S.; Shakun, J.D.; Carlson, A.E.; Clark, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; McCabe, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level ???14.5 ka.

  2. Cooling system upon reactor isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kohei; Oda, Shingo; Miura, Satoshi

    1992-01-01

    A water level indicator for detecting the upper limit value for a range of using a suppression pool and a thermometer for detecting the temperature of water at the cooling water inlet of an auxiliary device are disposed. When a detection signal is intaken and the water level in the suppression pool reach the upper limit value for the range of use, a secondary flow rate control value is opened and a primary flow rate control valve is closed. When the temperature of the water at the cooling water inlet of the auxiliary device reaches the upper limit value, the primary and the secondary flow rate control valves are opened. During a stand-by state, the first flow rate control valve is set open and the secondary flow rate control valve is set closed respectively. After reactor isolation, if a reactor water low level signal is received, an RCIC pump is actuated and cooling water is sent automatically under pressure from a condensate storage tank to the reactor and the auxiliary device requiring coolants by way of the primary flow rate control valve. Rated flow rate is ensured in the reactor and cooling water of an appropriate temperature can be supplied to the auxiliary device. (N.H.)

  3. Stochastic cooling in muon colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, W.A.; Sessler, A.M.

    1993-09-01

    Analysis of muon production techniques for high energy colliders indicates the need for rapid and effective beam cooling in order that one achieve luminosities > 10 30 cm -2 s -1 as required for high energy physics experiments. This paper considers stochastic cooling to increase the phase space density of the muons in the collider. Even at muon energies greater than 100 GeV, the number of muons per bunch must be limited to ∼10 3 for the cooling rate to be less than the muon lifetime. With such a small number of muons per bunch, the final beam emittance implied by the luminosity requirement is well below the thermodynamic limit for beam electronics at practical temperatures. Rapid bunch stacking after the cooling process can raise the number of muons per bunch to a level consistent with both the luminosity goals and with practical temperatures for the stochastic cooling electronics. A major advantage of our stochastic cooling/stacking scheme over scenarios that employ only ionization cooling is that the power on the production target can be reduced below 1 MW

  4. A passive cooling system proposal for multifunction and high-power displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tari, Ilker

    2013-03-01

    Flat panel displays are conventionally cooled by internal natural convection, which constrains the possible rate of heat transfer from the panel. On one hand, during the last few years, the power consumption and the related cooling requirement for 1080p displays have decreased mostly due to energy savings by the switch to LED backlighting and more efficient electronics. However, on the other hand, the required cooling rate recently started to increase with new directions in the industry such as 3D displays, and ultra-high-resolution displays (recent 4K announcements and planned introduction of 8K). In addition to these trends in display technology itself, there is also a trend to integrate consumer entertainment products into displays with the ultimate goal of designing a multifunction device replacing the TV, the media player, the PC, the game console and the sound system. Considering the increasing power requirement for higher fidelity in video processing, these multifunction devices tend to generate very high heat fluxes, which are impossible to dissipate with internal natural convection. In order to overcome this obstacle, instead of active cooling with forced convection that comes with drawbacks of noise, additional power consumption, and reduced reliability, a passive cooling system relying on external natural convection and radiation is proposed here. The proposed cooling system consists of a heat spreader flat heat pipe and aluminum plate-finned heat sink with anodized surfaces. For this system, the possible maximum heat dissipation rates from the standard size panels (in 26-70 inch range) are estimated by using our recently obtained heat transfer correlations for the natural convection from aluminum plate-finned heat sinks together with the surface-to-surface radiation. With the use of the proposed passive cooling system, the possibility of dissipating very high heat rates is demonstrated, hinting a promising green alternative to active cooling.

  5. Effect of Airflow Velocity on Pre-cooling Process of Pomegranate by Forced Cooling Air under Unsteady State Heat Transfer Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A Behaeen

    2018-03-01

    . Also, half-cooling time and seven-eighths cooling time reduced and so cooling rate enhanced. Thus, despite a reduction lag factor, due to a significant increase in cooling coefficient, half and seven-eighths cooling declined. Dimensionless temperature, θ, less than 0.2 and 0.1 in the center and peel and at different velocities had little impact on the rate of cooling in pomegranate. The difference in primary cooling time (0-500 sec and in high lag factor (greater than 1 occurred, which represents an internal resistance of heat transfer in fruit against the airflow. Cooling the center of pomegranate starts with time delay which causes the beginning of the cooling curve becomes flat. Seven-eighths cooling time is the part of half-cooling time. The range of S was 2.5-3.5H in the present study. At first, cooling heterogeneity at 0.5 m s-1 was low in the center and peel of pomegranate and then with increasing the velocity up to 1 m s-1, it enhanced and again decreased at 1.3 m s-1. After a period of cooling (5000 sec, almost layers of pomegranate reached the same temperature and so heterogeneity reduced. The maximum instantaneous cooling rate was 8.09 × 10-4 ºC s-1 at 1.3 m s-1 in the center of pomegranate. By increasing the airflow velocity from 0.5 to 1.3 m s-1, the convective heat transfer coefficient increased from 11.05 to 17.51 W m-2 K-1. Therefore, the velocity of cold air is an important factor in variation of convective heat transfer coefficient. Conclusions Cooling efficiency is evaluated based on rapid and uniformity of cooling. Cooling curves against time reduced exponentially at the different airflow velocities in the center (aril and outer layer (peel of pomegranate. By increasing the air flow velocity, half and seven-eighths cooling time reduced and cooling rate increased that showed direct impact of this variable. The main reason was the variation of convective heat transfer coefficient. The lowest level of uniformity obtained at the highest velocity (1

  6. Compositional variations for small-scale gamma prime (γ′) precipitates formed at different cooling rates in an advanced Ni-based superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.Q.; Francis, E.; Robson, J.; Preuss, M.; Haigh, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Size-dependent compositional variations under different cooling regimes have been investigated for ordered L1 2 -structured gamma prime (γ′) precipitates in the commercial powder metallurgy Ni-based superalloy RR1000. Using scanning transmission electron microscope imaging combined with absorption-corrected energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, we have discovered large differences in the Al, Ti and Co compositions for γ′ precipitates in the size range 10–300 nm. Our experimental results, coupled with complementary thermodynamic calculations, demonstrate the importance of kinetic factors on precipitate composition in Ni-based superalloys. In particular, these results provide new evidence for the role of elemental diffusion kinetics and aluminium antisite atoms on the low-temperature growth kinetics of fine-scale γ′ precipitates. Our findings have important implications for understanding the microstructure and precipitation behaviour of Ni-based superalloys, suggesting a transition in the mechanism of vacancy-mediated diffusion of Al from intrasublattice exchange at high temperatures to intersublattice antisite-assisted exchange at low temperatures

  7. Effect of the medium characteristics and the heating and cooling rates on the nonisothermal heat resistance of Bacillus sporothermodurans IC4 spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, María-Dolores; Huertas, Juan-Pablo; Fernández, Pablo S; Palop, Alfredo

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, highly thermo-resistant mesophilic spore-forming bacteria belonging to the species Bacillus sporothermodurans have caused non-sterility problems in industrial sterilization processes. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the heating medium characteristics (pH and buffer/food) on the thermal inactivation of B. sporothermodurans spores when exposed to isothermal and non-isothermal heating and cooling treatments and the suitability of non-linear Weibull and Geeraaerd models to predict the survivors of these thermal treatments. Thermal treatments were carried out in pH 3, 5 and 7 McIlvaine buffer and in a courgette soup. Isothermal survival curves showed shoulders that were accurately characterized by means of both models. A clear effect of the pH of the heating medium was observed, decreasing the D120 value from pH 7 to pH 3 buffer down to one third. Differences in heat resistance were similar, regardless of the model used and were kept at all temperatures tested. The heat resistance in courgette soup was similar to that shown in pH 7 buffer. When the heat resistance values obtained under isothermal conditions were used to predict the survival in the non-isothermical experiments, the predictions estimated the experimental data quite accurately, both with Weibull and Geeraerd models. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Provision of reliable core cooling in vessel-type boiling reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alferov, N.S.; Balunov, B.F.; Davydov, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Methods for providing reliable core cooling in vessel-type boiling reactors with natural circulation for heat supply are analysed. The solution of this problem is reduced to satisfaction of two conditions such as: water confinement over the reactor core necessary in case of an accident and confinement of sufficient coolant flow rate through the bottom cross section of fuel assemblies for some time. The reliable fuel element cooling under conditions of a maximum credible accident (brittle failure of a reactor vessel) is shown to be provided practically in any accident, using the safety vessel in combination with the application of means of standard operation and minimal composition and capacity of ECCS

  9. Restaurant food cooling practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Blade, Henry; Reimann, Dave; Everstine, Karen; Nicholas, Dave; Egan, Jessica; Koktavy, Nicole; Quilliam, Daniela N

    2012-12-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study.

  10. Stabilizing effects of cool dialysate temperature on hemodynamic parameters in diabetic patients undergoing hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi, A.; Shafiee, M.; Rowghani, K.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the effect of cool dialysis on hemodynamic parameters and serum nitric oxide levels in diabetic patients, we studied 20 old (mean age 63.3+-7.5) chronic hemodialysis diabetics who were dialyzed twice, once using cool and once using standard (37 C) temperature dialysis solution. During the study, all the dialysis conditions were maintained the same except cooling the dailysate from 37C to 35C. Hemodynamic parameters including SBP, DBP and HR were measured hourly. Oral temperature was measured before and after dialysis. Serum urea and nitric oxide metabolites were determined before and after hemodialysis. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure decreased significantly during standard compared to cool dialysis. Maximum decrease of systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure was observed during the third hour of dialysis and magnitude of decrease was 18, 17 and 14 percent for standard temperature and 6, 1, and 4 percent for cool dialysis, respectively. Heart rate did not differ significantly between the two study groups. Compared to the pre dialysis levels of serum nitric oxide metabolites, the post dialysis levels decreased significantly with cool and standard temperature dialysate (59+-5 vs. 37+-4, and 63+-7 vs. 41+-5, umol/L respectively, P<0.01). Cool dialysis could decrease episodes of hypotension and stabilized hemodynamic parameters in diabetic patients. Probably other mechanisms than increased serum nitric oxide levels may be involved in hemodialysis hypotension in this group of patients. (author)

  11. Experimental study on the thermal performance of a mechanical cooling tower with different drift eliminators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, M.; Martinez, P.J.; Viedma, A.

    2009-01-01

    Cooling towers are equipment devices commonly used to dissipate heat from power generation units, water-cooled refrigeration, air conditioning and industrial processes. Water drift emitted from cooling towers is objectionable for several reasons, mainly due to human health hazards. It is common practice to fit drift eliminators to cooling towers in order to minimize water loss from the system. It is foreseeable that the characteristics of the installed drift eliminators, like their pressure drop, affect the thermal performance of the cooling tower. However, no references regarding this fact have been found in the reviewed bibliography. This paper studies the thermal performance of a forced draft counter-flow wet cooling tower fitted with different drift eliminators for a wide range of air and water mass flow rates. The data registered in the experimental set-up were employed to obtain correlations of the tower characteristic, which defines the cooling tower's thermal performance. The outlet water temperature predicted by these correlations was compared with the experimentally registered values obtaining a maximum difference of ±3%

  12. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Topsøe

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over

  13. Probable maximum flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L.

    1991-11-01

    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility

  14. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. We review the need for such methods in data analysis and show, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. We conclude with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  15. Solar maximum observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    The successful retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite by Shuttle astronauts in April 1984 permitted continuance of solar flare observations that began in 1980. The SMM carries a soft X ray polychromator, gamma ray, UV and hard X ray imaging spectrometers, a coronagraph/polarimeter and particle counters. The data gathered thus far indicated that electrical potentials of 25 MeV develop in flares within 2 sec of onset. X ray data show that flares are composed of compressed magnetic loops that have come too close together. Other data have been taken on mass ejection, impacts of electron beams and conduction fronts with the chromosphere and changes in the solar radiant flux due to sunspots. 13 references

  16. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. The author reviews the need for such methods in data analysis and shows, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. He concludes with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  17. Functional Maximum Autocorrelation Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2005-01-01

    MAF outperforms the functional PCA in concentrating the interesting' spectra/shape variation in one end of the eigenvalue spectrum and allows for easier interpretation of effects. Conclusions. Functional MAF analysis is a useful methods for extracting low dimensional models of temporally or spatially......Purpose. We aim at data where samples of an underlying function are observed in a spatial or temporal layout. Examples of underlying functions are reflectance spectra and biological shapes. We apply functional models based on smoothing splines and generalize the functional PCA in......\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{ramsay97} to functional maximum autocorrelation factors (MAF)\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{switzer85,larsen2001d}. We apply the method to biological shapes as well as reflectance spectra. {\\$\\backslash\\$bf Methods}. MAF seeks linear combination of the original variables that maximize autocorrelation between...

  18. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yunji; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  19. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2015-02-12

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  20. Development of efficient air-cooling strategies for lithium-ion battery module based on empirical heat source model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tao; Tseng, K.J.; Zhao, Jiyun

    2015-01-01

    Thermal modeling is the key issue in thermal management of lithium-ion battery system, and cooling strategies need to be carefully investigated to guarantee the temperature of batteries in operation within a narrow optimal range as well as provide cost effective and energy saving solutions for cooling system. This article reviews and summarizes the past cooling methods especially forced air cooling and introduces an empirical heat source model which can be widely applied in the battery module/pack thermal modeling. In the development of empirical heat source model, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method is employed, and thermal insulation experiments are conducted to provide the key parameters. A transient thermal model of 5 × 5 battery module with forced air cooling is then developed based on the empirical heat source model. Thermal behaviors of battery module under different air cooling conditions, discharge rates and ambient temperatures are characterized and summarized. Varies cooling strategies are simulated and compared in order to obtain an optimal cooling method. Besides, the battery fault conditions are predicted from transient simulation scenarios. The temperature distributions and variations during discharge process are quantitatively described, and it is found that the upper limit of ambient temperature for forced air cooling is 35 °C, and when ambient temperature is lower than 20 °C, forced air-cooling is not necessary. - Highlights: • An empirical heat source model is developed for battery thermal modeling. • Different air-cooling strategies on module thermal characteristics are investigated. • Impact of different discharge rates on module thermal responses are investigated. • Impact of ambient temperatures on module thermal behaviors are investigated. • Locations of maximum temperatures under different operation conditions are studied.

  1. Difference in the craniocaudal gradient of the maximum pixel value change rate between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and normal subjects using sub-mGy dynamic chest radiography with a flat panel detector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yoshitake; Ueyama, Masako; Abe, Takehiko; Araki, Tetsuro; Abe, Takayuki; Nishino, Mizuki; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Hatabu, Hiroto; Kudoh, Shoji

    2017-07-01

    To compare the craniocaudal gradients of the maximum pixel value change rate (MPCR) during tidal breathing between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and normal subjects using dynamic chest radiography. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board and all participants provided written informed consent. Forty-three COPD patients (mean age, 71.6±8.7 years) and 47 normal subjects (non-smoker healthy volunteers) (mean age, 54.8±9.8 years) underwent sequential chest radiographs during tidal breathing in a standing position using dynamic chest radiography with a flat panel detector system. We evaluated the craniocaudal gradient of MPCR. The results were analyzed using an unpaired t-test and the Tukey-Kramer method. The craniocaudal gradients of MPCR in COPD patients were significantly lower than those in normal subjects (right inspiratory phase, 75.5±48.1 vs. 108.9±42.0s -1 cm -1 , P<0.001; right expiratory phase, 66.4±40.6 vs. 89.8±31.6s -1 cm -1 , P=0.003; left inspiratory phase, 75.5±48.2 vs. 108.2±47.2s -1 cm -1 , P=0.002; left expiratory phase, 60.9±38.2 vs. 84.3±29.5s -1 cm -1 , P=0.002). No significant differences in height, weight, or BMI were observed between COPD and normal groups. In the sub-analysis, the gradients in severe COPD patients (global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease [GOLD] 3 or 4, n=26) were significantly lower than those in mild COPD patients (GOLD 1 or 2, n=17) for both right and left inspiratory/expiratory phases (all P≤0.005). A decrease of the craniocaudal gradient of MPCR was observed in COPD patients. The craniocaudal gradient was lower in severe COPD patients than in mild COPD patients. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Scale Modelling of Nocturnal Cooling in Urban Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spronken-Smith, R. A.; Oke, T. R.

    Scale modelling is used to determine the relative contribution of heat transfer processes to the nocturnal cooling of urban parks and the characteristic temporal and spatial variation of surface temperature. Validation is achieved using a hardware model-to-numerical model-to-field observation chain of comparisons. For the calm case, modelling shows that urban-park differences of sky view factor (s) and thermal admittance () are the relevant properties governing the park cool island (PCI) effect. Reduction in sky view factor by buildings and trees decreases the drain of longwave radiation from the surface to the sky. Thus park areas near the perimeter where there may be a line of buildings or trees, or even sites within a park containing tree clumps or individual trees, generally cool less than open areas. The edge effect applies within distances of about 2.2 to 3.5 times the height of the border obstruction, i.e., to have any part of the park cooling at the maximum rate a square park must be at least twice these dimensions in width. Although the central areas of parks larger than this will experience greater cooling they will accumulate a larger volume of cold air that may make it possible for them to initiate a thermal circulation and extend the influence of the park into the surrounding city. Given real world values of s and it seems likely that radiation and conduction play almost equal roles in nocturnal PCI development. Evaporation is not a significant cooling mechanism in the nocturnal calm case but by day it is probably critical in establishing a PCI by sunset. It is likely that conditions that favour PCI by day (tree shade, soil wetness) retard PCI growth at night. The present work, which only deals with PCI growth, cannot predict which type of park will be coolest at night. Complete specification of nocturnal PCI magnitude requires knowledge of the PCI at sunset, and this depends on daytime energetics.

  3. Crack Growth Rate Properties of Gr.91 Steel for a Defect Assessment of a Component in a Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeong-Yeon; Kim, Woo-Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In this study, the crack growth models were derived from a number of crack growth tests for Gr.91 steel specimens under fatigue loading and creep loading at elevated temperature. The test data from the experiments of fatigue crack growth (FCG) and creep crack growth (CCG) were obtained, and the test data were compared with those of the RCC-MRx to investigate conservatism of the crack growth models in RCC-MRx. It was shown that the FCG rate model of RCC-MRx was conservative while the CCG model was non-conservative for Gr.91 steel when compared with present test data. The FCG rate tests were conducted with round bar type single edge crack tension specimens, and standard C(T) specimens with a 12.7mm thickness. The FCG test results were compared with those of the FCG rate models of RCC-MRx that are based on 25.4mm thick C(T) specimens. It was shown that the FCG rate model of RCC-MRx was conservative when compared to the present test data. The CCG rate models were derived from the test data for standard C(T) specimens with 12.7mm thickness. The data were compared with those of the RCC-MRx that are based on 25.4mm thick C(T) specimens. Conservatism of the crack growth models in 2012 edition of the RCC-MRx code was reviewed with the present CCG test data.

  4. Solar maximum mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.

    1981-01-01

    By understanding the sun, astrophysicists hope to expand this knowledge to understanding other stars. To study the sun, NASA launched a satellite on February 14, 1980. The project is named the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). The satellite conducted detailed observations of the sun in collaboration with other satellites and ground-based optical and radio observations until its failure 10 months into the mission. The main objective of the SMM was to investigate one aspect of solar activity: solar flares. A brief description of the flare mechanism is given. The SMM satellite was valuable in providing information on where and how a solar flare occurs. A sequence of photographs of a solar flare taken from SMM satellite shows how a solar flare develops in a particular layer of the solar atmosphere. Two flares especially suitable for detailed observations by a joint effort occurred on April 30 and May 21 of 1980. These flares and observations of the flares are discussed. Also discussed are significant discoveries made by individual experiments

  5. Process fluid cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farquhar, N.G.; Schwab, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A system of heat exchangers is disclosed for cooling process fluids. The system is particularly applicable to cooling steam generator blowdown fluid in a nuclear plant prior to chemical purification of the fluid in which it minimizes the potential of boiling of the plant cooling water which cools the blowdown fluid

  6. Effect of cooling rate on the survival of cryopreserved rooster sperm: Comparison of different distances in the vapor above the surface of the liquid nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeddu, M; Mosca, F; Abdel Sayed, A; Zaniboni, L; Mangiagalli, M G; Colombo, E; Cerolini, S

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present trial was to study the effect of different freezing rates on the survival of cryopreserved rooster semen packaged in straws. Slow and fast freezing rates were obtained keeping straws at different distances in the vapor above the surface of the nitrogen during freezing. Adult Lohmann roosters (n=27) were used. Two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, semen was packaged in straws and frozen comparing the distances of 1, 3 and 5cm in nitrogen vapor above the surface of the liquid nitrogen. In Experiment 2, the distances of 3, 7 and 10cm above the surfaces of the liquid nitrogen were compared. Sperm viability, motility and progressive motility and the kinetic variables were assessed in fresh and cryopreserved semen samples. The recovery rates after freezing/thawing were also calculated. In Experiment 1, there were no significant differences among treatments for all semen quality variables. In Experiment 2, the percentage of viable (46%) and motile (22%) sperm in cryopreserved semen was greater when semen was placed 3cm compared with 7 and 10cm in the vapor above the surface of the liquid nitrogen. The recovery rate of progressive motile sperm after thawing was also greater when semen was stored 3cm in the vapor above the surface of the liquid nitrogen. More rapid freezing rates are required to improve the survival of rooster sperm after cryopreservation and a range of distances from 1 to 5cm in nitrogen vapor above the surface of the liquid nitrogen is recommended for optimal sperm viability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Applying the sequential neural-network approximation and orthogonal array algorithm to optimize the axial-flow cooling system for rapid thermal processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Shih-Yu; Shen, Ming-Ho; Chang, Ying-Pin

    2009-01-01

    The sequential neural-network approximation and orthogonal array (SNAOA) were used to shorten the cooling time for the rapid cooling process such that the normalized maximum resolved stress in silicon wafer was always below one in this study. An orthogonal array was first conducted to obtain the initial solution set. The initial solution set was treated as the initial training sample. Next, a back-propagation sequential neural network was trained to simulate the feasible domain to obtain the optimal parameter setting. The size of the training sample was greatly reduced due to the use of the orthogonal array. In addition, a restart strategy was also incorporated into the SNAOA so that the searching process may have a better opportunity to reach a near global optimum. In this work, we considered three different cooling control schemes during the rapid thermal process: (1) downward axial gas flow cooling scheme; (2) upward axial gas flow cooling scheme; (3) dual axial gas flow cooling scheme. Based on the maximum shear stress failure criterion, the other control factors such as flow rate, inlet diameter, outlet width, chamber height and chamber diameter were also examined with respect to cooling time. The results showed that the cooling time could be significantly reduced using the SNAOA approach

  8. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  9. Performance enhancement of PV cells through micro-channel cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffar Ali

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of a PV cell is strongly dependent on its surface temperature. The current study is focused to achieve maximum efficiency of PV cells even in scorching temperatures in hot climates like Pakistan where the cell surface temperatures can even rise up to around 80 ℃. The study includes both the CFD and real time experimental investigations of a solar panel using micro channel cooling. Initially, CFD analysis is performed by developing a 3D model of a Mono-Crystalline cell with micro-channels to analyze cell surface temperature distribution at different irradiance and water flow rates. Afterwards, an experimental setup is developed for performance investigations under the real conditions of an open climate of a Pakistan's city, Taxila. Two 35W panels are manufactured for the experiments; one is based on the standard manufacturing procedure while other cell is developed with 4mm thick aluminum sheet having micro-channels of cross-section of 1mm by 1mm. The whole setup also includes different sensors for the measurement of solar irradiance, cell power, surface temperature and water flow rates. The experimental results show that PV cell surface temperature drop of around 15 ℃ is achieved with power increment of around 14% at maximum applied water flow rate of 3 LPM. Additionally, a good agreement is also found between CFD and experimental results. Therefore, that study clearly shows that a significant performance improvement of PV cells can be achieved through the proposed cell cooling technique.

  10. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Akira; Kobayashi, Masahide.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To enable a stable operation of an emergency core cooling system by preventing the system from the automatic stopping at an abnormally high level of the reactor water during its operation. Constitution: A pump flow rate signal and a reactor water level signal are used and, when the reactor water level is increased to a predetermined level, the pump flow rate is controlled by the reactor water level signal instead of the flow rate signal. Specifically, when the reactor water level is gradually increased by the water injection from the pump and exceeds a setting signal for the water level, the water level deviation signal acts as a demand signal for the decrease in the flow rate of the pump and the output signal from the water level controller is also decreased depending on the control constant. At a certain point, the output signal from the water level controller becomes smaller than the output signal from the flow rate controller. Thus, the output signal from the water level controller is outputted as the output signal for the lower level preference device. In this way, the reactor water level and the pump flow rate can be controlled within a range not exceeding the predetermined pump flow rate. (Horiuchi, T.)

  11. Growth of Clostridium perfringens during cooling of refried beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M; Akins, E Deann; Friedrich, Loretta M; Danyluk, Michelle D; Simonne, Amarat H

    2012-10-01

    Outbreaks of Clostridium perfringens have been associated with dishes containing refried beans from food service establishments. However, growth of C. perfringens in refried beans has not been investigated, and predictive models have not been validated in this food matrix. We investigated the growth of C. perfringens during the cooling of refried beans. Refried beans (pinto and black, with and without salt added) were inoculated with 3 log CFU/g C. perfringens spores and incubated isothermally at 12, 23, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50°C. The levels of C. perfringens were monitored 3, 5, 8, and 10 h after inoculation, and then fitted to the Baranyi primary model and the Rosso secondary model prior to solving the Baranyi differential equation. The final model was validated by dynamic cooling experiments carried out in stockpots, thus mimicking the worst possible food service conditions. All refried beans samples supported the growth of C. perfringens, and all models fit the data with pseudo-R(2) values of 0.95 or greater and mean square errors of 0.3 or lower. The estimated maximum specific growth rates were generally higher in pinto beans, with or without salt added (2.64 and 1.95 h(-1), respectively), when compared with black beans, with or without salt added (1.78 and 1.61 h(-1), respectively). After 10 h of incubation, maximum populations of C. perfringens were significantly higher in samples with no salt added (7.9 log CFU/g for both pinto and black beans) than in samples with salt added (7.3 and 7.2 log CFU/g for pinto and black beans, respectively). The dynamic model predicted the growth of C. perfringens during cooling, with an average root mean squared error of 0.44. The use of large stockpots to cool refried beans led to an observed 1.2-log increase (1.5-log increase predicted by model) in levels of C. perfringens during cooling. The use of shallower pans for cooling is recommended, because they cool faster, therefore limiting the growth of C. perfringens.

  12. Permeability enhancement by shock cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Luke; Heap, Michael; Reuschlé, Thierry; Baud, Patrick; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2015-04-01

    The permeability of an efficient reservoir, e.g. a geothermal reservoir, should be sufficient to permit the circulation of fluids. Generally speaking, permeability decreases over the life cycle of the geothermal system. As a result, is usually necessary to artificially maintain and enhance the natural permeability of these systems. One of the methods of enhancement -- studied here -- is thermal stimulation (injecting cold water at low pressure). This goal of this method is to encourage new thermal cracks within the reservoir host rocks, thereby increasing reservoir permeability. To investigate the development of thermal microcracking in the laboratory we selected two granites: a fine-grained (Garibaldi Grey granite, grain size = 0.5 mm) and a course-grained granite (Lanhelin granite, grain size = 2 mm). Both granites have an initial porosity of about 1%. Our samples were heated to a range of temperatures (100-1000 °C) and were either cooled slowly (1 °C/min) or shock cooled (100 °C/s). A systematic microstructural (2D crack area density, using standard stereological techniques, and 3D BET specific surface area measurements) and rock physical property (porosity, P-wave velocity, uniaxial compressive strength, and permeability) analysis was undertaken to understand the influence of slow and shock cooling on our reservoir granites. Microstructurally, we observe that the 2D crack surface area per unit volume and the specific surface area increase as a result of thermal stressing, and, for the same maximum temperature, crack surface area is higher in the shock cooled samples. This observation is echoed by our rock physical property measurements: we see greater changes for the shock cooled samples. We can conclude that shock cooling is an extremely efficient method of generating thermal microcracks and modifying rock physical properties. Our study highlights that thermal treatments are likely to be an efficient method for the "matrix" permeability enhancement of

  13. Continuous cooling transformation diagrams for 6XXX aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryantsev, P Yu

    2009-01-01

    Continuous cooling transformation diagrams of aluminum solid solution decomposition in range of cooling rates 100-1900 deg. C/h were built for some alloys of Al-Mg-Si-Fe system. Influence of cooling rate and chemical composition on temperatures of start and finish of solution decomposition was determined.

  14. Notifiable events in systems for fission of nuclear fuels - nuclear power plants and research reactors with maximum output exceeding 50 kW of thermal normal rating - in the Federal Republic of Germany. Quarterly report, 2nd quarter of 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    There were 32 notifiable events in nuclear power plants in Germany in the second quarter of 1996. The report lists and characterises all the 32 events notified in the reporting period. The events did not involve any radioactivity release exceeding the maximum permissible limits during this period, so that there were no radiation hazards to the population or the environment. One event was classified at level 1 of the INES event scale (Anomaly). Research reactor operators in Germany reported 5 notifiable events in the reporting period. The report lists and characterises these events. These events did not involve any radioactivity release exceeding the maximum permissible limits during this period, so that there were no radiation hazards to the population or the environment. All events notified were classified into the lowest categories of safety significance of the official event scales (N, or below scale). (orig./DG) [de

  15. Heat Convection at the Density Maximum Point of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Korganci, Nuri

    2018-01-01

    Water exhibits a maximum in density at normal pressure at around 4° degree temperature. This paper demonstrates that during cooling, at around 4 °C, the temperature remains constant for a while because of heat exchange associated with convective currents inside the water. Superficial approach implies it as a new anomaly of water, but actually it…

  16. Restaurant Food Cooling Practices†

    Science.gov (United States)

    BROWN, LAURA GREEN; RIPLEY, DANNY; BLADE, HENRY; REIMANN, DAVE; EVERSTINE, KAREN; NICHOLAS, DAVE; EGAN, JESSICA; KOKTAVY, NICOLE; QUILLIAM, DANIELA N.

    2017-01-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study. PMID:23212014

  17. New cooling regulation technology of secondary cooling station in DCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xuan; Yan, Jun-wei; Zhu, Dong-sheng; Liu, Fei-long; Lei, Jun-xi [The Key Lab of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Liang, Lie-quan [The Key Lab of E-Commerce Market Application Technology of Guangdong Province, Guangdong University of Business Studies, Guangzhou 510320 (China)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, a kind of new control technology of secondary cooling station (constant flow rate/variable temperature difference) in district cooling system (DCS) is proposed in view of serial consequences including low efficiency and high operating cost caused by low temperature of supply water in DCS. This technology has been applied in DCS of Guangzhou University City. The result has already indicated that such technology can increase the supply and return temperatures of buildings, return water temperature of primary side in the plate heat exchanger unit, moreover, the efficiency of both the chiller and the whole system are improved significantly. (author)

  18. The effect of the cooling rate during quenching, electron bombardment and plastic deformation on the kinetics of a solid solution disintegration in iron-copper alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, G.B.; Zhukov, V.P.; Braun, A.G.; Smirnov, E.A.

    1974-01-01

    From the electroresistivity variation at 77 0 K, the influence of nonequilibrium point defect density and of complexes and dislocations on the decay process of the iron-copper solid solution is determined. Owing to high quenching rate of thin foils, isochrones of their electroconductivity curves appear shifted by about 200 0 C to lower temperatures. For quenched and irradiated specimens at 200-250 0 C a sharp retardation of electroconductivity decline is observed due to a zone stage. The plastic deformation (15%) leads to a partial suppression of that stage. Both irradiation and deformation initiate the process of copper separation from the solid solution, the latter being the stronger, the more copper is in the solid solution

  19. Coolant and ambient temperature control for chillerless liquid cooled data centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Parida, Pritish R.; Simons, Robert E.

    2016-02-02

    Cooling control methods include measuring a temperature of air provided to a plurality of nodes by an air-to-liquid heat exchanger, measuring a temperature of at least one component of the plurality of nodes and finding a maximum component temperature across all such nodes, comparing the maximum component temperature to a first and second component threshold and comparing the air temperature to a first and second air threshold, and controlling a proportion of coolant flow and a coolant flow rate to the air-to-liquid heat exchanger and the plurality of nodes based on the comparisons.

  20. Solar cycle variability of nonmigrating tides in the infrared cooling of the thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nischal, N.; Oberheide, J.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Marsh, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO) at 5.3 μm and Carbon dioxide (CO2) at 15 μm are the major infrared emissions responsible for the radiative cooling of the thermosphere. We study the impact of two important diurnal nonmigrating tides, the DE2 and DE3, on NO and CO2 infrared emissions over a complete solar cycle (2002-2013) by (i) analyzing NO and CO2 cooling rate data from SABER and (ii) photochemical modeling using dynamical tides from a thermospheric empirical tidal model, CTMT. Both observed and modeled results show that the NO cooling rate amplitudes for DE2 and DE3 exhibit strong solar cycle dependence. NO 5.3 μm cooling rate tides are relatively unimportant for the infrared energy budget during solar minimum but important during solar maximum. On the other hand DE2 and DE3 in CO2 show comparatively small variability over a solar cycle. CO2 15 μm cooling rate tides remain, to a large extent, constant between solar minimum and maximum. This different responses by NO and CO2 emissions to the DE2 and DE3 during a solar cycle comes form the fact that the collisional reaction rate for NO is highly sensitive to the temperature comparative to that for CO2. Moreover, the solar cycle variability of these nonmigrating tides in thermospheric infrared emissions shows a clear QBO signals substantiating the impact of tropospheric weather system on the energy budget of the thermosphere. The relative contribution from the individual tidal drivers; temperature, density and advection to the observed DE2 and DE3 tides does not vary much over the course of the solar cycle, and this is true for both NO and CO2 emissions.

  1. Method for Measuring Cooling Efficiency of Water Droplets Impinging onto Hot Metal Discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Søreng Bjørge

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work outlines a method for measuring the cooling efficiency of droplets impinging onto hot metal discs in the temperature range of 85 °C to 400 °C, i.e., covering the boiling regimes experienced when applying water to heated objects in fires. Stainless steel and aluminum test discs (with 50-mm diameter, 10-mm thickness, and a surface roughness of Ra 0.4 or Ra 3 were suspended horizontally by four thermocouples that were used to record disc temperatures. The discs were heated by a laboratory burner prior to the experiments, and left to cool with and without applying 2.4-mm diameter water droplets to the discs while the disc temperatures were recorded. The droplets were generated by the acceleration of gravity from a hypodermic injection needle, and hit the disc center at a speed of 2.2 m/s and a rate of 0.02 g/s, i.e., about three droplets per second. Based on the recorded rate of the temperature change, as well as disc mass and disc heat capacity, the absolute droplet cooling effect and the relative cooling efficiency relative to complete droplet evaporation were obtained. There were significant differences in the cooling efficiency as a function of temperature for the two metals investigated, but there was no statistically significant difference with respect to whether the surface roughness was Ra 0.4 or Ra 3. Aluminum showed a higher cooling efficiency in the temperature range of 110 °C to 140 °C, and a lower cooling efficiency in the temperature range of 180 °C to 300 °C compared to stainless steel. Both metals gave a maximum cooling efficiency in the range of 75% to 85%. A minimum of 5% cooling efficiency was experienced for the aluminum disc at 235 °C, i.e., the observed Leidenfrost point. However, stainless steel did not give a clear minimum in cooling efficiency, which was about 12–14% for disc temperatures above 300 °C. This simple and straightforward technique is well suited for assessing the cooling efficiency of

  2. Magnetization effects in electron cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenev, Ya.S.; Skrinskii, A.N.

    A study is made of cooling in an electron beam which is accompanied by a strong magnetic field and a longitudinal temperature low compared to the transverse temperature. It is shown that the combination of two factors--magnetization and low longitudinal temperature of electrons--can sharply increase the cooling rate of a heavy-particle beam when the velocity spread is smaller than the transverse spread of electron velocities and reduce its temperature to the longitudinal temperature of the electrons, which is lower than that of the cathode by several orders of magnitude

  3. Aero-Thermo-Structural Design Optimization of Internally Cooled Turbine Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulikravich, G. S.; Martin, T. J.; Dennis, B. H.; Lee, E.; Han, Z.-X.

    1999-01-01

    A set of robust and computationally affordable inverse shape design and automatic constrained optimization tools have been developed for the improved performance of internally cooled gas turbine blades. The design methods are applicable to the aerodynamics, heat transfer, and thermoelasticity aspects of the turbine blade. Maximum use of the existing proven disciplinary analysis codes is possible with this design approach. Preliminary computational results demonstrate possibilities to design blades with minimized total pressure loss and maximized aerodynamic loading. At the same time, these blades are capable of sustaining significantly higher inlet hot gas temperatures while requiring remarkably lower coolant mass flow rates. These results suggest that it is possible to design internally cooled turbine blades that will cost less to manufacture, will have longer life span, and will perform as good, if not better than, film cooled turbine blades.

  4. Time-dependent Cooling in Photoionized Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnat, Orly, E-mail: orlyg@phys.huji.ac.il [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2017-02-01

    I explore the thermal evolution and ionization states in gas cooling from an initially hot state in the presence of external photoionizing radiation. I compute the equilibrium and nonequilibrium cooling efficiencies, heating rates, and ion fractions for low-density gas cooling while exposed to the ionizing metagalactic background radiation at various redshifts ( z = 0 − 3), for a range of temperatures (10{sup 8}–10{sup 4} K), densities (10{sup −7}–10{sup 3} cm{sup −3}), and metallicities (10{sup −3}–2 times solar). The results indicate the existence of a threshold ionization parameter, above which the cooling efficiencies are very close to those in photoionization equilibrium (so that departures from equilibrium may be neglected), and below which the cooling efficiencies resemble those in collisional time-dependent gas cooling with no external radiation (and are thus independent of density).

  5. Performance Analyses of Counter-Flow Closed Wet Cooling Towers Based on a Simplified Calculation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Wei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most widely used units in water cooling systems, the closed wet cooling towers (CWCTs have two typical counter-flow constructions, in which the spray water flows from the top to the bottom, and the moist air and cooling water flow in the opposite direction vertically (parallel or horizontally (cross, respectively. This study aims to present a simplified calculation method for conveniently and accurately analyzing the thermal performance of the two types of counter-flow CWCTs, viz. the parallel counter-flow CWCT (PCFCWCT and the cross counter-flow CWCT (CCFCWCT. A simplified cooling capacity model that just includes two characteristic parameters is developed. The Levenberg–Marquardt method is employed to determine the model parameters by curve fitting of experimental data. Based on the proposed model, the predicted outlet temperatures of the process water are compared with the measurements of a PCFCWCT and a CCFCWCT, respectively, reported in the literature. The results indicate that the predicted values agree well with the experimental data in previous studies. The maximum absolute errors in predicting the process water outlet temperatures are 0.20 and 0.24 °C for the PCFCWCT and CCFCWCT, respectively. These results indicate that the simplified method is reliable for performance prediction of counter-flow CWCTs. Although the flow patterns of the two towers are different, the variation trends of thermal performance are similar to each other under various operating conditions. The inlet air wet-bulb temperature, inlet cooling water temperature, air flow rate, and cooling water flow rate are crucial for determining the cooling capacity of a counter-flow CWCT, while the cooling tower effectiveness is mainly determined by the flow rates of air and cooling water. Compared with the CCFCWCT, the PCFCWCT is much more applicable in a large-scale cooling water system, and the superiority would be amplified when the scale of water

  6. A thermoelectric generator using loop heat pipe and design match for maximum-power generation

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2015-09-05

    The present study focuses on the thermoelectric generator (TEG) using loop heat pipe (LHP) and design match for maximum-power generation. The TEG uses loop heat pipe, a passive cooling device, to dissipate heat without consuming power and free of noise. The experiments for a TEG with 4W rated power show that the LHP performs very well with overall thermal resistance 0.35 K W-1, from the cold side of TEG module to the ambient. The LHP is able to dissipate heat up to 110W and is maintenance free. The TEG design match for maximum-power generation, called “near maximum-power point operation (nMPPO)”, is studied to eliminate the MPPT (maximum-power point tracking controller). nMPPO is simply a system design which properly matches the output voltage of TEG with the battery. It is experimentally shown that TEG using design match for maximum-power generation (nMPPO) performs better than TEG with MPPT.

  7. Water cooling coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S; Ito, Y; Kazawa, Y

    1975-02-05

    Object: To provide a water cooling coil in a toroidal nuclear fusion device, in which coil is formed into a small-size in section so as not to increase dimensions, weight or the like of machineries including the coil. Structure: A conductor arranged as an outermost layer of a multiple-wind water cooling coil comprises a hollow conductor, which is directly cooled by fluid, and as a consequence, a solid conductor disposed interiorly thereof is cooled indirectly.

  8. The Cool Colors Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger, second from left, a sample from the Cool Colors Project, a roof product ) (Jeff Chiu - AP) more Cool Colors make the front page of The Sacramento Bee (3rd highest circulation newspaper in California) on 14 August 2006! Read the article online or as a PDF. The Cool Colors Project

  9. The effect of interspecific variation in photosynthetic plasticity on 4-year growth rate and 8-year survival of understorey tree seedlings in response to gap formations in a cool-temperate deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Riichi; Hiura, Tsutom; Hikosaka, Kouki

    2017-08-01

    Gap formation increases the light intensity in the forest understorey. The growth responses of seedlings to the increase in light availability show interspecific variation, which is considered to promote biodiversity in forests. At the leaf level, some species increase their photosynthetic capacity in response to gap formation, whereas others do not. Here we address the question of whether the interspecific difference in the photosynthetic response results in the interspecific variation in the growth response. If so, the interspecific difference in photosynthetic response would also contribute to species coexistence in forests. We also address the further relevant question of why some species do not increase their photosynthetic capacity. We assumed that some cost of photosynthetic plasticity may constrain acquisition of the plasticity in some species, and hypothesized that species with larger photosynthetic plasticity exhibit better growth after gap formation and lower survivorship in the shade understorey of a cool-temperate deciduous forest. We created gaps by felling canopy trees and studied the relationship between the photosynthetic response and the subsequent growth rate of seedlings. Naturally growing seedlings of six deciduous woody species were used and their mortality was examined for 8 years. The light-saturated rate of photosynthesis (Pmax) and the relative growth rate (RGR) of the seedlings of all study species increased at gap plots. The extent of these increases varied among the species. The stimulation of RGR over 4 years after gap formation was strongly correlated with change in photosynthetic capacity of newly expanded leaves. The increase in RGR and Pmax correlated with the 8-year mortality at control plots. These results suggest a trade-off between photosynthetic plasticity and the understorey shade tolerance. Gap-demanding species may acquire photosynthetic plasticity, sacrificing shade tolerances, whereas gap-independent species may acquire

  10. Thermoelectric cooler application in electronic cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chein Reiyu; Huang Guanming

    2004-01-01

    This study addresses thermoelectric cooler (TEC) applications in the electronic cooling. The cold side temperature (T c ) and temperature difference between TEC cold and hot sides (ΔT=T h -T c , T h =temperature of hot side of TEC) were used as the parameters. The cooling capacity, junction temperature, coefficient of performance (COP) of TEC and the required heat sink thermal resistance at the TEC hot side were computed. The results indicated that the cooling capacity could be increased as T c increased and ΔT was reduced. The maximum cooling capacity and chip junction temperature obtained were 207 W and 88 deg. C, respectively. The required heat sink thermal resistance on TEC hot side was 0.054 deg. C/W. Larger cooling capacity and higher COP could be obtained when the TEC was operated in the enforced regimes (ΔT c values and heat sink thermal resistance at the TEC hot side. A microchannel heat sink using water or air as the coolant was demonstrated to meet the low thermal heat sink resistance requirement for TEC operated at maximum cooling capacity conditions

  11. Assessment of the forced air-cooling performance for cylindrical lithium-ion battery packs: A comparative analysis between aligned and staggered cell arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Naixing; Zhang, Xiongwen; Li, Guojun; Hua, Dong

    2015-01-01

    An appropriate cell arrangement plays significant role to design a highly efficient cooling system for the lithium-ion battery pack. This paper performs a comparative analysis of thermal performances on different arrangements of cylindrical cells for a LiFePO 4 battery pack. A thermal model for the battery pack is developed and is solved in couple with the governing equations of fluid flow in the numerical simulations. The experiments for model validation are conducted on a single cell of the battery pack with forced-air cooling system. The effects of longitudinal and transverse spacing on the cooling performances are analyzed for the battery pack with the aligned and the staggered arrays. Under a specified flow rate of cooling air, the maximum temperature rise is proportional to the longitudinal interval for the staggered arrays, while it is in inverse for the aligned arrangement. Increasing the transverse interval leads to the increase of the battery temperature rise for both aligned and staggered arrangements. By trade-off the design requirements (maximum temperature rise, temperature uniformity, power requirement and cooling index), an appropriate solution in term of the optimal combination of the longitudinal interval, transverse interval, and air inlet width is obtained for the aligned arrangement. - Highlights: • Forced air-cooling performance for cylindrical lithium-ion battery is evaluated. • Thermal performances for aligned and staggered cell arrangements are compared. • Geometric optimization is investigated for the battery air-cooling system

  12. The use of helical heat exchanger for heat recovery domestic water-cooled air-conditioners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Xiaowen; Lee, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study on the performance of a domestic water-cooled air-conditioner (WAC) using tube-in-tube helical heat exchanger for preheating of domestic hot water was carried out. The main aims are to identify the comprehensive energy performance (space cooling and hot water preheating) of the WAC and the optimum design of the helical heat exchanger taking into account the variation in tap water flow rate. A split-type WAC was set up for experimental study at different indoor and outdoor conditions. The cooling output, the amount of recovered heat, and the power consumption for different hot water flow rates were measured. The experimental results showed that the cooling coefficient of performance (COP) of the WAC improves with the inclusion of the heat recovery option by a minimum of 12.3%. This can be further improved to 20.6% by an increase in tap water flow rate. Same result was observed for the comprehensive COP of the WAC. The maximum achievable comprehensive COP was 4.92 when the tap water flow rate was set at 7.7 L/min. The overall heat transfer coefficient of the helical heat exchanger under various operating conditions were determined by Wilson plot. A mathematical model relating the over all heat transfer coefficient to the outer pipe diameter was established which provides a convenient way of optimising the design of the helical heat exchanger

  13. Cooling water distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  14. 22 CFR 201.67 - Maximum freight charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., commodity rate classification, quantity, vessel flag category (U.S.-or foreign-flag), choice of ports, and... the United States. (2) Maximum charter rates. (i) USAID will not finance ocean freight under any... owner(s). (4) Maximum liner rates. USAID will not finance ocean freight for a cargo liner shipment at a...

  15. Cryogenic system with the sub-cooled liquid nitrogen for cooling HTS power cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Y.F. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry; Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Gong, L.H.; Xu, X.D.; Li, L.F.; Zhang, L. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry; Xiao, L.Y. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Institute of Electrical Engineering

    2005-04-01

    A 10 m long, three-phase AC high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable had been fabricated and tested in China August 2003. The sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) was used to cool the HTS cable. The sub-cooled LN{sub 2} circulation was built by means of a centrifugal pump through a heat exchanger in the sub-cooler, the three-phase HTS cable cryostats and a LN{sub 2} gas-liquid separator. The LN{sub 2} was cooled down to 65 K by means of decompressing, and the maximum cooling capacity was about 3.3 kW and the amount of consumed LN{sub 2} was about 72 L/h at 1500 A. Cryogenic system design, test and some experimental results would be presented in this paper. (author)

  16. Core test reactor shield cooling system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, E.M.; Elliott, R.D.

    1971-01-01

    System requirements for cooling the shield within the vacuum vessel for the core test reactor are analyzed. The total heat to be removed by the coolant system is less than 22,700 Btu/hr, with an additional 4600 Btu/hr to be removed by the 2-inch thick steel plate below the shield. The maximum temperature of the concrete in the shield can be kept below 200 0 F if the shield plug walls are kept below 160 0 F. The walls of the two ''donut'' shaped shield segments, which are cooled by the water from the shield and vessel cooling system, should operate below 95 0 F. The walls of the center plug, which are cooled with nitrogen, should operate below 100 0 F. (U.S.)

  17. Credal Networks under Maximum Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasiewicz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We apply the principle of maximum entropy to select a unique joint probability distribution from the set of all joint probability distributions specified by a credal network. In detail, we start by showing that the unique joint distribution of a Bayesian tree coincides with the maximum entropy model of its conditional distributions. This result, however, does not hold anymore for general Bayesian networks. We thus present a new kind of maximum entropy models, which are computed sequentially. ...

  18. Passive Cooling of Body Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Ronald; Matic, Peter; Mott, David

    2013-03-01

    Warfighter performance can be adversely affected by heat load and weight of equipment. Current tactical vest designs are good insulators and lack ventilation, thus do not provide effective management of metabolic heat generated. NRL has undertaken a systematic study of tactical vest thermal management, leading to physics-based strategies that provide improved cooling without undesirable consequences such as added weight, added electrical power requirements, or compromised protection. The approach is based on evaporative cooling of sweat produced by the wearer of the vest, in an air flow provided by ambient wind or ambulatory motion of the wearer. Using an approach including thermodynamic analysis, computational fluid dynamics modeling, air flow measurements of model ventilated vest architectures, and studies of the influence of fabric aerodynamic drag characteristics, materials and geometry were identified that optimize passive cooling of tactical vests. Specific architectural features of the vest design allow for optimal ventilation patterns, and selection of fabrics for vest construction optimize evaporation rates while reducing air flow resistance. Cooling rates consistent with the theoretical and modeling predictions were verified experimentally for 3D mockups.

  19. Experiments on novel solar heating and cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yiping; Cui Yong; Zhu Li; Han Lijun

    2008-01-01

    Solar heating and nocturnal radiant cooling techniques are united to produce a novel solar heating and cooling system. The radiant panel with both heating and cooling functions can be used as structural materials for the building envelope, which realizes true building integrated utilization of solar energy. Based on the natural circulation principle, the operation status can be changed automatically between the heating cycle and the cooling cycle. System performances under different climate conditions using different covers on the radiant panel are studied. The results show that the novel solar heating and cooling system has good performance of heating and cooling. For the no cover system, the daily average heat collecting efficiency is 52% with the maximum efficiency of 73%, while at night, the cooling capacity is about 47 W/m 2 on a sunny day. On a cloudy day, the daily average heat collecting efficiency is 47% with the maximum of 84%, while the cooling capacity is about 33 W/m 2 . As a polycarbonate (PC) panel or polyethylene film are used as covers, the maximum heat collecting efficiencies are 75% and 72% and the daily average heat collecting efficiencies are 61% and 58%, while the cooling capacities are 50 W/m 2 and 36 W/m 2 , respectively

  20. Emergency cooling method and system for gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpf, H.

    1982-01-01

    For emergency cooling of gas-cooled fast breeder reactors (GSB), which have a core consisting of a fission zone and a breeding zone, water is sprayed out of nozzles on to the core from above in the case of an incident. The water which is not treated with boron is taken out of a reservoir in the form of a storage tank in such a maximum quantity that the cooling water gathering in the space below the core rises at most up to the lower edge of the fission zone. (orig./GL) [de

  1. Development and validation of a full-range performance analysis model for a three-spool gas turbine with turbine cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yin; Gu, Chun-wei; Ji, Xing-xing

    2015-01-01

    The performance analysis of a gas turbine is important for both its design and its operation. For modern gas turbines, the cooling flow introduces a noteworthy thermodynamic loss; thus, the determination of the cooling flow rate will clearly influence the accuracy of performance calculations. In this paper, a full-range performance analysis model is established for a three-spool gas turbine with an open-circuit convective blade cooling system. A hybrid turbine cooling model is embedded in the analysis to predict the amount of cooling air accurately and thus to remove the errors induced by the relatively arbitrary value of cooling air requirements in the previous research. The model is subsequently used to calculate the gas turbine performance; the calculation results are validated with detailed test data. Furthermore, multistage conjugate heat transfer analysis is performed for the turbine section. The results indicate that with the same coolant condition and flow rate as those in the performance analysis, the blade metal has been effectively cooled; in addition, the maximum temperature predicted by conjugate heat transfer analysis is close to the corresponding value in the cooling model. Hence, the present model provides an effective tool for analyzing the performance of a gas turbine with cooling. - Highlights: • We established a performance model for a gas turbine with convective cooling. • A hybrid turbine cooling model is embedded in the performance analysis. • The accuracy of the model is validated with detailed test data of the gas turbine. • Conjugate heat transfer analysis is performed for the turbine for verification

  2. Forced flow cooling of ISABELLE dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Aggus, J.; Brown, D.P.; Kassner, D.A.; Sondericker, J.H.; Strobridge, T.R.

    1976-01-01

    The superconducting magnets for ISABELLE will use a forced flow supercritical helium cooling system. In order to evaluate this cooling scheme, two individual dipole magnets were first tested in conventional dewars using pool boiling helium. These magnets were then modified for forced flow cooling and retested with the identical magnet coils. The first evaluation test used a l m-long ISA model dipole magnet whose pool boiling performance had been established. The same magnet was then retested with forced flow cooling, energizing it at various operating temperatures until quench occurred. The magnet performance with forced flow cooling was consistent with data from the previous pool boiling tests. The next step in the program was a full-scale ISABELLE dipole ring magnet, 4.25 m long, whose performance was first evaluated with pool boiling. For the forced flow test the magnet was shrunk-fit into an unsplit laminated core encased in a stainless steel cylinder. The high pressure gas is cooled below 4 K by a helium bath which is pumped below atmospheric pressure with an ejector nozzle. The performance of the full-scale dipole magnet in the new configuration with forced flow cooling, showed a 10 percent increase in the attainable maximum current as compared to the pool boiling data

  3. Mapping the dark matter in the NGC 5044 group with ROSAT: Evidence for a nearly homogeneous cooling flow with a cooling wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Laurence P.; Jones, Christine; Forman, William; Daines, Stuart

    1994-01-01

    The NGC 5044 group of galaxies was observed by the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) for 30 ks during its reduced pointed phase (1991 July). Due to the relatively cool gas temperature in the group (kT = 0.98 +/- 0.02 keV) and the excellent photon statistics (65,000 net counts), we are able to determine precisely a number of fundamental properties of the group within 250 kpc of the central galaxy. In particular, we present model-independent measurements of the total gravitating mass, the temperature and abundance profiles of the gas, and the mass accretion rate. Between 60 and 250 kpc, the gas is nearly isothermal with T varies as r(exp (-0.13 +/- 0.03)). The total gravitating mass of the group can be unambiguously determined from the observed density and temperature profiles of the gas using the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium. Within 250 kpc, the gravitating mass is 1.6 x 10(exp 13) solar mass, yielding a mass-to-light ratio of 130 solar mass/solar luminosity. The baryons (gas and stars) comprise 12% of the total mass within this radius. At small radii, the temperature clearly increases outward and attains a maximum value at 60 kpc. The positive temperature gradient in the center of the group confirms the existence of a cooling flow. The cooling flow region extends well beyond the temperature maximum with a cooling radius between 100 and 150 kpc. There are two distinct regions in the cooling flow separated by the temperature maximum. In the outer region, the gas is nearly isothermal with a unifor m Fe abundance of approximately 80% solar, the flow is nearly homogeneous with dot-M= 20 to 25 solar mass/year, the X-ray contours are spherically symmetric, and rho(sub gas) varies as r(exp -1.6). In the inner region, the temperature profile has a positive gradient, the mass accretion rate decreases rapidly inward, the gas density profile is steeper, and the X-ray image shows some substrucutre. NGC 5044 is offset from the centroid of the outer X

  4. Heat pipe as a cooling mechanism in an aeroponic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srihajong, N.; Terdtoon, P.; Kamonpet, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Ruamrungsri, S. [Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Ohyama, T. [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Niigata University (Japan)

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents an establishment of a mathematical model explaining the operation of an aeroponic system for agricultural products. The purpose is to study the rate of energy consumption in a conventional aeroponic system and the feasibility of employing a heat pipe as an energy saver in such a system. A heat pipe can be theoretically employed to remove heat from the liquid nutrient that flows through the growing chamber of an aeroponic system. When the evaporator of the heat pipe receives heat from the nutrient, the inside working fluid evaporates into vapor and flows to condense at the condenser section. The outlet temperature of the nutrient from the evaporator section is, therefore, decreased by the heat removal mechanism. The heat pipe can also be used to remove heat from the greenhouse by applying it on the greenhouse wall. By doing this, the nutrient temperature before entering into the nutrient tank decreases and the cooling load of evaporative cooling will subsequently be decreased. To justify the heat pipe application as an energy saver, numerical computations have been done on typical days in the month of April from which maximum heating load occurs and an appropriate heat pipe set was theoretically designed. It can be seen from the simulation that the heat pipe can reduce the electric energy consumption of an evaporative cooling and a refrigeration systems in a day by 17.19% and 10.34% respectively. (author)

  5. The cryogenic cooling program at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C.S.; Mills, D.M.; Assoufid, L.

    1994-06-01

    This paper describes the experimental and analytical program in cryogenic cooling of high-heat-load optics at the Advanced-Photon Source. A prototype liquid nitrogen pumping system has been procured. This pump provides a variable flow rate of 1 to 10 gpm of pressurized liquid nitrogen and is sized to handle up to 5 kW of optic heat load. Also, a high-vacuum, double-crystal monochromator testing tank has been fabricated. This system will be used to test cryogenic crystals at existing synchrotron sources. A finite element analysis has been performed for a cryogenically cooled Si crystal in the inclined geometry for Undulator A at 100 mA. The inclination angle was 80 degrees. It was set to diffract from the (111) planes at the first harmonic energy of 4.2 keV. The maximum slope error in the diffraction plane was calculated to be about 1 μrad with a peak temperature of 94 K. An analysis has also been performed for a cryogenically-cooled ''thin'' crystal oriented in the Bragg geometry which accepts 87% of the lst harmonic photons at 3.866 keV. The total absorbed power was 131 W at 100 mA current and the peak temperature was 124 K

  6. Evaporative cooling of antiprotons and efforts to trap antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, Gorm Bruun

    Evaporative cooling has proven to be an invaluable technique in atomic physics, allowing for the study of effects such as Bose-Einstein condensation. One main topic of this thesis is the first application of evaporative cooling to cold non-neutral plasmas stored in an ion trap. We (the ALPHA collaboration) have achieved cooling of a cloud of antiprotons to a temperature as low as 9 K, two orders of magnitude lowerthan ever directly measured previously. The measurements are well-described by appropriate rate equations for the temperature and number of particles. The technique has direct application to the ongoing attempts to produce trapped samples of antihydrogen. In these experiments the maximum trap depths are ex tremely shallow (~0.6 K for ground state atoms), and careful control of the trapped antiprotons and positrons used to form the (anti)atoms is essential to succes. Since 2006 powerful tools to diagnose and manipulate the antiproton and positron plasmas in the ALPHA apparatus have been developed and ...

  7. 46 CFR 56.85-5 - Heating and cooling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heating and cooling method. 56.85-5 Section 56.85-5... APPURTENANCES Heat Treatment of Welds § 56.85-5 Heating and cooling method. Heat treatment may be accomplished by a suitable heating method that will provide the desired heating and cooling rates, the required...

  8. Structural optimization of a microjet based cooling system for high power LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Liu; Zhiyin Gan [Institute for Microsystems, School of Mechanical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Wuhan National Lab of Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Jianghui Yang [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Xiaobing Luo [Wuhan National Lab of Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2008-08-15

    Based on the previous experiments and simulations reported by the present authors, it was found the cooling system could be optimized to obtain better performance. In this paper, the microjet cooling systems with three different microjet structures were numerically investigated. The numerical model was proven by the experiments. The optimization results demonstrate that the microjet structure with one single inlet but two outlets can achieve better cooling performance. The simulation results show that the maximum temperature of the LED substrate cooled by the optimized microjet cooling device was 23 K lower than that of the LED substrate cooled by the present experimental cooling system. (author)

  9. Report of the stochastic cooling subgroup of the RHIC workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussard, D.; Claus, J.; DiMassa, G.; Marriner, J.; Milutinovic, J.; Shafer, R.

    1988-01-01

    We have considered the possibility of stochastic cooling of beams for the RHIC collider. Similar studies have been carried out previously for RHIC and other bunched beam proton machines. The major motivation for cooling at RHIC is to stabilize the growth from intrabeam scattering. We find that cooling rates of the order of 500 sec are theoretically possible for beams of gold ions with γ = 100 if a cooling bandwidth of 10 GHz is used. However, the amount of microwave power which is required is large for momentum cooling and probably not practical. Considerably less power is required for slower rates. We believe that cooling times of 5000 sec for momentum cooling and 1000 sec for betatron cooling might be possible. 5 refs

  10. Cooling load reduction by means of night sky radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruddin Abdullah; Armansyah, H.T.; Dyah, W.; Gunadnya, I.B.P.

    2006-01-01

    Nocturnal cooling can work under clear sky condition of the humid tropical climate. Such effect had been observed in a cool storage facilities for potatoes and for temporary storage of fresh vegetables installed in highland area of Candi kuning village of Bali. Test results have shown that the rate of heat dissipation to the sky could reduce storage temperature to 15 o C had been achieved when the nocturnal cooling unit was combined with modified cooling tower and 1 kW cooling effect of an auxiliary cooling unit. Under such condition the facility could maintain better quality of stored vegetables, such as broccoli, shallot, and celery as compared to those stored in room without cooling facility. The estimated average cooling rate due to night sky radiation was 47.6 W/m 2 , on September 28, 1999 and 47.2 W/m 2 with the lowest water temperature of 14 o C under ambient temperature of 16 o C

  11. Laser cooling of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Petrushkin, S V

    2009-01-01

    Laser cooling is an important emerging technology in such areas as the cooling of semiconductors. The book examines and suggests solutions for a range of problems in the development of miniature solid-state laser refrigerators, self-cooling solid-state lasers and optical echo-processors. It begins by looking at the basic theory of laser cooling before considering such topics as self-cooling of active elements of solid-state lasers, laser cooling of solid-state information media of optical echo-processors, and problems of cooling solid-state quantum processors. Laser Cooling of Solids is an important contribution to the development of compact laser-powered cryogenic refrigerators, both for the academic community and those in the microelectronics and other industries. Provides a timely review of this promising field of research and discusses the fundamentals and theory of laser cooling Particular attention is given to the physics of cooling processes and the mathematical description of these processes Reviews p...

  12. Emergency reactor cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Ken.

    1993-01-01

    An emergency nuclear reactor cooling device comprises a water reservoir, emergency core cooling water pipelines having one end connected to a water feeding sparger, fire extinguishing facility pipelines, cooling water pressurizing pumps, a diesel driving machine for driving the pumps and a battery. In a water reservoir, cooling water is stored by an amount required for cooling the reactor upon emergency and for fire extinguishing, and fire extinguishing facility pipelines connecting the water reservoir and the fire extinguishing facility are in communication with the emergency core cooling water pipelines connected to the water feeding sparger by system connection pipelines. Pumps are operated by a diesel power generator to introduce cooling water from the reservoir to the emergency core cooling water pipelines. Then, even in a case where AC electric power source is entirely lost and the emergency core cooling system can not be used, the diesel driving machine is operated using an exclusive battery, thereby enabling to inject cooling water from the water reservoir to a reactor pressure vessel and a reactor container by the diesel drive pump. (N.H.)

  13. Cooling Performance of ALIP according to the Air or Sodium Cooling Type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Huee-Youl; Yoon, Jung; Lee, Tae-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    ALIP pumps the liquid sodium by Lorentz force produced by the interaction of induced current in the liquid metal and their associated magnetic field. Even though the efficiency of the ALIP is very low compared to conventional mechanical pumps, it is very useful due to the absence of moving parts, low noise and vibration level, simplicity of flow rate regulation and maintenance, and high temperature operation capability. Problems in utilization of ALIP concern a countermeasure for elevation of internal temperature of the coil due to joule heating and how to increase magnetic flux density of Na channel gap. The conventional ALIP usually used cooling methods by circulating the air or water. On the other hand, GE-Toshiba developed a double stator pump adopting the sodium-immersed self-cooled type, and it recovered the heat loss in sodium. Therefore, the station load factor of the plant could be reduced. In this study, the cooling performance with cooling types of ALIP is analyzed. We developed thermal analysis models to evaluate the cooling performance of air or sodium cooling type of ALIP. The cooling performance is analyzed for operating parameters and evaluated with cooling type. 1-D and 3-D thermal analysis model for IHTS ALIP was developed, and the cooling performance was analyzed for air or sodium cooling type. The cooling performance for air cooling type was better than sodium cooling type at higher air velocity than 0.2 m/s. Also, the air temperature of below 270 .deg. demonstrated the better cooling performance as compared to sodium.

  14. Thermal and hydraulic analyses of TFTR cooling water system and magnetic field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.Y.

    1975-10-01

    The TFTR toroidal field coils, ohmic heating, hybrid and equilibrium field coils are cooled by water from the machine area cooling water system. The system has the following major equipment and capacities: flow rate of 3600 gpm; ballast tank volume of 5500 gal; pumps of 70.4 m head; chiller refrigeration rating of 3300 tons and connecting pipe of 45.7 cm I.D. The performance of the closed loop system was analyzed and found to be adequate for the thermal loads. The field coils were analyzed with detailed thermal and hydraulic models, including a simulation of the complete water cooling loop. Under the nominal operating mode of one second of toroidal field flat top time and 300 seconds of pulse cycle time, the maximum temperature for the TF coils is 53 0 C; for the OH coils 46 0 C and for the EF coils 39 0 C, which are well below the coil design limit of 120 0 C. The maximum TF coil coolant temperature is 33 0 C which is below the coolant design limit of 100 0 C. The overall pressure loss of the system is below 6.89 x 10 5 Pa (100 psi). With the given chiller refrigeration capacity, the TF coils can be operated to yield up to 4 seconds of flat top time. The TF coils can be operated on a steady state basis at up to 20% of the pulsed duty design current rating of 7.32 kA/coil

  15. Heat transfer calculations on the KNK II emergency cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vossebrecker, H.; Groenefeld, G.

    1976-12-01

    The Licensing Authority had demanded that in case of the change of the KNK thermal core into a fast core the decay heat removal system must be improved by a diverse and spatially separated emergency cooling system. In order to meet this requirement an existing nitrogen system of the facility is extended in such a manner that the decay heat will be removed by a nitrogen flow passing through the gap between reactor vessel and guard vessel. The heat transport from the core to the vessel is accomplished by natural convection flow rates which are generated by density differences between the hot core subassemblies, the reflector subassemblies and other passages between the upper and the lower plenum. The calculations show that the maximum temperatures in the core do not reach the sodium boiling-point. The maximum vessel temperature is 673 deg. C. In this report the function of the emergency cooling system and the methods of calculation are described, the input data and the results are stated and it is shown that the calculated temperatures are conservative [de

  16. Seasonal and geographical variation in heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, Matthew J; Wolf, Blair O; McKechnie, Andrew E

    2016-03-01

    Intraspecific variation in avian thermoregulatory responses to heat stress has received little attention, despite increasing evidence that endothermic animals show considerable physiological variation among populations. We investigated seasonal (summer versus winter) variation in heat tolerance and evaporative cooling in an Afrotropical ploceid passerine, the white-browed sparrow-weaver (Plocepasser mahali; ∼ 47 g) at three sites along a climatic gradient with more than 10 °C variation in mid-summer maximum air temperature (Ta). We measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) using open flow-through respirometry, and core body temperature (Tb) using passive integrated transponder tags. Sparrow-weavers were exposed to a ramped profile of progressively higher Ta between 30 and 52 °C to elicit maximum evaporative cooling capacity (N=10 per site per season); the maximum Ta birds tolerated before the onset of severe hyperthermia (Tb ≈ 44 °C) was considered to be their hyperthermia threshold Ta (Ta,HT). Our data reveal significant seasonal acclimatisation of heat tolerance, with a desert population of sparrow-weavers reaching significantly higher Ta in summer (49.5 ± 1.4 °C, i.e. higher Ta,HT) than in winter (46.8 ± 0.9 °C), reflecting enhanced evaporative cooling during summer. Moreover, desert sparrow-weavers had significantly higher heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity during summer compared with populations from more mesic sites (Ta,HT=47.3 ± 1.5 and 47.6 ± 1.3 °C). A better understanding of the contributions of local adaptation versus phenotypic plasticity to intraspecific variation in avian heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity is needed for modelling species' responses to changing climates. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Phase Transformations During Cooling of Automotive Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Matthew C.

    This thesis explores the effect of cooling rate on the microstructure and phases in advanced high strength steels (AHSS). In the manufacturing of automobiles, the primary joining mechanism for steel is resistance spot welding (RSW), a process that produces a high heat input and rapid cooling in the welded metal. The effect of RSW on the microstructure of these material systems is critical to understanding their mechanical properties. A dual phase steel, DP-600, and a transformation induced plasticity bainitic-ferritic steel, TBF-1180, were studied to assess the changes to their microstructure that take place in controlled cooling environments and in uncontrolled cooling environments, i.e. resistance spot welding. Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams were developed using strip specimens of DP-600 and TBF-1180 to determine the phase transformations that occur as a function of cooling rate. The resulting phases were determined using a thermal-mechanical simulator and dilatometry, combined with light optical microscopy and hardness measurements. The resulting phases were compared with RSW specimens where cooling rate was controlled by varying the welding time for two-plate welds. Comparisons were drawn between experimental welds of DP-600 and simulations performed using a commercial welding software. The type and quantity of phases present after RSW were examined using a variety of techniques, including light optical microscopy using several etchants, hardness measurements, and x-ray diffraction (XRD).

  18. Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Panels with Earth Water Heat Exchanger Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakhar Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The operating temperature is an important factor affecting the performance and life span of the Photovoltaic (PV panels. The rising temperature can be maintained within certain limit using proper cooling techniques. In the present research a novel system for cooling of PV panels named as Earth Water Heat Exchanger (EWHE is proposed and modelled in transient analysis simulation tool (TRNSYS v17.0 for the conditions of Pilani, Rajasthan (India.The various parameters which include cell temperature, PV power output and cell efficiency are observed with respect to variation in mass flow rate of fluid. Simulation results of the system without cooling show that the maximum PV panel temperature reached up to 79.31 °C with electrical efficiency dropped to 9% during peak sunshine hour. On the other hand, when PV panels are coupled with EWHE system, the panel temperature drops to 46.29 °C with an efficiency improving to 11% for a mass flow rate of 0.022 kg/s. In the end the cooling potential of EWHE is found to be in direct correlation with mass flow rate. The proposed system is very useful for the arid regions of western India which are blessed with high solar insolation throughout the year.

  19. Radiant Floor Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries, hydronic radiant floor systems are widely used for heating all types of buildings such as residential, churches, gymnasiums, hospitals, hangars, storage buildings, industrial buildings, and smaller offices. However, few systems are used for cooling.This article describes a floor...... cooling system that includes such considerations as thermal comfort of the occupants, which design parameters will influence the cooling capacity and how the system should be controlled. Examples of applications are presented....

  20. The cooling of particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1994-10-01

    A review is given of the various methods which can be employed for cooling particle beams. These methods include radiation damping, stimulated radiation damping, ionization cooling, stochastic cooling, electron cooling, laser cooling, and laser cooling with beam coupling. Laser Cooling has provided beams of the lowest temperatures, namely 1 mK, but only for ions and only for the longitudinal temperature. Recent theoretical work has suggested how laser cooling, with the coupling of beam motion, can be used to reduce the ion beam temperature in all three directions. The majority of this paper is devoted to describing laser cooling and laser cooling with beam coupling

  1. Dew Point Evaporative Comfort Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Multiple DASs were installed at Fort Carson, and the data from all the sensors were stored and partially processed on Campbell Scientific Data Loggers. The...evaporative cooling technologies would be expected to easily overcome utility- scale water withdrawal rates. As an example, an evaluation of an...Ambient pressure Outdoor Setra 276 1% of full scale Pyranometer Horizontal Campbell Scientific CS300 5% of daily total The OAT measurement has an

  2. Selection of a cryostabilized Nb3Sn conductor cooling system for the large coil program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, J.W.H.; Murphy, J.H.; Jones, C.K.

    1977-01-01

    The Large Coil Project (LCP) is a program to design, fabricate and test relatively large superconducting toroidal field coils for tokamak fusion reactor applications. Some basic requirements that affect the conductor design are cryostabilization, 8 tesla peak magnetic field, and a specified maximum refrigeration load. The engineering considerations that led to the selection of a forced flow supercritical helium-cooled cable conductor are described. Comparisons of forced flow supercritical helium cooled cable conductors with pool boiling cooled monolithic conductors were made with regard to a number of factors such as the thermal capacity of the coolant, the thermal design margins, propensity for conductor normalization, predictability of the thermal-flow performance, controllability of the cooling conditions, etc. It was concluded that, although there exists a number of design uncertainties and engineering problems, forced flow supercritical helium cooled conductors can provide a far more reliable coil design than the pool boiling monolithic concept. The design of a cryostabilized Nb 3 Sn hollow cabled conductor involved detailed considerations of the need for fully transposed conductor strands, the nonuniform void and helium flow distributions, heat transfer from the twisted conductor strands, and helium flow rate and pump work requirements. The uncertainties in the design are discussed and the specifications of a reference Nb 3 Sn conductor concept that meets the design requirements and constraints are presented

  3. Turbine airfoil cooling system with cooling systems using high and low pressure cooling fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jan H.; Messmann, Stephen John; Scribner, Carmen Andrew

    2017-10-25

    A turbine airfoil cooling system including a low pressure cooling system and a high pressure cooling system for a turbine airfoil of a gas turbine engine is disclosed. In at least one embodiment, the low pressure cooling system may be an ambient air cooling system, and the high pressure cooling system may be a compressor bleed air cooling system. In at least one embodiment, the compressor bleed air cooling system in communication with a high pressure subsystem that may be a snubber cooling system positioned within a snubber. A delivery system including a movable air supply tube may be used to separate the low and high pressure cooling subsystems. The delivery system may enable high pressure cooling air to be passed to the snubber cooling system separate from low pressure cooling fluid supplied by the low pressure cooling system to other portions of the turbine airfoil cooling system.

  4. Power electronics cooling apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Philip Albert; Lindberg, Frank A.; Garcen, Walter

    2000-01-01

    A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

  5. Semioptimal practicable algorithmic cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, Yuval; Mor, Tal; Weinstein, Yossi

    2011-01-01

    Algorithmic cooling (AC) of spins applies entropy manipulation algorithms in open spin systems in order to cool spins far beyond Shannon's entropy bound. Algorithmic cooling of nuclear spins was demonstrated experimentally and may contribute to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Several cooling algorithms were suggested in recent years, including practicable algorithmic cooling (PAC) and exhaustive AC. Practicable algorithms have simple implementations, yet their level of cooling is far from optimal; exhaustive algorithms, on the other hand, cool much better, and some even reach (asymptotically) an optimal level of cooling, but they are not practicable. We introduce here semioptimal practicable AC (SOPAC), wherein a few cycles (typically two to six) are performed at each recursive level. Two classes of SOPAC algorithms are proposed and analyzed. Both attain cooling levels significantly better than PAC and are much more efficient than the exhaustive algorithms. These algorithms are shown to bridge the gap between PAC and exhaustive AC. In addition, we calculated the number of spins required by SOPAC in order to purify qubits for quantum computation. As few as 12 and 7 spins are required (in an ideal scenario) to yield a mildly pure spin (60% polarized) from initial polarizations of 1% and 10%, respectively. In the latter case, about five more spins are sufficient to produce a highly pure spin (99.99% polarized), which could be relevant for fault-tolerant quantum computing.

  6. A self-regulating valve for single-phase liquid cooling of microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donose, Radu; De Volder, Michaël; Peirs, Jan; Reynaerts, Dominiek

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the design, optimization and testing of a self-regulating valve for single-phase liquid cooling of microelectronics. Its purpose is to maintain the integrated circuit (IC) at constant temperature and to reduce power consumption by diminishing flow generated by the pump as a function of the cooling requirements. It uses a thermopneumatic actuation principle that combines the advantages of zero power consumption and small size in combination with a high flow rate and low manufacturing costs. The valve actuation is provided by the thermal expansion of a liquid (actuation fluid) which, at the same time, actuates the valve and provides feed-back sensing. A maximum flow rate of 38 kg h −1 passes through the valve for a heat load up to 500 W. The valve is able to reduce the pumping power by up to 60% and it has the capability to maintain the IC at a more uniform temperature.

  7. Cooling-water amounts, temperature, and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koops, F.B.J.; Donze, M.; Hadderingh, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    The release of heat from power plants into a water can take place with relative small quantities of cooling water, highly warmed up accordingly, or with large quantities of cooling water slightly warmed up. The utilization of cooling water is bound to certain guidelines established by the authorities. With the intention to protect the environment, the admissable temperatures and warming-up have been strictly limited by the authorities. In the Netherlands, we have presently temporary cooling water guidelines which allow a max. temperature of the cooling water in the cooling cycle of 30 0 C and a maximum admissible temperature rise in the condenser between 7 0 C during summer and 15 0 C during winter. It has also been determined in these requirements how much cooling water at least has to be used to discharge a specified quantity of heat. Plankton, spawn and young fish are dragged with the cooling water. Harm to these organisms can be caused mechanically by pumps, sieves and the condenser or they can be harmed by the temperature rise in the condenser. Investigations showed that mechanical harm to spawn and young fish in the cooling water flow should not be ignored, and that detectable harm to plankton organisms takes place only at water temperatures above 32 0 C. The cooling water consumption can therefore be optimised as follows: The solution of a greater temperature increase and a slightly higher value for the temperature maximum can reduce the cooling water quantity. This reduction of the cooling water quantity reduces the destruction of the fish quantity, which gets into the cooling water system, especially during the summer. If the temperature rise and the temperature itself are not selected too high, the destruction of fish may be reduced without causing serious damage to the plankton. (orig.) [de

  8. Cooling Performance Analysis of ThePrimary Cooling System ReactorTRIGA-2000Bandung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irianto, I. D.; Dibyo, S.; Bakhri, S.; Sunaryo, G. R.

    2018-02-01

    The conversion of reactor fuel type will affect the heat transfer process resulting from the reactor core to the cooling system. This conversion resulted in changes to the cooling system performance and parameters of operation and design of key components of the reactor coolant system, especially the primary cooling system. The calculation of the operating parameters of the primary cooling system of the reactor TRIGA 2000 Bandung is done using ChemCad Package 6.1.4. The calculation of the operating parameters of the cooling system is based on mass and energy balance in each coolant flow path and unit components. Output calculation is the temperature, pressure and flow rate of the coolant used in the cooling process. The results of a simulation of the performance of the primary cooling system indicate that if the primary cooling system operates with a single pump or coolant mass flow rate of 60 kg/s, it will obtain the reactor inlet and outlet temperature respectively 32.2 °C and 40.2 °C. But if it operates with two pumps with a capacity of 75% or coolant mass flow rate of 90 kg/s, the obtained reactor inlet, and outlet temperature respectively 32.9 °C and 38.2 °C. Both models are qualified as a primary coolant for the primary coolant temperature is still below the permitted limit is 49.0 °C.

  9. Integrated thermal control and system assessment in plug-chip spray cooling enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei-Wei; Cheng, Wen-Long; Shao, Shi-Dong; Jiang, Li-Jia; Hong, Da-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel multi-heat source plug-chip spray cooling enclosure was designed. • Enhanced surfaces with different geometric were analyzed in integrated enclosure. • Overall thermal control with adjustable parameters in enclosure was studied. • Temperature disequilibrium of multi-heat source in enclosure was tested. • A comprehensive assessment system used to evaluate the practicality was proposed. - Abstract: Practical and integrated spray cooling system is urgently needed for the cooling of high-performance electronic chips due to the growth requirements of thermal management in workstation. The integration of multi heat sources and the management of integral system are particularly lacking. In order to fill the vacancies in the study of plug-chip spray cooling, an integrated cooling enclosure was designed in this paper. Multi heat sources were placed in sealed space and the heat was removed by spray. The printed circuit board plug-ins and radio frequency resistors were used as analog motherboards and chips, respectively. The enhanced surfaces with four different geometries and the plain surface were studied under the conditions of different inclination angles. The results were compared and the maximum critical heat flux (CHF) was obtained. Moreover, with the intention of